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Optical Characterization of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Camp Blanding, Florida

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PAGE 1

OPTICAL CHARA CTERIZA TION OF R OCKET -TRIGGERED LIGHTNING A T CAMP BLANDING, FLORID A By R OBER T CHRISTIAN OLSEN, III A THESIS PRESENTED T O THE GRADU A TE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IN P AR TIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQ UIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A 2003

PAGE 2

Cop yright 2003 by Robert Christian Olsen, III

PAGE 3

I w ould lik e to dedicate this thesis to my grandf athers Robert Christian Olsen and Thomas Edmund Lak eman, from whom I seem to ha v e inherited my engineering tendencies.

PAGE 4

A CKNO WLEDGMENTS I w ould lik e to ackno wledge the time and tutelage of Dr Vlad Rak o v and Dr Martin Uman, whose guidance has been of inestimable v alue and whose e xpertise sets a standard I can only hope to approach; Dr Doug Jordan, whose skills as educator and as researcher ha v e benetted me immensely and whose friendship e v en more so; and K eith Rambo, who rst dragged me into this b usiness of lightning and who may be the best boss I e v er had. Special thanks are also due Mik e Stapleton, Jason Jerauld, Angel Mata, Jens Schoene, Oli v er P ankie wicz, Julia Jordan, Thomas Rambo, and Nick y Grimes, all of whom were my fello w laborers in the Camp Blanding sun and who welcomed me and made me feel at home in the ICLR T Extra special thanks are reserv ed for Gil Pendle y at V isual Instrument Corporation for product support abo v e and be yond all reason. I w ould also lik e to thank Dr V .B. Lebede v of BIFO Compan y for his patience, his hard w ork, and for an e xtraordinarily long-distance house call. Finally of course, I must thank my ance Siddhary for putting up with me and uprooting her life to mo v e to Gainesville with me. W ithout her support and understanding this w ould all ha v e been impossible. i v

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T ABLE OF CONTENTS page A CKNO WLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v LIST OF T ABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii ABSTRA CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii CHAPTER 1 INTR ODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 EXPERIMENT AL SETUP AND INSTR UMENT A TION . . . . . . 9 2.1 Research F acility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2.1 Rock ets and Launcher . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2.2 Optical and Current Measuring Instruments . . . . . 16 2.2.3 Data T ransmission . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2.4 Data Digitization and Storage . . . . . . . . . 29 2.2.5 Experiment Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 D A T A PRESENT A TION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.1 Ev ent F0220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.2 Ev ent F0301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.3 Ev ent F0302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.4 Ev ent F0317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.5 Ev ent F0336 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.6 Ev ent N0301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7 Ev ent F0341 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.8 Ev ent F0342 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.9 Ev ent F0345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.10 Ev ent N0302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.11 Ev ent N0303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.12 Ev ent N0304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.13 Ev ent F0347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.14 Ev ent F0348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.15 Ev ent F0350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 v

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4 D A T A AN AL YSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.1 Optical Propagation Characteristics in Ev ent F0336 . . . . . 82 4.1.1 Measurement of Optical P arameters . . . . . . . 82 4.1.2 Current Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.1.3 Comparison of Optical and Current W a v eforms . . . . 93 4.2 The Initial Current V ariation . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2.1 Ev ent F0220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.2.2 Ev ent F0301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.2.3 Ev ent F0336 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.2.4 Ev ent F0341 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.2.5 Ev ent F0345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.2.6 Ev ent F0226 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 4.2.7 Ev ent F0348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.2.8 Ev ent F0350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4.2.9 Ev ent F0331 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6 RECOMMEND A TIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH . . . . . . 143 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 vi

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LIST OF T ABLES T able page 2–1 Structures at the ICLR T Camp Blanding, FL . . . . . . . . 9 2–2 GPS Locations at the ICLR T . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3–1 Optical Dataset, Summers 2002 and 2003 . . . . . . . . . 36 3–2 Ev ent F0317 Slit T ube Angles and Heights . . . . . . . . . 50 3–3 Ev ent F0336 Slit T ube Angles and Heights . . . . . . . . . 53 3–4 Ev ent F0347 Slit T ube Angles and Heights . . . . . . . . . 71 4–1 Optically-Measured Propagation Speeds, Ev ent F0336 . . . . . . 87 4–2 Ev ent F0336 Optical W a v eform Characteristics . . . . . . . . 88 4–3 Ev ent F0336 Current and Optical W a v eform P arameters . . . . . 91 4–4 Initial Stage Ev ents with Zero Current Interv als (ZCI) . . . . . . 101 vii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1–1 Bo ys' Rotating-Drum Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1–2 First Strok e and Subsequent Strok es in Natural Lightning . . . . . 4 1–3 T ypical Sequence during Classically-T riggered Lightning Flashes . . . 7 2–1 Research F acility Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2–2 T o wer Launcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2–3 Buck et T ruck Launcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2–4 Photodiode T ube Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2–5 Photodiode Preamplier Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2–6 Optical Slit Rack Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2–7 K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display P atterns . . . . . . . . 25 2–8 BIFO K004M Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3–1 F0220 Incident Currents Lo w Gain . . . . . . . . . . 38 3–2 F0220 Incident Currents High Gain . . . . . . . . . . 39 3–3 F0220 Summed Currents, High and Lo w Gains . . . . . . . 40 3–4 F0220 Streak Record ICV and Strok es 1, 2 and 3. . . . . . . 41 3–5 F0301 Incident Currents Lo w Gain . . . . . . . . . . 43 3–6 F0301 Incident Currents High Gain . . . . . . . . . . 44 3–7 F0301 Summed Currents, High and Lo w Gains . . . . . . . 45 3–8 Ev ent F0301 Streak Record Initial Stage and Strok es 1,2, and 3. . . . 46 3–9 F0302 Incident Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3–10 K004M Image, Ev ent F0302 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3–11 Ev ent F0317 Strik e Interceptor Current Record . . . . . . . . 51 3–12 K004M Image, Ev ent F0317 . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 viii

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3–13 Ev ent F0317 Photodiode Array Records . . . . . . . . . 54 3–14 Ev ent F0336 Incident Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3–15 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 1 . . . . . . . . . 56 3–16 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 2 . . . . . . . . . 57 3–17 F0336 Photodiode Data Strok e 4 . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3–18 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 5 . . . . . . . . . 59 3–19 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 6 . . . . . . . . . 60 3–20 Ev ent N0301 Photodiode Array Record . . . . . . . . . . 61 3–21 Ev ent F0341 Incident Current . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3–22 F0341 Optical Streak Record . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3–23 F0345 Incident Current Record . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3–24 Ev ent F0345 Current Record Expanded V ie w of IS . . . . . . 65 3–25 F0345 ICV Streak Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3–26 Ev ent N0302 Photodiode Array Record . . . . . . . . . . 67 3–27 Ev ent N0303 Photodiode Array Record . . . . . . . . . . 68 3–28 Ev ent N0304 Strok e 1 Photodiode Array Data . . . . . . . . 69 3–29 Ev ent N0304 Strok e 2 Photodiode Array Data . . . . . . . . 70 3–30 Ev ent F0347 Incident Current Records . . . . . . . . . . 72 3–31 Ev ent F0347 Photodiode Array Record, Strok e 1. . . . . . . . 73 3–32 Ev ent F0348 Incident Current Record . . . . . . . . . . 74 3–33 Ev ent F0348 Streak Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3–34 Ev ent F0350 Incident Current . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3–35 Ev ent F0350 Initial Stage Current Detail . . . . . . . . . 78 3–36 Ev ent F0350 Photodiode Array Record . . . . . . . . . . 79 3–37 Ev ent F0350 Streak Record Zero Current Interv al . . . . . . 80 3–38 Ev ent F0350 Streak Record Initial Stage Current Se gments . . . . 81 4–1 F0336 Se gmented Current Record . . . . . . . . . . . 83 ix

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4–2 F0336 Photodiode Array Data, Strok e 1 . . . . . . . . . 85 4–3 F0336 Strok e 4 Comparison of Filtered and Unltered Data . . . . 86 4–4 Ev ent F0336 Return Strok e W a v efront Heights vs. T ime . . . . . 89 4–5 Ev ent F0336 Peak Optical Intensity vs. Peak Current . . . . . . 92 4–6 Ev ent F0336 Risetimes vs. Peak Currents . . . . . . . . . 93 4–7 Ev ent F0336 Correlation of Return Strok e Speed with Peak Current . . 94 4–8 Ev ent F0336 Strok e 1 Channel-Base Current vs. Optical Intensity at 9 m 95 4–9 Ev ent F0336 Strok e 2 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform . . . 97 4–10 Ev ent F0336 Strok e 4 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform . . . 98 4–11 Ev ent F0336 Strok e 5 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform . . . 99 4–12 Ev ent F0336 R Strok e 6 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform . . 100 4–13 Ev ent F0220 ICV Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4–14 Ev ent F0220 Streak Record Corresponding to ICV . . . . . . . 104 4–15 Ev ent F0220 Streak Record Intensity Prole ICV . . . . . . 105 4–16 Ev ent F0220 ICV Detail Current vs. Streak Record Prole . . . . 106 4–17 Ev ent F0220 ICV Streak Record Enhanced . . . . . . . . 108 4–18 Ev ent F0301 ICV Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4–19 Ev ent F0301 Streak Record Corresponding to the ICV . . . . . . 110 4–20 Ev ent F0336 Current Record ICV Expansion . . . . . . . . 111 4–21 Ev ent F0336 Current Small Pulse in ZCI . . . . . . . . . 112 4–22 Ev ent F0341 ICV Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4–23 Ev ent F0341 Streak Record Zero Current Interv al . . . . . . 115 4–24 Ev ent F0341 ICV Streak Prole Superimposed Upon Current Record . 116 4–25 Ev ent F0341 Streak Record Final ICV Pulse Detail . . . . . . 118 4–26 Ev ent F0345 Streak Record ICV Enhanced . . . . . . . . 120 4–27 Ev ent F0226 V ideo Record Field One . . . . . . . . . . 122 4–28 Ev ent F0226 V ideo Record Fields T w o and Three . . . . . . 123 x

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4–29 Ev ent F0226 Current Record Initial Stage . . . . . . . . . 125 4–30 Ev ent F0226 Current Record ICV . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4–31 Ev ent F0348 Current Record ICV . . . . . . . . . . . 127 4–32 Ev ent F0348 Streak Record ICV . . . . . . . . . . . 129 4–33 Ev ent F0350 Current Record Zero Current Interv al . . . . . . 131 4–34 Ev ent F0350 Streak Camera Record ICV . . . . . . . . . 132 4–35 Ev ent F0350 ICV Electric Field and Base Current . . . . . . 134 4–36 Ev ent F0331 ICV Electric Field and Base Current . . . . . . 135 6–1 K004M Suggested T rigger Control Circuit . . . . . . . . 144 xi

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Uni v ersity of Florida in P artial Fulllment of the Requirements for the De gree of Master of Engineering OPTICAL CHARA CTERIZA TION OF R OCKET -TRIGGERED LIGHTNING A T CAMP BLANDING, FLORID A By Robert Christian Olsen, III December 2003 Chair: Dr Vladimir A. Rak o v Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering Correlated optical and current records of rock et-triggered lightning are presented. Correlated streak camera records and current records are presented for 6 ashes, with a total of 6 Initial Stages (IS) and 8 strok es. Correlated photodiode array and current records are presented for three e v ents with a total of 7 strok es, and one e v ent with a se gment of IS. The use of an image con v erter camera for obtaining optical images of lightning processes is introduced. Leader and return strok e speeds for 5 strok es are calculated based on photodiode array records. Leader speeds are found to v ary between 8 : 4 10 6 m s 1 and 4 : 8 10 7 m s 1 Return strok e speeds are found to v ary between 1 : 5 10 8 m s 1 and 1 : 8 10 8 m s 1 The correlation coef cient between the peak current amplitude and the peak optical intensity using the photodiode array is found to be 0.99 for v e return strok es. Strong positi v e correlation is found between the optical risetime and the peak current and between the current risetime and the peak current for 5 return strok es using the photodiode array The Zero Current Interv al within the Initial Current V ariation, which is associated with v aporization of the triggering wire, is e xamined for 5 correlated streak camera xii

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and current records. The pulse which re-establishes current o w after triggering wire destruction is observ ed to ha v e similarities to return strok es, including the unequi v ocal presence of dart-leader -lik e processes in the optical records of four cases, in support of the conceptual picture of the ICV proposed by V .A. Rak o v The amplitude of these return-strok e-lik e pulses is observ ed to be typically on the order of 1 kA, about an order of magnitude lo wer than for subsequent return strok e pulses. F our of the 5 cases were sho wn to ha v e ne wly disco v ered, relati v ely small pulses ranging from 50-250 A, within the Zero Current Interv al, which appear to ha v e been unsuccessful attempts to re-establish current. These pulses are observ ed both in the current record and in the optical record. The risetime, generally on the order of 1 s, and half-peak width, on the order of tens of microseconds, of these pulses are also similar to those of return strok es found in the literature. A sequence of e v ents is observ ed for the cutof f and re-establishment of current during the ICV including the observ ation that re-establishment of luminosity in the upw ard positi v e leader channel abo v e the top of the wire does not occur simultaneously with the sharp return-strok e-lik e pulses, b ut simultaneously with slo wer pulses occurring hundreds of microseconds to milliseconds after the return-strok e-lik e pulse. xiii

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CHAPTER 1 INTR ODUCTION Man' s understanding of lightning be gan, as with man y natural phenomena, with the attempts of religion to ascribe a cause and a purpose to lightning dischar ges. Man y ancient mythologies attrib ute the generation of lightning to their deities, often as a weapon or as a sign of displeasure. Modern in v estigations of lightning ha v e yielded the follo wing, still incomplete, picture. Lightning is, at the most basic le v el, an electrical dischar ge. The connection between electricity and lightning had been noticed before Benjamin Franklin performed his f amous kite e xperiment. In f act, Franklin w as not the rst person to conduct this e xperiment. In the last of a series of seminal letters to Peter Collinson, FRS, he proposed an e xperiment to pro v e that thunderstorms contain electricity This e xperiment w as soon afterw ard performed in Marly-la-V ille, France, on May 10, 1752 under the supervision of Thomas-Francois Dalibard. Dalibard' s e xperiment dre w sparks from a long iron rod, insulated from the ground by wine bottles. Franklin himself dre w sparks from a kite string in June 1752, after the Marly e xperiment, b ut before he had heard of the e xperiment' s success. In the same letter to Collinson, Franklin proposed the concept of the lightning rod in essentially the form in which it is used today [ Schonland 1956 ; Krider 1996 ]. Franklin also determined e xperimentally that the main cloud char ge responsible for the electric eld at ground le v el w as ne gati v e [ Schonland 1956 ]. The adv ent of photography spurred k e y adv ances in the study of lightning. Hansel (1883), Kayser (1885), Hof fert (1890), and W alter (1902,1903,1910,1912,1918), and Larsen(1905) used displacement of recorded images to sho w that a single lightning ash can consist of multiple e v ents in the same spatial path, and to vie w separately the rst leader and return strok e portions of an e v ent [ Schonland 1956 ; Jordan 1990 ; 1

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2 Rotating Film Drum B A Direction of Film Rotation a b c a' c' b' lens prisms lens Figure 1–1: Bo ys' Rotating-Drum Camera Adapted from Schonland [ 1956 ]. Rak o v and Uman 2003 ]. Sir Charles V Bo ys de v eloped a camera in 1900 kno wn as the Bo ys camera, which emplo yed tw o rotating lenses in front of a stationary lm plate. This allo wed for the camera to remain x ed during the lightning ash and still utilize the image displacement due to the motion of the rotating lenses for the characterization of lightning. Bo ys himself achie v ed little success with his camera, b ut in the hands of Schonland, Malan, Collens, Halliday and others in South Africa [ Schonland 1956 ] the study of lightning w as again re v olutionized. An impro v ed v ersion of the Bo ys camera used a loop of lm and stationary lenses as sho wn in Figure 1–1 W ith this camera, researchers were able to measure leader and return strok e speeds and to more accurately characterize the propagation characteristics of rst leaders, subsequent leaders, and return strok es in ne gati v e cloud-to-ground lightning.

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3 T echniques for measuring the currents in lightning strok es rst concentrated on peak currents. Pock els, in 1900, measured the residual magnetism left in samples of basalt to estimate the peak current from nearby lightning ashes Rak o v and Uman [ 2003 ]. One early researcher who reported direct recording of time-v arying current w a v eforms due to lightning strok es w as McEachron. He reported simultaneous incident current records and Bo ys camera records of lightning striking the Empire State Building [ McEachron 1939 ]. He noted long, lo w-le v el continuing currents associated with continuing luminous phenomena, and concluded that all luminous phenomena in lightning strok es indicated current o w A lightning e v ent is referred to as a lightning “ash”, and can either occur within cloud boundaries or between a cloud and the surf ace of the Earth. Of the latter type, approximately 90% transport ne gati v e char ge from a cloud to ground These are kno wn as do wnw ard ne gati v e CG ashes. Upw ard ne gati v e, upw ard positi v e, and do wnw ard positi v e ashes are also possible. Upw ard ashes are thought to occur only from tall objects or moderately tall objects atop mountain. Do wnw ard positi v e ashes account for approximately 10% of all do wnw ard ashes, with increased lik elihood during winter storms and in the dissipation stages of an y storms [ Rak o v and Uman 2003 ]. The do wnw ard ne gati v e ash originates from a thundercloud containing oppositely char ged re gions. The typical structure includes a lar ge re gion of positi v e char ge in the upper part of the cloud, a lar ge re gion of ne gati v e char ge in the lo wer part of the cloud, and a small re gion of positi v e char ge at the base of the cloud. An initial breakdo wn process whose nature is not well understood be gins within the cloud. A stepped leader be gins to propagate from the cloud to w ard the ground. This leader forms a conducti v e plasma channel which transports ne gati v e char ge to w ard ground. The channel progresses do wnw ard in a series of steps which are typically spaced some tens of meters apart in time, and which are typically some tens of meters in length, as seen in Figure 1–2(a) As the leader approaches ground le v el, the increased electric eld causes upw ard-connecting

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4 Figure 1–2: First Strok e and Subsequent Strok es in Natural Lightning (a) Stepped leader and rst return strok e. (b) Dart leader and subsequent strok e. Note that the do wnw ard propagation and upw ard reection of the return strok e is not sho wn for simplicity leaders to form. Upw ard connecting leaders are often initiated from multiple objects near the do wnw ard-progressing stepped leader Some tens of meters abo v e the termination point, an upw ard connecting leader intersects the do wnw ard-progressing stepped leader This is the be ginning of the return strok e. The connection of the upw ard connecting leader and the stepped leader causes ne gati v e char ge which has been deposited in the leader channel to o w through the completed channel from the cloud to ground. The onset of current o w is typically v ery abrupt, with risetime measured in the microseconds. The impulse of current initiation propagates upw ard from the termination point, neutralizing leader char ge along the channel and up into the cloud. This is kno wn as the rst return strok e. The return strok e w a v eform also propagates do wnw ard from the termination point, b ut reaches ground le v el v ery quickly and is reected upw ard again, due to the reduced resistance of the channel

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5 after passage of the upw ard-propagating component [ Rak o v 1998 ]. The return strok e w a v eform, as measured at the termination point, typically rises to a peak of 14 80 kA in a period on the order of milliseconds. The w a v efront propagates upw ard at a speed which is typically between 1 10 8 and 2 10 8 m s 1 The current in the return strok e decays to half of peak v alue in a period of some tens of microseconds [ Rak o v and Uman 2003 ]. In the numerical majority of lightning ashes, more than one strok e occurs. All strok es occurring after the rst are referred to as subsequent strok es. In a subsequent strok e, the leader is often characterized by a lack of stepping and an increased speed of do wnw ard propagation, as seen in Figure 1–2(b) This is referred to as a dart leader T ypical dart leader propagation speeds are on the order of 5 10 6 to 2 10 7 m s 1 In man y cases, especially second strok es, subsequent leaders e xhibit some stepping beha vior and are kno wn as dart-stepped leaders. Propagation speeds for dart-stepped leaders are slo wer than for dart leaders b ut f aster than for stepped leaders, typically on the order of 10 6 m s 1 Subsequent return strok es typically propagate upw ard at speeds similar to those of rst return strok es. The peak current in a subsequent return strok e is typically lo wer than that in a rst strok e, usually in the range between 4.6 and 30 kA[ Rak o v and Uman 2003 ]. F ollo wing a strok e, a so-called continuing current may o w from cloud to ground in the channel formed by the strok e. This is more lik ely to occur in subsequent strok es than in rst strok es. The current is usually on the order of tens to hundreds of amperes, and lasts for some tens to hundreds of milliseconds. This continuing current can transfer relati v ely lar ge amounts of char ge, and thus is often responsible for more damage than the (much greater in amplitude) return strok e. Relati v ely short v ariations in the continuing current are referred to as M-components after D.J. Malan, who rst reported them based on optical observ ations [ Malan and Collens 1937 ]. These are visible as relati v ely slo w v ariations in the optical intensity of a return strok e.

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6 The e xact time and location of an indi vidual lightning ash is impossible to predict, which mak es detailed study of the lightning process rather dif cult. A technique which has been used to circumv ent this dif culty is rock et-triggering of lightning. The rst rock et-triggered lightning e xperiments took place in the w aters of f of the west coast of Florida by M.M. Ne wman [ Rak o v 1999 ] and o v er land by Fieux et al. [ 1975 ]. Relati v ely small rock ets, 1 m or so in length, are launched v ertically to w ard a suitably-char ged thundercloud. In so-called “classical” triggering, a grounded wire (typically about 0.2 mm in diameter) is trailed behind the rock et. The e xtension of this grounded wire to w ard the thundercloud causes eld enhancement at the top of the wire. When the rock et reaches a suf cient height and speed, an upw ard positi v e leader (UPL) is initiated from the top of the wire. This upw ard positi v e leader propagates at a speed of about 10 5 m s 1 forming a plasma channel and ef fecti v ely depositing positi v e char ge upon it (See Figure 1–3 ). This establishes an Initial Continuing Current (ICC) from cloud to ground, which has a typical duration of some hundreds of milliseconds, has magnitude reaching some hundreds of amperes, and which transports some tens of coulombs of ne gati v e char ge to ground. The UPL and ICC together mak e up the Initial Stage (IS) of rock et triggered lightning. During the ICC, the triggering wire is v aporized due to inte grated heating and a plasma channel is formed in its place. W ang et al. [ 1999a ] found that in 24 of 37 cases studied, a pronounced current v ariation occurred near the be ginning of the IS. In 22 of the 24 cases this Initial Current V ariation (ICV) in v olv ed a pronounced reduction in the current o w o v er se v eral hundred microseconds, and is follo wed immediately or after a period of up to se v eral hundred microseconds by a pronounced current pulse, typically reaching about 1 kA. The pronounced current drop is thought to be associated with the wire v aporization process. Additional pulses after the ICV are referred to as ICC pulses, and share similarities with M-components. After the IS current ceases to o w leader and return strok e sequences occur in man y rock et-triggered e v ents. These strok es are v ery similar in character to natural subsequent strok es.

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7 Figure 1–3: T ypical Sequence during Classically-T riggered Lightning Flashes The rock et, trailing a wire, is launched upw ard with a typical v elocity of about 200 m s 1 As the rock et reaches about 300 m, an upw ard positi v e leader (UPL) is initiated from the top of the wire. Current o ws from the cloud to the ground for some hundreds of ms during the so-called initial stage (IS). A period of zero current follo ws the IS. A dart leader propagates do wnw ard from the cloud along the channel left by the IS. When it reaches ground le v el, a return strok e propagates back up the channel. All processes sho wn ef fecti v ely transfer ne gati v e char ge from the cloud to ground. The technique kno wn as altitude triggering attempts to reproduce do wnw ard stepped leaders and rst strok es similar to those occurring in natural ashes. The continuous wire typically used in classical triggering techniques is replaced with a wire which contains a non-conducti v e section. The section of the wire nearest the rock et is conducti v e and a section belo w that is non-conducti v e, typically some hundreds of meters in length. As the rock et approaches the thundercloud, an upw ard positi v e leader is initiated from the top of the conducti v e section and a do wnw ard stepped leader from the bottom of the conducti v e section. In order to increase the lik elihood of termination at the desired location, a third, conducti v e section often is placed between the ground and the bottom of the non-conducti v e section. A process occurs in the non-conducti v e section which is similar to a relati v ely short (v ertically) stepped leader/return strok e sequence, follo wed by a process similar to the ICC in classically-triggered ashes.

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8 All of the records referenced in this paper which contain both optical and current records were obtained during classically-triggered lightning ashes at Camp Blanding, Florida during the summers of 2002 and 2003.

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CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENT AL SETUP AND INSTR UMENT A TION 2.1 Research F acility The International Center for Lightning Research and T esting (ICLR T) is located on the grounds of Camp Blanding, a Florida Army National Guard base near Stark e, FL. The research site e xtends o v er about 1 square kilometer of sand, scrub, and young gro wth forest. Airspace o v er the site is restricted and controlled by Camp Blanding range control, ensuring that no airborne v ehicles are endangered by rock ets used in the e xperiments performed at the ICLR T A v ariety of structures ha v e been erected during ele v en years of research at the ICLR T Structures of interest for the scope of this discussion are listed in T able 2–1 A diagram illustrating the relati v e location of these structures within the research f acility is included as Figure 2–1 T able 2–1: Structures at the ICLR T Camp Blanding, FL Structure Purpose Of ce Building Of ces, e xperiment control, cameras Launch Control Control, data storage, cameras SA TTLIF Control, data storage, cameras Launch T o wer Rock et launch, data collection, cameras V ertical Conguration Po wer Line Data collection, test object Buck et T ruck Launcher Mobile Rock et Launcher 9

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10 LaunchControl OfficeBuilding SATTLIF Vertical ConfigurationPower Distribution Line TowerLauncher Pole 15 Pole 4 Bucket TruckLauncher N Horizontal ConfigurationPower Distribution LineFigure 2–1: Research F acility Diagram

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11 The Of ce Building (OB) contains of ce space for researchers, a conference room, a machine shop / w orkshop area, and laboratory space for the operation of e xperiments and data gathering apparati. See Figure 2–1 for a diagram detailing the relati v e placement of the of ce b uilding within the research f acility The Launch Control T railer is a f acility which contains e xperiment control equipment such as rock et launcher control, a computer system for the control of measurement de vices; data digitization and storage equipment such as oscilloscopes; and v arious cameras. During Summers 2002 and 2003, this w as the primary control center for all rock et-launching and data collection. The Launch Control T railer is located near the center of the research f acility to the north side of the T o wer Launcher (see Figure 2–1 ). SA TTLIF is a self-contained portable launch f acility b uilt by Sandia National Laboratories for rock et-triggered lightning e xperiments. It contains rock et launcher control equipment, e xperiment control equipment, data storage instrumentation, and v arious cameras. The SA TTLIF control equipment can be used independently of the equipment in the Launch Control trailer (see Figure 2–1 ). During Summers 2002 and 2003, SA TTLIF w as not used for launching rock ets or for data collection. The Launch T o wer is a w ooden structure with a multiple-tube rock et launcher placed on the top le v el. The le v el belo w the top is used for the placement of v arious cameras. The V ertical Conguration Po wer Line is a 15-pole, 850 m section of 3 phase po wer distrib ution line with v ertically arranged phase conductors and multiply-grounded neutral. It is terminated at either end by a 400 W resistor The line is hea vily instrumented, and is used for both direct-injection and induced current measurements. Another po wer line which runs parallel to the V ertical Conguration Po wer Line, the Horizontal Conguration Po wer Line w as not used in 2002 and 2003. Both po wer lines are oriented from west to east, roughly bisecting the research f acility (see Figure 2–1 ). The Buck et T ruck Launcher is a mobile, truck-mounted rock et launching structure. It can be placed in an y location within the research f acility and rock ets can be launched

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12 T able 2–2: GPS Locations at the ICLR T GPS Location Distance to OB Location Dif ferential A v erage Calculated Measured Of ce 82 02 0 10 : 22965648 00 W 0 m 0 m Building 29 56 0 40 : 975875941 00 N T o wer 82 01 0 55 : 305139631 00 W 476 m Launcher 29 56 0 32 : 638234207 00 N Pole 4 82 02 0 03 : 71087928 00 W 307.2 m 264 m 29 56 0 32 : 80354694 00 N Pole 15 82 01 0 38 : 39646 00 W 893.5 m 29 56 0 32 : 36989899 00 N from it via remote control. During Summer 2003, se v eral optical records were obtained from ashes launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher near Poles 4 and 15 on the V ertical Conguration Po wer Line. Most of the instrumentation used in optical e xperiments discussed here w as situated in the Of ce Building. Consequently the distances from the Of ce Building (OB) to the termination points of the lightning e v ents discussed are crucial for the measurement of man y parameters associated with those e xperiments. T w o GPS surv e ys were used for location of v arious structures including launching f acilities: a Dif ferential GPS (DGPS) surv e y performed in 1998 (?) by Da v e Cra wford, and a long-term a v eraged GPS surv e y (A GPS) performed by Rob Olsen in 2003. Additionally a consumer grade laser rangender w as used to nd some distances directly Selected rele v ant locations and distances are sho wn in T able 2–2 The e xpected error in the GPS locations is 10 m. 2.2 Equipment 2.2.1 Rock ets and Launcher Rock ets Rock ets used at the ICLR T are small, ber glass, solid-fueled rock ets approximately 1 meter in length. The nose cone of the rock et contains a parachute which is released when the motor' s fuel is e xhausted. A spool of wire is mounted coaxially at the bottom of the rock et. The wire used is copper has a diameter of 0.2 mm, and is co v ered in K e vlar

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13 for mechanical strength. T otal length of wire on the spool is typically 750 m. V ertical v elocity of the rock et is designed to be about 100 m s 1 to 200 m s 1 when the rock et reaches a suitable height for triggering. Launchers T w o rock et launcher structures were emplo yed. The T o wer Launcher (Figure 2–2 ) is an 11 m tall w ooden to wer located near the center of the ICLR T grounds (see Figure 2–1 ). A platform located immediately belo w the top le v el of the to wer allo ws access to camera box es located on the to wer A rock et launcher consisting of se v eral aluminum tubes is mounted on the top le v el of the to wer The unit is mounted on ber glass le gs. The top of each tube is about 2 m abo v e the platform atop the to wer Each tube can contain a single rock et. The trailing end of the wire spool is connected mechanically and electrically to the launcher frame. Operators located in the Launch Control T railer initiate the launch of a rock et by sending a pulse of high pressure air o v er a pneumatic line. The pulse closes a contact, connecting a battery across the leads of a “squib” igniter placed in the e xhaust orice of the rock et motor This “squib” ignites the motor and the rock et accelerates out of the tube. The T o wer Launcher in 2002 and 2003, w as congured to allo w for incident lightning current either to be shunted to ground or to be injected into nearby structures such as the po wer lines. When the currents are to be shunted to the ground a section of copper braid, typically 2 cm wide, is connected from the aluminum launcher through a Current V ie wing Resistor (CVR) and thence directly do wn to a system of grounding rods at the base of the to wer When lightning is triggered in this conguration, all incident current o ws through the copper braid into the grounding system at the base of the to wer When currents are to be injected directly into the po wer line or other test object, the section of copper braid between the to wer launcher and the grounding system is replaced by a se gment of commercially-a v ailable “magnet” wire, which is solid-conductor enamel-co v ered copper wire. W ires with both 0.4 mm and 0.25 mm diameter are used

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14 UppermostPlatform RocketLauncher StrikeInterceptor Figure 2–2: T o wer Launcher

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15 at v arious times. A non-conducti v e polyvin yl chloride (PVC) pole is placed v ertically at each corner of the to wer platform, reaching approximately 3 m abo v e the top le v el of the to wer Copper braid is suspended from the tops of the PVC poles, forming a three-sided horizontal square that is kno wn as the Strik e Interceptor (SI). The three-sided square formed by the interceptor is centered approximately abo v e the T o wer Launcher The interceptor is connected with a section of copper braid to a shielded metal box (kno wn as a Hof fman box, after the manuf acturer) located between the to wer and the po wer line or other test object. This Hof fman box contains a current-vie wing resistor (CVR) and a ber -optic data transmitter apparatus. Copper braid is then connected from the Hof fman box to the test object. When lightning is triggered to this conguration, the initial stage current o ws through the aluminum launcher (since the triggering wire is connected to it), through the CVR attached to the launcher and then through the thin copper wire connecting the launcher to the grounding system. The “grounding” copper wire belo w the launcher is v aporized much lik e the triggering wire trailing from the rock et, making an approximately 10 m gap. Subsequent leaders nd that the launcher is ungrounded, and are intercepted by the U-shaped (open-square) interceptor grounded via the test object. Usually all subsequent strok es terminate on the interceptor and are then injected into the po wer line or other test object. F or most e xperiments in which direct injection of lightning subsequent strok e currents is desired, the termination points of the initial stage and the return strok es dif fer by about 2 meters. The Buck et T ruck Launcher (Figure 2–3 ) is a portable launching f acility Six aluminum rock et launcher tubes, about 3 meters long, are mounted in the b uck et at the end of the articulated arm on a truck formerly used for po wer line maintenance. A pneumatic trigger assembly similar to that emplo yed on the T o wer Launcher is used on the truck launcher as well. In this case, ho we v er the initiating high pressure air pulse is released from a high pressure air tank mounted on the truck, and is initiated via computer

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16 Figure 2–3: Buck et T ruck Launcher control o v er a wireless radiofrequenc y data link between the Launch Control T railer and the Buck et T ruck Launcher The height of the launcher can be v aried using the hydraulic po wer of the articulated arm. A Hof fman box containing a CVR and ber -optic transmitter apparatus is mounted ne xt to the rock et tubes. The trailing wires are grounded to the aluminum launcher tubes, which are in turn connected to the CVR with 2 cm copper braid. The other end of the CVR is connected via copper braid to ground rods at the rear of the truck. T ypically three to four ground rods are dri v en into the ground at each ne w location for the Buck et T ruck Launcher 2.2.2 Optical and Current Measuring Instruments Optical Streak The streak camera is particularly well-suited to lightning research. The streak camera used in the collection of data described herein w as a Hytax II linear streak lm camera manuf actured by V isual Instrument Corp and patterned after the design of a similar Redlak e camera. It is designed to use 35 mm lm, on daylightloadable reels. The length of lm on the reel w as 500 ft (152.4 m) in all cases discussed

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17 herein. Film transport speed is adjustable. F or all data referenced in this discussion, the lm transport speed w as set to 125 ft s 1 (38.1 m s 1 ), so that the entire length of lm is e xposed o v er a period of approximately 4.5 to 5 seconds including the time required to reach full operating speed. A b uilt-in timing generator dri v es a light emitting diode positioned near the upper edge of the lm path. The frequenc y of this generator w as set to 5 kHz, so that a time “tick” is e xposed on the lm edge e v ery 200 s. The duty c ycle is on the order of 5%, and the stated frequenc y stability of the generator is 0 : 01%. A Nik on 50 mm lens is emplo yed. The (v ertical) height of the frame through which objects are image is nearly the same as the lm (v ertical) width, and the (horizontal) width of the frame e xceeds the (v ertical) lm width. A horizontally narro wer image frame, commonly kno wn as a slit, allo ws for impro v ed time resolution, as the ef fects of object geometry on image shape are reduced in the horizontal direction. Ho we v er a horizontally narro w slit also has the potential to block signicant sections of the object from being imaged. The relati v ely wide opening in this camera allo ws for a wider eld of vie w than a camera with a narro w slit. F acing from the camera to the test object, lm transport in the Hytax II is from right to left. When the de v eloped lm is vie wed with the apparent geometry of the channel oriented correctly as compared to a still image of the e v ent, time increases from right to left as well. This is confusing to man y readers. Accordingly all streak images sho wn in this discussion will re v erse the image about a v ertical axis, so that time increases from left to right. This means that all geometrical features in the streak image are mirrored when compared to an y a v ailable still photographs of the same e v ent. A similar phenomenon w as utilized in the original Bo ys' camera to measure the speed of leaders and return strok es. T w o lenses were focused upon lm placed in a rotating drum, b ut the images were in v erted compared to each other as sho wn in Figure 1–1 One of the images w ould ha v e been oriented so that when the geometry of the image matched a still photograph, time increased from left to right. The other image, from

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18 the opposite side of the drum, w ould ha v e been mirrored horizontally and time w ould ha v e increased from right to left. By measuring the distance between features on the tw o images, a measurement of temporal displacement and thus of speed can be made. T w o types of lm were used during Summer 2002 and Summer 2003. Se v eral rolls of K odak Linagraph Shellb urst remained from pre vious e xperiments, and these were used rst. The lm consists of K odak' s 2476 emulsion on a thick Estar -AH base. The lm is panchromatic with e xtended red response. The equi v alent e xposure speed of the lm is approximately 125ASA, dependent on processing. Linagraph Shellb urst is no longer a v ailable. A replacement lm w as suggested by K odak and by Gil Pendle y at V isual Instrument Corp. K odak Ha wk e ye SO-033 T raf c Surv eillance lm is a panchromatic lm with e xtended red response on a thick Estar -AH base. The equi v alent e xposure speed is approximately 400ASA, dependent on processing. The lm w as described as being a higher -performance replacement for the Linagraph Shellb urst pre viously emplo yed. Gil Pendle y at V isual Instrument Corp agreed to brok er the purchase of three 1500 foot rolls of Ha wk e ye SO-033 on bare hubs and respool the lm onto the proper 500 foot reels. This lm w as used for the latter part of Summer 2003. All streak images discussed herein were con v erted to digital form using an Epson Perfection 3200 Photo scanner connected to a PC via IEEE-1394 (Fire wire). The transparenc y adapter w as emplo yed to ensure that all scanned images were transmissi v e in nature. Maximum scan resolution of this scanner is 3200 dpi (126 px mm 1 ). Scan resolution v aried with area of interest, b ut all scans resulted in uncompressed .tif f (T agged Image File F ormat) les at 16-bit grayscale depth. Measurements of streak images were performed with Matlab R13 Student V ersion, the Signal Processing toolbox, and the Image Processing toolbox. Distances in the v ertical direction and time interv als in the horizontal direction can be measured by con v erting pix els counts to time or distance. As both the scanner and the streak camera are calibrated in inches, the simplest and most accurate calculation for temporal interv al

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19 will also be in terms of inches and feet: 3200 px in 1 12 in f 1 125 f s 1 = 4 : 8 10 6 px s 1 1 4 : 8 10 6 px s 1 = 208 : 3 ns px 1 where “px” represents a single pix el. This suggests that e v ery pix el counted in the horizontal direction is equi v alent to 208 nanoseconds of time interv al. Error in the lm transport speed or in the mechanical resolution of the scanner will af fect this v alue. F ortunately this relationship can also be measured using the timing marks imaged on the lm edge, which ha v e a stated accurac y of 0 : 01%. F or v ertical measurements, the e xact spatial distance between tw o features on the original lm can be calculated: 3200 px in 1 25 : 4 mm in 1 = 125 : 98 px mm 1 1 125 : 98 px mm 1 = 7 : 9375 m px 1 Each pix el represents an area on the original lm approximately 8 m 8 m This is comparable in size to the grain size of man y black and white lms. The size of an image on the lm can be used to determine the size of the original object if the lens focal length and distance to the object are both kno wn: arctan H 2 D = arctan h 2 f H 2 D = h 2 f H = h D f where h represents image height, D represents distance from lens to object, and f represents focal length. The image height measured in pix els can be con v erted to object height in meters if the distance, focal length, and scan resolution R are kno wn:

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20 H = h D f H = px R D f Accuracies of the calculations for image height and time interv al are sensiti v e to v ariations in accurac y of distance to object, lens focal length, and lm v elocity Photodiode Array A v ertical array of 4 PIN photodiode optical detectors w as emplo yed during Summer 2003 for the characterization of lightning strok es. Each photodiode w as mounted in a rectangular aluminum tube as sho wn in Figure 2–4 whose interior w as painted matte black to pre v ent reections. The inner cross-section dimensions of the tube were measured to be 2 : 75 in (69 : 85 mm ) wide and 0 : 75 in (19 : 05 mm ) tall. The diode w as situated at one end of the tube, with the sensor surf ace oriented to w ard the opposite end of the tube. An end cap consisting of a bare printed circuit board clad in copper on both sides w as mounted at the opposite end. A 1 mm wide slit w as cut horizontally in this end cap, e xtending the entire width of the tube. The initial design used a 2 foot length of tubing (~0.61 m), b ut this w as shortened to 1 foot (0.30 m) after the rst dataset w as collected. All diodes were EG&G C30807 N-type silicon PIN photodiodes. The spectral response is specied in terms of the 10% response w a v elengths, which are rated as 400 nm and 1100 nm. Signals from the diodes were relayed to the oscilloscope via a passi v e connection (Figure 2–5(a) ) or an acti v e amplier (Figure 2–5(b) ). The passi v e circuit sho wn in Figure 2–5(a) used a 45 V battery to supply re v erse bias and a 1 k W resistor as the diode load. Ho we v er the input impedance of the oscilloscope w as ef fecti v ely in parallel with the 1 k W resistor so that the ef fecti v e load w as 50 W This resulted in a circuit in which the transimpedance gain (from photocarrier current to output v oltage) w as v ery lo w b ut the high frequenc y roll-of f due to RC time constants w as at a

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21 Slit Photodiode Rectangular Aluminum Tube Photodiode Field of View Field of View Slit Circuit Board Figure 2–4: Photodiode T ube Diagram 1k W 50 W (scope) 1 m F 1 m F 45 V (a) 10 k W 50 W (scope) 1 m F 45 V + V ref 22 m F 50 W (b) Figure 2–5: Photodiode Preamplier Circuits (a) P assi v ely-coupled photodiode. (b) Acti v ely-coupled photodiode circuit.

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22 v ery high frequenc y One data set w as collected in this conguration. The output le v el w as v ery lo w and the signal-to-noise ratio w as v ery poor The decision w as made to replace the passi v e circuit described abo v e with an acti v e circuit. The acti v e circuit w as designed around a high-speed operational amplier congured in transimpedance mode. The original design used an Analog De vices AD8058 dual 325 MHz op amp, b ut during testing the de vice pro v ed to be insuf ciently durable. It w as replaced with an Analog De vices AD8034 dual 80 MHz FET -input op amp, which had the same pinout and w as suitable for replacement without requiring a redesign of the circuit. The in v erting input of the op amp w as a “virtual ground” due to the stable reference v oltage at the non-in v erting input. The impedance seen by the photodiode w as thus v ery close to zero. This mo v ed the high frequenc y roll-of f point higher in frequenc y and impro v ed the risetime of the circuit. The current o wing in the photodiode forced an equal current to o w through the 10 k W feedback resistor The output v oltage is the product of the current and the feedback resistance, although the w a v eform polarity is in v erted. Figure 2–5(b) sho ws a simplied v ersion of the circuit used. The nal v ersion of the circuit emplo yed an additional in v erting gain stage (not sho wn) which restored the correct w a v eform polarity and pro vided a gain of 2. A 50 W w as placed in series with the output for impedance matching to the coaxial cable and to pro vide the op amp with a higher impedance load. The gain of 2 serv ed to restore the amplitude lost in the di vider formed by the series resistor and the oscilloscope input. The acti v ely amplied conguration e xhibited f aster response and impro v ed output magnitude compared to the passi v ely coupled v ersion. On July 19, 2003, the performance of the acti v e and passi v e v ersions were compared simultaneously using tw o channels of the oscilloscope and with the tw o photodiodes located as close to each other as possible. A General Radio Strobotac w as used as the signal source. The Strobotac is a high-output x enon ashtube based de vice, and the risetime of the optical output is on the order of 600 ns. The Strobotac w as set to operate at a repetiti v e rate of about 16 Hz. The acti v e preamp

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23 C-clamp Slit Tube Side View Front View Viewport Slit Tubes VerticalStrut Figure 2–6: Optical Slit Rack Assembly sho wed a time a v eraged amplitude response of 1.144 V peak compared to 100 mV from the passi v e v ersion. The a v eraged risetime (10% to 90%) of the acti v e conguration sho wed 603 ns, and the passi v e v ersion sho wed a v eraged risetime equal to 652 ns. Each circuit w as laid out using Eagle CAD softw are, and milled using a Protomat C30 milling machine. The passi v e circuit used PC board material clad in copper on the bottom side only and used through-hole technology This v ersion of the circuit pro v ed to be rather delicate. The acti v e v ersion of the circuit used double-sided copper boards and Surf ace Mount De vice (SMD) technology This v ersion w as much more rob ust. In both cases, an aluminum endcap w as attached to the PC board. This endcap and the batteries formed a tight mechanical t into the tube. A panel-mounted BNC connector w as mounted in the endcap for signal output. A switch w as mounted in the endcap for control of po wer to the circuits. F our slit and tube assemblies were mounted in a shielded aluminum rack. The end of each tube with the slit end cap w as bolted to a frame which allo wed the tube to rotate about a horizontal axis roughly congruent with the slit itself. The four tubes were arrayed

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24 v ertically The uppermost tube w as aimed nearly horizontally with each successi v ely lo wer tube aimed higher This resulted in all four slits being v ery close and reduced the size of the hole which had to be cut in the cabinet to allo w light to enter The rear end of each slit w as supported by attachment to the rack. During the early stages of the e xperiment, when the tubes were longer a bolt w as attached to the e xisting rack rails and the tubes were allo wed to rest upon the bolts. When the tubes were shortened, an additional v ertical strut w as mounted in the rack and each tube w as clamped to the strut using standard C-clamps. This arrangement is sho wn in Figure 2–6 A LeCro y 9354A oscilloscope w as mounted on the shelf abo v e the tube mounting brack ets. One meter RG-223 cables with BNC connectors on each end connected the photodiode outputs to the oscilloscope input channels. A 2000W Uninterruptible Po wer Supply (UPS) w as housed in the cabinet belo w the slit tubes. This UPS pro vided isolated po wer to the oscilloscope during data gathering conditions. The entire oscilloscope, UPS, and photodiode array assembly w as thus enclosed in a shielded enclosure and isolated from radiated and conducted interferences. The aluminum tubes pro vided a second layer of shielding for the v ery sensiti v e photodiode and preamplier section. Image Con v erter The attachment process in lightning [ Rak o v and Uman 2003 ] is a v ery dif cult process to image. The process is v ery f ast, occurs in a small v olume, and is much less luminous than the processes which immediately follo w it. Some success has been found using Image Con v erter cameras to image the attachment process in long sparks, which are thought to be be similar in nature to lightning dischar ges. The adv antages of an image con v erter camera include v ery high recording rates, immediate vie w ability of captured images, and v ery high sensiti vity to light. The model K004M image con v erter camera made by BIFO Compan y in Mosco w Russia, specically for studying the attachment process in rock et-triggered lightning w as deplo yed during Summer 2003. The camera is capable of operating in framing mode or in

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25 Figure 2–7: K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display P atterns (a) 2-frame mode. (b) 4-frame mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode. streak mode. In streak mode, the camera can operate at a recording rate from 0.1 s cm 1 to 3 ms cm 1 o v er the 3.55 cm wide rear phosphor readout. The f astest recording rate, 0.1 s cm 1 corresponds to temporal resolution of about 1 ns. In framing mode, the camera can collect 1, 2, 4, 6, or 9 images consecuti v ely Frame duration is adjustable from 0.1 s to 10 s, and inter -frame interv al is adjustable from 0.5 s to 999.9 s. The consecuti v e frames are arrayed across the readout screen in a pattern sho wn in Figure 2–7

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26 Figure 2–8: BIFO K004M Block Diagram 1. input objecti v e lens; 2. slit, frame windo w or test-object; 3. ICT (31– photocathode; 32– focusing electrode; 33– anode; 34,35– shutter plates; 36,37– deection plates; D1-D3 – shieldings diaphragms; 38– tw o MCP; 39– luminescent screen); 4 – CU (41– shut pulse generator; 42– sweep generator); 5 – po wer supply unit; 6 – CCD TV camera; 7 – videoport; 8 – PC system unit; 9 – PC display From K004M Documentation BIFO Compan y [ 2002 ].

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27 An objecti v e lens is used to construct an image upon the photocathode mark ed as 3 1 in Figure 2–8 The photocathode con v erts the optical image to an electronic image. The electronic image passes through an electronics lens and is constructed upon the microchannel plate MCP1, designated as 3 8 in Figure 2–8 MCP1 and MCP2 intensify the image and project it onto a phosphor screen (3 9 in Figure 2–8 ) which con v erts the electronic image into a luminous image. A video camera attached to the rear of the K004M reads the image and sends the video signal to a PC which digitizes the signal and stores it. The shut pulse generator enables or disables the passage of images from the photocathode to the MCP' s. The sweep generator controls the position of the image on the MCP' s, which ef fecti v ely controls the position of the image on the phosphor screen. The sweep generator is the mechanism by which consecuti v e frames are arrayed on the rear phosphor in multiframing mode and the mechanism by which the image is swept across the phosphor in streak mode. The camera is triggered by a tw o-channel photosensor (PS-001), also manuf actured by BIFO. One channel is used to initiate the e xposure and the other channel engages a gain reduction circuit which reduces the gain of the second MCP The trigger threshold on each channel is adjustable. Each channel of the PS-001 includes an adjustable slit for limiting the vie w able area, both in terms of altitude and width. This allo ws for high optical gain during the early stages of the connection process, and then when the return strok e is initiated the gain should be reduced to a v oid saturation. Initial testing of the K004M sho wed that operation w as as specied. Se v eral images of sparks were obtained in e v ery mode of operation. Connection processes were imaged for short, 5 to 30 mm long sparks. Pre viously the unit w as tested, along with other image con v erter cameras, using long (up to 6 m) sparks at the high-v oltage f acility in Istra, Russia. The unit did not operate properly during Summer 2003 when it w as mo v ed to Camp Blanding for triggered lightning e xperiments. Internal arcing w as observ ed, which required repair procedures. After these had been corrected, f alse triggering of the unit

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28 w as observ ed. Finally the K004M f ailed to po wer up at all. Dr V itali Lebede v of BIFO Compan y came to Gainesville and repaired the K004M in September of 2003. After the repair w as completed, the camera w as set up in a cupola atop the Engineering Building on the campus of the Uni v ersity of Florida in Gainesville. A lar ge, acti v e thunderstorm passed through the area and se v eral nearby lightning ashes were observ ed. Under the direction of Dr Lebede v the camera w as operated during this storm. Se v eral ashes triggered the camera and were recorded. None of these images contained features which could be identied. T w o images were captured with the K004M during the summer During the camera' s functional period an insuf cient number of e v ents occurred to allo w proper calibration of the camera for capturing processes of interest. The tw o images will be presented, b ut the y are not suitable for analysis. Current Currents were measured using tw o types of de vices: current transformers and shunts. Shunts, or Current V ie wing Resistors (CVR), are used for direct measurement of currents. The current is passed through the resistor and the v oltage across the resistor is measured. T ypical resistor v alues are on the order of 0.00125 W The v oltage across the resistor is measured through a standard BNC connector Incident current to the launcher is usually passed through a CVR en route to ground or to a test object. Current T ransformers (CT) are used when DC accurac y is not critical and when inserting a resistor in the current path is not feasible. Measurement of current at the lightning channel base and in a po wer transmission line is the primary use for these de vices at the ICLR T A current transformer such as the Pearson 110A is a toroidal transformer in which the primary consists of the conductor carrying current to be measured. The toroid is placed with the conductor of interest passing through the hole in the center A multi-turn secondary is terminated into a 50 W resistor The v oltage across

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29 this resistor is measured. The CT is specied in terms of v olts per amp, lo w and high frequenc y -3 dB points, maximum peak and RMS currents, and droop rate. 2.2.3 Data T ransmission Data collected at v arious locations around the ICLR T are transmitted back to a central location for digitization and storage. The use of coaxial cable for long transfer distances is impractical because electromagnetic elds resulting from lightning dischar ges will induce signals in the cable itself, acting as an antenna. This will generally interfere with the data being transferred. Additionally man y measurements require galv anic isolation from the recording de vice for reasons of reliability and human safety F or these reasons, optical ber is used for transmission of data around the ICLR T A Nicolet ISOBE 3000 is used for each current measurement discussed in this paper Each ISOBE 3000 consists of a 12 V battery-po wered transmitter located near the measurement of interest and a mains-po wered recei v er located near the recording instrument. Each ISOBE transmitter is connected to the ISOBE recei v er by a pair of 200 m graded-inde x bers terminated with FSMA connectors at each end. The transmitter of accepting either 0 : 1 V, 1 V, or 10 V input signals. Selection of input le v el is via pushb utton switches. Input coupling can be A C, DC, or grounded. Input impedance is 1 M W The recei v er pro vides for calibration of the recei v ed signal. Recommended calibration procedures emplo y a 100 Hz square w a v e whose peak to peak amplitude is 1 V Gain, DC of fset, and high frequenc y compensation can be adjusted to optimize the transmitted w a v eform. Rated frequenc y response of the ISOBE 3000 system is DC 15 MHz. Maximum link length is specied as 100 m. At the ICLR T man y ISOBE links are used o v er distances greater than 400 m with no appreciable loss in signal quality 2.2.4 Data Digitization and Storage Data storage de vices used at the ICLR T f all into tw o basic cate gories. Y ok oga w a digitizers are used for long, continuous records with relati v ely lo w sample rates b ut relati v ely high bit rates. All Y ok oga w a digitizers are model DL716 and are capable of

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30 storing 16 channels of data simultaneously LeCro y digital storage oscilloscopes (DSO) are used for shorter se gmented records with relati v ely high sample rates b ut relati v ely lo w bit rates. Models of LeCro y oscilloscopes v aried, b ut all were 4 channel models. During Summer 2002, the Y ok oga w a scopes were congured to sample at 1 MHz and 12 bit sample depth. During the same time period, the LeCro y scopes were congured to sample at 20 MHz and 8 bit sample depth. During Summer 2003, the Y ok oga w a scopes were recongured to sample at 2 MHz and 12 bits. The LeCro y scope settings remained unchanged. Most measurements are recorded simultaneously on at least one LeCro y oscilloscope channel and one Y ok oga w a oscilloscope channel. Measurements co v ering a wide range of phenomena are recorded for each triggered lightning e v ent. The LeCro y oscilloscopes are typically triggered when the incident current reaches a certain threshold, generally selected to record only return strok es. The Y ok oga w a oscilloscopes are capable of recording longer w a v eforms, and so are triggered at a much lo wer threshold current. F or this reason, the incident current during the initial stage of triggered lightning is typically only recorded on the slo wer Y ok oga w a oscilloscopes. All of the data discussed herein were collected during e v ents which in v olv ed the interaction of triggered lightning with the V ertical Conguration Po wer Distrib ution Line. The majority of the current data collected during such e v ents are concerned with the distrib ution of current along the po wer line, and are outside the scope of this discussion of optical phenomena. Consequently these data will not be presented or discussed. The current measurements which will be discussed will be limited to incident currents to the T o wer Launcher the Strik e Interceptor and the Buck et Launcher T o wer Strik e Interceptor and Buck et Launcher currents are typically recorded simultaneously on tw o channels with dif fering gains. One channel, kno wn as the High current channel, records the signal with attenuation set relati v ely high. This allo ws for lar ge peak amplitudes to be measured, at the cost of lo w le v el signals being b uried in the

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31 noise. The other channel, kno wn as the Lo w current channel, records the same signal b ut with signicantly lo wer attenuation. This allo ws for greater resolution of lo w-current phenomena, at the e xpense of digitizer saturation of relati v ely high current signals. During Summer 2002, the Y ok oga w a oscilloscopes were congured to obtain continuous 4 s records, including a 1 s pre-trigger interv al. The LeCro y oscilloscopes were congured to obtain se gmented records wherein each se gment w as 5 ms long and included a 1 ms pre-trigger interv al. During Summer 2003, the Y ok oga w a oscilloscopes were recongured to obtain continuous 2 s records, including a 0.5 s pre-trigger interv al. The LeCro y oscilloscopes were congured to obtain se gmented records wherein each se gment w as 5 ms long and included a 0.5 ms pre-trigger interv al. 2.2.5 Experiment Control A system for controlling all aspects of the data collection and storage process w as de v eloped o v er se v eral years. Each measurement point is associated with a microcontroller -based control box, kno wn informally as a PIC box. These are named after the brand of microcontroller emplo yed. Each PIC box performs three main functions: po wer control, calibration, and signal attenuation. Po wer Control An internal relay is ener gized by the microcontroller to pro vide 12 V battery po wer to the ISOBE (or other de vice) associated with that measurement. This allo ws for the measurements and transmission de vices to be po wered do wn during idle periods, thus sa ving battery po wer T ypically a 12 V sealed lead-acid battery is located at each measurement position. Se v en ampere-hour and 24 ampere-hour batteries are typically emplo yed. Calibration A function generator internal to the PIC box is ener gized by a relay controlled by the microcontroller This function generator outputs a square w a v e, switchable between 1 V p-p and 0.1 V p-p, whose frequenc y is approximately 100 Hz. The circuit uses a v ery stable v oltage reference to generate the square w a v e to a v oid problems with thermal v ariances. Frequenc y stability is non-critical. The amplitude and

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32 DC of fset are calibrated prior to the installation of the PIC box in the eld, typically once per summer It is rare for the calibration to drift by more than 1 to 2 % o v er the course of a year Adjustable Attenuation Each PIC box contains a set of 5 T -topology impedance matching attenuator circuits. Each set consists of a 20 dB, 14 dB, 10 dB, 6 dB, and 3 dB attenuator All attenuators are designed to match 50 W transmission lines. Each attenuator can be connected in series with the signal path from the measurement to the ISOBE. The insertion of the attenuator into the signal path is performed by a relay for each attenuator controlled by the microcontroller The PIC box is controlled via serial connection o v er 1 mm plastic optical ber An internal circuit con v erts the incoming optical modulation to RS-232 format serial data. Each incoming data w ord consists of a w orkgroup identier a unique PIC box ID number and an 8-bit control w ord. Each bit is assigned to a function. The PIC box recei v es a data w ord, parses it to determine whether it is the intended recipient, and e x ecutes the control w ord if it is the intended recipient. The intended recipient then responds with the last data w ord it e x ecuted follo wed by current battery v oltage and ambient temperature. The 1 mm plastic ber used for communication with the PIC box es is v ery ine xpensi v e and carries a v ery lo w-bandwidth signal. Nonetheless, the 1 mm plastic ber is incapable of carrying clean data signals o v er the distances required to reach the measurement locations. Moreo v er animal damage and en vironmental f actors reduce the lifespan of this ber such that using this ber to communicate o v er medium distances is impractical. Accordingly a netw ork of long range, 900 MHz RF data transcei v ers optimized for RS-232 transmission ha v e been emplo yed. Each transcei v er con v erts the data stream carried o v er RF to optical data suitable for communication with PIC box es. Each PIC box must be associated with an RF transcei v er b ut one optical serial data connection can be shared between se v eral PIC box es.

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33 The master control for the system of PIC box es is performed by a central PC in the Launch Control f acility The PC is a dual-Athlon system running Red Hat Linux, and is referred to by ICLR T personnel as “Hal”. National Instruments' LabVIEW programming en vironment is used to create a user -friendly graphical interf ace to the control of the PIC box es. Control of PIC box es can occur on an indi vidual basis, or can be performed in batch mode. In batch mode a human-readable te xt le containing a list of PIC box ID numbers and control w ords can be parsed by the softw are and the entire group of PIC box es will be congured consecuti v ely As an e xample, one list e xists which contains the ID number of e v ery PIC box associated with the Florida Po wer and Light Po wer T ransmission Line e xperiment (FPL) and the proper conguration w ord for data collection. Another list e xists which contains the same list of PIC IDs and the proper conguration w ord for calibration mode for each PIC. Users can set all PICs to calibration mode, adjust the ISOBE recei v ers associated with all FPL PICs, and then set all FPL PICS to data collection mode quickly and easily The same PC also contains LabVIEW routines which place oscilloscopes into v arious data collection modes. Again, the oscilloscopes are addressed in groups which are dened in human-readable te xt les. As an e xample, the user can place all oscilloscopes associated with the FPL e xperiment into “armed” mode, wherein the scopes will trigger upon incoming data. Three modes of operation are currently supported for each scope: armed, disarmed, and calibration. In armed mode, an y incoming data will be collected and stored immediately In disarmed mode, no data will be collected. In calibration mode, incoming data is collected and displayed, b ut not stored. This allo ws the operator to adjust the calibration of ISOBE units and to check the proper operation of each PIC and data transmission channel. When in calibration mode, each scope can be triggered to store a short se gment of the calibration w a v eform for later reference and normalization of recorded data.

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34 The same PC which controls the PIC box es and oscilloscopes also displays the ambient electric eld in real time. A National Instruments 6025E Data Acquisition Card (D A Q) is installed in the PC. T w o electric eld mills are connected to the card. A mains po wered eld mill b uilt by N ASA for lightning e xperiments at K ennedy Space Center is connected to one channel, and is po wered constantly A commercially a v ailable eld mill b uilt by Mission is battery po wered, and connected to another channel of the D A Q card. This mill is po wered only when the operator judges that suitable conditions for lightning are imminent. The operator can use the static electric eld readouts to determine when the static electric eld conditions are suitable for triggering lightning and also when conditions are unsafe for personnel to remain outdoors. The LabVIEW programs running on the PC ha v e additionally been congured to operate in unattended mode for collection of natural lightning data. When the static electric eld magnitude passes a user -denable le v el, the softw are will automatically perform a system conguration routine similar to that performed by human operators: 1. Place all rele v ant oscilloscopes in calibration mode. 2. Place all rele v ant PIC box es in calibration mode. 3. Store a brief section of calibration w a v eform for later calibration of data. 4. Place all rele v ant scopes in disarmed mode. 5. Place all rele v ant PIC box es in data collection mode. 6. Arm all rele v ant oscilloscopes. At this point, the complete data collection system is armed and ready to collect natural lightning data. This part of the system does not ha v e the capability to arm or launch rock ets, and so is incapable of triggering lightning. This operation is intended primarily for the unattended collection of electric and magnetic eld data from nearby natural lightning e v ents. When the static electric eld magnitude drops belo w the threshold and stays belo w for 10 minutes, the system goes through a disarming procedure: 1. Disarm all rele v ant oscilloscopes.

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35 2. Place all rele v ant oscilloscopes in calibration mode. 3. Place all rele v ant PICs in calibration mode. 4. Store a brief section of calibration w a v eform for later calibration of data. 5. Disarm all rele v ant oscilloscopes. 6. Po wer do wn all rele v ant PICs. Calibration w a v eforms are stored before and after an y data are gathered. As the internal calibration w a v eform generator in the PIC is v ery stable with respect to temperature, an y v ariation in the recorded calibration w a v eform is assumed to be due to temperature related drift in the optical ber data transmission equipment. This error can, if desired, be estimated and corrected during analysis by using the recorded calibration w a v eforms.

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CHAPTER 3 D A T A PRESENT A TION Optical records of 15 lightning ashes were obtained in Summer 2002 and Summer 2003. Of these 15, 11 e v ents were triggered lightning and the remaining 4 were natural lightning. The dataset consists of 7 linear streak lm records, 2 image con v erter records, 8 photodiode array records, and 10 incident current records for optically recorded e v ents. A listing of all optical records collected is sho wn as T able 3–1 T able 3–1: Optical Dataset, Summers 2002 and 2003 Number of Flash T ime Return Streak Photodiode ID Date (UTC) Strok es Camera Array K004M Current F0220 Jul. 20, 2002 20:39:25 7 Y(3) N N Y F0301 Jun. 30, 2003 21:32:35 3 Y N N Y F0302 Jun. 30, 2003 21:36 0 N N Y Y F0317 Jul. 14, 2003 20:00:02 1 N Y Y Y F0336 Aug. 2, 2003 19:30:53 7 N Y(5) N Y N0301 Aug. 5, 2003 18:47:54 1 N Y N N F0341 Aug. 7, 2003 18:57 1 Y N N Y F0342 Aug. 11, 2003 18:35 0 Y N N N F0345 Aug. 11, 2003 18:42 0 Y N N Y N0302 Aug. 15, 2003 18:33:04 1 N Y N N N0303 Aug. 15, 2003 21:03:46 1 N Y N N N0304 Aug. 15, 2003 21:33:34 2 N Y N N F0347 Aug. 15, 2003 21:56:46 2 N Y(1) N Y F0348 Aug. 15, 2003 22:02 0 Y N N Y F0350 Aug. 15, 2003 22:12:20 1 Y Y(IS) N Y Not all of the strok es in a ash were recorded by e v ery de vice. The total number of strok es recorded is noted in parentheses if it is less than the total number of strok es in the ash. In e v ent F0350, the photodiode array recorded only the peak of the IS. 36

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37 3.1 Ev ent F0220 Ev ent F0220 w as triggered on July 20, 2002 at 20:39:58 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the T o wer Launcher Incident current w as recorded, with currents both passing through the to wer and being injected into the v ertically-congured po wer line. The initial stage current w as carried by the to wer ground connection alone. The rst return strok e current w as shared between the launcher and the po wer line, and six subsequent strok es were injected into the line e xclusi v ely Figure 3–1 sho ws the current incident to the to wer and injected into the line through the strik e interceptor Figure 3–2 sho ws the same currents, recorded on oscilloscope channels with higher gain. The total current o wing in the lightning channel is the sum of the T o wer and Strik e Interceptor currents. The current during the rst return strok e is shared between the T o wer Launcher and the Strik e Interceptor b ut the current peaks in the tw o measurements are not simultaneous. A partial linear streak lm record w as captured during e v ent F0220. The time inter v al between the launch of the rock et and the initiation of current o w w as approximately 3.5 to 4 seconds. As the total run time of the lm load in the linear streak camera is on the order of 4 to 5 seconds, the actual ash occurred as the camera neared the end of the lm. Only the IS and rst, second, and third return strok es were imaged. Figure 3–4 sho ws the se gments of streak lm which contain optical phenomena of interest. Note that the top of the wire is abo v e the eld of vie w of the camera at the time of current initiation. 3.2 Ev ent F0301 Ev ent F0301 w as triggered on June 30, 2003 at 21:32:35 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the T o wer Launcher Incident current w as recorded, with currents both passing through the to wer and being injected into the v ertically-congured po wer line. The initial stage current w as coupled to the T o wer Launcher initially b ut during a relati v ely long ICC stage current o w transferred from the T o wer Launcher to the Strik e

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38 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Time, sCurrent, kAICV 1 4 Tower Launcher (a) 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time, sCurrent, kA1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (b) Strike Interceptor Figure 3–1: F0220 Incident Currents Lo w Gain (a) Current injected in the T o wer Launcher (b) Current injected in the Strik e Interceptor Strok es are labeled 1 through 7. The ICV is labeled in the T o wer Launcher current w a v eform, b ut is not present in the Strik e Interceptor w a v eform. These w a v eforms were sampled at 1 MHz with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing lter at the oscilloscope input.

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39 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kA1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ICV ICC (a) Tower Launcher 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kA1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strike Interceptor (b) Figure 3–2: F0220 Incident Currents High Gain (a) T o wer Launcher (b) Strik e Interceptor These w a v eforms were sampled at 1 MHz with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing lter at the oscilloscope input. V ertical scale is intentionally clipped at 600 A to highlight lo w-le v el processes.

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40 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (a) High Gain 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time, sCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (b) Low Gain Figure 3–3: F0220 Summed Currents, High and Lo w Gains These w a v eforms were sampled at 1 MHz with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing lter at the oscilloscope input. (a) High gain. (b) Lo w gain.

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41 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 150 100 50 0 ICV Hump (a) Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 150 100 50 0 Stroke 1 Mcomponent (b) Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 150 100 50 0 (c) Stroke 2 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 150 100 50 0 Stroke 3 (d) Figure 3–4: F0220 Streak Record ICV and Strok es 1, 2 and 3. (a) Initial stage. ICV follo wed by a hump. (b) Strok e 1 follo wed by an M-component. (c) Strok e 2. (d) Strok e 3. All timescales are relati v e.

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42 Interceptor High speed framing camera records sho w that this current transfer w as due to the lightning channel being blo wn by the wind to w ard the Strik e Interceptor Three subsequent strok es were terminated on the Strik e Interceptor The linear streak lm camera w as operated during e v ent F0301. Images of the ICV and all three strok es were recorded with the streak camera. These images were scanned, and the resultant images are sho wn as Figures 3–8(a) 3–8(b) 3–8(c) and 3–8(d) The top of the triggering wire is abo v e the eld of vie w of the streak camera. 3.3 Ev ent F0302 Ev ent F0302 w as triggered on June 30, 2003 at about 21:36 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the T o wer Launcher Oscilloscope channels were dedicated to both the T o wer Launcher and the Strik e Interceptor b ut no current o wed through the Strik e Interceptor The initial stage current o wed through the T o wer Launcher and reached a peak amplitude of about 1.3 kA (Figure 3–9 ). The lo w gain w a v eform is not sho wn, because the high gain w a v eform is not saturated and presents the same data with better signal to noise ratio. During the ICV an abrupt decrease in current w as observ ed. This reduction lasted less than 100 s and reached a minimum current of about 200 A. It seems lik ely that this reduction is associated with the destruction of the triggering wire as described by W ang et al. [ 1999a ]. The K004M camera w as operated during e v ent F0302. An image of the lightning e v ent w as recorded and is sho wn in Figure 3–10 The K004M w as operating in streak mode, with a linear sweep rate of 3 s cm 1 The nominal record length at this recording rate is 10.65 s. The objecti v e lens w as an Industar -61 50 mm, f2.8 lens. The focus w as adjusted for maximum resolution at the launch to wer The trigger le v el on the camera w as set to approximately 4.5. The MCP1 D YN GAIN knob w as set to maximum. The MCP1 ST A T GAIN w as set to an angle similar to the hour hand of a clock reading 3:30. The MCP2 ST A T GAIN knob w as set to an angle similar to 3:30, and the MCP2 D YN GAIN knob w as set fractionally higher than zero. The PS001 trigger unit w as adjusted so that

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43 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Current, kATime, s ICV ICC (a) Tower Launcher (a) T o wer Launcher 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 5 10 15 20 Current, kATime,s 1 2 3 ICC (b) StrikeInterceptor (b) Strik e Ring Figure 3–5: F0301 Incident Currents Lo w Gain (a) T o wer Launcher (b) Strik e Interceptor

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44 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 2 3 (a)TowerLauncher (a) T o wer Launcher 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, secondsCurrent, kA1 2 3 ICC (b)StrikeInterceptor (b) Strik e Ring Figure 3–6: F0301 Incident Currents High Gain (a) T o wer Launcher (b) Strik e Interceptor V ertical scale is intentionally clipped at 600 A to highlight lo w-le v el processes.

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45 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 2 3 (a)HighGain (a) Lo w Attenuation 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time, sCurrent, kA3 2 1 ICV ICC (b)LowGain (b) lo w gain Figure 3–7: F0301 Summed Currents, High and Lo w Gains (a) High gain currents, summed. (b) Lo w gain currents, summed.

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46 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 200 100 0 (a) InitialStage Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 200 100 0 (b) Stroke1 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 200 100 0 (c) Stroke2 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 200 100 0 (d)Stroke3 Figure 3–8: Ev ent F0301 Streak Record Initial Stage and Strok es 1,2, and 3. (a) Initial Stage. (b) Strok e 1. (c) Strok e 2. (d) Strok e 3. V ariations in luminosity are observ ed in (a), corresponding to ICC pulses. Leaders are visible in (b), (c), and (d). The leader in (b) e xhibits v ery little separation between the leading edge of the leader and the leading edge of the return strok e, indicating that the leader propagated v ery quickly The leader in (c) e xhibits greater separation, indicating a slo wer propagation. The leader observ ed in (d) e xhibits propagation an order of magnitude slo wer than observ ed in (b), and pronounced stepping as well.

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47 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Time, secondsCurrent, kAICC ICV (a) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Time, m sCurrent, kAICV (b) Figure 3–9: F0302 Incident Current (a)Initial stage. (b) Expanded vie w of ICV section of IS. The peak current in the ICV reached about 1.3 kA. During the ICV an abrupt decrease in current w as observ ed. The duration of the current reduction w as less than 100 s, and the minimum current during this interv al w as about 200 A.

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48 both trigger le v el knobs were at their minimum settings. Each photosensor on the PS001 w as operated with a 28 mm lens, and both slit adjusters were set to +1.5. The image w as hea vily saturated. The image suggests a do wnw ard progression of some phenomenon, b ut no concrete characterizations can be performed.

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49 Figure 3–10: K004M Image, Ev ent F0302

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50 3.4 Ev ent F0317 Ev ent F0317 w as triggered on July 14, 2003 at 20:00:02 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the T o wer Launcher Current during the initial stage w as insuf cient to trigger the oscilloscopes, so that portion of the e v ent w as not recorded. One strok e terminated on the Strik e Interceptor Current for the return strok e w as recorded (Figure 3–11 ). The K004M camera w as operated during e v ent F0317 and one image, sho wn in Figure 3–12 w as recorded. The sweep rate w as set to 3 s cm 1 The PS001 trigger unit w as congured similarly to the conguration used for e v ent F0302. The MCP1 ST A T GAIN, MCP1 D YN GAIN, and MCP2 ST A T GAIN were all reduced compared to e v ent F0302. The MCP2 D YN GAIN, which controls gain reduction during bright e v ents, w as increased compared to e v ent F0302. The image is saturated and sho ws e vidence of multiple optical e v ents superimposed upon each other within the image. Meaningful analysis of this image is not possible. The photodiode array w as operated during e v ent F0317 and optical phenomena were recorded on three of the four sensors (Figure 3–13 ). The angles of the indi vidual tubes of the array assembly (see Figure 2–6 ) relati v e to the horizontal and the corresponding heights of vie wed channel se gments are sho wn in T able 3–2 The photodiode array w as being operated in the passi v e conguration, so that the signal-to-noise ratio is poor The slit tube length w as about 0.61 m and w as shortened after this dataset w as acquired. It is belie v ed that the electronic circuit of sensor 4 (241 m) f ailed prior to this e v ent. The v ertical length of lightning channel imaged by each photodiode is approximately 83 cm. T able 3–2: Ev ent F0317 Slit T ube Angles and Heights T ube Height Abo v e Height Abo v e Sensor Angle Ground Le v el T ermination, est. 4 62 255 m 241 m 3 71 166 m 152 m 2 80 86 m 72 m 1 87 27 m 13 m

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51 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time, msCurrent, kA Figure 3–11: Ev ent F0317 Strik e Interceptor Current Record

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52 Figure 3–12: K004M Image, Ev ent F0317

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53 3.5 Ev ent F0336 Ev ent F0336 w as triggered on August 2, 2003 at 19:30:53 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher located near Pole 4. The initial stage current and se v en subsequent strok es terminated on the Buck et T ruck Launcher Current incident to the Buck et T ruck Launcher w as recorded (Figure 3–14 ). The photodiode array w as operated during this e v ent. Fi v e se gments were triggered on the oscilloscope. One return strok e (number 3) w as too lo w in light intensity to trigger the oscilloscope, and the last return strok e w as not captured because the maximum number of record se gments had been reached. The se gments which were recorded correspond to return strok es 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. A reconguration of the photodiode array occurred prior to this e v ent which included the replacement of the passi v e circuit with an acti v e circuit and the adjustment of the slit tube angles. The length of each tube w as reduced to approximately 30 cm. The angles of the indi vidual tubes relati v e to the horizontal and the corresponding heights of vie wed channel se gments are sho wn in T able 3–3 The approximate v ertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor w as approximately 1.1 m. T able 3–3: Ev ent F0336 Slit T ube Angles and Heights T ube Height Abo v e Height Abo v e Sensor Angle Ground Le v el T ermination, est. 4 60 179 m 169 m 3 68 126 m 116 m 2 77 : 75 69 m 59 m 1 86 : 75 19 m 9 m 3.6 Ev ent N0301 Ev ent N0301 occurred naturally on August 5, 2003 at about 18:47:54. The ter mination point of the lightning channel is unkno wn. Currents were not recorded. The photodiode array captured a single w a v eform se gment. As seen in Figure 3–20 only the bottom tw o sensors were able to vie w the e v ent and only sensor 2 w as able to vie w it clearly No signicant analysis of this e v ent is possible.

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54 0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Time, msmV 0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 mVTime, ms 0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Time, msmV 0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Time, msmVh=241 m h=152 m h=72 m h=13 m Figure 3–13: Ev ent F0317 Photodiode Array Records The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. This record w as obtained using the passi v e conguration of the photodiode array The termination point w as the T o wer Launcher Each photodiode imaged a section of the lightning channel whose v ertical length w as about 83 cm.

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55 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Time, sCurrent, kA7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ICV ICC (a)HighGain 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time, sCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (b)LowGain Figure 3–14: Ev ent F0336 Incident Currents (a) High gain. The v ertical scale is intentionally clipped at 600 A to highlight lo w-le v el processes. (b) Lo w gain. A section of the current record e xpanded around the ICV is seen in Figure 4–20

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56 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 Time, msmV 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mV 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mV 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mVh=9 m h=59 m h=116 m h=169 m Return Stroke Leader Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Return Stroke Figure 3–15: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 1 T imescale is relati v e to the be ginning of the recorded data se gment. Leader and return strok e w a v eforms are clearly recorded by the uppermost three sensors, and the return strok e w a v efront by the lo west sensor The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input.

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57 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0 5 10 15 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0 5 10 15 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0 5 10 15 mV 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0 5 10 15 Time, msmVReturn Stroke Return Stroke Return Stroke Return Stroke h=9 m h=59 m h=116 m h=169 m Leader Leader Figure 3–16: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 2 T imescale is relati v e to the be ginning of the recorded data se gment. Note that on this scale, without ltering, the w a v efront of the leader is not resolv ed by the sensor at 169 m. The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input.

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58 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 Time, msmV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 mVh=169 m h=116 m h=59 m h=9 m Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Figure 3–17: F0336 Photodiode Data Strok e 4 T imescale is relati v e to the be ginning of the recorded data se gment. The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input.

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59 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 5 10 15 20 Time, msmVh=169 m h=116 m h=59 m h=9 m Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Figure 3–18: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 5 T imescale is relati v e to the be ginning of the recorded data se gment. The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input.

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60 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 Time, msmV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 mVh=169 m h=116 m h=59 m h=9 m Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Return Stroke Figure 3–19: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Strok e 6 T imescale is relati v e to the be ginning of the recorded data se gment. Note that on this scale, without ltering, the w a v efront of the leader is not resolv ed by the sensor at 169 m. The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input.

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61 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0 10 20 30 Time, msmV Figure 3–20: Ev ent N0301 Photodiode Array Record The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn, and so the height vie wed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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62 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time, msCurrent, kAICV ICC 1 Figure 3–21: Ev ent F0341 Incident Current 3.7 Ev ent F0341 Ev ent F0336 w as triggered on August 7, 2003 at 18:57 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher located near Pole 15. The initial stage and one strok e terminated on the b uck et truck launcher The lo w gain current measurement f ailed, b ut the high gain measurement w as operational. This current, sho wn in Figure 3–21 is the only incident current record of this e v ent. The current is saturated at about 5.5 kA. A section of the current record e xpanded around the ICV is presented as Figure 4–22(a) on page 114 The linear streak lm camera w as operated during e v ent F0341 and both the initial stage and the strok e were captured. These streak records are sho wn in Figure 3–22 3.8 Ev ent F0342 Ev ent F0342 w as triggered on August 11, 2003 at 18:35 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher located near Pole 15. No currents were recorded due to human error The linear streak lm camera w as operated during e v ent

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63 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m Wire Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (a)InitialStage Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 400 300 200 100 0 (b) Stroke1 Figure 3–22: F0341 Optical Streak Record (a) Initial stage. (b) Strok e 1.

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64 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Time, msCurrent, kAICV ICC Figure 3–23: F0345 Incident Current Record F0342. An initial stage w as observ ed visually at launch time. No optical phenomena were found on the streak lm. 3.9 Ev ent F0345 Ev ent F0345 w as triggered on August 11, 2003 at 18:42 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher located near Pole 15. The initial stage current terminated on the Buck et T ruck Launcher No strok es were observ ed. The peak current reached about 1 kA which is not lar ge enough to saturate the high gain record. The current record is seen in Figure 3–23 and the same record e xpanded around the ICV and a subsequent peak during the ICC is seen in Figure 3–24 The section of current record corresponding to the ICV is displayed in Figure 4–26(b) on page 120 The linear streak lm camera w as operated during e v ent F0345. The initial stage w as recorded, with se v eral interesting features visible in the re gion of the ICV A dart leader -lik e process and return strok e-lik e process are visible, as are phenomena which are tentati v ely classied as the wire disinte gration process and as the upw ard positi v e leaders.

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65 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Time, msCurrent, kAICV ICC Figure 3–24: Ev ent F0345 Current Record Expanded V ie w of IS Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 Figure 3–25: F0345 ICV Streak Record

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66 The re gion near the ICV is sho wn as Figure 3–25 Optical phenomena corresponding to the IS continue on the streak lm o v er a period of some tens of milliseconds, b ut no further interesting features were observ ed. 3.10 Ev ent N0302 Ev ent N0302 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at about 18:33:04 UTC. The termination point is unkno wn, therefore no current w as recorded. The photodiode array recorded a single se gment, presumably a return strok e. As the distance to the termination point is unkno wn, no heights can be estimated. No signicant analysis of the e v ent is possible. The signicant section of the record is sho wn as Figure 3–26 3.11 Ev ent N0303 Ev ent N0303 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at aboubecause the channel did not terminate at the Buck et Launchert 21:03:46 UTC. The termination point is unkno wn and therefore no current w as recorded. The photodiode array recorded a single se gment, presumably a return strok e. Only the lo west sensor w as able to vie w the channel without obstruction. 3.12 Ev ent N0304 Ev ent N0304 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at about 21:33:34 UTC. The termination point is unkno wn, and therefore no current w as recorded. The NLDN reported that this e v ent reached a peak current estimated to be 54 kA. The photodiode array recorded tw o se gments. During the rst se gment, the uppermost sensor and the sensor immediately abo v e the bottom recei v ed signals lar ge enough to saturate the recording oscilloscope channels. The remaining tw o channels recei v ed signals which appear to ha v e been visually obscured by clouds or some other similar phenomena. Data from the second se gment are much smaller in magnitude. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn and thus heights for the recorded luminosity w a v eforms cannot be estimated.

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67 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 10 20 Time, msmV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 10 20 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 10 20 mV 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 10 20 mV Figure 3–26: Ev ent N0302 Photodiode Array Record The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn, and so the height vie wed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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68 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0 5 10 Time, msmV Figure 3–27: Ev ent N0303 Photodiode Array Record The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn, and so the height vie wed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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69 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0 10 20 30 mV 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0 10 20 30 mV 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0 10 20 30 mV 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0 10 20 30 Time, msmV Figure 3–28: Ev ent N0304 Strok e 1 Photodiode Array Data The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn, and so the height vie wed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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70 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 5 0 5 10 mV 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 5 0 5 10 mV 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 5 0 5 10 mV 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 5 0 5 10 Time, msmV Figure 3–29: Ev ent N0304 Strok e 2 Photodiode Array Data The v ertical scale indicates relati v e light intensity and is gi v en in terms of v oltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unkno wn, and so the height vie wed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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71 T able 3–4: Ev ent F0347 Slit T ube Angles and Heights T ube Height Abo v e Height Abo v e Sensor Angle Ground Le v el T ermination, est. 4 60 518m 508 m 3 68 363 m 353 m 2 77 : 75 196 m 186 m 1 86 : 75 53 m 43 m 3.13 Ev ent F0347 Ev ent F0347 w as triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 21:56:46 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T rcuk Launcher which w as located near Pole 15. The initial stage current and tw o return strok es terminated on the Buck et T ruck Launcher Incident current w as recorded. The high gain current record is sho wn in Figure 3–30(a) with e xpanded current scale for increased clarity of lo w-le v el processes. The lo w gain current record is sho wn in Figure 3–30(b) The photodiode array w as operated during this e v ent and recorded a single se gment. It is assumed that the photodiode array record contains the rst strok e, as it can be seen in Figure 3–30(b) to peak at approximately 20 kA as opposed to the approximately 5 kA peak of strok e 2. The photodiode array record is sho wn in Figure 3–31 This is the rst photodiode array record of a triggered e v ent at Pole 15, which is 894 m from the photodiode array installed in the Of ce Building. V ie wing heights for the indi vidual channels at this location are sho wn in T able 3–4 3.14 Ev ent F0348 Ev ent F0348 w as triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 22:02 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et Launcher which w as located near Pole 15. The initial stage current terminated on the Buck et Launcher No strok es were observ ed. As sho wn in Figure 3–32 the peak current reached about 2.75 kA during the IS. The ICV e xhibited a pronounced Zero Current Interv al, with a relati v ely f ast pulse at the end of the interv al. The section of current record corresponding to the ICV is sho wn as Figure 4–31 on page 127 The linear streak lm camera w as operated during e v ent F0348.

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72 200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Time, msCurrent, kA 200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time, msCurrent, kA(b)LowGain Figure 3–30: Ev ent F0347 Incident Current Records (a)High gain. (b) Lo w gain.

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73 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 mV 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 15 20 Time, msmVh=508 m h=353 m h=186 m h=43 m Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Leader Return Stroke Return Stroke Figure 3–31: Ev ent F0347 Photodiode Array Record, Strok e 1.

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74 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Time, msCurrent, kA Figure 3–32: Ev ent F0348 Incident Current Record The initial stage w as captured on streak lm. The se gment of lm corresponding to the ICV is sho wn in Figure 3–33(a) The se gment of streak lm corresponding to the lar ge current pulse starting at about 50 ms is sho wn in Figure 3–33(b) 3.15 Ev ent F0350 Ev ent F0350 w as triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 22:12:20 UTC. The triggering rock et w as launched from the Buck et T ruck Launcher which w as located near Pole 15. The initial stage current and one strok e terminated on the Buck et T ruck Launcher This e v ent w as interesting for se v eral reasons. A lar ge current pulse with an amplitude of 11 kA occurred during the initial stage at about zero time, as seen in Figure 3–34(b) Initial stage current remained abo v e 50 A for about 210 ms as sho wn in Figure 3–34 The follo wing strok e peak ed at about 8.4 kA. Data collected by Dwyer et al.[ 2004 ] suggest that X-rays and gamma rays were emitted during this unusually lar ge current pulse. This is the only e v ent in the dataset whose records include currents, linear streak lm, and optical photodiode array records. The photodiode array recording oscilloscope

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75 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m Wire Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (a) ICV Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (b)ISPeak Figure 3–33: Ev ent F0348 Streak Record (a) ICV A f aintly luminous v ertical feature, similar in shape to the feature at about 2350 s, can be seen at about the 800 s point. Note that the top of the wire in this se gment appears to be at about 300 m. No luminous e v ents can be seen abo v e this le v el. (b) Initial stage. The peak luminosity at approximately 1400 s corresponds to the lar ge current pulse be ginning at about 50 ms in Figure 3–32 During this se gment, luminous e v ents e xtend past the edge of the vie w able area. T ime scales mark ed in each se gment are relati v e to that se gment only Figure 3–33(b) occurs approximately 60 ms after Figure 3–33(a)

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76 w as triggered by the lar ge current pulse be ginning at about 50 ms, and did not record the strok e that occurred at about 250 ms. The duration of the lar ge current pulse be ginning at zero time e xceeded the se gment length of the recording oscilloscope. Analysis of the photodiode array record sho wn in Figure 3–36 did not result in an y discernible direction of propagation.

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77 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Time, msCurrent, kA(a)HighGain 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time, msCurrent, kA(b)LowGain (b) lo w gain Figure 3–34: Ev ent F0350 Incident Current (a) High gain. The current record is v ertically truncated at 1 kA to sho w lo w le v el processes more clearly (b) Lo w gain. Note that the current during the initial stage is higher in amplitude than the peak current of the subsequent strok e occurring at about 250 ms.

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78 0 50 100 150 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Time, msCurrent, kA x = 0.033399y = 50.247 x = 0.170401y = 50.247 D x: 203.8 ms D y: 0.00 Figure 3–35: Ev ent F0350 Initial Stage Current Detail W ith the e xception of a brief zero current interv al at about -25 ms, the initial stage current maintains at least 50 A for 203.8 ms. During this se gment, an estimated 53 C is transferred to ground.

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79 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 mV 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 5 10 Time, msmV Figure 3–36: Ev ent F0350 Photodiode Array Record

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80 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 400 300 200 100 0 Figure 3–37: Ev ent F0350 Streak Record Zero Current Interv al Note that tw o sets of time ticks were e xposed on the lm edge. The set of time ticks along the bottom edge are from a pre vious e xposure of the lm during which no lightning phenomena occurred. The lm w as re-loaded and e xposed again during e v ent F0350. This is also the reason for the o v er -e xposure of the lm record.

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81 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (a) (a) Se gment 1 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (b) (b) Se gment 2 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 400 300 200 100 0 (c) (c) Se gment 3 Figure 3–38: Ev ent F0350 Streak Record Initial Stage Current Se gments Note that tw o sets of time ticks were e xposed on the streak lm. The bottom ticks are from a pre vious e xposure of the lm during which no lightning phenomena occurred.

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CHAPTER 4 D A T A AN AL YSES In Section 4.1 the current and optical records of e v ent F0336 will be e xamined. The w a v eforms of optical intensity vs. time will be e xamined to determine risetime, leader propagation speed, return strok e propagation speed, amplitude vs. height, and risetime vs. height. Current records will be e xamined to determine peak current and risetime. Comparisons will be made between optical and current w a v eforms. The correlation between the optical characteristics and peak current will be calculated. In Section 4.2 current and optical records will be e xamined with attention to the Initial Current V ariation portion of the Initial Stage of rock et-triggered lightning. The records from e v ents F0220, F0301, F0336, F0341, F0345, F0348, and F0350 presented in Chapter 3 will be re-e xamined in greater detail, and ltering and enhancement will be performed where necessary to impro v e clarity of lo w-le v el processes. Additional records including correlated electric eld records and indi vidual elds from a video record will be presented. The processes of cutof f and re-establishment of current will be e xamined, and the processes observ ed in these records compared to the processes described by Rak o v et al. [ 2003 ]. 4.1 Optical Propagation Characteristics in Ev ent F0336 4.1.1 Measurement of Optical P arameters The data which were collected during e v ent F0336 consist of light intensity data at four heights for v e return strok es and records of incident current at the launcher Currents were recorded at tw o attenuation le v els and tw o sampling rates. A total of three simultaneous current records were recorded. The optical records were sho wn in Figures 3–15 3–16 3–17 3–18 and 3–19 abo v e. The current records which were sampled at the lo wer sampling rate (2 MHz) were sho wn in Figure 3–14 These current records represent 82

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83 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time, msCurrent, kA1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 4–1: F0336 Se gmented Current Record This record w as sampled at 20 MHz with a 5 MHz lo w-pass anti-aliasing lter at the oscilloscope input. Bit depth w as 8-bits. No high gain record e xists. a continous record of the incident current during the e v ent. An additional record, sampled at 20 MHz (50 ns sampling interv al) through a 5 MHz anti-aliasing lter w as recorded in a se gmented f ashion. The attenuation w as identical to the higher attenuation used as sho wn in Figure 3–14 Each time the oscilloscope w as triggered, a 5 ms se gment of data w as recorded which included 0.5 ms of data recorded immediately prior to the trigger The time interv al between se gments w as recorded, allo wing the indi vidual se gments to be correctly placed in time relati v e to each other Figure 4–1 sho ws all 7 se gments of the current record as sampled at 20 MHz and lo w gain. T w o additional se gments recorded after the lightning e v ent ha v e been identied as f alsely triggered, and are not presented here. The optical records can be used to determine the tw o-dimensional return strok e speed o v er three se gments of lightning channel. No correction is made for non-v ertical

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84 channel geometry Pulses can be easily seen (Figures 3–15 3–17 and 3–18 ) in the records corresponding to strok es 1, 4, and 5 which indicate the time at which the leader front passed the vie wing height. The records corresponding to strok es 2 and 6 (Figures 3–16 and 3–19 ) contain similar pulses, b ut these pulses are less well dened and partially mask ed by the noise. The noise in the optical w a v eform mak es estimation of the time at which the leader or return strok e front appears in the w a v eform some what uncertain. Accordingly each w a v eform w as ltered with a lo w-pass lter whose -3 dB point w as approximately 3.75 MHz and whose response w as do wn 98 dB at about 12 MHz. The step response of the lter w as characterized by a 10-90% risetime of 100 ns. Figure 4–3 sho ws the ltered and unltered v ersions of a sample w a v eform. This sample contains the f astest risetime measured in this dataset, and sho ws that the ltering process does not materially af fect the w a v eshape. The lter impro v es the accurac y with which critical points within the w a v eform may be measured. Figure 4–2 sho ws the process of determining the points of interest on an optical record. The magnitude of the light intensity is measured prior to the point where the return strok e appears to be gin. The peak intensity of the return strok e is measured. This is mark ed “Peak Intensity Le v el” in Figure 4–2 F or consistenc y a uniform method w as used for the estimation of each return strok e initiation point. A straight, horizontal line w as dra wn parallel to and congruent with the w a v eform immediately prior to the return strok e. The v ertical le v el of this line w as chosen to represent as closely as possible the mean v alue of the noise and the optical intensity and the v alue of intensity corresponding to the v ertical placement of the line is used as the minimum intensity of the return strok e. This line is labeled “Minimum Intensity Le v el” in Figure 4–2 Ne xt, a slanted line w as dra wn parallel to and congruent with the slope of the return strok e rising portion, again approximating as closely as possible the mean of the w a v eform o v er as long a time interv al as possible. This line can be seen in Figure 4–2 The intersection of these tw o

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85 500 0 500 1000 1500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time, nsmV x = 98.7235 nsy = 0.0042534 x = 353.277 nsy = 0.028628 D x: 452.00 ns D y: 24.375 mV Minimum Intensity Level R.S. Beginning Peak Intensity Level Figure 4–2: F0336 Photodiode Array Data, Strok e 1 The optical w a v eform of the rst strok e at a height of approximately 9 m abo v e the termination point is sho wn on an e xpanded time scale. The tw o points being measured correspond to the data point nearest to b ut higher than the calculated 90% le v el and the data point nearest to b ut lo wer than the calculated 10% le v el. The dif ference between these points represents the upper bound of the estimated 10-90% risetime. A similar operation is performed to nd the lo wer bound of the risetime. This w a v eform has not been ltered to remo v e noise. lines, mark ed “R.S.Be ginning” in Figure 4–2 w as tak en to be the be ginning point of the return strok e for each se gment of channel. Using the pre viously measured minimum and peak intensity v alues, the 10% and 90% intensities are calculated. It is unlik ely that a data point will e xist which e xactly corresponds to the calculated point, and so the tw o points on either side of the calculated v alue are recorded. This gi v es an upper bound and a lo wer bound for the estimate of the risetime. The tw o-dimensional propagation speed w as measured in this manner for the leader and return strok e of each strok e in e v ent F0336. The speed o v er the range between each pair of adjacent sensor and the o v erall speed across the range between the uppermost and lo wermost sensors are reported in T able 4–1 The mean and standard de viation of the set

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86 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time, m s mV Figure 4–3: F0336 Strok e 4 Comparison of Filtered and Unltered Data The unltered data record from F0336 strok e 4 at 9 m is sho wn in gray Ov erlaid atop this line is the ltered v ersion of the same data, shifted back in time 200 ns to compensate for the group delay of the lter and scaled do wn by a f actor of 0.73 to compensate for the lter gain. It can be seen that the w a v eshape in general, and the risetime in particular are materially unaf fected by the ltering process.

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87 T able 4–1: Optically-Measured Propagation Speeds, Ev ent F0336 Propagation Speed in m s 1 o v er V ertical Range Between Strok e Process 169 m 116 m 116 m 59 m 59 m 9 m 169 m 9m 1 Leader 4 : 5 10 7 5 : 1 10 7 4 : 8 10 7 4 : 78 10 7 R.S. 1 : 7 10 8 1 : 8 10 8 1 : 5 10 8 1 : 66 10 8 2 Leader 6 : 6 10 6 9 : 1 10 6 1 : 0 10 7 8 : 32 10 6 R.S. 1 : 1 10 8 2 : 2 10 8 1 : 6 10 8 1 : 52 10 8 4 Leader 2 : 8 10 7 2 : 0 10 7 1 : 8 10 7 2 : 14 10 7 R.S. 1 : 6 10 8 2 : 3 10 8 1 : 7 10 8 1 : 83 10 8 5 Leader 1 : 7 10 7 1 : 7 10 7 1 : 6 10 7 1 : 64 10 7 R.S. 1 : 4 10 8 2 : 0 10 8 1 : 6 10 8 1 : 65 10 8 6 Leader 1 : 2 10 7 1 : 3 10 7 9 : 6 10 6 1 : 14 10 7 R.S. 1 : 2 10 8 1 : 8 10 8 1 : 6 10 8 1 : 49 10 8 Mean Leader 2 : 17 10 7 2 : 20 10 7 2 : 03 10 7 2 : 11 10 7 R.S. 1 : 40 10 8 2 : 02 10 8 1 : 6 10 8 1 : 63 10 8 Standard Leader 1 : 52 10 7 1 : 67 10 7 1 : 59 10 7 1 : 58 10 7 De viation R.S. 2 : 54 10 7 2 : 28 10 7 7 : 07 10 6 1 : 35 10 7 of measurements are included in the table. The optical w a v eform w as characterized in terms of risetime and peak, and these measurements are reported in T able 4–2 Figure 4–4 sho ws the graph of return strok e w a v efront height vs. time for all 5 strok es recorded with the photodiode array A systematic v ariation in speed with height is observ ed. This v ariation of return strok e speed with height is characterized in each return strok e by an increase in speed o v er the interv al between 59 m and 116 m. When the position vs. time of all return strok es are plotted on the same graph, the similarity is noticeable. Three possibilities for the cause of this phenomenon seem most lik ely: physical process v ariations, measurement calibration errors, and human error during the measurement phase. The primary source of error in the estimation of vie wed height for each photodiode tube is the uncertainty of the placement of the diode within the tube. The tube in which each PIN photodiode is mounted is approximately 30 cm long, with the diode itself located about 4 cm a w ay from the rear w all, or about 26 cm from the slit. A v ariation in the height of the diode of 2.5 mm, perpendicular to the slit, results in an angular

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88 T able 4–2: Ev ent F0336 Optical W a v eform Characteristics Risetime, 10-90% Light Upper Lo wer Peak, Strok e Height Bound Bound mV 1 169 m 1.76 s 1.70 s 42.9 116 m 1.25 s 1.2 s 37.0 59 m 1.04 s 1.00 s 31.8 9 m 452 ns 410 ns 26.5 2 169 m 2.19 s 1.86 s 9.14 116 m 1.92 s 1.58 s 9.76 59 m 1.47 s 1.25 s 12.5 9 m 350 ns 330 ns 24.4 4 169 m 2.21 s 2.01 s 6.77 116 m 2.02 s 1.75 s 7.46 59 m 1.16 s 1.11 s 9.91 9 m 308 ns 292 ns 18.5 5 169 m 2.12 s 1.91 s 12.5 116 m 1.80 s 1.64 s 13.5 59 m 1.24 s 1.20 s 19.2 9 m 360 ns 348 ns 28.1 6 169 m 2.19 s 1.82 s 12.1 116 m 2.06 s 1.71 s 13.7 59 m 1.44 s 1.33 s 17.2 9 m 374 ns 356 ns 37.0

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89 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Time x 100 ns, relativeHeight, mRS 1 RS2 RS4 RS5 RS6 h=169 m h=116 m h=59 m h=9 m Figure 4–4: Ev ent F0336 Return Strok e W a v efront Heights vs. T ime Error bars sho wn represent estimated 20% error It can be seen that the speed (slope) tends to be higher in the middle sections, representing the v ertical gap between the 116 m and 59 m heights vie wed by adjacent photodiode sensors.

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90 v ariation of about 0 : 575 Applied to the 68 tube o v er the measurement distance D for this e v ent, H = D tan ( 90 68 ) = 307 : 2 m 0 : 404 = 124 : 1 m H er r = D tan ( 90 68 : 575 ) = 120 : 55 m H H er r = 3 : 55 m The v ertical distances between sensors at this distance are 53, 57, and 50 meters from top to bottom. Assuming a v ariation of 3 : 55 m for the top and bottom of each se gment, we nd that the estimated uncertainty in the distance is on the order of 7 53 = 13% As this distance is being used in the calculation of return strok e propagation speed, this estimated uncertainty contrib utes directly to the error estimation for the speed. Additional uncertainty is found in the process of measuring the locations of points of interest within the optical w a v eforms. The w a v eforms were sampled at 500 MHz, which corresponds to a sample period of 2 ns. Uncertainty due to noise w as reduced by ltering. Error in the estimation of w a v efront locations is estimated to be on the order of 25 ns. The a v erage time interv al between when the return strok e w a v efront passes one slit and when it passes the ne xt slit is on the order of 350 ns, leading to an additional 7% estimated error The total error is e xpected to be on the order of 20%.

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91 T able 4–3: Ev ent F0336 Current and Optical W a v eform P arameters Risetime, 10 90%, ns Peak Lo wer bound Upper Bound R.S. Current, kA Optical, mV Current Optical Current Optical 1 28.7 42.9 250 410 350 452 2 16.2 24.4 150 330 250 350 4 13.5 18.5 150 292 250 308 5 19.5 28.1 200 348 300 360 6 19.7 27.0 150 356 250 374 Sampling interv al for the current records w as 50 ns. Sampling interv al for the optical records w as 2 ns. 4.1.2 Current Measurements The current se gments sho wn in Figure 4–1 were considered indi vidually The risetime of each se gment w as measured using techniques similar to those used for measuring the risetimes of the optical records. No ltering w as necessary The sampling interv al for the current records w as 50 ns. Accordingly upper and lo wer bounds for the risetime were calculated. T able 4–3 sho ws the risetimes and peaks of the current records for strok es 1,2,4,5, and 6 in e v ent F0336. The optical risetimes and peaks sho wn are those of the lo wer most sensor The minimum estimated v alue for the optical risetime is greater than the maximum estimated v alue for the current risetime in e v ery case. Comparison of the peak current v alues with the peak light v alues yields a strong correlation. The correlation coef cient w as calculated to be 0.99. Figure 4–5 sho ws a scatter plot illustrating the correlation. The correlation coef cient between the risetime of the optical w a v eform and the peak current w as calculated to be 0.98 for both the upper and lo wer bounds. The correlation coef cient between the risetime of the current w a v eform and the peak current w as calculated to be 0.76 for the lo wer bound and 0.89 for the upper bound. It is notable that the temporal uncertainty of the current w a v eform is relati v ely high compared to the optical w a v eform, and it is lik ely that the correlation

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92 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Current, kARelative Optical Intensity Figure 4–5: Ev ent F0336 Peak Optical Intensity vs. Peak Current Data plotted include v alues for strok es 1,2,4,5, and 6. between current peak and current risetime w ould be higher if the temporal uncertainty were reduced. A scatter plot of the risetimes vs. peak current is sho wn in Figure 4–6 The correlation between peak current intensity and return strok e speed in e v ent F0336 w as e xamined. Figure 4–7(a) sho ws a scatter plot for these parameters. F or the a v erage return strok e speed o v er the entire section of lightning channel vie wed by the photodiode array the coef cient of correlation between peak current and return strok e speed w as -0.17. The calculated p-v alue w as 0.78, indicating that the probability is lar ge that random v alues w ould ha v e produced a similar correlation. The correlation coef cient between peak current and return strok e speed in the lo west vie wed section of channel (between 59 m and 9 m) w as also calculated. Figure 4–7(b) sho ws a scatter plot of these data. F or this section of the channel, the correlation coef cient between peak current and return strok e speed w as -0.90 and the p-v alue w as 0.04. This indicates a high ne gati v e correlation with lo w probability that random v alues w ould ha v e produced similar results. The correlations presented abo v e are all either v ery strong correlation or v ery weak correlation. Strong emphasis should not be placed on the results of the correlation within

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93 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Peak Current, kARisetime, ns Optical Lower BoundOptical Upper BoundCurrent Lower BoundCurrent Upper Bound Figure 4–6: Ev ent F0336 Risetimes vs. Peak Currents Data points are plotted representing upper and lo wer estimates for risetimes, both current and optical. Current risetimes are quantized to 50 ns because of sample rate limitations. Strong linear correlation with peak current is e vident for both optical and current risetimes. this dataset alone because the sample size is too small for meaningful statistical results. More reliable results can be achie v ed using these results and those from other studies to increase the sample size. 4.1.3 Comparison of Optical and Current W a v eforms The comparison of optical w a v eform to current w a v eform for a gi v en strok e is usually performed to e xamine the e xistence of a relationship between the current and the optical intensity F actors such as distance from the optical sensor to the lightning channel, spectral response of the sensor alignment of the sensor with the slit, etc. all contrib ute to the uncertainty of the e xact relationship of the measured current with the optical po wer actually emitted by the channel. Furthermore, the nature of the relationship between current amplitude and optical po wer is not completely understood. Rather than attempt to quantify all of these f actors, it is perhaps more useful to deri v e an empirical relationship between current and light output by directly comparing the tw o.

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94 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 Current, kAReturn Stroke Velocity x 108 m s1 (a) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 1.48 1.5 1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.6 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 Return Stroke Velocity x 108 m s-1 Current, kA (b) Figure 4–7: Ev ent F0336 Correlation of Return Strok e Speed with Peak Current (a) Return strok e speed calculated o v er interv al between 169 m altitude and 9 m altitude. Correlation between peak incident current and return strok e speed is poor The correlation coef cient is -0.17, p-v alue is 0.78. (b) Return strok e speed calculated o v er interv al between 59 m altitude and 9 m altitude. Ne gati v e correlation between peak incident current and return strok e speed is strong. The correlation coef cient is -0.90, p-v alue is 0.04.

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95 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time, m sCurrent, kA Optical Intensity UnscaledOptical Intensity Current (a) (a) Normalized to Peak Amplitude 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 Time, m sCurrent, kA Optical Intensity UnscaledOptical Intensity Current (b) (b) Normalized to Decay Slope Figure 4–8: Ev ent F0336 Strok e 1 Channel-Base Current vs. Optical Intensity at 9 m Both gures contain the same data, with the optical w a v eform amplitude normalized dif ferently in each. The optical w a v eform represents the light emitted 9 m abo v e the channel base. (a) Optical w a v eform normalized so that the peak intensity corresponds to the peak current. (b) Optical w a v eform normalized so that the slope of the decay be ginning at about 5 s corresponds to the slope of the decay in the current w a v eform o v er the same period.

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96 Figure 4–8(a) sho ws the optical w a v eform from the rst return strok e in e v ent F0336 o v erlaid atop the current w a v eform. The optical peak has been normalized to the current peak. The current rise and optical rise are v ery similar from initiation up to peak. The optical intensity decreases much more quickly than the current amplitude, similarly to the results discussed by W ang et al. [ 2004 ]. Approximately 5 s after the initial peak, the rate of decrease in optical intensity reduces to a decay rate similar to b ut slo wer than that of the current w a v eform. The secondary peak in the current w a v eform appears only f aintly in the optical w a v eform, and appears to be some what delayed in the optical w a v eform. The reason for this delay is currently unkno wn. As an alternati v e to normalizing the tw o w a v eforms at the peaks, it is possible to normalize the optical w a v eform in terms of long term post-peak decay rate rather than peak. Figure 4–8(b) sho ws the same w a v eforms, with the v ertical scale of the optical w a v eform adjusted so that the slope of the decay after about 5 s is the same in both w a v eforms. In either case, it is e vident that the optical w a v eform recorded by the photodiodes 9 m abo v e the channel base is temporally similar to the channel-base current w a v eform. Figures 4–9 4–10 4–11 and 4–12 sho w the comparison of optical and current w a v eforms for strok es 2, 4, 5, and 6. 4.2 The Initial Current V ariation T en datasets ha v e been presented in Chapter 3 which include records of incident current. Eight of those current records include an Initial Current V ariation (ICV), rst identied by W ang et al. [ 1999a ], in which the initial stage current drops from an amplitude on the order of hundreds of amperes to zero or near zero current o v er an interv al whose duration is typically less than a millisecond. The ICV in the records of this dataset are characterized by a period whose duration is on the order of hundreds of microseconds to se v eral milliseconds in which little or no current o ws. The end of the Zero Current Interv al (ZCI) is typically (within this dataset) characterized by

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97 50720 50730 50740 50750 50760 50770 50780 50790 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time, m sCurrent,kA Optical Intensity UnscaledCurrent Optical Intensity Figure 4–9: Ev ent F0336 Strok e 2 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform The optical w a v eform is normalized so that the peak amplitudes of the optical w a v eform and current record coincide. The optical w a v eform represents the light emitted 9 m abo v e the channel base.

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98 109810 109820 109830 109840 109850 109860 109870 109880 109890 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time, m sCurrent, kA Optical Intensity UnscaledCurrent Optical Intensity Figure 4–10: Ev ent F0336 Strok e 4 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform The optical w a v eform is normalized so that the peak amplitudes of the optical w a v eform and current record coincide. The optical w a v eform represents the light emitted 9 m abo v e the channel base.

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99 145140 145150 145160 145170 145180 145190 145200 145210 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time, m sCurrent, kA Optical Intensity Unscaled Current Optical Intensity Figure 4–11: Ev ent F0336 Strok e 5 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform The optical w a v eform is normalized so that the peak amplitudes of the optical w a v eform and current record coincide. The optical w a v eform represents the light emitted 9 m abo v e the channel base.

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100 195290 195300 195310 195320 195330 195340 195350 195360 195370 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time, m sCurrent, kA Optical Intensity UnscaledCurrent Optical Intensity Figure 4–12: Ev ent F0336 R Strok e 6 Current W a v eform vs. Optical W a v eform The optical w a v eform is normalized so that the peak amplitudes of the optical w a v eform and current record coincide. The optical w a v eform represents the light emitted 9 m abo v e the channel base.

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101 T able 4–4: Initial Stage Ev ents with Zero Current Interv als (ZCI) Flash Streak ZCI Pulses Launch ID Camera Observ ed in ZCI Location F0220 Y es Y es No T o wer F0301 Y es Y es No T o wer F0336 No Y es 1 Pole 4 F0341 Y es Y es 2 Pole 15 F0345 Y es Y es 1 Pole 15 F0348 Y es Y es 2 Pole 15 F0350 Y es Y es 1 Pole 15 a relati v ely rapid rise to a current on the order of a kiloampere. The risetime of this feature is typically on the order of a microsecond or less. The relati v ely f ast pulse is follo wed, typically some fe w milliseconds later by a relati v ely slo w current 'hump' whose risetime is on the order of milliseconds. The amplitude of the hump v aries by an order of magnitude higher and lo wer than the relati v ely f ast peak, depending on the e v ent. The relati v ely f ast pulse at the end of the ZCI is similar in shape and character to a return strok e, although the amplitude is typically one to tw o orders of magnitude smaller The ndings of W ang et al. [ 1999a ] do not include a ZCI with duration greater than se v eral hundred microseconds. W ang et al. [ 1999a ] do discuss ICC pulses, b ut do not note the presence of a relati v ely slo w pulse follo wing each terminal ICV pulse. It is notable that e v ery ICV within the records presented in this paper is follo wed by such a pulse. In 5 of the 8 current records mentioned abo v e, the zero current interv al is characterized by one or tw o relati v ely small, f ast pulses. Amplitude v aries between 50 and 250 amperes, and the risetime is typically on the order of 1 s. The current in these pulses typically decays v ery quickly again on the order of some hundreds of microseconds. Streak records e xist for 4 of the 5 records containing these pulses during the ZCI. An additional record e xists for an e v ent in which a zero current interv al is follo wed by a f ast pulse, b ut no smaller pulses occur within the ZCI. T able 4–4 lists the e v ents and which features are present in each. One additional dataset is presented which includes correlated electric eld and base current data for a triggered lightning ash.

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102 4.2.1 Ev ent F0220 A streak record w as obtained during e v ent F0220. A portion of the record corresponding to the ICV w as presented as Figure 3–4(a) A section of the current record corresponding to the ICV with e xpanded timescale is presented as Figure 4–13(a) The temporal resolution of this record is limited by the sampling interv al of 1 s. The ramp from A to B1 lasts about 350 s. The Zero Current Interv al (ZCI) which follo ws lasts for about 2.58 ms. The pulse which re-establishes current in the channel appears in Figure 4–13(a) to consist of a relati v ely f ast peak follo wed about 2 ms later by a relati v ely slo w current 'hump'. When the timescale is e xpanded in Figure 4–13(b) to sho w the peak more clearly it can be seen that the peak actually consists of a relati v ely f ast portion (point 'C') whose risetime is on the order of 2 s follo wed by a lar ger slo wer hump (point 'D') about 22 s afterw ard. This pulse is not the same pulse sho wn in Figure 4–13(a) as point 'E', b ut is a pulse unresolv ed in Figure 4–13(a) The peak of the relati v ely slo w pulse is measured to be about 900 A. The peak of the relati v ely f ast pulse is measured to be about 520 A, b ut the temporal resolution is poor in this record. The shape of the w a v eform suggests that the actual peak current may ha v e occurred between samples, and thus may be underrepresented. Figure 4–14 sho ws the section of the streak record which corresponds to the ICV of F0220. The contrast of the image w as adjusted to impro v e clarity in print media. V isual inspection of the image near the bottom of the channel re v eals a sharp transition from light to dark at about 55 s on the timescale. A luminosity enhancement corresponding to the slo w hump in Figure 4–13(b) is visible at about 80 s. It is possible to plot the optical intensity vs. time by measuring the v alues of intensity along a horizontal strip from the image. This process is similar to strip densitometry A prole of this optical intensity vs. time is sho wn as Figure 4–15 The shape of the luminosity prole is v ery similar to the shape of the current w a v eform sho wn in Figure 4–13(b) The initial f ast peak at point 'C' is lar ger than the peak sho wn in the current w a v eform, relati v e to the subsequent hump

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103 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Time, msCurrent, kA A B1 B2 D E C (a)EntireICV 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Time, m sCurrent, kA B2 D C (b)Current ReEstablishment Detail Figure 4–13: Ev ent F0220 ICV Detail A: Be ginning of triggering wire disinte gration. B1: End of wire disinte gration and channel polarization. Current is approximately zero at this point. B2: Current re-establishment. C: Relati v ely f ast peak of current re-establishment pulse. D: Relati v ely slo w pulse ('hump') during current re-establishment. E: Relati v ely slo w current pulse ('hump') approximately 1 ms after re-establishment. The minimum resolution of the recording oscilloscope is about 1.8 A, and the noise oor w as measured to be about 10 A peak to peak. The mean v alue of the current during the ZCI w as calculated to be -0.4 A with a standard de viation of 3.42 A.

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104 Time, m sHeight above Termination Point, m 20 40 60 80 100 120 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Figure 4–14: Ev ent F0220 Streak Record Corresponding to ICV Height on the v ertical scale represents height abo v e termination point. Horizontal time scale is relati v e time from the left edge of the image. at point 'D'. This supports the conjecture that the f ast current peak in Figure 4–13(b) is underrepresented due to undersampling. Figure 4–16 sho ws the optical prole from the streak image o v erlaid atop the current w a v eform for the ICV se gment of F0220. The tw o w a v eforms are similar in character The initial peak of the optical prole is noticeably more pronounced than the current peak. The decay of the optical prole seems slo wer than that of the current record. Figure 4–17 sho ws a section of the streak record from F0220 corresponding to the end of the Zero Current Interv al. Contrast has been enhanced to highlight lo w-luminosity processes. It can be seen that the leading edge of the w a v eform sho ws an increase in risetime with height. Also notable is the presence of a feature similar to a dart leader The area between 100 and 180 m in Figure 4–17 contains the most pronounced se gment of this leader -lik e process rst identied by Rak o v et al. [ 2003 ]. The o v erall e xposure of this record is most suitable for the recording of features with greater luminosity such as return strok es. Lo w

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105 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Time, m s B2 C D Figure 4–15: Ev ent F0220 Streak Record Intensity Prole ICV V ertical scale represents relati v e intensity v alues. The prole w as tak en from the image in Figure 4–14 at a height of less than 5 m abo v e the termination point.

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106 40 20 0 20 40 60 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Time, m sCurrent, kA CurrentLight B2 C D Figure 4–16: Ev ent F0220 ICV Detail Current vs. Streak Record Prole The optical prole from Figure 4–15 is o v erlaid atop the incident current. The amplitude of the optical prole has been normalized so that the amplitude o v er the rising portion of the hump corresponds to the amplitude of the current o v er the same re gion.

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107 luminosity features lik e this leader -lik e process are dif cult to resolv e from within the noise of the lm. Nonetheless, the presence of this process is unequi v ocal. 4.2.2 Ev ent F0301 The ICV of e v ent F0301 contains a zero current interv al in which the current v alue reached a minimum of about 20 A. The current resolution of the recording oscilloscope w as about 1.8 A, and the noise oor w as measured to be about 10 A peak to peak. The transition at point 'B1' in Figure 4–18 is less abrupt than the equi v alent transition observ ed in e v ent F0220. The pattern of current re-establishment is similar to that in e v ent F0220, wherein a relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse is follo wed some tens of microseconds later by a lar ger slo wer pulse. The transition from the zero current interv al to the terminal ICV pulse is also less abrupt than the equi v alent transition observ ed in F0220. The total duration of the interv al between current reduction and current re-establishment is much shorter than that observ ed in F0220, being on the order of 150 s. The duration of the current reduction in e v ent F0220 between points 'A and 'B1' in Figure 4–13(a) e xceeds the total duration of the zero current interv al in e v ent F0301. The current re-establishment pulse in e v ent F0301 reaches a peak of about 1060 A, and the subsequent hump reaches about 1450 A. The section of the streak camera record of e v ent F0301 corresponding to the ICV is seen in Figure 4–19 This section has been normalized v ertically and the contrast enhanced to increase the clarity of lo w-luminosity processes. The image has also been con v erted to a positi v e image. The abrupt increase in luminosity at point 'C' corresponds to the terminal ICV pulse which re-establishes current, mark ed as point 'C' in Figure 4–18 The point mark ed 'D' in Figure 4–19 corresponds to point 'D' in Figure 4–18 b ut the luminosity 'hump' has been mask ed by the contrast enhancement process. The point mark ed 'A in Figure 4–19 precedes point 'C' by an interv al similar to that by which point 'A precedes point 'C' in Figure 4–18 and can thus be seen to coincide with the

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108 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, m C D 0 0.2 150 100 50 0 "Dart Leader" Figure 4–17: Ev ent F0220 ICV Streak Record Enhanced The contrast of the streak record has been enhanced for clarity of lo w-luminosity processes. A process similar to a dart leader can be seen between 100 and 180 m. Point 'C' denotes an abrupt increase in luminosity corresponding to point 'C' in Figure 4–13(a) Point 'D' denotes a slo wer 'hump' in luminosity corresponding to the hump at point 'D' in Figure 4–13(a)

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109 300 400 500 600 0 0.5 1 1.5 Time, microsecondsCurrent, kA A B1 B2 C D Figure 4–18: Ev ent F0301 ICV Detail destruction of the triggering wire. Notably no leader -lik e process is visible in Figure 4–19 4.2.3 Ev ent F0336 No streak record e xists for e v ent F0336. The optical amplitude w as insuf cient to trigger the oscilloscope which recorded the photodiode array at an y point during the initial stage of F0336, and so no e xamination of the optical phenomena during the ICV can be performed. The current record of the ICV of F0336 is presented as Figure 4–20 The zero current interv al lasts approximately 1 ms. Approximately 60 s after the current transition mark ed as point 'B1' in Figure 4–20 a relati v ely small, f ast current pulse (mark ed 'c1') is observ ed. As seen in Figure 4–21 this pulse reaches a peak of about 75 A with a risetime on the order of 1 s. The half-peak width is about 5 s. 4.2.4 Ev ent F0341 The current record of e v ent F0341 includes a pronounced Zero Current Interv al similar to the descriptions abo v e. Figure 4–22(a) sho ws the current record corresponding

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110 Time, ms Height above Termination Point, m C D A 0 0.2 200 100 0 Figure 4–19: Ev ent F0301 Streak Record Corresponding to the ICV The streak record from e v ent F0301 is sho wn with contrast enhanced to impro v e clarity of lo w-luminosity processes, and con v erted to sho w a positi v e image. Luminous processes prior to the abrupt onset of luminosity are similar in duration to the zero current interv al.

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111 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 Time, msCurrent, kA A B1 c1 B2 C D E Figure 4–20: Ev ent F0336 Current Record ICV Expansion A: Be ginning of trailing wire disinte gration. B1: End of wire disinte gration and channel polarization. Current is approximately zero at this point. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse during ZCI. B2: Current re-establishment. C: Relati v ely f ast peak of current re-establishment pulse. D: Relati v ely slo w pulse during current re-establishment. E: Relati v ely slo w current pulse ('hump') approximately 800 s after re-establishment.

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112 6.37 6.365 6.36 6.355 6.35 6.345 6.34 6.335 6.33 6.325 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time, msCurrent, A c1 Figure 4–21: Ev ent F0336 Current Small Pulse in ZCI The se gment of current record sho wn as Figure 4–20 is e xpanded around the pulse mark ed 'c1' in Figure 4–20 This timescale is synchronous with that used in Figure 4–20 spaced at 5 s per di vision.

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113 to the ICV T w o small pulses can be seen within the zero current interv al. Figure 4–22(b) sho ws these pulses on an e xpanded time scale. The minimum current resolution of the recording oscilloscope w as about 1.8 A. The mean current during the ZCI w as calculated to be 0.41 A, with a standard de viation of 2.84 A. The rst pulse, labelled 'c1', occurs about 50 s after the current ramp reaches approximately zero current at point 'B1'. It is characterized by a relati v ely f ast rise to about 110 A, and quickly settles to about half of the that peak amplitude. It then ramps do wn more slo wly to zero o v er a period on the order of 100 s. About 390 s after the pulse labelled 'c1', a second pulse is observ ed and labelled 'c2'. Pulse 'c2' is similarly shaped to pulse 'c1' b ut the amplitude of 'c2' reaches about 250 A, which is approximately twice that of 'c1'. The nal pulse be ginning at point 'B2' reaches an amplitude of about 2.2 kA with a risetime measured to be between 0.5 s and 1.5 s. The accurac y of this measurement is limited by the sampling interv al of this current record, which is 0.5 s. The rise from point 'B2' to point 'C' is characterized by a single step, as sho wn in Figure 4–22(c) as opposed to the tw o-stage process seen in e v ent F0220 (Figure 4–13(b) ). Current in the channel is re-established after point 'C' and a hump 'E' is seen at about 1.8 ms, similar to e v ent F0220 (Figure 4–13(a) ). A streak record w as obtained from e v ent F0341, and w as presented as Figure 3–22 on page 63 The section which includes the Zero Current Interv al w as not presented in that gure, and is presented here as Figure 4–23 The image has been enhanced in tw o w ays: the v ariations with background intensity with height ha v e been normalized, and the contrast has been optimized so that lo w-luminosity processes are enhanced. At the point mark ed 'c2' on the gure, a rapid increase in luminosity can clearly be seen. This corresponds to the feature mark ed 'c2' in Figure 4–22(b) A much more f aint increase in luminosity can be seen at the point mark ed 'c1'. This f aintly luminous feature is approximately 400 s prior to the feature mark ed 'c2', and thus can be condently said to correspond to the feature mark ed 'c1' in Figure 4–22(b) The peak current at this point is approximately 100 A, and the corresponding luminosity is v ery close to

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114 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Time, msCurrent, kA A B1 C B2 D c1 c2 (a) EntireICV 3.6 3.4 3.2 3 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Time, msCurrent, kA c1 c2 (b)ZCIPulses 10 0 10 20 30 40 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Time, m sCurrent, kA B2 C (c)FinalICVPulse Figure 4–22: Ev ent F0341 ICV Detail (a) The Initial Current V ariation. A: Be ginning of trailing wire disinte gration. B1: End of wire disinte gration. Current is essentially zero. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. c2: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse. C: Relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse peak. E: Relati v ely slo w hump. b) Detail vie w of small pulses within ZCI. c) Detail vie w of nal ICV pulse.

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115 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 400 300 200 100 0 c2 c1 Figure 4–23: Ev ent F0341 Streak Record Zero Current Interv al T w o points corresponding with the current record in Figure 4–22 are mark ed. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. c2: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. the noise oor of the de v eloped lm. No signicant analysis can be made of this feature unless more adv anced ltering and enhancement techniques are used. It is suf cient to sho w that the process seen in the current record is also present in the optical record. This sho ws that the lightning channel up to a height of about 350 m is illuminated at this stage. It is notable that in Figure 3–22 on page 63 luminosity in the terminal ICV pulse can be seen to e xtend to the le v el of the top of the wire and no f arther When the luminosity increases again about 2 ms later corresponding to the point mark ed 'E' in Figure 4–22(a) this increased luminosity e xtends be yond the le v el of the top of the wire. A rectangular section of the enhanced streak image sho wn in Figure 3–22 w as selected. The re gion w as approximately 17.5 m in height and centered at about 50 m abo v e the channel termination point. The length of the re gion w as about 833 s and included the time instants described as 'c1' and 'c2'. The v ertical mean of the resultant matrix of intensities w as computed. This mean v alue w as plotted vs. time and o v erlaid atop the current record o v er the same time interv al. The results are sho wn in Figure 4–24 The v ertical a v eraging of the streak prole results in an impro v ement in signal-to-noise ratio. The channel geometry in this re gion has a horizontal component

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116 4.2 4 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time, msCurrent, A CurrentOptical c1 c2 A B1 Figure 4–24: Ev ent F0341 ICV Streak Prole Superimposed Upon Current Record A v ertically-a v eraged horizontal prole tak en from the streak record is sho wn superimposed upon the current record. The current record is the light dotted line, and the streak prole is the hea vy solid line. The current scale is accurate, b ut the streak prole is unscaled and normalized to the current record. which, when a v eraged v ertically results in a smearing' of the risetimes of the luminous phenomena. A more ef fecti v e method w ould in v olv e correction for the tilt' of the channel, prior to a v eraging. The similarity between the optical prole and the current record is unequi v ocal. It is notable that the optical prole appears to reect the current reduction between 'A and 'B1' as well as the pulses at 'c1' and 'c2'. The f ast peaks are not well resolv ed, most lik ely due to the smear' ef fect described abo v e. At the end of the zero current interv al, a relati v ely lar ge nal pulse re-establishes current o w in the channel. The similarity between the shape of this pulse in the current record and the shape of a return strok e has been noted. Figure 3–22(a) sho ws the streak record at the end of the ICV An e xpansion of this record around the relati v ely f ast pulse which re-establishes current is sho wn as Figure 4–25 The image w as enhanced for clarity of lo w-le v el processes. A leader/return-strok e-lik e process can clearly be seen in Figure 4–25 Clouds or smok e obscure the upper section of the luminous feature. An abrupt cessation of

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117 luminous phenomena occurs at a height of about 350 m. This corresponds to the top of the trailing wire from the triggering rock et. It is notable that in Figure 3–22(b) which presents the section of the streak record which corresponds to the return strok e, luminous phenomena e xtend past the le v el of the top of the wire. The wire has been disinte grated at the early phase of the ICV and so no further e xtension of the wire is possible. It must be concluded that the process which results in the return-strok e-lik e process in Figure 4–25 continues to propagate abo v e the le v el of the top of the wire, b ut is much less luminous than can be imaged with this apparatus. Figure 3–22(a) contains a visible slo w 'hump' approximately 2 ms after the leader/return-strok e-lik e process in which luminosity does e xtend past the end of the wire and past the eld of vie w of the streak camera. This hump is approximately synchronous with the pulse mark ed as point 'E' in Figure 4–22(a) The 10 90% risetime of the optical signal corresponding to the transition between points 'B2' and 'C' in Figure 4–22(a) w as measured to be between 1.27 s and 1.69 s. The half-peak width is approximately 16.5 s. Both of these v alues are in agreement with v alues tab ulated by Schoene et al. [ 2003 ] for return strok e current w a v eforms. The a v erage speed of the leader -lik e process, relati v e to the return-strok e-lik e process, is measured to be 1 : 48 10 7 m s 1 The return-strok e-lik e process is assumed to propagate at 1 : 5 10 8 m s 1 for the purposes of leader -lik e speed estimation. The resultant v alue is not dissimilar to those tab ulated by Rak o v and Uman [ 2003 ] for leader characteristics. 4.2.5 Ev ent F0345 The current record of e v ent F0345 includes an Initial Current V ariation (ICV) with a relati v ely short Zero Current Interv al (ZCI). Figure 4–26(b) sho ws the ZCI with points of interest annotated similarly to those in Figures 4–22(a) and 4–13(a) The point mark ed as 'B1' in those gures is not present in Figure 4–26(b) This point represents the point at which the current reaches approximately zero during the disinte gration of the wire. In F0345, the ramp does not end abruptly b ut approaches zero asymptotically T w o small current pulses are present at points 'c1' and 'c2'. Point 'c2' is follo wed immediately by a

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118 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, mWire Top 0 0.2 400 300 200 100 0 "Dart Leader" "Return Stroke" Figure 4–25: Ev ent F0341 Streak Record Final ICV Pulse Detail This image has been normalized to remo v e background v ariations and the contrast has been enhanced to increase clarity of lo w-luminosity processes.

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119 much lar ger current pulse whose be ginning is mark ed 'B2'. Point 'C' marks the peak of this current pulse, which represents the re-establishment of current in the channel. Point 'D' marks a relati v ely slo w current hump which appears at about 130 s after point 'C'. The current of about 210 A at point 'A decays to approximately zero o v er a period on the order of 300 s. The small pulses at 'c1' and 'c2' within the ZCI reach a maximum amplitude of about 40 A and 130 A, respecti v ely The peak current amplitude at point 'C' is about 1 kA and the peak current amplitude at point 'D' is about 560 A. A v ersion of the image in Figure 3–25 is sho wn with adjusted contrast in Figure 4–26(a) The top of the trailing wire is clearly delineated at point 'C'. Luminous phenomena are observ ed abo v e the top of the wire prior to the be ginning of the wire disinte gration at point 'A '. These luminous phenomena abo v e the wire decrease dramatically at the time corresponding to point 'A ', and luminosity is observ ed at the position of the wire. This luminosity is temporally dif fused, and can be seen to propagate upw ard and do wnw ard from se v eral points along the wire. A f aint intensication of luminosity can be seen parallel to the wire near point 'c1'. This corresponds to the small f ast pulse mark ed as 'c1' in Figure 4–26(b) A do wnw ard propagating process can be observ ed in the re gion just prior to the transition at point 'B2'. This process is similar in character to the leader lik e process observ ed in e v ents F0220 and F0341. It is notable that the luminosity abo v e the le v el of the top of the wire does not increase as abruptly as the luminosity belo w the le v el of the top of the wire. A pulse be ginning approximately 150 s after point 'C' is observ ed in the current record (Figure 4–26(b) ). The pulse mark ed as point 'D' on the streak image in Figure 4–26(a) can be seen to reach a maximum approximately 150 s after the return-strok e-lik e process reaches the le v el of the top of the wire. This suggests a sequence of e v ents related to the cut-of f and re-establishment of current in the ICV of e v ent F0345. The current o wing prior to point 'A is carried by the intact wire and by an upw ard positi v e leader abo v e the wire. This upw ard positi v e leader is luminous. When the wire disinte grates at point 'A ', the current in the upw ard

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120 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 400 300 200 100 0 A c1 B2 D Wire Top (a) Streak Record (a) Streak Image 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Time, msCurrent, kA A c1 B2 C D (b) Current Record (b) Current Record Figure 4–26: Ev ent F0345 Streak Record ICV Enhanced (a) Enhanced streak image. This image is based on the image in Figure 3–25 b ut with contrast adjusted to highlight lo w-luminosity processes. High-luminosity processes are obscured by this adjustment. (b) Current record e xpanded around the ICV A: Be ginning of trailing wire disinte gration. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse. C: Relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse peak. D: Relati v ely slo w hump. No denite transition between current decay and zero current interv al can be distinguished.

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121 positi v e leader decreases dramatically Current in the wire decays to w ard zero as the wire continues to disinte grate, and the resultant oating plasma channel abo v e the top le v el of the wire is polarized by the cloud eld. At times corresponding to points 'c1' and 'c2' in Figure 4–26(b) and visible as point 'c1' in Figure 4–26(a) pulses tra v erse the gap resultant from the v aporization of the triggering wire b ut f ail to re-establish current to ground. A lar ger pulse at a time corresponding to 'C' successfully re-establishes current in the channel. Subsequent to this re-establishment, current o ws in the channel both belo w and abo v e the wire top and can be observ ed as pulse 'D' in both the current record and in the optical record. 4.2.6 Ev ent F0226 On July 25, 2002, a video record w as obtained during a rock et-triggered lightning e v ent at Camp Blanding designated F0226. Three consecuti v e elds, separated by approximately 16.7 ms, sho w a process similar to that described for e v ent F0345. These elds inte grate light o v er a time interv al whose duration is less than the inter -eld interv al of 16.7 ms. A f aint upw ard positi v e leader can be seen in the rst eld, sho wn as Figure 4–27(a) The area around the f aint leader is enhanced for clarity and the resultant image is sho wn as Figure 4–27(b) In the ne xt eld, sho wn as Figure 4–28(a) the upw ard leader can be seen clearly The approximate path of the triggering wire can be seen as a f aintly luminous line from the bottom of the leader image to ground. In Figure 4–28(b) the wire has e xploded and current has been re-established in the resultant channel. The brightness of the channel is e xaggerated by the inte gration o v er time. The current record of ash F0226 includes an initial current v ariation in which the current ne v er reaches zero. The time interv al between the onset of IS current o w and the cutof f of current is approximately 23 ms. Gi v en that the inte gration time of the indi vidual elds in Figures 4–27 4–28(a) and 4–28(b) is 16.7 ms each, a comparison of the video images with the current record supports the e xplanation of the video images gi v en abo v e.It can be seen that it is possible for the rst frame to contain luminosity

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122 (a) Field 1Unenhanced Wire Top (b) Field 1Enhanced Figure 4–27: Ev ent F0226 V ideo Record Field One (a) First eld of a video sequence illustrating the sequence of upw ard leader formation and wire disinte gration. (b) The same eld, with the area around the upw ard leader highlighted.

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123 (a) Field 2 (b) Field 3 Figure 4–28: Ev ent F0226 V ideo Record Fields T w o and Three (a) The second eld of the video record sho ws the upw ard leader clearly The approximate position of the wire can be seen as a f aint, nearly v ertical line from the bottom of the upw ard leader to the ground. (b) The third eld of the video record sho ws the completed channel, with the upw ard leader connected to the ground via a channel formed by the e xplosion of the trailing wire.

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124 emitted by the earliest stages of the upw ard positi v e leader for the second frame to contain luminosity from the upw ard positi v e leader and f aint luminosity from the re gion of the triggering wire, and for the third frame to contain luminosity from the full channel from ground. The duration of the ICV is relati v ely short compared to other records discussed in this paper The current reaches a minimum of some tens of amperes. The transition from current reduction during the v aporization of the wire to the current re-establishment pulse can be seen in Figure 4–30 to be relati v ely smooth and gradual. The risetime of the terminal ICV pulse is on the order of 10 to 20 s. The terminal ICV pulse is follo wed approximately 250 s later by a relati v ely slo w current hump whose amplitude is v ery close to that of the terminal ICV pulse. It is apparent that the re-establishment of current in this ash is not the abrupt process seen in other ashes discussed herein.

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125 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Time, msCurrent, kA Figure 4–29: Ev ent F0226 Current Record Initial Stage

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126 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Time, millisecondsCurrent, kA Figure 4–30: Ev ent F0226 Current Record ICV 4.2.7 Ev ent F0348 The current record for e v ent F0348 includes an ICV with a pronounced ZCI. T w o relati v ely small, f ast pulses can be seen within the ZCI. The rst pulse, mark ed 'c1' in Figure 4–31 occurs approximately 50 s after the be ginning of the zero current interv al. The peak amplitude of this pulse is about 100 A. The second pulse, mark ed 'c2', occurs approximately 360 s after the rst pulse. The peak amplitude of this pulse is about 100 A. Current continues to o w for se v eral tens of microseconds after the initial peak, and reaches a slo wer peak of about 56 A 89 s later This sequence of a f ast peak follo wed some tens of microseconds later by a slo wer peak is similar to the pattern seen in the nal ICV pulse in e v ent F0220 and in tw o small ZCI pulses in F0341. A lar ger f ast pulse is sho wn at point 'C' in Figure 4–31 The peak amplitude of this pulse is approximately 760 A, and the risetime is on the order of 1.5 s. A relati v ely slo w pulse whose peak amplitude reaches about 160 A follo ws at point 'E'. The current record of e v ent F0348 is substantially similar to the current record of e v ent F0345.

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127 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Time, msCurrent, kA A B1 B2 c1 c2 C E Figure 4–31: Ev ent F0348 Current Record ICV A: Be ginning of trailing wire disinte gration. B1: End of wire disinte gration. Current is essentially zero. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. c2: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse with subsequent current hump. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse. C: Relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse peak. E: Relati v ely slo w hump.

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128 Figure 4–32 presents tw o v ersion of the se gment of streak camera record corresponding to the current record in Figure 4–31 The rst v ersion has been enhanced for clarity of lo w-luminosity processes. The background has been normalized v ertically to remo v e background v ariations. The second v ersion is identical to the rst v ersion e xcept that the intensity v alues ha v e been in v erted, so that it is presented as a positi v e image. Point 'c1' on the image corresponds to the rst small pulse in the ZCI, mark ed 'c1' on Figure 4–31 This feature is poorly resolv ed due to lo w luminosity Point 'c2' corresponds to the time instant mark ed as 'c2' on Figure 4–31 Resolution of this feature is suf cient to observ e the sharp rise and subsequent hump. Point 'B2' corresponds to the end of the zero current interv al at point 'B2' on Figure 4–31 Point 'C' is placed v ertically at the top of the channel formed by the current pulse at point 'C' in Figure 4–31 It can be seen that no discernable luminosity is present abo v e the le v el of the top of the trailing wire during this nal ICV pulse. The lar gest initial stage (IS) pulse occurs approximately 58 ms after the nal ICV pulse and is sho wn in Figure 3–33(b) on page 75 In this gure it can clearly be seen that the visibly luminous phenomena do e xtend past the le v el of the top of the wire. It can be concluded that the re gion abo v e the top of the le v el of the wire is visible, b ut that luminosity in this re gion does not be gin (or does not increase substantially) until appreciably later than the current re-establishment at the end of the ICV This is not dissimilar from the process described for e v ent F0345.

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129 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters c1 c2 B2 C Wire Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (a) Streak Record Negative Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters c1 c2 B2 C Wire Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 400 300 200 100 0 (b) Streak Record Positive Figure 4–32: Ev ent F0348 Streak Record ICV (a) Streak record se gment containing ICV and ZCI. c1) relati v ely small, f ast pulse during ZCI. c2) Lar ger b ut still relati v ely small, f ast pulse during ZCI. B2) End of ZCI. Be ginning of current re-establishment. C) Point of peak current in re-establishment pulse. (b) Image in (a) con v erted to a positi v e image.

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130 4.2.8 Ev ent F0350 The current record for e v ent F0350 contains an Initial Current V ariation (ICV) and a pronounced Zero Current Interv al (ZCI) within that ICV Current o wing prior to the ICV reaches about 120 A, near point 'A in Figure 4–33(a) The current then decreases approximately linearly to w ard zero. An abrupt change in the slope of the decrease occurs when the current nears zero, mark ed as point 'B1' in Figure 4–33(a) Close e xamination suggests that the current does not reach zero at this point. Figure 4–33(b) sho ws the current record o v er the zero current interv al, with v ertical scale e xpanded for clarity of lo w-le v el processes. The accurac y of the current record is limited by the noise oor of the transmission system and the digitization noise of the oscilloscope. The mean o v er the nal 175 s of the ZCI w as found to be 0.37 A with a standard de viation of 2.36 A. The noise oor in this particular record w as estimated to ha v e a peak-to-peak amplitude of approximately 10 A. Normalization of the of fset in this record w as performed by subtracting the mean v alue of the rst 50 ms of the record, a period well before the onset of current during the IS, from the entire record. The point mark ed 'B1' in Figure 4–33(b) represents the point at which the rate of current decrease decreases dramatically Current at this point can be seen to be non-zero, with an estimated amplitude of about 5 A. The amplitude continues to decrease relati v ely slo wly until the point mark ed 'c1' in Figures 4–33(b) and 4–33(a) is reached. A relati v ely small, f ast current pulse occurs whose peak amplitude is approximately 165 A and whose risetime is on the order of 1 s. This pulse is mark ed 'c1' in Figure 4–33 The current amplitude continues to decrease until it reaches approximately zero le v el at a time mark ed as point 'B2' on Figure 4–33 A relati v ely small, f ast current pulse with amplitude of approximately 225 A and risetime on the order of 1 s re-establishes current in the channel formed by the destruction of the wire. Subsequently to this vie w a lar ge pulse reaches a maximum amplitude of 11 kA as sho wn in Figure 3–34(b)

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131 23 22.5 22 21.5 21 20.5 20 19.5 0 50 100 150 200 Time, millisecondsCurrent, A B1 B2 c1 A C (a) Entire ICV 22.5 22 21.5 21 20.5 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 Time, millisecondsCurrent, A B1 B2 c1 (b) ICV ZCI Detail Figure 4–33: Ev ent F0350 Current Record Zero Current Interv al (a) A: Be ginning of trailing wire disinte gration. B1: End of wire disinte gration. Current is nearly zero. c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse. C: Relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse peak. (b) Same as 4–33(a) with e xpanded v ertical scale.

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132 Time, msHeight above Termination Point, meters c1 B2 C Wire Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 400 300 200 100 0 Figure 4–34: Ev ent F0350 Streak Camera Record ICV c1: Relati v ely small, f ast pulse. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse. C: Relati v ely lar ge, f ast pulse peak. An optical streak camera record of e v ent F0350 w as obtained. The lm w as e xposed during tw o dif ferent e v ents, b ut only during e v ent F0350 w as an y optical data collected. The double e xposure of the lm resulted in ne gati v es which are v ery dark compared to other e v ents, and so image enhancement is required in order to analyze the record. Figure sho ws the se gment of lm corresponding to the ICV after image enhancement has been performed. Luminosity associated with current pulse 'c1' e xtends from the ground to the le v el of the top of the wire b ut not abo v e the le v el of the top of the wire. As time progresses to w ard time 'B2', luminosity abo v e the le v el of the top of the wire be gins to appears o v er v ery short v ertical se gments b ut with relati v ely long time durations. If an y leader -lik e process is associated with the nal ICV pulse as in e v ents F0220, F0341, F0345, and F0348, it is unresolv ed due to o v er -e xposure of the lm record. An electric eld record w as acquired during e v ent F0350. A circular ate plate antenna whose area w as 0.16 m 2 w as located approximately 130 m northwest of the termination point. The data were recorded on a Y ok oga w a oscilloscope at a sampling rate of 10 MHz. A section of this record corresponding to the ICV are presented as Figure 4–35(a) The se gment of current record corresponding to the same time period is sho wn as Figure 4–35(b) It is observ ed that at times corresponding to e v ents in the base current,

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133 there are visible inection points in the electric eld record. At the point mark ed 'A ', the electric eld be gins to decrease in amplitude. No distinct change can be seen in the electric eld record at point 'B'. At point 'c1' in the electric eld record, a disturbance in the electric eld can be seen. Although it is not well-resolv ed due to noise, a momentary increase in the rate of decrease is observ ed and follo wed by a denite increase in the electric eld magnitude. This pattern is repeated, with greater increase in magnitude, at points 'B2' and 'C'. This v-shaped disturbance is typical of the electric eld signature of a leader/return strok e sequence. The relati v ely poor resolution of the features due to noise mak es this comparison some what speculati v e. 4.2.9 Ev ent F0331 Ev ent F0331 w as triggered on July 25, 2003 at 21:16 UTC. No optical data were collected during this e v ent. Base current and electric eld data were collected. The electric eld and base current data were recorded on a Y ok oga w a oscilloscope sampling at 10 MHz. The electric eld sensor w as a circular at plate antenna whose area w as 0.16 m 2 The antenna w as located approximately 100 m southwest of the launcher The v ariations in electric eld magnitude seen at points 'a1', 'b2', 'a2', and 'B2' are similar to those seen in Figure 4–35(a) b ut with better resolution. Point 'a1' marks the be ginning of a rapid decrease in electric eld magnitude similar to v ariations seen in electric eld w a v eforms associated with dart leaders. Point 'b2' marks the end of this rapid decrease and the be ginning of a rapid increase, similar to the v ariations seen in electric eld w a v eforms associated with return strok es. Point 'a2' marks the be ginning of a second rapid reduction in electric eld magnitude. Point 'B2' marks the end of the second rapid reduction and the be ginning of a second rapid increase. The similarity between these electric eld magnitude v ariations and those seen in leader/return strok e sequences is unmistakable and unequi v ocal.

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134 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 Time, mskV m-1 A B1 b2 B2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time, msCurrent, A A B1 c1 C B2 b2 Figure 4–35: Ev ent F0350 ICV Electric Field and Base Current (a) Electric eld record. (b) Current record. A: Be ginning of current reduction due to wire destruction. B1: End of wire destruction. Current is near zero and relati v ely constant. Not resolv ed in eld record. b2: Be ginning of relati v ely small, f ast current pulse. c1: Peak amplitude of relati v ely small, f ast current pulse. B2: End of zero current interv al. Be ginning of terminal ICV pulse. C: Peak amplitude of terminal ICV pulse.

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135 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 Time, mskV m1 A B1 a1 a2 B2 b2 (a) Electric Field 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Time, msCurrent, kA A B1 c1 C B2 b1 (b) Current Record Figure 4–36: Ev ent F0331 ICV Electric Field and Base Current (a) Electric eld record. (b) Base current record. A: Be ginning of current reduction due to wire destruction. B1: End of current reduction. Current is near zero and relati v ely static. a1: Be ginning of relati v ely rapid decrease in electric eld magnitude. b2: End of relati v ely rapid decrease in electric eld magnitude. Be ginning of relati v ely small, f ast current pulse. Be ginning of relati v ely rapid increase in electric eld magnitude. c1: Peak amplitude of relati v ely small, f ast current pulse. a2: Be ginning of rapid decrease in electric eld magnitude associated with terminal ICV pulse. B2: End of relati v ely rapid increase of electric eld magnitude associated with terminal ICV pulse. Be ginning of current o w in terminal ICV pulse. C: Peak current amplitude in terminal ICV pulse.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Correlated optical and current data were presented for a total of 9 Initial Stages (IS) and 16 strok es in 10 triggered lightning ashes. T w o e v ents were captured using the BIFO K004M image con v erter camera, b ut neither of the images contained data suitable for analysis. A total of eight strok es and one IS in 4 triggered lightning ashes were recorded with a v ertical photodiode array Photodiode array records are also presented for four natural e v ents, with no correlated currents. Streak camera records are presented for se v en initial stages and eight strok es in se v en ashes. Using the correlated photodiode array and current records from e v ent F0336, the leader and return strok e speeds were measured for v e strok es. These results are summarized in T able 4–1 The return strok e speeds were found to v ary between 1 : 49 10 8 m s 1 and 1 : 83 10 8 m s 1 These v alues are similar to typical v alues summarized by Rak o v and Uman [ 2003 ]. The correlation between return strok e speed and peak current amplitude w as calculated for this dataset. The correlation for a v erage return strok e speed between 169 m and 9 m and peak current amplitude w as calculated to be -0.17 with a signicance le v el of 0.78. This suggests that there is little correlation between peak current and return strok e speed o v er the bottom 170 m of the lightning channel. A scatter plot of the v alues is sho wn as Figure 4–7(a) The correlation between peak current amplitude and return strok e speed between the tw o lo wermost sensors in the photodiode array w as calculated to be -0.90 with a signicance le v el of 0.04. This seems to indicate a strong ne gati v e correlation between the peak current amplitude and the return strok e speed in the lo wermost 60 m of lightning channel, although the sample size is probably too small to dra w a meaningful conclusion. A plot of these data is sho wn as Figure 4–7(b) Careful e xamination sho ws that the relationship between 4 of the 5 data points in 136

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137 Figure 4–7(a) and the relationship between same 4 data points in 4–7(b) are v ery similar The fth data point is the only one which dif fers appreciably Clearly this indicates that the dataset is simply too small to allo w an y conclusions of correlation to be dra wn. It is notable, ho we v er that neither conclusion supports the idea that a positi v e correlation e xists between return strok e speed and peak current. The correlation between optical risetime at 9 m abo v e the termination point and peak current at the channel base and between current risetime and peak current w as e xamined. The correlation between optical risetime and peak current w as strongly positi v e. The correlation between current risetime and peak current w as also positi v e, b ut not as strongly so. It is notable that the accurac y of the current risetime measurement w as limited by the sampling rate of the recording oscilloscope. The ef fecti v e error w as 0 : 025 s for measurements which were on the order of 0 : 15 0 : 35 s. In light of the high correlation between optical risetime and peak current, it seems lik ely that more accurate measurements of current risetime w ould sho w higher correlations to peak current. The correlation coef cient between peak current amplitude and peak optical intensity at 9 m abo v e the termination point w as computed to be 0.99. This suggests that the data gathered from other sensors in the array could be used to infer the v ariation in the peak current amplitude with height along the channel from measured luminosity proles. The shape of the optical w a v eform w as compared to the current w a v eform. It w as noted that the decrease in optical amplitude immediately after the peak amplitude is much sharper than the decrease immediately after peak in the current w a v eform. Approximately 5 -10 s after the initial amplitude peak, the rate of decrease of optical amplitude slo ws to a rate similar to the rate of decrease in the current w a v eform. A similar phenomenon w as noted by W ang et al. [ 2004 ] in optical images of triggered lightning obtained using the ALPS ( A utomatic L ightning P rogressing Feature Observ ation S ystem) at Camp Blanding, Florida. W ang et al. suggest that the disparity in initial post-peak decay rates may be

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138 due to the non-linearity of the relationship between optical output po wer and channel temperature for an arc channel in air Orville [ 1968 ] sho wed that the luminous output in the early stages of a return strok e is dominated by singly-ionized species of nitrogen and oxygen, and that continuum emission peaks later in the process. H-alpha emissions are also important parts of the spectral content of a return strok e. It is notable that the spectral response of the PIN photodiodes used in this e xperiment is strongly sk e wed to the red end of the visible spectrum and that man y of the emission lines of N and H lie in the red end of the spectrum. It is possible that the spectral balance of the return strok e re gisters more strongly in the photodiodes early in the process than later in the process. Rak o v and Uman [ 2003 ] and Doug Jordan (personal communication, 2003) note that other e xperimenters ha v e suggested that the peak po wer output of the lightning channel precedes the peak current amplitude, as the po wer output is the product of the current in the channel and the longitudinal electric eld in the channel. Inspection of Figure 4–8(b) re v eals a secondary current pulse approximately 11 s after the current peak. A similar feature is noted in the optical amplitude in the same gure, b ut the peak of the optical pulse lags the current pulse by about 1 s. The synchronization of the tw o records w as based on the trigger times of each measurement' s associated oscilloscope; ho we v er these oscilloscopes were not synchronized in an y w ay It is possible that the true synchronization of these records is most accurately accomplished by shifting the optical record back in time, so that the peak of the secondary optical pulse coincides with the peak of the current pulse. This w ould ha v e the ef fect of placing the optical peak prior to the current peak as suggested. None of the abo v e e xplanations for the w a v e shape can be seen to be preferential to the rest. Indeed, the most accurate description of the process may in v olv e some combination of all of them. It is apparent, ho we v er that the optical po wer output is not a linear function of current in the channel o v er the entire duration of the w a v eform.

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139 Se v eral processes in v olv ed in the cutof f and re-establishment of current in the Initial Stage (IS) of rock et-triggered lightning, pre viously studied by Rak o v et al. [ 2003 ], were e xamined. Six e v ents were discussed in which an Initial Current V ariation (ICV) with a Zero Current Interv al ZCI w as observ ed in the IS and for which a correlated streak camera record w as a v ailable. F our of these six e v ents e xhibited relati v ely small, f ast current pulses during the ZCI. The current risetime for these pulses w as on the order of 1 s, and the amplitude v aried from about 25 A to about 250 A. The termination of each ZCI w as characterized by a current pulse with a relati v ely f ast rise, on the order of 1 s, and a slo wer decay This pulse re-establishes current in the lightning channel after the destruction of the trailing wire. A slo wer f airly symmetrical pulse follo wed each of these terminal pulses. The interv al between the current re-establishment peak and the subsequent slo w symmetrical peak ranged from approximately 120 s to about 2.5 ms. One e v ent, F0220, w as characterized by a similar pulse approximately 20 s after the f aster re-establishment pulse. The amplitude of the subsequent pulse in e v ent F0220 w as greater than the f aster re-establishment pulse. A second slo w approximately symmetrical pulse follo wed about 1 ms later It is note w orthy that a comparison of the current w a v eform to a horizontal prole from the associated streak camera record indicated that the current peak w as most lik ely under -reported due to undersampling. T w o e v ents were discussed in which correlated electric eld and base current records sho wed strong similarity between the pulses during the ZCI and leader/return strok e sequences. Rak o v et al. [ 2003 ] discussed the cutof f and re-establishment of current in the ICV of rock et-triggered lightning. Streak camera, magnetic eld, and electric eld records were analyzed which suggested a process of cutof f and re-establishment similar to that described in section 4.2.5 of this paper The streak camera records of F0220, F0341, F0345, and F0348 all contain visible leader -lik e processes associated with the current re-establishment pulse at the end of the zero current interv al, similar to that described by Rak o v et al. These records support the conclusion that the process of replacement of the

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140 triggering wire with a plasma channel in v olv es processes similar to a dart leader/return strok e process. In all records observ ed in which the top of the wire is visible, the return strok e-lik e process appreas to terminate at the le v el of the top of the wire, although some current continues to o w to ground. In the record for e v ent F0345, the luminosity in the oating plasma channel formed by the upw ard positi v e leader abo v e the le v el of the top of the wire is visible. As can be seen in Figure 3–25 on page 65 the peak luminosity in this channel section is not coincident with the luminosity in the upw ard-propagating return strok e-lik e process, b ut with the relati v ely slo w pulse which follo ws the return strok e-lik e process. A similar process is seen in the streak record of F0341 in Figure 3–22(a) on page 63 This indicates that the subsequent slo w pulse in the current record is the result of a do wnw ard propagating process, as suggested by Rak o v et al. [ 2003 ]. The similarity between the small pulses within the ZCI and the nal pulse which re-establishes current is e vident. These smaller pulses can be considered unsuccessful current re-establishment pulses. The electric eld records of F0350 and F0331 suggest that leader -lik e processes are in v olv ed with these smaller pulses and with the terminal ICV pulse. It seems lik ely that leader -lik e processes are associated with these small pulses b ut that the y are not suf ciently luminous to be imaged with the optical instrumentation used in this study Based on these ne w results, the process of cutof f and re-establishment of current in rock et-triggered lightning described by Rak o v et al. (2003) can be e xpanded some what. The process be gins when the wire being trailed from a rock et reaches suf cient height and speed belo w a suitably char ged thundercloud to initiate an upw ard positi v e leader (UPL). Current on the order of hundreds of amperes be gins to o w in this wire, and the upw ard positi v e leader continues to propagate upw ard, forming a plasma channel. This plasma channel is luminous, b ut the wire belo w it is not (see Figure 4–28(a) on page 123 ). After some time period on the order of milliseconds [ W ang et al. 1999a ], the trailing wire is v aporized by inte grated heating. Current decreases dramatically o v er a period of some hundreds of microseconds. The streak record of F0345 (see Figure

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141 4–26(a) ) sho ws luminosity from the wire during this stage, indicating that the process of wire v aporization is continuing. Luminosity in the upw ard positi v e leader is reduced, indicating that current o w has decreased in that section as well. In man y cases, the current o w at the channel base ceases abruptly and essentially completely In other cases, current from the bottom of the UPL to ground is re-established before the current amplitude reaches zero and without abrupt changes. In those cases where the current reaches zero, an interv al of zero current lasts for some hundreds of microseconds to milliseconds. Polarization of the oating plasma channel formed by the UPL abo v e the top of the wire continues, forming a small re gion of ne gati v e char ge at the le v el of the top of the wire. Leader and return strok e-lik e processes attempt to bridge the gap created by the destruction of the wire. Each leader -lik e process lo wers ne gati v e char ge from the re gion of char ge at the bottom of the oating plasma channel, and forms a plasma channel in the gap formed by the v aporization of the tr ggering wire. In man y cases, the rst pulse is unsuccessful at re-establishing current in the channel. When a suitable channel from the ground to the bottom of the plasma channel is formed, current is re-established in the oating plasma channel abo v e the wire top le v el. The current pulse propagating upw ard is follo wed by a do wnw ard-propagating current pulse with relati v ely slo wer risetime. Luminosity in the oating plasma channel (and by inference current in the plasma channel) is be gins to increase with the upw ard pulse, b ut reaches peak luminosity simultaneously with the subsequent do wnw ard pulse (see Figure 4–26 on page 120 ). In only 2 of the 8 ashes discussed herein w as current re-established in the channel by the rst pulse. In 3 of the remaining 6 ashes, the second pulse re-established current. The third pulse re-established current in the remaining 3 ashes. Fi v e streak camera records of ashes in which a terminal ICV pulse re-established current were e xamined. The terminal ICV pulse w as visible in each, and a leader -lik e process w as observ ed in four of the v e. In the fth, o v er -e xposure of the lm may ha v e obscured the leader -lik e process. Six pulses which f ailed to re-establish current were observ ed in current records

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142 of ashes for which corresponding streak camera records were a v ailable. All of these pulses were resolv ed optically No leader -lik e processes were observ ed in the streak records corresponding to these unsuccessful current re-establishment pulses. The electric eld records of e v ents F0331 and F0350 indicate that leader -lik e processes may be associated with these unsuccessful pulses as well.

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CHAPTER 6 RECOMMEND A TIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The ability to obtain images of the attachment process near the bottom of the lightning channel is the primary purpose for the BIFO K004M camera. Accordingly all possible ef fort should be directed to w ard operating the camera during triggered lightning e v ents. The dif culties encountered in acquiring images during Summer 2003 and during Dr Lebede v' s visit to Gainesville in September 2003 can be attrib uted to the v ariability of brightness in lightning ashes and the lack of suf cient opportunity to determine the optimal e xposure settings. The v ariability of distance in natural lightning results in additional v ariations in relati v e brightness because the intensity can be e xpected to v ary approximately in v ersely with distance. F or this reason, triggered lightning at a x ed distance from the camera gi v es the best opportunities for successful acquisition of images with the K004M A trigger control circuit should be implemented to ensure that no records are obtained which contain multiple optical e v ent o v erlaid atop one another as is suspected in the case of e v ent F0317 (see Figure 3–12 ). The follo wing topology is suggested for the trigger control circuit. A microcontroller such as a member of Microchip' s PIC f amily of lo w po wer high speed microcontrollers may be emplo yed. T w o high-speed digital in v erters capable of dri ving 50 W loads are placed in series with the trigger signal transmitted from the PS001 to the K004M. If the microcontroller pin connected to the input of the second in v erter (mark ed 'A1' in Figure 6–1 ) is placed in a high-impedance state, the trigger signal will pass unmodied through the circuit. If the pin is congured to output a logic '1', then the output of the second in v erter will ne v er rise abo v e zero and no trigger signal will be passed. The microcontroller can be programmed to monitor the signal on the pin 'A1' for a trigger pulse. The display interf ace and k e ypad sho wn in Figure 6–1 can be utilized to 143

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144 PIC microcontroller DisplayInterface PS001 trigger unit A1 K004M Figure 6–1: K004M Suggested T rigger Control Circuit instruct the program being run which pulses to block and which to pass. In this manner the K004M can be triggered on rst optical signal, on second signal, etc. The initial stage may be bypassed in order to obtain records of the attachment process, or the initial stage may be imaged to observ e the nal ICV pulse more closely and all subsequent strok es ignored. It is possible to congure the microcontroller to allo w subsequent pulses after w aiting a period corresponding to the persistence time of the phosphor on the K004M readout tube in order to capture multiple strok es within the same e v ent. In order to capture multiple strok es within the same e v ent, a readout system other than the current CCD camera must be emplo yed. The camera currently emplo yed inte grates the image on the phosphor in periods of 40 ms. It is unkno wn ho w man y 40 ms periods are inte grated for the current output image. It w ould be preferable to inte grate o v er the entire persistence of the phosphor readout in order to ensure consistent video image brightness from e xposure to e xposure. It is also desirable to increase the capture resolution of the recording system. The spatial resolution of the K004M system is currently limited by the resolution of the camera readout (640x480 pix els), which is lo wer

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145 than the K004M resolution in the v ertical dimension. Se v eral commercially-a v ailable cameras ha v e image resolution greater than the K004M' s inherent physical resolution, and man y are a v ailable with digital connections such as USB2 and FireW ire (IEEE1394) which allo w for the direct connection of the camera to a PC for recording and archi ving purposes. Alternati v ely the use of a standard 35 mm lm camera as the readout unit for the K004M w ould be useful. The camera could be mounted to the phosphor plate and placed in 'Bulb' mode, with the shutter opened prior to the launch of a rock et and closed se v eral seconds later An y images obtained will be inte grated o v er the entire persistence period of the K004M phospor Additionally the spatial resolution of 35 mm lm f ar e xceeds the spatial resolution of the K004M, and the dynamic range of lm is greater than the 8-bit range currently utilized. The non-linear response of lm w ould require calibration in order to obtain linear images, b ut the adv antage in dynamic range might justify the additional ef fort. An additional application for the K004M w ould be for the high-speed time-resolv ed spectroscop y of the lightning process. Orville [ 1968 ] obtained time-resolv ed spectroscop y of lightning channels with 4 s resolution. The high recording rate and wide spectral bandwidth of the K004M w ould seem to be optimal for this sort of study A 1 s or f aster time-resolv ed spectroscopic record correlated with simultaneous photodiode array records, streak lm camera records, and incident current records w ould be unique and potentially quite useful. The photodiode array should be operated during e v ery rock et-triggered lightning e v ent at Camp Blanding in the foreseeable future. The ability to correlate the linear photodiode data with wide dynamic range streak lm camera data and correlated current records pro vides an opportunity to further rene the understanding of the relationship between current and luminosity in lightning ashes. The gain and signal-to-noise ratio (s/n) of the photodiode array sensors require impro v ement o v er the v ersions used in these e xperiments. Doug Jordan (personal communication, 2003) has recommended the use

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146 of a v alanche photodiodes for impro v ed gain and s/n. An alternati v e w ould be to utilize c ylindrical lenses within the array tubes to increase the horizontal light gathering ability of the diodes. An adv antage of this approach is that the impro v ement in usable signal is not accompanied by additional noise or circuit comple xity The light incident upon the photodiode is essentially inte grated o v er a wider horizontal area, with an ef fecti v e gain of 25 or more o v er the current system easily achie v able. A disadv antage of this approach is the increased mechanical comple xity with the need to precisely align the lens and the photodiode more ur gent than with the current system. Impro v ed gain and s/n are crucial to the ability to successfully obtain records of all initial stages and strok es. If suf cient impro v ement in the output and s/n can be achie v ed, the simultaneous recording of each sensor output on multiple channels with v arying gains is recommended, similarly to the method in which currents are currently being recorded. The presence of e xtremely lo w-le v el processes in the current record suggests that an additional channel be dedicated to the recording of incident current. The current recordings saturate at le v els of 60 kA and 6 kA, roughly An additional channel with a gain of 10 compared to the e xisting high gain channel w ould allo w for impro v ed resolution of phenomena such as the small pulses within the zero current interv al during the initial stage of rock et-triggered lightning, and possibly allo w for phenomena such as upw ard connecting leaders to be resolv ed. W ith an increase in the sensiti vity and s/n of the photodiode arrays, the set of data pertaining to the measurement of leader and return strok e speeds can be e xpanded and more meaningful statistical analyses can be performed. W ithin the set of data presented in this paper e xamples of dart-stepped leaders with clearly-dened steps can be observ ed. These data should be analyzed more thoroughly and comparison made to the results obtained by W ang et al. [ 1999b ] in which the propagation of such steps w as observ ed to propagate upw ard.

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147 Further analysis into the statistics of leader speed relati v e to the return strok e speed can be made. The statistical characteristics of the optical risetime and peak intensity as a function of height can be measured and compiled.

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REFERENCES BIFO Compan y 2002. K004M Univer sal Ima g e Con verter Camer a Documentation BIFO Compan y Mosco w Russia. Dwyer J.R., Rassoul, H.K., Al Dayeh, M., Cara w ay L., Wright, B., Chrest, A., Uman, M.A., Rak o v V .A., Rambo, K.J., Jordan, D.M., Jerauld, J., and Smyth, C. 2004. A ground le v el gamma-ray b urst observ ed in association with rock et-triggered lightning. GRL in press. Fieux, R., Gary C., and Hubert, P 1975. Articially triggered lightning o v er land. Natur e 257:212–214. Jordan, D. M. 1990, Relative Light Intensity and Electric F ield Intensity of Cloud to Gr ound Lightning PhD dissertation, Uni v Florida, Gainesville. Krider E.P 1996. Lightning rods in the 18th century 23r d Int. Conf on Lightning Pr otection pages 1–8. Florence, Italy Malan, D.J. and Collens, H. September 1937. Progressi v e lightning III the ne structure of return lightning strok es. Pr oc. Roy Soc. A162(909):175–203. McEachron, K.B. 1939. Lightning to the empire state b uilding. J F r anklin Institute 227: 149–217. Orville, R.E. September 1968. A high-speed time-resolv ed spectroscopic study of the lightning return strok e: P art I. A qualitati v e analysis. J Atmos. Sci. 25(5):827–838. Rak o v V .A. January 1998. Some inferences on the propagation mechanisms of dart leaders and return strok es. J Geophy Res. 103(D2):1879–1887. Rak o v V .A. 1999. Lightning dischar ges triggered using rock et-and-wire techniques. Recent Res. De vel. Geophysics 2:141–171. Rak o v V .A., Cra wford, D.E., K odali, V ., Idone, V .P ., Uman, M.A., Schnetzer G.H., and Rambo, K.J. 2003. Cutof f and re-establishment of current in rock et-triggered lightning. Unpublished Rak o v V .A. and Uman, M.A. 2003. Lightning Physics and Ef fects Cambridge Uni v ersity Press, Cambridge. Schoene, J., Uman, M.A., Rak o v V .A., K odali, V ., Rambo, K.J., and Schnetzer G.H. March 2003. Statistical characteristics of the electric and magnetic elds and their time 148

PAGE 162

149 deri v ati v es 15 m and 30 m from triggered lightning. J Geophys. Res. 108(D6):4542. doi:10.1029/2003JD003398. Schonland, B.F .J. 1956. The lightning dischar ge. Handb uc h der Physik 22:576–628. W ang, D., Rak o v V .A., Uman, M.A., Fernandez, M.I., Rambo, K.J., Schnetzer G.H., and Fisher R.J. February 1999a. Characterization of the initial stage of ne gati v e rock et-triggered lightning. J Geophys. Res. 104(D4):4213–4222. W ang, D., T akagi, N., W atanabe, T ., Rak o v V .A., and Uman, M.A. June 1999b Observ ed leader and return-strok e propagation characteristics in the bottom 400 m of a rock ettriggered lightning channel. J Geophys Res 104(D12):14,369–14376. W ang, D., T akagi, N., W atanabe, T ., Rak o v V .A., Uman, M.A., Rambo, K.J., and Stapleton, M.V 2004. A comparison of channel-base currents and optical signals for rock et-triggered lightning strok es. Atmospheric Resear c h in press.

PAGE 163

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Robert C. Olsen, III, w as born January 3, 1970, in Mobile, AL. He attended pri v ate and public schools in Mobile through the 10th grade. He graduated from Lak e w ood High School in St. Petersb ur g, FL, in 1988. In August, 1988, he entered V alencia Community Colle ge in Orlando, FL. While in Orlando, he completed the V alencia C.C. / Uni v ersal Studios Film T echnician training program. In 1990 he entered the Colle ge of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Uni v ersity of South Alabama in Mobile, AL. He pursued a career consisting of equal parts EE student, electronics repair technician, and rock and roll guitarist. He recei v ed his bachelor' s de gree in electrical engineering in May of 2000. In August of 2001, he entered the master' s program in electrical engineering at the Uni v ersity of Florida. 150


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Title: Optical Characterization of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Camp Blanding, Florida
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Title: Optical Characterization of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Camp Blanding, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF
ROCKET-TRIGGERED LIGHTNING
AT CAMP BLENDING, FLORIDA















By

ROBERT CHRISTIAN OLSEN, III


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Robert Christian Olsen, III
















I would like to dedicate this thesis to my grandfathers Robert Christian Olsen

and Thomas Edmund Lakeman, from whom I seem to have inherited my engineering

tendencies.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the time and tutelage of Dr. Vlad Rakov and Dr. Martin

Uman, whose guidance has been of inestimable value and whose expertise sets a standard

I can only hope to approach; Dr. Doug Jordan, whose skills as educator and as researcher

have benefitted me immensely, and whose friendship even more so; and Keith Rambo,

who first dragged me into this business of lightning and who may be the best boss I

ever had. Special thanks are also due Mike Stapleton, Jason Jerauld, Angel Mata, Jens

Schoene, Oliver Pankiewicz, Julia Jordan, Thomas Rambo, and Nicky Grimes, all of

whom were my fellow laborers in the Camp Blanding sun and who welcomed me and

made me feel at home in the ICLRT. Extra special thanks are reserved for Gil Pendley at

Visual Instrument Corporation for product support above and beyond all reason. I would

also like to thank Dr. V.B. Lebedev of BIFO Company for his patience, his hard work,

and for an extraordinarily long-distance house call.

Finally, of course, I must thank my fiance Siddhary for putting up with me and

uprooting her life to move to Gainesville with me. Without her support and understanding

this would all have been impossible.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......... ...................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ................... ............ vii

LIST OF FIGURES ................... ............ viii

ABSTRACT ............. .... ........................ xii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................... .......... 1

2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND INSTRUMENTATION .............. 9

2.1 Research Facility .. .............. .......... 9
2.2 Equipment .................. .............. 12
2.2.1 Rockets and Launcher ................... .. 12
2.2.2 Optical and Current Measuring Instruments .......... 16
2.2.3 Data Transmission .......... .............. 29
2.2.4 Data Digitization and Storage .......... ...... .. 29
2.2.5 Experiment Control ................... .... 31

3 DATA PRESENTATION ................... ......... 36

3.1 Event F0220 ................... .......... 37
3.2 Event F0301 ......... ............. ....... 37
3.3 Event F0302 ................... .......... 42
3.4 Event F0317 .......... .............. ....... 50
3.5 Event F0336 .......... .............. ....... 53
3.6 Event N0301 .......... .......... ......... 53
3.7 Event F0341 .......... .......... ......... 62
3.8 Event F0342 ................ . . ..... 62
3.9 Event F0345 ........ ....... ............... 64
3.10 Event N0302 ............... . . ..... 66
3.11 Event N0303 ............... . . ..... 66
3.12 Event N0304 ............. . . ... 66
3.13 Event F0347 ................ . . ..... 71
3.14 Event F0348 ................ . . ..... 71
3.15 Event F0350 .............. . . .. 74









4 DATA ANALYSES .......................

4.1 Optical Propagation Characteristics in Event F0336 ..
4.1.1 Measurement of Optical Parameters ......
4.1.2 Current Measurements .. ...........
4.1.3 Comparison of Optical and Current Waveforms
4.2 The Initial Current Variation .. ...........
4.2.1 Event F0220 ...................
4.2.2 Event F0301 .. ................
4.2.3 Event F0336 ....................
4.2.4 Event F0341 .. ................
4.2.5 Event F0345 ...................
4.2.6 Event F0226 ...................
4.2.7 Event F0348 ...................
4.2.8 Event F0350 ...................
4.2.9 Event F0331 .. ................


5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ....... . . ... 136


6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH


REFERENCES ................... . . ... 148


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .. ..............















LIST OF TABLES
Table page

2-1 Structures at the ICLRT, Camp Blndii. FL ..... . . . 9

2-2 GPS Locations at the ICLRT .................. ....... .. 12

3-1 Optical Dataset, Summers 2002 and 2003 .................. ..36

3-2 Event F0317 Slit Tube Angles and Heights . . ... 50

3-3 Event F0336 Slit Tube Angles and Heights . . ... 53

3-4 Event F0347 Slit Tube Angles and Heights . . ... 71

4-1 Optically-Measured Propagation Speeds, Event F0336 . . ... 87

4-2 Event F0336 Optical Waveform Characteristics . . ..... 88

4-3 Event F0336 Current and Optical Waveform Parameters . . ... 91

4-4 Initial Stage Events with Zero Current Intervals (ZCI) . . ... 101

















Figure

1-1

1-2

1-3


LIST OF FIGURES


Boys' Rotating-Drum Camer

First Stroke and Subsequent

Typical Sequence during Cla


2-1 Research Facility Diagram

2-2 Tower Launcher . .

2-3 Bucket Truck Launcher .

2-4 Photodiode Tube Diagram .

2-5 Photodiode Preamplifier Cir

2-6 Optical Slit Rack Assembly

2-7 K004M Multi-Framing Mod

2-8 BIFO K004M Block Diagr

3-1 F0220 Incident Currents L

3-2 F0220 Incident Currents H

3-3 F0220 Summed Currents, Hi

3-4 F0220 Streak Record ICV

3-5 F0301 Incident Currents L

3-6 F0301 Incident Currents H

3-7 F0301 Summed Currents, Hi

3-8 Event F0301 Streak Record

3-9 F0302 Incident Current .

3-10 K004M Image, Event F0302

3-11 Event F0317 Strike Intercept

3-12 K004M Image, Event F0317


page

ra ........... ............. 2

Strokes in Natural Lightning . . 4

issically-Triggered Lightning Flashes . 7

... . . 10

. . ... . 14

. ... . . 16

... . . 2 1

cuits .................. .. 21

.. . . . 23

e Display Patterns . . . 25

am ................... .. .. 26

)w Gain ...... . . .. 38

igh Gain ...... . . .. 39

gh and Low Gains .... . . 40

and Strokes 1, 2 and 3. . . .. 41

)w Gain ...... . . .. 43

igh Gain ...... . . .. 44

gh and Low Gains . . 45

- Initial Stage and Strokes 1,2, and 3. . ... 46

. ... . . 47

... . . 49

tor Current Record . . . 51

... . . 52









3-13 Event F0317 Photodiode Array Records .... . . 54

3-14 Event F0336 Incident Currents ................... .... .. 55

3-15 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 1 . . . ..... 56

3-16 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 2 . . . 57

3-17 F0336 Photodiode Data Stroke 4 ................ .. .. 58

3-18 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 5 . . . 59

3-19 F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 6 . . . 60

3-20 Event N0301 Photodiode Array Record ... . . .. 61

3-21 Event F0341 Incident Current .................. ...... .. 62

3-22 F0341 Optical Streak Record .................. ...... .. 63

3-23 F0345 Incident Current Record .................. ..... .. 64

3-24 Event F0345 Current Record Expanded View of IS . . ... 65

3-25 F0345 ICV Streak Record ............... ..... .. 65

3-26 Event N0302 Photodiode Array Record ... . . .. 67

3-27 Event N0303 Photodiode Array Record ... . . .. 68

3-28 Event N0304 Stroke 1 Photodiode Array Data . . . 69

3-29 Event N0304 Stroke 2 Photodiode Array Data . . . 70

3-30 Event F0347 Incident Current Records ... . . .. 72

3-31 Event F0347 Photodiode Array Record, Stroke 1. . . .. 73

3-32 Event F0348 Incident Current Record .... . . .... 74

3-33 Event F0348 Streak Record .............. .. .. 75

3-34 Event F0350 Incident Current .................. ...... .. 77

3-35 Event F0350 Initial Stage Current Detail . . . 78

3-36 Event F0350 Photodiode Array Record ... . . .. 79

3-37 Event F0350 Streak Record Zero Current Interval . . .... 80

3-38 Event F0350 Streak Record Initial Stage Current Segments . ... 81

4-1 F0336 Segmented Current Record ................ .. .. 83










F0336 Photodiode Array Data, Stroke 1 .. ................

F0336 Stroke 4 Comparison of Filtered and Unfiltered Data ........

Event F0336 Return Stroke Wavefront Heights vs. Time ..........

Event F0336 Peak Optical Intensity vs. Peak Current .. ..........

Event F0336 Risetimes vs. Peak Currents .. ...............

Event F0336 Correlation of Return Stroke Speed with Peak Current .....

Event F0336 Stroke 1 Channel-Base Current vs. Optical Intensity at 9 m


4-9 Event F0336 Stroke 2 Current Waveform vs. Optical Waveform .

4-10 Event F0336 Stroke 4 Current Waveform vs. Optical Waveform .

4-11 Event F0336 Stroke 5 Current Waveform vs. Optical Waveform .

4-12 Event F0336 R Stroke 6 Current Waveform vs. Optical Waveform .

4-13 Event F0220 ICV Detail ............. .......

4-14 Event F0220 Streak Record Corresponding to ICV . . .

4-15 Event F0220 Streak Record Intensity Profile ICV . . .

4-16 Event F0220 ICV Detail Current vs. Streak Record Profile . .

4-17 Event F0220 ICV Streak Record Enhanced . . ...

4-18 Event F0301 ICV Detail .............. .... .......

4-19 Event F0301 Streak Record Corresponding to the ICV . . .

4-20 Event F0336 Current Record ICV Expansion . . ..

4-21 Event F0336 Current Small Pulse in ZCI . . .....

4-22 Event F0341 ICV Detail ................. ... .......

4-23 Event F0341 Streak Record Zero Current Interval . . .

4-24 Event F0341 ICV Streak Profile Superimposed Upon Current Record

4-25 Event F0341 Streak Record Final ICV Pulse Detail . . .

4-26 Event F0345 Streak Record ICV, Enhanced . . ...

4-27 Event F0226 Video Record Field One ... . . ...

4-28 Event F0226 Video Record Fields Two and Three . . .


. .. 98

. .. 99

. 100

. 103

. 104

. 105

. 106

. 108

. 109

. 110

. 111

. 112

. 114

. 115

. 116

S. 118

. 120

. 122

. 123









-29 Event F0226 Current Record Initial Stage . . . .... 125

-30 Event F0226 Current Record ICV ....... . . ... 126

-31 Event F0348 Current Record ICV ..... . . ... 127

-32 Event F0348 Streak Record ICV ............ . ... 129

-33 Event F0350 Current Record Zero Current Interval . . ... 131

-34 Event F0350 Streak Camera Record ICV . . . 132

-35 Event F0350 ICV Electric Field and Base Current . . ... 134

-36 Event F0331 ICV Electric Field and Base Current . . ... 135

-1 K004M Suggested Trigger Control Circuit .. . . . 144















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF
ROCKET-TRIGGERED LIGHTNING
AT CAMP BLENDING, FLORIDA

By

Robert Christian Olsen, III

December 2003

Chair: Dr. Vladimir A. Rakov
Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering

Correlated optical and current records of rocket-triggered lightning are presented.

Correlated streak camera records and current records are presented for 6 flashes, with

a total of 6 Initial Stages (IS) and 8 strokes. Correlated photodiode array and current

records are presented for three events with a total of 7 strokes, and one event with a

segment of IS. The use of an image converter camera for obtaining optical images of

lightning processes is introduced. Leader and return stroke speeds for 5 strokes are

calculated based on photodiode array records. Leader speeds are found to vary between

8.4 x 106 m s 1 and 4.8 x 107 m s-1. Return stroke speeds are found to vary between

1.5 x 108 m s 1 and 1.8 x 108 m s 1. The correlation coefficient between the peak current

amplitude and the peak optical intensity using the photodiode array is found to be 0.99 for

five return strokes. Strong positive correlation is found between the optical risetime and

the peak current and between the current risetime and the peak current for 5 return strokes

using the photodiode array.

The Zero Current Interval within the Initial Current Variation, which is associated

with vaporization of the triggering wire, is examined for 5 correlated streak camera









and current records. The pulse which re-establishes current flow after triggering wire

destruction is observed to have similarities to return strokes, including the unequivocal

presence of dart-leader-like processes in the optical records of four cases, in support

of the conceptual picture of the ICV proposed by V.A. Rakov. The amplitude of these

return-stroke-like pulses is observed to be typically on the order of 1 kA, about an order

of magnitude lower than for subsequent return stroke pulses. Four of the 5 cases were

shown to have newly discovered, relatively small pulses ranging from 50-250 A, within

the Zero Current Interval, which appear to have been unsuccessful attempts to re-establish

current. These pulses are observed both in the current record and in the optical record.

The risetime, generally on the order of 1 ps, and half-peak width, on the order of tens

of microseconds, of these pulses are also similar to those of return strokes found in the

literature. A sequence of events is observed for the cutoff and re-establishment of current

during the ICV, including the observation that re-establishment of luminosity in the

upward positive leader channel above the top of the wire does not occur simultaneously

with the sharp return-stroke-like pulses, but simultaneously with slower pulses occurring

hundreds of microseconds to milliseconds after the return-stroke-like pulse.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Man's understanding of lightning began, as with many natural phenomena, with

the attempts of religion to ascribe a cause and a purpose to lightning discharges. Many

ancient mythologies attribute the generation of lightning to their deities, often as a

weapon or as a sign of displeasure. Modem investigations of lightning have yielded the

fit ll\\ in still incomplete, picture.

Lightning is, at the most basic level, an electrical discharge. The connection

between electricity and lightning had been noticed before Benjamin Franklin performed

his famous kite experiment. In fact, Franklin was not the first person to conduct this

experiment. In the last of a series of seminal letters to Peter Collinson, FRS, he proposed

an experiment to prove that thunderstorms contain electricity. This experiment was soon

afterward performed in Marly-la-Ville, France, on May 10, 1752 under the supervision

of Thomas-Francois Dalibard. Dalibard's experiment drew sparks from a long iron rod,

insulated from the ground by wine bottles. Franklin himself drew sparks from a kite string

in June 1752, after the Marly experiment, but before he had heard of the experiment's

success. In the same letter to Collinson, Franklin proposed the concept of the lightning

rod in essentially the form in which it is used today [Schonland 1956; Krider 1996].

Franklin also determined experimentally that the main cloud charge responsible for the

electric field at ground level was negative [Schonland 1956].

The advent of photography spurred key advances in the study of lightning. Hansel

(1883), Kayser (1885), Hoffert (1890), and Walter (1902,1903,1910,1912,1918), and

Larsen(1905) used displacement of recorded images to show that a single lightning

flash can consist of multiple events in the same spatial path, and to view separately

the first leader and return stroke portions of an event [Schonland 1956; Jordan 1990;













Rotating
Film Drum











Direction of
Film Rotation


/
a


Figure 1-1: Boys' Rotating-Drum Camera
Adapted from Schonland [1956].

Rakov and Uman 2003]. Sir Charles V. Boys developed a camera in 1900 known as the

Boys camera, which employed two rotating lenses in front of a stationary film plate.

This allowed for the camera to remain fixed during the lightning flash and still utilize

the image displacement due to the motion of the rotating lenses for the characterization

of lightning. Boys himself achieved little success with his camera, but in the hands of

Schonland, Malan, Collens, Halliday, and others in South Africa [Schonland 1956] the

study of lightning was again revolutionized. An improved version of the Boys camera

used a loop of film and stationary lenses as shown in Figure 1-1. With this camera,

researchers were able to measure leader and return stroke speeds and to more accurately

characterize the propagation characteristics of first leaders, subsequent leaders, and return

strokes in negative cloud-to-ground lightning.


4

lens



prisms


lens

b c


\









Techniques for measuring the currents in lightning strokes first concentrated on peak

currents. Pockels, in 1900, measured the residual magnetism left in samples of basalt to

estimate the peak current from nearby lightning flashes Rakov and Uman [2003]. One

early researcher who reported direct recording of time-varying current waveforms due

to lightning strokes was McEachron. He reported simultaneous incident current records

and Boys camera records of lightning striking the Empire State Building [McEachron

1939]. He noted long, low-level continuing currents associated with continuing luminous

phenomena, and concluded that all luminous phenomena in lightning strokes indicated

current flow.

A lightning event is referred to as a lightning "flash", and can either occur within

cloud boundaries or between a cloud and the surface of the Earth. Of the latter type,

approximately 90% transport negative charge from a cloud to ground. These are known

as downward negative CG flashes. Upward negative, upward positive, and downward

positive flashes are also possible. Upward flashes are thought to occur only from tall

objects or moderately tall objects atop mountain. Downward positive flashes account

for approximately 10% of all downward flashes, with increased likelihood during winter

storms and in the dissipation stages of any storms [Rakov and Uman 2003].

The downward negative flash originates from a thundercloud containing oppositely

charged regions. The typical structure includes a large region of positive charge in the

upper part of the cloud, a large region of negative charge in the lower part of the cloud,

and a small region of positive charge at the base of the cloud. An initial breakdown

process whose nature is not well understood begins within the cloud. A stepped leader

begins to propagate from the cloud toward the ground. This leader forms a conductive

plasma channel which transports negative charge toward ground. The channel progresses

downward in a series of steps which are typically spaced some tens of meters apart in

time, and which are typically some tens of meters in length, as seen in Figure 1-2(a). As

the leader approaches ground level, the increased electric field causes upward-connecting




























Time
(a) (b) \


Figure 1-2: First Stroke and Subsequent Strokes in Natural Lightning
(a) Stepped leader and first return stroke. (b) Dart leader and subsequent stroke. Note that
the downward propagation and upward reflection of the return stroke is not shown for
simplicity.


leaders to form. Upward connecting leaders are often initiated from multiple objects near

the downward-progressing stepped leader. Some tens of meters above the termination

point, an upward connecting leader intersects the downward-progressing stepped leader.

This is the beginning of the return stroke.

The connection of the upward connecting leader and the stepped leader causes

negative charge which has been deposited in the leader channel to flow through the

completed channel from the cloud to ground. The onset of current flow is typically very

abrupt, with risetime measured in the microseconds. The impulse of current initiation

propagates upward from the termination point, neutralizing leader charge along the

channel and up into the cloud. This is known as the first return stroke. The return stroke

waveform also propagates downward from the termination point, but reaches ground level

very quickly and is reflected upward again, due to the reduced resistance of the channel









after passage of the upward-propagating component [Rakov 1998]. The return stroke

waveform, as measured at the termination point, typically rises to a peak of 14 80 kA in

a period on the order of milliseconds. The wavefront propagates upward at a speed which

is typically between 1 x 108 and 2 x 108 m s1 The current in the return stroke decays to

half of peak value in a period of some tens of microseconds [Rakov and Uman 2003].

In the numerical majority of lightning flashes, more than one stroke occurs. All

strokes occurring after the first are referred to as subsequent strokes. In a subsequent

stroke, the leader is often characterized by a lack of stepping and an increased speed

of downward propagation, as seen in Figure 1-2(b). This is referred to as a dart leader.

Typical dart leader propagation speeds are on the order of 5 x 106 to 2 x 107 m s-1. In

many cases, especially second strokes, subsequent leaders exhibit some stepping behavior

and are known as dart-stepped leaders. Propagation speeds for dart-stepped leaders are

slower than for dart leaders but faster than for stepped leaders, typically on the order of

106 ms 1

Subsequent return strokes typically propagate upward at speeds similar to those of

first return strokes. The peak current in a subsequent return stroke is typically lower than

that in a first stroke, usually in the range between 4.6 and 30 kA[Rakov and Uman 2003].

Following a stroke, a so-called continuing current may flow from cloud to ground

in the channel formed by the stroke. This is more likely to occur in subsequent strokes

than in first strokes. The current is usually on the order of tens to hundreds of amperes,

and lasts for some tens to hundreds of milliseconds. This continuing current can transfer

relatively large amounts of charge, and thus is often responsible for more damage than the

(much greater in amplitude) return stroke. Relatively short variations in the continuing

current are referred to as M-components after D.J. Malan, who first reported them based

on optical observations [Malan and Collens 1937]. These are visible as relatively slow

variations in the optical intensity of a return stroke.









The exact time and location of an individual lightning flash is impossible to predict,

which makes detailed study of the lightning process rather difficult. A technique which

has been used to circumvent this difficulty is rocket-triggering of lightning. The first

rocket-triggered lightning experiments took place in the waters off of the west coast of

Florida by M.M. Newman [Rakov 1999] and over land by Fieux et al. [1975]. Relatively

small rockets, 1 m or so in length, are launched vertically toward a suitably-charged

thundercloud. In so-called "classical" triggering, a grounded wire (typically about 0.2 mm

in diameter) is trailed behind the rocket. The extension of this grounded wire toward the

thundercloud causes field enhancement at the top of the wire. When the rocket reaches

a sufficient height and speed, an upward positive leader (UPL) is initiated from the

top of the wire. This upward positive leader propagates at a speed of about 105 m s 1,

forming a plasma channel and effectively depositing positive charge upon it (See Figure

1-3). This establishes an Initial Continuing Current (ICC) from cloud to ground, which

has a typical duration of some hundreds of milliseconds, has magnitude reaching some

hundreds of amperes, and which transports some tens of coulombs of negative charge

to ground. The UPL and ICC together make up the Initial Stage (IS) of rocket triggered

lightning. During the ICC, the triggering wire is vaporized due to integrated heating and

a plasma channel is formed in its place. Wang et al. [1999a] found that in 24 of 37 cases

studied, a pronounced current variation occurred near the beginning of the IS. In 22 of

the 24 cases this Initial Current Variation (ICV) involved a pronounced reduction in the

current flow over several hundred microseconds, and is followed immediately or after a

period of up to several hundred microseconds by a pronounced current pulse, typically

reaching about 1 kA. The pronounced current drop is thought to be associated with the

wire vaporization process. Additional pulses after the ICV are referred to as ICC pulses,

and share similarities with M-components. After the IS current ceases to flow, leader and

return stroke sequences occur in many rocket-triggered events. These strokes are very

similar in character to natural subsequent strokes.













/ 107 ms



+ /
+ I
~300 m-


2x102 m s'

I I" m 1


Figure 1-3: Typical Sequence during Classically-Triggered Lightning Flashes
The rocket, trailing a wire, is launched upward with a typical velocity of about 200 m s1
As the rocket reaches about 300 m, an upward positive leader (UPL) is initiated from the
top of the wire. Current flows from the cloud to the ground for some hundreds of ms
during the so-called initial stage (IS). A period of zero current follows the IS. A dart
leader propagates downward from the cloud along the channel left by the IS. When it
reaches ground level, a return stroke propagates back up the channel. All processes shown
effectively transfer negative charge from the cloud to ground.


The technique known as altitude triggering attempts to reproduce downward stepped

leaders and first strokes similar to those occurring in natural flashes. The continuous wire

typically used in classical triggering techniques is replaced with a wire which contains

a non-conductive section. The section of the wire nearest the rocket is conductive and

a section below that is non-conductive, typically some hundreds of meters in length.

As the rocket approaches the thundercloud, an upward positive leader is initiated from

the top of the conductive section and a downward stepped leader from the bottom of

the conductive section. In order to increase the likelihood of termination at the desired

location, a third, conductive section often is placed between the ground and the bottom

of the non-conductive section. A process occurs in the non-conductive section which is

similar to a relatively short (vertically) stepped leader/return stroke sequence, followed by

a process similar to the ICC in classically-triggered flashes.







8

All of the records referenced in this paper which contain both optical and current

records were obtained during classically-triggered lightning flashes at Camp BLinding.

Florida during the summers of 2002 and 2003.















CHAPTER 2
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND INSTRUMENTATION

2.1 Research Facility

The International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) is located on

the grounds of Camp Blndin.i. a Florida Army National Guard base near Starke, FL.

The research site extends over about 1 square kilometer of sand, scrub, and young growth

forest. Airspace over the site is restricted and controlled by Camp Blanding range control,

ensuring that no airborne vehicles are endangered by rockets used in the experiments

performed at the ICLRT.

A variety of structures have been erected during eleven years of research at the

ICLRT. Structures of interest for the scope of this discussion are listed in Table 2-1. A

diagram illustrating the relative location of these structures within the research facility is

included as Figure 2-1.












Table 2-1: Structures at the ICLRT, Camp Blndini. FL

Structure Purpose
Office Building Offices, experiment control, cameras
Launch Control Control, data storage, cameras
SATTLIF Control, data storage, cameras
Launch Tower Rocket launch, data collection, cameras
Vertical Configuration Power Line Data collection, test object
Bucket Truck Launcher Mobile Rocket Launcher

















N




Pole 15

\


Vertical Configuration
Power Distribution Line


Horizontal Configuration Buct
Power Distribution Line Bucket Truck
Launcher


Figure 2-1: Research Facility Diagram


P












The Office Building (OB) contains office space for researchers, a conference room, a

machine shop / workshop area, and laboratory space for the operation of experiments and

data gathering apparati. See Figure 2-1 for a diagram detailing the relative placement of

the office building within the research facility.

The Launch Control Trailer is a facility which contains experiment control equip-

ment such as rocket launcher control, a computer system for the control of measurement

devices; data digitization and storage equipment such as oscilloscopes; and various

cameras. During Summers 2002 and 2003, this was the primary control center for all

rocket-launching and data collection. The Launch Control Trailer is located near the

center of the research facility, to the north side of the Tower Launcher (see Figure 2-1).

SATTLIF is a self-contained portable launch facility built by Sandia National

Laboratories for rocket-triggered lightning experiments. It contains rocket launcher

control equipment, experiment control equipment, data storage instrumentation, and

various cameras. The SATTLIF control equipment can be used independently of the

equipment in the Launch Control trailer (see Figure 2-1). During Summers 2002 and

2003, SATTLIF was not used for launching rockets or for data collection.

The Launch Tower is a wooden structure with a multiple-tube rocket launcher placed

on the top level. The level below the top is used for the placement of various cameras.

The Vertical Configuration Power Line is a 15-pole, 850 m section of 3 phase

power distribution line with vertically arranged phase conductors and multiply-grounded

neutral. It is terminated at either end by a 400 n resistor. The line is heavily instrumented,

and is used for both direct-injection and induced current measurements. Another

power line which runs parallel to the Vertical Configuration Power Line, the Horizontal

Configuration Power Line was not used in 2002 and 2003. Both power lines are oriented

from west to east, roughly bisecting the research facility (see Figure 2-1).

The Bucket Truck Launcher is a mobile, truck-mounted rocket launching structure.

It can be placed in any location within the research facility, and rockets can be launched









Table 2-2: GPS Locations at the ICLRT


GPS Location Distance to OB
Location Differential Average Calculated Measured
Office 82002'10.22965648" W Om Om
Building 2956/40.975875941"N
Tower 82001'55.305139631" W 476 m
Launcher 2956'32.638234207"N
Pole 4 82002'03.71087928" W 307.2 m 264 m
2956/32.80354694"N
Pole 15 82001'38.39646" W 893.5 m
2956/32.36989899"N


from it via remote control. During Summer 2003, several optical records were obtained

from flashes launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher near Poles 4 and 15 on the

Vertical Configuration Power Line.

Most of the instrumentation used in optical experiments discussed here was situated

in the Office Building. Consequently, the distances from the Office Building (OB) to

the termination points of the lightning events discussed are crucial for the measurement

of many parameters associated with those experiments. Two GPS surveys were used

for location of various structures including launching facilities: a Differential GPS

(DGPS) survey performed in 1998 (?) by Dave Crawford, and a long-term averaged GPS

survey (AGPS) performed by Rob Olsen in 2003. Additionally, a consumer grade laser

rangefinder was used to find some distances directly. Selected relevant locations and

distances are shown in Table 2-2. The expected error in the GPS locations is 10 m.

2.2 Equipment

2.2.1 Rockets and Launcher

Rockets

Rockets used at the ICLRT are small, fiberglass, solid-fueled rockets approximately

1 meter in length. The nose cone of the rocket contains a parachute which is released

when the motor's fuel is exhausted. A spool of wire is mounted coaxially at the bottom of

the rocket. The wire used is copper, has a diameter of 0.2 mm, and is covered in Kevlar









for mechanical strength. Total length of wire on the spool is typically 750 m. Vertical

velocity of the rocket is designed to be about 100 m s to 200 m s when the rocket

reaches a suitable height for triggering.

Launchers

Two rocket launcher structures were employed.

The Tower Launcher (Figure 2-2) is an 11 m tall wooden tower, located near the

center of the ICLRT grounds (see Figure 2-1). A platform located immediately below

the top level of the tower allows access to camera boxes located on the tower. A rocket

launcher consisting of several aluminum tubes is mounted on the top level of the tower.

The unit is mounted on fiberglass legs. The top of each tube is about 2 m above the

platform atop the tower. Each tube can contain a single rocket. The trailing end of the

wire spool is connected mechanically and electrically to the launcher frame. Operators

located in the Launch Control Trailer initiate the launch of a rocket by sending a pulse of

high pressure air over a pneumatic line. The pulse closes a contact, connecting a battery

across the leads of a "squib" igniter placed in the exhaust orifice of the rocket motor. This

"squib" ignites the motor and the rocket accelerates out of the tube.

The Tower Launcher, in 2002 and 2003, was configured to allow for incident

lightning current either to be shunted to ground or to be injected into nearby structures

such as the power lines. When the currents are to be shunted to the ground a section of

copper braid, typically 2 cm wide, is connected from the aluminum launcher through a

Current Viewing Resistor (CVR) and thence directly down to a system of grounding rods

at the base of the tower. When lightning is triggered in this configuration, all incident

current flows through the copper braid into the grounding system at the base of the tower.

When currents are to be injected directly into the power line or other test object,

the section of copper braid between the tower launcher and the grounding system is

replaced by a segment of commercially-available "magnet" wire, which is solid-conductor

enamel-covered copper wire. Wires with both 0.4 mm and 0.25 mm diameter are used
















Strike
Interceptor
/

lRocket
S~' Launcher


Figure 2-2: Tower Launcher









at various times. A non-conductive polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pole is placed vertically at

each corner of the tower platform, reaching approximately 3 m above the top level of the

tower. Copper braid is suspended from the tops of the PVC poles, forming a three-sided

horizontal square that is known as the Strike Interceptor (SI). The three-sided square

formed by the interceptor is centered approximately above the Tower Launcher. The

interceptor is connected with a section of copper braid to a shielded metal box (known

as a Hoffman box, after the manufacturer) located between the tower and the power line

or other test object. This Hoffman box contains a current-viewing resistor (CVR) and a

fiber-optic data transmitter apparatus. Copper braid is then connected from the Hoffman

box to the test object.

When lightning is triggered to this configuration, the initial stage current flows

through the aluminum launcher (since the triggering wire is connected to it), through

the CVR attached to the launcher, and then through the thin copper wire connecting the

launcher to the grounding system. The "grounding" copper wire below the launcher is

vaporized much like the triggering wire trailing from the rocket, making an approximately

10 m gap. Subsequent leaders find that the launcher is ungrounded, and are intercepted

by the U-shaped (open-square) interceptor grounded via the test object. Usually, all

subsequent strokes terminate on the interceptor and are then injected into the power

line or other test object. For most experiments in which direct injection of lightning

subsequent stroke currents is desired, the termination points of the initial stage and the

return strokes differ by about 2 meters.

The Bucket Truck Launcher (Figure 2-3) is a portable launching facility. Six

aluminum rocket launcher tubes, about 3 meters long, are mounted in the bucket at

the end of the articulated arm on a truck formerly used for power line maintenance. A

pneumatic trigger assembly similar to that employed on the Tower Launcher is used on

the truck launcher as well. In this case, however, the initiating high pressure air pulse is

released from a high pressure air tank mounted on the truck, and is initiated via computer






























Figure 2-3: Bucket Truck Launcher


control over a wireless radiofrequency data link between the Launch Control Trailer

and the Bucket Truck Launcher. The height of the launcher can be varied using the

hydraulic power of the articulated arm. A Hoffman box containing a CVR and fiber-optic

transmitter apparatus is mounted next to the rocket tubes. The trailing wires are grounded

to the aluminum launcher tubes, which are in turn connected to the CVR with 2 cm

copper braid. The other end of the CVR is connected via copper braid to ground rods at

the rear of the truck. Typically, three to four ground rods are driven into the ground at

each new location for the Bucket Truck Launcher.

2.2.2 Optical and Current Measuring Instruments

Optical Streak

The streak camera is particularly well-suited to lightning research.

The streak camera used in the collection of data described herein was a Hytax II

linear streak film camera manufactured by Visual Instrument Corp and patterned after

the design of a similar Redlake camera. It is designed to use 35 mm film, on daylight-

loadable reels. The length of film on the reel was 500 ft (152.4 m) in all cases discussed









herein. Film transport speed is adjustable. For all data referenced in this discussion, the

film transport speed was set to 125 ft s1 (38.1 m s 1), so that the entire length of film

is exposed over a period of approximately 4.5 to 5 seconds including the time required

to reach full operating speed. A built-in timing generator drives a light emitting diode

positioned near the upper edge of the film path. The frequency of this generator was set to

5 kHz, so that a time "tick" is exposed on the film edge every 200 ps. The duty cycle is on

the order of 5%, and the stated frequency stability of the generator is 0.01%.

A Nikon 50 mm lens is employed. The (vertical) height of the frame through which

objects are image is nearly the same as the film (vertical) width, and the (horizontal)

width of the frame exceeds the (vertical) film width. A horizontally narrower image

frame, commonly known as a slit, allows for improved time resolution, as the effects

of object geometry on image shape are reduced in the horizontal direction. However, a

horizontally narrow slit also has the potential to block significant sections of the object

from being imaged. The relatively wide opening in this camera allows for a wider field of

view than a camera with a narrow slit.

Facing from the camera to the test object, film transport in the Hytax II is from right

to left. When the developed film is viewed with the apparent geometry of the channel

oriented correctly as compared to a still image of the event, time increases from right to

left as well. This is confusing to many readers. Accordingly, all streak images shown in

this discussion will reverse the image about a vertical axis, so that time increases from left

to right. This means that all geometrical features in the streak image are mirrored when

compared to any available still photographs of the same event.

A similar phenomenon was utilized in the original Boys' camera to measure the

speed of leaders and return strokes. Two lenses were focused upon film placed in a

rotating drum, but the images were inverted compared to each other as shown in Figure

1-1. One of the images would have been oriented so that when the geometry of the image

matched a still photograph, time increased from left to right. The other image, from









the opposite side of the drum, would have been mirrored horizontally and time would

have increased from right to left. By measuring the distance between features on the two

images, a measurement of temporal displacement and thus of speed can be made.

Two types of film were used during Summer 2002 and Summer 2003. Several rolls

of Kodak Linagraph Shellburst remained from previous experiments, and these were used

first. The film consists of Kodak's 2476 emulsion on a thick Estar-AH base. The film is

panchromatic with extended red response. The equivalent exposure speed of the film is

approximately 125ASA, dependent on processing.

Linagraph Shellburst is no longer available. A replacement film was suggested by

Kodak and by Gil Pendley at Visual Instrument Corp. Kodak Hawkeye SO-033 Traffic

Surveillance film is a panchromatic film with extended red response on a thick Estar-AH

base. The equivalent exposure speed is approximately 400ASA, dependent on processing.

The film was described as being a higher-performance replacement for the Linagraph

Shellburst previously employed. Gil Pendley at Visual Instrument Corp agreed to broker

the purchase of three 1500 foot rolls of Hawkeye SO-033 on bare hubs and respool the

film onto the proper 500 foot reels. This film was used for the latter part of Summer 2003.

All streak images discussed herein were converted to digital form using an Epson

Perfection 3200 Photo scanner, connected to a PC via IEEE-1394 (Firewire). The

transparency adapter was employed to ensure that all scanned images were transmissive

in nature. Maximum scan resolution of this scanner is 3200 dpi (126 px mm 1). Scan

resolution varied with area of interest, but all scans resulted in uncompressed .tiff (Tagged

Image File Format) files at 16-bit grayscale depth.

Measurements of streak images were performed with Matlab R13 Student Version,

the Signal Processing toolbox, and the Image Processing toolbox. Distances in the

vertical direction and time intervals in the horizontal direction can be measured by

converting pixels counts to time or distance. As both the scanner and the streak camera

are calibrated in inches, the simplest and most accurate calculation for temporal interval









will also be in terms of inches and feet:


3200 pxin x12in f x 125fs1 = 4.8x 106 pxs-
1
4 p = 208.3nspx-
4.8 x 106 pxs-

where "px" represents a single pixel. This suggests that every pixel counted in the

horizontal direction is equivalent to 208 nanoseconds of time interval. Error in the film

transport speed or in the mechanical resolution of the scanner will affect this value.

Fortunately, this relationship can also be measured using the timing marks imaged on the

film edge, which have a stated accuracy of 0.01%.

For vertical measurements, the exact spatial distance between two features on the

original film can be calculated:

3200 px in-1
25.4 m = 125.98 pxmm
25.4 mm in-1
1 1
= 7.9375 /m px-
125.98 px mm-

Each pixel represents an area on the original film approximately 8 pm x 8 pm. This is

comparable in size to the grain size of many black and white films.

The size of an image on the film can be used to determine the size of the original

object if the lens focal length and distance to the object are both known:

(H\ h\
arctan = arctan (2)

H h
2D 2f
D
H = h-
f

where h represents image height, D represents distance from lens to object, and f

represents focal length. The image height measured in pixels can be converted to object

height in meters if the distance, focal length, and scan resolution R are known:











D
H = h-
f
H px D
H-
Rf

Accuracies of the calculations for image height and time interval are sensitive to

variations in accuracy of distance to object, lens focal length, and film velocity.

Photodiode Array

A vertical array of 4 PIN photodiode optical detectors was employed during Summer

2003 for the characterization of lightning strokes. Each photodiode was mounted

in a rectangular aluminum tube as shown in Figure 2-4 whose interior was painted

matte black to prevent reflections. The inner cross-section dimensions of the tube were

measured to be 2.75 in (69.85 mm) wide and 0.75 in (19.05 mm) tall. The diode was

situated at one end of the tube, with the sensor surface oriented toward the opposite end

of the tube. An end cap consisting of a bare printed circuit board clad in copper on both

sides was mounted at the opposite end. A 1 mm wide slit was cut horizontally in this

end cap, extending the entire width of the tube. The initial design used a 2 foot length

of tubing (-0.61 m), but this was shortened to 1 foot (0.30 m) after the first dataset was

collected.

All diodes were EG&G C30807 N-type silicon PIN photodiodes. The spectral

response is specified in terms of the 10% response wavelengths, which are rated as 400

nm and 1100 nm. Signals from the diodes were relayed to the oscilloscope via a passive

connection (Figure 2-5(a)) or an active amplifier (Figure 2-5(b)).

The passive circuit shown in Figure 2-5(a) used a 45 V battery to supply reverse bias

and a 1 kni resistor as the diode load. However, the input impedance of the oscilloscope

was effectively in parallel with the 1 kn resistor so that the effective load was 50 n. This

resulted in a circuit in which the transimpedance gain (from photocarrier current to output

voltage) was very low, but the high frequency roll-off due to RC time constants was at a













Photodiode
C -


Field of View


Rectangular Aluminum Tube /


Photodiode


Field of View


Circuit Board


Figure 2-4: Photodiode Tube Diagram


45 V


(b)




50 0
(scope)


45 V


Figure 2-5: Photodiode Preamplifier Circuits
(a) Passively-coupled photodiode. (b) Actively-coupled photodiode circuit.


Slit

1/









very high frequency. One data set was collected in this configuration. The output level

was very low, and the signal-to-noise ratio was very poor. The decision was made to

replace the passive circuit described above with an active circuit.

The active circuit was designed around a high-speed operational amplifier configured

in transimpedance mode. The original design used an Analog Devices AD8058 dual

325 MHz op amp, but during testing the device proved to be insufficiently durable. It

was replaced with an Analog Devices AD8034 dual 80 MHz FET-input op amp, which

had the same pinout and was suitable for replacement without requiring a redesign of

the circuit. The inverting input of the op amp was a "virtual ground" due to the stable

reference voltage at the non-inverting input. The impedance seen by the photodiode was

thus very close to zero. This moved the high frequency roll-off point higher in frequency,

and improved the risetime of the circuit. The current flowing in the photodiode forced

an equal current to flow through the 10 ki feedback resistor. The output voltage is the

product of the current and the feedback resistance, although the waveform polarity is

inverted. Figure 2-5(b) shows a simplified version of the circuit used. The final version

of the circuit employed an additional inverting gain stage (not shown) which restored the

correct waveform polarity and provided a gain of 2. A 50 i was placed in series with

the output for impedance matching to the coaxial cable and to provide the op amp with a

higher impedance load. The gain of 2 served to restore the amplitude lost in the divider

formed by the series resistor and the oscilloscope input.

The actively amplified configuration exhibited faster response and improved output

magnitude compared to the passively coupled version. On July 19, 2003, the performance

of the active and passive versions were compared simultaneously using two channels of

the oscilloscope and with the two photodiodes located as close to each other as possible.

A General Radio Strobotac was used as the signal source. The Strobotac is a high-output

xenon flashtube based device, and the risetime of the optical output is on the order of 600

ns. The Strobotac was set to operate at a repetitive rate of about 16 Hz. The active preamp















Slit Tubes






Viewport


/ m Slit Tube
C-clamp


Side View Front View

Figure 2-6: Optical Slit Rack Assembly


showed a time averaged amplitude response of 1.144 V peak compared to 100 mV from

the passive version. The averaged risetime (10% to 90%) of the active configuration

showed 603 ns, and the passive version showed averaged risetime equal to 652 ns.

Each circuit was laid out using Eagle CAD software, and milled using a Protomat

C30 milling machine. The passive circuit used PC board material clad in copper on the

bottom side only, and used through-hole technology. This version of the circuit proved

to be rather delicate. The active version of the circuit used double-sided copper boards

and Surface Mount Device (SMD) technology. This version was much more robust.

In both cases, an aluminum endcap was attached to the PC board. This endcap and the

batteries formed a tight mechanical fit into the tube. A panel-mounted BNC connector

was mounted in the endcap for signal output. A switch was mounted in the endcap for

control of power to the circuits.

Four slit and tube assemblies were mounted in a shielded aluminum rack. The end

of each tube with the slit end cap was bolted to a frame which allowed the tube to rotate

about a horizontal axis roughly congruent with the slit itself. The four tubes were arrayed









vertically. The uppermost tube was aimed nearly horizontally, with each successively

lower tube aimed higher. This resulted in all four slits being very close and reduced

the size of the hole which had to be cut in the cabinet to allow light to enter. The rear

end of each slit was supported by attachment to the rack. During the early stages of the

experiment, when the tubes were longer, a bolt was attached to the existing rack rails

and the tubes were allowed to rest upon the bolts. When the tubes were shortened, an

additional vertical strut was mounted in the rack and each tube was clamped to the strut

using standard C-clamps. This arrangement is shown in Figure 2-6.

A LeCroy 9354A oscilloscope was mounted on the shelf above the tube mounting

brackets. One meter RG-223 cables with BNC connectors on each end connected the

photodiode outputs to the oscilloscope input channels. A 2000W Uninterruptible Power

Supply (UPS) was housed in the cabinet below the slit tubes. This UPS provided isolated

power to the oscilloscope during data gathering conditions. The entire oscilloscope, UPS,

and photodiode array assembly was thus enclosed in a shielded enclosure and isolated

from radiated and conducted interference. The aluminum tubes provided a second layer

of shielding for the very sensitive photodiode and preamplifier section.

Image Converter

The attachment process in lightning [Rakov and Uman 2003] is a very difficult

process to image. The process is very fast, occurs in a small volume, and is much less

luminous than the processes which immediately follow it. Some success has been found

using Image Converter cameras to image the attachment process in long sparks, which

are thought to be be similar in nature to lightning discharges. The advantages of an image

converter camera include very high recording rates, immediate viewability of captured

images, and very high sensitivity to light.

The model K004M image converter camera made by BIFO Company in Moscow,

Russia, specifically for studying the attachment process in rocket-triggered lightning was

deployed during Summer 2003. The camera is capable of operating in framing mode or in









L1 13

2[ 4

a b




W1 4EE
ffl/ \g3y
c d

Figure 2-7: K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display Patterns
(a) 2-frame mode. (b) 4-frame mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode.

streak mode. In streak mode, the camera can operate at a recording rate from 0.1 ps cm 1
to 3 ms cm 1 over the 3.55 cm wide rear phosphor readout. The fastest recording rate, 0.1
ps cm 1, corresponds to temporal resolution of about 1 ns. In framing mode, the camera
can collect 1, 2, 4, 6, or 9 images consecutively. Frame duration is adjustable from 0.1 ps
to 10 ps, and inter-frame interval is adjustable from 0.5 ps to 999.9 ps. The consecutive
frames are arrayed across the readout screen in a pattern shown in Figure 2-7.







































(TRIG IN)


Figure 2-8: BIFO K004M Block Diagram
1. input objective lens; 2. slit, frame window or test-object; 3. ICT (31 photocathode; 32- focusing electrode; 33- anode; 34,35-
shutter plates; 36,37 deflection plates; D1-D3 shieldings diaphragms; 38- two MCP; 39 luminescent screen); 4 CU (41 shut
pulse generator; 42 sweep generator); 5 power supply unit; 6 CCD TV camera; 7 videoport; 8 PC system unit; 9 PC display.
From K004M Documentation, BIFO Company [2002].









An objective lens is used to construct an image upon the photocathode marked as

31 in Figure 2-8. The photocathode converts the optical image to an electronic image.

The electronic image passes through an electronics lens and is constructed upon the

microchannel plate MCP1, designated as 38 in Figure 2-8. MCP1 and MCP2 intensify

the image and project it onto a phosphor screen (39 in Figure 2-8) which converts the

electronic image into a luminous image. A video camera attached to the rear of the

K004M reads the image and sends the video signal to a PC which digitizes the signal and

stores it. The shut pulse generator enables or disables the passage of images from the

photocathode to the MCP's. The sweep generator controls the position of the image on

the MCP's, which effectively controls the position of the image on the phosphor screen.

The sweep generator is the mechanism by which consecutive frames are arrayed on the

rear phosphor in multiframing mode and the mechanism by which the image is swept

across the phosphor in streak mode.

The camera is triggered by a two-channel photosensor (PS-001), also manufactured

by BIFO. One channel is used to initiate the exposure and the other channel engages a

gain reduction circuit which reduces the gain of the second MCP. The trigger threshold

on each channel is adjustable. Each channel of the PS-001 includes an adjustable slit

for limiting the viewable area, both in terms of altitude and width. This allows for high

optical gain during the early stages of the connection process, and then when the return

stroke is initiated the gain should be reduced to avoid saturation.

Initial testing of the K004M showed that operation was as specified. Several images

of sparks were obtained in every mode of operation. Connection processes were imaged

for short, 5 to 30 mm long sparks. Previously, the unit was tested, along with other image

converter cameras, using long (up to 6 m) sparks at the high-voltage facility in Istra,

Russia. The unit did not operate properly during Summer 2003 when it was moved to

Camp Blanding for triggered lightning experiments. Internal arcing was observed, which

required repair procedures. After these had been corrected, false triggering of the unit









was observed. Finally, the K004M failed to power up at all. Dr. Vitali Lebedev of BIFO

Company came to Gainesville and repaired the K004M in September of 2003. After the

repair was completed, the camera was set up in a cupola atop the Engineering Building

on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville. A large, active thunderstorm

passed through the area and several nearby lightning flashes were observed. Under the

direction of Dr. Lebedev, the camera was operated during this storm. Several flashes

triggered the camera and were recorded. None of these images contained features which

could be identified.

Two images were captured with the K004M during the summer. During the camera's

functional period an insufficient number of events occurred to allow proper calibration of

the camera for capturing processes of interest. The two images will be presented, but they

are not suitable for analysis.

Current

Currents were measured using two types of devices: current transformers and shunts.

Shunts, or Current Viewing Resistors (CVR), are used for direct measurement of

currents. The current is passed through the resistor and the voltage across the resistor is

measured. Typical resistor values are on the order of 0.00125 n. The voltage across the

resistor is measured through a standard BNC connector. Incident current to the launcher is

usually passed through a CVR en route to ground or to a test object.

Current Transformers (CT) are used when DC accuracy is not critical and when

inserting a resistor in the current path is not feasible. Measurement of current at the

lightning channel base and in a power transmission line is the primary use for these

devices at the ICLRT. A current transformer such as the Pearson 110A is a toroidal

transformer in which the primary consists of the conductor carrying current to be

measured. The toroid is placed with the conductor of interest passing through the hole in

the center. A multi-turn secondary is terminated into a 50 n resistor. The voltage across









this resistor is measured. The CT is specified in terms of volts per amp, low and high

frequency -3 dB points, maximum peak and RMS currents, and droop rate.

2.2.3 Data Transmission

Data collected at various locations around the ICLRT are transmitted back to a

central location for digitization and storage. The use of coaxial cable for long transfer

distances is impractical because electromagnetic fields resulting from lightning discharges

will induce signals in the cable itself, acting as an antenna. This will generally interfere

with the data being transferred. Additionally, many measurements require galvanic

isolation from the recording device for reasons of reliability and human safety. For

these reasons, optical fiber is used for transmission of data around the ICLRT. A Nicolet

ISOBE 3000 is used for each current measurement discussed in this paper. Each ISOBE

3000 consists of a 12 V battery-powered transmitter located near the measurement of

interest and a mains-powered receiver located near the recording instrument. Each

ISOBE transmitter is connected to the ISOBE receiver by a pair of 200 pm graded-index

fibers terminated with FSMA connectors at each end. The transmitter of accepting either

0.1 V, 1 V, or 10 V input signals. Selection of input level is via pushbutton switches.

Input coupling can be AC, DC, or grounded. Input impedance is 1 Mi.

The receiver provides for calibration of the received signal. Recommended cali-

bration procedures employ a 100 Hz square wave whose peak to peak amplitude is 1

V. Gain, DC offset, and high frequency compensation can be adjusted to optimize the

transmitted waveform. Rated frequency response of the ISOBE 3000 system is DC 15

MHz. Maximum link length is specified as 100 m. At the ICLRT, many ISOBE links are

used over distances greater than 400 m with no appreciable loss in signal quality.

2.2.4 Data Digitization and Storage

Data storage devices used at the ICLRT fall into two basic categories. Yokogawa

digitizers are used for long, continuous records with relatively low sample rates but

relatively high bit rates. All Yokogawa digitizers are model DL716 and are capable of









storing 16 channels of data simultaneously. LeCroy digital storage oscilloscopes (DSO)

are used for shorter, segmented records with relatively high sample rates but relatively

low bit rates. Models of LeCroy oscilloscopes varied, but all were 4 channel models.

During Summer 2002, the Yokogawa scopes were configured to sample at 1

MHz and 12 bit sample depth. During the same time period, the LeCroy scopes were

configured to sample at 20 MHz and 8 bit sample depth. During Summer 2003, the

Yokogawa scopes were reconfigured to sample at 2 MHz and 12 bits. The LeCroy scope

settings remained unchanged.

Most measurements are recorded simultaneously on at least one LeCroy oscilloscope

channel and one Yokogawa oscilloscope channel. Measurements covering a wide range

of phenomena are recorded for each triggered lightning event. The LeCroy oscilloscopes

are typically triggered when the incident current reaches a certain threshold, generally

selected to record only return strokes. The Yokogawa oscilloscopes are capable of

recording longer waveforms, and so are triggered at a much lower threshold current. For

this reason, the incident current during the initial stage of triggered lightning is typically

only recorded on the slower Yokogawa oscilloscopes.

All of the data discussed herein were collected during events which involved the

interaction of triggered lightning with the Vertical Configuration Power Distribution Line.

The majority of the current data collected during such events are concerned with the

distribution of current along the power line, and are outside the scope of this discussion

of optical phenomena. Consequently, these data will not be presented or discussed. The

current measurements which will be discussed will be limited to incident currents to the

Tower Launcher, the Strike Interceptor, and the Bucket Launcher.

Tower, Strike Interceptor, and Bucket Launcher currents are typically recorded

simultaneously on two channels with differing gains. One channel, known as the High

current channel, records the signal with attenuation set relatively high. This allows for

large peak amplitudes to be measured, at the cost of low level signals being buried in the









noise. The other channel, known as the Low current channel, records the same signal

but with significantly lower attenuation. This allows for greater resolution of low-current

phenomena, at the expense of digitizer saturation of relatively high current signals.

During Summer 2002, the Yokogawa oscilloscopes were configured to obtain

continuous 4 s records, including a 1 s pre-trigger interval. The LeCroy oscilloscopes

were configured to obtain segmented records wherein each segment was 5 ms long and

included a 1 ms pre-trigger interval. During Summer 2003, the Yokogawa oscilloscopes

were reconfigured to obtain continuous 2 s records, including a 0.5 s pre-trigger interval.

The LeCroy oscilloscopes were configured to obtain segmented records wherein each

segment was 5 ms long and included a 0.5 ms pre-trigger interval.

2.2.5 Experiment Control

A system for controlling all aspects of the data collection and storage process

was developed over several years. Each measurement point is associated with a

microcontroller-based control box, known informally as a PIC box. These are named

after the brand of microcontroller employed. Each PIC box performs three main func-

tions: power control, calibration, and signal attenuation.

Power Control An internal relay is energized by the microcontroller to provide 12

V battery power to the ISOBE (or other device) associated with that measurement. This

allows for the measurements and transmission devices to be powered down during idle

periods, thus saving battery power. Typically, a 12 V sealed lead-acid battery is located

at each measurement position. Seven ampere-hour and 24 ampere-hour batteries are

typically employed.

Calibration A function generator internal to the PIC box is energized by a relay

controlled by the microcontroller. This function generator outputs a square wave,

switchable between 1 V p-p and 0.1 V p-p, whose frequency is approximately 100 Hz.

The circuit uses a very stable voltage reference to generate the square wave to avoid

problems with thermal variances. Frequency stability is non-critical. The amplitude and









DC offset are calibrated prior to the installation of the PIC box in the field, typically once

per summer. It is rare for the calibration to drift by more than 1 to 2 % over the course of

a year.

Adjustable Attenuation Each PIC box contains a set of 5 T-topology impedance

matching attenuator circuits. Each set consists of a 20 dB, 14 dB, 10 dB, 6 dB, and 3 dB

attenuator. All attenuators are designed to match 50 ni transmission lines. Each attenuator

can be connected in series with the signal path from the measurement to the ISOBE. The

insertion of the attenuator into the signal path is performed by a relay for each attenuator,

controlled by the microcontroller.

The PIC box is controlled via serial connection over 1 mm plastic optical fiber.

An internal circuit converts the incoming optical modulation to RS-232 format serial

data. Each incoming data word consists of a workgroup identifier, a unique PIC box

ID number, and an 8-bit control word. Each bit is assigned to a function. The PIC box

receives a data word, parses it to determine whether it is the intended recipient, and

executes the control word if it is the intended recipient. The intended recipient then

responds with the last data word it executed followed by current battery voltage and

ambient temperature.

The 1 mm plastic fiber used for communication with the PIC boxes is very inex-

pensive and carries a very low-bandwidth signal. Nonetheless, the 1 mm plastic fiber is

incapable of carrying clean data signals over the distances required to reach the measure-

ment locations. Moreover, animal damage and environmental factors reduce the lifespan

of this fiber such that using this fiber to communicate over medium distances is imprac-

tical. Accordingly, a network of long range, 900 MHz RF data transceivers optimized

for RS-232 transmission have been employed. Each transceiver converts the data stream

carried over RF to optical data suitable for communication with PIC boxes. Each PIC box

must be associated with an RF transceiver, but one optical serial data connection can be

shared between several PIC boxes.









The master control for the system of PIC boxes is performed by a central PC in

the Launch Control facility. The PC is a dual-Athlon system running Red Hat Linux,

and is referred to by ICLRT personnel as "Hal". National Instruments' LabVIEW

programming environment is used to create a user-friendly graphical interface to the

control of the PIC boxes. Control of PIC boxes can occur on an individual basis, or can

be performed in batch mode. In batch mode a human-readable text file containing a list

of PIC box ID numbers and control words can be parsed by the software and the entire

group of PIC boxes will be configured consecutively. As an example, one list exists which

contains the ID number of every PIC box associated with the Florida Power and Light

Power Transmission Line experiment (FPL) and the proper configuration word for data

collection. Another list exists which contains the same list of PIC IDs and the proper

configuration word for calibration mode for each PIC. Users can set all PICs to calibration

mode, adjust the ISOBE receivers associated with all FPL PICs, and then set all FPL

PICS to data collection mode quickly and easily.

The same PC also contains LabVIEW routines which place oscilloscopes into

various data collection modes. Again, the oscilloscopes are addressed in groups which are

defined in human-readable text files. As an example, the user can place all oscilloscopes

associated with the FPL experiment into "armed" mode, wherein the scopes will trigger

upon incoming data. Three modes of operation are currently supported for each scope:

armed, disarmed, and calibration. In armed mode, any incoming data will be collected

and stored immediately. In disarmed mode, no data will be collected. In calibration mode,

incoming data is collected and displayed, but not stored. This allows the operator to adjust

the calibration of ISOBE units and to check the proper operation of each PIC and data

transmission channel. When in calibration mode, each scope can be triggered to store

a short segment of the calibration waveform for later reference and normalization of

recorded data.









The same PC which controls the PIC boxes and oscilloscopes also displays the

ambient electric field in real time. A National Instruments 6025E Data Acquisition Card

(DAQ) is installed in the PC. Two electric field mills are connected to the card. A mains

powered field mill built by NASA for lightning experiments at Kennedy Space Center

is connected to one channel, and is powered constantly. A commercially available field

mill built by Mission is battery powered, and connected to another channel of the DAQ

card. This mill is powered only when the operator judges that suitable conditions for

lightning are imminent. The operator can use the static electric field readouts to determine

when the static electric field conditions are suitable for triggering lightning and also when

conditions are unsafe for personnel to remain outdoors.

The LabVIEW programs running on the PC have additionally been configured to

operate in unattended mode for collection of natural lightning data. When the static

electric field magnitude passes a user-definable level, the software will automatically

perform a system configuration routine similar to that performed by human operators:

1. Place all relevant oscilloscopes in calibration mode.

2. Place all relevant PIC boxes in calibration mode.

3. Store a brief section of calibration waveform for later calibration of data.

4. Place all relevant scopes in disarmed mode.

5. Place all relevant PIC boxes in data collection mode.

6. Arm all relevant oscilloscopes.

At this point, the complete data collection system is armed and ready to collect natural

lightning data. This part of the system does not have the capability to arm or launch

rockets, and so is incapable of triggering lightning. This operation is intended primarily

for the unattended collection of electric and magnetic field data from nearby natural

lightning events. When the static electric field magnitude drops below the threshold and

stays below for 10 minutes, the system goes through a disarming procedure:

1. Disarm all relevant oscilloscopes.









2. Place all relevant oscilloscopes in calibration mode.

3. Place all relevant PICs in calibration mode.

4. Store a brief section of calibration waveform for later calibration of data.

5. Disarm all relevant oscilloscopes.

6. Power down all relevant PICs.

Calibration waveforms are stored before and after any data are gathered. As the internal

calibration waveform generator in the PIC is very stable with respect to temperature,

any variation in the recorded calibration waveform is assumed to be due to temperature

related drift in the optical fiber data transmission equipment. This error can, if desired, be

estimated and corrected during analysis by using the recorded calibration waveforms.
















CHAPTER 3
DATA PRESENTATION

Optical records of 15 lightning flashes were obtained in Summer 2002 and Summer

2003. Of these 15, 11 events were triggered lightning and the remaining 4 were natural

lightning. The dataset consists of 7 linear streak film records, 2 image converter records, 8

photodiode array records, and 10 incident current records for optically recorded events. A

listing of all optical records collected is shown as Table 3-1.

Table 3-1: Optical Dataset, Summers 2002 and 2003

Number
of
Flash Time Return Streak Photodiode
ID Date (UTC) Strokes Camera Array K004M Current
F0220 Jul. 20, 2002 20:39:25 7 Y(3) N N Y
F0301 Jun. 30, 2003 21:32:35 3 Y N N Y
F0302 Jun. 30, 2003 21:36 0 N N Y Y
F0317 Jul. 14, 2003 20:00:02 1 N Y Y Y
F0336 Aug. 2, 2003 19:30:53 7 N Y(5) N Y
N0301 Aug. 5, 2003 18:47:54 1 N Y N N
F0341 Aug. 7, 2003 18:57 1 Y N N Y
F0342 Aug. 11, 2003 18:35 0 Y N N N
F0345 Aug. 11, 2003 18:42 0 Y N N Y
N0302 Aug. 15,2003 18:33:04 1 N Y N N
N0303 Aug. 15,2003 21:03:46 1 N Y N N
N0304 Aug. 15,2003 21:33:34 2 N Y N N
F0347 Aug. 15,2003 21:56:46 2 N Y(1) N Y
F0348 Aug. 15, 2003 22:02 0 Y N N Y
F0350 Aug. 15, 2003 22:12:20 1 Y Y(IS) N Y
Not all of the strokes in a flash were recorded by every device. The total number of
strokes recorded is noted in parentheses if it is less than the total number of strokes in the
flash. In event F0350, the photodiode array recorded only the peak of the IS.









3.1 Event F0220

Event F0220 was triggered on July 20, 2002 at 20:39:58 UTC. The triggering rocket

was launched from the Tower Launcher. Incident current was recorded, with currents

both passing through the tower and being injected into the vertically-configured power

line. The initial stage current was carried by the tower ground connection alone. The

first return stroke current was shared between the launcher and the power line, and six

subsequent strokes were injected into the line exclusively.

Figure 3-1 shows the current incident to the tower and injected into the line through

the strike interceptor. Figure 3-2 shows the same currents, recorded on oscilloscope

channels with higher gain.

The total current flowing in the lightning channel is the sum of the Tower and Strike

Interceptor currents. The current during the first return stroke is shared between the Tower

Launcher and the Strike Interceptor, but the current peaks in the two measurements are

not simultaneous.

A partial linear streak film record was captured during event F0220. The time inter-

val between the launch of the rocket and the initiation of current flow was approximately

3.5 to 4 seconds. As the total run time of the film load in the linear streak camera is on the

order of 4 to 5 seconds, the actual flash occurred as the camera neared the end of the film.

Only the IS and first, second, and third return strokes were imaged. Figure 3-4 shows the

segments of streak film which contain optical phenomena of interest. Note that the top of

the wire is above the field of view of the camera at the time of current initiation.

3.2 Event F0301

Event F0301 was triggered on June 30, 2003 at 21:32:35 UTC. The triggering rocket

was launched from the Tower Launcher. Incident current was recorded, with currents

both passing through the tower and being injected into the vertically-configured power

line. The initial stage current was coupled to the Tower Launcher initially, but during a

relatively long ICC stage current flow transferred from the Tower Launcher to the Strike











4 1 1

Tower Launcher
3.5 1

3 -

2.5

2-

1.5


1 ICV

0.5-

0

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


Figure 3-1: F0220 Incident Currents Low Gain
(a) Current injected in the Tower Launcher. (b) Current injected in the Strike Interceptor.
Strokes are labeled 1 through 7. The ICV is labeled in the Tower Launcher current
waveform, but is not present in the Strike Interceptor waveform. These waveforms were
sampled at 1 MHz with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing filter at the oscilloscope input.


8 Strike Interceptor 2 6 (b)
3
6- 7

4
4
2
I-
0 1

8
5
6 -

4

2

. . . . .. .














0.5


0.4


0.3


0.2


0.1


0


-0.1


-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


0.5


0.4


0.3


0.2


0.1


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


F I V 1* *Y*


(b)
Strike Interceptor


(A . . .


2 3 4567


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


Figure 3-2: F0220 Incident Currents High Gain
(a) Tower Launcher. (b) Strike Interceptor. These waveforms were sampled at 1 MHz
with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing filter at the oscilloscope input. Vertical scale is intentionally
clipped at 600 A to highlight low-level processes.


(a) 1 3 7

Tower Launcher


6


2



.5


V CC
ICV


-0.1'
-0.


1


I I I I I I I I I



































0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time, s


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


Figure 3-3: F0220 Summed Currents, High and Low Gains
These waveforms were sampled at 1 MHz with a 500 kHz anti-aliasing filter at the
oscilloscope input. (a) High gain. (b) Low gain.


-0.1 '
-0.1



18


(b) 6
6 Low Gain 2 3 7

4-

2- 4

0-

8 -
5
6

4

2
ICV

ICC
l I1II11I11II




























ICV Hump


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


1 1.2
Time, ms


Stroke 1


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time, ms


1.4 1.6 1.8


M-compone


ill





'*
b;
'*:


(a>


2 2.2


Stroke 2

0 0.2 0.4
Time, ms


150


S100


S 50



0


0 0.2 0.4
Time, ms


Figure 3-4: F0220 Streak Record ICV and Strokes 1, 2 and 3.
(a) Initial stage. ICV followed by a hump. (b) Stroke 1 followed by an M-component. (c)
Stroke 2. (d) Stroke 3. All timescales are relative.


150

100 -


C





o .Ei
-b
Ct,


0-P
o 3g


150

100 -


nt (b)


1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8


.2
.Z
o
Ha


-I I I I









Interceptor. High speed framing camera records show that this current transfer was due

to the lightning channel being blown by the wind toward the Strike Interceptor. Three

subsequent strokes were terminated on the Strike Interceptor.

The linear streak film camera was operated during event F0301. Images of the ICV

and all three strokes were recorded with the streak camera. These images were scanned,

and the resultant images are shown as Figures 3-8(a), 3-8(b), 3-8(c), and 3-8(d). The top

of the triggering wire is above the field of view of the streak camera.

3.3 Event F0302

Event F0302 was triggered on June 30, 2003 at about 21:36 UTC. The triggering

rocket was launched from the Tower Launcher. Oscilloscope channels were dedicated

to both the Tower Launcher and the Strike Interceptor, but no current flowed through

the Strike Interceptor. The initial stage current flowed through the Tower Launcher and

reached a peak amplitude of about 1.3 kA (Figure 3-9). The low gain waveform is not

shown, because the high gain waveform is not saturated and presents the same data with

better signal to noise ratio. During the ICV, an abrupt decrease in current was observed.

This reduction lasted less than 100 ps and reached a minimum current of about 200 A. It

seems likely that this reduction is associated with the destruction of the triggering wire as

described by Wang et al. [1999a].

The K004M camera was operated during event F0302. An image of the lightning

event was recorded and is shown in Figure 3-10. The K004M was operating in streak

mode, with a linear sweep rate of 3 ps cm 1. The nominal record length at this recording

rate is 10.65 ps. The objective lens was an Industar-61 50 mm, f2.8 lens. The focus was

adjusted for maximum resolution at the launch tower. The trigger level on the camera was

set to approximately 4.5. The MCP1 DYN GAIN knob was set to maximum. The MCP1

STAT GAIN was set to an angle similar to the hour hand of a clock reading 3:30. The

MCP2 STAT GAIN knob was set to an angle similar to 3:30, and the MCP2 DYN GAIN

knob was set fractionally higher than zero. The PS001 trigger unit was adjusted so that













1.4

1.2

1 -

0.8

S0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2


I I I I I I I I I *I


-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time, s

(a) Tower Launcher





2 (b)
o0 Strike
1 Interceptor



5-



3
0



5 -



0'cI
1 111 11


-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Time,s


0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


(b) Strike Ring


Figure 3-5: F0301 Incident Currents Low Gain
(a) Tower Launcher. (b) Strike Interceptor.








44


0.6 ,
(a)
ICV
CV Tower
0.5 Launcher


0.4


S0.3


S0.2


0.1 -

ICC 1 2 3
0


-0.1 I
-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time, s

(a) Tower Launcher


0.6. ..

(b) 1 2 3
0.5 Strike
Interceptor
0.4


0.3 -


0.2




ICC
0 L oom ----.....


-0.1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time, seconds

(b) Strike Ring


Figure 3-6: F0301 Incident Currents High Gain
(a) Tower Launcher. (b) Strike Interceptor. Vertical scale is intentionally clipped at 600 A
to highlight low-level processes.












0.6


0.5


0.4


0.3


0.2


0.1 -


0


-0.1 -
-0.1


(a) Low Attenuation


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time, s


0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


(b) low gain


Figure 3-7: F0301 Summed Currents, High and Low Gains
(a) High gain currents, summed. (b) Low gain currents, summed.


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time, s


(b)
Low 2
Gain
1






3






ICV
























0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


S 100



E^ o


1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Time, ms


(bi
Stroke
1


0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Time, ms


200


0

0 0.2 0.4
Time, ms


o


o .


0
H-


0 0.2 0.4
Time, ms


Figure 3-8: Event F0301 Streak Record Initial Stage and Strokes 1,2, and 3.
(a) Initial Stage. (b) Stroke 1. (c) Stroke 2. (d) Stroke 3. Variations in luminosity are
observed in (a), corresponding to ICC pulses. Leaders are visible in (b), (c), and (d). The
leader in (b) exhibits very little separation between the leading edge of the leader and the
leading edge of the return stroke, indicating that the leader propagated very quickly. The
leader in (c) exhibits greater separation, indicating a slower propagation. The leader
observed in (d) exhibits propagation an order of magnitude slower than observed in (b),
and pronounced stepping as well.


100 -


39

oB .Ei


00
H~





(a)
Initial
Stage


200 F















ICV


(a)
















ICC


-0.2'
-0.1





1.2







- 0.8
1

U


-0.05


0 0.05 0.1
Time, seconds


0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3


100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time, as


Figure 3-9: F0302 Incident Current
(a)Initial stage. (b) Expanded view of ICV section of IS. The peak current in the ICV
reached about 1.3 kA. During the ICV, an abrupt decrease in current was observed. The
duration of the current reduction was less than 100 ps, and the minimum current during
this interval was about 200 A.


1.2


0.8


0.6


0.4


0.2





I I I I I


I I







48

both trigger level knobs were at their minimum settings. Each photosensor on the PS001

was operated with a 28 mm lens, and both slit adjusters were set to +1.5.

The image was heavily saturated. The image suggests a downward progression of

some phenomenon, but no concrete characterizations can be performed.
























~- ~-t
--s.-

--;-~ B
.1.
t-
~-i- r-
-r r
-a-r~-~-~-~-~-~-, ; ;fl ~
'
_
r=j ,, -.~~
r I-_ -1 -' -;1-
rrhr rT
: '
A1 :_ _. ,,- ~F h, 4i;
~sr A r
-3 ~
.I
I ~:
-IL:
'arF~I~i~~


Figure 3-10: K004M Image, Event F0302









3.4 Event F0317

Event F0317 was triggered on July 14, 2003 at 20:00:02 UTC. The triggering rocket

was launched from the Tower Launcher. Current during the initial stage was insufficient

to trigger the oscilloscopes, so that portion of the event was not recorded. One stroke

terminated on the Strike Interceptor. Current for the return stroke was recorded (Figure

3-11).

The K004M camera was operated during event F0317 and one image, shown in

Figure 3-12, was recorded. The sweep rate was set to 3 ps cm-1. The PS001 trigger unit

was configured similarly to the configuration used for event F0302. The MCP1 STAT

GAIN, MCP1 DYN GAIN, and MCP2 STAT GAIN were all reduced compared to event

F0302. The MCP2 DYN GAIN, which controls gain reduction during bright events,

was increased compared to event F0302. The image is saturated and shows evidence

of multiple optical events superimposed upon each other within the image. Meaningful

analysis of this image is not possible.

The photodiode array was operated during event F0317 and optical phenomena were

recorded on three of the four sensors (Figure 3-13). The angles of the individual tubes

of the array assembly (see Figure 2-6) relative to the horizontal and the corresponding

heights of viewed channel segments are shown in Table 3-2. The photodiode array was

being operated in the passive configuration, so that the signal-to-noise ratio is poor. The

slit tube length was about 0.61 m and was shortened after this dataset was acquired. It

is believed that the electronic circuit of sensor 4 (241 m) failed prior to this event. The

vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each photodiode is approximately 83 cm.
Table 3-2: Event F0317 Slit Tube Angles and Heights

Tube Height Above Height Above
Sensor Angle Ground Level Termination, est.
4 62 255 m 241 m
3 71 166 m 152 m
2 80 86 m 72 m
1 87 27 m 13 m


















































0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time, ms

Figure 3-11: Event F0317 Strike Interceptor Current Record


25



20



15






5



0









3.5 Event F0336

Event F0336 was triggered on August 2, 2003 at 19:30:53 UTC. The triggering

rocket was launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher located near Pole 4. The initial

stage current and seven subsequent strokes terminated on the Bucket Truck Launcher.

Current incident to the Bucket Truck Launcher was recorded (Figure 3-14). The pho-

todiode array was operated during this event. Five segments were triggered on the

oscilloscope. One return stroke (number 3) was too low in light intensity to trigger the

oscilloscope, and the last return stroke was not captured because the maximum number

of record segments had been reached. The segments which were recorded correspond

to return strokes 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. A reconfiguration of the photodiode array occurred

prior to this event which included the replacement of the passive circuit with an active

circuit and the adjustment of the slit tube angles. The length of each tube was reduced to

approximately 30 cm. The angles of the individual tubes relative to the horizontal and the

corresponding heights of viewed channel segments are shown in Table 3-3. The approx-

imate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was approximately 1.1

m.
Table 3-3: Event F0336 Slit Tube Angles and Heights

Tube Height Above Height Above
Sensor Angle Ground Level Termination, est.
4 60 179 m 169 m
3 68 126 m 116m
2 77.75 69 m 59 m
1 86.75 19 m 9 m


3.6 Event N0301

Event N0301 occurred naturally on August 5, 2003 at about 18:47:54. The ter-

mination point of the lightning channel is unknown. Currents were not recorded. The

photodiode array captured a single waveform segment. As seen in Figure 3-20, only the

bottom two sensors were able to view the event and only sensor 2 was able to view it

clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

















2 -
1.5


0.5


0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145
Time, ms
2-
2 ... 5 2 m ... ..... ...... .. i ...... ...... ...... .. .... .... .
1.h=52 n
> 1 .
0.5 01 0.... ..........
0.....

0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145
Time, ms
2 . . . . . . : . . .. . ..: . .. . : . .
h=72 m:
1.5
S 1.
0.5


0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145
Time, ms

h=13 m:
1 .5 . . . : . . . . . . ... .. .
S 1 ...... i ...... ...... ...... ....... .. .............
0 .5 .. .


0.1 0.105 0.11 0.115 0.12 0.125 0.13 0.135 0.14 0.145
Time, ms


Figure 3-13: Event F0317 Photodiode Array Records
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using the passive configuration of the
photodiode array. The termination point was the Tower Launcher. Each photodiode
imaged a section of the lightning channel whose vertical length was about 83 cm.














(a)
High
Gain












ICC


V 1


0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Time, s


2 34 5 6


0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


(b) 1
Low
25 -
Gain

20- 5 6


15 2
4 7

10

3
5 -

ICV ICC
0 -


0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Time, s


0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


Figure 3-14: Event F0336 Incident Currents
(a) High gain. The vertical scale is intentionally clipped at 600 A to highlight low-level
processes. (b) Low gain. A section of the current record expanded around the ICV is seen
in Figure 4-20


0.5 F


0.3 1


0.11


IC


-0.1'
-0.1





30r








I I

















30
20
10
0




30
20
10
0




30
20
10
0




30
20
10
0


Leaeeturn Stroke
0.12 0.13 0.14 .0.1 .1 .17.0.18. 0 169
Lea. e.. .... r oke' ........ ....... ..... . .. ..

. ..1 . . . . . . . . . .1 0.. m. .1 9


0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


Leader Return Stroke
:. ... ....-........ .......




0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19

.. L eade R eturh Stroke-: .......................... ........ .....
. .. ... .... .............. ... ... ........ h 5 9 .m ..
-- I .. --



0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19

.. . R return -S trok e ...........................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .

u-- u- u u u u u-- u


0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Time, ms


Figure 3-15: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 1
Timescale is relative to the beginning of the recorded data segment. Leader and return
stroke waveforms are clearly recorded by the uppermost three sensors, and the return
stroke wavefront by the lowest sensor. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity,
and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input.

















15 ................ R etu ri S trok e .... ....................... :..........
h=169 m
S 10 . .. . . .. .. ........



0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16


15 ........... R et nm Stroke ..........................
h=-116 m
10......... dd .e


0 .......P i. ..... .... ..... .... I. .


0.13


0.1
0.11


0.15


0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16


0o


0.08


0.1 0.12


0.14
Time, ms


0.16


Figure 3-16: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 2
Timescale is relative to the beginning of the recorded data segment. Note that on this
scale, without filtering, the wavefront of the leader is not resolved by the sensor at 169 m.
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input.


Return Stroke- h=9:m


m m







58










10 Leader .Re .turn .Stroke......
S \ h=169 m




0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


10 .. leader . Return Strke............ . ............ ..
S\ / h=116.m




0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


eader Return Stroke
1 eadp.
0





0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19









Time, ms
S Figure 3- 17Retu Strokee
indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage ......at the oscilloscope input.




0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Time, ms


Figure 3-17: F0336 Photodiode Data Stroke 4
Timescale is relative to the beginning of the recorded data segment. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input.



















20
15
> 10
5
0


0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


20
15
> 10
5
0


I i i i I i i i ii
0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


20
15
> 10
5
0


m u u m u u u u u
0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


20
15
> 10
5
0


0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Time, ms


Figure 3-18: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 5
Timescale is relative to the beginning of the recorded data segment. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input.


..:. Leader... Ret Stroke . .:. . . .
.... .... R ..... ....... ....... ... ....... h = i 6 .m ..

. . oi l
. . . . .. . ... . . ... . . .


.. .. .Le er Return Stroke..... .. ....... ......j......

.- ... .... .. . -...........h -5 9 .m ..
> |I, ||| |-
_.^LJ: : """"i i'i r iiiiiiilm iiiiiii^


.......... -;t Retu M Stroke .........................................

..... .... ~......
..:... .. ....................................... ........................ ;


.... . . . ... . .. . .. . ... . . . ... . .. . .. ' ~' '

Lead~ .... ,>-dtiff Sd6 .............
; . ... . ... . ... . ... . . . ... h 1 6 9 m

. . . . . . .







60








2 0 .. . . . ... . . .. . ... . . ... . . : . .
> Retm Stroke h=169 m
1 0 .. . . . ... . . .. . ... . . ... . . . . .



0 .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. . . . . . . . . .
0
0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


2 0 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .
Return Stroke h=116
10



0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


















Time, ms
Figure : Rettim Stroke h=59 m
1 --



0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19


20 --Retmrm Stroke





0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Time, ms


Figure 3-19: F0336 Photodiode Array Data Stroke 6
Timescale is relative to the beginning of the recorded data segment. Note that on this
scale, without filtering, the wavefront of the leader is not resolved by the sensor at 169 m.
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input.

















30

20

10

0


30

20

10

0


30

20

10

0


30

20

10

0


0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
. . . . . .. ... ........ . . .. .... .. .. . . . ...

. -:- ; ... .:- .. : ..-.: -- i .



0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19









0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19









0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19

. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . ..


S..... ...... ......... ..... i. ..... ............ ...... I......



0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19
Time, ms


Figure 3-20: Event N0301 Photodiode Array Record
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and so the height
viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.










6
1
5 -


4-


S-3


2 ICV


1

ICC

-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Time, ms

Figure 3-21: Event F0341 Incident Current


3.7 Event F0341

Event F0336 was triggered on August 7, 2003 at 18:57 UTC. The triggering

rocket was launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher located near Pole 15. The initial

stage and one stroke terminated on the bucket truck launcher. The low gain current

measurement failed, but the high gain measurement was operational. This current, shown

in Figure 3-21, is the only incident current record of this event. The current is saturated

at about 5.5 kA. A section of the current record expanded around the ICV is presented

as Figure 4-22(a) on page 114. The linear streak film camera was operated during event

F0341 and both the initial stage and the stroke were captured. These streak records are

shown in Figure 3-22.

3.8 Event F0342

Event F0342 was triggered on August 11, 2003 at 18:35 UTC. The triggering rocket

was launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher located near Pole 15. No currents were

recorded due to human error. The linear streak film camera was operated during event
























@0


;90
)0


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
Time, ms


400

-300

2 200

Tm ioo
0
100

0


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time, ms


Figure 3-22: F0341 Optical Streak Record
(a) Initial stage. (b) Stroke 1.


(b)
Stroke










1

0.9 ICV

0.8

0.7

< 0.6

S0.5

S0.4

0.3
ICC
0.2

0.1


-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Time, ms

Figure 3-23: F0345 Incident Current Record


F0342. An initial stage was observed visually at launch time. No optical phenomena were

found on the streak film.

3.9 Event F0345

Event F0345 was triggered on August 11, 2003 at 18:42 UTC. The triggering rocket

was launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher located near Pole 15. The initial stage

current terminated on the Bucket Truck Launcher. No strokes were observed. The peak

current reached about 1 kA which is not large enough to saturate the high gain record.

The current record is seen in Figure 3-23, and the same record expanded around the ICV

and a subsequent peak during the ICC is seen in Figure 3-24. The section of current

record corresponding to the ICV is displayed in Figure 4-26(b) on page 120.

The linear streak film camera was operated during event F0345. The initial stage

was recorded, with several interesting features visible in the region of the ICV. A dart

leader-like process and return stroke-like process are visible, as are phenomena which are

tentatively classified as the wire disintegration process and as the upward positive leaders.




















0.8

0.7

S0.6


0.4

0.3
0.3 ICV

0.2 -

0.1 ICC

0 I I I
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time, ms

Figure 3-24: Event F0345 Current Record Expanded View of IS











E 400

300

2 200

S100


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Time, ms


1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4


Figure 3-25: F0345 ICV Streak Record


140


S I









The region near the ICV is shown as Figure 3-25. Optical phenomena corresponding

to the IS continue on the streak film over a period of some tens of milliseconds, but no

further interesting features were observed.

3.10 Event N0302

Event N0302 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at about 18:33:04 UTC. The

termination point is unknown, therefore no current was recorded. The photodiode array

recorded a single segment, presumably a return stroke. As the distance to the termination

point is unknown, no heights can be estimated. No significant analysis of the event is

possible. The significant section of the record is shown as Figure 3-26.

3.11 Event N0303

Event N0303 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at aboubecause the channel did

not terminate at the Bucket Launchert 21:03:46 UTC. The termination point is unknown

and therefore no current was recorded. The photodiode array recorded a single segment,

presumably a return stroke. Only the lowest sensor was able to view the channel without

obstruction.

3.12 Event N0304

Event N0304 occurred naturally on August 15, 2003 at about 21:33:34 UTC.

The termination point is unknown, and therefore no current was recorded. The NLDN

reported that this event reached a peak current estimated to be 54 kA. The photodiode

array recorded two segments. During the first segment, the uppermost sensor and the

sensor immediately above the bottom received signals large enough to saturate the

recording oscilloscope channels. The remaining two channels received signals which

appear to have been visually obscured by clouds or some other similar phenomena. Data

from the second segment are much smaller in magnitude. The distance to the termination

point is unknown and thus heights for the recorded luminosity waveforms cannot be

estimated.
















20 ..........

10




0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2


1 ....


101


0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2








0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .







0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2
Time, ms


Figure 3-26: Event N0302 Photodiode Array Record
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and so the height
viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.


............. ............. .............. I...... ...... ...... ......


-S


. ... . ... . . -10 -1


loll'F717".11~


[Ira
























0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2


0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2








0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2


0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16
Time, ms


0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2


Figure 3-27: Event N0303 Photodiode Array Record
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and so the height
viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.























0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
Time, ms


Figure 3-28: Event N0304 Stroke 1 Photodiode Array Data
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and so the height
viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.
























0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18


0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
Time, ms


Figure 3-29: Event N0304 Stroke 2 Photodiode Array Data
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity, and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and so the height
viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.









Table 3-4: Event F0347 Slit Tube Angles and Heights

Tube Height Above Height Above
Sensor Angle Ground Level Termination, est.
4 60 518m 508 m
3 68 363 m 353 m
2 77.75 196 m 186 m
1 86.75 53 m 43 m


3.13 Event F0347

Event F0347 was triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 21:56:46 UTC. The

triggering rocket was launched from the Bucket Trcuk Launcher which was located near

Pole 15. The initial stage current and two return strokes terminated on the Bucket Truck

Launcher. Incident current was recorded. The high gain current record is shown in Figure

3-30(a) with expanded current scale for increased clarity of low-level processes. The

low gain current record is shown in Figure 3-30(b). The photodiode array was operated

during this event and recorded a single segment. It is assumed that the photodiode

array record contains the first stroke, as it can be seen in Figure 3-30(b) to peak at

approximately 20 kA as opposed to the approximately 5 kA peak of stroke 2. The

photodiode array record is shown in Figure 3-31. This is the first photodiode array record

of a triggered event at Pole 15, which is 894 m from the photodiode array installed in the

Office Building. Viewing heights for the individual channels at this location are shown in

Table 3-4.

3.14 Event F0348

Event F0348 was triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 22:02 UTC. The triggering

rocket was launched from the Bucket Launcher which was located near Pole 15. The

initial stage current terminated on the Bucket Launcher. No strokes were observed.

As shown in Figure 3-32, the peak current reached about 2.75 kA during the IS. The

ICV exhibited a pronounced Zero Current Interval, with a relatively fast pulse at the

end of the interval. The section of current record corresponding to the ICV is shown as

Figure 4-31 on page 127. The linear streak film camera was operated during event F0348.













1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0.1 -


0

-0.1
-200 -150 -100


-50 0 50
Time, ms


100 150 200 250


0 50
Time, ms


Figure 3-30: Event F0347 Incident Current Records
(a)High gain. (b) Low gain.



























0.1 0.12


20
15
S10
5
0



20
15
S10
5
0



20
15
S10
5
0



20
15
S10
5
0


0.1 0.12


0.1 0.12


Figure 3-31: Event F0347 Photodiode Array Record, Stroke 1.


0.14


0.18


0.1 0.12


0.14


0.14


0.14
Time, ms


0.16


0.16


0.16


0.18


0.18


0.18


I;.1.... .. .... ........... ...........bS) m


... .. .. etu -Sroko . .. . .. ... .
.. ... e d ~. . . .


W t um -S t~Re~m S ro kc ... .. ... .. ... .

.. .. ... .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. ... . . I 8 6 m: : '' '''; '


r flh=43 m
''MiIMi Sttoke .....
.. . . . . . : ~ :,



















1.5


1



0.5



-50 0 50 100 150 200 250
Time, ms

Figure 3-32: Event F0348 Incident Current Record


The initial stage was captured on streak film. The segment of film corresponding to the

ICV is shown in Figure 3-33(a). The segment of streak film corresponding to the large

current pulse starting at about 50 ms is shown in Figure 3-33(b).

3.15 Event F0350

Event F0350 was triggered on August 15, 2003 at about 22:12:20 UTC. The

triggering rocket was launched from the Bucket Truck Launcher which was located

near Pole 15. The initial stage current and one stroke terminated on the Bucket Truck

Launcher. This event was interesting for several reasons. A large current pulse with an

amplitude of 11 kA occurred during the initial stage at about zero time, as seen in Figure

3-34(b). Initial stage current remained above 50 A for about 210 ms as shown in Figure

3-34. The following stroke peaked at about 8.4 kA. Data collected by Dwyer et al.[2004]

suggest that X-rays and gamma rays were emitted during this unusually large current

pulse. This is the only event in the dataset whose records include currents, linear streak

film, and optical photodiode array records. The photodiode array recording oscilloscope























0
-o
oJ




=
H~~~




0
-o E


400

300

200

100
0


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
Time, ms


400

300

200

100
0


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
Time, ms


Figure 3-33: Event F0348 Streak Record
(a) ICV. A faintly luminous vertical feature, similar in shape to the feature at about 2350
ps, can be seen at about the 800 ps point. Note that the top of the wire in this segment
appears to be at about 300 m. No luminous events can be seen above this level. (b) Initial
stage. The peak luminosity at approximately 1400 ps corresponds to the large current
pulse beginning at about 50 ms in Figure 3-32. During this segment, luminous events
extend past the edge of the viewable area. Time scales marked in each segment are
relative to that segment only Figure 3-33(b) occurs approximately 60 ms after Figure
3-33(a).


(a)
ICV Wire Top


(b)
is
Peak







76

was triggered by the large current pulse beginning at about 50 ms, and did not record the

stroke that occurred at about 250 ms. The duration of the large current pulse beginning

at zero time exceeded the segment length of the recording oscilloscope. Analysis of the

photodiode array record shown in Figure 3-36 did not result in any discernible direction

of propagation.











1 111 1

0.9 -
0. (a)
0.8 High

0.7 Gain

0.6 -

0.5

S0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1 L
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time, ms


12


10(b)
10 -
Low
Gain
8-


6 -


4-


2-


0 a

-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time, ms

(b) low gain


Figure 3-34: Event F0350 Incident Current
(a) High gain. The current record is vertically truncated at 1 kA to show low level
processes more clearly. (b) Low gain. Note that the current during the initial stage is
higher in amplitude than the peak current of the subsequent stroke occurring at about 250





























0.2



0.15 -



0.1



0.05 x = -0.033399
y = 50.247 Ax: 203.8 ms x = 0.170401
Ay: 0.00 y = 50.247


0

0 50 100 150
Time, ms

Figure 3-35: Event F0350 Initial Stage Current Detail
With the exception of a brief zero current interval at about -25 ms, the initial stage current
maintains at least 50 A for 203.8 ms. During this segment, an estimated 53 C is
transferred to ground.

























iiIitdJAkkIiJlh..L I


.2 0.4 0.6 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2


10 .


. . . ..I..I. .


0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2



10




0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2



10





0
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
Time, ms


Figure 3-36: Event F0350 Photodiode Array Record


1 0 .. . . . . . .


5 ;..i; .~J r~


" "' "" w II ""g lF"


F 'z illh. b ui


. L .1


" 1.1 "



























400

300

= 200

S'~ 100

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Time, ms

Figure 3-37: Event F0350 Streak Record Zero Current Interval
Note that two sets of time ticks were exposed on the film edge. The set of time ticks along
the bottom edge are from a previous exposure of the film during which no lightning
phenomena occurred. The film was re-loaded and exposed again during event F0350.
This is also the reason for the over-exposure of the film record.


























U U. U.4 U.6


U.Z 1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1. 2 2.2 2.4
Time, ms


(a) Segment 1


400

300

= 200

' 100

0


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
Time, ms


(b) Segment 2


E
CD C
.0.
F-


a)
IE
a,


0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6
Time, ms


(c) Segment 3


Figure 3-38: Event F0350 Streak Record Initial Stage Current Segments
Note that two sets of time ticks were exposed on the streak film. The bottom ticks are
from a previous exposure of the film during which no lightning phenomena occurred.


E
5


00
H a















CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSES

In Section 4.1, the current and optical records of event F0336 will be examined. The

waveforms of optical intensity vs. time will be examined to determine risetime, leader

propagation speed, return stroke propagation speed, amplitude vs. height, and risetime

vs. height. Current records will be examined to determine peak current and risetime.

Comparisons will be made between optical and current waveforms. The correlation

between the optical characteristics and peak current will be calculated.

In Section 4.2, current and optical records will be examined with attention to the

Initial Current Variation portion of the Initial Stage of rocket-triggered lightning. The

records from events F0220, F0301, F0336, F0341, F0345, F0348, and F0350 presented

in Chapter 3 will be re-examined in greater detail, and filtering and enhancement will be

performed where necessary to improve clarity of low-level processes. Additional records

including correlated electric field records and individual fields from a video record will

be presented. The processes of cutoff and re-establishment of current will be examined,

and the processes observed in these records compared to the processes described by

Rakov et al. [2003].

4.1 Optical Propagation Characteristics in Event F0336

4.1.1 Measurement of Optical Parameters

The data which were collected during event F0336 consist of light intensity data

at four heights for five return strokes and records of incident current at the launcher.

Currents were recorded at two attenuation levels and two sampling rates. A total of three

simultaneous current records were recorded. The optical records were shown in Figures

3-15, 3-16, 3-17, 3-18, and 3-19 above. The current records which were sampled at the

lower sampling rate (2 MHz) were shown in Figure 3-14. These current records represent







83



1

25 -


20 5 6

0 2
15 4


10-

3
5-



0 50 100 150 200 250
Time, ms

Figure 4-1: F0336 Segmented Current Record
This record was sampled at 20 MHz with a 5 MHz low-pass anti-aliasing filter at the
oscilloscope input. Bit depth was 8-bits. No high gain record exists.


a continuous record of the incident current during the event. An additional record, sampled

at 20 MHz (50 ns sampling interval) through a 5 MHz anti-aliasing filter, was recorded

in a segmented fashion. The attenuation was identical to the higher attenuation used as

shown in Figure 3-14. Each time the oscilloscope was triggered, a 5 ms segment of data

was recorded which included 0.5 ms of data recorded immediately prior to the trigger.

The time interval between segments was recorded, allowing the individual segments to

be correctly placed in time relative to each other. Figure 4-1 shows all 7 segments of the

current record as sampled at 20 MHz and low gain. Two additional segments recorded

after the lightning event have been identified as falsely triggered, and are not presented

here.

The optical records can be used to determine the two-dimensional return stroke

speed over three segments of lightning channel. No correction is made for non-vertical









channel geometry. Pulses can be easily seen (Figures 3-15, 3-17, and 3-18) in the

records corresponding to strokes 1, 4, and 5 which indicate the time at which the leader

front passed the viewing height. The records corresponding to strokes 2 and 6 (Figures

3-16 and 3-19) contain similar pulses, but these pulses are less well defined and partially

masked by the noise.

The noise in the optical waveform makes estimation of the time at which the leader

or return stroke front appears in the waveform somewhat uncertain. Accordingly, each

waveform was filtered with a low-pass filter whose -3 dB point was approximately 3.75

MHz and whose response was down 98 dB at about 12 MHz. The step response of the

filter was characterized by a 10-90% risetime of 100 ns. Figure 4-3 shows the filtered

and unfiltered versions of a sample waveform. This sample contains the fastest risetime

measured in this dataset, and shows that the filtering process does not materially affect

the waveshape. The filter improves the accuracy with which critical points within the

waveform may be measured.

Figure 4-2 shows the process of determining the points of interest on an optical

record. The magnitude of the light intensity is measured prior to the point where the

return stroke appears to begin. The peak intensity of the return stroke is measured. This

is marked "Peak Intensity Level" in Figure 4-2. For consistency, a uniform method was

used for the estimation of each return stroke initiation point. A straight, horizontal line

was drawn parallel to and congruent with the waveform immediately prior to the return

stroke. The vertical level of this line was chosen to represent as closely as possible the

mean value of the noise and the optical intensity, and the value of intensity corresponding

to the vertical placement of the line is used as the minimum intensity of the return stroke.

This line is labeled "Minimum Intensity Level" in Figure 4-2. Next, a slanted line was

drawn parallel to and congruent with the slope of the return stroke rising portion, again

approximating as closely as possible the mean of the waveform over as long a time

interval as possible. This line can be seen in Figure4-2. The intersection of these two












30 -v I,

25 x = 353.277 ns
y = 0.028628

20 Peak Intensity Level


15 -
Ax: 452.00 ns
Ay: 24.375 mV
10 -/
10


5-
x = -98.7235 ns Minimum Intensity Level
y =0.0042534

R.S. Beginning

-500 0 500 1000 1500
Time, ns

Figure 4-2: F0336 Photodiode Array Data, Stroke 1
The optical waveform of the first stroke at a height of approximately 9 m above the
termination point is shown on an expanded time scale. The two points being measured
correspond to the data point nearest to but higher than the calculated 90% level and the
data point nearest to but lower than the calculated 10% level. The difference between
these points represents the upper bound of the estimated 10-90% risetime. A similar
operation is performed to find the lower bound of the risetime. This waveform has not
been filtered to remove noise.


lines, marked "R.S.Beginning" in Figure4-2, was taken to be the beginning point of the

return stroke for each segment of channel. Using the previously measured minimum and

peak intensity values, the 10% and 90% intensities are calculated. It is unlikely that a data

point will exist which exactly corresponds to the calculated point, and so the two points

on either side of the calculated value are recorded. This gives an upper bound and a lower

bound for the estimate of the risetime.

The two-dimensional propagation speed was measured in this manner for the leader

and return stroke of each stroke in event F0336. The speed over the range between each

pair of adjacent sensor and the overall speed across the range between the uppermost and

lowermost sensors are reported in Table 4-1. The mean and standard deviation of the set
























14-


12


10


8




4-


2-


0

-2 -1 0 1 2 3
Time, ps

Figure 4-3: F0336 Stroke 4 Comparison of Filtered and Unfiltered Data
The unfiltered data record from F0336 stroke 4 at 9 m is shown in gray. Overlaid atop this
line is the filtered version of the same data, shifted back in time 200 ns to compensate for
the group delay of the filter and scaled down by a factor of 0.73 to compensate for the
filter gain. It can be seen that the waveshape in general, and the risetime in particular, are
materially unaffected by the filtering process.









Table 4-1: Optically-Measured Propagation Speeds, Event F0336

Propagation Speed in m s1 over Vertical Range Between
Stroke Process 169m-116m 116m-59m 59 m 9 m 169 m 9m
1 Leader 4.5 x 107 5.1 x 107 4.8 x 107 4.78 x 107
R.S. 1.7 x 108 1.8 x 108 1.5 x 108 1.66 x 108
2 Leader 6.6 x 106 9.1 x 106 1.0 x 107 8.32 x 106
R.S. 1.1 x 108 2.2 x 108 1.6 x 108 1.52 x 108
4 Leader 2.8 x 107 2.0 x 107 1.8 x 107 2.14 x 107
R.S. 1.6 x 108 2.3 x 108 1.7 x 108 1.83 x 108
5 Leader 1.7 x 107 1.7 x 107 1.6 x 107 1.64 x 107
R.S. 1.4 x 108 2.0 x 108 1.6 x 108 1.65 x 108
6 Leader 1.2 x 107 1.3 x 107 9.6 x 106 1.14 x 107
R.S. 1.2 x 108 1.8 x 108 1.6 x 108 1.49 x 108
Mean Leader 2.17 x 107 2.20 x 107 2.03 x 107 2.11 x 107
R.S. 1.40 x 108 2.02 x 108 1.6 x 108 1.63 x 108
Standard Leader 1.52 x 107 1.67 x 107 1.59 x 107 1.58 x 107
Deviation R.S. 2.54 x 107 2.28 x 107 7.07 x 106 1.35 x 107


of measurements are included in the table. The optical waveform was characterized in

terms of risetime and peak, and these measurements are reported in Table 4-2.

Figure 4-4 shows the graph of return stroke wavefront height vs. time for all 5

strokes recorded with the photodiode array. A systematic variation in speed with height

is observed. This variation of return stroke speed with height is characterized in each

return stroke by an increase in speed over the interval between 59 m and 116 m. When

the position vs. time of all return strokes are plotted on the same graph, the similarity

is noticeable. Three possibilities for the cause of this phenomenon seem most likely:

physical process variations, measurement calibration errors, and human error during the

measurement phase.

The primary source of error in the estimation of viewed height for each photodiode

tube is the uncertainty of the placement of the diode within the tube. The tube in which

each PIN photodiode is mounted is approximately 30 cm long, with the diode itself

located about 4 cm away from the rear wall, or about 26 cm from the slit. A variation

in the height of the diode of 2.5 mm, perpendicular to the slit, results in an angular