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Quantitative Evaluation of a Boater Education Program for Manatee Protection


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QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A BOATER EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR MANATEE PROTECTION By JULIE MORRIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was funded by the Florida Marine Institute. I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Susan Jacobson, for her help and patience throughout my time in graduate school. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Richard Flamm and Dr. Kenneth Wald, for their input and advice. Speci al thanks go to Dr. Chris McCarty of the Bureau of Business and Economic Research for all of his invaluable assistance in this study.

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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................ii LIST OF TABLES.......................................................v LIST OF FIGURES....................................................vii ABSTRACT..........................................................viii INTRODUCTION .......................................................1 Manatee Watch Education Program......................................3 Role of Experience....................................................4 Research Objectives...................................................5 METHODS ............................................................6 Questionnaire Design and Pilot Testing ...................................7 Data Analysis........................................................8 RESULTS............................................................10 Survey Response ....................................................10 Socio-Demographic Background ........................................11 Boating Activity.....................................................12 Boating Behavior....................................................13 Knowledge About Manatees and Their Conservation. .......................15 Attitudes about Manatees and their Conservation ...........................17 Other Attitude Measures ..............................................22 Additional Analysis of Treatment Group Boaters. ..........................23 Path Analysis.......................................................25 DISCUSSION.........................................................30 Effectiveness of the Educational Treatment...............................30 Manatee Watch Intervention...........................................32 Association of Experience with Manat ees with Knowledge and Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions...............................................34 Recommendations...................................................35 Conclusion.........................................................39

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iv APPENDIX AMANATEE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS ..............................40 BREVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS ABOUT MANATEES ..........44 Florida Fish and Wildlife..............................................44 Manatee Observation and Education Center...............................47 Save the Manatee Club ...............................................48 CSURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE .........................................51 DDISPOSITION REPORTS............................................66 ELIST OF CLUBS THAT RESPONDENTS ARE MEMBERS OF BOATING CLUBS............................................................68 FBEHAVIOR SUMMARY: RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED ALWAYS/FREQUENTLY............................................70 GSUMMARY OF ATTITUDE RESPONSES...............................71 HSUMMARY OF BOATERS EXPERIENCE WITH MANATEES .............72 IREVIEW OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR CONSERVATION...........73 Media Interventions..................................................73 Community Outreach Programs ........................................74 Programs for Children................................................76 Experiential Education Programs.......................................77 JSOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT BOATING REGULATIONS AND MANATEES .......................................................79 KLIST OF REASONS FOR BOAT-RELATED DEATHS: REPORTED IN THE OTHER CATEGORY..............................................80 REFERENCES........................................................83 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..............................................86

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v LIST OF TABLES Table page 1Comparison of individual demographic items for treatment and control groups..11 2Comparison of boating experience for treatment and control groups ..........12 3Comparison of behavior items for treatment and control groups ..............14 4What to do if you run aground ........................................14 5What to do if you see a sick or injured manatee ...........................14 6Comparison of behavior items with having seen a manatee while boating......15 7Comparison of behavior items with seeing a manatee while swimming........16 8Comparison of behavior items with having visited a place to see manatees .....16 9Comparison of behavior items with having participated in an educational program on manatees...............................................16 10Comparison for individual knowledge items .............................18 11Comparison of average knowledge scores for experience with manatee items ...19 12Correlations of experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and sociodemographic variables with boaters knowledge ......................19 13Comparison of individual attitude item scores for treatment and control groups ...........................................................20 14Comparisons of average attitude scores with experience with manatee items ....21 15Correlations of boaters attitude with experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and sociodemographic variables...............................22 16Responses to the question, Why are there boat related manateedeaths? .......23 17Use of educational materials by boaters.................................24

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vi 18Comparison of individual knowledge items for control group and those in the treatment group that said yes to receiving educational materials ..............27 19Comparison of individual attitude items of boaters in the treatment group who said they received educational materials versus the control group .............28 20Comparison of individual behavior item scores of boaters in the treatment group who said they received educational materials versus the control group ...29 21Effects of knowledge, attitudes and experiences on boaters behavioral intentions.........................................................29

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1Theoretical model: The role of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences on behavioral intentions.................................................2 2Path model of the effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on behavioral intentions................................................26

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viii ABSTRACT Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A BOATER EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR MANATEE PROTECTION By Julie Morris May 2004 Chairman: Susan K. Jacobson Major Department: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Watercraft collisions are the most common human related causes of manatee mortaility, and account for approximately 25% to 30% of manatee deaths annually. Educational interventions for boaters are one strategy for reducing watercraft collisions. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of an educational intervention by Manatee Watch in Tampa Bay, Florida. A telephone survey was conducted during July to August 2002, of primary boat users whose boats were observed by the Florida Marine Research Institute and/or approached by Manatee Watch in Tampa Bay during 1999 to 2001. We compared the attitudes, knowledge and behavioral intentions of boaters who had received educational materials from Manatee Watch (treatment group) with boaters who had not (control group). Survey questions were designed based on Manatee Watch educational materials given to boaters and previous surveys of Florida boaters. Overall knowledge and attitude scores were compared. Boaters receiving the educational treatment averaged 8.22 (S.D.=2.4) on a 12-point knowledge scale; this di d not differ statistically from the control

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ix group average of 8.06 (S.D.=2.5) (t= -.731, p=0.465). Treatment group boaters had a mean of 33.7 (S.D.= 7.13) on a 45-point attit ude scale, and did not differ from the control group mean of 33.2 (S.D.=7.4) (t=-.731, p=0.465). Behavioral intention items were measured independently; no differences were found between the groups. Attitude was found to positively influence boating behavior, and was positively associated with a willingness to pay for increased public education and enforcement to protect the manatee. Knowledge and one behavior item were positively associated: maintaining a slower speed when boating in shallow water. In addition, boaters' experience with manatees and boating was examined as an influence on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. There was no association between experience and knowledge or experience and behaviors. Years of boating experience and the number of times seeing manatee while boating negatively influenced attitude. Forty-six percent of the treatment group responded "no" when asked if they had received educational materials from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch. This could be due to lack of memory, lack of impact, or surveying technique. Regardless, the boaters' replying "yes" to receiving Manatee Watch materials did not score differently than the control group on the knowledge and attitude scales, or any behavior items. This study is limited by reliance on a survey instrument to measure self-reported behaviors rather than actual boating behaviors or impacts on manatee mortality. To increase the effectiveness of the program we recommend targeting audience attitudes, addressing ownership and empowerment feelings in boaters, increasing the duration of the intervention, adopting a multi-faceted approach, and incorporating active participation of the boaters.

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1 INTRODUCTION The West Indian Manatee ( Trichechus manatus ) is listed as endangered in Florida and the US. The main causes of its endangered status are loss of habitat, high mortality and low reproduction rates, and human activities (Van Meter, 1989). Approximately 25% to 30% of manatee deaths statewide are attributed to watercraft injuries (Arrison, 2003). Despite their protected status, the number of manatees killed by boats continues to rise; watercraft killed 95 manatees in the 2002, a new state record (Arrison, 2003). Concomitant with increased mortality is an increase in the number of boats on the water in Florida. In 2002, 961,719 vessels were registered in Florida, and an additional 300,00 to 400,000 additional boats are thought to use Floridas waters (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2003). Florida has numerous nonprofit organizations, private businesses and a state agency dedicated to manatee conservation. Many regulations protect the manatees from watercraft. These include limited and no entry areas and zones limiting boat speed in manatee habitat. Also, a number of educational publications and programs target manatee conservation and protection (Appendix A). An in-depth review of some programs is presented in Appendix B. This study evaluates the efficacy of a popular manatee educational program targeting boaters conducted by the Manatee Watch educational program in Tampa Bay, Florida. We tested whether this program (a) increased boaters knowledge about manatees and their conservation, (b) shifted attitudes toward support for greater manatee

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2 Experience Attitude Knowledge Behavior protection, and (c) increased proconservation behavioral intentions among Tampa Bay boaters. The study compares boaters in Tampa Bay who have received educational materials from Manatee Watch with a control group of boaters who have not. We designed and conducted a survey of boaters to determine if any significant differences existed as a result of the educational intervention. We also examined the influence of experience with manatees, such as swimming and boating with them, on attitudes and behaviors of boaters. Firsthand experience has been shown to influence attitudes and behaviors (Jacobson, Monroe, & Marynowski, 2001). Natural contact with nature seems to reinforce environmental education and increase empathy for the conservation of species in the wild (Miles, 1986). Experiential education programs also have been shown to be successful in increasing knowledge, and improving attitudes and behavior in regards to wildlife (Ewert, 1996). We assessed whether direct experience with manatees is positively correlated with knowledge, attitudes and proconservation behavioral intentions toward manatees (Figure 1). Figure 1.Theoretical model: The role of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences on behavioral intentions

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3 Manatee Watch Education Program Tampa Bay Manatee Watch is a nongovernmental organization that educates the public about boating with manatees. Their goal is to reduce watercraft-related mortality and impacts to manatee habitat in Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay Manatee Watch targets boaters in Tampa Bay by directly intervening on the water and on boat ramps. This program is unusual in that it focuses its educational message directly at one of the sources of manatee mortality: boaters. Approximately 2 to 3 volunteers for Manatee Watch distribute boaters kits to boaters on the water. The strategy of the outreach vessel is to patrol waterways that are designated slow speed zones where manatees might be present. Volunteers also distribute kits at boat ramps. The boaters kits include waterproof charts of the local area, polarized sunglasses, fish-measuring stickers, and floating key chains. These are illustrated with data and recommendations about boating safely with manatees, including speed zone information and advice on avoiding manatees. These kits are designed to give the boaters things they can use while boating, and provide an educational message as well. The waterproof chart shows where manatee habitat is located and suggests voluntary speed zones of 5mph in areas where manatees are found. Information on the chart asks boaters to voluntarily boat slowly in less than 6 feet of water. The map explains the meaning of different regulat ory signs and the different speed zones. Manatee protection tips include wearing polar ized sunglasses, staying in deep water channels, and obeying posted signs. Boaters are given information on how to look for manatees in the water (e.g., a snout sticking up, expanding circles in the water, and a swirl or a smooth spot in the water). Advice on what to do if the boat runs aground is also given on this chart. This includes turning the motor off, tilting the motor up, and push

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4 poling into deeper water. Phone numbers are given for the Florida Marine Patrol and Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission in the event a dead or injured manatee is encountered. Statistics are provided on watercraft-related manatee deaths, and a brief message explains how boaters can make a difference to manatee conservation. The floating key chain has the message Boat Slow, Manatees Below! and information about who to call for a manatee emergency. The fish-measuring sticker carries the same tips for boating with manatees as the waterproof chart. The message Go Slow! Manatees Below! Where Seagrasses Grow is written on the sticker. A pair of polarized sunglasses is provided so that boaters can see manatees more easily in the water. Every time a boater kit is given away, Manatee Watch volunteers give boaters a brief, informational talk on manatees. They convey the message that the boaters are in manatee habitat and that the boaters should go slow and watch for manatees. Information is presented in a friendly and nonconfrontational manner and lasts a minute or two. A key component of their program is working with boaters, not against them, in the quest to reduce manatee mortality. Role of Experience Studies of direct environmental experience have demonstrated the power of experiences in developing greater understanding and awareness of environmental issues. Direct environmental experiences are more likely to lead to increased knowledge and positive attitudes about the environment (Jacobson et al., 2001). Experiences with nature can make important contributions in the development of environmental concern and individual actions that results in procons ervation behaviors (Ewert, 1996). Orams (1996) found that experiential education programs helped control tourist behavior toward

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5 wildlife. Experiential programs have resulted in increased knowledge and an improvement in environmental attitudes on the part of the participants (Knapp & Poff, 2001). We investigated whether direct experience swimming and boating with manatees influenced boaters knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. Research Objectives The objectives of this study were to Evaluate the effectiveness of the Manatee Watch Program by determining differences in the knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions between boaters who received the educational intervention and boaters who had not. Examine the association of experience of swimming or boating with manatees with boaters knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. Describe the sociodemographic background of the boaters and influences on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Explore the association of knowledge about manatees with attitudes and boating behaviors. Make recommendations to improve the Manatee Watch Program.

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6 METHODS The sample for the survey was selected from two groups: boaters in Tampa Bay who had received educational materials from Manatee Watch and boaters who had not. The Florida Marine Research Institute recorded boat registration numbers of 13,200 boaters who had been observed by staff and volunteers in Tampa Bay during 1999 and 2001. They were able to obtain corresponding telephone numbers for 4,148 boat owners. Boat observations were conducted by the Florida Marine Research Institute in two areas in Tampa Bay, Gandy and Maximo, during the 3-year time period. There were two lines of site at Gandy, and three at Maximo where boats were observed throughout the year, in three sessions. A research intern and volunteer conducted observations at each site. They recorded registration numbers of the passing boats, and later obtained corresponding telephone numbers of boat owners. The sites were chosen for several reasons: they had to have boating, be accessible, fit more than one line of site, and have manatees. The sample of boaters who had received educational materials from Manatee Watch consisted of 1122 boaters that Manatee Watch approached on the water or at boat ramps from June of 1999 through July of 2001. Based on boat registration numbers obtained by Manatee Watch, the FMRI was able to obtain 487 corresponding phone numbers Trained interviewers with the University of Florida Bureau of Business and Economic Research conducted the telephone interviews. They asked to speak with the

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7 primary boat user before administering the survey. They used computer-aided dialing to call boaters until approximately 500 questionnaires were completed to ensure an adequate sample for statistical analysis. Questionnaire Design and Pilot Testing The questionnaire followed standard procedures to construct simple questions that would provide accurate results (Salant & Dillman, 1994). The survey consisted of 16 knowledge questions, 9 attitude questions, 5 behavior questions, 5 questions about Manatee Watch, 6 questions regarding experience with manatees, and 10 sociodemographic questions. The questions were based on a review of the content of the program conducted by Manatee Watch and a baseline survey of Tampa Bay boaters conducted in 2000 (Aipanjiguly et al., 2003). Knowledge and attitude questions were designed around a symmetric, 5-point, Likert-t ype scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) with a central, neutral category. Knowledge items included questions on boating safely with manatees, manatee biol ogy and status, and definitions of manatee harassment. The Likert scale was collapsed to create a knowledge index; items answered correctly received a score of 1 and other answers received a score of zero. Attitude questions measured boater support for boating regulations, manatees and conservation efforts. Answer choices for these items were on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5 indicating pro-manatee behavior. Answers for the attitude questions were summed to create a composite score. A mixture of scaled and open-ended questions measured the boating behavior targeted by Manatee Watch. They included questions on maintaining a slow speed in shallow water, where to avoid manatees and what to do if a boat runs aground, to protect seagrass beds.

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8 Items measuring the effectiveness of the Manatee Watch materials also questioned if people received and used the materials. The association of experience with manatees with boaters knowledge, attitudes and behavior was measured by how many times people had seen manatees while boating or swimming, if they had visited an area for the purpose of seeing manatees and if they had ever participated in an educational program about manatees. Sociodemographic variables included questions on education, income, boating experience, distance of home from the waterfront, owning a manatee license plate and number of years in Florida. A panel of social scientists at the University of Florida and state and federal marine mammal specialists reviewed the survey. The survey instrument was pilot tested (n = 20) on boaters from Tampa Bay in June of 2002; revisions to the survey were made based on results of the pilot test. The survey was conducted between July and August of 2002. Data Analysis Survey data was entered into an SPSS 10.0 software package for statistical analysis. Answers for open-ended questions were examined and recoded as necessary. We compared knowledge, attitudes and behaviors between boaters that received the intervention (treatment group) and those that did not (control group). The 5-point knowledge, attitude and belief measures were treated as interval level data; T-tests were used to identify significant differences in mean scores between the treatment and control groups. Additionally, T-tests were used to determine significant differences in attitudes, knowledge and behaviors between boaters who remembered receiving the intervention, and those that did not. T-tests were used to compare the knowledge, attitudes and

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9 behaviors between those that had had experiences with manatees and those that had not. A post-hoc test for means comparison was used to determine significant differences within the treatment group based on the year that they received educational materials. Significant differences are reported at the alpha level of p 0.05. Cronbachs alpha (interitem correlation reliability) was used to ensure scale reliability for the attitude and knowledge questions. Behavior items were measured independently. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of relationships between knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions and experience. We employed a path model, using multiple regressions, to estimate the role of knowledge, attitude and experiences on behavioral intentions. We used unstandardized regression coefficients to measure direct effects. Indirect effects are calculated by multiplying unstandardized coefficients. Total effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on behavioral intentions are obtained by adding the direct and indirect effects together.

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10 RESULTS Survey Response The survey (Appendix C) resulted in 503 completed questionnaires; 297 from the control group and 202 from the treatment group. The completed surveys from the treatment group included 4 that were ineligible, due to the fact that the respondents received the educational intervention after the time period of this study; they were excluded in the data analysis. The response rate calculated for this survey was 47%, based on the percentage of completed interviews out of all eligible respondents, following standards of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Categories that were considered ineligible for the survey included technical phone problems, fax lines, nonworking numbers, disconnected numbers, changed numbers, cell phones, businesses or governmental organizations, and no eligible respondents (American Association for Public Opinion Research, 2002). There were 180 refusals, which included 106 strong refusals, and 74 soft refusals. The cooperation rate (response rate for answered telephones) calculated as a percentage of number of responses per (# of responses + # of refusal) was 74%. The cooperation rate for the treatment group was 82%, with 55 refusals and 477 attempted calls. The cooperation rate for the control group was 69%, with 135 refusals and 881 attempted calls. The total attempted numbers called was 1,359. Appendix D shows the disposition reports for the survey.

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11 Socio-Demographic Background There were no statistically significant differences in sociodemographic backgrounds between the treatment and control groups (Table 1). The mean age of respondents in the treatment group was 46.2 years (SD = 12.6), and 47.9 years (SD = 13.0) for the control group (t = -1.44, df = 491, p = .152). Seventy-nine percent of respondents in the treatment group were male, and 20% were female; in the control group 82% were male, and 19% were female (t = -.45, df = 497, p = .622). Within the treatment group, more respondents (24.4%) fell into the $41,001 to $60,000 income bracket, followed by 21.4% in the $61,001 to $80,000, and 17.3% in the $100,001 to $150,00 range. In the control group, the greatest percentage of people (20.9%) fell into the $61,001 to $80,000 income bracket, followed by 20.1% in the $41,001 to $60,000 range and 17.6% in the $81,001 to $100,000 category; (t = 1.163, df = 410, p = 0.370). Table 1. Comparison of individual demographic items for treatment and control groups Treatment GroupControl Group ItemmeannSDmeannSD tp df Age46.2020012.6048.0029313.001.440.15491 Sex 1=male; 2=female1.20202.401.20297.39-.450.62497 Years in Florida30.9620215.4028.9129616.601.390.16494 Home from Tampa Bay waterfront. (1-5) 1=on water; 5=<20 miles2.972011.263.202931.401.880.06492 Manatee license plate 1=yes; 2=no1.97201.171.96297.21.800.42496 Highest year of school/college completed14.442012.2114.582962.37.660.51495 Household Income (1-5) 1=>20,000; 5=<150,0004.141681.564.292441.63.900.37410 Member of wildlife, conservation or sporting club organization 1=yes; 2=no1.73201.441.79296.411.440.15495

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12 Twenty-seven percent in the treatment group and 21.3% in the control group answered yes to being a member of a conservation, wildlife or sporting club or organization (t = 1.44, p = 0.151). Clubs that respondents are members of are listed in Appendix F. There was no significant difference in the distance of home from Tampa Bay waterfront between the groups (t = 1.88, p = 0.06). The treatment group had a mean of 14.4 years of education (SD = 2.2) and the control group 14.58 years (SD = 2.4); (t = .662, p = 0.508). Respondents in the treatment group had lived in Florida for an average of 31 years (SD = 15.4), in the control group the average was 28.91 years, (SD = 16.6); (t = 1.39, p = 0.165). Boating Activity The two groups did not differ in years of boating experience, times boated in Tampa Bay in the past year, primary activity while boating, and having taken a boating safety course (Table 2). Table 2. Comparison of boating experience for treatment and control groups Treatment Group Control Group ItemmeannSDmeannSD tp df Years of boating experience24.9620015.524.0229614.70-.6850.49494 Times boated in Tampa Bay in past year (1-5) 1=>10; 5=<502.27202.8272.21296.931-.6710.50496 Taken a boating safety course 1=yes; 2=no1.40201.4921.40297.492.0240.98496 Primary activity 1=fishing; 2=sailing; 3=cruising; 4=recreation; 5=skiing; 6=commuting; 7=jet-ski; 8=work-related2.601992.302.702892.30.5410.60486 Season 1=summer; 2=winter; 3=year-round2.97201.452.86292.67-2.0600.04*491

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13 The average years of boating experience for those in the treatment group was 24.96 years (SD = 15.5) and 24.02 years (SD = 14.7) for those in the control group. Within the treatment group 28.7% reported boating in Tampa Bay more than 50 times in the past year, 47% had boated 11 to 50 times, 16.8% less than 10 times, and 7.4% said they hadnt boated in Tampa Bay in the past year. Twenty-two percent of people in the control group reported boating in Tampa Bay more than 50 times in the past year, 43.6% boated 11 to 50 times, 23.3% less than 10 times, and 11.5% said they hadnt boated at all in Tampa bay in the past year. Fifty-eight of respondents in the treat ment group and 51.9% in the control group said their primary activity in Tampa Bay was sport fishing. The two groups differed in the time of year people reported boating: within the treatment group 3.0% said they boated in the summer, 2.5% said they boated in the winter, and 89% reported boating year round. In the control group 9.2% reported boating in the summer: 4.5% boated in the winter, and 77.7% boated year-round (t = -2.1, df = 491, p = 0.04, Table 2). Boating Behavior Three items with scaled choices measured desirable boating behavior: carrying nautical charts while boating, maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water, and watching out for manatees while boating in shallow water. The two groups did not differ in any of these items (Table 3). The percentage of respondents that indicated positive boating behavior is shown in Appendix G. Two open-ended items also measured boating behavior. One asked what boaters do if the boat runs aground; answers included using a push pole, getting out and pushing the boat, calling a towboat, turning off the engine or starting the engine up. The two groups

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14 responses did not differ (2 = 3.6, df = 6, p = 0.74, Table 4). Another question asked boaters what they would do if they saw a sick or injured manatee. The two groups did not differ on answers for this question (2 = 6.82, df = 5, p = 0.23, Table 5). Table 3. Comparison of behavior items for treatment and control groups Behavior Items (1-5) 1=always; 5=never Treatment GroupControl Group meannSDmeannSD tp df I carry nautical charts with me when boating.2.152001.512.042931.46-.7410.46491 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.2.021991.171.892911.03-1.2600.21488 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 1.42199.931.38295.84-.4230.67492 Table 4. What to do if you run aground What do you do if you run aground?Treatment Group (%) Control Group (%)N Start the engine up1.02.18 Use a push pole7.56.433 Wait for the tide to come in6.59.339 Get out and push the boat into deeper water58.852.5269 Call a tow boat6.57.133 Turn off the engine5.56.429 other14.116.1742=3.6, df=6, p Table 5. What to do if you see a sick or injured manatee What do when see sick/injured manatee Treatment Group (%) Control Group (%)N Call coast guard10.313.860 Call Florida Marine Patrol40.041.2201 Call local law enforcement2.64.518 Call Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission/Officer 12.315.269 Call someone17.913.173 Other17.012.1692=6.82, df=5, p=0.23 We also tested if experiences with manatees had any affect on behavioral intentions towards manatees. Boaters who had seen manatees while boating did not have

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15 significantly different behavioral intentions than those who had not (Table 6). Seeing manatees while swimming did not affect behavi oral intentions (Table 7), nor did visiting a place to see manatees (Table 8.). Boaters that participated in an educational program on manatees carried nautical charts more often than boaters who had not; (t = 2.02, df = 496, p = 0.43, Table 9). However, participation in an educational program had no affect on maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water and watching out for manatees in shallow water (Table 9). Table 6. Comparison of behavior items with having seen a manatee while boating Behavior Items (1-5) 1=always; 5=never Have seen manatees while boating. Have not seen manatees while boating. meannSDmeannSDtpdf I carry nautical charts with me when boating.3.904581.54.1411.5-.910.36497 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.4.054531.14.1431.2-.490.63494 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.61460.854.540.96.6270.53498 Knowledge About Manatees and Their Conservation Sixteen items measured knowledge about manatees. Fourteen were on a scale of 1 to 5, and 2 were opened-ended. Two of the scaled items(1) manatees are harmful to seagrass beds and (2) manatees have to be fed because there isnt enough natural foodwere removed from the final knowledge measure due to poor inter-item reliability. Reliability analysis on the other 12 scaled items indicated a Cronbachs alpha of .764 with an inter-item means of .22. A 12-point knowledge index was created using these 12 variables; correct answers received a and all others received a .

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16Table 7. Comparison of behavior items with seeing a manatee while swimming Behavior Items 1-5) 1=always; 5=never Have seen manatees while swimming. Have not seen manatees while swimming. meannSDmeannSD tp df I carry nautical charts with me when boating.4.062141.403.822821.501.780.08494 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.3.982121.104.122811.10-1.400.15491 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.59213.954.62284.81-.400.69495 Table 8. Comparison of behavior items with having visited a place to see manatees Behavior Items (1-5) 1=always; 5=never Visited a place to see manatees. Have not visited a place to see manatees. meannSDmea n nSD tp df I carry nautical charts with me when boating.4.002691.403.822301.601.360.17497 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.4.022661.304.102301.00-.870.38494 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.58269.854.63231.89-.570.57498 Table 9. Comparison of behavior items with having pa rticipated in an educational program on manatees Behavior Items (1-5) 1=always; 5=never Have participated in an educational program on manatees. Have not participated in an educational program on manatees. meannSDmeannSD tp df I carry nautical charts with me when boating.4.21821.303.854161.502.0200.04496 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.4.1881.944.034141.101.1200.26493 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.6282.734.60417.89.1670.87497

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17 The average knowledge score for the treatment group was 8.2 (SD = 2.4) and did not differ from the score of the control group, 8.1 (SD = 2.5); (t = -0.73, df = 497, p = 0.47), None of the individual knowledge items differed between the treatment and control groups. There were no significant differences in knowledge for those that indicated a willingness to pay for increased public education or for those that were willing to pay for increased patrols Experience with manatees did not influence knowledge scores (Table 11). Respondents that had seen manatees while boating or swimming, visited an area to see a manatee or participated in an education pr ogram about manatees did not score differently from respondents that had no experience with manatees. Knowledge was not correlated with the amount of times someone had seen a manatee while boating or while swimming, carrying nautical charts while boating, or watching out for manatees in shallow water (Table 12). Knowledge was correlated with maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water (r = 0.087, p = 0.052, Table 12). There were no correlations between knowledge and the years of boating experience or the number of times someone had boated in Tampa Bay in the last year; nor were demographic variables correlated with knowledge, including years in Florida, the distance from a persons home to the Tampa Bay waterfront, familys income, and the highest year of education completed (Table 12). Attitudes about Manatees and their Conservation Nine items were used to assess boaters attitudes about manatees, and conservation efforts to protect them. Reliability analysis resulted in a Cronbachs alpha of .88, with an

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18 item means of .43. The scores for these items were summed, resulting in a total possible scale of 45, to determine correlations with knowledge, behavior, experience with manatees, and other variables. Table 10. Comparison for individual knowledge items Knowledge statements Treatment Correct Control Correct (%)n(%)n Chisquare p The manatee is an endangered species71.019072.02682.3000.08 Feeding a manatee will disturb it. 68.018361.02491.0000.18 Touching a manatee that does not first approach you is considered harassment.74.018969.02731.0090.35 Any human activity that changes a manatees behavior is harassment.53.019457.0273.8080.21 Manatees feed on seagrass beds. 89.017389.9246.0161.00 Boating slowly over seagrass beds will help me to avoid manatees.73.019072.0268.0030.52 Boats should have no wake in an idle speed zone. 79.019779.0290.0040.52 I can better avoid manatees by staying in deep water channels while boating. 71.019274.0285.5930.25 Discarded fishing lines are a threat to manatees. 90.019394.02763.340.08 Wearing polarized sunglasses can help me to see manatees better. 93.019190.02691.010.48 A swirl on the surface of the water may signal that a manatee is below. 91.219488.02741.230.29 Nautical charts can help me to determine where manatees are located. 40.019532.02711.360.28

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19 Table 11. Comparison of average knowledge scores for experience with manatee items Yes Mean Score (SD)n No Mean Score (SD)n tp df Have you seen manatees while boating? Have you seen Manatees while swimming? Visited an area to see a manatee Participated in an educational program about manatees 8.08 (2.5) 8.00 (2.5) 8.10 (2.4) 8.30 (2.3) 462 215 270 82 8.50 (2.3) 8.21 (2.4) 8.13 (2.5) 8.10 (2.5) 43 287 235 422 1.090 .919 .131 -.649 0.28 0.36 0.89 0.51 503 500 503 502 Table 12.Correlations of experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and sociodemographic variables with boaters knowledge ItemN Pearson Correlatio n p Experience Times seen manatees while boating Times seen manatees while swimming 462 215 -.005 .047 0.92 0.49 Safe Boating Behavior I carry nautical charts with me while boating Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water Watch out for manatees in shallow water Sociodemographic background Years of boating experience Times boated in Tampa Bay in the past year Years in Florida Distance from home to Tampa Bay Familys income Highest year of education 499 496 500 502 504 504 500 418 503 -.059 .087 .071 -.039 -.005 .012 -.026 .056 -.019 0.19 0.05 0.11 0.39 0.91 0.79 0.56 .025 0.67 There was no significant difference in attitude score for boaters that were members of an organization, had taken a boating course, or owned a manatee license plate. The mean attitude score for the treatment group was 33.7 (SD = 7.13) and 33.2 (SD = 7.4) for the control group, not signi ficantly different (t = -.731, df = 497, p = 0.465), Treatment and control groups did not differ on any individual attitude items (Table 13).

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20Table 13. Comparison of individual attitude item scores for treatment and control groups Attitude ItemsTreatment GroupControl Group meannSDmeannSD tp df I support Programs to protect the manatee even though it means reducing the speed allowed on some waterways. 3.842011.2103.832961.170-.0750.94495 I support programs to protect the manatee even if it means boats would not be allowed to enter some areas. 3.371991.3503.352871.320-.1210.90484 I support setting speed limits in areas where natural resources, such as sea grass, need protection. 4.08201.9354.08289.821.0430.97488 I support increased public education to protect the manatee. 4.13202.9584.06294.851-.8660.38494 I support increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee. 3.451971.283.402951.280-.4390.66490 Manatees need protection. 3.95200.9683.892911.080-.6130.54489 There should be protected areas for manatees, where boats are not allowed to enter. 3.692011.193.622901.190-.6940.49489 The manatee is worth saving, despite the need for regulations. 4.11194.7674.06287.832-.7230.47479 I have been negatively affected by regulations protecting the manatee. (Recoded same direction) 3.511981.1603.652841.2901.3400.18480

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21 To test if experience was associated with attitude we compared attitude scores between those respondents that had seen manatees while boating, seen manatees while swimming, visited an area to see a manatee or participated in an education program about manatees, and those who had not had these experiences; there were no significant differences (Table 14). In fact, boaters who had seen manatees 5 or less times in the past year had a significantly higher attitude score than those who had seen manatees 6 or more times (t = 3.00, df = 460, p = 0.003). Table 14. Comparisons of average attitude scores with experience with manatee items YesNo Mean scorenS.D. Mean scorenS.Dtpdf Have you seen manatees while boating? Have you seen manatees while swimming? Visited an area to see a manatee Participated in an educational program about manatees. 33.42 32.86 33.59 34.44 462 215 270 82 7.22 7.74 7.04 7.58 33.16 33.81 33.18 33.21 43 287 235 422 7.83 6.86 7.53 7.19 .225 -1.47 .619 1.34 0.82 0.14 0.53 0.16 503 500 503 502 Attitude was negatively correlated with the number of times someone had seen a manatee while boating (r = -0.105, p = 0.024), but there was no correlation with the number of times seeing manatees while swimming (Table 15). Attitude was negatively correlated with years of boating experience (r = -0.103, p = 0.021), but not with the number of times boating in Tampa Bay in the past year (Table 15). Attitude was positively correlated with maintaining a slower speed while boating (r = 0.279, p = 0.000) and watching out for manatees in shallow water (r = 0.279, p = 0.000) (Table 15).

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22 There was no correlation between attitude and years in residence in Florida, distance of home from Tampa Bay waterfront, family income, or highest year of education completed (Table 15). Table 15. Correlations of boaters attitude with experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and sociodemographic variables ItemN Pearson Correlation p Experience Times seen manatees while boating Times seen manatees while swimming 462 215 -.105* -.098 0.02 0.15 Safe Boating Behavior Carrying nautical charts while boating Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water Watch out for manatees in shallow water Sociodemographic Background Years of boating experience Times boated in Tampa Bay in past year Years in Florida Distance from home to Tampa Bay Familys income Highest year of education 499 496 500 502 504 504 500 418 503 -.036 .279** .124** -.103* -.043 -.047 .053 -.084 -.004 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.33 0.29 0.23 0.08 0.93 correlation is significant at the .05 level ** correlation is significant at the .01 level Other Attitude Measures Boaters were asked about their willingness to pay for increased public education and increased patrols for manatee protection. The treatment and control groups did not differ in their willingness to pay for increased public education and patrols, or the mean amount each group was willing to pay. Boaters that indicated a willingness to pay for increased public education to protect the manatee had a significantly higher attitude score than those who did not (t = 10.3, df = 406, p = 0.000); as did those who were willing to pay for increased patrols (t = 5.95, df = 296, p = 0.000). There were no significant differences in knowledge for those that indicated a willingness to pay for increased

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23 public education (t = 0.445, df = 406, p = 0.657); or for those that were willing to pay for increased patrols (t = 0.009, df = 296, p = 0.993). More control group boaters thought that speed limits were adequately signed (mean = 3.39) than treatment group boaters (mean = 3.12; t = 2.47, df = 482, p = 0.01). Another open-ended question asked boaters what caused boat-related manatee deaths. Boater carelessness (Treatment: 41%, Control 34%) was the most common answer given; there were no significant differences between the groups in the answers given (2 = 3.5, df = 5, p = 0.63, Table 16). Table 16. Responses to the question, Why are there boat related manateedeaths? Why are there boat related deaths Treatment Group (%) Control Group (%)N Manatees get in the way/cant get out of the way11.814.265 Boaters are careless/carelessness41.034.9180 Lack of propeller guards7.28.539 Lack of boating regulations2.61.49 Speeding13.312.862 Other24.128.11272=3.5, df=5, p=0.63 Additional Analysis of Treatment Group Boaters We additionally compared responses among boaters receiving the educational treatment in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Knowledge scores (F = 0.262, p = .770) and attitude scores (F = 0.325, p = .723) did not differ based on the year boaters received educational materials. Three behavior items were also compared for boaters receiving the educational treatment in 1999, 2000, or 2001; carrying nautical charts while boating (F = 0.040, p = 0.961), nor for maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water (F = 0.022, p = 0. 978) or for watching out for manatees while boating in shallow water (F = 0.381, p = 0.684).

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24 Several questions asked about interaction with Manatee Watch and educational interventions while boating. Although the educational treatment reached all boats recorded by Manatee Watch, we were not certain that the primary boater that was interviewed by phone necessarily personally received the educational treatment. For this reason we additionally asked treatment group boaters if they had received the educational intervention. In response to the question Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch ever given you any educational materials while you were boating in Tampa Bay, 54% of boaters in the treatment group answered yes to this question, and 45.5% answered no. Within the treatment group, 47.5% of the people said they used the educational materials while boating, and 42% agreed or strongly agreed that the materials helped them to learn about manatees. Of the 54% of boaters in the treatment group who said they received education, 87.3% said they used the educational materials and 77.3% agreed or strongly agreed that the materials helped them to learn about manatees. Use of each material by boaters in the treatment group ranged from 13% for stickers to 35% for polarized sunglasses (Table 17). Use of each material by boaters that said they received education ranged from 23.6% for stickers to 65.5% for polarized sunglasses (Table 17). Table 17. Use of educational materials by boaters Material Use by treatment group (%) Use by those that said yes to receiving materials (%) Polarized Sunglasses Waterproof Chart Floating Key Chain 35.5 30.7 25.7 65.5 56.4 47.3 Brochures Fishing yardstick Stickers 21.3 20.3 12.9 37.3 39.1 23.6

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25 Respondents that said yes to receiving educational materials and the control group both had a similar mean knowledge score of 8.06 (SD = 2.5). Only one individual knowledge item was significantly different betw een those that answered yes to receiving education and the control group: more yes respondents knew that feeding a manatee will disturb it (2 = 6.6, p = 0.011, Table 18). There was no significant difference in the mean attitude score between those in the treatment group that said they received materials and the control group (t = -1.07, df = 405, p = 0.285), or in any of the individual attitude items (Table 19). Nor was there a significant difference in any of the behavior items between those that said yes to receiving educational materials and the control group (Table 20). A quarter of the boaters additionally were asked if they could finish the slogan Go Slow! Manatees below! The interviewer read the first part of the slogan Go Slow, and respondents were asked it they could finish it. Only 4% said Manatees Below, 44.2% gave an answer that included the word manatee, and the remaining 52% gave an unrelated answer, or could not respond. Path Analysis We employed a path model to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the independent variables (knowledge, attitude, and experiences) on a dependent variable(behavioral intentions, Figure 2). A regression analysis showed attitude to be a positive predictor of behavioral intentions (r 2 = 0.075, B = .055, p = 0.000). Two experiences showed a negative effect on attitude: the number of times seeing a manatee while boating (r 2 = 0.097, B = -2.55, p = 0.03) and years of boating experience (r 2 = 0.097, B = -.104, p = 0.02). The number of times seeing a manatee while boating did not significantly predict behavioral intentions (B = 0.034, p = 0.75) nor did years of boating experience

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26 (B = -0.002, p = 0.76). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of attitude (B = 0.36, p = 0.09) or behavioral intentions (B = .053, p = 0.06). The combined direct and indirect eff ects of knowledge on behavioral intentions were 0.073 (Table 21). The total effect of attitude on behavioral intentions was 0.055 (Table 25). The number of times seeing a manatee while boating had a negative total effect of .11, and years boating an effect of .168 (Table 21). Figure 2. Path model of the effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on behavioral intentions *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01, ****p<.001Attitude Knowledge Experience Behavioral Intentions .055**** Exp. 1 # Of times seeing a manatee while boating Exp. 2 Years of boating experience -1.04** .053* .359* -2.56*** 0.034Attitude Knowledge Experience Behavioral Intentions .055**** Exp. 1 # Of times seeing a manatee while boating Exp. 2 Years of boating experience -1.04** .053* .359* -2.56*** 0.034

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27 Table 18.Comparison of individual knowledge items for control group and those in the treatment group that said yes to receiving educational materials Knowledge statements Said yes to receiving education (%) correct Control group (%) correct Meann Mea nn Chisquare p The manatee is an endangered species 79.010576.2268.2960.67 Feeding a manatee will disturb it 80.010466.22496.6007.01* Touching a manatee that does not first approach you is considered harassment. 80.010573.02732.0400.17 Any human activity that changes a manatees behavior is harassment 63.510862.0273.0071.00 Manatees feed on seagrass beds 94.410189.02462.2100.16 Boating slowly over seagrass beds will help me to avoid manatees 72.510675.2268.2690.59 Boats should have no wake in an idle speed zone 81.210784.8290.6600.46 I can better avoid manatees by staying in deep water channels while boating 77.010776.0285.0001.00 Discarded fishing lines are a threat to manatees 95.110697.0276.4930.54 Wearing polarized sunglasses can help me to see manatees better 95.010792.0269.9740.37 A swirl on the surface of the water may signal that a manatee is below 96.210791.32742.6600.12 Nautical charts can help me to determine where manatees are located46.010936.02713.30.09

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28Table 19.Comparison of individual attitude items of boaters in th e treatment group who said they received educational materials versus the control group Attitude ItemsSaid yes to receiving educationControl group meannSDmeannSD tp df I support programs to protect the manatee even though it means reducing the speed allowed on some waterways 3.871091.4003.832961.170-.3370.74403 I support programs to protect the manatee even if it means boats would not be allowed to enter some areas 3.391071.2703.352871.320-.2744.79392 I support setting speed limits in areas where natural resources, such as sea grass, need protection 4.11110.8604.08289.821-.2790.79397 I support increased public education to protect the manatee4.17110.9564.06294.851-1.1600.24402 I support increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee 3.561081.2403.402951.280-1.0800.27401 Manatees need protection 3.96109.9423.892911.080-.6530.51398 T here should be protected areas for manatees, where boats are not allowed to enter 3.751101.1003.622901.190-.9840.32398 The manatee is worth saving, despite the need for regulations 4.16106.7324.06287.832-1.1000.27391 I have been negatively affected by regulations protecting the manatee (Recoded same direction) 2.40108.9003.652841.2901.1700.24390

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29 Table 20.Comparison of individual behavior item scores of boate rs in the treatment group who said they received educational materials versus the control group Behavior Items Responded yes to receiving education Received no education (control group) meannSDmeannSD tp df I carry nautical charts with me when boating.1.881101.372.042931.471.0100.31401 Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water.2.011071.131.892911.03-.9670.33396 Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 1.35109.8651.38295.836.3640.71402 Table 21. Effects of knowledge, attitudes and experiences on boaters behavioral intentions Dependent variableIndependent variablesDirect effects Indirect effectsTotal Behavioral Intentions Knowledge0.053*0.020.073 Attitudes0.055****-0.055 Experience Exp. 1 # times seeing manatee Exp. 2 years boating 0.034 -0.002 -0.14 -0.06 -0.11 -0.168 *p<0.10, ****p<0.001

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30 DISCUSSION Watercraft collisions are the most common human-related cause of manatee deaths and have increased at the rate of 7.2% a year. From 1997 to 2002, watercraft related deaths have been the highest recorded. Watercraft caused 81 manatee deaths in 2001 and 95 in 2002. As of July 31 there have been 55 watercraft-related manatee deaths in 2003 ( Arrison, 2003 ). Presently, over 961,719 vessels (recreational and commercial) are registered in the state of Florida, a 42% increase since 1973 (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2003). It is estimated that an additional 300,000 to 400,000 boats registered elsewhere also use Florida waters ( Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission ). Strategies to protect manatees include increased public education, as well boating regulations, law enforcement, and habitat protection. Effectiveness of the Educational Treatment We evaluated the Manatee Watch educational intervention designed to reduce manatee mortality in Tampa Bay. There were no significant differences in knowledge or attitude regarding manatees between the boaters that received the educational materials and those who did not. Knowledge items on the survey were designed based on the content of materials distributed by Manatee Watch. These results indicate that the materials had little effect on the knowledge of the recipients of the intervention. There were also no significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the attitude items.

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31 Boaters who received the educational intervention were less likely to agree that speed limits were adequately signed than did the treatment group. Manatee Watch literature describes the different speed limit signs, depicted on its chart. Possibly, recipients of the educational program were more aware that speed limits are not adequately signed because of the chart. The behavior items in the survey were designed based on the behaviors targeted by Manatee Watch, yet the treatment and control groups did not differ on any of the scaled behavior items. Although recipients of the e ducation program received nautical charts, these boaters did not report carrying nautical charts while boating more frequently than other boaters. The other items, regarding boating speed and awareness of manatees in shallow water, were primary messages conveyed by Manatee Watch on their materials. Answers to the open-ended behavior questions about what to do if you run aground or what to do if you see a sick or injured manatee did not differ between treatment and control groups. Based on these findings, it appears that the Tampa Bay Manatee Watch did not have a significant effect on the boaters attitudes, knowledge, or behavior regarding manatees. One question on the survey: Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch ever given you any materials while you were boating in Tampa Bay? attempted to assess if people remembered the educational intervention from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch. Only 55% percent of those in the treatment group reported receiving the educational intervention. We could not distinguish whether this was due to peoples faulty memory or if the methods used in the study did not adequately identify the treatment boaters. The study began in June of 1999; it is possible that people did not remember receiving this

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32 intervention 3 years after the fact, although there were no significant differences in responses for the boaters that received the treatment for any of the 3 years. We also could not determine if we actually surveyed the people who received the intervention or if someone else received the materials on the boat or was interviewed on the phone Regardless, we compared differences between boaters in the treatment group who said yes to receiving educational materials with the control group. There was no significant difference in their overall mean knowledge scores, although more boaters in the treatment group who said yes to receiving materials knew that feeding a manatee might disturb it. There were no significant differences in any of the attitude or behavior items between the respondents that said yes to receiving materials and the control group. Manatee Watch Intervention The Manatee Watch program is focused on influencing boaters to boat slowly in manatee areas. The slogan Go Slow! Manatees Below! is printed on all materials. When boaters in the treatment group were asked to finish the slogan Go slow . , only 5 answered Manatees Below. Another 41 gave an answer that included manatee. The most successful behavioral intervention strategies have been those that focus on a specific target behavior, as manatee Watch has targeted safe boating (Ham & Krumpe, 1996; Hines, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1986). The Manatee Watch program specifically targets the boaters in Tampa Bay, yet this program has had limited impact based on our survey results. Studies show that those who feel a degree of personal responsibility are more likely to exhibit positive behavior (Hines et al., 1986; Hungerford & Volk, 1990). In order to influence behavior, Manatee Watch must go beyond attempting to increase knowledge; people must be given the opportunity to develop a sense of ownership or empowerment.

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33 Manatee Watch offers an informal program of short duration. Informal programs are generally less effective in shifting attitudes than formal, school-based programs (Asch & Shore, 1975; Orams & Hill, 1998; Zelezny, 1999). Short-term exposure to an educational intervention, such as this case, is less effective in changing behaviors; the length of the duration of the program is positively correlated with its effectiveness (Hines et al., 1986; Zelezny, 1999). The interactive component of the ManateeWatch intervention lasts only about a minute, and it is unknown how long the materials remain on the boat. This intervention may be too brief to result in significant changes in attitudes, knowledge, or behavioral intentions. Additionally, the Manatee Watch program is somewhat passive; volunteers talk to the boaters for a brief time, and then boaters are given some materials. They do not actively participate in this program, other than a brief interaction to receive the materials. Passive types of programs have been shown to be ineffective in changing behaviors (Zelezny, 1999). This program evaluation had several limitations. The data suggest that the program was not effective given the lack of differences between the treatment and control groups. However, both groups exhibited fairly high knowledge scores, pro-manatee attitudes, and pro-manatee boating behavior. The majority of both groups answered two-thirds of the knowledge items correctly. It is possible that the Manatee Watch program focuses on teaching things boaters already know and focuses on behaviors that boaters already exhibit. Care was taken to develop a questionnaire that focused on the messages Manatee Watch attempted to impart to the boaters. However, it is possible the survey did not adequately identify all of these targeted messages and thus missed actual differences between the groups.

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34 Additionally, this study relied on self-reported behavioral intentions. We do not know if boaters receiving the educational treatment actually altered their boating behaviors or if manatee mortality was affected. Association of Experience with Manatees with Knowledge and Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions Direct experience with nature has been positively related to knowledge and attitudes (Jacobson et al., 2001; Siemer & Knuth, 2001). Participation in outdoor recreation activities has been positively associated with environmental attitudes and behavior (Teisl & OBrian, 2003). This study revealed no positive associations between boaters experience with manatees and their knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors. There are a number of reasons why experience with manatees may not positively affect knowledge and attitude or behavioral intentions. Most people (92%) had seen manatees while boating. The negative influence of the number of times seeing a manatee while boating and the years of boating experience on attitude could be due to boaters beliefs that manatees are readily seen and therefore not threatened. Boaters who had seen manatees five or less times in the past year had a significantly higher attitude score than people who had seen them six or more times. Williams, Ericsson, and Heberlein (2002) found a similar pattern in an analysis of surveys of public support for wolves; people with the most positive attitudes towards wolves were those with the least direct experience with them. Popular boating areas in Tampa Bay have been declared off-limits or now have stricter speed zones for manatee protection. These regulations may result in more negative attitudes among boaters who see manatees frequently and may not perceive them to be in danger. Some boaters may feel manatees are responsible for regulations

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35 that have curtailed their freedom to boat where and as fast as they want. This is an interesting finding to consider when targeting messages to the boating community. Educational messages could focus on the health of the ecosystem as reasons to boat slowly, rather than just manatees. Fifty-four percent of respondents had visited an area to see manatees; however, visiting an area to see manatees was not correlated to knowledge or attitude or related to reported behaviors. The 16% of respondents who had participated in an educational program about manatees (Appendix I) did not have significantly different knowledge or attitude scores than those who had not participated in an educational program, although their scores were slightly higher. However, boaters who had participated in an educational program did report that they carried nautical charts more often than those who had not. This question was asked because Manatee Watch gives boaters nautical charts that were marked with manatee habitat. Although boaters in the treatment group did not carry nautical charts more often while boating, it is possible that participation in another educational program on manatees could be related to carrying a nautical chart. Participation in an education program on manatees is not a direct experience with manatees, but it does indicate that an educati onal program could affect behavior. Because we measured self-reported experience with manatees, we cannot be absolutely certain of what experiences boaters have actually had. We did not validate the hypothesis that direct experiences with manatees positively affected knowledge, attitudes or behavioral intentions towards manatees. Recommendations Manatee Watch has identified specific target audiences and target behaviors, which are essential steps in an educational intervention. The results of this study indicate that

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36 educational intervention does not influence boating behavior. Based on the findings of this study and a literature review of successful educational interventions (Appendix J), we recommend the following actions to improve the Manatee Watch program. 1.Target boaters knowledge and attitudes. Studies have shown that environmental knowledge is needed to shift positive attitudes (Ericsson & Heberlein, 2003; Papa georgiou, 2001). People with proconservation attitudes are more likely to engage in responsible behavior (Hines et al., 1986). Interventions should target peoples underlying beliefs in order to influence behavior (Ham & Krumpe, 1996). We found that boaters attitudes and knowledge positively influenced the boating behavior that Manatee Watch attempts to influence. Knowledge had a slightly greater effect on behavioral intentions when both dir ect effects and its indirect effects on attitude were examined. A positive attitude influenced behavioral intentions directly. Attitude was also correlated with a willingness to pay a boat license surcharge for increased public education to protect the manatee and increased patrols to protect the manatee. In order to influence boating behavior, Manatee Watch should focus on increasing knowledge and shifting towards more positive attitudes. Current materials convey facts about the manatee and boating, and messages to boat slow. The slogan: Go Slow! Manatees Below! Where Seagrasses Grow, may not appeal to boaters beliefs and attitudes. Materials may be more effective if they appealed to boaters emotions and increased knowledge. Materials that make the manatee more appealing to humans could focus on their vulnerability, gentleness, and social behavior. Raising boaters concern about manatees should increase their appreciation of the biological needs of manatees and the ecological role the manatees play in the ecosystem.

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37 2.Address boaters feelings of ownership and empowerment. People that feel a degree of personal responsibility to the environment are more likely to exhibit positive behavior. Education also needs to give people a sense of empowerment; if people feel like they can make a difference, they are much more likely to act (Hungerford & Volk, 1990). Manatee Watch does this in a sense; boaters are told how they can make a difference by boating slow, watching for manatees, and obeying posted signs. The nautical chart depicts voluntary speed zones, so boaters are given a sense of empowerment in that they can make a difference by choosing to go slow. Connecting the boaters feelings of empow erment and ownership of the fishery to manatee protection may be more successful in changing behaviors than focusing a message primarily on manatee protection. The primary activity reported by boaters was sport fishing (55%). Boaters who fish may feel a degree of responsibility to the fishing grounds that they may not feel towards manatees. Boaters who feel that their actions will directly affect the health of the ecosystem they fish in will be more likely to exhibit proconservation behavior. 3. Increase duration of intervention. Educational interventions that consist of a one-time, short-term exposure are usually ineffective in encouraging responsible behaviors (Zelezny, 1999; Young, 1993). The brief intervention by Manatee Watch is unlikely to permanently change boaters attitudes or behaviors. A longer, more repetitive or interactive intervention should be successful. This may not work when approaching boaters on the water, but other locations may be feasible such as ramps or community events. A number of respondents were members of boating clubs or organizations; Manatee Watch may be able to work with these groups in educating boaters. Attitude changes from one intervention are

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38 temporary; repetition is often necessary to effect cognitive change (Jacobson, 1999). It could be that additional meetings with boaters would help increase retention of the Manatee Watch message. 4. Have a multi-faceted approach. Interventions that utilize a multi-faceted approach have a higher chance of changing behaviors (Blanchard 1995; Richter 1996). People respond to many different types of education, be it through the media, face-to-face meetings, educational events, or active participation. This evaluation only focused on one brief, face-to-face intervention. Manatee Watch is also involved in neighborhood and community groups and local events. By reaching out to boaters in a variety of ways, they would have a greater chance of success in reaching their goals. More boaters listed newspapers and magazines as their source of information about boating regulations and manatees than any other media (Appendix K). Interpretative materials, such as kiosks at ramps and marinas may be an effective way to educate boaters. 5.Incorporate active participation of boaters. Passive interventions that do not involve active participation are less successful at changing behaviors than interventions that involve the participants (Zelezny, 1999). Manatee Watch gives the boaters materials, and volunteers speak for less than a minute; but little involvement is required of the boaters besides slowing down to receive the materials. Involving the boaters via active participation or interaction would be more successful in changing behavior than by simply giving them materials. Again, this may be difficult on the water, but there may be opportunities at ramps, or by visiting boating clubs and community organizations.

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39 Conclusion From 1999 to 2001, Manatee Watch provided educational materials to 1,222 boaters. The data from this study indicates that the Manatee Watch educational intervention had little effect on the boaters attitudes, knowledge and behaviors regarding manatees. We also found no positive associations with boaters experience with manatees and their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, although, some boating behaviors were correlated with knowledge and positive attitudes. Manatee Watch targets specific behaviors and a specific target audience, which has been a successful approach in other educational programs. To improve effectiveness of this and program we suggest the following: (a) increase knowledge levels and target boaters attitudes towards manatees and ecosystem health, their feelings of ownership and empowerment, (b) increase the duration of the intervention, (c) adopt a multi-faceted approach, and (d) incorporate active participation of the boaters.

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40 APPENDIX A MANATEE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMSOrganizationTargetMaterials/InterventionsContent Save the Manatee Club (www.savethemanate e.org) KidsStudent Education packets (k-12) (includes, brochures, min-poster, facts, educational info). Student Activity/Coloring Book. Video: Manatee Messages, (k-5, 6-12). Also info via web. Ecology/threats. Facts, current news. How to help. Manatee Observation & Education Center (http://www.manateec enter.com) KidsManatee/conservation curriculum for K-5. Camps, festivals, interpretive programs/observation Download from web/mail. Focus on ecology geared for lower grade levels, power plants/use Save the Manatee Club video. video. 5th grade curriculum focuses more on watercraft dangers/mortality and research Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (http://www.floridaco nservation.org/psm/) KidsEducational packets/materials/information Student Activity Workbook (Middle/High school)-FWC. Coloring/activity book (k-5)SMC. Video: A Closer Look at Manatees (6-12)-FWC. (Distributed to schools, libraries, educators). Miniposter-FWC. Biology/anatomy/boating safety/harassment. Use some Save the Manatee Club information. Homosassa Springs Wildlife Park (http://www.hsswp.co m/main.html) General public/kids/ teachers Observation/educational programs about manatees. Info from SMC for teachers/students via mail, web Viewing, comprehensive programs re. ecology, threats. Focus is Homosassa springs. Save the Manatee Club (www.savethemanate e.org) TeachersEducators Guide/In service training/speakers for class/video. Posters, activity books, coloring books, info booklets Mini-poster-FWC. Natural history, habitat, problems affecting manatees, causes of mortality efforts at conservation ways to help/classroom activity ideas, lessons.

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41 OrganizationTargetMaterials/InterventionsContent Save the Manatee Club (www.savethemanate e.org) General Public Promote awareness, education. Through web materials, media. Activism. Adopt a Manatee Program. Brochure: Attention: Swimmers, boaters, divers. By FPL/SMC/USFWS/FWC). Manatee Radio Station w/USFWS Basic ecology, heavy on activism/legislation/boater threats. How to act around manatees. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (http://www.floridaco nservation.org/psm/) TeachersEducator guides (SMC). Classroom materials. Video: A Closer Look at ManateesFWC. Way of the Manatee Teacher Kits-FWC. Use Save the Manatee Club information for educators guides. Classroom materials include posters, skulls. Video covers basic biology. Teacher kits are delivered to schools, teachers are provided with instructions. Blue Springs State Park (http://www.floridasta teparks.org/bluesprin g/default.asp) All AgesObservation/manatee programs Manatee Observation and Education Center (http://www.manateec enter.com/) All AgesObservation/interpretive programs/presentations to organizations/formal manatee classes/boating safety classes Manatee ecology/current trends/threats Tampa Electric Company (http://www.manateeteco.com/) All AgesObservation/visitor centerEnvironmental education building, learn about features, history and habitat. Epcot (http://disneyworld.di sney.go.com/waltdisn eyworld/parksandmor e/attractions/attraction index?id=EPTheLivin gSeasAtt&bhcp=1) Lowry Park Zoo (http://www.lowrypar kzoo.com/NewMainP age/HomePage/Lowr yParkZoo.htmZoo/) Miami Seaquarium (South Florida museum http://miamiseaquariu m.com/index.htm ) Sea World (http://www.seaworld .org/) All AgesCaptive viewing/Interpretive Programs

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42 OrganizationTargetMaterials/InterventionsContent Florida Power and Light (http://www.fpl.com/e nvironment/endanger ed/contents/protecting _manatees.shtml; Van Meter, Victoria. 1989. The Florida Manatee. Florida Power and Light Company) Adultsboaters/ swimmers/ divers Booklet via mail or web. Brochure: Attention: swimmers, boaters, diversguidelines for protecting manatees (SMC/FPL/US Fish and Wildlife/FWC). Also Student Activity Workbook (Middle/high school) by FWC. Mini-poster-FWC. In-depth booklet of manatee ecology, populations trends, threats. Brochure-Dos/Donts, guidelines for protection. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (http://www.floridaco nservation.org/psm/) BoatersEducational information, via web, mail. Brochures. Manatees; Miss Her Now or Miss Her Forever, Attention: Swimmers, Boaters, Divers. Boating Safety Classes. Video: The State of the Manatees. (Distributed to Coast Guard, parks, dive shops, govt. facilities.) Brochure/web info on how to boat responsibly, What to look for, where to avoid. What boats do to manatees. How to behave around manatees. Classes cover manatee protection zones, harassment, how to boat around manatees. Video covers tips for safe boating, how to read signs, spot manatees, avoid causing injury. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (http://www.floridaco nservation.org/psm/) General public Info via web, mail. Brochures: Manatees Miss her now or miss her forever. Attention: Swimmers, boaters, divers. Guidelines for protecting manatees. Booklet: Commonly Asked questions about manatees. FPL booklet. Educational inserts. Manatee News Quarterly Newsletter. Miniposter. Brochure from Disney World: Tips for Protecting Manatees. No formal program Manatee facts, biology, where to see manatees, current threats/regulations. Guidelines for protection. Newsletter on current manatee news/Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission involvement. Crystal River NWR. US Fish and Wildlife (http://crystalriver.fw s.gov/) Visitors to Crystal River NWR. Brochures-by FWC. BookletFPL. Student Activity BookFWC Mini-poster-FWC. Manatee Radio station in Crystal River-w/SMC. Same as others. Save the Manatee Club (www.savethemanate e.org) BoatersBrochuresTips on how to boat safely through lock structures.

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43 OrganizationTargetMaterials/InterventionsContent Tampa Bay Manatee Watch (http://www.tampaba ywatch.org/) Boaters, neighborhood associations, waterfront communities Free boater education kits/intervention on water, boat ramps brief educational talk Establish manatee neighborhoods For boaters, basic info re. Threats/habitats. Neighborhoods: presentations re. Manatee ecology, status, conservation, Manatee Watch education programs, and ways to get involved. Tampa Bay Estuary Manatee Awareness Coalition (MAC) (http://www.tbep.org/ manateefriendly.html) BoatersBrochure: Look out below! Where Seagrasses Grow, Manatees Go Map of Tampa Bay; information pertaining to Manatees in Tampa Bay, how to protect Manatees and seagrasses

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44 APPENDIX B REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS ABOUT MANATEES Numerous groups are involved in manatee education in the state of Florida. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission is the state agency involved with education and protection efforts. Several non-profit organizations, nature centers, parks and electric companies conduct their own educational programs. These programs and publications try to reach many audiences, such as students, the general public and boaters. The content of educational materials vary greatly from one program to another. Some focus on manatee ecology, such as habitat, range, behavior, and reproduction, while others focus on the perils facing the manatee, such as boats, habitat loss and lack of protection. The content of these programs and publications are examined in this review to determine their pertinence in light of the present threats to the manatee. The media for the educational programs varies from program to program. Brochures, booklets, coloring books, posters, videos, school curriculums, interpretive tours and direct intervention are all methods used to educate people about the manatees. Florida Fish and Wildlife The Bureau of Protected Species Management is the arm of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission charged with protecting the manatee in Florida waters. They are responsible for planning and implementing management activities for the protection of the manatee. Their management strategy includes the implementation of

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45 outreach and education programs (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2001). The FWC maintains a website devoted to manatee information. The web site is comprehensive, covering manatee biology, natural history, habitat, range, behavior, current status, threats, where to see manatees, where to swim with manatees, manatee events and festivals, etc. Students and teachers can access information via web or mail. FWC will provide students with activity books, posters and other information pertaining to their grade level. The FWC utilizes some information developed by the Save the Manatee Club. Teachers can receive an educators guide (SMC), posters, classroom materials, and a video. Manatee Teacher Kits are also in the process of being implemented in some school systems. Information for boaters is provided on the website. This includes information on why boats are a threat to manatees, how they affect and kill manatees, how to boat safely around manatees, and what constitutes harassment of manatees. Through the internet boaters can access information on how to take a boating safety course; courses can also be taken online. Education on boating with manatees is a component of the courses. There is a mandatory law requiring anyone born after September 30, 1980 to take a boating education course (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2001). There are numerous brochures developed by the FWC about boating safely with manatees. A video: The State of the Manatees, covers tips for safe boating, how to read manatee signs, how to spot manatees, and avoid injuring them. The video had been distributed to coast guard auxiliaries, law enforcement personnel, various government representatives, dive shops and environmental workshops (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2001) The FWC also develops and distributes manatee signs for the Florida waterways. These signs are either regulatory or educational in content.

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46 In 1989 the governor directed 13 counties that were thought to be key areas in manatee protection to develop manatee protection plans. These plans are to include educational and outreach programs to the public, divers and boaters. To date five of these counties have developed Manatee Protection Plans; several others counties are in the process of developing one. FWC education sta ff work with Manatee Protection Plan staff to determine each countys educational needs, and how to implement the programs (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commision, 2001). The FWC education plan focuses on different target audiences: schoolchildren, boaters, and the general public. While it is multifaceted in approachutilizing different methods and targeting different audiences, literature suggests that a more hands on approach, where people were more involved, would be more effective (Blanchard, 1995; Morse, 1996; Richter, 1996; Zelezny, 1999). Br ochures, the web and videos and other written information are the primary methods utilized by FWC. Educational interventions have shown to be most effective when there is active participation by the target audience (Zelezny, 1999). Short-term programs, with no active participation are the least effective in changing behavior (Zelezny, 1999). Educational outreach programs are successful when they involve people, and when people have a vested interest and a sense of ownership about the problem or species in question (Hungerford & Volk, 1990, Morse, 1996). Past studies suggest that educational strategies that actively involved boaters, and gave them a sense of responsibility would be effective (Hungerford & Volk, 1990). Children respond well to long-term classroom interventions. Activity books such as distributed by the FWC need to be accompanied by a more structured program, where the children can actively participate. The educators guide facilitates this, as do the Manatee Teachers Kits that are now being implemented.

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47 While classrooms provide an ideal environment for the type of structured, longerterm interventions that are so successful, it is necessary to develop programs of this nature for other audiences, such as boaters. Schoolchildren are the primary recipients of an excellent education program, while boaters mainly receive brochures and read signs. Manatee Observation and Education Center The Manatee Observation and Education Center is a nonprofit nature education and wildlife observation facility located on the Indian River lagoon, in Ft. Pierce, Florida. Through a wide range of techniques they are able to educate a variety of people about manatee ecology and the threats facing the animal. The center has developed formal curriculums for grades k-5; teachers can schedule classes or download the curriculum from the web. These lesson plans cover local ecology and are focused around manatees. The Center runs spring and summer camps for school age children, and has nature and manatee centered festivals throughout the year. For adults that are interested in learning about manatees a series of classes are offered at the center. People can participate in naturalist programs on south Florida/Indian River Lagoon ecology. Interpretative programs are offered for visitors and it is possible to observe manatees in the wild from the center. Presentations about manatee biology and current hazards are available to community groups in the local area. The Manatee Observation and Education targets boaters by offering free boating safety classes, taught by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The Manatee Observation and Education Center reaches out to a wide array of people, tourists, boaters, students and adults. Their education techniques range from short and informal, to programs of a longer and more structured nature. The center receives over 80,000 visitors a year, and reaches many more though other outreach programs. The

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48 type of formal, structured curriculum offered by the center has proven to be very effective in changing the behaviors and attitudes of school children (Zelezny 1999). Past studies have shown that outreach pr ograms of this multi-faceted type, reaching out to different groups of people, have proven to be effective (Morse, 1996). Save the Manatee Club Save the Manatee Club was established in 1981 by former Florida Governor Bob Graham and singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett. SMC was started so the public could participate in conservation efforts to save endangered manatees from extinction. SMC is a membership-based, national nonprofit organization. The funds from their Adopt-A-Manatee Program go toward public awareness and education projects; manatee research; rescue and rehabilitation efforts; advocacy and legal action in order to ensure better protection for manatees and their habitat. Presently there are approximately 40,000 members (www.savethemanatee.org) SMC releases information regarding current manatee issues to the press on a regular basis. They produce signs alerting people to the presence of manatees on Florida waterways, and produce waterproof decals for boats that offer tips on how to reduce harm to manatees. SMC, in conjunction with other groups, has produced numerous brochures, focusing on boating safety and manatee harassment. SMC, together with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have co-funded a manatee information radio station in Crystal River Florida, which informs the public on how to act around manatees. SMC also maintains a web site devoted to manatee ecology, information, threats, current issues, and conservation efforts. Much of the SMC educational efforts have been focused on school children in Florida. Students can download information form the web, or send away for student

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49 information packets geared for their specific grade level. Teachers can send away for educators guides; these guides cover a wealth of information about manatees, and give ideas for lessons and activities, as well as strategies for teaching about the manatee. SMC offers in service training to educators, and has speakers available to speak to classes. SMC has produced: "Manatee Messages: What You Can Do! an educational videotape distributed to schools throughout Florida. This video provides a description of manatees, and includes information on their behavior and habitat, conservation information, and what students can do to help save manatees from extinction. The video is available in elementary (grades K-5) and secondary (grades 6-12) formats. Children are the primary target audience of the Save the Manatee Education Program. While there is no formal curriculum, information is geared to specific grade levels, and teachers are given guides, as well as in-service training on how to teach about the manatee. Literature shows that classroom programs are more effective when teachers are given training, rather than just receiving printed material (Charles, 1988). Much of the educational material is focused on the dangers of watercrafts to manatees, and how to boat more safely. Reckless boating is identified as a problem behavior, yet children are the main recipients of this message. When a target behavior is identified, education should be targeted to the audience that performs that certain behavior. In this case, while children respond well to classroom interventions, they are not the ones engaging in the behavior that is harmful to manatees. Educational interventions should target a specific audience and should focus on the behavior known to cause the conservation problem (Ham & Krumpe, 1996). This educational program targets the behavior but not the audience.

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50 Save the Manatee Club boater education consists of brochures and media campaigns. Nonformal, passive programs of this type have not been effective in the past (Zelezny 1999).

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51 APPENDIX C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Hello, My name is ________. Im calling from the University of Florida. We are conducting a study about boating in Tampa Bay. This is not a sales call in any way. This research is being conducted by the university and we would only like your opinion. (As necessary: We started an interview a few days ago and Im calling back to complete that interview. May we begin?) My questions are for the primary boat user in your household. May I please speak to him or her? Hello. We are conducting a study about boaters opinions and boating in Tampa Bay. This is not a sales call in any way. This research is being conducted by the university and we would only like your opinion. According to our selection procedures, I need to interview you as the primary boat user in the household. Your phone number was selected at random, from a list of boat owners in Florida. Your answers will be completely confidential. You do not have to answer any questions you dont wish to. May I begin with your first name? Record sex of respondent (not informant) 1.Male 2.Female And what is your age? Q 1: About how many times have you boated in Tampa Bay in the last year? (Read Choices) 1. Less than 10 2. 11 to 50 3. More than 50 4. Havent boated in Tampa Bay -8 dont know -9 not available

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52 Q 2:What is your primary activity when you are boating in Tampa Bay? (Read Choices) consciousness 1.Sport fishing 2.sailing 3.power cruising 4.recreation 5.Water Skiing 6.Commuting 7.personal watercraft use 8.Other work-related 9.other -8 dont know -9 not available Q 3: During which season do you usually visit Tampa Bay: summer, winter or year-round 1.Summer 2.Winter 3.all-year round -8 dont know -9 unavailable Now, I would like your opinion on some issues. Please tell me if you strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements. There is no wrong or right answer, and we are inte rested only in your personal opinion. If you do not have an opinion on an issue, you may answer, dont know. Q 4: I support programs to protect the manatee even though it means reducing the speed allowed on some waterways. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.Strongly agree 6.dont know 7.unavailable Q 5: I support programs to protect the manatee even if it means boats would not be allowed to enter some areas. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree 6.dont know 7.unavailable

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53 Q 6: I support setting speed limits in areas wh ere natural resources, such as sea grass, need protection. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree 6.dont know 7.unavailable Q 7a: I support increased public education to protect the manatee. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree 6.dont know 7.unavailable Q 7b:If agree or strongly agree, go to: Would you be willing to pay a boat license surcharge for increased public education to protect the manatee? 1 Yes 2 No Q 7c. If yes, go to: On a scale from 0 to 20 dollars, how much would you be willing to pay? 0-20 Q 8a: I support increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree 6.dont know 7.unavailable Q 8b:If agree or strongly agree, go to: Would you be willing to pay a boat license surcharge for increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee? 1 Yes 2 No

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54 Q 8c:If yes, go to: On a scale from 0 to 20 dollars, how much would you be willing to pay? 0-20 Q 9: Speed zones are adequately signed. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 10: Manatees are in need of protection. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 11: There should be protected areas for manatees, where boats are not allowed to enter. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 12: The manatee is an endangered species. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable

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55 Q 13: I have been negatively affected by regulations protecting the manatee. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 14: The manatee is worth saving despite the need for regulations. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 15: Feeding a manatee will disturb it. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 16: Touching a manatee that does not first approach you is considered harassment. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 17: Any human activity that changes a manatees behavior is harassment. 1.Strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable

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56 Q 18:Manatees have to be fed by people because there may not be enough natural food for them. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 19: Manatees feed in seagrass beds. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 20: Manatees are harmful to seagrass beds. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 21: Boating slowly over seagrass beds will help me to avoid manatees. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 22: Boats should have no wake in an idle speed zone. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable

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57 Q 23: I can better avoid manatees by staying in deep water channels while boating. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 24: Discarded fishing lines are a threat to manatees. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 25: Wearing polarized sunglasses can help me see manatees better. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 26: A swirl on the surface of the water may signal that a manatee is below. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 27: I carry nautical charts with me when boating. (Read Choices) 1.all of the time 2.a lot of the time 3.sometimes 4.occasionally 5.never

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58 Q 28: Nautical charts help me to determine where manatees are located. 3.strongly disagree 4.disagree 5.neither agree nor disagree 6.agree 7.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 29: In your opinion, what proportion of ma natee deaths are boat-related? (READ CHOICES) 1.almost none 2.about a quarter 3.about half 4.about three-quarters 5.almost all -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 30: Why do you think there are boat-related manatee deaths? (Please dont read choices.) 1.Manatees in the way of boats/they cant get out of the way 2.Boaters are careless/any form of carelessness 3.too many boats on the water 4.lack of law enforcement 5.Other 6.excessive speed -8 dont know -9 not available Q 31 In your opinion, what proportion of boaters violate speed zones? (READ CHOICES) 1.almost none 2.about a quarter 3.about half 4.about three-quarters 5.almost all -8 dont know -9 unavailable

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59 Q 32:In your opinion, what proportion of boaters enter areas closed for manatee protection? (READ CHOICES) 1.almost none 2.about a quarter 3.about half 4.about three-quarters 5.almost all -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 33: In your opinion, what proportions of boaters harass manatees? (READ CHOICES) 1.almost none 2.about a quarter 3.about half 4.about three-quarters 5.almost all -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 34: Manatees are in Tampa Bay (READ CHOICES). 1.during the summer only 2.during the winter only 3.all-year round 4.seldom -8 dont know -9 not available Q 36: Do you maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water, less than 6 feet deep? (Read Choices) 1.always 2.frequently 3.sometimes 4.seldom 5. never Q 37: When boating in shallow water, do you watch out for manatees in order to avoid them? (Read Choices) 1.always 2.frequently 3.sometimes 4.seldom 5. never

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60 Q 37: Have you taken a Boating Safety Course? (NEW) 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont Know -9 Unavailable Q 39: If you run aground what do you do? (Not necessary to read choices) 1.Start the engine up 2.Wait for the tide to come in 3.Use a push pole 4.Get out and push the boat into deeper water 5.call a tow boat 6.Other 7.turn off the engine 8.dont know 9.refused Q 40: If you see a sick or injured manatee, what would you do? ( Not necessary to read choices) 1.call someone 2.call coast guard 3.call Florida Marine Patrol 4.call local law enforcement 5.tell people at the marina 6.call Mote Marine 7.avoid manatee 8.assist manatee 9.do nothing 10.other 11.call the fish and wildlife officer/commission(FWC) -8 dont know -9 refused We are almost finished. The next set of questions I have will help us analyze your answers along with the answers of others.

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61 Q 41:Where do you get MOST of your information about boating regulations? (Not necessary to read choices.) 1.family and friends 2.personal experience/knowledge 3.boating clubs 4.casual contacts with fellow boaters 5.fishing clubs 6.boat supply stores 7.bait and tackle stores 8.printed material such as brochures 9.newspapers or magazines 10.radio 11.television 12.signs posted on waterways 13.navigational charts 14.other 15.Websites 16.Coast Guard -8 dont know -9 not available Q 42:Where do you get MOST of your information about manatees? (Not necessary to read choices) 1.family and friends 2.personal experience/knowledge 3.educational signs 4.local environmental organizations 5.printed materials such as brochures 6.boat supply stores 7.bait and tackle stores 8.newspaper or magazines 9.radio 10.television 11.other 12.websites 13.dont get information on manatees -8 dont know -9 not available Q 43: Has anyone from an organization ever talked to you about boating safely with manatees while you were boating in Tampa Bay? 1 Yes 2 No -8 dont know -9 Unavailable

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62 Q 44:Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch given you informational materials about manatees such as, a nautical chart, keychain, fishing yardstick or polarized sunglasses while you were boating in Tampa Bay? 1.Yes 2.no -8 dont know -9 unavailable If no, go to question 47. If yes, go to: Q 45: Do you use any of these materials while boating? 1 yes 2 no -9 dont know -9 unavailable If no, go to question 46. If yes, go to: Q 46: Of these materials, which ones do you use? (Read Choices ) 1.waterproof chartyes no 2.polarized sunglassesyes no 3.floating keychainyes no 4.fishing yardstickyes no Q 47: These materials have helped me to learn about manatees. 1.strongly disagree 2.disagree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.agree 5.strongly agree -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 48: How many years have you lived in Florida? 0-100 -8 dont know -9 not available Q 49a: Have you ever seen manatees while boating?) 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont know -9 not available

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63 Q 49b:If yes, go to: About how many times have you seen manatees while boating in the past year? (Read Choices) 1.Never 2.1 to 5 times 3.6 or more Q 50a: Have you ever seen manatees while swimming? 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 50b:If yes, go to: About how many times have you seen manatees while swimming? (Read Choices) 1.Never 2.1-5 times 3.6 or more Q 51: Have you ever visited an area for the purpose of seeing manatees? 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 52: Have you ever participated in an educational program about manatees? 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 53:Are you a member of any local wildlife, conservation or sporting club or organization? (Changed it to include conservation organization) 1.Yes 2.No -8 dont know -9 unavailable If yes, which one(s)?

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64 Q 54: How many years of boating experience do you have? 0-100 -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 55: How far is your home from the Tampa Bay waterfront? (Read choices) 1.I live on the water 2.less than a mile 3.1-5 miles 4.6-20 miles 5.more than 20 miles Q 56: Do you have a manatee license plate? 1.yes 2.no -8 dont know -9 unavailable Q 57: What is the highest grade of school or year in college you have completed? (Not necessary to read choices) 0 None11 High School 1 Elementary12 High School 2 Elementary13 College 3 Elementary14 College 4 Elementary15 College 5 Elementary16 College 6 Elementary17 Some Graduate School 7 Elementary18 Graduate/Prof. Degree 8 Elementary-8 Dont Know 9 High School-9 not available 10 High School Q 58: How would you describe your race or ethnic background? (If necessary, read choices.) 1.Caucasian 2.African American 3.Asian or Pacific islander 4.American Indian 5.Hispanic/Latino 6.Other (specify) 7.Multi-racial or mixed race -8 dont know -9unavailable

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65 Q 59: Now consider your familys household income from all member sources before taxes. As I read a list, please stop me when I get to the income level that best describes your household income in 1999. 1.less than 20,000 2.21,000 to 40,000 3.41,000 to 60,000 4.61,000 to 80,000 5.81,000 to 100,000 6.100,000 to 150,000 7.Over 150,000 -8 dont know -9 not available Q 60: If we were to repeat the survey next year, would you be willing to participate in it? 1 Yes -8 dont know -9 Unavailable Slogan: Now Im going to read the first part of a phrase and ask that you complete it. The phrase begins: Go Slow, Blank, Blank (Int: resp. should complete phrase--.) (Probe if resp. says they dont know how to finish phrase) 1.Manatees below 2.Any other answer that includes Manatee or Manatees 3.All other answers -8 dont know -9 refused Thank you. This completes the survey. Thank you very much. If you have any questions regarding the survey, you may contact Dr. Susan Jacobson, Professor as the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Her phone number is 352-846-0562

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66 APPENDIX D DISPOSITION REPORTS Treatment Group Sample Report By Last Disposition:BOAT2 Treatment Group09/09/02 11:06 AM DISPOSITION CODEDESCRIPTIONRECORDS 1100Complete206 1200Partial complete 2110Strong refusal23 2120Soft refusal22 2210Resp never available1 2221Ans machine, no message69 2222Ans machine, message10 2320Phys/mentally unable1 2330Lang unable-don't use for sp1 2340Misc unable 3120Busy5 3130No answer42 3150Technical phone problems6 4200Fax/data line6 4310Non-working number5 4320Disconnected number22 4410Number changed 4420Cell phone 4510Business/government/other org4 4520Institution 4530Group quarters 4700No eligible respondent41 5100Callback, resp not selected6 5200Callback, respondent selected7 TOTAL ATTEMPTED 477 Not Attempted0 TOTAL SAMPLE 477

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67 Control Group Sample Report By Last Disposition:BOAT2 Control Group09/09/02 11:15 AM DISPOSITION CODEDESCRIPTIONRECORDS 1100Complete296 1200Partial complete1 2110Strong refusal83 2120Soft refusal52 2210Resp never available 2221Ans machine, no message120 2222Ans machine, message11 2320Phys/mentally unable2 2330Lang unable-don't use for sp 2340Misc unable 3120Busy15 3130No answer68 3150Technical phone problems4 4200Fax/data line21 4310Non-working number11 4320Disconnected number63 4410Number changed1 4420Cell phone 4510Business/government/other org8 4520Institution 4530Group quarters 4700No eligible respondent88 5100Callback, resp not selected29 5200Callback, respondent selected8 TOTAL ATTEMPTED 881 Not Attempted0 TOTAL SAMPLE 881

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68 APPENDIX E LIST OF CLUBS THAT RESPONDENTS ARE MEMBERS OF BOATING CLUBS Boating Club (2) Westcoast Cruisers Windjammers Sailing Club St. Petersburg Power Squadron Tampa Sailing Squadron (2) Coast Guard Auxiliary (4) Yacht Club (2) Boat Scuba West National Association of Charter Boat Operators A boating club Davis Island Yacht Club Boat U.S. (4) Pasadena Yacht Club Boca Ciega Squadron Club U.S Power Squadron Environmental Clubs Audubon Society (3) World Wildlife Fund (2) Key West Environmental Reef Protection Coastal Conservation Organization (25) Save the Manatee Club Sierra Club (5) Sanctuary Florida Wildlife Federation Defenders of Wildlife Tampa Bay Watch Audubon Society (2) Florida Conservation Association (2) Nature Conservancy Snook Foundation Ducks unlimited (5) Surfrider

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69 Fishing Clubs National Fishing Association Fishing Conservation Association Freshwater Sporting Club St. Petersburg Power Squadron Old Salts Fishing Club (6) Florida Sportsmen magazine fishing Forum (2) St. Pete Pro-Bass (2) Bass Society (2) Gainesville/Alachua Fishing Club Ft. Pierce Sport Fishing Club St. Pete Underwater Club Southern Kingfish Association (2) Florida Fishermen Association Golden Triangle Sport Fishing Club Fishing Sporting Club North American Fishing Organization (3) Sporting Club Hunting Club of Cross City Junior Sportsmen Association National Recreational Association National Rifle Association (4) International Game Fish Association (3) Safari Club International Game Club National Wild Turkey Federation Other Seabug (2) Boyd-Hill Nature park NOAH Florida Guides Association (4) Lowry Park Zoo Duet Park State Wild Park United States Coast Guard National Estuary Policy Board

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70 APPENDIX F BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED ALWAYS/FREQUENTLY Behavior ItemTreatment (%) Control (%) Total (%) I carry nautical charts with me while boating.65.568.367.3 Do you maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water? When boating in shallow water, do you watch out for manatees, in order to avoid them? 66.8 89.4 71.1 89.8 69.6 89.8

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71 APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF ATTITUDE RESPONSES Attitude Strongly Agree/Agree (%) Neither Agree/Disagree (%) Strongly Disagree/Disagree (%) Treat.Cont.Treat.Cont.Treat.Cont. Support for speed reduction.75.17855.419.916.6 Support for no-entry areas. 59.361.76.55.234.233.1 Support for speed limits in seagrass areas. 87.190.74.01.79.07.6 Support for public education56.566.55.53.538.029.9 Support for increased patrols. 63.563.75.13.731.532.5 Manatees need protection. 81.080.89.03.810.015.5 Manatee is worth saving86.689.58.83.54.67.0 Negatively affected by regulations. 20.424.58.55.571.170.0

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72 APPENDIX H SUMMARY OF BOATERS EXPERIENCE WITH MANATEES Experience ItemYes (%) No (%) Have you ever seen manatees while boating?92.08.5 Have you ever seen manatees while swimming?43.057.2 Have you ever visited an area for the purpose of seeing manatees? 53.546.5 Have you ever participated in an educational program about manatees? 16.383.7

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73 APPENDIX I REVIEW OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR CONSERVATION State education systems, conservation agencies and non-profit groups have designed formal short-term and long-term school curricula for all ages of students. Programs by state and non-profit environmental groups targeting communities, in regards to local endangered species, and informal outreach programs are also methods used in educating the public about conservation issues. Television, newspapers, magazines and radio are important channels in educational outreach campaigns. Formal and informal programs with children are evaluated more often than programs with adults. Structured programs associated with schools have proven to be the most effective in changing behaviors of children (Zelezny, 1999). Short-term programs result in an increase in positive attitudes, while longer-term programs are more effective and result in increases in pro-conservation behavior (Hines et al., 1986, Bogner, 1998). Studies in which children and adults are exposed to a variety of environmental education programs show that children show the most potential for changing their attitudes and behavior, compared to adults (Zelezny, 1999). Media Interventions Media interventions, when used alone as an educational tool, have not been found to have significant effects on behavior or attitudes. A study on a television documentary on marine mammals showed that viewers knowledge increases and attitudes shifted immediately after watching the program, but only for the short-term (Fortner & Lynon, 1985).

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74 A mass media campaign on the greenhouse effect, sponsored by the Dutch government was evaluated to determine its success. This program in the Netherlands had two goals: to provide information on the characteristics, causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, and to enhance awareness on how to solve the problem. No effects were found for emotional concern, perceived seriousness of the problem or voluntary behavior change. Knowledge and awareness did not have a strong correlation with behavior in this instance (Staats, Wit, & Midden, 1996). Environmental education programs that utilize the media as an educational tool, in conjunction with other methods, have been effective (Morse, 1996, Richter, 1996). These will be discussed in further detail below. Community Outreach Programs Community outreach programs pertaining to endangered species have been effective, resulting in changes in individuals behaviors and an increase in protected areas. When citizens are taught the natural history of a species, and are exposed to a wide variety of information through television, print media, radio and field trips, they become more actively involved in recovery efforts. The Fish and Wildlife Services New England Field Office in Keene, New Hampshire designed an outreach program focusing on the Dwarf Wedge Mussel, an endangered species threatened by encroaching development. Schoolteachers, town officials, businessmen, media and citizens were invited to participate in a Meet the Mussel Day. Informative talks on the natural history of the mussel were given; people learned that protecting the mussels would also protect the citys water supply. Plans to expand a golf course into mussel habitat were modified, citizens are now actively involved in mussel recovery efforts (Morse, 1996).

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75 Seabirds on the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence were suffering major population declines between 1955-1978. A comprehensive management plan was designed in 1980 that included a strong educational component for the communities in the area. Both children and adults were the focus of a multifaceted education strategy that included print media, face-to-face lessons, interpretative tours and volunteer programs. A follow up survey in 1998 documented improvement in knowledge, attitudes and behavior, increased local involvement in s eabird protection, and increased populations of seabirds (Blanchard, 1995). The protection of the Karner Blue Butterfly in Concord, New Hampshire is another example of a successful community outreach program (Morse, 1996). This animal survives in a remnant of pine barren habitat near the Concord airport; an area proposed for industrial development. The Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nature Conservancy began an informational campaign to protect the butterfly, focusing on the uniqueness of the species. Outreach efforts included television, print media, radio interviews and field trips to see the butterfly. An agreement was made to set aside 28 acres of habitat for the butterfly, and most area businesses are now cooperating with The Nature Conservancy and the Fish and Wildlife Service in the effort to protect the butterfly. Outreach programs by state and non-profit groups have been successful when they are multi-faceted, involving entire communities, especially when the people have a vested interest in the animals survival. The Kirtlands Warbler is an endangered species that nests in the Upper and Lower Peninsula of Michigan. The species had a total count of 334 individuals in 1987. At the time of this study (1995), the count was at 1,530 individuals. An outreach plan by the Fish And Wildlife Service was designed to increase the publics understanding of the bird. The plan detailed various goals, target audiences,

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76 key messages, guidelines and specific actions. The education committee consisted of interpretation specialists, biologists and private citizens. Free daily tours to see the birds were offered at the inception of the plan. Now the tours attract birders from all over the world, bringing money into the local communities. Another strategy has been a Kirtlands Warbler Festival, an event that allows birdwatchers and local communities to participate in bringing tourist dollars into the local area. Local businesses and residents now view the Kirtlands Warbler as an asset worth preserving, not an obstruction to economic development (Richter, 1996). Programs for Children Numerous studies have documented changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior in schoolchildren after exposure to an environmental education program. A study of 5thgrade boys by Asch and Shore (1975) showed that children exposed to a formal program of environmental education will demonstrate (in a natural setting) more proconservation behavior than a control group. A meta-analysis by Zelezny (1999) of educational interventions showed that interventions of a longer duration have more of an effect on behavior. Hines and colleagues (1986) found that programs that consisted of short-term exposures were ineffective in promoting environmentally responsible behaviors. Bogner (1998) measured changes in behavior of schoolchildren after involvement in a one-day ecology program versus a five-day residential program. Results showed that only the residential five-day program had any result on behavioral levels. Studies of schoolchildrens conservation attitudes who participated in 4-H outdoor ecology programs showed that experiences of a longer duration were more successful than short term experiences (Shepard & Speelman, 1985).

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77 In general, formal, long-term programs directed at students have the greatest effect in changing attitudes and behaviors. Studies of outreach programs targeting adults are few, but the ones that do exist show that behaviors and attitudes can be changed in regards to a particular species, especially when the programs are more structured and multifaceted in nature. Experiential Education Programs Studies of experiential education have demonstrated the power of direct experiences in developing greater understanding and awareness of environmental issues. Experiential education can make important contributions in the development of environmental concern and individual actions that results in pro-conservation behaviors (Ewert, 1996). Natural contact with nature seems to reinforce environmental education and increase empathy for the conservation of species in the wild (Miles, 1986). Through direct experience with the natural world we can develop a better understanding of wildlife and their needs, and become more committed to their conservation. Siemer and Knuth (2001) studied the effect s of an experiential fishing and aquatic stewardship program, versus the effects of non-experiential fishing and aquatic stewardship program on teenagers. The experience-based program resulted in higher levels of knowledge of fishing, aquatic environments, ecological concepts and aquatic habitat protection. In addition, youth that were involved in the experiential program placed more importance on visiting wetlands, thinking about how personal actions affect aquatic plants and animals, and limiting the impact on the environment while fishing. Knapp and Poff (2001) measured the differences in physical, experiential interpretative programs versus passive interpretative programs. He found that physical

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78 experiences were much more memorable than passive experiences, and resulted in increased knowledge on the part of the participants. Orams (1996) suggests that wildlife can benefit from ecotourism by encouraging ecotourists to take a more active role where their activities can contribute to the conservation of wildlife and the environment. He argues for an increase in educationbased management regimes that are designed to control visitor interaction with wildlife, increase tourist enjoyment, and promote a change in attitudes and behavior. Formal programs for adults have shown to be effective when targeting specific behaviors. A study of the impact of an educational intervention at a wild dolphin feeding facility in Australia showed that a formal, structured educational program was effective in controlling ecotourists behaviors towards the dolphins (Orams & Hill, 1998). In this particular study, education reduced all inappropriate behaviors (measured).

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79 APPENDIX J SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT BOATING REGULATIONS AND MANATEES Source of Information about Boating Regulations Treatment Group (%) Control Group (%) Family and friends3.54.1 Personal experience/knowledge9.010.7 Boating clubs1.51.7 Fishing clubs1.00.3 Casual contacts w/ boaters1.51.7 Boat supply stores2.01.4 Bait and tackle stores2.52.1 Printed material (brochures)12.48.3 Newspapers or magazines28.424.1 Television1.52.1 Signs posted on waterways2.52.1 Navigational charts1.50.3 Websites/internet5.55.9 Coast guard10.011.4 Other17.423.8 Source of Information about Manatees Treatment Group (%) Control Group (%) Family and Friends4.03.0 Personal experience/knowledge9.08.4 Educational signs2.54.1 Local environmental organizations8.52.4 Printed materials such as brochures10.05.7 Bait and tackle stores1.50.7 Newspapers and magazines28.436.8 radio2.50.7 television12.916.9 websites2.03.7 Dont get information on manatees3.54.4 other15.413.2

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80 APPENDIX K LIST OF REASONS FOR BOAT-RELATED DEATHS: REPORTED IN THE OTHER CATEGORY Treatment Group Because its difficult for man and manatees to co-exist Boats and manatees both use the water (5) They occupy canals, channels, where there are boats there are manatees, where there are manatees there are boats Over-boating Because they get run over (2) Three ports in Tampa bay. Lots of boats to get hit by, get trapped in structures Too much drinking of people on boats Lack of a person knowing how to operate a boat correctly Have never seen a death Too much traffic in mating times Boats are going to hit manatees as long as the two co-exist On the surface, proximity to the surface, dont hear the boat coming I wonder how many jet skies there are, they are slow and boaters cant see them I think there are more manatees than reported The number of boats and the population of people( 2) Not enough education (2) Too many boats (2) Because people boat where they live Boats with deep draft in shallow waters in board only Stupidity Improper signage People not obeying signs and no wake Number of boats and more manatees than ever before(2) Why dont they tell us the right answers Natural selection Because the manatee cannot get out of the way of the propeller Hitting them There are too many manatees. They are not declining but growing in population and increased number of boats. There are more ma natees then when I came to Florida in 1962. High traffic area Propeller (2) ]There are boaters who do not care about the needs of the manatees Too many people out there Because they are a stupid animal, nice but stupid

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81 Hit by props, if not deep even at idle they can get hit Boating activity in manatee areas, and manatee activity in boating areas Too many speed boats. When they go 90 miles an hour the manatees dont have a chance. Saw a bunch on Shell Island and People were tryi ng to catch them and they had scars-even the babies Control Group Striking manatees, impact Manatees and boaters both exist Commercial traffic in shipping lanes Population of boaters increases Poor information People cant see them (6) They go after the sound of the propeller Our pleasure and their (manatee) living at the same time It just happens, no one does it on purpose Ive seen pictures of the scars Because they are slowwe dont hit dolphins When a boat runs into a manatee it cuts them up Accidents happen Boaters are not aware that manatees are there We dont know about them, like their habits The manatee got in the way of the boat Boats are traversing manatee areas I do not know if there are manatee deaths We are in the same space (4) Get hit by propellers (4) Manatees are in channels that they dont normally go Boats are manatees only natural enemy Public unawareness of the habitats and their overall lack of mobility; they dont move as fast as other animals, (like a dolphin) Some people pay attention No fences underwater for the manatees People are not informed on how to protect them Boating traffic There are more of them. They are too friendly They are mammals, they have to breath, so accidents occur People do not follow regulations Because they cant hear the low frequency idle engine while were idling in low speed zones Increase in motor boats Human interaction, feeding, taming, petting them used to being around boats Failure to obey laws People dont know where manatees are Too many boats on the water (2)

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82 Lack of knowledge on boaters behalf Boats hit the manatee (2) Because manatees come to the surface Too many manatees (2) Boaters are unaware of where they are So few, and anything can get in the way of a propeller. The boats arent that much of a hazard, only three deaths in the county in the last ten years. Just like car accidents, they are bound to happen Lack of awareness by boater They come in close proximity with props form the engines They are large and slow They are underneath the water, and they are slow moving There are power plants that force manatees to be in inappropriate areas, they are artificially attracted and boaters are clueless" Lots of manatees, lots of boats Manatees are not boat shy Dumb asses Large boats create a vacuum with their propellers that manatees get sucked into Unacknowledged people who arent willing to take responsibility for watching out for manatees

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83 REFERENCES Aipanjiguly, K., Jacobson, S. K., & Flamm, R. 2003. Conserving manatees: Knowledge, attitutdes, and intentions of boaters in Tampa Bay, Florida. Conservation Biology, 17 (4), 1098-1105. American Association for Public Opinion Re search. (2002). Standards and best practices. Retrieved November 1, 2002, from http://www.aapor.org Arrison, K. (2003). 2002 manatee mortality. Retrieved November 3, 2003, from http://www.Floridamarine.org Asch, J., & Shore, B. (1975). Conservation be havior as the outcome of environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 25-33. Blanchard, K. (1995). Reversing population declines in seabirds on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In S. K. Jacobson (Ed.), Conserving wildlife, international education and communication approaches (pp. 51-63). New York: Columbia University Press. Bogner, F. X. (1998). The influence of short-term outdoor ecology education on longterm variables of environmental perspective. Journal Of Environmental Education, 29, 17-29. Ericsson, G., & Heberlein, T. A. (2003). Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation, 111 (2), 149-159. Ewert, A. 0. (1996). Experiential education and natural resource management The Journal of Experiential Education, 19, 29-32 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. (2001). Education and information. Manatee News Quarterly, 5 (3), 9-10. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. (2003). Boating and Waterways. Retrieved November 3, 2003, from http://Floridaconservation.org/psm/ Fortner, R. W., & Lynon, A. E. (1985). Effects of a Cousteau television program on viewer knowledge and attitudes. The Journal of Environmental Education, 16 (3), 12-20.

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84 Ham, S. H., & Krumpe, E. E. (1996). Identifying audiences and messages for nonformal environmental educationA theoretical framework for interpreters. Journal of Interpretation Research, 1 (1), 11-23. Hines, J., Hungerford, H., & Tomera, A. (1986) Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 18 (2), 1-8. Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21 (3), 8-21. Jacobson, S. K. (1999). Communication skills for conservation professionals. Washington, DC: Island Press. Jacobson, S. K., Monroe M. C., & Marynowski, S. (2001). Fire at the wildland interface: The influence of experience and mass media on public knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29 (3), 929-937. Knapp, D., & Poff, R. (2001). A qualitative analysis of the immediate and short-term impact of an environmental interpretive program. Environmental Education Research, 7 (1), 55-65. Mitchell, K. (1998). The act of saving the wolf. Endangered Species Bulletin, 14 (1), 713. Miles, J. C. (1986). Wilderness as a learning place. The Journal of Environmental Education, 18 (2), 33-40. Morse, L. (1996). Making the Connection. The Endangered Species Bulletin, 13 (3), 1-4. Orams, M. (1996). A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interaction: The case for education as a management strategy. Australian Geographer, 27 (1), 41-51. Orams, M., & Hill, G. (1998). Controlling the ecotourist in a wild dolphin feeding program: Is education the answer? The Journal of Environmental Education, 29 (3), 33-38. Papageorgiou, K. (2001). A combined park management framework based on regulatory and behavioral strategies: Use of visitors knowledge to assess effectiveness. Environmental Management, 28 (1), 61-73. Richter, J. (1996). New friends for the Kirtlands warbler. Endangered Species Bulletin, 13 (3), 12-13. Salant, P., & Dillman, D. (1994). How to conduct your own survey New York: Jon Wiley and Sons.

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85 Shepard, C., & Speelman, L. (1985). Affecting environmental attitudes through outdoor education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 17 (2), 20-23. Siemer, W., & Knuth, B. (2001). Effects of fishing education programs on antecedents of responsible environmental behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32 (4), 23-29. Staats, H. J., Wit, A. P., & Midden, C. Y. H. (1996). Communicating the greenhouse effect to the public: Evaluation of a mass media campaign from a social dilemma perspective. Journal of Environmental Management, 45, 189-203. Teisl, M. F., & OBrien, K. (2003). Who cares and who acts? Outdoor receptionists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behavior. Environmental Behavior, 35(4), 506-522. Van Meter, V. (1989). The Florida manatee Miami, FL: Florida Power and Light Company. Williams, C. K., Ericsson, G., & Heberlein, T. A. (2002). A quantitative summary of attitudes towards wolves and their reintroduction. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30 (2), 575-584. Young, R. (1993). Changing behavior and making it stick. The conceptualization and management of conservation behavior. Environment and Behavior, 25 (4), 485505. Zelezny, L. (1999). Educational interventions that improve environmental behaviors: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31 (4), 5-14.

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86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Julie Morris grew up in Venice, Florida. She attended Rollins College, where she received her bachelors degree in environmental studies. Julie was a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic for 2 years and worked as an environmental educator and biologist prior to attending gra duate school in the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation. After graduation she plans on working in Florida in the field of natural resource management.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0002859/00001

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Title: Quantitative Evaluation of a Boater Education Program for Manatee Protection
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0002859/00001

Material Information

Title: Quantitative Evaluation of a Boater Education Program for Manatee Protection
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A
BOATER EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR MANATEE PROTECTION
















By

JULIE MORRIS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was funded by the Florida Marine Institute. I would like to thank my

advisor, Dr. Susan Jacobson, for her help and patience throughout my time in graduate

school. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Richard Flamm and Dr.

Kenneth Wald, for their input and advice. Special thanks go to Dr. Chris McCarty of the

Bureau of Business and Economic Research for all of his invaluable assistance in this

study.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ................................................ ii


LIST OF TABLES ................

LIST OF FIGURES ................


. . . . . .. . . v
. . . . . . . . . .. v ii


ABSTRACT ............................. ....... ....................

INTRODUCTION ..................................................

M anatee W atch Education Program ...................................
R ole of E experience ................................................
R research O objectives ...............................................


M ETHODS .......................

Questionnaire Design and Pilot Testing
Data Analysis ...................


.................................... 6


RESU LTS .................... ............................... ..... 10

Survey Response ................ .................... ............ 10
Socio-Demographic Background ........................................ 11
Boating Activity .................................................... 12
Boating Behavior ................ ................................ 13
Knowledge About Manatees and Their Conservation. ...................... 15
Attitudes about Manatees and their Conservation ........................... 17
Other Attitude Measures .......................................... 22
Additional Analysis of Treatment Group Boaters. ............ .............. 23
Path Analysis ........ ...... ........................... .......... 25


D ISCU SSIO N ................................

Effectiveness of the Educational Treatment .......
Manatee Watch Intervention ..................


Association of Experience with Manatees with Knowledge and
Behavioral Intentions ..............................
Recom m endations ..................................
Conclusion ....................................


. . . . . . 3 0

. . . 3 0


Attitudes and

. .


.... 34
.... 35
.... 39










APPENDIX

A MANATEE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS .

B REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS
Florida Fish and W wildlife .................
Manatee Observation and Education Center ..
Save the Manatee Club ..................

C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ............

D DISPOSITION REPORTS ...............

E LIST OF CLUBS THAT RESPONDENTS AR
CLUBS ............................


ABOUT


MANATEES


E MEMBERS


F BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED
ALW AYS/FREQUENTLY ............................................

G SUMMARY OF ATTITUDE RESPONSES ..............................

H SUMMARY OF BOATERS' EXPERIENCE WITH MANATEES ............

I REVIEW OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR CONSERVATION ...........
Media Interventions ................................................
Community Outreach Program s .......................................
Program s for Children ..............................................
Experiential Education Program s ......................................

J SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT BOATING REGULATIONS AND
M ANATEES .....................................................

K LIST OF REASONS FOR BOAT-RELATED DEATHS: REPORTED IN THE
"OTHER" CATEGORY ............................................

REFEREN CES .......................................................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................


BOATING


.....66


..... 68
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 Comparison of individual demographic items for treatment and control groups 11

2 Comparison of boating experience for treatment and control groups .......... 12

3 Comparison of behavior items for treatment and control groups .............. 14

4 What to do if you run aground ....................................... 14

5 What to do if you see a sick or injured manatee ........................... 14

6 Comparison of behavior items with having seen a manatee while boating ...... 15

7 Comparison of behavior items with seeing a manatee while swimming ........ 16

8 Comparison of behavior items with having visited a place to see manatees ..... 16

9 Comparison of behavior items with having participated in an educational
program on m anatees ................................ .... ........ 16

10 Comparison for individual knowledge items ............................. 18

11 Comparison of average knowledge scores for experience with manatee items ... 19

12 Correlations of experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and
sociodemographic variables with boaters' knowledge ................ .... .19

13 Comparison of individual attitude item scores for treatment and control
groups ............ ..........................................20

14 Comparisons of average attitude scores with experience with manatee items .... 21

15 Correlations of boaters' attitude with experience with manatees, safe boating
behavior and sociodemographic variables ............................... 22

16 Responses to the question, "Why are there boat related manateedeaths?" ....... 23

17 Use of educational materials by boaters ................ .............. .24









18 Comparison of individual knowledge items for control group and those in the
treatment group that said yes to receiving educational materials .............. 27

19 Comparison of individual attitude items of boaters in the treatment group who
said they received educational materials versus the control group ............. 28

20 Comparison of individual behavior item scores of boaters in the treatment
group who said they received educational materials versus the control group ... 29

21 Effects of knowledge, attitudes and experiences on boaters' behavioral
intentions .............. ... ................................. 29















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pg

1 Theoretical model: The role of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences on
behavioral intentions ............... .................................. 2

2 Path model of the effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on
behavioral intentions .............. ...................... ......... 26















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF A
BOATER EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR MANATEE PROTECTION

By

Julie Morris

May 2004

Chairman: Susan K. Jacobson
Major Department: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

Watercraft collisions are the most common human related causes of manatee

mortaility, and account for approximately 25% to 30% of manatee deaths annually.

Educational interventions for boaters are one strategy for reducing watercraft collisions.

This study provides a quantitative evaluation of an educational intervention by Manatee

Watch in Tampa Bay, Florida. A telephone survey was conducted during July to August

2002, of primary boat users whose boats were observed by the Florida Marine Research

Institute and/or approached by Manatee Watch in Tampa Bay during 1999 to 2001. We

compared the attitudes, knowledge and behavioral intentions of boaters who had received

educational materials from Manatee Watch (treatment group) with boaters who had not

(control group).

Survey questions were designed based on Manatee Watch educational materials

given to boaters and previous surveys of Florida boaters. Overall knowledge and attitude

scores were compared. Boaters receiving the educational treatment averaged 8.22

(S.D.=2.4) on a 12-point knowledge scale; this did not differ statistically from the control

viii









group average of 8.06 (S.D.=2.5) (t= -.731, p=0.465). Treatment group boaters had a

mean of 33.7 (S.D.= 7.13) on a 45-point attitude scale, and did not differ from the

control group mean of 33.2 (S.D.=7.4) (t=-.731, p=0.465). Behavioral intention items

were measured independently; no differences were found between the groups.

Attitude was found to positively influence boating behavior, and was positively

associated with a willingness to pay for increased public education and enforcement to

protect the manatee. Knowledge and one behavior item were positively associated:

maintaining a slower speed when boating in shallow water.

In addition, boaters' experience with manatees and boating was examined as an

influence on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. There was no association between

experience and knowledge or experience and behaviors. Years of boating experience and

the number of times seeing manatee while boating negatively influenced attitude.

Forty-six percent of the treatment group responded "no" when asked if they had

received educational materials from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch. This could be due to

lack of memory, lack of impact, or surveying technique. Regardless, the boaters' replying

"yes" to receiving Manatee Watch materials did not score differently than the control

group on the knowledge and attitude scales, or any behavior items.

This study is limited by reliance on a survey instrument to measure self-reported

behaviors rather than actual boating behaviors or impacts on manatee mortality.

To increase the effectiveness of the program we recommend targeting audience

attitudes, addressing ownership and empowerment feelings in boaters, increasing the

duration of the intervention, adopting a multi-faceted approach, and incorporating active

participation of the boaters.















INTRODUCTION

The West Indian Manatee (Tnchechus manatus) is listed as endangered in Florida

and the US. The main causes of its endangered status are loss of habitat, high mortality

and low reproduction rates, and human activities (Van Meter, 1989). Approximately 25%

to 30% of manatee deaths statewide are attributed to watercraft injuries (Arrison, 2003).

Despite their protected status, the number of manatees killed by boats continues to rise;

watercraft killed 95 manatees in the 2002, a new state record (Arrison, 2003).

Concomitant with increased mortality is an increase in the number of boats on the water

in Florida. In 2002, 961,719 vessels were registered in Florida, and an additional 300,00

to 400,000 additional boats are thought to use Florida's waters (Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission, 2003).

Florida has numerous nonprofit organizations, private businesses and a state

agency dedicated to manatee conservation. Many regulations protect the manatees from

watercraft. These include limited and no entry areas and zones limiting boat speed in

manatee habitat. Also, a number of educational publications and programs target manatee

conservation and protection (Appendix A). An in-depth review of some programs is

presented in Appendix B.

This study evaluates the efficacy of a popular manatee educational program

targeting boaters conducted by the Manatee Watch educational program in Tampa Bay,

Florida. We tested whether this program (a) increased boaters' knowledge about

manatees and their conservation, (b) shifted attitudes toward support for greater manatee










protection, and (c) increased proconservation behavioral intentions among Tampa Bay

boaters. The study compares boaters in Tampa Bay who have received educational

materials from Manatee Watch with a control group of boaters who have not. We

designed and conducted a survey of boaters to determine if any significant differences

existed as a result of the educational intervention.

We also examined the influence of experience with manatees, such as swimming

and boating with them, on attitudes and behaviors of boaters. Firsthand experience has

been shown to influence attitudes and behaviors (Jacobson, Monroe, & Marynowski,

2001). "Natural" contact with nature seems to reinforce environmental education and

increase empathy for the conservation of species in the wild (Miles, 1986). Experiential

education programs also have been shown to be successful in increasing knowledge, and

improving attitudes and behavior in regards to wildlife (Ewert, 1996). We assessed

whether direct experience with manatees is positively correlated with knowledge,

attitudes and proconservation behavioral intentions toward manatees (Figure 1).



Expenence







Attitude Behavior







Knowledge


Figure 1. Theoretical model: The role of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences on
behavioral intentions









Manatee Watch Education Program

Tampa Bay Manatee Watch is a nongovernmental organization that educates the

public about boating with manatees. Their goal is to reduce watercraft-related mortality

and impacts to manatee habitat in Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay Manatee Watch targets

boaters in Tampa Bay by directly intervening on the water and on boat ramps. This

program is unusual in that it focuses its educational message directly at one of the

sources of manatee mortality: boaters. Approximately 2 to 3 volunteers for Manatee

Watch distribute boater's kits to boaters on the water. The strategy of the outreach vessel

is to patrol waterways that are designated slow speed zones where manatees might be

present. Volunteers also distribute kits at boat ramps. The boater's kits include

waterproof charts of the local area, polarized sunglasses, fish-measuring stickers, and

floating key chains. These are illustrated with data and recommendations about boating

safely with manatees, including speed zone information and advice on avoiding

manatees. These kits are designed to give the boaters things they can use while boating,

and provide an educational message as well.

The waterproof chart shows where manatee habitat is located and suggests

voluntary speed zones of 5mph in areas where manatees are found. Information on the

chart asks boaters to voluntarily boat slowly in less than 6 feet of water. The map

explains the meaning of different regulatory signs and the different speed zones.

Manatee protection tips include wearing polarized sunglasses, staying in deep water

channels, and obeying posted signs. Boaters are given information on how to look for

manatees in the water (e.g., a snout sticking up, expanding circles in the water, and a

swirl or a smooth spot in the water). Advice on what to do if the boat runs aground is also

given on this chart. This includes turning the motor off, tilting the motor up, and push







4

poling into deeper water. Phone numbers are given for the Florida Marine Patrol and Fish

and Wildlife Conservation Commission in the event a dead or injured manatee is

encountered. Statistics are provided on watercraft-related manatee deaths, and a brief

message explains how boaters can make a difference to manatee conservation.

The floating key chain has the message "Boat Slow, Manatees Below!" and

information about who to call for a manatee emergency. The fish-measuring sticker

carries the same tips for boating with manatees as the waterproof chart. The message "Go

Slow! Manatees Below! Where Seagrasses Grow" is written on the sticker. A pair of

polarized sunglasses is provided so that boaters can see manatees more easily in the

water.

Every time a boater kit is given away, Manatee Watch volunteers give boaters a

brief, informational talk on manatees. They convey the message that the boaters are in

manatee habitat and that the boaters should go slow and watch for manatees. Information

is presented in a friendly and nonconfrontational manner and lasts a minute or two.

A key component of their program is working with boaters, not against them, in the

quest to reduce manatee mortality.

Role of Experience

Studies of direct environmental experience have demonstrated the power of

experiences in developing greater understanding and awareness of environmental issues.

Direct environmental experiences are more likely to lead to increased knowledge and

positive attitudes about the environment (Jacobson et al., 2001). Experiences with nature

can make important contributions in the development of environmental concern and

individual actions that results in proconservation behaviors (Ewert, 1996). Orams (1996)

found that experiential education programs helped control tourist behavior toward









wildlife. Experiential programs have resulted in increased knowledge and an

improvement in environmental attitudes on the part of the participants (Knapp & Poff,

2001). We investigated whether direct experience swimming and boating with manatees

influenced boaters' knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions.

Research Objectives

The objectives of this study were to

Evaluate the effectiveness of the Manatee Watch Program by determining
differences in the knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions between boaters
who received the educational intervention and boaters who had not.

* Examine the association of experience of swimming or boating with manatees with
boaters' knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions.

* Describe the sociodemographic background of the boaters and influences on
knowledge, attitudes and behaviors.

* Explore the association of knowledge about manatees with attitudes and boating
behaviors.

S Make recommendations to improve the Manatee Watch Program.















METHODS

The sample for the survey was selected from two groups: boaters in Tampa Bay

who had received educational materials from Manatee Watch and boaters who had not.

The Florida Marine Research Institute recorded boat registration numbers of 13,200

boaters who had been observed by staff and volunteers in Tampa Bay during 1999 and

2001. They were able to obtain corresponding telephone numbers for 4,148 boat owners.

Boat observations were conducted by the Florida Marine Research Institute in two

areas in Tampa Bay, Gandy and Maximo, during the 3-year time period. There were two

lines of site at Gandy, and three at Maximo where boats were observed throughout the

year, in three sessions. A research intern and volunteer conducted observations at each

site. They recorded registration numbers of the passing boats, and later obtained

corresponding telephone numbers of boat owners. The sites were chosen for several

reasons: they had to have boating, be accessible, fit more than one line of site, and have

manatees.

The sample of boaters who had received educational materials from Manatee

Watch consisted of 1122 boaters that Manatee Watch approached on the water or at boat

ramps from June of 1999 through July of 2001. Based on boat registration numbers

obtained by Manatee Watch, the FMRI was able to obtain 487 corresponding phone

numbers

Trained interviewers with the University of Florida Bureau of Business and

Economic Research conducted the telephone interviews. They asked to speak with the









primary boat user before administering the survey. They used computer-aided dialing to

call boaters until approximately 500 questionnaires were completed to ensure an

adequate sample for statistical analysis.

Questionnaire Design and Pilot Testing

The questionnaire followed standard procedures to construct simple questions that

would provide accurate results (Salant & Dillman, 1994). The survey consisted of 16

knowledge questions, 9 attitude questions, 5 behavior questions, 5 questions about

Manatee Watch, 6 questions regarding experience with manatees, and 10

sociodemographic questions. The questions were based on a review of the content of the

program conducted by Manatee Watch and a baseline survey of Tampa Bay boaters

conducted in 2000 (Aipanjiguly et al., 2003). Knowledge and attitude questions were

designed around a symmetric, 5-point, Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 =

strongly agree) with a central, neutral category. Knowledge items included questions on

boating safely with manatees, manatee biology and status, and definitions of manatee

harassment. The Likert scale was collapsed to create a knowledge index; items answered

correctly received a score of 1 and other answers received a score of zero.

Attitude questions measured boater support for boating regulations, manatees and

conservation efforts. Answer choices for these items were on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5

indicating pro-manatee behavior. Answers for the attitude questions were summed to

create a composite score.

A mixture of scaled and open-ended questions measured the boating behavior

targeted by Manatee Watch. They included questions on maintaining a slow speed in

shallow water, where to avoid manatees and what to do if a boat runs aground, to protect

seagrass beds.









Items measuring the effectiveness of the Manatee Watch materials also questioned

if people received and used the materials.

The association of experience with manatees with boater's knowledge, attitudes and

behavior was measured by how many times people had seen manatees while boating or

swimming, if they had visited an area for the purpose of seeing manatees and if they had

ever participated in an educational program about manatees.

Sociodemographic variables included questions on education, income, boating

experience, distance of home from the waterfront, owning a manatee license plate and

number of years in Florida.

A panel of social scientists at the University of Florida and state and federal

marine mammal specialists reviewed the survey. The survey instrument was pilot tested

(n = 20) on boaters from Tampa Bay in June of 2002; revisions to the survey were made

based on results of the pilot test. The survey was conducted between July and August of

2002.

Data Analysis

Survey data was entered into an SPSS 10.0 software package for statistical analysis.

Answers for open-ended questions were examined and recorded as necessary.

We compared knowledge, attitudes and behaviors between boaters that received the

intervention (treatment group) and those that did not (control group). The 5-point

knowledge, attitude and belief measures were treated as interval level data; T-tests were

used to identify significant differences in mean scores between the treatment and control

groups. Additionally, T-tests were used to determine significant differences in attitudes,

knowledge and behaviors between boaters who remembered receiving the intervention,

and those that did not. T-tests were used to compare the knowledge, attitudes and









behaviors between those that had had experiences with manatees and those that had not.

A post-hoc test for means comparison was used to determine significant differences

within the treatment group based on the year that they received educational materials.

Significant differences are reported at the alpha level of p0.05. Cronbach's alpha (inter-

item correlation reliability) was used to ensure scale reliability for the attitude and

knowledge questions. Behavior items were measured independently. The Pearson

correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of relationships between

knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions and experience. We employed a path model,

using multiple regressions, to estimate the role of knowledge, attitude and experiences on

behavioral intentions. We used unstandardized regression coefficients to measure direct

effects. Indirect effects are calculated by multiplying unstandardized coefficients. Total

effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on behavioral intentions are obtained by

adding the direct and indirect effects together.















RESULTS

Survey Response

The survey (Appendix C) resulted in 503 completed questionnaires; 297 from the

control group and 202 from the treatment group. The completed surveys from the

treatment group included 4 that were ineligible, due to the fact that the respondents

received the educational intervention after the time period of this study; they were

excluded in the data analysis.

The response rate calculated for this survey was 47%, based on the percentage of

completed interviews out of all eligible respondents, following standards of the American

Association for Public Opinion Research. Categories that were considered ineligible for

the survey included technical phone problems, fax lines, nonworking numbers,

disconnected numbers, changed numbers, cell phones, businesses or governmental

organizations, and no eligible respondents (American Association for Public Opinion

Research, 2002).

There were 180 refusals, which included 106 strong refusals, and 74 soft refusals.

The cooperation rate (response rate for answered telephones) calculated as a percentage

of number of responses per (# of responses + # of refusal) was 74%. The cooperation rate

for the treatment group was 82%, with 55 refusals and 477 attempted calls. The

cooperation rate for the control group was 69%, with 135 refusals and 881 attempted

calls. The total attempted numbers called was 1,359. Appendix D shows the disposition

reports for the survey.









Socio-Demographic Background

There were no statistically significant differences in sociodemographic

backgrounds between the treatment and control groups (Table 1). The mean age of

respondents in the treatment group was 46.2 years (SD = 12.6), and 47.9 years

(SD = 13.0) for the control group (t = -1.44, df = 491,p = .152). Seventy-nine percent of

respondents in the treatment group were male, and 20% were female; in the control group

82% were male, and 19% were female (t = -.45, df = 497, p =.622). Within the treatment

group, more respondents (24.4%) fell into the $41,001 to $60,000 income bracket,

followed by 21.4% in the $61,001 to $80,000, and 17.3% in the $100,001 to $150,00

range. In the control group, the greatest percentage of people (20.9%) fell into the

$61,001 to $80,000 income bracket, followed by 20.1% in the $41,001 to $60,000 range

and 17.6% inthe $81,001 to $100,000 category; (t 1.163, df 410, p =0.370).

Table 1. Comparison of individual demographic items for treatment and control groups


Treatment Group


Item
Age
Sex
1 male; 2=female
Years in Florida
Home from Tampa Bay
waterfront. (1-5)
1 on water; 5=<20 miles
Manatee license plate
1 yes; 2=no
Highest year of
school/college completed
Household Income (1-5)
1=>20,000; 5=<150,000
Member of wildlife,
conservation or sporting
club organization
1 yes; 2=no


Control Group
mean n SD
48.00 293 13.00

1.20 297 .39
28.91 296 16.60


t p df
1.44 0.15 491

-.45 0.62 497
1.39 0.16 494


4.14 168 1.56 4.29 244 1.63 .90 0.37 410


1.79 296 .41 1.44 0.15 495


1.73 201 .44









Twenty-seven percent in the treatment group and 21.3% in the control group

answered "yes" to being a member of a conservation, wildlife or sporting club or

organization (t = 1.44, p = 0.151). Clubs that respondents are members of are listed in

Appendix F.

There was no significant difference in the distance of home from Tampa Bay

waterfront between the groups (t = 1.88, p = 0.06). The treatment group had a mean of

14.4 years of education (SD = 2.2) and the control group 14.58 years (SD = 2.4);

(t =.662, p = 0.508). Respondents in the treatment group had lived in Florida for an

average of 31 years (SD = 15.4), in the control group the average was 28.91 years, (SD =

16.6); (t 1.39, p 0.165).

Boating Activity

The two groups did not differ in years of boating experience, times boated in

Tampa Bay in the past year, primary activity while boating, and having taken a boating

safety course (Table 2).

Table 2. Comparison of boating experience for treatment and control groups
Treatment Control Group
Group
Item mean n SD mean n SD t p df
Years of boating experience 24.96 200 15.5 24.02 296 14.70 -.685 0.49 494


Times boated in Tampa Bay in
past year (1-5)
1=>10;5=<50
Taken a boating safety course
1=yes; 2=no
Primary activity
1 fishing; 2=sailing;
3=cruising; 4=recreation;
5=skiing; 6=commuting;
7=jet-ski; 8=work-related
Season
1 summer; 2=winter;
3=year-round


2.27 202 .827

1.40 201 .492





2.60 199 2.30


2.97 201 .45


2.21 296

1.40 297


0.50 496

0.98 496


2.70 289 2.30 .541 0.60 486


2.86 292 .67 -2.060 0.04* 491







13

The average years of boating experience for those in the treatment group was 24.96

years (SD = 15.5) and 24.02 years (SD = 14.7) for those in the control group.

Within the treatment group 28.7% reported boating in Tampa Bay more than 50

times in the past year, 47% had boated 11 to 50 times, 16.8% less than 10 times, and

7.4% said they hadn't boated in Tampa Bay in the past year.

Twenty-two percent of people in the control group reported boating in Tampa Bay

more than 50 times in the past year, 43.6% boated 11 to 50 times, 23.3% less than 10

times, and 11.5% said they hadn't boated at all in Tampa bay in the past year.

Fifty-eight of respondents in the treatment group and 51.9% in the control group

said their primary activity in Tampa Bay was sport fishing.

The two groups differed in the time of year people reported boating: within the

treatment group 3.0% said they boated in the summer, 2.5% said they boated in the

winter, and 89% reported boating year round. In the control group 9.2% reported boating

in the summer: 4.5% boated in the winter, and 77.7% boated year-round (t =-2.1,

df= 491, p =0.04, Table 2).

Boating Behavior

Three items with scaled choices measured desirable boating behavior: carrying

nautical charts while boating, maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water,

and watching out for manatees while boating in shallow water. The two groups did not

differ in any of these items (Table 3). The percentage of respondents that indicated

positive boating behavior is shown in Appendix G.

Two open-ended items also measured boating behavior. One asked what boaters do

if the boat runs aground; answers included using a push pole, getting out and pushing the

boat, calling a towboat, turning off the engine or starting the engine up. The two groups'









responses did not differ (X2= 3.6, df= 6, p = 0.74, Table 4). Another question asked

boaters what they would do if they saw a sick or injured manatee. The two groups did not

differ on answers for this question (X2= 6.82, df = 5, p = 0.23, Table 5).

Table 3. Comparison of behavior items for treatment and control groups
Treatment
Behavior Items (1-5) Group Control Group
1 always; 5=never mean n SD mean n SD t p df
I carry nautical charts
with me when boating. 2.15 200 1.51 2.04 293 1.46 -.741 0.46 491
Maintain a slower speed
when boating in
shallow water. 2.02 199 1.17 1.89 291 1.03 -1.260 0.21 488
Watch out for manatees
when boating in
shallow water. 1.42 199 .93 1.38 295 .84 -.423 0.67 492

Table 4. What to do if you run aground
What do you do if you run aground? Treatment Group Control Group
(%) (%) N
Start the engine up 1.0 2.1 8
Use a push pole 7.5 6.4 33
Wait for the tide to come in 6.5 9.3 39
Get out and push the boat into deeper water 58.8 52.5 269
Call a tow boat 6.5 7.1 33
Turn off the engine 5.5 6.4 29
other 14.1 16.1 74
X2=3.6, df=6,p

Table 5. What to do if you see a sick or injured manatee
What do when see sick/injured Treatment Group Control Group
panatee (%) (%) N
Call coast guard 10.3 13.8 60
Call Florida Marine Patrol 40.0 41.2 201
Call local law enforcement 2.6 4.5 18
Call Florida Fish and Wildlife 12.3 15.2 69
Commission/Officer
Call someone 17.9 13.1 73
Other 17.0 12.1 69
X2=6.82, df=5, p=0.23

We also tested if experiences with manatees had any affect on behavioral intentions

towards manatees. Boaters who had seen manatees while boating did not have









significantly different behavioral intentions than those who had not (Table 6). Seeing

manatees while swimming did not affect behavioral intentions (Table 7), nor did visiting

a place to see manatees (Table 8.). Boaters that participated in an educational program on

manatees carried nautical charts more often than boaters who had not; (t = 2.02, df= 496,

p = 0.43, Table 9). However, participation in an educational program had no affect on

maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water and watching out for

manatees in shallow water (Table 9).

Table 6. Comparison of behavior items with having seen a manatee while boating
Have seen Have not seen
manatees while manatees while
Behavior Items (1-5) boating. boating.
1 always; 5=never mean n SD mean n SD t p df
I carry nautical charts
with me when boating. 3.90 458 1.5 4.1 41 1.5 -.91 0.36 497


Maintain a slower speed
when boating in
shallow water.
Watch out for manatees
when boating in
hlt11 +


4.05 453 1.1


4.1 43 1.2


-.49 0.63 494


o ,wer. 4.61 460 .85 4.5 40 .96 .627 0.53 498

Knowledge About Manatees and Their Conservation

Sixteen items measured knowledge about manatees. Fourteen were on a scale of 1

to 5, and 2 were opened-ended. Two of the scaled items-(1) manatees are harmful to

seagrass beds and (2) manatees have to be fed because there isn't enough natural

food-were removed from the final knowledge measure due to poor inter-item reliability.

Reliability analysis on the other 12 scaled items indicated a Cronbach's alpha of .764

with an inter-item means of .22. A 12-point knowledge index was created using these 12

variables; correct answers received a "1" and all others received a "O".












Table 7. Comparison of behavior items with seeing a manatee while swimming
Have not seen
Behavior Items 1-5) Have seen manatees manatees while
1 always; 5=never while swimming. swimming.
mean n SD mean n SD t p df
I carry nautical charts with me when boating. 4.06 214 1.40 3.82 282 1.50 1.78 0.08 494
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water. 3.98 212 1.10 4.12 281 1.10 -1.40 0.15 491
Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.59 213 .95 4.62 284 .81 -.40 0.69 495

Table 8. Comparison of behavior items with having visited a place to see manatees
Have not visited a
Visited a place to place to see
see manatees. manatees.
Behavior Items (1-5) mean n SD mea n SD t p df
1 always; 5=never n
I carry nautical charts with me when boating. 4.00 269 1.40 3.82 230 1.60 1.36 0.17 497
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water. 4.02 266 1.30 4.10 230 1.00 -.87 0.38 494
Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.58 269 .85 4.63 231 .89 -.57 0.57 498

Table 9. Comparison of behavior items with having participated in an educational program on manatees
Have not participated
Have participated in an in an educational
educational program program on
Behavior Items (1-5) on manatees. manatees.
1 always; 5=never mean n SD mean n SD t p df
I carry nautical charts with me when boating. 4.21 82 1.30 3.85 416 1.50 2.020 0.04 496
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water. 4.18 81 .94 4.03 414 1.10 1.120 0.26 493
Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 4.62 82 .73 4.60 417 .89 .167 0.87 497









The average knowledge score for the treatment group was 8.2 (SD = 2.4) and did

not differ from the score of the control group, 8.1 (SD = 2.5); (t = -0.73, df = 497,

p = 0.47), None of the individual knowledge items differed between the treatment and

control groups.

There were no significant differences in knowledge for those that indicated a

willingness to pay for increased public education or for those that were willing to pay for

increased patrols

Experience with manatees did not influence knowledge scores (Table 11).

Respondents that had seen manatees while boating or swimming, visited an area to see a

manatee or participated in an education program about manatees did not score differently

from respondents that had no experience with manatees.

Knowledge was not correlated with the amount of times someone had seen a

manatee while boating or while swimming, carrying nautical charts while boating, or

watching out for manatees in shallow water (Table 12). Knowledge was correlated with

maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water (r = 0.087, p = 0.052, Table

12).

There were no correlations between knowledge and the years of boating experience

or the number of times someone had boated in Tampa Bay in the last year; nor were

demographic variables correlated with knowledge, including years in Florida, the

distance from a person's home to the Tampa Bay waterfront, family's income, and the

highest year of education completed (Table 12).

Attitudes about Manatees and their Conservation

Nine items were used to assess boaters' attitudes about manatees, and conservation

efforts to protect them. Reliability analysis resulted in a Cronbach's alpha of .88, with an







18

item means of .43. The scores for these items were summed, resulting in a total possible

scale of 45, to determine correlations with knowledge, behavior, experience with

manatees, and other variables.

Table 10. Comparison for individual knowledge items
Treatment Control
Correct Correct
Chi-


(%) n (%) n square p
71.0 190 72.0 268 2.300 0.08

68.0 183 61.0 249 1.000 0.18


74.0 189 69.0 273


Knowledge statements
The manatee is an endangered species

Feeding a manatee will disturb it.

Touching a manatee that does not
first approach you is considered
harassment.

Any human activity that changes a
manatee's behavior is harassment.

Manatees feed on seagrass beds.

Boating slowly over seagrass beds will
help me to avoid manatees.

Boats should have no wake in an idle
speed zone.

I can better avoid manatees by
staying in deep water channels
while boating.

Discarded fishing lines are a threat
to manatees.

Wearing polarized sunglasses can
help me to see manatees better.

A swirl on the surface of the water
may signal that a manatee is below.

Nautical charts can help me to determine
where manatees are located.


1.009 0.35


.003 0.52


.004 0.52



.593 0.25


3.34 0.08


1.01 0.48


73.0 190 72.0 268


79.0 197 79.0 290



71.0 192 74.0 285


90.0 193 94.0 276


93.0 191 90.0 269









Table 11. Comparison of average knowledge scores for experience with manatee items
"Yes" "No"
Mean Score Mean Score
(SD) n (SD) n t p df
Have you seen manatees while
boating? 8.08 (2.5) 462 8.50 (2.3) 43 1.090 0.28 503
Have you seen Manatees while
swimming? 8.00 (2.5) 215 8.21(2.4) 287 .919 0.36 500
Visited an area to see a
manatee 8.10 (2.4) 270 8.13 (2.5) 235 .131 0.89 503
Participated in an educational
program about manatees 8.30 (2.3) 82 8.10 (2.5) 422 -.649 0.51 502


Table 12. Correlations of experience with manatees, safe boating behavior and
sociodemographic variables with boaters' knowledge
Pearson
Correlatio
Item N n p
Experience
Times seen manatees while boating 462 -.005 0.92
Times seen manatees while swimming 215 .047 0.49

Safe Boating Behavior
I carry nautical charts with me while boating 499 -.059 0.19
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water 496 .087 0.05
Watch out for manatees in shallow water 500 .071 0.11

Sociodemographic background
Years of boating experience 502 -.039 0.39
Times boated in Tampa Bay in the past year 504 -.005 0.91
Years in Florida 504 .012 0.79
Distance from home to Tampa Bay 500 -.026 0.56
Family's income 418 .056 .025
Highest year of education 503 -.019 0.67

There was no significant difference in attitude score for boaters that were members

of an organization, had taken a boating course, or owned a manatee license plate.


The mean attitude score for the treatment group was 33.7 (SD

(SD = 7.4) for the control group, not significantly different (t = -.73


=7.13) and 33.2

1, df 497,


p = 0.465), Treatment and control groups did not differ on any individual attitude items


(Table 13).













Table 13. Comparison of individual attitude item scores for treatment and control groups


Attitude Items


I support Programs to protect the manatee even
though it means reducing the speed allowed on
some waterways.

I support programs to protect the manatee even
if it means boats would not be allowed to
enter some areas.

I support setting speed limits in areas where
natural resources, such as sea grass, need
protection.

I support increased public education to
protect the manatee.

I support increased patrols by law enforcement
officers to protect the manatee.

Manatees need protection.

There should be protected areas for manatees,
where boats are not allowed to enter.

The manatee is worth saving, despite the
need for regulations.

I have been negatively affected by regulations
protecting the manatee.
(Recoded same direction)


Treatment Group
mean n SD
3.84 201 1.210



3.37 199 1.350



4.08 201 .935



4.13 202 .958


3.45 197 1.28


3.95 200 .968

3.69 201 1.19


4.11 194 .767


3.51 198 1.160


Control Group
mean n SD
3.83 296 1.170


3.35 287 1.320


4.08 289



4.06 294


3.40 295 1.280


3.89 291 1.080

3.62 290 1.190


4.06 287


3.65 284 1.290


t p df
-.075 0.94 495



-.121 0.90 484



.043 0.97 488



-.866 0.38 494


-.439 0.66 490


-.613 0.54 489

-.694 0.49 489


-.723 0.47 479


1.340 0.18 480









To test if experience was associated with attitude we compared attitude scores

between those respondents that had seen manatees while boating, seen manatees while

swimming, visited an area to see a manatee or participated in an education program about

manatees, and those who had not had these experiences; there were no significant

differences (Table 14). In fact, boaters who had seen manatees 5 or less times in the past

year had a significantly higher attitude score than those who had seen manatees 6 or more

times (t 3.00, df= 460, p 0.003).

Table 14. Comparisons of average attitude scores with experience with manatee items
Yes No
Mean Mean
score n S.D. score n S.D t p df
Have you seen manatees
while boating? 33.42 462 7.22 33.16 43 7.83 .225 0.82 503
Have you seen manatees
while swimming? 32.86 215 7.74 33.81 287 6.86 -1.47 0.14 500
Visited an area to see a
manatee 33.59 270 7.04 33.18 235 7.53 .619 0.53 503
Participated in an
educational program
about manatees. 34.44 82 7.58 33.21 422 7.19 1.34 0.16 502

Attitude was negatively correlated with the number of times someone had seen a

manatee while boating (r = -0.105, p = 0.024), but there was no correlation with the

number of times seeing manatees while swimming (Table 15). Attitude was negatively

correlated with years of boating experience (r = -0.103, p = 0.021), but not with the

number of times boating in Tampa Bay in the past year (Table 15).

Attitude was positively correlated with maintaining a slower speed while boating

(r = 0.279, p = 0.000) and watching out for manatees in shallow water (r = 0.279,

p =0.000) (Table 15).









There was no correlation between attitude and years in residence in Florida,

distance of home from Tampa Bay waterfront, family income, or highest year of

education completed (Table 15).

Table 15. Correlations of boaters' attitude with experience with manatees, safe boating
behavior and sociodemographic variables
Pearson
Item N Correlation p
Experience
Times seen manatees while boating 462 -.105* 0.02
Times seen manatees while swimming 215 -.098 0.15
Safe Boating Behavior
Carrying nautical charts while boating 499 -.036 0.42
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water 496 .279** 0.00
Watch out for manatees in shallow water
Sociodemographic Background 500 .124** 0.00
Years of boating experience 502 -.103* 0.02
Times boated in Tampa Bay in past year 504 -.043 0.33
Years in Florida 504 -.047 0.29
Distance from home to Tampa Bay 500 .053 0.23
Family's income 418 -.084 0.08
Highest year of education 503 -.004 0.93
* correlation is significant at the .05 level
** correlation is significant at the .01 level

Other Attitude Measures

Boaters were asked about their willingness to pay for increased public education

and increased patrols for manatee protection. The treatment and control groups did not

differ in their willingness to pay for increased public education and patrols, or the mean

amount each group was willing to pay. Boaters that indicated a willingness to pay for

increased public education to protect the manatee had a significantly higher attitude score

than those who did not (t = 10.3, df= 406, p = 0.000); as did those who were willing to

pay for increased patrols (t = 5.95, df= 296, p = 0.000). There were no significant

differences in knowledge for those that indicated a willingness to pay for increased







23

public education (t = 0.445, df = 406, p = 0.657); or for those that were willing to pay for

increased patrols (t 0.009, df= 296,p = 0.993).

More control group boaters thought that speed limits were adequately signed

(mean = 3.39) than treatment group boaters (mean = 3.12; t = 2.47, df= 482, p = 0.01).

Another open-ended question asked boaters what caused boat-related manatee

deaths. Boater carelessness (Treatment: 41%, Control 34%) was the most common

answer given; there were no significant differences between the groups in the answers

given (X2 = 3.5, df= 5, p = 0.63, Table 16).

Table 16. Responses to the question, "Why are there boat related manateedeaths?"
Treatment Control
Group Group
Why are there boat related deaths (%) (%0) N
Manatees get in the way/can't get out of the way 11.8 14.2 65
Boaters are careless/carelessness 41.0 34.9 180
Lack of propeller guards 7.2 8.5 39
Lack of boating regulations 2.6 1.4 9
Speeding 13.3 12.8 62
Other 24.1 28.1 127
XA=3.5, df=5, p=0.63

Additional Analysis of Treatment Group Boaters

We additionally compared responses among boaters receiving the educational

treatment in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Knowledge scores (F = 0.262, p =.770) and attitude

scores (F = 0.325, p = .723) did not differ based on the year boaters received educational

materials.

Three behavior items were also compared for boaters receiving the educational

treatment in 1999, 2000, or 2001; carrying nautical charts while boating (F = 0.040,

p = 0.961), nor for maintaining a slower speed while boating in shallow water (F = 0.022,

p = 0. 978) or for watching out for manatees while boating in shallow water (F = 0.381,

p =0.684).









Several questions asked about interaction with Manatee Watch and educational

interventions while boating. Although the educational treatment reached all boats

recorded by Manatee Watch, we were not certain that the primary boater that was

interviewed by phone necessarily personally received the educational treatment. For this

reason we additionally asked treatment group boaters if they had received the educational

intervention. In response to the question "Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch

ever given you any educational materials while you were boating in Tampa Bay," 54% of

boaters in the treatment group answered "yes" to this question, and 45.5% answered

"no."

Within the treatment group, 47.5% of the people said they used the educational

materials while boating, and 42% agreed or strongly agreed that the materials helped

them to learn about manatees. Of the 54% of boaters in the treatment group who said

they received education, 87.3% said they used the educational materials and 77.3%

agreed or strongly agreed that the materials helped them to learn about manatees. Use of

each material by boaters in the treatment group ranged from 13% for stickers to 35% for

polarized sunglasses (Table 17). Use of each material by boaters that said they received

education ranged from 23.6% for stickers to 65.5% for polarized sunglasses (Table 17).

Table 17. Use of educational materials by boaters
Use by Use by those that
treatment said "yes" to
Material group receiving materials
(%) (%)
Polarized Sunglasses 35.5 65.5
Waterproof Chart 30.7 56.4
Floating Key Chain 25.7 47.3
Brochures 21.3 37.3
Fishing yardstick 20.3 39.1
Stickers 12.9 23.6









Respondents that said "yes" to receiving educational materials and the control

group both had a similar mean knowledge score of 8.06 (SD = 2.5). Only one individual

knowledge item was significantly different between those that answered yes to receiving

education and the control group: more "yes" respondents knew that feeding a manatee

will disturb it (X2= 6.6, p = 0.011, Table 18).

There was no significant difference in the mean attitude score between those in the

treatment group that said they received materials and the control group (t = -1.07,

df= 405, p = 0.285), or in any of the individual attitude items (Table 19). Nor was there

a significant difference in any of the behavior items between those that said yes to

receiving educational materials and the control group (Table 20).

A quarter of the boaters additionally were asked if they could finish the slogan "Go

Slow! Manatees below!" The interviewer read the first part of the slogan" Go Slow," and

respondents were asked it they could finish it. Only 4% said "Manatees Below," 44.2%

gave an answer that included the word "manatee," and the remaining 52% gave an

unrelated answer, or could not respond.

Path Analysis

We employed a path model to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the

independent variables (knowledge, attitude, and experiences) on a dependent variable-

(behavioral intentions, Figure 2). A regression analysis showed attitude to be a positive

predictor of behavioral intentions (r 2 0.075, B =.055, p = 0.000). Two experiences

showed a negative effect on attitude: the number of times seeing a manatee while boating

(r 2 0.097, B = -2.55, p = 0.03) and years of boating experience (r 2 0.097, B = -.104,

p = 0.02). The number of times seeing a manatee while boating did not significantly

predict behavioral intentions (B = 0.034, p = 0.75) nor did years of boating experience









(B = -0.002, p = 0.76). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of attitude (B


p = 0.09) or behavioral intentions (B


.053,p 0.06).


The combined direct and indirect effects of knowledge on behavioral intentions

were 0.073 (Table 21). The total effect of attitude on behavioral intentions was 0.055

(Table 25). The number of times seeing a manatee while boating had a negative total

effect of 0.11, and years boating an effect of -0.168 (Table 21).



Experience
Exp 1 Exp 2


# Of times seeing a
manatee while boating



2 56***

NSI


0 03


4


Years of boating
experience


-1 04


Attitude 055"*** -


Behavioral
Intentions


.**

Knowledge



Figure 2. Path model of the effects of knowledge, attitudes and experience on
behavioral intentions *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01, ****p<.001


'









Table 18. Comparison of individual knowledge items for control group and those in the
treatment group that said yes to receiving educational materials

Said yes to
receiving Control
education group
Knowledge statements (%) correct (%) correct
Mea Chi-
Mean n n n square p
The manatee is an endangered species 79.0 105 76.2 268 .296 0.67

Feeding a manatee will disturb it
80.0 104 66.2 249 6.600 7.01*
Touching a manatee that does not first
approach you is considered
harassment.
80.0 105 73.0 273 2.040 0.17
Any human activity that changes a
manatee's behavior is harassment
63.5 108 62.0 273 .007 1.00
Manatees feed on seagrass beds
94.4 101 89.0 246 2.210 0.16
Boating slowly over seagrass beds will
help me to avoid manatees
72.5 106 75.2 268 .269 0.59

Boats should have no wake in an idle
speed zone
81.2 107 84.8 290 .660 0.46
I can better avoid manatees by staying
in deep water channels while boating
77.0 107 76.0 285 .000 1.00
Discarded fishing lines are a threat to
manatees
95.1 106 97.0 276 .493 0.54
Wearing polarized sunglasses can help
me to see manatees better
95.0 107 92.0 269 .974 0.37
A swirl on the surface of the water may
signal that a manatee is below
96.2 107 91.3 274 2.660 0.12
Nautical charts can help me to
determine where manatees are


located


46.0 109 36.0 271


3.3 0.09













Table 19. Comparison of individual attitude items of boaters in the treatment group who said they received educational materials
versus the control group


Attitude Items


I support programs to protect the manatee even though it means
reducing the speed allowed on some waterways

I support programs to protect the manatee even if it means boats
would not be allowed to enter some areas

I support setting speed limits in areas where natural resources,
such as sea grass, need protection

I support increased public education to protect the manatee

I support increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect
the manatee


Manatees need protection


Said yes to
receiving education Control group
mean n SD mean n SD
3.87 109 1.400 3.83 296 1.170


3.39 107 1.270 3.35 287 1.320


4.11 110 .860


4.08 289 .821


4.17 110 .956 4.06 294 .851


3.56 108 1.240


3.40 295 1.280


3.96 109 .942 3.89 291 1.080


Iere should be protected areas for manatees, where boats are not
allowed to enter

The manatee is worth saving, despite the need for regulations

I have been negatively affected by regulations protecting the
manatee (Recoded same direction)


3.75 110 1.100


3.62 290 1.190


4.16 106 .732 4.06 287 .832

2.40 108 .900 3.65 284 1.290


t p df
-.337 0.74 403


-.274 4.79


-.279 0.79


-1.160 0.24

-1.080 0.27


-.653 0.51

-.984 0.32


-1.100 0.27

1.170 0.24














Table 20. Comparison of individual behavior item scores of
materials versus the control group


boaters in the treatment group who said they received educational


Received no
Responded "yes" to education
Behavior Items receiving education (control group)
mean n SD mean n SD t p df
I carry nautical charts with me when boating. 1.88 110 1.37 2.04 293 1.47 1.010 0.31 401
Maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water. 2.01 107 1.13 1.89 291 1.03 -.967 0.33 396
Watch out for manatees when boating in shallow water. 1.35 109 .865 1.38 295 .836 .364 0.71 402


Table 21. Effects of knowledge, attitudes and experiences on boaters' behavioral intentions

Dependent Indirect
variable Independent variables Direct effects effects Total
Behavioral Knowledge 0.053* 0.02 0.073
Intentions Attitudes 0.055**** 0.055
Experience
Exp. 1 # times seeing manatee 0.034 -0.14 -0.11
Exp. 2 years boating -0.002 -0.06 -0.168
*p<0.10, ****p<0.001















DISCUSSION

Watercraft collisions are the most common human-related cause of manatee deaths

and have increased at the rate of 7.2% a year. From 1997 to 2002, watercraft related

deaths have been the highest recorded. Watercraft caused 81 manatee deaths in 2001 and

95 in 2002. As of July 31 there have been 55 watercraft-related manatee deaths in 2003

(Arrison, 2003). Presently, over 961,719 vessels (recreational and commercial) are

registered in the state of Florida, a 42% increase since 1973 (Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission, 2003). It is estimated that an additional 300,000 to 400,000

boats registered elsewhere also use Florida waters (Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission). Strategies to protect manatees include increased public

education, as well boating regulations, law enforcement, and habitat protection.

Effectiveness of the Educational Treatment

We evaluated the Manatee Watch educational intervention designed to reduce

manatee mortality in Tampa Bay. There were no significant differences in knowledge or

attitude regarding manatees between the boaters that received the educational materials

and those who did not. Knowledge items on the survey were designed based on the

content of materials distributed by Manatee Watch. These results indicate that the

materials had little effect on the knowledge of the recipients of the intervention. There

were also no significant differences between the treatment and control groups on the

attitude items.









Boaters who received the educational intervention were less likely to agree that

speed limits were adequately signed than did the treatment group. Manatee Watch

literature describes the different speed limit signs, depicted on its chart. Possibly,

recipients of the educational program were more aware that speed limits are not

adequately signed because of the chart.

The behavior items in the survey were designed based on the behaviors targeted by

Manatee Watch, yet the treatment and control groups did not differ on any of the scaled

behavior items. Although recipients of the education program received nautical charts,

these boaters did not report carrying nautical charts while boating more frequently than

other boaters. The other items, regarding boating speed and awareness of manatees in

shallow water, were primary messages conveyed by Manatee Watch on their materials.

Answers to the open-ended behavior questions about what to do if you run aground or

what to do if you see a sick or injured manatee did not differ between treatment and

control groups.

Based on these findings, it appears that the Tampa Bay Manatee Watch did not

have a significant effect on the boaters' attitudes, knowledge, or behavior regarding

manatees.

One question on the survey: "Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch ever

given you any materials while you were boating in Tampa Bay?" attempted to assess if

people remembered the educational intervention from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch. Only

55% percent of those in the treatment group reported receiving the educational

intervention. We could not distinguish whether this was due to people's faulty memory

or if the methods used in the study did not adequately identify the treatment boaters. The

study began in June of 1999; it is possible that people did not remember receiving this









intervention 3 years after the fact, although there were no significant differences in

responses for the boaters that received the treatment for any of the 3 years. We also could

not determine if we actually surveyed the people who received the intervention or if

someone else received the materials on the boat or was interviewed on the phone

Regardless, we compared differences between boaters in the treatment group who

said "yes" to receiving educational materials with the control group. There was no

significant difference in their overall mean knowledge scores, although more boaters in

the treatment group who said yes to receiving materials knew that feeding a manatee

might disturb it. There were no significant differences in any of the attitude or behavior

items between the respondents that said yes to receiving materials and the control group.

Manatee Watch Intervention

The Manatee Watch program is focused on influencing boaters to boat slowly in

manatee areas. The slogan" Go Slow! Manatees Below!" is printed on all materials.

When boaters in the treatment group were asked to finish the slogan "Go slow ... ," only

5 answered "Manatees Below." Another 41 gave an answer that included "manatee."

The most successful behavioral intervention strategies have been those that focus on a

specific target behavior, as manatee Watch has targeted safe boating (Ham & Krumpe,

1996; Hines, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1986). The Manatee Watch program specifically

targets the boaters in Tampa Bay, yet this program has had limited impact based on our

survey results.

Studies show that those who feel a degree of personal responsibility are more likely

to exhibit positive behavior (Hines et al., 1986; Hungerford & Volk, 1990). In order to

influence behavior, Manatee Watch must go beyond attempting to increase knowledge;

people must be given the opportunity to develop a sense of ownership or empowerment.









Manatee Watch offers an informal program of short duration. Informal programs

are generally less effective in shifting attitudes than formal, school-based programs

(Asch & Shore, 1975; Orams & Hill, 1998; Zelezny, 1999). Short-term exposure to an

educational intervention, such as this case, is less effective in changing behaviors; the

length of the duration of the program is positively correlated with its effectiveness (Hines

et al., 1986; Zelezny, 1999). The interactive component of the ManateeWatch

intervention lasts only about a minute, and it is unknown how long the materials remain

on the boat. This intervention may be too brief to result in significant changes in

attitudes, knowledge, or behavioral intentions. Additionally, the Manatee Watch program

is somewhat passive; volunteers talk to the boaters for a brief time, and then boaters are

given some materials. They do not actively participate in this program, other than a brief

interaction to receive the materials. Passive types of programs have been shown to be

ineffective in changing behaviors (Zelezny, 1999).

This program evaluation had several limitations. The data suggest that the program

was not effective given the lack of differences between the treatment and control groups.

However, both groups exhibited fairly high knowledge scores, pro-manatee attitudes, and

pro-manatee boating behavior. The majority of both groups answered two-thirds of the

knowledge items correctly. It is possible that the Manatee Watch program focuses on

teaching things boaters already know and focuses on behaviors that boaters already

exhibit.

Care was taken to develop a questionnaire that focused on the messages Manatee

Watch attempted to impart to the boaters. However, it is possible the survey did not

adequately identify all of these targeted messages and thus missed actual differences

between the groups.









Additionally, this study relied on self-reported behavioral intentions. We do not

know if boaters receiving the educational treatment actually altered their boating

behaviors or if manatee mortality was affected.

Association of Experience with Manatees with Knowledge and
Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions

Direct experience with nature has been positively related to knowledge and

attitudes (Jacobson et al., 2001; Siemer & Knuth, 2001). Participation in outdoor

recreation activities has been positively associated with environmental attitudes and

behavior (Teisl & O'Brian, 2003). This study revealed no positive associations between

boaters' experience with manatees and their knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors. There are

a number of reasons why experience with manatees may not positively affect knowledge

and attitude or behavioral intentions. Most people (92%) had seen manatees while

boating. The negative influence of the number of times seeing a manatee while boating

and the years of boating experience on attitude could be due to boaters' beliefs that

manatees are readily seen and therefore not threatened. Boaters who had seen manatees

five or less times in the past year had a significantly higher attitude score than people

who had seen them six or more times. Williams, Ericsson, and Heberlein (2002) found a

similar pattern in an analysis of surveys of public support for wolves; people with the

most positive attitudes towards wolves were those with the least direct experience with

them.

Popular boating areas in Tampa Bay have been declared off-limits or now have

stricter speed zones for manatee protection. These regulations may result in more

negative attitudes among boaters who see manatees frequently and may not perceive

them to be in danger. Some boaters may feel manatees are responsible for regulations









that have curtailed their freedom to boat where and as fast as they want. This is an

interesting finding to consider when targeting messages to the boating community.

Educational messages could focus on the health of the ecosystem as reasons to boat

slowly, rather than just manatees.

Fifty-four percent of respondents had visited an area to see manatees; however,

visiting an area to see manatees was not correlated to knowledge or attitude or related to

reported behaviors. The 16% of respondents who had participated in an educational

program about manatees (Appendix I) did not have significantly different knowledge or

attitude scores than those who had not participated in an educational program, although

their scores were slightly higher. However, boaters who had participated in an

educational program did report that they carried nautical charts more often than those

who had not. This question was asked because Manatee Watch gives boaters nautical

charts that were marked with manatee habitat. Although boaters in the treatment group

did not carry nautical charts more often while boating, it is possible that participation in

another educational program on manatees could be related to carrying a nautical chart.

Participation in an education program on manatees is not a direct experience with

manatees, but it does indicate that an educational program could affect behavior. Because

we measured self-reported experience with manatees, we cannot be absolutely certain of

what experiences boaters have actually had. We did not validate the hypothesis that

direct experiences with manatees positively affected knowledge, attitudes or behavioral

intentions towards manatees.

Recommendations

Manatee Watch has identified specific target audiences and target behaviors, which

are essential steps in an educational intervention. The results of this study indicate that







36

educational intervention does not influence boating behavior. Based on the findings of

this study and a literature review of successful educational interventions (Appendix J),

we recommend the following actions to improve the Manatee Watch program.

1. Target boater's knowledge and attitudes.

Studies have shown that environmental knowledge is needed to shift positive

attitudes (Ericsson & Heberlein, 2003; Papageorgiou, 2001). People with proconservation

attitudes are more likely to engage in responsible behavior (Hines et al., 1986).

Interventions should target people's underlying beliefs in order to influence behavior

(Ham & Krumpe, 1996).

We found that boater's attitudes and knowledge positively influenced the boating

behavior that Manatee Watch attempts to influence. Knowledge had a slightly greater

effect on behavioral intentions when both direct effects and its indirect effects on attitude

were examined. A positive attitude influenced behavioral intentions directly. Attitude

was also correlated with a willingness to pay a boat license surcharge for increased

public education to protect the manatee and increased patrols to protect the manatee.

In order to influence boating behavior, Manatee Watch should focus on increasing

knowledge and shifting towards more positive attitudes. Current materials convey facts

about the manatee and boating, and messages to boat slow. The slogan: "Go Slow!

Manatees Below! Where Seagrasses Grow," may not appeal to boater's beliefs and

attitudes. Materials may be more effective if they appealed to boater's emotions and

increased knowledge. Materials that make the manatee more appealing to humans could

focus on their vulnerability, gentleness, and social behavior. Raising boaters' concern

about manatees should increase their appreciation of the biological needs of manatees

and the ecological role the manatees play in the ecosystem.









2. Address boaters' feelings of ownership and empowerment.

People that feel a degree of personal responsibility to the environment are more

likely to exhibit positive behavior. Education also needs to give people a sense of

empowerment; if people feel like they can make a difference, they are much more likely

to act (Hungerford & Volk, 1990). Manatee Watch does this in a sense; boaters are told

how they can make a difference by boating slow, watching for manatees, and obeying

posted signs. The nautical chart depicts voluntary speed zones, so boaters are given a

sense of empowerment in that they can make a difference by choosing to go slow.

Connecting the boaters feelings of empowerment and ownership of the fishery to

manatee protection may be more successful in changing behaviors than focusing a

message primarily on manatee protection. The primary activity reported by boaters was

sport fishing (55%). Boaters who fish may feel a degree of responsibility to the fishing

grounds that they may not feel towards manatees. Boaters who feel that their actions will

directly affect the health of the ecosystem they fish in will be more likely to exhibit

proconservation behavior.

3. Increase duration of intervention.

Educational interventions that consist of a one-time, short-term exposure are

usually ineffective in encouraging responsible behaviors (Zelezny, 1999; Young, 1993).

The brief intervention by Manatee Watch is unlikely to permanently change boater's

attitudes or behaviors. A longer, more repetitive or interactive intervention should be

successful. This may not work when approaching boaters on the water, but other

locations may be feasible such as ramps or community events. A number of respondents

were members of boating clubs or organizations; Manatee Watch may be able to work

with these groups in educating boaters. Attitude changes from one intervention are









temporary; repetition is often necessary to effect cognitive change (Jacobson, 1999). It

could be that additional meetings with boaters would help increase retention of the

Manatee Watch message.

4. Have a multi-faceted approach.

Interventions that utilize a multi-faceted approach have a higher chance of changing

behaviors (Blanchard 1995; Richter 1996). People respond to many different types of

education, be it through the media, face-to-face meetings, educational events, or active

participation. This evaluation only focused on one brief, face-to-face intervention.

Manatee Watch is also involved in neighborhood and community groups and local

events. By reaching out to boaters in a variety of ways, they would have a greater chance

of success in reaching their goals. More boaters listed newspapers and magazines as their

source of information about boating regulations and manatees than any other media

(Appendix K). Interpretative materials, such as kiosks at ramps and marinas may be an

effective way to educate boaters.

5. Incorporate active participation of boaters.

Passive interventions that do not involve active participation are less successful at

changing behaviors than interventions that involve the participants (Zelezny, 1999).

Manatee Watch gives the boaters materials, and volunteers speak for less than a minute;

but little involvement is required of the boaters besides slowing down to receive the

materials. Involving the boaters via active participation or interaction would be more

successful in changing behavior than by simply giving them materials. Again, this may

be difficult on the water, but there may be opportunities at ramps, or by visiting boating

clubs and community organizations.









Conclusion

From 1999 to 2001, Manatee Watch provided educational materials to 1,222

boaters. The data from this study indicates that the Manatee Watch educational

intervention had little effect on the boater's attitudes, knowledge and behaviors regarding

manatees. We also found no positive associations with boaters' experience with manatees

and their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, although, some boating behaviors were

correlated with knowledge and positive attitudes. Manatee Watch targets specific

behaviors and a specific target audience, which has been a successful approach in other

educational programs. To improve effectiveness of this and program we suggest the

following: (a) increase knowledge levels and target boaters' attitudes towards manatees

and ecosystem health, their feelings of ownership and empowerment, (b) increase the

duration of the intervention, (c) adopt a multi-faceted approach, and (d) incorporate

active participation of the boaters.


















MANATEE


APPENDIX A
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS


Organization Target Materials/Interventions Content
Save the Manatee Kids Student Education packets Ecology/threats. Facts,
Club (k-12) (includes, brochures, current news. How to help.
(www.savethemanate min-poster, facts, educational
e.org) info). Student
Activity/Coloring Book.
Video: Manatee Messages,
(k-5, 6-12). Also info via
web.
Manatee Observation Kids Manatee/conservation Focus on ecology geared
& Education Center curriculum for K-5. Camps, for lower grade levels,
(http://www.manateec festivals, interpretive power plants/use Save the
enter.com) programs/observation Manatee Club video.
Download from web/mail. video. 5t grade curriculum
focuses more on watercraft
dangers/mortality and
research
Florida Fish and Kids Educational Biology/anatomy/boating
Wildlife Conservation packets/materials/information safety/harassment.
Commission Student Activity Workbook Use some Save the
(http://www.floridaco (Middle/High school)-FWC. Manatee Club information.
nservation.org/psm/) Coloring/activity book (k-5)-
SMC. Video: A Closer Look
at Manatees (6-12)-FWC.
(Distributed to schools,
libraries, educators). Mini-
_oster-FWC.
Homosassa Springs General Observation/educational Viewing, comprehensive
Wildlife Park public/kids/ programs about manatees. programs re. ecology,
(http://www.hsswp.co teachers Info from SMC for threats. Focus is
m/main.html) teachers/students via mail, Homosassa springs.
web
Save the Manatee Teachers Educators Guide/In service Natural history, habitat,
Club training/speakers for problems affecting
(www.savethemanate class/video. Posters, activity manatees, causes of
e.org) books, coloring books, info mortality efforts at
booklets Mini-poster-FWC. conservation ways to
help/classroom activity
ideas, lessons.










Organization Target Materials/Interventions Content
Save the Manatee General Promote awareness, Basic ecology, heavy on
Club Public education. Through web activism/legislation/boater
(www.savethemanate materials, media. Activism. threats. How to act around
e.org) Adopt a Manatee Program. manatees.
Brochure: Attention:
Swimmers, boaters, divers.
By
FPL/SMC/USFWS/FWC).
Manatee Radio Station
w/USFWS
Florida Fish and Teachers Educator guides (SMC). Use Save the Manatee
Wildlife Conservation Classroom materials. Video: Club information for
Commission A Closer Look at Manatees- educators guides.
(http://www.floridaco FWC. Classroom materials
nservation.org/psm/) Way of the Manatee Teacher include posters, skulls.
Kits-FWC. Video covers basic
biology. Teacher kits are
delivered to schools,
teachers are provided with
instructions.
Blue Springs State All Ages Observation/manatee
Park programs
(http://www.floridasta
teparks.org/bluesprin
g/default.asp)
Manatee Observation All Ages Observation/interpretive Manatee ecology/current
and Education Center programs/presentations to trends/threats
(http://www.manateec organizations/formal manatee
enter.com/) classes/boating safety classes
Tampa Electric All Ages Observation/visitor center Environmental education
Company building, learn about
(http://www.manatee- features, history and
teco.com/) habitat.
Epcot All Ages Captive viewing/Interpretive
(http://disneyworld.di Programs
sney.go.com/waltdisn
eyworld/parksandmor
e/attractions/attraction
index?id=EPTheLivin
gSeasAtt&bhcp=1)
Lowry Park Zoo
(http://www.lowrypar
kzoo.com/NewMainP
age/HomePage/Lowr
yParkZoo.htmZoo/)
Miami Seaquarium
(South Florida
museum
http://miamiseaquariu
m.com/index.htm)
Sea World
(http://www.seaworld
.org/)










Organization Target Materials/Interventions Content
Florida Power and Adults- Booklet via mail or web. In-depth booklet of
Light boaters/ Brochure: Attention: manatee ecology,
(http://www.fpl.com/e swimmers/ swimmers, boaters, divers- populations trends, threats.
nvironment/endanger divers guidelines for protecting Brochure-Do's/Don'ts,
ed/contents/protecting manatees (SMC/FPL/US Fish guidelines for protection.
manatees.shtml; Van and Wildlife/FWC). Also
Meter, Victoria. 1989. Student Activity Workbook
The Florida Manatee. (Middle/high school) by
Florida Power and FWC. Mini-poster-FWC.
Light Company)

Florida Fish and Boaters Educational information, via Brochure/web info on how
Wildlife Conservation web, mail. Brochures. to boat responsibly, What
Commission Manatees; Miss Her Now or to look for, where to
(http://www.floridaco Miss Her Forever, Attention: avoid. What boats do to
nservation.org/psm/) Swimmers, Boaters, Divers. manatees. How to behave
Boating Safety Classes. around manatees. Classes
Video: The State of the cover manatee protection
Manatees. (Distributed to zones, harassment, how to
Coast Guard, parks, dive boat around manatees.
shops, gov't. facilities.) Video covers tips for safe
boating, how to read signs,
spot manatees, avoid
causing injury.
Florida Fish and General Info via web, mail. Manatee facts, biology,
Wildlife Conservation public Brochures: Manatees Miss where to see manatees,
Commission her now or miss her forever, current threats/regulations.
(http://www.floridaco Attention: Swimmers, Guidelines for protection.
nservation.org/psm/) boaters, divers. Guidelines Newsletter on current
for protecting manatees. manatee news/Florida Fish
Booklet: Commonly Asked and Wildlife Conservation
questions about manatees. Commission involvement.
FPL booklet. Educational
inserts. Manatee News
Quarterly Newsletter. Mini-
poster. Brochure from Disney
World: Tips for Protecting
Manatees. No formal
program
Crystal River NWR. Visitors to Brochures-by FWC. Booklet- Same as others.
US Fish and Wildlife Crystal River FPL. Student Activity Book-
(http://crystalriver.fw NWR. FWC Mini-poster-FWC.
s.gov/) Manatee Radio station in
Crystal River-w/SMC.
Save the Manatee Boaters Brochures Tips on how to boat safely
Club through lock structures.
(www.savethemanate
e.org) ______










Organization Target Materials/Interventions Content
Tampa Bay Manatee Boaters, Free boater education For boaters, basic info re.
Watch neighborhood kits/intervention on water, Threats/habitats.
(http://www.tampaba associations, boat ramps brief educational Neighborhoods:
ywatch.org/) waterfront talk presentations re. Manatee
communities Establish 'manatee' ecology, status,
neighborhoods conservation, Manatee
Watch education
programs, and ways to get
involved.
Tampa Bay Estuary Boaters Brochure: Look out below! Map of Tampa Bay;
Manatee Awareness Where Seagrasses Grow, information pertaining to
Coalition (MAC) Manatees Go Manatees in Tampa Bay,
(http://www.tbep.org/ how to protect Manatees
manateefriendly.html) and seagrasses















APPENDIX B
REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS ABOUT MANATEES

Numerous groups are involved in manatee education in the state of Florida. The

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission is the state agency involved with

education and protection efforts. Several non-profit organizations, nature centers, parks

and electric companies conduct their own educational programs. These programs and

publications try to reach many audiences, such as students, the general public and

boaters.

The content of educational materials vary greatly from one program to another.

Some focus on manatee ecology, such as habitat, range, behavior, and reproduction,

while others focus on the perils facing the manatee, such as boats, habitat loss and lack of

protection. The content of these programs and publications are examined in this review to

determine their pertinence in light of the present threats to the manatee. The media for

the educational programs varies from program to program. Brochures, booklets, coloring

books, posters, videos, school curriculums, interpretive tours and direct intervention are

all methods used to educate people about the manatees.

Florida Fish and Wildlife

The Bureau of Protected Species Management is the arm of the Florida Fish and

Wildlife Conservation Commission charged with protecting the manatee in Florida

waters. They are responsible for planning and implementing management activities for

the protection of the manatee. Their management strategy includes the implementation of









outreach and education programs (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission,

2001). The FWC maintains a website devoted to manatee information. The web site is

comprehensive, covering manatee biology, natural history, habitat, range, behavior,

current status, threats, where to see manatees, where to swim with manatees, manatee

events and festivals, etc. Students and teachers can access information via web or mail.

FWC will provide students with activity books, posters and other information pertaining

to their grade level. The FWC utilizes some information developed by the Save the

Manatee Club. Teachers can receive an educators guide (SMC), posters, classroom

materials, and a video. Manatee Teacher Kits are also in the process of being

implemented in some school systems.

Information for boaters is provided on the website. This includes information on

why boats are a threat to manatees, how they affect and kill manatees, how to boat safely

around manatees, and what constitutes harassment of manatees. Through the internet

boaters can access information on how to take a boating safety course; courses can also

be taken online. Education on boating with manatees is a component of the courses.

There is a mandatory law requiring anyone born after September 30, 1980 to take a

boating education course (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2001).

There are numerous brochures developed by the FWC about boating safely with

manatees. A video: The State of the Manatees, covers tips for safe boating, how to read

manatee signs, how to spot manatees, and avoid injuring them. The video had been

distributed to coast guard auxiliaries, law enforcement personnel, various government

representatives, dive shops and environmental workshops (Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission, 2001) The FWC also develops and distributes manatee signs

for the Florida waterways. These signs are either regulatory or educational in content.







46

In 1989 the governor directed 13 counties that were thought to be key areas in

manatee protection to develop manatee protection plans. These plans are to include

educational and outreach programs to the public, divers and boaters. To date five of these

counties have developed Manatee Protection Plans; several others counties are in the

process of developing one. FWC education staff work with Manatee Protection Plan staff

to determine each county's educational needs, and how to implement the programs

(Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commision, 2001).

The FWC education plan focuses on different target audiences: schoolchildren,

boaters, and the general public. While it is multifaceted in approach- utilizing different

methods and targeting different audiences, literature suggests that a more "hands on"

approach, where people were more involved, would be more effective (Blanchard, 1995;

Morse, 1996; Richter, 1996; Zelezny, 1999). Brochures, the web and videos and other

written information are the primary methods utilized by FWC. Educational interventions

have shown to be most effective when there is active participation by the target audience

(Zelezny, 1999). Short-term programs, with no active participation are the least effective

in changing behavior (Zelezny, 1999). Educational outreach programs are successful

when they involve people, and when people have a vested interest and a sense of

ownership about the problem or species in question (Hungerford & Volk, 1990, Morse,

1996). Past studies suggest that educational strategies that actively involved boaters, and

gave them a sense of responsibility would be effective (Hungerford & Volk, 1990).

Children respond well to long-term classroom interventions. Activity books such as

distributed by the FWC need to be accompanied by a more structured program, where the

children can actively participate. The educators guide facilitates this, as do the Manatee

Teachers Kits that are now being implemented.









While classrooms provide an ideal environment for the type of structured, longer-

term interventions that are so successful, it is necessary to develop programs of this

nature for other audiences, such as boaters. Schoolchildren are the primary recipients of

an excellent education program, while boaters mainly receive brochures and read signs.

Manatee Observation and Education Center

The Manatee Observation and Education Center is a nonprofit nature education and

wildlife observation facility located on the Indian River lagoon, in Ft. Pierce, Florida.

Through a wide range of techniques they are able to educate a variety of people about

manatee ecology and the threats facing the animal. The center has developed formal

curriculums for grades k-5; teachers can schedule classes or download the curriculum

from the web. These lesson plans cover local ecology and are focused around manatees.

The Center runs spring and summer camps for school age children, and has nature and

manatee centered festivals throughout the year. For adults that are interested in learning

about manatees a series of classes are offered at the center. People can participate in

naturalist programs on south Florida/Indian River Lagoon ecology. Interpretative

programs are offered for visitors and it is possible to observe manatees in the wild from

the center. Presentations about manatee biology and current hazards are available to

community groups in the local area. The Manatee Observation and Education targets

boaters by offering free boating safety classes, taught by the Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission.

The Manatee Observation and Education Center reaches out to a wide array of

people, tourists, boaters, students and adults. Their education techniques range from short

and informal, to programs of a longer and more structured nature. The center receives

over 80,000 visitors a year, and reaches many more though other outreach programs. The









type of formal, structured curriculum offered by the center has proven to be very

effective in changing the behaviors and attitudes of school children (Zelezny 1999).

Past studies have shown that outreach programs of this multi-faceted type, reaching

out to different groups of people, have proven to be effective (Morse, 1996).

Save the Manatee Club

Save the Manatee Club was established in 1981 by former Florida Governor Bob

Graham and singer/songwriter Jimmy Buffett. SMC was started so the public could

participate in conservation efforts to save endangered manatees from extinction. SMC is

a membership-based, national nonprofit organization. The funds from their

Adopt-A-Manatee Program go toward public awareness and education projects; manatee

research; rescue and rehabilitation efforts; advocacy and legal action in order to ensure

better protection for manatees and their habitat. Presently there are approximately 40,000

members (www.savethemanatee.org)

SMC releases information regarding current manatee issues to the press on a

regular basis. They produce signs alerting people to the presence of manatees on Florida

waterways, and produce waterproof decals for boats that offer tips on how to reduce

harm to manatees. SMC, in conjunction with other groups, has produced numerous

brochures, focusing on boating safety and manatee harassment. SMC, together with the

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have co-funded a manatee information radio station in

Crystal River Florida, which informs the public on how to act around manatees. SMC

also maintains a web site devoted to manatee ecology, information, threats, current

issues, and conservation efforts.

Much of the SMC educational efforts have been focused on school children in

Florida. Students can download information form the web, or send away for student









information packets geared for their specific grade level. Teachers can send away for

educator's guides; these guides cover a wealth of information about manatees, and give

ideas for lessons and activities, as well as strategies for teaching about the manatee. SMC

offers in service training to educators, and has speakers available to speak to classes.

SMC has produced: "Manatee Messages: What You Can Do!" an educational videotape

distributed to schools throughout Florida. This video provides a description of manatees,

and includes information on their behavior and habitat, conservation information, and

what students can do to help save manatees from extinction. The video is available in

elementary (grades K-5) and secondary (grades 6-12) formats.

Children are the primary target audience of the Save the Manatee Education

Program. While there is no formal curriculum, information is geared to specific grade

levels, and teachers are given guides, as well as in-service training on how to teach about

the manatee. Literature shows that classroom programs are more effective when teachers

are given training, rather than just receiving printed material (Charles, 1988). Much of

the educational material is focused on the dangers of watercrafts to manatees, and how to

boat more safely. Reckless boating is identified as a problem behavior, yet children are

the main recipients of this message. When a target behavior is identified, education

should be targeted to the audience that performs that certain behavior. In this case, while

children respond well to classroom interventions, they are not the ones engaging in the

behavior that is harmful to manatees. Educational interventions should target a specific

audience and should focus on the behavior known to cause the conservation problem

(Ham & Krumpe, 1996). This educational program targets the behavior but not the

audience.







50

Save the Manatee Club boater education consists of brochures and media

campaigns. Nonformal, passive programs of this type have not been effective in the past

(Zelezny 1999).















APPENDIX C
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Hello, My name is I'm calling from the University of Florida. We are
conducting a study about boating in Tampa Bay. This is not a sales call in any way. This
research is being conducted by the university and we would only like your opinion. (As
necessary: We started an interview a few days ago and I'm calling back to complete that
interview. May we begin?)

My questions are for the primary boat user in your household. May I please speak to him
or her?

Hello. We are conducting a study about boaters' opinions and boating in Tampa Bay.
This is not a sales call in any way. This research is being conducted by the university and
we would only like your opinion. According to our selection procedures, I need to
interview you as the primary boat user in the household.

Your phone number was selected at random, from a list of boat owners in Florida. Your
answers will be completely confidential. You do not have to answer any questions you
don't wish to.

May I begin with your first name?

Record sex of respondent (not informant)

1. Male
2. Female

And what is your age?

Q 1: About how many times have you boated in Tampa Bay in the last year? (Read Choices)

1. Less than 10
2. 11 to 50
3. More than 50
4. Haven't boated in Tampa Bay
-8 don't know
-9 not available










Q 2: What is your primary activity when you are boating in Tampa Bay? (Read Choices)
consciousness

1. Sport fishing
2. sailing
3. power cruising
4. recreation
5. Water Skiing
6. Commuting
7. personal watercraft use
8. Other work-related
9. other
-8 don't know
-9 not available


Q 3: During which season do you usually visit Tampa Bay: summer, winter or year-round
1. Summer
2. Winter
3. all-year round
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Now, I would like your opinion on some issues. Please tell me if you strongly agree, agree,
neither agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly disagree withthe following statements. There
is no wrong or right answer, and we are interested only in your personal opinion. If you do
not have an opinion on an issue, you may answer, "don't know."

Q 4: I support programs to protect the manatee even though it means reducing the speed
allowed on some waterways.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. Strongly agree
6. don't know
7. unavailable

Q 5: I support programs to protect the manatee even if it means boats would not be allowed
to enter some areas.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
6. don't know
7. unavailable










Q 6: I support setting speed limits in areas where natural resources, such as sea grass,
need protection.


1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
6. don't know
7. unavailable

Q 7a: I support increased public education to protect the manatee.


1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
6. don't know
7. unavailable

Q 7b: If agree or strongly agree, go to: Would you be willing to pay a boat license
surcharge for increased public education to protect the manatee?

1 Yes
2 No

Q 7c. If yes, go to: On a scale from 0 to 20 dollars, how much would you be willing to pay?

0-20

Q 8a: I support increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
6. don't know
7. unavailable

Q 8b: If agree or strongly agree, go to: Would you be willing to pay a boat license
surcharge for increased patrols by law enforcement officers to protect the manatee?
1 Yes
2 No







54

Q 8c: If yes, go to: On a scale from 0 to 20 dollars, how much would you be willing to
pay?
0-20

Q 9: Speed zones are adequately signed.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 10: Manatees are in need of protection.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 11: There should be protected areas for manatees, where boats are not allowed to enter.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 12: The manatee is an endangered species.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable









Q 13: I have been negatively affected by regulations protecting the manatee.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 14: The manatee is worth saving despite the need for regulations.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 15: Feeding a manatee will disturb it.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 16: Touching a manatee that does not first approach you is considered harassment.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 17: Any human activity that changes a manatee's behavior is harassment.

1. Strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable







56

Q 18: Manatees have to be fed by people because there may not be enough natural food
for them.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 19: Manatees feed in seagrass beds.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 20: Manatees are harmful to seagrass beds.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 21: Boating slowly over seagrass beds will help me to avoid manatees.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 22: Boats should have no wake in an idle speed zone.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable









Q 23: I can better avoid manatees by staying in deep water channels while boating.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 24: Discarded fishing lines are a threat to manatees.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 25: Wearing polarized sunglasses can help me see manatees better.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 26: A swirl on the surface of the water may signal that a manatee is below.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 27: I carry nautical charts with me when boating. (Read Choices)

1. all of the time
2. a lot of the time
3. sometimes
4. occasionally
5. never










Q 28: Nautical charts help me to determine where manatees are located.

3. strongly disagree
4. disagree
5. neither agree nor disagree
6. agree
7. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 29: In your opinion, what proportion of manatee deaths are boat-related? (READ
CHOICES)

1. almost none
2. about a quarter
3. about half
4. about three-quarters
5. almost all
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 30: Why do you think there are boat-related manatee deaths? (Please don't read
choices.)

1. Manatees in the way of boats/they can't get out of the way
2. Boaters are careless/any form of carelessness
3. too many boats on the water
4. lack of law enforcement
5. Other
6. excessive speed
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 31 In your opinion, what proportion of boaters violate speed zones? (READ
CHOICES)

1. almost none
2. about a quarter
3. about half
4. about three-quarters
5. almost all
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable









Q 32: In your opinion, what proportion of boaters enter areas closed for manatee
protection? (READ CHOICES)

1. almost none
2. about a quarter
3. about half
4. about three-quarters
5. almost all
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 33: In your opinion, what proportions of boaters harass manatees? (READ CHOICES)

1. almost none
2. about a quarter
3. about half
4. about three-quarters
5. almost all
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 34: Manatees are in Tampa Bay (READ CHOICES).

1. during the summer only
2. during the winter only
3. all-year round
4. seldom
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 36: Do you maintain a slower speed when boating in shallow water, less than 6 feet
deep? (Read Choices)

1. always
2. frequently
3. sometimes
4. seldom
5. never

Q 37: When boating in shallow water, do you watch out for manatees in order to avoid
them? (Read Choices)

1. always
2. frequently
3. sometimes
4. seldom
5. never










Q 37: Have you taken a Boating Safety Course? (NEW)

1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't Know
-9 Unavailable

Q 39: If you run aground what do you do? (Not necessary to read choices)

1. Start the engine up
2. Wait for the tide to come in
3. Use a push pole
4. Get out and push the boat into deeper water
5. call a tow boat
6. Other
7. turn off the engine
8. don't know
9. refused

Q 40: If you see a sick or injured manatee, what would you do? (Not necessary to read
choices)

1. call someone
2. call coast guard
3. call Florida Marine Patrol
4. call local law enforcement
5. tell people at the marina
6. call Mote Marine
7. avoid manatee
8. assist manatee
9. do nothing
10. other
11. call the fish and wildlife officer/commission(FWC)
-8 don't know
-9 refused

We are almost finished. The next set of questions I have will help us analyze your
answers along with the answers of others.







61

Q 41: Where do you get MOST of your information about boating regulations? (Not
necessary to read choices.)

1. family and friends
2. personal experience/knowledge
3. boating clubs
4. casual contacts with fellow boaters
5. fishing clubs
6. boat supply stores
7. bait and tackle stores
8. printed material such as brochures
9. newspapers or magazines
10. radio
11. television
12. signs posted on waterways
13. navigational charts
14. other
15. Websites
16. Coast Guard
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 42: Where do you get MOST of your information about manatees? (Not necessary to
read choices)

1. family and friends
2. personal experience/knowledge
3. educational signs
4. local environmental organizations
5. printed materials such as brochures
6. boat supply stores
7. bait and tackle stores
8. newspaper or magazines
9. radio
10. television
11. other
12. websites
13. don't get information on manatees
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 43: Has anyone from an organization ever talked to you about boating safely with
manatees while you were boating in Tampa Bay?

1 Yes
2 No
-8 don't know
-9 Unavailable










Q 44: Has anyone from Tampa Bay Manatee Watch given you informational materials
about manatees such as, a nautical chart, keychain, fishing yardstick or polarized
sunglasses while you were boating in Tampa Bay?

1. Yes
2. no
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

If no, go to question 47. If yes, go to:
Q 45: Do you use any of these materials while boating?

1 yes
2 no
-9 don't know
-9 unavailable

If no, go to question 46. If yes, go to:
Q 46: Of these materials, which ones do you use? (Read Choices)


1. waterproof chart


yes no


2. polarized sunglasses yes no


3. floating keychain
4. fishing yardstick


ves no


Q 47: These materials have helped me to learn about manatees.

1. strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. neither agree nor disagree
4. agree
5. strongly agree
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable


Q 48: How many years have you lived in Florida?
0-100
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 49a: Have you ever seen manatees while boating?)
1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't know
-9 not available










Q 49b: If yes, go to: About how many times have you seen manatees while boating in the
past year? (Read Choices)
1. Never
2. 1 to 5 times
3. 6 or more

Q 50a: Have you ever seen manatees while swimming?

1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 50b: If yes, go to: About how many times have you seen manatees while swimming?
(Read Choices)

1. Never
2. 1-5 times
3. 6 or more

Q 51: Have you ever visited an area for the purpose of seeing manatees?

1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 52: Have you ever participated in an educational program about manatees?

1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 53: Are you a member of any local wildlife, conservation or sporting club or
organization? (Changed it to include conservation organization)

1. Yes
2. No
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable


If yes, which one(s)?









Q 54: How many years of boating experience do you have?


don't know
unavailable


Q 55: How far is your home from the Tampa Bay waterfront? (Read choices)

1. I live on the water
2. less than a mile
3. 1-5 miles
4. 6-20 miles
5. more than 20 miles

Q 56: Do you have a manatee license plate?

1. yes
2. no
-8 don't know
-9 unavailable

Q 57: What is the highest grade of school or year in college you have completed? (Not
necessary to read choices)


0 None
1 Elementary
2 Elementary
3 Elementary
4 Elementary
5 Elementary
6 Elementary
7 Elementary
8 Elementary
9 High School
10 High School

Q 58: How would
choices.)
1. Caucasian


11 High School
12 High School
13 College
14 College
15 College
16 College
17 Some Graduate School
18 Graduate/Prof. Degree
-8 Don't Know
-9 not available


you describe your race or ethnic background? (If necessary, read


African American
Asian or Pacific islander
American Indian
Hispanic/Latino
Other (specify)
Multi-racial or mixed race
don't know
unavailable









Q 59: Now consider your family's household income from all member sources before
taxes. As I read a list, please stop me when I get to the income level that best describes
your household income in 1999.
1. less than 20,000
2. 21,000 to 40,000
3. 41,000 to 60,000
4. 61,000 to 80,000
5. 81,000 to 100,000
6. 100,000 to 150,000
7. Over 150,000
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Q 60: If we were to repeat the survey next year, would you be willing to participate in it?
1 Yes
-8 don't know
-9 Unavailable

Slogan:
Now I'm going to read the first part of a phrase and ask that you complete it.

The phrase begins:
Go Slow, Blank, Blank

(Int: resp. should complete phrase--.)
(Probe if resp. says they don't know how to finish phrase)

1. Manatees below
2. Any other answer that includes "Manatee" or "Manatees"""
3. All other answers
-8 don't know
-9 refused

Thank you.

This completes the survey. Thank you very much.

If you have any questions regarding the survey, you may contact Dr. Susan Jacobson,
Professor as the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of
Florida, Gainesville. Her phone number is 352-846-0562















APPENDIX D
DISPOSITION REPORTS


Treatment Group
Sample Report By Last Disposition:BOAT2
Treatment Group
DISPOSITION CODE DESCRIPTION
1100 Complete
1200 Partial complete
2110 Strong refusal
2120 Soft refusal
2210 Resp never available
2221 Ans machine, no message
2222 Ans machine, message
2320 Phys/mentally unable
2330 Lang unable-don't use for sp
2340 Misc unable
3120 Busy
3130 No answer
3150 Technical phone problems
4200 Fax/data line
4310 Non-working number
4320 Disconnected number
4410 Number changed
4420 Cell phone
4510 Business/government/other org
4520 Institution
4530 Group quarters
4700 No eligible respondent
5100 Callback, resp not selected
5200 Callback, respondent selected


09/09/02 11:06 AM
RECORDS
206

23
22
1
69
10
1
1

5
42
6
6
5
22


4


41
6
7


TOTAL ATTEMPTED 477
Not Attempted 0
TOTAL SAMPLE 477










Control Group
Sample Report By Last Disposition:BOAT2


Control Group
DISPOSITION CODE
1100
1200
2110
2120
2210
2221
2222
2320
2330
2340
3120
3130
3150
4200
4310
4320
4410
4420
4510
4520
4530
4700
5100
5200


DESCRIPTION
Complete
Partial complete
Strong refusal
Soft refusal
Resp never available
Ans machine, no message
Ans machine, message
Phys/mentally unable
Lang unable-don't use for sp
Misc unable
Busy
No answer
Technical phone problems
Fax/data line
Non-working number
Disconnected number
Number changed
Cell phone
Business/government/other org
Institution
Group quarters
No eligible respondent
Callback, resp not selected
Callback, respondent selected


09/09/02 11:15 AM
RECORDS
296
1
83
52

120
11
2


TOTAL ATTEMPTED 881
Not Attempted 0
TOTAL SAMPLE 881















APPENDIX E
LIST OF CLUBS THAT RESPONDENTS ARE MEMBERS OF BOATING CLUBS

Boating Club (2)
Westcoast Cruisers
Windjammers Sailing Club
St. Petersburg Power Squadron
Tampa Sailing Squadron (2)
Coast Guard Auxiliary (4)
Yacht Club (2)
Boat Scuba West
National Association of Charter Boat Operators
A boating club
Davis Island Yacht Club
Boat U.S. (4)
Pasadena Yacht Club
Boca Ciega Squadron Club
U.S Power Squadron

Environmental Clubs

Audubon Society (3)
World Wildlife Fund (2)
Key West Environmental Reef Protection
Coastal Conservation Organization (25)
Save the Manatee Club
Sierra Club (5)
Sanctuary
Florida Wildlife Federation
Defenders of Wildlife
Tampa Bay Watch
Audubon Society (2)
Florida Conservation Association (2)
Nature Conservancy
Snook Foundation
Ducks unlimited (5)
Surfrider









Fishing Clubs


National Fishing Association
Fishing Conservation Association
Freshwater Sporting Club
St. Petersburg Power Squadron
Old Salts Fishing Club (6)
Florida Sportsmen magazine fishing Forum (2)
St. Pete Pro-Bass (2)
Bass Society (2)
Gainesville/Alachua Fishing Club
Ft. Pierce Sport Fishing Club
St. Pete Underwater Club
Southern Kingfish Association (2)
Florida Fishermen Association
Golden Triangle Sport Fishing Club
Fishing Sporting Club
North American Fishing Organization (3)

Sporting Club

Hunting Club of Cross City
Junior Sportsmen Association
National Recreational Association
National Rifle Association (4)
International Game Fish Association (3)
Safari Club
International Game Club
National Wild Turkey Federation

Other


Seabug (2)
Boyd-Hill Nature park
NOAH
Florida Guides Association (4)
Lowry Park Zoo
Duet Park
State Wild Park
United States Coast Guard
National Estuary Policy Board















APPENDIX F
BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED
ALWAYS/FREQUENTLY


Behavior Item Treatment Control Total
(%) (%) (%)
I carry nautical charts with me while boating. 65.5 68.3 67.3

Do you maintain a slower speed when boating in 66.8 71.1 69.6
shallow water?

When boating in shallow water, do you watch out for 89.4 89.8 89.8
manatees, in order to avoid them?















APPENDIX G
SUMMARY OF ATTITUDE RESPONSES


Strongly Neither Strongly
Agree/Agree Agree/Disagree Disagree/Disagree
(%) (O%) (%)
Attitude Treat. Cont. Treat. Cont. Treat. Cont.
Support for speed
reduction. 75.1 78 5 5.4 19.9 16.6
Support for no-entry
areas. 59.3 61.7 6.5 5.2 34.2 33.1
Support for speed limits
in seagrass areas. 87.1 90.7 4.0 1.7 9.0 7.6
Support for public
education 56.5 66.5 5.5 3.5 38.0 29.9
Support for increased
patrols. 63.5 63.7 5.1 3.7 31.5 32.5
Manatees need
protection. 81.0 80.8 9.0 3.8 10.0 15.5
Manatee is worth saving 86.6 89.5 8.8 3.5 4.6 7.0
Negatively affected by
regulations. 20.4 24.5 8.5 5.5 71.1 70.0
















APPENDIX H
SUMMARY OF BOATERS' EXPERIENCE WITH MANATEES


Experience Item Yes No
(Have you ever seen manat) (.%)
Have you ever seen manatees while boating? 92.0 8.5
Have you ever seen manatees while swimming? 43.0 57.2
Have you ever visited an area for the purpose of seeing 53.5 46.5
manatees?
Have you ever participated in an educational program about 16.3 83.7
manatees?















APPENDIX I
REVIEW OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR CONSERVATION

State education systems, conservation agencies and non-profit groups have

designed formal short-term and long-term school curricula for all ages of students.

Programs by state and non-profit environmental groups targeting communities, in regards

to local endangered species, and informal outreach programs are also methods used in

educating the public about conservation issues. Television, newspapers, magazines and

radio are important channels in educational outreach campaigns.

Formal and informal programs with children are evaluated more often than

programs with adults. Structured programs associated with schools have proven to be the

most effective in changing behaviors of children (Zelezny, 1999). Short-term programs

result in an increase in positive attitudes, while longer-term programs are more effective

and result in increases in pro-conservation behavior (Hines et al., 1986, Bogner, 1998).

Studies in which children and adults are exposed to a variety of environmental education

programs show that children show the most potential for changing their attitudes and

behavior, compared to adults (Zelezny, 1999).

Media Interventions

Media interventions, when used alone as an educational tool, have not been found

to have significant effects on behavior or attitudes. A study on a television documentary

on marine mammals showed that viewer's knowledge increases and attitudes shifted

immediately after watching the program, but only for the short-term (Fortner & Lynon,

1985).









A mass media campaign on the greenhouse effect, sponsored by the Dutch

government was evaluated to determine its success. This program in the Netherlands had

two goals: to provide information on the characteristics, causes and consequences of the

greenhouse effect, and to enhance awareness on how to solve the problem. No effects

were found for emotional concern, perceived seriousness of the problem or voluntary

behavior change. Knowledge and awareness did not have a strong correlation with

behavior in this instance (Staats, Wit, & Midden, 1996).

Environmental education programs that utilize the media as an educational tool, in

conjunction with other methods, have been effective (Morse, 1996, Richter, 1996). These

will be discussed in further detail below.

Community Outreach Programs

Community outreach programs pertaining to endangered species have been

effective, resulting in changes in individuals' behaviors and an increase in protected

areas. When citizens are taught the natural history of a species, and are exposed to a wide

variety of information through television, print media, radio and field trips, they become

more actively involved in recovery efforts. The Fish and Wildlife Service's New England

Field Office in Keene, New Hampshire designed an outreach program focusing on the

Dwarf Wedge Mussel, an endangered species threatened by encroaching development.

Schoolteachers, town officials, businessmen, media and citizens were invited to

participate in a "Meet the Mussel Day." Informative talks on the natural history of the

mussel were given; people learned that protecting the mussels would also protect the

city's water supply. Plans to expand a golf course into mussel habitat were modified,

citizens are now actively involved in mussel recovery efforts (Morse, 1996).









Seabirds on the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence were suffering major

population declines between 1955-1978. A comprehensive management plan was

designed in 1980 that included a strong educational component for the communities in

the area. Both children and adults were the focus of a multifaceted education strategy that

included print media, face-to-face lessons, interpretative tours and volunteer programs. A

follow up survey in 1998 documented improvement in knowledge, attitudes and

behavior, increased local involvement in seabird protection, and increased populations of

seabirds (Blanchard, 1995).

The protection of the Karner Blue Butterfly in Concord, New Hampshire is another

example of a successful community outreach program (Morse, 1996). This animal

survives in a remnant of pine barren habitat near the Concord airport; an area proposed

for industrial development. The Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nature Conservancy

began an informational campaign to protect the butterfly, focusing on the uniqueness of

the species. Outreach efforts included television, print media, radio interviews and field

trips to see the butterfly. An agreement was made to set aside 28 acres of habitat for the

butterfly, and most area businesses are now cooperating with The Nature Conservancy

and the Fish and Wildlife Service in the effort to protect the butterfly.

Outreach programs by state and non-profit groups have been successful when they

are multi-faceted, involving entire communities, especially when the people have a

vested interest in the animals' survival. The Kirtland's Warbler is an endangered species

that nests in the Upper and Lower Peninsula of Michigan. The species had a total count

of 334 individuals in 1987. At the time of this study (1995), the count was at 1,530

individuals. An outreach plan by the Fish And Wildlife Service was designed to increase

the public's understanding of the bird. The plan detailed various goals, target audiences,







76

key messages, guidelines and specific actions. The education committee consisted of

interpretation specialists, biologists and private citizens. Free daily tours to see the birds

were offered at the inception of the plan. Now the tours attract birders from all over the

world, bringing money into the local communities. Another strategy has been a

Kirtland's Warbler Festival, an event that allows birdwatchers and local communities to

participate in bringing tourist dollars into the local area. Local businesses and residents

now view the Kirtland's Warbler as an asset worth preserving, not an obstruction to

economic development (Richter, 1996).

Programs for Children

Numerous studies have documented changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior in

schoolchildren after exposure to an environmental education program. A study of 5t

grade boys by Asch and Shore (1975) showed that children exposed to a formal program

of environmental education will demonstrate (in a natural setting) more proconservation

behavior than a control group.

A meta-analysis by Zelezny (1999) of educational interventions showed that

interventions of a longer duration have more of an effect on behavior. Hines and

colleagues (1986) found that programs that consisted of short-term exposures were

ineffective in promoting environmentally responsible behaviors. Bogner (1998) measured

changes in behavior of schoolchildren after involvement in a one-day ecology program

versus a five-day residential program. Results showed that only the residential five-day

program had any result on behavioral levels. Studies of schoolchildren's conservation

attitudes who participated in 4-H outdoor ecology programs showed that experiences of a

longer duration were more successful than short term experiences (Shepard & Speelman,

1985).







77

In general, formal, long-term programs directed at students have the greatest effect

in changing attitudes and behaviors. Studies of outreach programs targeting adults are

few, but the ones that do exist show that behaviors and attitudes can be changed in

regards to a particular species, especially when the programs are more structured and

multifaceted in nature.

Experiential Education Programs

Studies of experiential education have demonstrated the power of direct

experiences in developing greater understanding and awareness of environmental issues.

Experiential education can make important contributions in the development of

environmental concern and individual actions that results in pro-conservation behaviors

(Ewert, 1996). "Natural" contact with nature seems to reinforce environmental education

and increase empathy for the conservation of species in the wild (Miles, 1986). Through

direct experience with the natural world we can develop a better understanding of

wildlife and their needs, and become more committed to their conservation.

Siemer and Knuth (2001) studied the effects of an experiential fishing and aquatic

stewardship program, versus the effects of non-experiential fishing and aquatic

stewardship program on teenagers. The experience-based program resulted in higher

levels of knowledge of fishing, aquatic environments, ecological concepts and aquatic

habitat protection. In addition, youth that were involved in the experiential program

placed more importance on visiting wetlands, thinking about how personal actions affect

aquatic plants and animals, and limiting the impact on the environment while fishing.

Knapp and Poff (2001) measured the differences in physical, experiential

interpretative programs versus passive interpretative programs. He found that physical









experiences were much more memorable than passive experiences, and resulted in

increased knowledge on the part of the participants.

Orams (1996) suggests that wildlife can benefit from ecotourism by encouraging

ecotourists to take a more active role where their activities can contribute to the

conservation of wildlife and the environment. He argues for an increase in education-

based management regimes that are designed to control visitor interaction with wildlife,

increase tourist enjoyment, and promote a change in attitudes and behavior.

Formal programs for adults have shown to be effective when targeting specific

behaviors. A study of the impact of an educational intervention at a wild dolphin feeding

facility in Australia showed that a formal, structured educational program was effective

in controlling ecotourists' behaviors towards the dolphins (Orams & Hill, 1998). In this

particular study, education reduced all inappropriate behaviors (measured).
















APPENDIX J
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT BOATING REGULATIONS
AND MANATEES


Source of Information about Boating
Regulations
Family and friends
Personal experience/knowledge
Boating clubs
Fishing clubs
Casual contacts w/ boaters
Boat supply stores
Bait and tackle stores
Printed material (brochures)
Newspapers or magazines
Television
Signs posted on waterways
Navigational charts
Websites/internet
Coast guard
Other


Source of Information about Manatees
Family and Friends
Personal experience/knowledge
Educational signs
Local environmental organizations
Printed materials such as brochures
Bait and tackle stores
Newspapers and magazines
radio
television
websites
Don't get information on manatees
other


Treatment Group
(%)
3.5
9.0
1.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
12.4
28.4
1.5
2.5
1.5
5.5
10.0
17.4


Treatment Group
(%)
4.0
9.0
2.5
8.5
10.0
1.5
28.4
2.5
12.9
2.0
3.5
15.4


Control Group
(%)
4.1
10.7
1.7
0.3
1.7
1.4
2.1
8.3
24.1
2.1
2.1
0.3
5.9
11.4
23.8


Control Group
(%)
3.0
8.4
4.1
2.4
5.7
0.7
36.8
0.7
16.9
3.7
4.4
13.2















APPENDIX K
LIST OF REASONS FOR BOAT-RELATED DEATHS: REPORTED IN
THE "OTHER" CATEGORY

Treatment Group
"Because it's difficult for man and manatees to co-exist"
Boats and manatees both use the water (5)
"They occupy canals, channels, where there are boats there are manatees, where there
are manatees there are boats"
"Over-boating"
"Because they get run over (2)
"Three ports in Tampa bay. Lots of boats to get hit by, get trapped in structures"
"Too much drinking of people on boats"
"Lack of a person knowing how to operate a boat correctly"
"Have never seen a death"
"Too much traffic in mating times"
"Boats are going to hit manatees as long as the two co-exist"
"On the surface, proximity to the surface, don't hear the boat coming"
"I wonder how many jet skies there are, they are slow and boaters can't see them"
"I think there are more manatees than reported"
""The number of boats and the population of people"( 2)
Not enough education (2)
Too many boats (2)
"Because people boat where they live"
"Boats with deep draft in shallow waters in board only"
"Stupidity"
"Improper signage"
"People not obeying signs and no wake"
"Number of boats and more manatees than ever before"(2)
" Why don't they tell us the right answers"
Natural selection"
"Because the manatee cannot get out of the way of the propeller"
"Hitting them"
"There are too many manatees. They are not declining but growing in population and
increased number of boats. There are more manatees then when I came to Florida in
1962."
"High traffic area"
Propeller (2)
]"There are boaters who do not care about the needs of the manatees"
"Too many people out there"
"Because they are a stupid animal, nice but stupid"









"Hit by props, if not deep even at idle they can get hit"
"Boating activity in manatee areas, and manatee activity in boating areas"
"Too many speed boats. When they go 90 miles an hour the manatees don't have a chance.
Saw a bunch on Shell Island and People were trying to catch them and they had scars-even
the babies"

Control Group

"Striking manatees, impact"
"Manatees and boaters both exist"
"Commercial traffic in shipping lanes"
"Population of boaters increases"
"Poor information"
People can't see them (6)
"They go after the sound of the propeller"
"Our pleasure and their (manatee) living at the same time"
"It just happens, no one does it on purpose"
"I've seen pictures of the scars"
"Because they are slow- we don't hit dolphins"
"When a boat runs into a manatee it cuts them up"
"Accidents happen"
"Boaters are not aware that manatees are there"
"We don't know about them, like their habits"
"The manatee got in the way of the boat"
"Boats are traversing manatee areas"
" I do not know if there are manatee deaths"
We are in the same space (4)
Get hit by propellers (4)
Manatees are in channels that they don't normally go
"Boats are manatees only natural enemy"
"Public unawareness of the habitats and their overall lack of mobility; they don't move
as fast as other animals, (like a dolphin)"
"Some people pay attention"
"No fences underwater for the manatees"
"People are not informed on how to protect them"
Boating traffic
"There are more of them. They are too friendly"
"They are mammals, they have to breath, so accidents occur
"People do not follow regulations
"Because they can't hear the low frequency idle engine while we're idling in low speed
zones"
"Increase in motor boats"
"Human interaction, feeding, taming, petting them used to being around boats"
"Failure to obey laws"
"People don't know where manatees are"
"Too many boats on the water" (2)









"Lack of knowledge on boaters behalf'
Boats hit the manatee (2)
"Because manatees come to the surface"
Too many manatees (2)
"Boaters are unaware of where they are"
"So few, and anything can get in the way of a propeller. The boats aren't that much of a
hazard, only three deaths in the county in the last ten years."
"Just like car accidents, they are bound to happen"
"Lack of awareness by boater"
"They come in close proximity with props form the engines"
"They are large and slow"
"They are underneath the water, and they are slow moving"
"There are power plants that force manatees to be in inappropriate areas, they are
artificially attracted and boaters are clueless"
" Lots of manatees, lots of boats"
"Manatees are not boat shy"
"Dumb asses"
"Large boats create a vacuum with their propellers that manatees get sucked into"
"Unacknowledged people who aren't willing to take responsibility for watching out for
manatees"















REFERENCES


Aipanjiguly, K., Jacobson, S. K., & Flamm, R. 2003. Conserving manatees: Knowledge,
attitudes, and intentions of boaters in Tampa Bay, Florida. Conservation Biology,
17(4), 1098-1105.

American Association for Public Opinion Research. (2002). Standards and best practices.
Retrieved November 1, 2002, from http://www.aapor.org

Arrison, K. (2003). 2002 manatee mortality. Retrieved November 3, 2003, from
http://www.Floridamarine.org

Asch, J., & Shore, B. (1975). Conservation behavior as the outcome of environmental
education. Journal ofEnvironmental Education, 6, 25-33.

Blanchard, K. (1995). Reversing population declines in seabirds on the north shore of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In S. K. Jacobson (Ed.), Conserving wildlife,
international education and communication approaches (pp. 51-63). New York:
Columbia University Press.

Bogner, F. X. (1998). The influence of short-term outdoor ecology education on long-
term variables of environmental perspective. Journal OfEnvironmental
Education, 29, 17-29.

Ericsson, G., & Heberlein, T. A. (2003). Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general
public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation, 111(2),
149-159.

Ewert, A. 0. (1996). Experiential education and natural resource management. The
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Julie Morris grew up in Venice, Florida. She attended Rollins College, where she

received her bachelor's degree in environmental studies. Julie was a Peace Corps

volunteer in the Dominican Republic for 2 years and worked as an environmental

educator and biologist prior to attending graduate school in the Department of Wildlife

Ecology and Conservation. After graduation she plans on working in Florida in the field

of natural resource management.