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Understanding the relationship between successful construction company growth and the growth of a small city in Florida

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY IN FLORIDA By ROBERT F. BURNETT A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENC E IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Robert F. Burnett

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THE EFFORT FOR THE RESEARCH A ND HARD WORK TO PRESENT THIS DOCUMENT COMES FROM THE HELP OF MY FAMILY AND FRIENDS. I WOULD LIKE TO DEDICATE THIS DO CUMENT TO THEM FOR ALL THEIR SUPPORT. THANK YOU.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank all the people who have put time and energy towards the completion of this document. I want to thank my parents for all their support throughout my career at the University of Florida, and for their endless emotional support throughout the entire process. I want to thank Dr. R. Raymond Issa of the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction for his help and guidance throughout my time in the Rinker School, and especially for his guidance through this thesis preparation. I also want to thank Dr. Robert F. Cox for his efforts in the development of the document and continual support throughout my studies. Lastly, I want to thank Dr. Marc Smith for all his support and advice throughout the research and development of the survey. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Definition......................................................................................................................3 Statement of Problem...................................................................................................4 Statement of Hypothesis...............................................................................................4 Scope and Limitations of Study....................................................................................5 Importance of Study.....................................................................................................6 Research Determinations..............................................................................................7 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................8 Prework.........................................................................................................................8 Bad Growth...................................................................................................................8 Good Growth..............................................................................................................10 The Good Life.............................................................................................................10 Commercial and Residential.......................................................................................11 The Public...................................................................................................................12 Factors to Measure......................................................................................................13 3 STYLES......................................................................................................................15 Scope...........................................................................................................................15 Preparation of Questionnaire......................................................................................17 Individual Questions...................................................................................................20 Completion of Survey.................................................................................................25 Selecting Representative Sample City........................................................................26 Sample Selection........................................................................................................30 v

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Questionnaire Conducted............................................................................................31 Initial Analysis Performed..........................................................................................32 Conclusion..................................................................................................................32 4 SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS....................................................................34 Overview.....................................................................................................................34 Respondents................................................................................................................35 Respondents Analysis.................................................................................................37 What Is Growth?.........................................................................................................44 Growth Issues......................................................................................................45 Business Issues....................................................................................................45 Issues with Jobs...................................................................................................45 Residential Issues................................................................................................45 Random Issues.....................................................................................................46 By Question Review...................................................................................................47 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................71 Chart Of Success.........................................................................................................71 Block OnePopulation Growth.........................................................................72 Block TwoSkilled Labor.................................................................................73 Block ThreeLocal Support..............................................................................73 Block FourAvailable Money...........................................................................74 Blocks Five and SixLocal and Non-Local Construction Firms.......................74 Block SevenWorking Together.......................................................................75 Final BlockSuccess..........................................................................................76 Learning......................................................................................................................76 Next Steps...................................................................................................................77 APPENDIX A TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 10,000 100,000....................................................................................80 B SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE...................83 C PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT..............................................85 D INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUSTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK...............86 E CONTACT REFERENCE LIST................................................................................87 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................99 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 General Respondent Information........................................................................36 4-2 Work Categories.................................................................................................37 4-3 Individual Respondents.......................................................................................39 4-4 General Comments on Questions........................................................................47 A-1 Cities Based on US Census 2000........................................................................80 B-1 Questionnaire......................................................................................................83 E-1 Contact Reference List........................................................................................87

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Respondents........................................................................................................42 4-2 Averages of Respondents....................................................................................44 4-3 Question 1 Response...........................................................................................48 4-4 Question 2 Response...........................................................................................49 4-5 Question 3a Response.........................................................................................50 4-6 Question 3b Response.........................................................................................50 4-7 Question 3c Response.........................................................................................51 4-8 Question 3d Response.........................................................................................51 4-9 Question 3e Response.........................................................................................52 4-10 Question 4 Response...........................................................................................53 4-11 Question 5a Response.........................................................................................54 4-12 Question 5b Response.........................................................................................54 4-13 Question 5c Response.........................................................................................55 4-14 Question 5d Response.........................................................................................55 4-15 Question 6a Response.........................................................................................56 4-16 Question 6b Response.........................................................................................57 4-17 Question 6c Response.........................................................................................57 4-18 Question 6d Response.........................................................................................58 4-19 Question 7 Response...........................................................................................59 4-20 Question 8 Response...........................................................................................60 viii

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4-21 Question 9 Response...........................................................................................60 4-22 Question 10 Response.........................................................................................61 4-23 Question 11a Response.......................................................................................62 4-24 Question 11b Response.......................................................................................63 4-25 Question 11c Response.......................................................................................63 4-26 Question 11d Response.......................................................................................64 4-27 Question 12 Response.........................................................................................64 4-28 Question 13 Response.........................................................................................65 4-29 Question 14 Response.........................................................................................66 4-30 Question 15 Response.........................................................................................67 4-31 Question 16a Response.......................................................................................68 4-32 Question 16b Response.......................................................................................69 4-33 Question 16c Response.......................................................................................69 5-1 Chart of Success..................................................................................................71 ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY IN FLORIDA By Robert F. Burnett December 2003 Chair: Dr. R. Raymond Issa Cochair: Dr. Robert F. Cox Major Department: Building Construction Factors and standards are needed to determine the impact of the building construction industry on small Florida cities. There were two main questions to be answered: (1) does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities, and (2) is the building construction industry a leader of growth in small cities? To accomplish the objective of answering these questions several steps needed to be taken. First, a small, growing city in Florida, which is representative, was selected as the sample city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward the questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was distributed to people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, to elected officials, to community leaders, and to local organizations. Fourth, the results of the questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks. x

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Finally, the results were used to set standards for determining the impact of growth in other small, growing Florida cities. The results of the questionnaire lead to the understanding of factors that directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These factors allowed for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for building construction expansion. These standards then can be applied to improve the success of the building construction industry in small, growing Florida cities. xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Small cities continually work on improving the prosperity of the residents that live within their boundaries. A means to find prosperity is through growth. One of the largest segments of growth revolves around the work of construction. The building construction industry, therefore, can have major impacts on the growth of small cities. For the purpose of this research it would be too cumbersome to examine the entire country for the effect that the construction industry has on small cities. For that reason, the study has been focused on small city growth within the state of Florida. The objective of this study will be to provide answers as to construction effects, and to identify key factors pertaining to the role the building construction industry plays in the growth of small cities in Florida. Researching past studies and their discussions on growth in small cities was the first step in understanding the role played by the building construction industry in their growth. From that information the effects that the building construction industry can have and the level of magnitude of those effects might be determined. A problem arose however, and that was the available research related to this issue was very limited, and tended to not focus on the impact of the construction industry. Most of the studies related to the growth of the cities focus on its effects on community programs and leadership styles. This has become a key element in the efforts towards successful growth for many city governments, and for statewide movements toward helping the startup growth of 1

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2 cities. A different method had to be used for analyzing the impact of the construction industry on successful small city growth. A focused effort on the impact of the construction industry will lead to determining how influential and beneficial the industry can be towards favorable growth. To determine the impact of the building construction industry on small cities there exists a need to establish factors and standards that can be used for all Florida small cities. In order to look at small cities and their growth tow main questions need to be answered: Does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities?, Does the building construction industry fill a role as a catalyst for growth in small Florida cities? To accomplish the objective of answering the above questions, several steps had to be taken. First, a small and growing city in Florida, which could be considered a representative city for the entire state, was selected as the sample city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward the two main questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was used in calls to a sample of people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, elected officials, community leaders, and local organizations. Fourth, the results of the questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks. Finally, the results were used to set standards for use in other small and growing Florida cities. Following these steps will lead to the better understanding of growth in small cities in Florida, the recurring factors, and their level of impact and importance towards successful growth. The results of the questionnaire will lead to the understanding of factors that will directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These

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3 factors will allow for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for building construction expansion. These standards will improve the success of the building construction industry in small and growing Florida cities. This can then prove profitable to both the small cities themselves and the construction industry as a whole, along with an individual contractors firm. Definition The words small city brings many images to a persons mind. To some it can be a place of comfort, security, calm, and a contrast to the fast paced metropolitan style of living. To other people it represents backward, old style buildings, a slower type of living and small amounts of growth. Websters Dictionary defines small as restricted in size by comparison with most others of the same kind or class, and as of inferior influence; not prominent; modest (Encyclopedia, p.495). Both of these meanings assist in defining a small city. Small cities, however, can represent growing places, chances to replace the old with the new, and chances to do things the right way, all while maintaining most of the perceived benefits of a small city in comparison to larger cities. Construction work in small cities can have many possibilities concerning growth and profit. Major concerns exist however, on how small cities can embrace growth and still preserve the small city characteristics that keep them prime targets for expansion. There have been numerous studies, in many cities of what individual towns and cities need to do to better themselves. The research usually was completed with only that individual town in mind, and with little knowledge or discussion of what occurs in other towns and cities. More important, few of the studies show the impact on a small city from the standpoint of the building construction industry. That leaves room to explore the benefits

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4 and/or possible negative impacts that the building construction industry has on small cities. Statement of Problem Minimum information exists concerning the impact of growth in small cities while focusing on the building construction industry. Reports written on individual cities and their growth show trends seen nationwide, but few comprehensive studies tie together the construction industry and the growth of the city. Many questions continue to be unanswered concerning small cities, growth, and the building construction industry. The major concerns deal with how the construction process can be improved or even how to look for details that always exist in the successful growth of cities. The focus should be on the factors that assisted in the growth of small cities and the standards for the industry that could be developed to promote a game plan for success. Statement of Hypothesis The building construction industry will continue to work in small cities and attempt to help in the growth of those cities. A question to be looked at is whether profitability can be realized from the industry in the development of small cities? Hypothesis Statement The building construction industry has a positive impact on the growth of small cities within the state of Florida. To test such a hypothesis a breakdown of all the actions involved in the growth of cities need to be identified. Every factor must be looked at that deals with growth or the negative impact of non-growth. These factors can lead to depicting the major factors and allowing those factors to answer the question behind the hypothesis statement. At that point the hypothesis can be tested.

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5 Scope and Limitations of Study The definition of a small city for purposes of this study will be a city with a population of over 25,000 people and under 100,000. The population figures will be based upon the 2000 U.S. Census. The list of Florida cities that fit this criteria can be seen in Appendix A. Growth rate will be decided based on the percentage of growth between the years of 1980 and 2000. Preliminary figures indicate there exist 102 cities in Florida with growth and population that meet the criteria (Florida, 2002). One city in Florida will be chosen to represent all of Florida for this study. The city chosen will have properties considered in the average range for size, location, and growth rate. This method will keep as many variables as possible the same and enable the survey to look at the factors that show the biggest deviations from an established mean. A survey form will be used to contact builders and developers, community leaders, government leaders, and local businesses within the city selected. The data analysis will include a review of census data, city directories, interviews with contractors and town leaders, and an understanding of city policies. All surveyed participants will be randomly chosen within the determined parameters. The data collected from the telephone surveys will be reviewed to help determine major factors that affect growth in small cities. The Association of Builders and Contractors (ABC) has over 1,400 builders in the State of Florida (ABC, 2002). Limited information makes it difficult to find out how many of these 1400 builders are profitable, active, and work in small cities. An assumption will be made that the work in the small cities is obtained by hard bids and it is awarded to the lowest bidder, but that tends to not be the case. In practice the contracts are drawn up and only given to certain builders that have knowledge or some tie to the city. This makes it more difficult for outside firms to come in and deliver the best

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6 construction value. The main reason for this approach by the small cities is based on the concern for budget security. Even though a low bid approach would help lower costs, the risk of the builders backing out or unforeseen costs could in the long run add up to more than the small city can afford to pay. The tight budgets become one of the deciding factors in both the growth and decline of small cities. Money drives the industry and without a large supply of money to draw from it becomes difficult to find funding for improving a city. These small cities cannot run the risk of the loss of their money, as that would make too large an impact on their economy. Throughout the study it must be determined how a small city approaches growth without the backing of substantial money to get the projects started. There are few past statistics or studies to use for comparison purposes. This shows the need for the survey to get a better understanding of the public opinion on growth for the small cities, and also to gather all the data needed to make comparisons of factors impacting growth. Importance of Study Examining the factors of small city growth and setting standards will allow builders and developers to understand the risk and potentials that exist for investing in small cities. The building construction industry affects the phases of deconstruction, rebuilding, and early growth, but little is understood on the major impetus towards promoting ongoing growth in the small city. Learning the successful details of small cities and their growth can assist civic leaders in planning, bringing local business and construction industries together, and start the process for growth. By determining the areas in which to put the most emphasis in the growth of small cities, both the building construction industry and the cities themselves can flourish. There exists a need to learn

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7 how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do to further its influence and impact. Research Determinations Finding out the components behind growth in small cities will benefit the building construction industry. The overall benefit will reach both the small cities and the contracting firms in the construction industry. Both of these areas will enjoy growth and experience better wealth in the future. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a standard to measure the different tactics used in construction of small cities it will be possible to understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the cities and more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained. It proves necessary to determine how to continue this process and to help show the building construction industry the best techniques that have the most impact on growth.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Prework One of the reasons for preparing this report was the lack of written literature on the subject of the building construction industry and its impact on growth in small cities. There exists a need to learn how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do to further the growth of those small cities. Developing techniques to follow in fostering small city construction growth will assist both the construction firms and the cities in successful expansion and financial growth. Additionally, there exist few statistics that can be used to understand the relationship between small cities and the building construction industry. Some questions that should be answered concern whether, during rapid growth in a small city, the building industry can keep up, and what the impact of controlling growth is in the city? Answering these questions will assist in understanding the role the building industry plays in the livelihood of small cities. The purpose of this thesis is to discover whether the building construction industry can be the driving force or whether it should be the follower in small city growth, and how the construction industry functions in a small city setting. Bad Growth Numerous publications have discussed and presented studies on the faults of growth, particularly unplanned growth. A 1992 presentation by Andres Duany in Boston entitled The Merits of Neo-Traditionalism is widely considered to be the speech that started the internationally prominent New Urbanism principles (Duany 1992). The 8

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9 speech was to illustrate the effects of bad growth. Duany, however, actually started in 1980 with the opening of his own architecture firm. In 1981 he started the development of his landmark city, Seaside, Florida. He has since written the book, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (Duany 2000). His firm has completed the design for over 230 communities based upon the New Urbanism movement. Many of these cities are in the state of Florida, including Coral Gables and West Palm Beach. As recently as August 2003, Duany presented his ideas to the city of Temple Terrace, which is a suburb of Tampa, Florida (www.dcp). While the values of Duanys ideas can be debated, he still offers a very small connection between growth and the building construction industry. He attempts to tell the small city how to build a better community without necessarily including the building industry in a leadership role. Growth as seen by many individuals has become a word with bad connotations. The problem does not lie in growth factors, but unhealthy growth practices. This phenomenon first became evident in California, but has quickly been observed throughout the State of Florida. Negative practices concerning growth have led to mistrust and misunderstanding when it comes to the actual benefits associated with growth. It can be argued that growth cannot be stopped and with more dissention against it, the less successful the growth will be when it must occur. Some studies have been based on the individual cities and towns and then with growth tactics both in and out of the state of Florida. These studies include Virginia Beach, Virginia; Coral Gables, Florida; and Washington, DC. However, all these studies talk of harmful growth and with little or no concern towards the role of the building construction industry.

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10 Good Growth There exist reviews on planning tools to assist towns in development, which show the positive side of growth as presented in some publications. Many resource teams and consultants offer step by step processes on how to analyze a town in all areas of the community. One such study was for the town of Stephenville, Texas (www.naylor). From this study a 147-page report was prepared listing questions to present to other cities under study and the answers to these questions using Stephenville as the target. The report did not try to judge the type of growth, but instead found questions that when answered would help provide good growth. Within this report however, very little was mentioned about the impact and relationship between growth and the building construction industry, and the connection both the city and the industry have with each other. The Good Life Another approach in analyzing growth has been described by Larry Kosmont, that says growth and the building industry must be involved with social needs and requirements. He states that it used to be generally accepted that expansion and development would inevitably lead to the Good Life (Kosmont 2002). Today, however, a builder must deliver all the benefits such as jobs, housing, recreation facilities, schools, medical care, and more. All of these large concerns and all the areas require putting time and effort towards presenting a much more difficult time for construction in small city growth. One of the major problems with all this extra effort and the problem that hinders all construction comes from the availability of funds. States are struggling to meet the financial needs and that places even more demands upon the construction industry to furnish social contributions. Too many people look at

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11 developers as the source of deep pockets. This cannot be the view though, as it will only be through the joint efforts from all the parts of the city that the city will experience successful growth. Commercial and Residential It is necessary to look at both the commercial and residential sides of the building industry when talking about growth for small cities. The two sides, however, are different and require different analysis and understanding. It can be difficult for a company to be successful at both ventures. The two markets are so different that it is almost easier for a commercial builder to diversify into heavy highway contracting than into large-scale single family homebuilding, says Lawrence E. Hirsch, chairman of Centex Corp., Dallas, the nations largest homebuilder and one of the few large homebuilders that also works as a large general contractor (Krizan 2002). The land component of large-scale homebuilding acts as a barrier to commercial contractors. Sub-contractors are not interchangeable because commercial, electrical, and mechanical firms cost too much for skills that are not needed for homebuilding. In the current economic environment housing clearly is outperforming its commercial building counterpart. Between 1997 and 2000, the value of single-family housing increased 35%, compared to a 20% increase in the value of private nonresidential buildings, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce (Krizan 2002). The concern for small cities then is how to succeed in growth when both the commercial and residential components of construction must be dealt with. Small city growth cannot occur without the businesses and work created by commercial construction and it clearly will not occur without the residential growth allowing the influx of residents. One problem as was detailed before is that because the two areas of construction do not overlap there will be a greater number of

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12 construction firms coming into the cities to help in the growth. Keeping the market fair and advantageous for all these contractors can prove to be difficult. This study will look at the question of whether it can be productive to limit the construction firms coming into small cities and then focus on a chosen few to do all the work within the city. The other option would be to diversify all the construction jobs allowing the impact from many more construction firms, but lowering the economic advantage to any one construction firm. Working with the construction companies may prove to be the single most important aspect in the successful growth for small cities. The Public The building construction industry for small cities needs to be in the position that the great architect Louis Sullivan wrote about in 1906. He wrote, If you seek to express the best that is in yourself, you must search out the best that is in your people, for they are your problem, and you are indissolubly a part of them. It is for you to affirm that which they really wish to affirm. Namely the best that is in them, if the people seem to have but little faith, it is because they have been tricked so long. They are weary of dishonestly, more weary than they know, much more weary than you know. The American people are in a stupor. Be on hand at the awakening (Boom 2002). Louis Sullivan understood that the people make the cities, not the buildings or the structure, it does not even include the everyday activities and jobs. All these parts however, can have immediate impact on the people when changed. To have a small city leaning on the verge of growth, not only do the right pieces need to be in place economically and through the building industry, but the people also need to want growth. People are needed to help the city expand and work hard to continue that process. The building construction industry needs to focus on both the actual building process and types of projects as well as the needs of the people. This

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13 can be done through the work that is available in the construction industry and also in how the construction process is carried out. Factors to Measure In changing the daily events in the construction process large impacts on the overall growth of the small cities can occur. In a retrospective view, the decline of small towns, and the deconstruction and lack of economic wealth for the city may be a way to show the impact of the building construction industry on the growth of cities. It can be seen as learning from the mistakes of other cities, making improvements, and not duplicating the same problems. This can be an advantageous approach as the key to successful growth may be to just move ahead in construction and learn the best ways to correct mistakes and alleviate problems as they arise. A more finite parameter can be set, by looking at the negatives of the construction industry and also in determining whether the construction industry has a zero effect on a town or possibly even hurts a town. From these more detailed parameters the construction industry can address the changes that need to be made to improve the growth of small cities. Many items go into the growth of a small city. All have an impact of some form. Certain factors, however, cannot be overlooked and should show up in all similar cases. These points of interest need to be detailed and studied to find their impact on the small cities. Only the major impact contributors, or the practices and factors that are crucial to the line of growth or decline need to be examined. Crucial factors are those factors that if they were removed would cause the rest of the line towards growth or decline to break down. This should resemble planning for the construction industry based on a work schedule as could be seen through activity on the arrow networks. As seen on these networks, there are certain critical path items that must be completed before others can be accomplished. The same correlation exists in the

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14 strategies and planning for the expansion or decline of cities. The studies must focus on details of the building construction industry and the impact it has on other factors. Current trends and publications suggest that finding the factors behind the growth of the construction industry in small areas can be helpful to succeeding in the business field. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a standard by which to measure the different tactics used in construction or deconstruction of small cities it will be possible to understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the cities and more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained.

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CHAPTER 3 STYLES Scope The survey is intended to determine the influence of the building construction industry on the growth of small cities. The important aspect impacting the construction industry starts with how the industry may influence or can be influenced by growth in a small city. Next, it is necessary to determine the actual influence of the various construction phases on the growth of small cities. These steps may finally lead to expanded and possibly continual growth for small cities. From this point, researching the economic gain of small cities based on the building construction industry will assist in determining the related gains and losses. The steps taken in preparing the survey were as follows: 1. Review existing literature from building construction industry organizations and associations on small cities. Identify data missing that is required to answer the questions of the relationship between small city growth and the building construction industry. Design a questionnaire to collect both qualitative and quantitative information to assist in an understanding of the missing data. Decide upon a city to use as a main focal point of obtaining answers from the questionnaire. Decide on the participants for the questionnaire. Initiate telephone calls or distribute questionnaires to obtain required data. Completed surveys are reviewed for completeness and adequate number of responses. Prepare statistical and descriptive reports. 15

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16 The literature review discussed steps one and two in detail, which leads to the completion of step three. As pointed out in the section on the literature review there exists a very small amount of printed information available on the subject of growth in small cities and its connection with the building construction industry. The determination was made to develop one questionnaire for data collection purposes to assist in determining the missing information. It was decided to not only have members of the building construction industry complete the questionnaire, but also those have questionnaires completed from those with no affiliation with the construction industry. This was necessary in order to receive more unbiased answers, which will allow for reaching better conclusions. The questionnaire contains mainly questions that are to be answered by choosing one of six options. These questions go towards the general interpretation of certain strategies and the concept of growth for the small cities. The questions will be based on a ranking scale. The value of importance will be step graded from one to six, with six being the most important/impacted. Giving a ranking scale of this nature is an example of using the Likert technique. A six point system allows for a large enough range for respondents to give answers based on their perception. Having just a true and false response available would be too restrictive. The worry was that someone that was leaning between agreement and disagreement would then answer a false even though they did have a definitive opinion. The six responses allow for different variations of agreement or disagreement and a more accurate response for respondents to find. A response category placed right in the middle of agreement and disagreement was decided to not be practical. One of the main reasons for this determination was that a neutral response between the two extremes was not desired. By

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17 eliminating this option, the goal was to force the respondents into deciding whether to choose an agreement or disagreement level. That was the intention of having different levels of agreement so that even if a strong feeling of agreement, for example, was not found the respondent could at least have a choice of moderate agreement instead of being forced to select a neutral answer. For assessing a situation in which a respondent would feel unable to answer a particular question or that they did not have proper knowledge, then a no opinion category was added. An example of this situation would be if there was a question dealing with time, such as over ten years ago and the respondent had only lived in the city for a few years. This respondent would then answer a no opinion because they cannot truly understand the parameters to answer the question. All these categorized responses will help to portray the perceived impact of the factors based on the construction industry when applied to the growth of small cities based on the perception of the respondents. There, also, will be an opportunity for the respondent to give additional comments as related to the questions. Allowing for an area for general responses to any question gives a better insight into the respondents answers if they wish to add such information. All additional information would always be welcomed and then can be looked at in comparison to other respondents to understand where the background and perceptions come from. Another area in the survey will be an optional personal question section having to do in detail with their position, title, type of work, and type of construction. Further, detailed discussion of the questionnaire is covered below on a question by question basis. Preparation of Questionnaire A need exists to determine the impact that growth in Floridas small cities has on the building construction industry. Past publications and literature does not adequately

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18 address this issue. To fill this gap in information it was necessary to develop a questionnaire that would be used to survey people in small cities, with emphasis upon one Florida city in particular. The completed survey will assist in gaining insight into the connection between small city growth and the building construction industry. The survey will detail the major recurring factors that can be associated with the growth in small cities. This growth leads to improvements for the cities and for the construction industries. The final goal is to find factors leading towards successful growth which will be answered by the questionnaire. The Likert scale was used as stated previously, to set up the questionnaire which was a method for measuring attitudes. The Likert technique is to present a set of questions that can be answered by expressing agreement or disagreement. These are close-ended questions, which are suited to get a broad picture of peoples attitudes. The secret to this method was in (1) not using long complex questions, (2) avoiding ambiguity in questions, and (3) showing questions that take a lot of thought (Likert 1932). The questions included in the questionnaire will enable two objectives to be accomplished. First, the questions have to provide answers that will lead to an understanding of the building construction industry and small cities. Both the commercial and residential areas of the building construction industry are of equal concern. Second, the questions when answered have to be in the format so that the findings can be tabulated using statistical methods. The end result will be to identify factors that apply to the construction industry and all small cities in Florida. Ideally, the survey would be distributed to everyone in all the small cities in the state of Florida. This, of course, proved unrealistic, so it was determined that two courses

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19 of action could be taken. One, the questionnaire could randomly be used to contact leaders in the building construction industry throughout the state by telephone. It is felt that this method will not insure a measurable response. The second course of action was to choose one small city in Florida and to blanket it with a telephone survey. The belief is that a greater response rate will be gained from using this approach. In combining the two methods the final decision was made to distribute the questionnaire to the public, businesses, and construction industry personnel in one small city. In the selected city, the questionnaire would be used in contacting various individuals ranging from, but not restricted to civic organizations, political leaders, realtors, businesses, newspapers, and randomly picked individuals from the telephone book. This would insure diversified responses and increase the statistical accuracy of the findings. It would permit more depth than just the survey questions. This also would allow for greater insight into the thinking of respondents, and into the impact of the building construction industry. The responses from this sample group will give the most correct results to build a hypothesis and to distinguish the factors that tie small city growth and the building construction industry together. In order to receive the greatest response possible it was necessary to make sure the questionnaire would take less than five minutes for the participants to complete. It is felt that the shorter the survey, the greater the response rate (Barnett 1995). The questionnaire offers a range of opinions for each question. The answers can range from strongly agree to strongly disagree, or simply no opinion. This was broken down into more detail previously but it was important to remember to give the best possible range for respondents to answer corresponding to their perception on each question.

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20 Again, a section at the end of the questionnaire is also included to list general information about the respondents. This will permit the ability to sort the responses by gender, location, experience, level of management, and by organization or business of the respondent. There is also a General Comments section for anyone who wants to give added input to the survey. Most of the surveys were handled through telephone calls, but the option is available for participants to respond by mail if they request. Following are the questions for the questionnaire that was prepared and used in each telephone and mail survey. An individual survey form was completed for each telephone and mail participant. The individual results were then broken down and combined for each question. Individual Questions After attaining the persons permission to proceed with the telephone survey, the first question was to gain an understanding of the persons viewpoint. The question was, What is you definition of successful growth? This is the base question to follow with the additional sixteen questions in the survey. The questions to be included in the questionnaire and the expected purpose of each one are: 2. Is you city experiencing growth based on your definition? Purpose: It is important to know the belief of the participant because the design of the thesis is to link together growth in small Florida cities and the impact of the building construction industry. If the respondent indicates they feel the city is not growing then the results will have to be measured differently. The question will lead to an overall knowledge of where the city stands in terms of growth at this point. Do you believe growth is good for your city?

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21 Purpose: The answer to this question gives the attitude of the participant, and any bias that may be included in the balance of the answers. Also of note, this will then set the tone for the answering of the rest of the questions. An agreement with this question leads to a bias for construction and a disagreement leads to a bias against. Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on a. Growth in a positive manner? b. Local economic growth? c. Local population growth? d. Local commercial construction growth? e. Local residential construction growth? Purpose: The entire focus of the thesis is about the answers to this questionwhat impact does the construction industry have on growth. In detail on this question, the items to look for involve whether the building construction industry impacts growth at all, or whether growth occurs regardless. This will help to tie in with the other questions of impact and whether its positive or negative. This searches for the answer of whether there is growth in the small city, and if the construction industry had the most impact on that growth or if the small city was going to grow in other ways. That point becomes important to note, as when applying factors of growth to other small cities it will be useful to know if a town had the characteristics to grow and then the extent that the construction industry needs to be involved. The more impact the construction industry has on growth the more the industry will have to be included in the efforts to help growth start and sustain that growth until it can expand on its own. Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth? Purpose: This gives the beliefs of the respondents towards the building construction industry and possibly answers to other questions. This just gives a feeling towards the positive or negative impact the construction industry has on the small city.

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22 Where does the industry stand in relationship to growth? This focuses on the point of whether the construction industry has the impact to spur growth or if the industry is only they are after the fact. This is necessary to determine what cities should focus on for growth in the future. Should the industry look to already growing cities or is it possible to have the right factors existing in a city, and then proceed to push the growth. Do you believe the following resources are readily available in your city a. Construction materials? b. Skilled labor? c. Available money to assist growth? d. Construction equipment? Purpose: This will indicate the strength of the building construction industry in this particular city. It will access the ability of the city and the building construction industry to grow in the future. The ability to have materials in a city may lead to an easier transition into growth in comparison to what would occur if there were large expenses for acquisition and transportation of materials. For a small city to experience successful growth it must be able to sustain that growth for a long period of time. Money proves to be the one of the main elements in continual growth and should be important to determine the extent of the volume of money for growth in other small cities. The more money available, obviously the easier the potential for growth. Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following... a. Community leaders? b. Political leaders? c. Local residents? d. Business owners? Purpose: To ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This question has the purpose to try and determine what areas the construction industry should look for to aid in the original start up, and policies associated with small city growth. To

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23 ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This question as stated before looks to determine where support can be found and if that support would apply in other small cities or if it is particular to certain cities. In most cities growth can start and support found from city officials, however, without the help and support from the residents there will not be the ability to sustain the growth in these small cities. Residents make up these cities and as they should be are the most important people influential in terms of growth for the small city. Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in you city? Purpose: This is to link the respondents beliefs with answers to other questions. This refocuses on possible built in bias from the respondent. At this point in the survey it should again be noted whether the respondent has a bias for or against growth in their city. Do you believe the number of businesses and jobs has increased in your city over the past 5 years? Purpose: This question tests whether growth is actually taking place and where. It may be just in the mind of the respondent, but it is important to understand where they believe growth is occurring. Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry? Purpose: This looks at whether if there does exist an increase in business and jobs whether that growth can be directly attributed to the building construction industry. If there were an increase as could be shown in the answer to question 8, and it was not felt to be due to the construction industry then efforts to improve growth in those smaller cities would not be necessary from a construction point of view. Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over the past 5 years?

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24 Purpose: To test whether growth is actually taking place and how. This again leads to an understanding of where the respondent feels growth is occurring. Comparing this to where money has been spent on growth leads to efficiency of construction in particular areas of growth. From this, future efforts in other cities for growth can focus on the areas of more efficient growth and impact. Consider large projects to be over 3 million $ and small projects below that; then do you feel local construction firms work on a. Small projects? b. Large projects? c. Both? d. Neither? Purpose: To identify the impact of how local construction firms are involved in small city growth. It may be important not to allow non-local companies to come into the small cities and take all the meaningful work. A joint effort in search of growth may prove to be the best method for success. Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger projects? Purpose: This leads to a further understanding of what construction firms are landing jobs in the smaller city. Depending on the answer for question 11 this question may lead to understanding if local companies do not get larger project then where are the companies coming from that due receive these contracts. Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city? Purpose: To reconfirm the respondents beliefs towards growth. By focusing on this point at three stages throughout the questionnaire allows for a measure of the strength of the person' bias for or against growth. If the respondent bias seems to change it can be determined what questions had the impact on that change of opinion and focus on why it occurred.

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25 Do you believe that the political leaders, community leader, and the building construction industry all work together in your city to promote growth? Purpose: Is it necessary for all the groups to work together to obtain growth. Understanding the extent to which this occurs and then seeing the impact that has on growth will help in setting up the roles of all those areas in future growth for other small cities. Do you believe that an increase in construction projects in your city will increase jobs for local residents? Purpose: This assists in finding out whether the non-local construction firms bring in their own employees to complete projects. The amount of work increased by the cities growth needs to go to local companies and residents if the city is to maintain continued growth. Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next a. 1 year? b. 5 years? c. 10 years? Purpose: Is there room for the building construction industry to grow? Growth needs to be continual, and needs to have the potential for that continual growth. This question looks to answer these questions and needs associated with growth. Completion of Survey Each question will be statistically measured and then broken down into different factors that can be measured and ranked. This will lead to being able to sort the completed survey by type of respondent, meaning building construction industry, political, civic, business, organization, etc., of which the first question for each identified group will be different. By using the Likert scale each degree of agreement is given a numerical value from one to five. Thus, a total numerical value can be calculated from

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26 all the responses. This allows for the computation of the intercorrelations between all pairs of questions. It has the advantage of permitting the easy use of means and standard deviations. This is used to segregate answers by different sub-groups of people, for instance by gender or type of work (www.economic). Selecting Representative Sample City Step four is to choose a small, Florida city to be representative of all small cities in Florida. The goal was to select a city that contains determined characteristics. These characteristics were: 1. City had to be located within the state of Florida. 2. City had to have a population of between 10,000 and 100,000 population. 3. City had to have shown growth in the past ten years. 4. City was to be close to the Florida average taking into consideration such areas as age, gender, number of households, population, area size, and location. The idea was to stay away from the extremes in any one area. The United States Census was used to obtain data necessary to decide upon a sample city. The Census presents data for towns and cities on the basis of less than 10,000; between 10,000 and 100,000; and over 100,000 population. It provides data on population broken down by age, number of children, gender, race, income, home ownership, type of jobs, and numerous other categories (www.census). Growth for the purposes of this paper is measured as the percentage increase in the population of people in the city. In the State of Florida it can be difficult to find a place that has not grown in population between the years of 1990 and 2000. Over ninety percent of cities and towns reported population gains (Florida 2002). The census reports only thirteen towns and cities decreased in population during these ten years. The losses reported were in the hundreds of people, so no town or city

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27 had major decreases in number of people. The gains had ranges in values across the board. A careful review of all the researched data lead to the decision to choose Lakeland, Florida as the sample city. There were several reasons for choosing Lakeland. As previously stated, extremes were to be avoided. Lakelands population of 78,452 as of the 2000 census does not lie at either end of the over 10,000 and under 100,000 population guidelines (Florida 2000). As can be seen by the population size it is closer to the higher limit of 100,000. The 78,452 size however does lie near the median of the cities that met the criteria. It was felt that this gave a better look at the impact of construction on the small city. Taking the median city gave a representation based on the growth occurring to many cities throughout the state of Florida. The census reported two hundred thirty-five cities that met the criteria. See Appendix A for the complete list of all two hundred thirty-five cities (www.census). Growth in all Florida small cities ranged from the extreme of an increase around 271% to a loss of 2%. Lakeland falls near the medium middle with an increase of 6.9% (estimates for 2002 show a growth increase of 8.2%). There were eighty small cities with greater growth than Lakeland and forty-eight with less growth. Lakeland is located in the middle of the state so it does not have the extremes of beaches, hot weather, tourists, theme parks, and of being only a business community. The city government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city manager. There, also, exists a Downtown Development Authority (www.ldda). Lakeland fulfills the established criteria set by this paper for a growing city that is facing all the opportunities and worries presented by growth.

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28 Listed below are some basic facts about the city of Lakeland, Florida (www.ledger). This information should help in understanding the lifestyle that some of the residents of Lakeland, FL experience. 1. Largest city in Polk County with a population in the 80,000s with approximately 35,000 families. Largest employer is Publix Super Markets that is headquartered in Lakeland. City is located between Tampa and Orlando off of Interstate 4 and is less than two hours from beaches and theme parks. City located at Latitude 28.0 N and 81.95 W Longitude City was incorporated in 1885 and is 45.8 square miles in size (water areas covers about 6 miles), is 216 feet above sea level, 28,000 acres, and contains 38 lakes. The number of housing units is 39,000. Population density equals 1,711 per square mile (housing density equals 850.3 per square mile). City government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city manager with the annual city budget being $324 million dollars. While the citys population was 78,412 as of 2000, there are 116,400 people living within five miles of the downtown area, expected to be at 88,741 by the end of 2003. As with most of Florida the only appreciable rain exists during the months of June-September, total rainfall is 68 inches a low of 1 inch in March and 12 inches in June. Average temperature ranges from 61 degrees in January and December to the mid-80s in the summer months, the average temperature is 72.5 degrees. The Lakeland Economic Development Council expects to add 2,600 new jobs in the next five years. City funded public improvements in the downtown core have triggered over $255 million in private investments to the Lakeland downtown area in the last ten years. Mean travel time to work is 21.6 minutes. Medium residents age is 39.7 years old. Medium household income is $43,400. The medium price for homes sold was $88,200.

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29 The medium family income is $43,400 per year, which compares to $47,300 for the state of Florida and $50,200 for the entire United States. Lakeland is home to the Detroit Tigers spring training camp. Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built twelve of the buildings on the Florida Southern Campus. There are three four-year colleges located in Lakeland (Florida Southern, Southeastern Christian, and The University of South Florida-Lakeland. The population make up consists of 46% male and 54% female with 50.3% married. The population breakdown is 21% under 21 years old; 47% between 21-60 years old; and 32% over 60 years of age. Further population breakdown by race shows 69.5% white, 21.3% black, 6.4% hispanic, and others make up 2.8%. The percent of the population with a bachelors degree is 20.9%. The county leads in citrus production, and is fourth in cattle raising for Florida. The county leads in state of Florida in number of mobile homes. Boating and fishing are abundant in Lakeland. The citys unemployment rate is about 6%. A review of a Lakeland newspaper, The Ledger and several other local publications shows, like in most small cities, that there exists considerable disagreement on growth, how it should be handled, and who should control it. A few quotes on growth are: with all the government agencies working together and the people of Polk County, the growth will be more beneficialwe must look at the future rather than living from the past (www.ledger). A viewpoint on the building industry comes out as, Should growth in Polk County be better controlled? Absolutely. Growth in this county should be regulated, controlled and carefully plannednot by builders and developers, but by the citizens who live here. Still another view is Yes, there are certain parts of Lakeland that should be developed, while some areas, like South and East should remain rural

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30 (www.ledger). These three comments make a clear statement that growth and the building construction industry are not always clear winners. It, also, shows how the building industry must work with the community and leaders in the growth of small cities. Still, it would be impossible to please everyone. To get a better feel for Lakeland as a small city some other comments that were printed by residents in the local newspaper are shown below. 1. Another case of developers running the state. Im sick of this, the Commissioners are not noted for taking the wishes of their constituents in mind, anyway. With problems in traffic control, water usage, schools who in their right mind would want further development in Lakeland? Oh, I knowDevelopers. But then I did say right min, didnt I. Development is necessary, but it has to be better balanced than it has been. The reality is that Lakeland would be much better if we would just accept the fact it is a bedroom community for Orlando and Tampa. Lakeland has so much potential-the leaders, the builders, the people, the investors need to wake up and realize it. I have been told that Lakeland is too small to support the ideas that many of the community believe are necessary to attract people and jobs, and it would probably be 20 or 30 years before our market would support them. These comments give a view of what the people in Lakeland are thinking about growth and in some instances the building industry (www.ledger). Sample Selection All types of the construction industry were studied which encompassed commercial, industrial, and residential areas. It was concluded to be essential to include the political and social leaders of the community in order to have meaningful data. This was done to get a diversified opinion on the impact of the construction industry on the expanded growth of the towns (www.agc). Newspapers, telephone directories, and

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31 building organizations and associations were used to identify a targeted group of people. If possible a name was connected to the telephone number or address in order to make it more personal and/or to reach the person in charge. The end product was a list of over 300 locations. This list included people names, telephone numbers, business or position name, addresses, and type of grouping. The groupings were (a) any association with the building industry, (b) government, (c) newspaper, (d) realtors, (e) civic organization, (f) businesses, and (g) the general public. Questionnaire Conducted The method used to reach the targeted people on the sample list was mainly by telephone. However, if requested or if unable to reach by telephone, a questionnaire was mailed. The goal was to have a minimum of thirty respondents (Hernando 2002). The list was arranged in name, alphabetical order within the seven groupings. Taking every fifth name on the list and calling that number started the telephone survey. This meant starting at number five on the list and then calling that person. If a contact was made then that individual either agreed to fill out the questionnaire or refused to help. Some individuals contacted asked to be called back in which case that was done at a later point in which a response could be gained. Once a contact was made then the next person called was every fifth person on the list. For example, this would be calling the fifth, tenth, fifteenth twentieth, etc. on the list. If a contact was not made on the first call then at a later point that contact was called again until a contact could be made to either gain or not gain a response to the questionnaire. Upon realizing the end of the list, the same process was started again. Then, every third name on the list was taken until the desired sample size was reached. This meant starting at the third name on the list, then moving

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32 on to every fifth name, such as eighth, thirteenth, eighteenth, etc. until the number of responses desired was reached. Initial Analysis Performed The results of the questionnaire are the first step in developing a list of factors that scored an average of four or better on the scaled questions. With a score of four or better these procedures will be viewed as having a significant impact on the growth of the small cities. The list of these objectives will be compiled, and then each aspect detailed and studied to determine the overriding characteristics involved in the factors. The results will contain the most frequent similarities in the impact or results of the different objectives when applied in the field. To satisfy requirements and prove conclusions based on percentages, the statistical variations from all results will be calculated to ensure that all data falls within the mean variance based on a 90% confidence interval. The statistical tests will help to prove within a 90% confidence that the responses chosen are or are not significantly different and therefore can be compared to show similar factors and when interpreted show tendencies related to the growth in small towns (Likert 1967). Each question will be analyzed using graphs and charts to identify results and key areas of concern. Conclusion All the information from the questionnaires and the analysis of the data was used to test the hypothesis. The desired outcome will be to find the determining factors that influence the growth of small cities related to the building construction industry. These factors can be analyzed and then broken down to understand how to reproduce the success for other towns on the side of growth. The entire process from research, thru data

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33 collection, and then analysis, is necessary in determining the overall factors that influence the construction process in a positive way.

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CHAPTER 4 SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Overview An analysis of all the replies to the sixteen questions asked on the questionnaire revealed an overwhelming positive belief from the participants concerning growth in their small city. The purpose of using the Likert technique in preparing the questions was to measure the attitude of the respondents. This was accomplished by having each respondent express their level of agreement or disagreement with the questions. As seen from the graphs and charts presented in the following material, this made it possible to look at the results of the answers in a variety of different ways. The participants were from a cross-section of people including those in the building construction industry, civic and government leaders, the general public, and people in business. The ideal method of gathering the data was from telephone interviews. The reason for this was that people were more likely to respond at length if they were speaking rather than writing. Telephone surveys also avoided the possibility that a mail survey might have a low response rate and that the responses would only be from one group, and not random. If requested or in the case that telephone contacts was unable to work then some questionnaires were mailed. In order to avoid interview distortion, all the telephone surveys were carried out in the same way with each respondent and by the same person. The understanding of the questions by the respondents seemed uniform and straightforward. This assessment leads to the conclusion that all the individual questions were neither vague nor inappropriate. The people responding to the survey had nothing 34

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35 to gain or lose, and responded simply to assist in the writing of this thesis by providing the data to analyze. This makes the validity of the answers more believable and creates a less biased sample. The questions were designed to elicit peoples perceptions of past, present, or future reality. The survey completion time took about four minutes for the respondents, which did not deter the respondents from taking the time necessary to answer all the questions. The responses from all participants with the questionnaire were friendly and many gave additional comments that were shown in this chapter. The total number of contacts made by the telephone survey was 102. From that total number of contacts, the total amount of completed questionnaires came to 31. This gives a response rate of 30.4% or just under one third, which was the expected return rate at the beginning of the questionnaire preparation. Respondents The respondents to this survey were as varied as the answers they supplied. They range from City Commissioners, to vice presidents, to office managers, to sales people, to stay at home individuals. The average time living in Lakeland, Florida reported by the respondents was 20.1 years, with one year being the least and fifty years being the most. This gave a good range of experience living in the sample city. All the respondents sampled gave an applicable means for assessing their responses and grouping these responses to allow the best understanding of the city as a whole. All data results concerning the respondents information including years in city and some positions in their companies can be seen in the additional results shown below. In analyzing this data it becomes easier to compare each questions responses and see which gave the most agreeable or most disagreeably response. Please see additional results below in Table 4.1.

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36 Table 4-1. General Respondent Information Some Respondent's Positions at Their Company (Various positions for contacts made with businesses) Manager Executive Director Assistant City Manager Owner VP of Business Developments Secretary Sales Manager Warehouse Manager CSR Manager Sales Representative Owner President Inside Sales Manager Estimator Sales Manager City Commissioner Project EngineerNumber of Years Respondents Lived in City (# of years ) All respondents609262717311620253202517175072411118123314 7 220 3 25402 3 As noted earlier the respondents contacted for the questionnaire came from a range of people including those in the building construction industry (C), civic organizations (O), real estates (R), government leaders (G), the general public (P), and people in business (B). Of the thirty-one responses received from the questionnaire the breakdown for which category they fall into can be seen in Table 4.2 following.

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37 Table 4-2. Work Categories Respondents Work Categories Work Category Number of Responses Building Construction Industry (C) 12 responses Civic Organizations (O) 2 responses Real Estate (R) 0 responses Government Leaders (G) 5 responses General Public (P) 3 responses Business (B) 9 responses The results of the type of respondents based on their work categories shows a range of perceptions coming from the respondents. The respondents each have their own perceptions based on their past history dealing with construction or through their experience in the city. Due to this variety of perceptions coming from the respondents a more detailed analysis of the respondents needs to be examined. Respondents Analysis In order to analyze the respondents answers to the questionnaire a system was needed to rank their responses. This system was made by using a summation rate based on each individual response. This was done by using the number of responses for each individual and the level to which that response was rated. The summation rate totals were reached by using the key of awarding 6 points for strongly agree answers, 5 points for moderately agree answers, 4 points for agree answers, 3 points for disagree answers, 2 points for moderately disagree answers, and 1 point for strongly disagree answers. For instance, if a respondent had 6 strongly agree, and 5 agree, and 10 disagree answers the summation total for that respondent would be 86 points (6 x 6=36, 5 x 4=20, 10 x 3=30==86). A detailed listing and individual graphs for each respondent are shown throughout the items discussed in this chapter. Looking at the graphs will show the high

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38 peaks for the number of questions answered in the strongly agree or moderately agree columns of the survey. The highest number of summation points from any one respondent was 175, while the lowest was 111 (of which there were two). The highest possible summation points attainable were 186 while the lowest possible would be thirty-one points. The summation points average for all respondents was 139.2 points. If the two extremes are discounted the average then becomes 139.9. This data can be seen below in Table 4.3 which is a chart depicting these results discussed.

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39 Table 4-3. Individual Respondents Table 4.3 Individual Respondents

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40 Based on the above information regarding the breakdown of each individual respondent to each of the questions on the survey allows for a look at tendencies that appear based on the type of respondent. Looking at Figure 4.1 shows graphs based on the total responses from each respondent. This gives a good visual insight into the similarities between different individuals who participated on the questionnaire. Respondent 1 (G)024681012654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 2 (C)024681012141618654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 3 (C)0510152025654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 4 (C)051015202530654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 6 (C)0510152025654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 7 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 8 (C)024681012141618654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 5 (P)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 9 (C)051015202530654321NOResponseNumber of Answers

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41 Respondent 10 (P)051015202530654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 11 (B)0246810121416654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 12 (P)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 13 (C)051015202530654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 14 (B)02468101214161820654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 16 (G)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 17 (C)0246810121416654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 18 (G)024681012654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 15 (C)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 19 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 20 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 21 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers

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42 Respondent 22 (C)024681012141618654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 23 (C)0510152025654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 24 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 26 (O)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 27 (B)051015202530654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 28 (B)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 25 (O)012345678910654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 29 (G)012345678910654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 30 (C)02468101214654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Respondent 31 (G)024681012654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Figure 4-1. Respondents

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43 What Figure 4.1 shows is how close most respondents answers were when all sixteen questions are considered. This shows the lower possibility of any one respondent bias towards the issues discussed. This proves to be helpful for showing the perception of all respondents as being accurate. Taking into account all the components of the sixteen questions, there were thirty-one possible answers. Even the participants who scored the lowest on the summation rate totals had three answers in the strongly agree column. Only five respondents had over eight of the thirty-one answers in the disagree, moderately disagree, or strongly disagree columns. The high average of 139.2 is indicative of how positive the answers were to the majority of the questions, and how positive the majority of the respondents were to growth in their city and the building construction industry. After looking at the graphs of Figure 4.1 it can be seen that many of the graphs have similar characteristics in shape. The letters after each respondent number represent the category to which that respondent falls into. That being (C) for individuals involved in the building construction industry, (O) for individuals involved in civic organizations, (G) for those in the government, (P) for the general public, and (B) for all individuals involved in general business activities. Looking at the results for each of these areas gives a better insight into how particular individuals based on their experience would answer on the questionnaire. Shown following in Figure 4.2 are graphs representing the averages of the respondents based on the categories to which they fall into as described earlier. This allows for seeing the averages of each respondent and the similar characteristics as far as the shape of the graph.

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44 Average (C)02468101214161820654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Average (O)024681012654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Average (G)012345678910654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Average (P)024681012141618654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Average (B)0246810121416654321NOResponseNumber of Answers Figure 4-2. Averages of Respondents What Is Growth? The base question asked what was the participants definition of growth and the first question determined whether that definition was accurate based on present conditions in the city. The answers came out varied and do not necessarily fall in to a defined grouping. This is an example of why defining and identifying small cities for growth can be a difficult task. Everyone seems to have a different belief of what planned growth should be in the present and in the future. It is necessary for the building construction industry in dealing with a small city to take into consideration the different perspectives and try to include them in growth. The answers to the base question are shown following and are grouped based on similar characteristics.

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45 Growth Issues 1. Well planned growth 2. Growth that is strictly controlled in order not to sprint past infrastructure and is in compliance with a comprehensive plan 3. Continued growth to keep up with overall growth 4. Successful growth is expansion with thoughtful, long-range planning 5. Well developed and planned growth that not only created economic betterment, but also rehabilitates and revitalizes the community 6. Growth that considers proper planning and addresses the needs and desires of the community. 7. More industrial growth Business Issues More Businesses Balanced commercial and residential growth that can support the infrastructure Increased downtown development A sustained moderate increase of business on an annual basis Issues with Jobs Increase in jobs and in population More jobs in the city An increase in jobs to bolster economic growth More jobs created and continual improvements More jobs for local residents High pay-high skill jobs Increase in jobs paying above the national average, increase in development that does not overly tax the infrastructure Residential Issues Selling a lot of homes

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46 Increase in residential growth Random Issues Not too good right now, and needs improvement Building growth increase as a whole More money to help out the local community Growth without leaving older areas of town depressed A balance between redevelopment of existing, older parts of the city and new developing areas of the city Greater population increase Population growth An excellent infrastructure The ability to maintain and expand all services and infrastructure as necessary, to sustain a quality living environment Equal to cities in adjacent areas A further look at what the respondents think of the building construction industry and growth can be seen by reviewing their general comments for individual questions from the surveys. A breakdown of responses for each question can be seen in Table 4.3 below.

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47 Table 4-4. General Comments on Questions General Comments on QuestionsQuestionComment1-Lakeland is growing but traffic needs are not being met, annexation has hindered abilities to provide and control services2-No comments3-Need more money, 4-Do not like all the people, 5-In some areas but not everywhere, Money from city tight, From individuals flowing more6-Want it but not see it like the interstate, 7-Too fast, Too many people, Again growth and its pace subject to long range needs8-I have only been here 2 years9-No comments10-No comments11-Companies from kentucky and tennessee and kansas all been seen in the city, 12-Large projects such as walmarts, Definitely13-No comments14-Been that way for many years, 15-No comments16-Central Florida growing great, The general comments listed here help give an idea as to some of the concerns that do exist in the sample city of Lakeland. These comments also allow for a better understanding of a breakdown of the by questions review which come on the following pages. All the comments show the perception that growth exists in the small city and concerns are present with how the growth will be handled. By Question Review A review and analysis of the answers for each of the individual questions follows.

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48 1. Is your city experiencing growth based on your definition? Figure 4-3. Question 1 Response The purpose of question number one was to find out immediately in the survey processes what the participant thought about growth in their small city. This was based upon their own definition of growth. They supplied what growth was, based upon their beliefs and then answered if that growth was being met within their city. As shown in Figure 4.3 over seventy percent strongly agreed and over ninety percent had some level of agreement showing that growth was occurring within their city based upon their definition. This proves to be an extremely high level and is probably reflective of the growth that is transpiring in most Florida small cities.

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49 Do you believe growth is good for your city? Figure 4-4. Question 2 Response Question two was used to discover any bias the respondents had towards growth. Here, again, as Figure 4.4 shows over ninety percent believe that growth was good for their city. In fact, a large number placed this belief in the strongly agree category. The high percentage of agrees answering this question allows for an understanding of further questions involving growth. Most respondents felt a slight bias therefore towards growth being a positive outcome or at least an outcome desired. The sample city of Lakeland allows for a look at how a small town can handle a high percentage of growth. The bias towards growth will sway answers towards a side of wanting future construction expansion but it should not affect the results in too large of a fashion. Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on a. Growth in a positive manner? b. Local economic growth? c. Local population growth? d. Local commercial construction growth? e. Local residential construction growth?

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50 Figure 4-5. Question 3a Response Figure 4-6. Question 3b Response

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51 Figure 4-7. Question 3c Response Figure 4-8. Question 3d Response

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52 Figure 4-9. Question 3e Response The answers to question number three concerning the impact of the building construction industry was overwhelming in terms of agreement as was seen in Figures 4.5 through Figure 4.9. Almost ninety-seven percent feel the building construction industry has a positive impact on (1) growth, (2) the local economy, (3) population growth, and (4) both commercial and residential growth. This sets some high demands upon the industry to perform. As stated before in this thesis paper, the more impact the construction industry has on growth (or the impact the people believe it has), the more effort the industry needs to make to assist growth in starting and in expanding. The industry must take very seriously its responsibility to the community. The ability to influence these different facets of cities in a positive manner show the need for improved techniques in dealing with construction in these small cities.

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53 Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth? Figure 4-10. Question 4 Response While question number three shows how the building construction industry has been viewed as towards its impact on growth, the answers to question number four in Figure 4.10 shows that it is not quite living up to its obligation. The response while still positive decreased when the industry is looked upon as the catalyst for growth. This means there is opportunity for the industry to take more of a leadership role. The construction industry could focus on efforts in reaching out to the communities in the small cities and trying to determine what is important to the general public. Efforts in this regard could help to improve construction jobs in terms of quantity and obviously could also be a good form of advertisement for the construction firms. A reason for the lowered agreement rate here could be due to the public not being aware of the role the construction industry has in their cities.

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54 Do you believe the following resources are readily available in your city a. Construction materials? b. Skilled labor? c. Available money to assist growth? d. Construction equipment? Figure 4-11. Question 5a Response Figure 4-12. Question 5b Response

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55 Figure 4-13. Question 5c Response Figure 4-14. Question 5d Response Question number five looked at the resources that are necessary for growth to occur and those resources availability in the city. As might be expected, money and skilled labor were areas that people felt below adequate for sustained growth as could be seen

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56 above in Figures 4.11 through 4.14. The question on the availability of skilled labor received the largest number of disagreement answers of any other question. It is up to the construction industry to attract and train enough people to satisfy the skilled labor concerns. Growth will be difficult to continue if enough labor cannot be found to support the construction projects. The answers did indicate that an industry strength came from the standpoint of the adequacy of the materials and equipment being used in construction. Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following a. Community leaders? b. Political leaders? c. Local residents? d. Business owner Figure 4-15. Question 6a Response

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57 Figure 4-16. Question 6b Response Figure 4-17. Question 6c Response

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58 Figure 4-18. Question 6d Response Question number six shown in Figures 4.15 through 4.18 was to measure where the support for growth was coming from within the city. Business owners and community leaders received the highest endorsement for supporting growth. Local residents were looked upon as the least supportive of growth. This question tied with the lack of skilled labor as receiving the most disagreement responses. Support from the political leaders followed with the next lowest marks concerning agreement. This could speak to the fact that the building construction industry and the local business and community leaders are doing a poor job of communicating the needs and requirements of the city in association with growth. This could mean that the industry should look at another small city where there exists more support from the residents and political leaders for growth. Without the backing of the residents growth can only go so far, and they impact what growth does occur and caused it to be very slow and difficult to obtain the rights for the start of

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59 construction. Support for construction growth from local residents needs to improve for construction to be a successful venture in smaller cities. Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in your city? Figure 4-19. Question 7 Response As could be expected from the answers to previous questions, while still positive, a fewer number of respondents were satisfied with the pace of growth within their city as shown in Figure 4.19. This could be anticipated because such a large number supported growth, looked on growth as being good, and that they felt resources existed to aid in expansion. The lower response dealing with satisfaction with the pace of growth can be due to the fact that growth is occurring at a large rate for the city of Lakeland. It can be difficult for the population in the small city to adjust to such quick changes so when asked about their overall opinions of growth they felt it was a good thing to be experiencing. However, when questioned on the actual current growth those same respondents could still be feeling the effects of the large growth in their city and not be

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60 accustomed to everything occurring. Growth can experience such opposing views due to the large impacts it produces on the small cities. Do you believe the number of businesses and jobs has increased in your city over the past 5 years? Figure 4-20. Question 8 Response Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry? Figure 4-21. Question 9 Response

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61 10. Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over the past 5 years? Figure 4-22. Question 10 Response Questions number eight, nine, and ten shown in Figures 4.20 through 4.22 all work together to measure the increase in jobs, businesses, and homes, and whether the construction industry could take some credit for that growth. Eighty-seven percent believed the number of jobs and businesses had increased in their city during the past five years, and over ninety-six percent believed the same thing for the number of homes built. In fact, the question on number of residential homes being built received the most strongly agree responses of any question asked. The percentage dropped dramatically, however, when responding on whether this increase was due to the building construction industry. This is another opportunity for the industry to improve its impact by increasing its effort towards residential growth and trying to decrease the difference between population growth and construction growth. In finding a way to involve the residents who are experiencing that large population growth and using that to improve construction

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62 techniques and increase acceptance, growth can succeed for local residents and the construction firms. Remember these answers are not necessarily based upon fact, but rather, they constitute the perception of the respondents for what is real, and therefore must be addressed. 11. Consider large projects to be over $ 3 million and small projects below that; then do you feel local construction firms work on a. Small projects? b. Large project? c. Both? d. Neither? Figure 4-23. Question 11a Response

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63 Figure 4-24. Question 11b Response Figure 4-25. Question 11c Response

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64 Figure 4-26. Question 11d Response 12. Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger projects? Figure 4-27. Question 12 Response

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65 These questions all shown in Figures 4.23 through 4.27 both were designed to understand the building construction industry within the city and its capabilities. From the responses, firms located outside the city complete most large construction projects. However, local firms do work on both small and large projects, just a larger percentage on the smaller projects. This is the ideal situation where joint efforts between local and outside large firms work together to complete projects. With more joint ventures to help improve growth the city can achieve faster results while still upholding the needs of the communities. Joint ventures enable construction growth to have the capabilities to meet all financial and size requirements while still looking after the concerns of the small city. The larger companies from outside the local area take care of all major projects problems while the local company can focus on involving the local residents in the growth and looking after all community issues dealing with construction expansion. 13. Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city? Figure 4-28. Question 13 Response

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66 This question was put in the survey to verify the response to question number two, dealing with whether growth was viewed as good for the city. This question shown in Figure 4.28 helped to verify the beliefs of the participants in that the percentages were almost the same for both questions. People believe that growth does increase the quality of life within a city. This question reasserted the results from question two that as a whole the respondents do feel that construction growth can benefit the citizens in the small city. This belief again shows some bias as towards the other answers to the survey questionnaire however it a result that was expected. This area should be a focus point for the building industry to use in trying to expand growth and their influence on positive growth within a small city. 14. Do you believe that the political leaders, community leaders, and the building construction industry all work together in your city to promote growth? Figure 4-29. Question 14 Response

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67 This question seen in Figure 4.29 above received the lowest rating of strongly agree and agree responses compared to the other questions. People do not believe all groups and leaders in the city are working together to promote growth. This should be an immediate warning sign for anyone wanting growth for his or her city. In order to experience successful growth it needs to be accomplished with the contributions and teamwork of many different areas within the small cities. The construction industry cannot manager all growth within these cities by themselves. Using all the assets and people while getting them to work together should be the best approach for achieving the goals of growth that are desired. 15. Do you believe that an increase in construction projects in your city will increase jobs for local residents? Figure 4-30. Question 15 Response Almost everyone agreed with the question shown in Figure 4.30 that construction projects would increase jobs for local residents. This is even though many respondents

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68 believed the large projects went to companies located outside of the city. This result says that work for local people are created by growth and not by the actual construction jobs needed to enact that growth. This should be a point of emphasis for the construction industry. If growth occurs more successfully with increased residents growth then involving the local population in the construction work should further the positive impact of growth. Another point to be taken from the results for this question comes in being able to find small cities that are experiencing and are suppose to continue having population growth. This growth will lead to new opportunities for perceptions to be formed in favor of the construction industry. Finding the small cities that show the signs of population growth and then by involving those individuals with the construction industry can lead to positive results for the construction firms involved in the growth. 16. Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next a. 1 year? b. 5 years? c. 10 years? Figure 4-31. Question 16a Response

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69 Figure 4-32. Question 16b Response Figure 4-33. Question 16c Response

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70 What is the future of growth based on a time frame within the city was the last question asked on the survey. This was shown in the results in Figures 4.31 through 4.33. Again, a large majority believed that growth was occurring now, but most felt that an even greater growth rate would happen in the future. This proves to be a great sign for the building construction industry. Again, these answers are not based upon fact, but the respondents perception usually tends to be right in the long term. The fact that growth can be expected to occur, and at a high rate, should be reason number one for construction growth in a small city and that should then give successful results.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chart Of Success The building construction industry is a major component for growth in the attitude of the people in the small, growing Florida city of Lakeland. The completed questionnaire was analyzed and data reviewed to assist in developing a chart that will be called the Chart of Success, see in Figure 4.34. The purpose of the chart is to present the factors necessary for profitable and sustained growth to occur in a small city. Figure 5-1. Chart of Success There are seven blocks to this chart, and it is believed all seven blocks are required for the building construction industry and the city to have successful growth. It would be difficult to obtain success in a small city if several of the blocks were missing. 71

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72 Population growth is the foundation for building success. Skilled labor, local support, and available money can be thought of as building the walls for success. Local and non-local construction firms are the reinforcements for the building of success. The importance of working together can then be thought of as putting the roof on the building of success. Success, the final segment, itself can be thought of as the finished building complete with landscaping and all its aesthetic values. Successful growth does not have a defined meaning; it comes in the form of the opinions of the individuals and organizations that make up the small cities. The Chart of Success is only a suggestion to review to make sure all the points are considered when working with construction growth. Block OnePopulation Growth Population growth is the foundation for the Chart of Success. The most important aspect to examine when looking for successful ventures in small city construction growth comes in the form of population growth. Without a steady increase in population there exists the possibility of future tough times in dealing with continual construction growth. The sample city examined (Lakeland, Florida) returned high results concerning current and future commercial and residential growth. This segment has to be present in order to have the easiest transition to larger and continued construction projects within the small city. Identifying cities with this characteristic will lead to the best possible end result. It comes down to the simple fact of supply and demand. An increasing population in any small city will demand the need for improvements and related growth in terms of construction.

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73 Block TwoSkilled Labor One of the major issues of concern that was raised by the result of the questionnaire was the lack of enough skilled labor to help satisfy increased construction requirements. Having a plentiful and experienced labor force alleviates one of the primary concerns when dealing with construction in expanding smaller cities. The smaller cities have major issues concerning funding and other financial issues so any form of delays or rework will end up costing them many times more than the actual monetary value (Gerrante 2002). A lack of skilled labor to finish all the construction work would be a primary reason for delays and rework. At the onset of a venture into small city construction growth any construction firm involved must evaluate their own personnel, and have predetermined layouts for all work practices and work jobs. Not assessing this need could lead to mistrust and major financial overruns with the cities once the negative impacts of a decreased labor force are realized. This in return causes the negative perception of the construction industry in the small cities, and will hurt the overall growth and prosperity of all businesses involved. Block ThreeLocal Support An issue that can lead to large negative outcomes comes from the lack of local residents support for construction or at the very least the perception of such circumstances. There has to be time put into communicating and involving as many of the local residents and businesses men in all possible construction growth issues. One of the largest complaints in going into a smaller city to improve growth is that it takes away from the identity of the town, and therefore growth may be looked on as a negative venture (Copeland 1996). As was shown in the questionnaire responses, the majority of respondents felt growth was a very good venture and would have a great impact on the

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74 improved living standards for all people involved. This speaks to the fact that the construction industry as a whole does not have the right approach in dealing with small cities. Once the majority of the initial construction work has been completed in any city it is still the local population that makes the city prosper and continue financial prosperity. This fact needs to be recognized and the local population needs to be more involved with every aspect of growth for their cities. It can be accomplished through allowing more jobs opportunities in construction dealing with the smaller city, or even though weekly or monthly meetings to discuss about arising issues and new concerns. Whatever approach is used, or any other approaches that may be looked at, that approach must involve the local residents because only then can the growth of the smaller cities show the continual production results necessary to be successful. Block FourAvailable Money The community and the construction industry must have access to money. This can take the form of revenue sources, bank sources, lines of credit, or private sources. Continued growth is not accomplished in terms of months or even years. The main point is that not only does money have to be available at the beginning, but also there has to be money available to carry growth past the beginning phase. Blocks Five and SixLocal and Non-Local Construction Firms Blocks five and six must be looked at together in reviewing the process of joint venture agreements with the local construction firms in the small cities. Results showed from the questionnaires indicate that many projects in the growing smaller cities go to construction firms located outside their immediate geographical area. This proves to be necessary due to both the people and financial resource issues involved with major

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75 construction growth in any area. Seldom do smaller cities have the construction variety, size, and numbers to complete full-scale growth. Only non-local firms with a larger capital base can handle and control such large quantities of work and expansion. This does not mean that the local firms should be shut out of all operations in the town. In fact, just the opposite must be true. Local firms must be included in construction projects in any small city. By working in joint venture agreements both the financial and production concerns of the construction firms can be met by the non-local firms, while community needs can be met by the local firms in which population concerns should also be addressed. There was overriding agreement with the questions referring to residential growth in the city. This means more people, and therefore their needs to have more jobs created by the construction industry to support this growth, and to pave the way for even further expansion. This actually relates to segment three, which was gain local support by involving the local community in the construction growth. Block SevenWorking Together The important ingredient that can be gained from working with both political and community leaders is best told by a quote from Edmund Burke who once said, As individuals we are weak and foolish, as a society we are wise and powerful (www.mta). The same can be said for the construction industry, because between all the many thousands of contractors, developers, builders, and sub-contractors there exist confusion when working individually, but in working together the building construction industry can be powerful. Local and non-local firms working together is another must for achieving the desired goals and final results. All parties working together can lead to better relationships, increased construction growth, and improved success and prosperity for all construction firms and smaller cities involved.

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76 Final BlockSuccess Completing these seven segments is not a guarantee to make any venture in small city growth within Florida positively successful. Each of the segments was looked at independently, but they are all interrelated. These just give an insight into the concerns as expressed by local residents in an existing small city with high growth expansion. In allowing for a better understanding of these factors, and by implementing them into a construction plan, then smaller city growth can hopefully achieve an improved success rate. The primary reason for introducing these factors is to make more construction firms aware of the issues involved with working in small cities. It can be profitable and rewarding, but it is different than working in large cities. Large cities have completely distinct key factors to consider. Following the seven segments can lead to successful growth for all parties involved when dealt with in the proper manner, and with enough knowledge. One possible measure of success for construction growth in small cities would be not to determine it by what occurs during expansion, but rather what occurs once the construction levels off and the city must function on its own. The continual growth of those cities could then yield the greatest results for local communities and all involved construction firms. Learning The overall impression gained from reviewing the completed questionnaires was one of satisfaction with the extremely positive tone of almost all respondents. The good rate of return on the answering of the survey questions indicated that people are definitely interested in expressing their feelings and attitudes towards growth. The answers to the survey questions supported the hypothesis that the building construction industry has a positive impact on the growth of small cities within the state of Florida. The responses

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77 suggest there is no one solution that is going to satisfy everyone on the subject of growth. People could not agree to the definition of growth, so they are not going to all agree as to the best method to improve growth. The construction industry has to consider the opinions of the general public, but it must move on with positive growth procedures. The four main elements indicated from the completed surveys that it is felt the industry should become more responsible in small cities are: 1. To make sure there are enough resources from the standpoint of people (skilled and unskilled), plus materials and equipment; 2. To gain and understand local support for growth; 3. To fully communicate the industry positive role in growth; and 4. To work with the community leaders and politicians to make sure adequate funding is available for continual growth. These elements should be included in any final construction project plan. None of these elements has a set procedure to follow in which to achieve the desired results. Each construction firm must look at their existing standards, and determine the best steps to take to reach the goals outlined in these elements. Next Steps A newsletter for developers recently stated, you must promote economic development within concurrency limits. You must promote public health, safety, comfort, and general welfare to all businesses and residents. You must be environmentally sensitive (www.homes). These are all points that the building construction industry must try to accomplish in any small city. They are the points that the industry must communicate to everyone are being completed, and how they will be achieved. The construction industry must be a leader in explaining the following conditions of growth:

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78 a. How growth can be stimulated. b. Why growth is necessary. c. Why growth can represent positive outcomes. d. How growth can occur and still be controlled. Mr. Duany gave the leaders of the small city of Temple Terrace, FL (located on the outskirts of Tampa, FL) the following advice. Temple Terrace has three options for redevelopment. One, redevelopment can be private, with developers taking the initiative. Two, redevelopment can be city directed and subsidized. Or, three redevelopment can be according to a city-initiated master plan, but performed by private developers who bid on specific projects (www.dpz). From the survey it has been seen that it does not matter which option should be chosen, the public will see the building construction industry as a leader in growth in most situations. The industry in any given city must take this responsibility seriously and do everything possible to make sure they are a part of growth from the start to the finish. Looking into future studies that can be performed it could be of interest to see how the types of jobs in the area of the small cities effect the construction growth. For example, in Lakeland, Publix Super Markets is headquartered there, so many jobs and the cities economical base comes from how well Publix is doing in business. It could be possible that if Publix starts to have financial issues the city of Lakeland may not be able to succeed in profitable construction growth. Obviously, another viewpoint would come from looking at a small city that does not have a primary employer such as Publix as their primary employer in their city. These points could all affects the outcome of the efforts for successful growth. Any increased efforts towards construction growth in the smaller cities within Florida, when handled with the proper amount of concern for the local communities, can lead to benefits, growth, and prosperity for the construction industry and all the firms associated with that success. It is important

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79 to review the Chart of Success when considering construction projects located in small cities.

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APPENDIX A TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 10,000 100,000 Table A-1. Cities Based on US Census 2000 City Population City Population 1. ALTAMONTE SRINGS 41,200 2. APOPKA 26,642 3. ATLANTIC BEACH 13.368 4. AUBURNDALE 11,032 5. AVENTURA 25,367 6. AZALEA PARK 11,073 7. BARLOW 15,340 8. BAYONET POINT 23,577 9. BAYSHORE GARDENS 17,350 10. BELLE GLADE 14,906 11. BELLVIEW 21,201 12. BLOOMINGDALE 19,839 13. BOCA DEL MAR 21,832 14. BOCA RATON 74,764 15. BONITA SPRINGS 32,797 16. BOYNTON BEACH 60,389 17. BRADENTON 49,504 18. BRANDON 77,895 19. BRENT 22,257 20. BROWNSVILLE 14,393 21. CALLAWAY 14,233 22. CAROL CITY 59,443 23. CASSELBERRY 22,629 24. CITRUS PARK 20,266 25. CITRUS RIDGE 12,015 26. COCOA 16,412 27. COCOA BEACH 12,482 28. COCONUT CREEK 43,566 29. CONWAY 14,394 30. COOPER CITY 27,939 31. CORAL GABLES 42,249 32. CORAL TERRACE 24,380 33. COUNTRY CLUB 36,310 34. COUNTRY WALK 10,653 35. CRESTVIEW 14,766 35. CUTLER 17,390 36. CUTLER RIDGE 24,781 37. CYPRESS LAKE 12,072 38. DANIA BEACH 20,061 39. DAVIE 75,720 40. DAYTONA BEACH 64,112 41. DE BARY 15,559 42. DEERFIELD BEACH 64,583 43. DE LAND 20,904 44. DELRAY BEACH 60,020 45. DELTONA 69,543 46. DESTIN 11,119 47. DORAL 20,436 48. DUNEDIN 35,691 49. EAST LAKE 29,394 50. EDGEWATER 16,669 51. EGYPT LAKE-LETO 32,782 52. ELFERS 13,161 53. ENGLEWOOD 16,198 54. ENSLEY 18,752 55. EUSTIS 15,106 56. FAIRVIEW 13,898 57. FERRY PASS 27,176 58. FLORIDA RIDGE 15,217 58. FOREST CITY 12,612 59. FORT MYERS 48,206 60. FORT PIERCE 37,516 61. FORT WALTON BEACH 19,973 62. FOUNTAINBLEAU 59,549 63. FRUIT COVE 16,077 64. FRUITVILLE 12,741 65. GAINESVILLE 95,447 66. GLADEVIEW 14,478 67. GLENVAR HEIGHTS 16,243 68. GOLDEN GATE 20,951 80

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81 69. GOLDEN GLADES 32,623 70, GOLDENROD 12,871 71. GONZALES 11,365 72. CARROLLWOOD 33,519 73. NORTHDALE 20,461 74. SUN CENTER 16,321 75. GREENACRES 27,569 76. GULF GATE 11,547 77. GULFPORT 12,527 78. HAINES 13,174 79. HALLANDALE 34,282 80. HAMPTIONS 11,306 81. HOBE SOUND 11,376 82. HOLIDAY 21,904 83. HOLLY HILL 12,119 84. HOMESTAD 31,909 85. HOMOSASSA SPRINGS 12,458 86. HUDSON 12,765 87. IMMOKALEE 19,763 88. IONA 11,756 89. IVES ESTATES 17,586 90. JACKSONVILLE BEACH 20,990 91. JASMINE ESTATES 18,213 92. JENSEN BEACH 11,100 93. JUPITER 39,328 94. KENDALE LAKES 56,901 95. KENDALL 75,226 96. KENDALL WEST 38,034 97. KEY LARGO 11,896 98. KEYSTONE 14,627 99. KEY WEST 25,478 100. KINGS POINT 12,207 101. KISSIMMEE 47,814 102. LADY LAKE 11,828 103. LAKELAND 78,452 104. LAKELAND HEIGHTS 12,557 105. LAKE MAGDALENE 28,755 106. LAKE MARY 11,458 107. LAKESIDE 30,927 108. LAKE WALES 10,194 109. LAKEWOOD PARK 10,458 110. LAKE WORTH 35,133 111. LAND O LAKES 20,941 112. LARGO 69,371 113. LAUDERDALE LAKES 31,705 114. LAUDERHILL 57,585 115. LEESBURG 15,959 116. LEIGH ACRES 33.430 117. LEISURE CITY 22,162 118. LOCKHART 12,994 119. LONGWOOD 13,745 120. LUTZ 17,081 121. LYNN HAVEN 12,451 122. MAITLAND 12,019 123. MARATHON 10,255 124. MARCO ISLAND 14,879 125. MARGATE 53,909 126. MEADOW WOODS 11,286 127. MELBOURNE 71,382 128. MERRIT ISLAND 36,090 129. MIAMI BEACH 87,933 130. MIAMI LAKES 22,676 131. MIAMI SPRINGS 13,712 132. MIRAMOAR 72,739 133. MYRLIE BEACH 17,211 134. NAPLES 20,979 135. NEW PORT RICHEY 16,117 136. NEW SMYRNA BEACH 20,048 137. NICEVILLE 11,684 138. NORLAND 22,995 139. N. FORT MYERS 40,214 140. N. LAUDERDALE 32,264 141. N. MIAMI 59,880 142. N. MIAMI BEACH 40,786 143. N. PALM BEACH 12.064 144. NORTH PORT 22,797 145. OAKLAND PARK 30,996 146. OAK RIDGE 22,349 147. OCALA 45,943 148. OCOEE 24,391 148. OJUS 16,642 150. OKLEMAR 11,910 151. OLYMPIA HEIGHTS 13,452 152. ORMOND BEACH 36,301

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82 153. OVIEDO 26,315 154. PALM BAY 79,413 155. PALM B. GARDENS 35,058 156. PALM CITY 20,097 157. PALM COAST 32,732 158. PALMETTO 12,571 159. PALMETTO ESTATES 13,675 160. PALM HARBOR 59,248 161. PALM RIVER 17,589 162. PALM SPRINGS 11,699 163. PALM VALLEY 19,860 164. PANAMA CITY 36,417 165. PARKLAND 13,835 166. PENSACOLA 56,255 167. PINECREST 19,055 168. PINE HILLS 41,764 169. PINELLAS 45,658 169. PINEWOOD 16,523 170. PLANTATION 82,934 171. PLANT CITY 29,915 172. POINCIANA 13,647 173. POMPANO BEACH 78,191 174. PORT CHARLOTTE 46,451 175. PORT ORANGE 45,823 176. PORT ST. JOHNS 12,112 177. PORT ST. LUCIE 88,769 178. PUNTA GORDA 14,344 178. RICHMOND WEST 28,082 179. RIVIERA BEACH 29,884 180. ROCKLEDGE 20,170 181. ROYAL PALM BEACH 21,523 182. SAFELY HARBOR 17,203 183. ST. AUGUSTINE 11,592 184. ST. CLOUD 20,074 185. SAN CARLOS PARK 16,317 186. SANDAFOOT COVE 16,582 187. SANDFORD 38,291 188. SARASOTA 52,715 189. SARASOTA SPRINGS 15,875 190. SCOTT LAKE 14,401 191. SEBASTIAN 16,181 192. S. BRADENTON 21,587 193. S. DAYTONA 13,177 194. S. MIAMI HEIGHTS 33,522 195. S. VENICE 13,539 196. SPRING HILLS 69,078 197. STUART 14,633 198. SUNNY ISLES 15,315 199. SUNRISE 85,779 200. SUNSET 17,150 201. SWEETWATER 14,226 202. TAMARAC 55,588 203. TAMIAMI 54,788 204. TARPON SPRINGS 21,003 205. TEMPLE TERRACE 20,918 206. THE CROSSINGS 23,557 207. THE HAMMOCKS 43,379 208. TITUSVILLE 40,670 209. TOWN N COUNTRY 72,523 210. UNION PARK 10,191 211. UNIVERSITY 30,736 212. UNIVERSITY PARK 26,538 213. UPPER GRAND 10,889 214. VENICE 17,764 215. VERO BEACH 17,705 216. VILLAS 11,346 217. WARRINGTON 15,207 218. WEKIWA SPRINGS 23,169 219. WELLINGTON 38,216 220. LEAIMAN 21,753 221. WESTCHASE 11,116 222. WESTCHESTER 30,271 223. WEST LITTLE RIVER 32,498 224. WESTON 49,286 225. W. PALM BEACH 82,103 226. W. PENSACOLA 21,939 227. WESTWOOD LAKES 12,005 228. WILTON MANORS 12,697 229. WINTER GARDEN 14,351 230. WINTER HAVEN 26,487 231. WINTER PARK 24,090 232. WINTER SPRINGS 31,666 233. WRIGHT 21,697 234. YEEHAW JUNCTION 21,778 235. ZEPHYRHILLS 10,883

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APPENDIX B SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE Table B-1. Questionnaire University of FloridaSurvey on Growth and Influence of School of Building ConstructionBuilding Construction IndustryPrepared By: Robert BurnettAug-03Key for Completion: Rank 6SA=Strongly AgreeApproximate Time to Complete5A=Agree5 Minutes4MA=Moderately Agree3MD=Moderately Disagree2D=Disagree1SD=Strongly Disagree-NO=No OpinionBase Question What is your definition of successful growth?Respondent Answer 654321NO1Is your city experiencing growth based on yourdefinition?2Do you believe growth is good for your city?3Do you believe the building construction industryhas an impact on -growth in a positive manner?-local economic growth?-local population growth?-local commercial construction growth?-local residential construction growth?4Do you believe the building construction industryserves as a catalyst for growth?5Do you believe the following resources are readily available in your city -construction materials?-skilled labor?-available money to assist growth?-construction equipment?General Comments 83

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84 654321NO6Do you believe there is support for construction growthin your city from -community leaders?-political leaders?-local residents?-business owners?7Are you satisfied with the current pace of growthin your city?8Do you believe the number of businesses and jobshas increased in your city over the past 5 years?9Do you feel the increase based on question 8 aboveis due to the construction industry?10Do you believe the number of residential homes hasincreased in your city over the past 5 years?11Consider large projects to be over 3 million $ and small projects below that; then do you feel local construction firms work on -small projects?-large projects?-both?-neither?12Do construction firms from outside your local areaoften get the larger projects?13Do you believe growth can increase the quality of lifefor the people in your city?14Do you believe that the political leaders, communityleaders, and the building construction industry all work together in your city topromote growth?15Do you believe that an increase in constructionprojects in your city will increase jobsfor local residents?General Comments Name:Company:City:Position:Number of Years in City:Title:E-Mail:Telephone:

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APPENDIX C PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT -Hi, my name is Robert Burnett -I am a graduate student at the University of Florida working on my masters thesis -Which is based on determining the influence the building construction industry has on small city growth -In doing this research I am conducting a random phone survey to get opinion from various individuals within the city of Lakeland And -I was hoping I could have 4 to 5 minutes of your time to answer a few questions about growth and the construction industry in your city -Let me reassure you that all information will be kept confidential and will not be reported individually -But rather as a composite of all the surveys results 85

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APPENDIX D INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUSTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK Robert F. Burnett M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction University of Florida Time to Complete: 4 5 minutes Dear Respondents, My name is Robert F. Burnett. I graduated in the spring 2003 semester with a Bachelor of Science in Building Construction Degree from the University of Florida. I then decided to further my studies and am now finishing up my graduate studies, also in the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida. My thesis focuses on the effect the building construction industry has involved with small city growth. In doing this research I developed a questionnaire for an analysis of what construction firms, government officials, civil organizations, local businesses, realtors, and local residents opinions are concerning the impact of construction on small city growth. This is being completed within my sample city of Lakeland, Florida. I would greatly appreciate it if you would complete the attached questionnaire and return it with the pre-addressed, stamped envelope. The answers from the questionnaire will lead to a better understanding of small city growth and reoccurring positive impacts based on factors that can be applied in future construction in other small cities throughout the state of Florida. Your name and company information is optional, but it would be helpful to me if it was included. All information will be kept confidential, and only used as a composite of all the results. Please help out and take the short time to respond. Thank you in advance for taking the time to be of assistance to me in completing my thesis work. I am performing this questionnaire in both a written (mailed) format as well as a phone survey. One of the reasons for mailing this survey to you is to allow (1) you time to fill out the questionnaire and send it back, or (2) be better prepared to answer the questions if you decide to help in a phone survey format. I plan on beginning to call for the phone survey in two weeks (Oct.6) to any individuals/businesses that I do not receive the questionnaire back from. I again thank you for your consideration in helping with the questionnaire. I realize all respondents are busy, but your contributions shall be Greatly Appreciated. I hope you have a wonderful day. Robert Burnett 86

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APPENDIX E CONTACT REFERENCE LIST Table E-1. Contact Reference List 1-863LAKELAND, FLORIDA 666-9020 Adult Primary Care 2039 East Edgewood Dr 33803 B 648-5787 Advanced Aluminum 2934 Parkway St 33811 B 666-1624 America Title Services 109 Allamanda Dr 33803 B 644-4701 Apartment Locator Services 6124 Christina Dr East 33813 B 858-8166 Arthur-Ryan The Salon 5326 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 665-5548 Art-N-Wood 2516 Mine Mill Lane 33801 B 665-2652 Atlantic Filter 2126 East Edgewood Dr 33803 B 668-6000 Breed Technologies P.O. Box 33050 33807 B 680-2274 Cash Register Auto Insurance 2810 South Florida Ave 33803 B 665-5777 Central Mobile Homes 3025 US Hwy 92 East 33801 B 682-1155 Country Hearth Bread P.O. Box 1707 33802 B 688-7994 Curt Wheeler Wheeler & Wheeler 1032 South Florida Ave 33803 B 665-2441 Davis Monument 3503 US Hwy 98 South 33803 B 682-8107 Don Marks Badcock Furniture 1409 North Florida Ave 33805 B 682-7171 Florida Tile Industries P.O. Box 447 33802 B 688-5000 Freida Williams Sclafoni Williams Court Reporting 402 South Kentucky Ave 33801 B 688-8557 Gaines Jewelry 112 South Tennessee Ave 33801 B 686-3189 Gary Ratcliff Speech & Hearing Center 710 East Bella Vista St 33805 B 413-5115 GC Services 1775 Interstate Drive 33805 B 648-2871 GEICO P.O. Box 33040 33807 B 686-2228 Harrys Seafood Bar & Grille 101 North Kentucky Ave 33801 B 802-3000 ICT Group 333 N. Lake Parker Ave 33801 B 858-2271 Jeffrey Seaman Rooms To Go Furniture 3850 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 665-2222 Keith Bare Lees Furniture 1216 US Hwy South 33801 B 858-5500 Keymark 2540 Knights Station Rd. 33810 B 686-2125 Lakeland Funeral Homes 2125 Bartow Road 33801 B 87

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88 687-1100 Lakeland Regional Medical Center P.O. Box 95448 33804 B 688-9477 Learning Resource Center 904 Missouri Ave South 33801 B 687-8545 Lisa Hickey Douglas Screen Printers 2710 New Tamp Hwy 33815 B 683-3300 Maid Pro 1111 Florida Ave 33803 B 682-4774 Marian Pugh Patchwork Pig 228 E. Pine St 33801 B 683-4477 Mary Lou Kalisz Citrus & Chemical Bank 114 North Tennessee Ave 33801 B 815-4400 Mr. Collins Bassett Furniture 1320 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 686-0553 Mr. Pool Inc. 3216 US Hwy 92 East 33801 B 687-0405 Ms. Saunders Pottery By The Park 105 North Kentucky Ave 33902 B 682-2811 Nathans Mens Store 221 East Main St 33801 B 665-1526 National Memorials 3815 US Hwy 98 South 33813 B 665-1856 Overhead Doors 3412 Reynolds Rd 33803 B 688-7978 Paramount Title 2600 South Florida Ave 33803 B 816-9663 Paul Fawcett Wood World Furniture 5115 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 688-4000 Pepperidge Farm 2222 Interstate Drive 33805 B 858-2252 Polk County Animal Hospital 7433 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 646-0544 Polk County Pest Control 5410 South Florida Ave 33813 B 853-2340 Polk County Pools 11510 Rockridge Rd 33809 B 687-9441 Press Express 1339 Ariana St 33803 B 644-5619 Prestige Spas & Tubs 521 West Brannen Rd 33813 B 688-1188 Publix Super Markets P.O. Box 407 33802 B 665-2233 Recreational Factory Warehouse 8134 US Hwy 98 North 33801 B 665-6132 Rental Service 3310 Winter Lake Rd 33803 B 616-6053 Ronald Riggs Allen & Co 1401 South Florida Ave 33803 B 686-1724 Rooms To Go Furniture 1475 Airport Rd 33811 B 646-4370 Roto Rooter 3711 Century Blvd 33811 B 647-9905 Royale Retreat Day Spa 410 West Brannen Rd 33813 B 688-1486 Stacy Campbell-Domineck Work Force 2000 717 North Kentucky Ave 33801 B 802-5751 Stewart Title 500 South Florida Ave 33801 B 665-6060 Summit Consulting 2310 A to Z Park Road 33801 B 682-2852 Sun Glo Pools 1543 Memorial Blvd. West 33815 B 669-0040 Superior Pool & Patio Decks 3353 US Hwy 92 East 33801 B 687-4411 Tampa-Maid Foods 1600 Kathleen Rd. 33809 B 688-0800 Terrace Hotel 329 South Main St 33801 B

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89 619-3789 Tom Evans Environmental 3605 Ventura Drive East 33811 B 644-5995 Trent Goss Mimi Storage 215 E. Alamo Drive 33801 B 646-3796 Violettes Salon 4608 Cleveland Heights Bl 33813 B 687-4545 Watkins Motor Lines P.O. Box 95002 95002 B 680-7000 Watson Clinic P.O. Box 95000 33804 B 858-5612 Williford Flooring 4820 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B 648-1914 AAA High Point Construction 4525 South Florida Ave 33813 C 701-8712 Adams & Murray Custom Homes 202 Lake Mirian Dr 33813 C 815-3921 Adams Homes 7505 Gunstock Dr 33809 C 646-2395 Adams Homes-Corporate 120 Allamanda Dr 33803 C 646-3310 Al Cardinali Contractor 5205 Charles Lane 33811 C 686-0039 Allied Building Services 5675 New Tampa Hwy 33815 C 619-7735 American Heritage Homes 7121 Lake Eaglebrooke 33813 C 668-8805 Aquatec Marine Construction 2020 South Combee Rd 33801 C 644-0456 B&M Construction 3706 Dmg Drive 33811 C 859-3464 BHR Construction 6245 Robin Rd 33801 C 644-8813 Bill Taylor Construction 5120 S. Lakeland Dr. #1 33813 C 858-3607 Billy Smith Building Contractor 8403 Tom Costine Road 33809 C 682-0324 Blevins Builders 210 Lake Hollingsworth 33803 C 816-1414 Branham Construction 924 Fairland Dr 33809 C 984-2966 BTU Construction 8404 Epicenter Blvd 33809 C 646-0988 Built Well Homes 5842 Buck Run Dr 33811 C 644-7776 Cassidy Homes 6615 Highlands Creek 33813 C 644-6755 Central Florida Contractors 5300 Florida Ave. South 33801 C 858-0820 Cherokee Construction of FL 9010 US Hwy. 98 North 33809 C 683-6500 Cherry Hill Construction 5351 Great Oaks Dr 33815 C 701-9100 Comfort Keepers 5150 South Florida Ave 33801 C 858-2426 Compton-Peachee Construction 1210 Baker Dr. 33810 C 683-4200 Cone & Graham 625 East Lime St. 33801 C 686-0806 Contractors Plus of Florida 305 Winston Creek Pkwy 33810 C 687-4946 Craven Design & Construction 501 West Peachtree St. 33815 C 644-6499 Crossroads Construction 3702 Century Blvd. 33811 C 802-0404 Crovo Construction 1114 Florida Ave. South 33803 C 687-8754 Cruse Construction 520 West 10 th St. 33805 C 687-4037 D J Trusses Unlimited 315 Winston Creek Pkwy 33810 C 683-6516 D K Harwell 814 South Florida Ave 33801 C 834-6082 Dave Bayhan Plumbing Inspector 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 C 859-3066 David Borders Construction 1034 Woodland Dr 33809 C

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90 644-4604 Davis Home Repair 815 Creative Drive 33813 C 644-8097 Dennis Yates Building Contractor 4119 Crews Lake Drive 33813 C 688-2996 Duane McQuillen Construction 214 Hillcrest St. 33815 C 688-2200 EBY Martin Construction 4750 State Rd 33 North 33805 C 648-9886 Eclipse Construction 2930 Parkway St 33811 C 644-3095 Ellerbe Construction 1216 Heidi Lane South 33813 C 701-0708 Fagovi USA 10 Loma Verde 33813 C 619-7517 Falkland Group 6059 Hillside Heights Dr 33813 C 607-9165 Falkland Group Inc. 6700 South Florida Ave. 33813 C 686-2661 Five-Star Developers 316 North Canal Ave. 33801 C 701-9311 Florida Construction Group 3900 South Florida Ave 33813 C 853-7184 Florida Environmental 3433 Sleepy Hill Rd 33810 C 644-0635 Florida Home Designs 5352 South Florida Ave 33813 C 665-3177 Folsom Construction 1424 South Combee Rd 33801 C 967-5177 Frazier Contracting C 646-2137 GARD Construction 2810 Parkway St 33811 C 646-3646 Gifford & Clymer Construction 2424 Ewell Road 33811 C 688-1006 Gifford Contracting 1006 Bonnie Drive 33803 C 665-2767 Green Construction Services 529 West Brannen Road 33813 C 688-4660 Habitat for Humanity 1317 George Jenkins Blvd 33815 C 687-8020 Harper Homes 1412 South Florida Ave. 33803 C 666-3775 Henkelman Construction 1830 North Crystal Lake 33801 C 644-0649 Hickory Ridge 6207 Highland Rise Dr 33813 C 701-8267 Highland Homes 6560 Horizon Point Dr. 33813 C 324-5611 Highland Homes-Reflections East 4110 Florida Ave. South 33801 C 688-8141 Horizon Construction 3115 Providence Rd 33805 C 269-0758 Hubbard Construction 2930 US Hwy 98 North 33805 C 641-2023 Hunt For Homes Construction 5830 Scott Lake Hills Lane 33813 C 815-4848 Huntington Hills 2514 Pine Valley Drive 33810 C 683-8483 IRBY PM Construction 302 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 C 686-5521 J Collins Construction 725 Giant Oak Road 33810 C 859-5733 JCO Builders 1224 Banana Road 33810 C 665-3095 JE Merit Constructors US Hwy 98 South 33801 C 686-8100 Jefco Associates Construction 822 East Main St 33801 C 858-1856 Jerry Sellars Construction 5819 Driftwood Drive 33809 C 665-1851 John Berns Construction 4725 US Hwy 92 East 33801 C 816-0550 Jones Brothers 2825 Mall Hill Rd 33810 C

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91 647-5560 K L Smith Inc. 4427 Spring Lane 33801 C 687-3489 Keener Construction 430 North Wabash Ave 33815 C 682-4747 Keyco Construction 1602 South Florida Ave 33803 C 686-1950 Lavorde Industrial Equipment 208 East Belvedere St 33803 C 667-3232 Leatherwood Construction 1058 US Hwy 92 West 33801 C 666-3914 Lemco Contracting 4025 East County Rd 542 33801 C 680-2293 Marcovay Construction 116 South Kentucky Ave 33810 C 646-0511 Mark Brown Construction 4945 South Fork Dr 33813 C 853-8535 Master Garage Builders 7010 US Hwy 98 North 33809 C 647-2285 McAuley Construction 1110 Sandpiper Court 33813 C 646-5763 McDonald Construction 5610 South Florida Ave 33813 C 858-1179 McKay Construction 7705 Chase Road 33810 C 816-9748 McKinley Construction 1603 Sir Henry Trial 33809 C 665-2996 Mcmachen Construction 2832 Mine Amd Mill Rd 33801 C 665-0409 Meadows Construction 4325 US Hwy 92 East 33801 C 701-0161 Mercer Trim & Carpentry 6262 Springwoods Lane 33811 C 646-1166 Mike Hickman Hickman Homes 7375 Millbrook Oaks Dr 33801 C 646-1304 Mike Kelly Construction 6015 Myrtle Hill Dr West 33811 C 709-0293 Milco Construction 4310 Wallace Road 33813 C 648-0775 Milton Wood Co. 4415 Drane Field Road 33911 C 683-9293 Mission Construction 1137 Bartow Road 33801 C 644-2254 Morrell Homes 3653 Southcrest Blvd C 619-6102 Old World Craftors 557 Brannen Road 33813 C 619-9040 On The Ball Construction 3609 Cleveland Heights Bl 33803 C 709-0235 Paradise Homes P.O. Box 6690 33807 C 665-9688 Paul Davis Systems C 686-1483 PJS of Lakeland 4710 New Tampa Hwy 33815 C 683-1816 Point Engineering 923 South Florida Ave 33803 C 665-1642 Polk County Development Corp 3375 US Hwy 98 South 33803 C 644-2817 Purcell Construction 407 Aberdeen Court South 33813 C 701-7166 R L Bishop Construction 216 Lake Harris Drive 33813 C 701-8766 R T Contracting 5716 Scott Lake Road 33813 C 644-0635 Reed Construction 5352 South Florida Ave 33813 C 688-7775 Register Construction 3730 New Tampa Hwy. 33815 C 646-9332 Rick Strawbridge 5120 South Lakeland Dr 33813 C 669-0990 Rodda Construction 2128 East Edgewood Dr 33803 C 802-1124 Ross George Inc. 1113 South Florida Ave 33803 C 646-1612 Rudy Brown Construction 4035 South Florida Ave 33813 C 33813

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92 667-3553 Southern Homes 2000 East Edgewood Drive 33803 C 666-3575 Star Metal Buildings 1830 North Crystal Lake 33801 C 709-0293 Three M Development 4310 Wallace Road 33813 C 646-4972 Thurn Construction 4978 Foxrun Lane 33813 C 682-5848 Tomlinson Construction 808 East Main St 33801 C 859-6038 Tyler Homes 1603 Kinsman Way 33809 C 859-4109 Tyler Homes 5916 Hillside Heights Dr 33813 C 666-1988 United Rentals 2235 East Edgewater Dr 33803 C 688-7998 Valiant Products 939 Quincy St 33815 C 666-6900 Vynier Corporation 2187 South Combee Rd 33801 C 687-8020 W W Read JR. 1420 South Florida Ave 33803 C 688-8870 Waller Emergency Services 1701 East Gary Road 33801 C 859-6700 Wayne Crawford Pools 4732 US Hwy 98 North 33809 C 644-8908 Williams Construction 5042 Ironwood Tr 33801 C 682-1848 Winslow Pearce Engineers 1023 South Florida Ave 33803 C 682-8874 Zimmerman Associates 203 Kerneywood St 33803 C 687-8910 Anne Furr Downtown Development 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6006 Barbara Lipscomb Assistant City Manager 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 603-6300 Bill Tinsley Parks & Recreation Director East Orange Street 33801 G 834-6076 Billy Key Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Bruce Kistler Development Services 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6065 Carri Plant Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Celeste Deardorff Planning Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Charles Barmby Transportation Planning 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6070 Connie Delph Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6005 Dean Boring City Commissioner 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6080 Gary Bush Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 603-6321 Gene Eddinger Central Services Director 1104 Martin Luther King 33801 G 688-5556 George Brooks Employee Relations Director 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6005 Gow Fields 228 S. Massachusetts 33801 G

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93 City Commissioner Ave. 834-6023 Herman Blom Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6005 Howard Wiggs City Commissioner 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6005 James Verplanck City Commissioner 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6011 Jason Willey Planning Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6081 Jim Meeks Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6075 Kenny Frost Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6012 Kevin LaLonde Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6012 Lanny Walker Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Lynn Ann Schindler Neighborhood Services 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Lynne Simpkins Neighborhood Services 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 413-2549 Property Appraiser 912 East Parker St 33801 G 834-6005 Ralph Fletcher Mayor 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6078 Randy Soper Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6083 Richard West Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-3300 Rick Lilyquist Public Works Director 407 Fairway Ave 33801 G 834-6006 Roger Haas City Manager 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6005 Seth McKeel City Commissioner 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6077 Shannon McComas Building Inspection Division 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6011 Tamara Sakagawa Community Redevelopment 228 S. Massachusetts Ave 33801 G 834-6005 Thomas Shaw City Commissioner 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 834-6006 Tony Delgado Assistant City Manager 228 S. Massachusetts Ave. 33801 G 802-7577 Barry Friedman The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 802-7600 Dave Schultz The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 802-7546 Gary Greene The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N

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94 802-7578 Jamie McAtee The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 802-7099 John Fitzwater The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 802-7547 Sandy Kline The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 802-7517 Shelly Preston The Ledger P.O. Box 408 33802 N 834-8100 Alex Johnson Lakeland Center 701 West Lime St 33815 O 687-3788 Anthony Tucker Economic Development P.O. Box 3607 33802 O 688-8882 Ben Mundy Swilley Curtis Mundy Associates 1036 South Florida Ave 33803 O 682-1102 Bill Mutz Lakeland Automall 1430 W. Memorial Blvd. 33815 O 688-7994 Bill Wheeler Wheeler-Wheeler Inc 1032 South Florida Ave 33803 O 687-1300 Carole Philipson Regional Medical Center 1324 Lakeland Hills Blvd. 33805 O 687-8864 Chris McLaughlin 1400 Grasslands Blvd #9 33803 O 687-3788 Claudia Scarbrough Economic Development P.O. Box 3607 33802 O 834-3360 Community Develop-Housing 1104 Martin Luther King 33805 O 687-3788 Economic Development Council 35 Lake Morton Dr 33801 O 686-1565 Frank Kendrick NuJak Development 711 North Kentucky Ave. 33801 O 687-1783 James Shaw The Flower Cart 1125 Lakeland Hills Blvd. 33805 O 686-1239 Janet Tucker Practically Perfect Papers 2408 Coventry Ave 33803 O 647-5337 Joe Mawhinney P.O. Box 24627 33802 O 680-1628 Joseph Lorio Lorio & Associates 1902 South Florida Ave 33803 O 529-4420 Karen Seggerman 845 Mississippi Ave 33801 O 603-0596 Linda Kelly Vinsett Petals The Flower Shoppe 1212 South Florida Ave 33803 O 682-7468 Mary Smith 425 West Highland Street 33803 O 687-6401 Pastor Jesse McNeal Freedom in Christ Ministries P.O. Box 923 33802 O 619-5858 Polk County Farm Bureau 3201 South Florida Ave 33803 O

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95 687-3788 Steve Scruggs Economic Development P.O. Box 3607 33802 O 688-8383 Sylvia Garl Ron Garl Golf Design 704 South Missouri Ave 22815 O 687-3788 Trisha McMillan Economic Development P.O. Box 3607 33802 O 666-8998 Allan Perkins 944 Reynolds Rd 33801 P 701-9093 Amber Russell 6305 Georgia Ave 33813 P 683-4389 Ann Edwards 659 Howard Ave 33815 P 648-9214 Barbara Adams 2238 Parker Rd 33811 P 646-0187 Betty Brower 2027 Rocky Pointe Dr 33813 P 665-0757 Brenda Yates 209 Colorado Ave 33801 P 686-6672 Catherine Keller 452 Dawn St 33815 P 619-7085 Charlotte Newton 4457 Pebble Pointe Dr 33813 P 644-8194 Cindy Franks 5429 Highlands Vue Land 33813 P 815-7198 Cornelius Quaker 1508 Mark Lane 33810 P 687-0533 Debbie Lange 2913 Pinedale Ave 33803 P 853-1762 Dorothy Tracy 3148 Sand Trap Ct 33810 P 686-3448 Eric Olson 733 S. Rushing Ave 33801 P 607-4155 Fred Victor 4801 Square Hollow Dr 33811 P 683-3625 Jack Upton 1609 Park Dr 33803 P 686-5341 James Xenos 1519 Saddle Trial 33815 P 815-0576 Jennifer Zahn 225 Granite Dr 33809 P 619-5477 Karen Ivankovich 1709 Sterling Dr 33813 P 646-1803 Karen Weatherbee 128 Pinellas St 33807 P 858-2350 Kenneth Minor 208 Connie Lee Ct 33809 P 682-0894 Mark Hammer 814 Griffin Rd 33805 P 667-0196 Robert Grey 1234 Reynolds Rd 33801 P 665-8420 Roger Swift 430 Arizona Ave 33801 P 802-5192 Rolando Charles 817 North Nokamis Ave 33815 P 815-3316 Ronald Drake 324 Lynn Ette Pl 33809 P 687-9045 Wade Irish 133 E. Patterson St 33803 P 853-1860 William Jakes 3691 Highland Fairway Bl 33810 P 680-3322 Anthony Fridovich ReMax 2600 South Florida Ave 33803 R 644-6636 Brent Burris Burris AAI 202 Lake Miriam Dr 33813 R 647-8600 Brian Stephens ReMax R 688-2212 Burt George Real Estate Broker 215 McDonald 33803 R 686-9707 Carol Ann Sargeant H&M Realty 1218 South Florida Ave 33803 R

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96 682-6147 David Bunch Harger-Bunch Inc 1125 US Hwy 98 South 33801 R 687-3992 David Stille Stille Real Estate 1602 South Florida #4A 33803 R 687-8020 Drew Rose Harper Realty 1420 South Florida Ave 33803 R 858-3815 Ed Collins Century 21 5600 US Hwy 98 North #4 33809 R 683-3200 Faye Doppelheuer 2537 South Florida Ave 33803 R 646-1000 James Cameron Realtor 303 West Belmar Street 33803 R 682-6515 Jerry Herring Herring & Co 235 North Kentucky Ave 33801 R 680-8002 Joe Joseph Joseph Realty 1735 Mockingbird Lane 33801 R 686-7723 Joe Ruthven Ruthven Real Estate 41 Lake Morton Dr 33813 R 815-0910 John Jirovec Housing Consultants 5523 US Hwy 98 North 33809 R 644-2828 Larry Libertore L. Libertore Inc #5 LaTerazza 33813 R 802-0056 Lois Searl 213 Kerneywood 33803 R 853-2770 Louis Gibbs Elliot & Co 5354 US Hwy 98 North 33807 R 619-6740 Maria Mahoney The Mahoney Group 3825 South Florida Ave 33813 R 666-2218 Mease Ratley Ratley Realty 2171 South Combee Rd 33801 R 683-6516 Michael Harwell Realtor 814 South Florida Ave 33801 R 1-813-263-7411 Pat Odor All USA Realty 1979 Lumsden Road 33511 R 680-8002 Richard Castret Joseph Realty 1735 Mockingbird Lane 33801 R 647-1100 Rick Barber Drummond Co. 3604 Harden Blvd 33803 R 687-4663 Robert Farley Gator Realty 2933 South Florida Ave 33803 R 682-6655 Robert Wolf Real Estate 111 Easton Drive 33801 R 688-3405 Ronald Maurer Lakeside Realty 2049 East Edgewood Dr 33803 R 619-6620 Toni Keyes CDC Properties 4415 South Florida Ave 33813 R 644-6651 William Loftin Loftin Real Estate 5151 South Lakeland #13 33813 R

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LIST OF REFERENCES ABC Association of Builders and Contractors. Member Directory Tampa, FL. 2002. Associated General Contractors of America. Descriptions on Small Town Averages and Statistics. www.agc.org October 6, 2003. Barnett, Vic. Sample Survey Principles and Methods Holder Publishing. Bloomington, IL. 1995. Boom Time Stirs Nostalgia. The Press Enterprise. February 15, 2002. Page B01 Copeland, B. Small-Town Charm. Indiana Business Magazine. November, 1996. Pages Unknown. Duany. A., & Plater-Zyberk, E. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream Farrar, Straus, Giroux. New York, NY. 2000. Duany. A., & Plater-Zyberk, E. The Second Coming of the American Small Towns.Wilson Quarterly. Boston, MA. vol Winter 1992. Pages 47-59. Duany Plater-Zybeck & Company. www.dpz.com October 17, 2003. Florida Estimates of Population 2002 Bureau of Economic & Business Research. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. 2003 Gerrante, J. Growth Nipping at Small Town. The Tampa Tribune. April 23, 2002. Page 1 The Handbook for Economic Lecturers. Analyzing the Results of Questionnaires. www.economics.html August 3, 2003. Hernando County Business Growth & Development Survey University Survey Research Center. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. 2002. Kosmont, Larry. Rethink Social-Impact Fees. Engineering News-Record. July 22, 2002. Viewpoint: Pages 23. Krizan, William. Homebuilding: Split Personality. Engineering News-Record. August 5, 2002. Business & Labor Page 17. Lakeland Downtown Development Authority. 2003. www.ldda.org October 7, 2003. 97

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98 The Ledger Newspaper. Lakeland, Florida. January-July Issues, 2003. www.theledger.com October 12, 2003. Likert, Rensis. A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes Archives of Psychology-1932. Johnson Associates. New York, NY. 1975. Likert, Rensis. The Human Organization: Its Management and Value McGraw Hill. New York, NY. 1967. Mount Allison University. Growth in Small Towns. www.mta.ca/rstomain.html September 20, 2003. Naylor Publications. Averages Based on Small Towns. www.naylor.com October 7, 2003. New Lexicon Websters Dictionary Encyclopedic Edition. Lexicon Publications. New York, NY. 1989 Edition. Real Estates Guide Lakeland, Florida. 2002. www.homes.lakeland1.html October 20, 2003. United State Census Data. Year 2000. www.census.gov October 17, 2003

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Robert F. Burnett was born and raised in Cincinnati, Ohio. He lived there through high school graduation when he came to the University of Florida. He has a bachelors degree earned in building construction from the University of Florida. During his senior year he was involved in a combined degree program, which has enabled him to finish his masters work in 4 years. He will complete his Master of Science in Building Construction as of December 2003. After his graduation he plans to find a job in commercial construction preferably within the state of Florida. 99


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0002821/00001

Material Information

Title: Understanding the relationship between successful construction company growth and the growth of a small city in Florida
Physical Description: xi, 99 p.
Language: English
Creator: Burnett, Robert F. ( Dissertant )
Issa, R. Raymond. ( Thesis advisor )
Cox, Robert F. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Building Construction   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: Factors and standards are needed to determine the impact of the building construction industry on small Florida cities. There were two main questions to be answered: (1) does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities, and (2) is the building construction industry a leader of growth in small cities? To accomplish the objective of answering these questions several steps needed to be taken. First, a small, growing city in Florida, which is representative, was selected as the sample city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward the questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was distributed to people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, to elected officials, to community leaders, and to local organizations. Fourth, the results of the questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks. Finally, the results were used to set standards for determining the impact of growth in other small, growing Florida cities. The results of the questionnaire lead to the understanding of factors that directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These factors allowed for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for building construction expansion. These standards then can be applied to improve the success of the building construction industry in small, growing Florida cities.
Subject: city, construction, growth, small
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2003.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0002821:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0002821/00001

Material Information

Title: Understanding the relationship between successful construction company growth and the growth of a small city in Florida
Physical Description: xi, 99 p.
Language: English
Creator: Burnett, Robert F. ( Dissertant )
Issa, R. Raymond. ( Thesis advisor )
Cox, Robert F. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Building Construction   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: Factors and standards are needed to determine the impact of the building construction industry on small Florida cities. There were two main questions to be answered: (1) does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities, and (2) is the building construction industry a leader of growth in small cities? To accomplish the objective of answering these questions several steps needed to be taken. First, a small, growing city in Florida, which is representative, was selected as the sample city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward the questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was distributed to people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, to elected officials, to community leaders, and to local organizations. Fourth, the results of the questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks. Finally, the results were used to set standards for determining the impact of growth in other small, growing Florida cities. The results of the questionnaire lead to the understanding of factors that directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These factors allowed for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for building construction expansion. These standards then can be applied to improve the success of the building construction industry in small, growing Florida cities.
Subject: city, construction, growth, small
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Includes vita.
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UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY
IN FLORIDA














By

ROBERT F. BURNETT


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003





























Copyright 2003

by
Robert F. Burnett




























THE EFFORT FOR THE RESEARCH AND HARD WORK TO PRESENT THIS
DOCUMENT COMES FROM THE HELP OF MY FAMILY AND FRIENDS. I
WOULD LIKE TO DEDICATE THIS DOCUMENT TO THEM FOR ALL THEIR
SUPPORT. THANK YOU.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank all the people who have put time and energy towards the

completion of this document. I want to thank my parents for all their support throughout

my career at the University of Florida, and for their endless emotional support throughout

the entire process. I want to thank Dr. R. Raymond Issa of the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of

Building Construction for his help and guidance throughout my time in the Rinker

School, and especially for his guidance through this thesis preparation. I also want to

thank Dr. Robert F. Cox for his efforts in the development of the document and continual

support throughout my studies. Lastly, I want to thank Dr. Marc Smith for all his support

and advice throughout the research and development of the survey.






















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... iv


LI ST OF T ABLE S .........__... ..... .__. .............._ vii..


LIST OF FIGURES ........._.__........_. ..............viii...


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........x


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......


Definition............... ...............
Statement of Problem ................. ...............4................

Statement of Hypothe si s........._.__....... .__. ...............4...

Scope and Limitations of Study ........._._... .....__ ...............5...
Importance of Study .............. ...............6.....
Research Determinations ........._.__........_. ...............7.....


2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............. ...............8.....


Prework .........._....__......._. ...............8......
Bad Growth............... ...............8.
Good Growth .............. ...............10....
The Good Life. ..........._.._.. ......._. .._ ...............10.....
Commercial and Residential .........._....__......._. ...............11.....
The Public .........._....__....._.. ...............12.....
Factors to Measure ..........._.._.. ...............13..._..........


3 S TY LE S ............. ...... .__ .............. 15..


Scope................. ...... ..........1
Preparation of Questionnaire ............. .....__ ....._ ............1
Individual Questions ............. ...... .__ ...............20...

Completion of Survey ................. .......__ ...............25...
Selecting Representative Sample City .....__.....___ ..........._ ............2
Sample Selection .............. ...............30....












Questionnaire Conducted............... ...............3
Initial Analysis Performed ................. ...............32................
Conclusion ................ ...............32.................


4 SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................ ...............3


Overview ................. ...............34.................

Respondents ................. ...............35.................
Respondents Analysis............... ...............37
W hat Is Growth? ................ ...............44........... ....
Growth Issues .............. ...............45....
Business Issues .............. ...............45....
Issues with Jobs .............. ...............45....
Residential Issues .............. ...............45....
Random Issues ................. ...............46.................

By Question Review ................. ...............47........... ....


5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................... ...............7


Chart Of Success. ................. ... ........... ...............71......
Block One--Population Growth .............. ...............72....
Block Two--Skilled Labor .............. ...............73....
Block Three--Local Support .............. ...............73....
Block Four--Available Money .............. ...... .. ... .................7
Blocks Five and Six -Local and Non-Local Construction Firms.......................74
Block Seven--Working Together ....__ ......_____ .......___ ............7
Final Block--Success ............ ..... .._ ...............76...
Learning ............ __. ..... __ ...............76...
Next Steps............... ...............77.


APPENDIX


A TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION
BETWEEN 10,000 100,000 .............. ...............80....


B SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE ...................83


C PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT ................. ......................85


D INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK...............86


E CONTACT REFERENCE LIST .............. ...............87....


LIST OF REFERENCES ............_...... ...............97...


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............99....



















LIST OF TABLES


Table pg


4-1 General Respondent Information ...._ ........__............ ............3

4-2 Work Categories .............. ...............37....

4-3 Individual Respondents............... ..............3

4-4 General Comments on Questions............... ...............4

A-1 Cities Based on US Census 2000 ........._.._.. .......... ...._.._ ..........8


B-1 Questionnaire ................. ...............83........ ......

E-1 Contact Reference List................ ...............87.




















LIST OF FIGURES


figure pg


4-1 Respondents ............ ...... __ ...............42....

4-2 Averages of Respondents............... .............4


4-3 Question 1 Response ........._._ ...... .... ...............48..

4-4 Question 2 Response ........._._ ...... .... ...............49..


4-5 Question 3a Response ............ ..... .._ ...............50..

4-6 Question 3b Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............50....


4-7 Question 3c Response ............ ..... .._ ...............51..

4-8 Question 3d Response ........ ................. ...............51.....


4-9 Question 3e Response ............ ..... ..._. ...............52...

4-10 Question 4 Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............53....


4-11 Question Sa Response ............ ..... .._ ...............54..

4-12 Question 5b Response............... ...............54


4-13 Question Sc Response ............ ..... .._ ...............55..

4-14 Question 5d Response ........ ................. ...............55. ....


4-15 Question 6a Response ............ ..... .._ ...............56..

4-16 Question 6b Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............57....


4-17 Question 6c Response ............ ..... .._ ...............57..

4-18 Question 6d Response ........ ................. ...............58. ....


4-19 Question 7 Response ........ ................. ...............59. ....

4-20 Question 8 Response............... ...............60












4-21 Question 9 Response ................. ...............60.._._._ ....


4-22 Question 10 Response............... ...............61


4-23 Question 11a Response ................. ...............62.............


4-24 Question 11b Response ................. ...............63......... ....


4-25 Question 11c Response ................. ...............63.............


4-26 Question 11d Response .............._ ....... ...............64...


4-27 Question 12 Response............... ...............64


4-28 Question 13 Response............... ...............65


4-29 Question 14 Response............... ...............66


4-30 Question 15 Response............... ...............67


4-3 1 Question 16a Response ............ ..... ..__ ...............68.


4-32 Question 16b Response............... ...............69


4-33 Question 16c Response ............ ..... ..__ ...............69..

5-1 Chart of Success .........____... ... ._ ............. ..71.
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY
INT FLORIDA

By

Robert F. Burnett

December 2003

Chair: Dr. R. Raymond Issa
Cochair: Dr. Robert F. Cox
Maj or Department: Building Construction

Factors and standards are needed to determine the impact of the building

construction industry on small Florida cities. There were two main questions to be

answered: (1) does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida

cities, and (2) is the building construction industry a leader of growth in small cities? To

accomplish the obj ective of answering these questions several steps needed to be taken.

First, a small, growing city in Florida, which is representative, was selected as the sample

city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing

answers toward the questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was distributed to

people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, to elected

officials, to community leaders, and to local organizations. Fourth, the results of the

questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks.









Finally, the results were used to set standards for determining the impact of growth in

other small, growing Florida cities.

The results of the questionnaire lead to the understanding of factors that directly

influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These factors

allowed for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for

building construction expansion. These standards then can be applied to improve the

success of the building construction industry in small, growing Florida cities.















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Small cities continually work on improving the prosperity of the residents that live

within their boundaries. A means to find prosperity is through growth. One of the largest

segments of growth revolves around the work of construction. The building construction

industry, therefore, can have maj or impacts on the growth of small cities. For the

purpose of this research it would be too cumbersome to examine the entire country for

the effect that the construction industry has on small cities. For that reason, the study has

been focused on small city growth within the state of Florida. The objective of this study

will be to provide answers as to construction effects, and to identify key factors

pertaining to the role the building construction industry plays in the growth of small cities

in Florida.

Researching past studies and their discussions on growth in small cities was the

first step in understanding the role played by the building construction industry in their

growth. From that information the effects that the building construction industry can

have and the level of magnitude of those effects might be determined. A problem arose

however, and that was the available research related to this issue was very limited, and

tended to not focus on the impact of the construction industry. Most of the studies related

to the growth of the cities focus on its effects on community programs and leadership

styles. This has become a key element in the efforts towards successful growth for many

city governments, and for statewide movements toward helping the startup growth of









cities. A different method had to be used for analyzing the impact of the construction

industry on successful small city growth.

A focused effort on the impact of the construction industry will lead to determining

how influential and beneficial the industry can be towards favorable growth. To

determine the impact of the building construction industry on small cities there exists a

need to establish factors and standards that can be used for all Florida small cities. In

order to look at small cities and their growth tow main questions need to be answered:

Does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities?,

Does the building construction industry fill a role as a catalyst for growth in small Florida
cities?

To accomplish the obj ective of answering the above questions, several steps had to be

taken. First, a small and growing city in Florida, which could be considered a

representative city for the entire state, was selected as the sample city. Second, a

questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward

the two main questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was used in calls to a sample

of people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, elected

officials, community leaders, and local organizations. Fourth, the results of the

questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks.

Finally, the results were used to set standards for use in other small and growing Florida

cities. Following these steps will lead to the better understanding of growth in small

cities in Florida, the recurring factors, and their level of impact and importance towards

successful growth.

The results of the questionnaire will lead to the understanding of factors that will

directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These










factors will allow for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features

for building construction expansion. These standards will improve the success of the

building construction industry in small and growing Florida cities. This can then prove

profitable to both the small cities themselves and the construction industry as a whole,

along with an individual contractor's firm.

Definition

The words "small city" brings many images to a person's mind. To some it can be

a place of comfort, security, calm, and a contrast to the fast paced metropolitan style of

living. To other people it represents backward, old style buildings, a slower type of

living and small amounts of growth. Webster' s Dictionary defines small as "restricted in

size by comparison with most others of the same kind or class," and as "of inferior

influence; not prominent; modest" (Encyclopedia, p.495). Both of these meanings assist

in defining a small city. Small cities, however, can represent growing places, chances to

replace the old with the new, and chances to do things the right way, all while

maintaining most of the perceived benefits of a small city in comparison to larger cities.

Construction work in small cities can have many possibilities concerning growth and

profit. Major concerns exist however, on how small cities can embrace growth and still

preserve the small city characteristics that keep them prime targets for expansion. There

have been numerous studies, in many cities of what individual towns and cities need to

do to better themselves. The research usually was completed with only that individual

town in mind, and with little knowledge or discussion of what occurs in other towns and

cities. More important, few of the studies show the impact on a small city from the

standpoint of the building construction industry. That leaves room to explore the benefits










and/or possible negative impacts that the building construction industry has on small

cities.

Statement of Problem

Minimum information exists concerning the impact of growth in small cities while

focusing on the building construction industry. Reports written on individual cities and

their growth show trends seen nationwide, but few comprehensive studies tie together the

construction industry and the growth of the city. Many questions continue to be

unanswered concerning small cities, growth, and the building construction industry. The

maj or concerns deal with how the construction process can be improved or even how to

look for details that always exist in the successful growth of cities. The focus should be

on the factors that assisted in the growth of small cities and the standards for the industry

that could be developed to promote a game plan for success.

Statement of Hypothesis

The building construction industry will continue to work in small cities and attempt

to help in the growth of those cities. A question to be looked at is whether profitability

can be realized from the industry in the development of small cities?

Hypothesis Statement The building construction industry has a positive impact on
the growth of small cities within the state of Florida.

To test such a hypothesis a breakdown of all the actions involved in the growth of cities

need to be identified. Every factor must be looked at that deals with growth or the

negative impact of non-growth. These factors can lead to depicting the maj or factors and

allowing those factors to answer the question behind the hypothesis statement. At that

point the hypothesis can be tested.









Scope and Limitations of Study

The definition of a small city for purposes of this study will be a city with a

population of over 25,000 people and under 100,000. The population figures will be

based upon the 2000 U. S. Census. The list of Florida cities that fit this criteria can be

seen in Appendix A. Growth rate will be decided based on the percentage of growth

between the years of 1980 and 2000. Preliminary figures indicate there exist 102 cities in

Florida with growth and population that meet the criteria (Florida, 2002). One city in

Florida will be chosen to represent all of Florida for this study. The city chosen will have

properties considered in the average range for size, location, and growth rate. This

method will keep as many variables as possible the same and enable the survey to look at

the factors that show the biggest deviations from an established mean. A survey form

will be used to contact builders and developers, community leaders, government leaders,

and local businesses within the city selected. The data analysis will include a review of

census data, city directories, interviews with contractors and town leaders, and an

understanding of city policies. All surveyed participants will be randomly chosen within

the determined parameters. The data collected from the telephone surveys will be

reviewed to help determine maj or factors that affect growth in small cities.

The Association of Builders and Contractors (ABC) has over 1,400 builders in the

State of Florida (ABC, 2002). Limited information makes it difficult to find out how

many of these 1400 builders are profitable, active, and work in small cities. An

assumption will be made that the work in the small cities is obtained by hard bids and it is

awarded to the lowest bidder, but that tends to not be the case. In practice the contracts

are drawn up and only given to certain builders that have knowledge or some tie to the

city. This makes it more difficult for outside firms to come in and deliver the best









construction value. The main reason for this approach by the small cities is based on the

concern for budget security. Even though a low bid approach would help lower costs, the

risk of the builder' s backing out or unforeseen costs could in the long run add up to more

than the small city can afford to pay. The tight budgets become one of the deciding

factors in both the growth and decline of small cities. Money drives the industry and

without a large supply of money to draw from it becomes difficult to find funding for

improving a city. These small cities cannot run the risk of the loss of their money, as that

would make too large an impact on their economy. Throughout the study it must be

determined how a small city approaches growth without the backing of substantial money

to get the proj ects started. There are few past statistics or studies to use for comparison

purposes. This shows the need for the survey to get a better understanding of the public

opinion on growth for the small cities, and also to gather all the data needed to make

comparisons of factors impacting growth.

Importance of Study

Examining the factors of small city growth and setting standards will allow builders

and developers to understand the risk and potentials that exist for investing in small

cities. The building construction industry affects the phases of deconstruction,

rebuilding, and early growth, but little is understood on the maj or impetus towards

promoting ongoing growth in the small city. Learning the successful details of small

cities and their growth can assist civic leaders in planning, bringing local business and

construction industries together, and start the process for growth. By determining the

areas in which to put the most emphasis in the growth of small cities, both the building

construction industry and the cities themselves can flourish. There exists a need to learn










how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do to further its influence and

impact.

Research Determinations

Finding out the components behind growth in small cities will benefit the building

construction industry. The overall benefit will reach both the small cities and the

contracting firms in the construction industry. Both of these areas will enjoy growth and

experience better wealth in the future. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a

standard to measure the different tactics used in construction of small cities it will be

possible to understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the

cities and more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained. It

proves necessary to determine how to continue this process and to help show the building

construction industry the best techniques that have the most impact on growth.















CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Prework

One of the reasons for preparing this report was the lack of written literature on the

subject of the building construction industry and its impact on growth in small cities.

There exists a need to learn how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do

to further the growth of those small cities. Developing techniques to follow in fostering

small city construction growth will assist both the construction firms and the cities in

successful expansion and financial growth. Additionally, there exist few statistics that

can be used to understand the relationship between small cities and the building

construction industry. Some questions that should be answered concern whether, during

rapid growth in a small city, the building industry can keep up, and what the impact of

controlling growth is in the city? Answering these questions will assist in understanding

the role the building industry plays in the livelihood of small cities. The purpose of this

thesis is to discover whether the building construction industry can be the driving force or

whether it should be the follower in small city growth, and how the construction industry

functions in a small city setting.

Bad Growth

Numerous publications have discussed and presented studies on the faults of

growth, particularly unplanned growth. A 1992 presentation by Andres Duany in Boston

entitled "The Merits of Neo-Traditionalism" is widely considered to be the speech that

started the internationally prominent New Urbanism principles (Duany 1992). The










speech was to illustrate the effects of bad growth. Duany, however, actually started in

1980 with the opening of his own architecture firm. In 1981 he started the development

of his landmark city, Seaside, Florida. He has since written the book, Suburban Nation:

The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (Duany 2000). His firm has

completed the design for over 230 communities based upon the New Urbanism

movement. Many of these cities are in the state of Florida, including Coral Gabses and

West Palm Beach. As recently as August 2003, Duany presented his ideas to the city of

Temple Terrace, which is a suburb of Tampa, Florida (www.dcp). While the values of

Duany's ideas can be debated, he still offers a very small connection between growth and

the building construction industry. He attempts to tell the small city how to build a better

community without necessarily including the building industry in a leadership role.

Growth as seen by many individuals has become a word with "bad" connotations.

The problem does not lie in growth factors, but unhealthy growth practices. This

phenomenon first became evident in California, but has quickly been observed

throughout the State of Florida. Negative practices concerning growth have led to

mistrust and misunderstanding when it comes to the actual benefits associated with

growth. It can be argued that growth cannot be stopped and with more dissention against

it, the less successful the growth will be when it must occur. Some studies have been

based on the individual cities and towns and then with growth tactics both in and out of

the state of Florida. These studies include Virginia Beach, Virginia; Coral Gables,

Florida; and Washington, DC. However, all these studies talk of harmful growth and

with little or no concern towards the role of the building construction industry.









Good Growth

There exist reviews on planning tools to assist towns in development, which show

the positive side of growth as presented in some publications. Many resource teams and

consultants offer step by step processes on how to analyze a town in all areas of the

community. One such study was for the town of Stephenville, Texas (www.naylor).

From this study a 147-page report was prepared listing questions to present to other cities

under study and the answers to these questions using Stephenville as the target. The

report did not try to judge the type of growth, but instead found questions that when

answered would help provide good growth. Within this report however, very little was

mentioned about the impact and relationship between growth and the building

construction industry, and the connection both the city and the industry have with each

other.

The Good Life

Another approach in analyzing growth has been described by Larry Kosmont, that

says growth and the building industry must be involved with social needs and

requirements. He states that it used to be generally accepted that expansion and

development would inevitably lead to the "Good Life" (Kosmont 2002). Today,

however, a builder must deliver all the benefits such as jobs, housing, recreation

facilities, schools, medical care, and more. All of these large concerns and all the areas

require putting time and effort towards presenting a much more difficult time for

construction in small city growth. One of the maj or problems with all this extra effort

and the problem that hinders all construction comes from the availability of funds. States

are struggling to meet the financial needs and that places even more demands upon the

construction industry to furnish social contributions. Too many people look at









developers as the source of "deep pockets." This cannot be the view though, as it will

only be through the joint efforts from all the parts of the city that the city will experience

successful growth.

Commercial and Residential

It is necessary to look at both the commercial and residential sides of the building

industry when talking about growth for small cities. The two sides, however, are

different and require different analysis and understanding. It can be difficult for a

company to be successful at both ventures. "The two markets are so different that it is

almost easier for a commercial builder to diversify into heavy highway contracting than

into large-scale single family homebuilding," says Lawrence E. Hirsch, chairman of

Centex Corp., Dallas, the nation' s largest homebuilder and one of the few large

homebuilders that also works as a large general contractor (Krizan 2002). The land

component of large-scale homebuilding acts as a barrier to commercial contractors. Sub-

contractors are not interchangeable because commercial, electrical, and mechanical firms

cost too much for skills that are not needed for homebuilding. In the current economic

environment housing clearly is outperforming its commercial building counterpart.

Between 1997 and 2000, the value of single-family housing increased 35%, compared to

a 20% increase in the value of private nonresidential buildings, according to the U.S.

Department of Commerce (Krizan 2002). The concern for small cities then is how to

succeed in growth when both the commercial and residential components of construction

must be dealt with. Small city growth cannot occur without the businesses and work

created by commercial construction and it clearly will not occur without the residential

growth allowing the influx of residents. One problem as was detailed before is that

because the two areas of construction do not overlap there will be a greater number of









construction firms coming into the cities to help in the growth. Keeping the market fair

and advantageous for all these contractors can prove to be difficult. This study will look

at the question of whether it can be productive to limit the construction firms coming into

small cities and then focus on a chosen few to do all the work within the city. The other

option would be to diversify all the construction jobs allowing the impact from many

more construction firms, but lowering the economic advantage to any one construction

firm. Working with the construction companies may prove to be the single most

important aspect in the successful growth for small cities.

The Public

The building construction industry for small cities needs to be in the position that

the great architect Louis Sullivan wrote about in 1906. He wrote, "If you seek to express

the best that is in yourself, you must search out the best that is in your people, for they are

your problem, and you are indissolubly a part of them. It is for you to affirm that which

they really wish to affirm. Namely the best that is in them, if the people seem to have but

little faith, it is because they have been tricked so long. They are weary of dishonestly,

more weary than they know, much more weary than you know. The American people are

in a stupor. Be on hand at the awakening" (Boom 2002). Louis Sullivan understood that

the people make the cities, not the buildings or the structure, it does not even include the

everyday activities and jobs. All these parts however, can have immediate impact on the

people when changed. To have a small city leaning on the verge of growth, not only do

the right pieces need to be in place economically and through the building industry, but

the people also need to want growth. People are needed to help the city expand and work

hard to continue that process. The building construction industry needs to focus on both

the actual building process and types of projects as well as the needs of the people. This










can be done through the work that is available in the construction industry and also in

how the construction process is carried out.

Factors to Measure

In changing the daily events in the construction process large impacts on the overall

growth of the small cities can occur. In a retrospective view, the decline of small towns,

and the deconstruction and lack of economic wealth for the city may be a way to show

the impact of the building construction industry on the growth of cities. It can be seen as

learning from the mistakes of other cities, making improvements, and not duplicating the

same problems. This can be an advantageous approach as the key to successful growth

may be to just move ahead in construction and learn the best ways to correct mistakes and

alleviate problems as they arise. A more finite parameter can be set, by looking at the

negatives of the construction industry and also in determining whether the construction

industry has a zero effect on a town or possibly even hurts a town. From these more

detailed parameters the construction industry can address the changes that need to be

made to improve the growth of small cities. Many items go into the growth of a small

city. All have an impact of some form. Certain factors, however, cannot be overlooked

and should show up in all similar cases. These points of interest need to be detailed and

studied to find their impact on the small cities. Only the maj or impact contributors, or the

practices and factors that are crucial to the line of growth or decline need to be examined.

Crucial factors are those factors that if they were removed would cause the rest of the line

towards growth or decline to break down. This should resemble planning for the

construction industry based on a work schedule as could be seen through activity on the

arrow networks. As seen on these networks, there are certain critical path items that must

be completed before others can be accomplished. The same correlation exists in the









strategies and planning for the expansion or decline of cities. The studies must focus on

details of the building construction industry and the impact it has on other factors.

Current trends and publications suggest that finding the factors behind the growth

of the construction industry in small areas can be helpful to succeeding in the business

field. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a standard by which to measure the

different tactics used in construction or deconstruction of small cities it will be possible to

understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the cities and

more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained.















CHAPTER 3
STYLES

Scope

The survey is intended to determine the influence of the building construction

industry on the growth of small cities. The important aspect impacting the construction

industry starts with how the industry may influence or can be influenced by growth in a

small city. Next, it is necessary to determine the actual influence of the various

construction phases on the growth of small cities. These steps may finally lead to

expanded and possibly continual growth for small cities. From this point, researching the

economic gain of small cities based on the building construction industry will assist in

determining the related gains and losses.

The steps taken in preparing the survey were as follows:

1. Review existing literature from building construction industry organizations and
associations on small cities.

Identify data missing that is required to answer the questions of the relationship between
small city growth and the building construction industry.

Design a questionnaire to collect both qualitative and quantitative information to assist in
an understanding of the missing data.

Decide upon a city to use as a main focal point of obtaining answers from the
questionnaire.

Decide on the participants for the questionnaire.

Initiate telephone calls or distribute questionnaires to obtain required data.

Completed surveys are reviewed for completeness and adequate number of responses.

Prepare statistical and descriptive reports.









The literature review discussed steps one and two in detail, which leads to the

completion of step three. As pointed out in the section on the literature review there

exists a very small amount of printed information available on the subj ect of growth in

small cities and its connection with the building construction industry. The determination

was made to develop one questionnaire for data collection purposes to assist in

determining the missing information. It was decided to not only have members of the

building construction industry complete the questionnaire, but also those have

questionnaires completed from those with no affiliation with the construction industry.

This was necessary in order to receive more unbiased answers, which will allow for

reaching better conclusions. The questionnaire contains mainly questions that are to be

answered by choosing one of six options. These questions go towards the general

interpretation of certain strategies and the concept of growth for the small cities. The

questions will be based on a ranking scale. The value of importance will be step graded

from one to six, with six being the most important/impacted. Giving a ranking scale of

this nature is an example of using the Likert technique. A six point system allows for a

large enough range for respondents to give answers based on their perception. Having

just a true and false response available would be too restrictive. The worry was that

someone that was leaning between agreement and disagreement would then answer a

false even though they did have a definitive opinion. The six responses allow for

different variations of agreement or disagreement and a more accurate response for

respondents to find. A response category placed right in the middle of agreement and

disagreement was decided to not be practical. One of the main reasons for this

determination was that a neutral response between the two extremes was not desired. By









eliminating this option, the goal was to force the respondents into deciding whether to

choose an agreement or disagreement level. That was the intention of having different

levels of agreement so that even if a strong feeling of agreement, for example, was not

found the respondent could at least have a choice of moderate agreement instead of being

forced to select a neutral answer. For assessing a situation in which a respondent would

feel unable to answer a particular question or that they did not have proper knowledge,

then a no opinion category was added. An example of this situation would be if there

was a question dealing with time, such as over ten years ago and the respondent had only

lived in the city for a few years. This respondent would then answer a no opinion

because they cannot truly understand the parameters to answer the question. All these

categorized responses will help to portray the perceived impact of the factors based on

the construction industry when applied to the growth of small cities based on the

perception of the respondents. There, also, will be an opportunity for the respondent to

give additional comments as related to the questions. Allowing for an area for general

responses to any question gives a better insight into the respondents' answers if they wish

to add such information. All additional information would always be welcomed and then

can be looked at in comparison to other respondents to understand where the background

and perceptions come from. Another area in the survey will be an optional personal

question section having to do in detail with their position, title, type of work, and type of

construction. Further, detailed discussion of the questionnaire is covered below on a

question by question basis.

Preparation of Questionnaire

A need exists to determine the impact that growth in Florida' s small cities has on

the building construction industry. Past publications and literature does not adequately









address this issue. To fill this gap in information it was necessary to develop a

questionnaire that would be used to survey people in small cities, with emphasis upon

one Florida city in particular. The completed survey will assist in gaining insight into the

connection between small city growth and the building construction industry. The survey

will detail the maj or recurring factors that can be associated with the growth in small

cities. This growth leads to improvements for the cities and for the construction

industries. The Einal goal is to Eind factors leading towards successful growth which will

be answered by the questionnaire.

The Likert scale was used as stated previously, to set up the questionnaire which

was a method for measuring attitudes. The Likert technique is to present a set of

questions that can be answered by expressing agreement or disagreement. These are

close-ended questions, which are suited to get a broad picture of people' s attitudes. The

secret to this method was in (1) not using long complex questions, (2) avoiding ambiguity

in questions, and (3) showing questions that take a lot of thought (Likert 1932).

The questions included in the questionnaire will enable two obj ectives to be

accomplished. First, the questions have to provide answers that will lead to an

understanding of the building construction industry and small cities. Both the

commercial and residential areas of the building construction industry are of equal

concern. Second, the questions when answered have to be in the format so that the

Endings can be tabulated using statistical methods. The end result will be to identify

factors that apply to the construction industry and all small cities in Florida.

Ideally, the survey would be distributed to everyone in all the small cities in the

state of Florida. This, of course, proved unrealistic, so it was determined that two courses









of action could be taken. One, the questionnaire could randomly be used to contact

leaders in the building construction industry throughout the state by telephone. It is felt

that this method will not insure a measurable response. The second course of action was

to choose one small city in Florida and to blanket it with a telephone survey. The belief

is that a greater response rate will be gained from using this approach. In combining the

two methods the Einal decision was made to distribute the questionnaire to the public,

businesses, and construction industry personnel in one small city. In the selected city, the

questionnaire would be used in contacting various individuals ranging from, but not

restricted to civic organizations, political leaders, realtors, businesses, newspapers, and

randomly picked individuals from the telephone book. This would insure diversified

responses and increase the statistical accuracy of the Eindings. It would permit more

depth than just the survey questions. This also would allow for greater insight into the

thinking of respondents, and into the impact of the building construction industry. The

responses from this sample group will give the most correct results to build a hypothesis

and to distinguish the factors that tie small city growth and the building construction

industry together.

In order to receive the greatest response possible it was necessary to make sure the

questionnaire would take less than five minutes for the participants to complete. It is felt

that the shorter the survey, the greater the response rate (Barnett 1995). The

questionnaire offers a range of opinions for each question. The answers can range from

"strongly agree" to "strongly disagree", or simply "no opinion". This was broken down

into more detail previously but it was important to remember to give the best possible

range for respondents to answer corresponding to their perception on each question.










Again, a section at the end of the questionnaire is also included to list general information

about the respondents. This will permit the ability to sort the responses by gender,

location, experience, level of management, and by organization or business of the

respondent. There is also a "General Comments" section for anyone who wants to give

added input to the survey. Most of the surveys were handled through telephone calls, but

the option is available for participants to respond by mail if they request.

Following are the questions for the questionnaire that was prepared and used in

each telephone and mail survey. An individual survey form was completed for each

telephone and mail participant. The individual results were then broken down and

combined for each question.

Individual Questions

After attaining the person's permission to proceed with the telephone survey, the

first question was to gain an understanding of the person' s viewpoint. The question was,

What is you definition of successful gi/ 1,n th? This is the base question to follow with the

additional sixteen questions in the survey.

The questions to be included in the questionnaire and the expected purpose of each

one are:

2. Is you city experiencing growth based on your definition?

Purpose: It is important to know the belief of the participant because the design of

the thesis is to link together growth in small Florida cities and the impact of the building

construction industry. If the respondent indicates they feel the city is not growing then

the results will have to be measured differently. The question will lead to an overall

knowledge of where the city stands in terms of growth at this point.

Do you believe growth is good for your city?










Purpose: The answer to this question gives the attitude of the participant, and any

bias that may be included in the balance of the answers. Also of note, this will then set

the tone for the answering of the rest of the questions. An agreement with this question

leads to a bias for construction and a disagreement leads to a bias against.

Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on

a. Growth in a positive manner?
b. Local economic growth?
c. Local population growth?
d. Local commercial construction growth?
e. Local residential construction growth?

Purpose: The entire focus of the thesis is about the answers to this question--what

impact does the construction industry have on growth. In detail on this question, the

items to look for involve whether the building construction industry impacts growth at

all, or whether growth occurs regardless. This will help to tie in with the other questions

of impact and whether it' s positive or negative. This searches for the answer of whether

there is growth in the small city, and if the construction industry had the most impact on

that growth or if the small city was going to grow in other ways. That point becomes

important to note, as when applying factors of growth to other small cities it will be

useful to know if a town had the characteristics to grow and then the extent that the

construction industry needs to be involved. The more impact the construction industry

has on growth the more the industry will have to be included in the efforts to help growth

start and sustain that growth until it can expand on its own.

Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth?

Purpose: This gives the beliefs of the respondents towards the building

construction industry and possibly answers to other questions. This just gives a feeling

towards the positive or negative impact the construction industry has on the small city.










Where does the industry stand in relationship to growth? This focuses on the point of

whether the construction industry has the impact to spur growth or if the industry is only

they are after the fact. This is necessary to determine what cities should focus on for

growth in the future. Should the industry look to already growing cities or is it possible

to have the right factors existing in a city, and then proceed to push the growth.

Do you believe the following resources are readily available n your city

a. Construction materials?
b. Skilled labor?
c. Available money to assist growth?
d. Construction equipment?

Purpose: This will indicate the strength of the building construction industry in this

particular city. It will access the ability of the city and the building construction industry

to grow in the future. The ability to have materials in a city may lead to an easier

transition into growth in comparison to what would occur if there were large expenses for

acquisition and transportation of materials. For a small city to experience successful

growth it must be able to sustain that growth for a long period of time. Money proves to

be the one of the main elements in continual growth and should be important to

determine the extent of the volume of money for growth in other small cities. The more

money available, obviously the easier the potential for growth.

Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following...

a. Community leaders?
b. Political leaders?
c. Local residents?
d. Business owners?

Purpose: To ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This

question has the purpose to try and determine what areas the construction industry should

look for to aid in the original start up, and policies associated with small city growth. To









ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This question as stated

before looks to determine where support can be found and if that support would apply in

other small cities or if it is particular to certain cities. In most cities growth can start and

support found from city officials, however, without the help and support from the

residents there will not be the ability to sustain the growth in these small cities. Residents

make up these cities and as they should be are the most important people influential in

terms of growth for the small city.

Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in you city?

Purpose: This is to link the respondent's beliefs with answers to other questions.

This refocuses on possible built in bias from the respondent. At this point in the survey it

should again be noted whether the respondent has a bias for or against growth in their

city.

Do you believe the number of businesses and j obs has increased in your city over the past
5 years?

Purpose: This question tests whether growth is actually taking place and where. It

may be just in the mind of the respondent, but it is important to understand where they

believe growth is occurring.

Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry?

Purpose: This looks at whether if there does exist an increase in business and j obs

whether that growth can be directly attributed to the building construction industry. If

there were an increase as could be shown in the answer to question 8, and it was not felt

to be due to the construction industry then efforts to improve growth in those smaller

cities would not be necessary from a construction point of view.

Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over the past 5
years?










Purpose: To test whether growth is actually taking place and how. This again leads

to an understanding of where the respondent feels growth is occurring. Comparing this to

where money has been spent on growth leads to efficiency of construction in particular

areas of growth. From this, future efforts in other cities for growth can focus on the areas

of more efficient growth and impact.

Consider large proj ects to be over 3 million $ and small proj ects below that; then do you
feel local construction firms work on ..

a. Small projects?
b. Large projects?
c. Both?
d. Neither?

Purpose: To identify the impact of how local construction firms are involved in

small city growth. It may be important not to allow non-local companies to come into the

small cities and take all the meaningful work. A j oint effort in search of growth may

prove to be the best method for success.

Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger proj ects?

Purpose: This leads to a further understanding of what construction firms are

landing jobs in the smaller city. Depending on the answer for question 11 this question

may lead to understanding if local companies do not get larger proj ect then where are the

companies coming from that due receive these contracts.

Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city?

Purpose: To reconfirm the respondent' s beliefs towards growth. By focusing on

this point at three stages throughout the questionnaire allows for a measure of the

strength of the person" bias for or against growth. If the respondent bias seems to change

it can be determined what questions had the impact on that change of opinion and focus

on why it occurred.










Do you believe that the political leaders, community leader, and the building construction
industry all work together in your city to promote growth?

Purpose: Is it necessary for all the groups to work together to obtain growth.

Understanding the extent to which this occurs and then seeing the impact that has on

growth will help in setting up the roles of all those areas in future growth for other small

cities.

Do you believe that an increase in construction proj ects in your city will increase j obs for
local residents?

Purpose: This assists in finding out whether the non-local construction firms bring

in their own employees to complete proj ects. The amount of work increased by the cities

growth needs to go to local companies and residents if the city is to maintain continued

growth.

Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next...

a. 1 year?
b. 5 years?
c. 10 years?

Purpose: Is there room for the building construction industry to grow? Growth

needs to be continual, and needs to have the potential for that continual growth. This

question looks to answer these questions and needs associated with growth.

Completion of Survey

Each question will be statistically measured and then broken down into different

factors that can be measured and ranked. This will lead to being able to sort the

completed survey by type of respondent, meaning building construction industry,

political, civic, business, organization, etc., of which the first question for each identified

group will be different. By using the Likert scale each degree of agreement is given a

numerical value from one to five. Thus, a total numerical value can be calculated from









all the responses. This allows for the computation of the intercorrelations between all

pairs of questions. It has the advantage of permitting the easy use of means and standard

deviations. This is used to segregate answers by different sub-groups of people, for

instance by gender or type of work (www. economic).

Selecting Representative Sample City

Step four is to choose a small, Florida city to be representative of all small cities in

Florida. The goal was to select a city that contains determined characteristics. These

characteristics were:

1. City had to be located within the state of Florida.

2. City had to have a population of between 10,000 and 100,000 population.

3. City had to have shown growth in the past ten years.

4. City was to be close to the Florida average taking into consideration such areas as
age, gender, number of households, population, area size, and location.

The idea was to stay away from the extremes in any one area. The United States Census

was used to obtain data necessary to decide upon a sample city. The Census presents

data for towns and cities on the basis of less than 10,000; between 10,000 and 100,000;

and over 100,000 population. It provides data on population broken down by age,

number of children, gender, race, income, home ownership, type of jobs, and numerous

other categories (www.census). Growth for the purposes of this paper is measured as the

percentage increase in the population of people in the city. In the State of Florida it can

be difficult to find a place that has not grown in population between the years of 1990

and 2000. Over ninety percent of cities and towns reported population gains (Florida

2002). The census reports only thirteen towns and cities decreased in population during

these ten years. The losses reported were in the hundreds of people, so no town or city










had maj or decreases in number of people. The gains had ranges in values across the

board.

A careful review of all the researched data lead to the decision to choose Lakeland,

Florida as the sample city. There were several reasons for choosing Lakeland. As

previously stated, extremes were to be avoided. Lakeland's population of 78,452 as of

the 2000 census does not lie at either end of the over 10,000 and under 100,000

population guidelines (Florida 2000). As can be seen by the population size it is closer to

the higher limit of 100,000. The 78,452 size however does lie near the median of the

cities that met the criteria. It was felt that this gave a better look at the impact of

construction on the small city. Taking the median city gave a representation based on the

growth occurring to many cities throughout the state of Florida. The census reported two

hundred thirty-five cities that met the criteria. See Appendix A for the complete list of all

two hundred thirty-five cities (www.census). Growth in all Florida small cities ranged

from the extreme of an increase around 271% to a loss of 2%. Lakeland falls near the

medium middle with an increase of 6.9% (estimates for 2002 show a growth increase of

8.2%). There were eighty small cities with greater growth than Lakeland and forty-eight

with less growth. Lakeland is located in the middle of the state so it does not have the

extremes of beaches, hot weather, tourists, theme parks, and of being only a business

community. The city government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city

manager. There, also, exists a Downtown Development Authority (www.1dda).

Lakeland fulfills the established criteria set by this paper for a growing city that is facing

all the opportunities and worries presented by growth.









Listed below are some basic facts about the city of Lakeland, Florida

(www.ledger). This information should help in understanding the lifestyle that some of

the residents of Lakeland, FL experience.

1. Largest city in Polk County with a population in the 80,000's with approximately
35,000 families.

Largest employer is Publix Super Markets that is headquartered in Lakeland.

City is located between Tampa and Orlando off of Interstate 4 and is less than two hours
from beaches and theme parks.

City located at Latitude 28.0 N and 81.95 W Longitude

City was incorporated in 1885 and is 45.8 square miles in size (water areas covers about
6 miles), is 216 feet above sea level, 28,000 acres, and contains 38 lakes.

The number of housing units is 39,000.

Population density equals 1,711 per square mile (housing density equals 850.3 per square
mile).

City government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city manager with the
annual city budget being $324 million dollars.

While the city's population was 78,412 as of 2000, there are 1 16,400 people living within
five miles of the downtown area, expected to be at 88,741 by the end of 2003.

As with most of Florida the only appreciable rain exists during the months of June-
September, total rainfall is 68 inches a low of 1 inch in March and 12 inches in June.

Average temperature ranges from 61 degrees in January and December to the mid-80's in
the summer months, the average temperature is 72.5 degrees.

The Lakeland Economic Development Council expects to add 2,600 new j obs in the next
five years.

City funded public improvements in the downtown core have triggered over $255 million
in private investments to the Lakeland downtown area in the last ten years.

Mean travel time to work is 21.6 minutes.

Medium residents' age is 39.7 years old.

Medium household income is $43,400.

The medium price for homes sold was $88,200.









The medium family income is $43,400 per year, which compares to $47,300 for the state
of Florida and $50,200 for the entire United States.

Lakeland is home to the Detroit Tigers spring training camp.

Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built twelve of the buildings on the Florida Southern
Campus.

There are three four-year colleges located in Lakeland (Florida Southern, Southeastern
Christian, and The University of South Florida-Lakeland.

The population make up consists of 46% male and 54% female with 50.3% married.

The population breakdown is 21% under 21 years old; 47% between 21-60 years old; and
32% over 60 years of age.

Further population breakdown by race shows 69.5% white, 21.3% black, 6.4% hispanic,
and others make up 2.8%.

The percent of the population with a bachelors degree is 20.9%.

The county leads in citrus production, and is fourth in cattle raising for Florida.

The county leads in state of Florida in number of mobile homes.

Boating and fishing are abundant in Lakeland.

The city's unemployment rate is about 6%.

A review of a Lakeland newspaper, The Ledner, and several other local

publications shows, like in most small cities, that there exists considerable disagreement

on growth, how it should be handled, and who should control it. A few quotes on growth

are: "with all the government agencies working together and the people of Polk County,

the growth will be more beneficial...we must look at the future rather than living from

the past" (www.ledger). A viewpoint on the building industry comes out as, "Should

growth in Polk County be better controlled? Absolutely. Growth in this county should

be regulated, controlled and carefully planned...not by builders and developers, but by

the citizens who live here." Still another view is "Yes, there are certain parts of Lakeland

that should be developed, while some areas, like South and East should remain rural"










(www.ledger). These three comments make a clear statement that growth and the

building construction industry are not always clear winners. It, also, shows how the

building industry must work with the community and leaders in the growth of small

cities. Still, it would be impossible to please everyone.

To get a better feel for Lakeland as a small city some other comments that were

printed by residents in the local newspaper are shown below.

1. "Another case of developers running the state. I'm sick of this, the Commissioners
are not noted for taking the wishes of their constituents in mind, anyway."

"With problems in traffic control, water usage, schools who in their right mind would
want further development in Lakeland? Oh, I know...Developers. But then I did say
right min, didn't I."

"Development is necessary, but it has to be better balanced than it has been."

"The reality is that Lakeland would be much better if we would just accept the fact it is a
bedroom community for Orlando and Tampa."

"Lakeland has so much potential-the leaders, the builders, the people, the investors need
to wake up and realize it."

"I have been told that Lakeland is too small to support the ideas that many of the
community believe are necessary to attract people and j obs, and it would probably be 20
or 30 years before our market would support them."

These comments give a view of what the people in Lakeland are thinking about growth

and in some instances the building industry (www.ledger).

Sample Selection

All types of the construction industry were studied which encompassed

commercial, industrial, and residential areas. It was concluded to be essential to include

the political and social leaders of the community in order to have meaningful data. This

was done to get a diversified opinion on the impact of the construction industry on the

expanded growth of the towns (www.agc). Newspapers, telephone directories, and









building organizations and associations were used to identify a targeted group of people.

If possible a name was connected to the telephone number or address in order to make it

more personal and/or to reach the person in charge. The end product was a list of over

300 locations. This list included people names, telephone numbers, business or position

name, addresses, and type of grouping. The groupings were (a) any association with the

building industry, (b) government, (c) newspaper, (d) reactors, (e) civic organization, (f)

businesses, and (g) the general public.

Questionnaire Conducted

The method used to reach the targeted people on the sample list was mainly by

telephone. However, if requested or if unable to reach by telephone, a questionnaire was

mailed. The goal was to have a minimum of thirty respondents (Hernando 2002). The

list was arranged in name, alphabetical order within the seven groupings. Taking every

Efth name on the list and calling that number started the telephone survey. This meant

starting at number Hye on the list and then calling that person. If a contact was made

then that individual either agreed to 611 out the questionnaire or refused to help. Some

individuals contacted asked to be called back in which case that was done at a later point

in which a response could be gained. Once a contact was made then the next person

called was every fifth person on the list. For example, this would be calling the Efth,

tenth, Efteenth twentieth, etc. on the list. If a contact was not made on the first call then

at a later point that contact was called again until a contact could be made to either gain

or not gain a response to the questionnaire. Upon realizing the end of the list, the same

process was started again. Then, every third name on the list was taken until the desired

sample size was reached. This meant starting at the third name on the list, then moving












on to every fifth name, such as eighth, thirteenth, eighteenth, etc. until the number of

responses desired was reached.

Initial Analysis Performed

The results of the questionnaire are the first step in developing a list of factors that

scored an average of four or better on the scaled questions. With a score of four or better

these procedures will be viewed as having a significant impact on the growth of the small

cities. The list of these objectives will be compiled, and then each aspect detailed and

studied to determine the overriding characteristics involved in the factors. The results

will contain the most frequent similarities in the impact or results of the different

objectives when applied in the Hield. To satisfy requirements and prove conclusions

based on percentages, the statistical variations from all results will be calculated to ensure

that all data falls within the mean variance based on a 90% confidence interval. The

statistical tests will help to prove within a 90% confidence that the responses chosen are

or are not significantly different and therefore can be compared to show similar factors

and when interpreted show tendencies related to the growth in small towns (Likert 1967).

Each question will be analyzed using graphs and charts to identify results and key areas

of concern.

Conclusion

All the information from the questionnaires and the analysis of the data was used to

test the hypothesis. The desired outcome will be to Eind the determining factors that

influence the growth of small cities related to the building construction industry. These

factors can be analyzed and then broken down to understand how to reproduce the

success for other towns on the side of growth. The entire process from research, thru data









collection, and then analysis, is necessary in determining the overall factors that influence

the construction process in a positive way.















CHAPTER 4
SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Overview

An analysis of all the replies to the sixteen questions asked on the questionnaire

revealed an overwhelming positive belief from the participants concerning growth in

their small city. The purpose of using the Likert technique in preparing the questions was

to measure the attitude of the respondents. This was accomplished by having each

respondent express their level of agreement or disagreement with the questions. As seen

from the graphs and charts presented in the following material, this made it possible to

look at the results of the answers in a variety of different ways. The participants were

from a cross-section of people including those in the building construction industry, civic

and government leaders, the general public, and people in business. The ideal method of

gathering the data was from telephone interviews. The reason for this was that people

were more likely to respond at length if they were speaking rather than writing.

Telephone surveys also avoided the possibility that a mail survey might have a low

response rate and that the responses would only be from one group, and not random. If

requested or in the case that telephone contacts was unable to work then some

questionnaires were mailed. In order to avoid interview distortion, all the telephone

surveys were carried out in the same way with each respondent and by the same person.

The understanding of the questions by the respondents seemed uniform and

straightforward. This assessment leads to the conclusion that all the individual questions

were neither vague nor inappropriate. The people responding to the survey had nothing










to gain or lose, and responded simply to assist in the writing of this thesis by providing

the data to analyze. This makes the validity of the answers more believable and creates a

less biased sample. The questions were designed to elicit people's perceptions of past,

present, or future reality. The survey completion time took about four minutes for the

respondents, which did not deter the respondents from taking the time necessary to

answer all the questions. The responses from all participants with the questionnaire were

friendly and many gave additional comments that were shown in this chapter. The total

number of contacts made by the telephone survey was 102. From that total number of

contacts, the total amount of completed questionnaires came to 31. This gives a response

rate of 30.4% or just under one third, which was the expected return rate at the beginning

of the questionnaire preparation.

Respondents

The respondents to this survey were as varied as the answers they supplied. They

range from City Commissioners, to vice presidents, to office managers, to sales people, to

stay at home individuals. The average time living in Lakeland, Florida reported by the

respondents was 20.1 years, with one year being the least and fifty years being the most.

This gave a good range of experience living in the sample city. All the respondents

sampled gave an applicable means for assessing their responses and grouping these

responses to allow the best understanding of the city as a whole. All data results

concerning the respondent' s information including years in city and some positions in

their companies can be seen in the additional results shown below. In analyzing this data

it becomes easier to compare each question's responses and see which gave the most

agreeable or most disagreeably response. Please see additional results below in Table

4.1.









Table 4-1. General Respondent Information

&nte Raspondat's Rasitias Et Their Onpny

(iais positicnsferolt ra21~szv~ith tsinesl3s)

Margr Exe~allite ractcr A~islat Oity Mmy~g
O/\r LPdfE~L~iness Dadcpmis Satay
hes Margr Wa-hxse Mmyg CSR~t Mm
S~es Fpeeddive O/wir R-esictwt
Inicthhes Mmyg Estimi-Ecr
S~es Nmy~ Oity Oxmissiarer PRqja1t Brjneer

Nrrter & Years Faesponderits I.i\Rd in City( M y ~ears)

All responchs
2 17 17 SC 7 24 1 11 1 1


As noted earlier the respondents contacted for the questionnaire came from a range

of people including those in the building construction industry (C), civic organizations

(0), real estates (R), government leaders (G), the general public (P), and people in

business (B). Of the thirty-one responses received from the questionnaire the breakdown

for which category they fall into can be seen in Table 4.2 following.









Table 4-2. Work Categories

Respondent's Work Cateqories

Work Catenory Number of Responses

Building Construction Industry (C) 12 responses
Civic Organizations (0) 2 responses
Real Estate (R) 0 responses
Government Leaders (G) 5 responses
General Public (P) 3 responses
Business (B) 9 responses

The results of the type of respondents based on their work categories shows a range

of perceptions coming from the respondents. The respondents each have their own

perceptions based on their past history dealing with construction or through their

experience in the city. Due to this variety of perceptions coming from the respondents a

more detailed analysis of the respondents needs to be examined.

Respondents Analysis

In order to analyze the respondents' answers to the questionnaire a system was

needed to rank their responses. This system was made by using a summation rate based

on each individual response. This was done by using the number of responses for each

individual and the level to which that response was rated. The summation rate totals

were reached by using the key of awarding 6 points for strongly agree answers, 5 points

for moderately agree answers, 4 points for agree answers, 3 points for disagree answers, 2

points for moderately disagree answers, and 1 point for strongly disagree answers. For

instance, if a respondent had 6 strongly agree, and 5 agree, and 10 disagree answers the

summation total for that respondent would be 86 points (6 x 6=36, 5 x 4=20, 10 x

3=30==86). A detailed listing and individual graphs for each respondent are shown

throughout the items discussed in this chapter. Looking at the graphs will show the high






38


peaks for the number of questions answered in the strongly agree or moderately agree

columns of the survey. The highest number of summation points from any one

respondent was 175, while the lowest was 111 (of which there were two). The highest

possible summation points attainable were 186 while the lowest possible would be thirty-

one points. The summation points average for all respondents was 139.2 points. If the

two extremes are discounted the average then becomes 139.9. This data can be seen

below in Table 4.3 which is a chart depicting these results discussed.










Table 4-3. Individual Respondents
Table 4.3 Individual Respondent's

Individual Respondenf's A~nswers

Number of Answers

3 4 11 7 2 4 0
0 18 11 3 0 0 1
0 22 8 0 0 1 0
1 24 5 0 0 1 0
8 12 12 0 0 1 0
0 21 2 0 2 15
13 11 2 3 0 1
4 17 7 1 1 1 0
3 24 1 0 1
0 1 25 4 0 1 0
15 10 5 0 0 1 0
7 13 9 0 0 1
0 28 1 1 1 0
19 5 5 0 1 1 0
3 13 10 4 0 1 0
5 12 8 8 0
4 14 7 1 4 1 0
8 7 11 3 2 2 0
12 8 3 2 2 4 0
12 6 1 3 1 8 0
12 6 4 12 3 3
2 17 6 2 3 10
6 20 3 0 1 0
13 3 7 4 2 2 0
7 9 8 4 2 1 0
12 13 5 0 1 0 0
25 4 1 0 0 0
12 8 8 1 2 0
3 8 9 2 2 7 0
4 12 9 4 1 1 0
4 10 8 8 2 10


5 Molderatel ge


2 ModeralyDage

NO No pinio


111 SurnofRnswers
133 Multles
143
147
145
118
151
143
147
118
181
144
148
162
136
135
134
130
138
125
128
134
151
139
138
159
175
149
111
135
183


Repnet 1
Repn t 2
Repn t 3
Repn t 4
Repn t 5
Repodnt 6
R.~espondent 7 ...I,,


Repnet 10
Repnet 11
Repnet 12
Repnet 13

Respondent 15
Respondent 18
Repnet 17
Repnet 18
Repnet 19
Repnet 20
Repnet 21
Rsodr 22
Repnet 23
Repnet 24
Repnet 25
Repnet 28
Repnet 27
Repnet 28
Repnet 29
Resp~ondent~ 30
Respondent 31





























Respondent 1- (G)











Response


40



Based on the above information regarding the breakdown of each individual


respondent to each of the questions on the survey allows for a look at tendencies that


appear based on the type of respondent. Looking at Figure 4. 1 shows graphs based on the


total responses from each respondent. This gives a good visual insight into the


similarities between different individuals who participated on the questionnaire.


Respondent 2- (C)


Respondent 3- (C)


Response


Response


Respondent 4- (C)


Respondent 5- (P)


Respondent 6- (C)


Response


Response


Response


Respondent 7- (B)











Response


Respondent 9- (C)


Respondent 8- (C)











Response


Response















Respondent 10 -(P)










Response



Respondentl3-(C)










Response


Respondentl1 -(B)









a 54 21 o
Response




Respondentl14-(B)


Respondentl2-(P)

















a 5 4 s 2 1 No
Response


Response


Respondentl8-(G)


Respondentl6-(G)


Respondentl7-(C)


Response


Response


Response


Respondentl9-(B)


Respondent20-(B)


Respondent21 -(B)


Response


Response


Response






























Respondent 27 (B)










54321NO
Response


Respondent 24 (B)


Respondent 22 (C)


Respondent 23 (C)


Response


Response


Response


Respondent 25 (0)


Respondent 26 (0)


Response


Response


Respondent 28 (B)


Respondent 29 (G)


Respondent 30 (C)


Response


Response


Response


Respondent 31 (G)


Response


Figure 4-1. Respondents









What Figure 4. 1 shows is how close most respondent' s answers were when all

sixteen questions are considered. This shows the lower possibility of any one respondent

bias towards the issues discussed. This proves to be helpful for showing the perception

of all respondents as being accurate. Taking into account all the components of the

sixteen questions, there were thirty-one possible answers. Even the participants who

scored the lowest on the summation rate totals had three answers in the strongly agree

column. Only five respondents had over eight of the thirty-one answers in the disagree,

moderately disagree, or strongly disagree columns. The high average of 139.2 is

indicative of how positive the answers were to the majority of the questions, and how

positive the maj ority of the respondents were to growth in their city and the building

construction industry. After looking at the graphs of Figure 4. 1 it can be seen that many

of the graphs have similar characteristics in shape. The letters after each respondent

number represent the category to which that respondent falls into. That being (C) for

individuals involved in the building construction industry, (0) for individuals involved in

civic organizations, (G) for those in the government, (P) for the general public, and (B)

for all individuals involved in general business activities. Looking at the results for each

of these areas gives a better insight into how particular individuals based on their

experience would answer on the questionnaire. Shown following in Figure 4.2 are graphs

representing the averages of the respondents based on the categories to which they fall

into as described earlier. This allows for seeing the averages of each respondent and the

similar characteristics as far as the shape of the graph.









Average (G)










Response


44

Average (0)










Response


Average (C)


Response


Average (B)


Average (P)


Response


Response


Figure 4-2. Averages of Respondents


What Is Growth?

The base question asked what was the participant' s definition of growth and the

first question determined whether that definition was accurate based on present

conditions in the city. The answers came out varied and do not necessarily fall in to a

defined grouping. This is an example of why defining and identifying small cities for


growth can be a difficult task. Everyone seems to have a different belief of what planned

growth should be in the present and in the future. It is necessary for the building

construction industry in dealing with a small city to take into consideration the different

perspectives and try to include them in growth. The answers to the base question are

shown following and are grouped based on similar characteristics.










Growth Issues

1. Well planned growth

2. Growth that is strictly controlled in order not to sprint past infrastructure and is in
compliance with a comprehensive plan

3. Continued growth to keep up with overall growth

4. Successful growth is expansion with thoughtful, long-range planning

5. Well developed and planned growth that not only created economic betterment, but
also rehabilitates and revitalizes the community

6. Growth that considers proper planning and addresses the needs and desires of the
community .

7. More industrial growth

Business Issues

More Businesses

Balanced commercial and residential growth that can support the infrastructure

Increased downtown development

A sustained moderate increase of business on an annual basis

Issues with Jobs

Increase in jobs and in population

More jobs in the city

An increase in jobs to bolster economic growth

More jobs created and continual improvements

More jobs for local residents

High pay-high skill jobs

Increase in jobs paying above the national average, increase in development that does not
overly tax the infrastructure

Residential Issues

Selling a lot of homes










Increase in residential growth

Random Issues

Not too good right now, and needs improvement

Building growth increase as a whole

More money to help out the local community

Growth without leaving older areas of town depressed

A balance between redevelopment of existing, older parts of the city and new developing
areas of the city

Greater population increase

Population growth

An excellent infrastructure

The ability to maintain and expand all services and infrastructure as necessary, to sustain
a quality living environment

Equal to cities in adj acent areas

A further look at what the respondents think of the building construction industry

and growth can be seen by reviewing their general comments for individual questions

from the surveys. A breakdown of responses for each question can be seen in Table 4.3

below.







47


Table 4-4. General Comments on Questions







1 L;dat~isgon~ingttt~fcacardlct baenitdngndctam~imh8esltjithiddollo~istoodaads~tio~s
2 IlRomerts
3 NIBcreincenm
4 Enlctlileliepl
5 Insmeaaset rttneyheMnfolyiRmhislonge
6 Wrt it rttn3sse liletheirteddq
7 ITofat, TconaypeqE: gingoathad itsao~staljatoloigmraigans

9 IlRomeias
10 IlRomeias
11 Onp7aign7~ld/lft Roiv ~~as lmasaseel tes33inth-edly
12 ILgpjaieJ;~s7sarla~rSwnt EirildEy
13 IlRomeias
14 IBmsthtwEyfcnzyemayy
15 IlRomeias
16 GIrdt Roidagolinggsl,



The general comments listed here help give an idea as to some of the concerns that

do exist in the sample city of Lakeland. These comments also allow for a better

understanding of a breakdown of the by questions review which come on the following

pages. All the comments show the perception that growth exists in the small city and

concerns are present with how the growth will be handled.

By Question Review

A review and analysis of the answers for each of the individual questions follows.


estions follows.







48



1. Is your city experiencing growth based on your definition?


O~mnan 1 is your cif y experiencing growth based' on yourdefinifion?
N.Jrnber of Respmnses
Rark NaLrrer of R esponses Prcentageof Total
6 Stronalv~ge 9 29D346 r
5 Agee 13 41 94%6 g
4 Moderstelv~Aree 6 1935% g
3 Modersely asagre 1 323% R
2 asagee 1 323%6
1 Strongly Disagrea 1 323%
no No Opinimn 000%ii
Total Responses 31 100.00%;
"" List of General Corrrents broken doui n by qustion in .4pperdix A arIR

Aree28 90321
sagee 3 988%g Percertage dTot-d
No Opinimn 0 000%



910~b0b Perertag B~aka~I-Ael No Opinion a t






Figure 4-3. Question 1 Response

The purpose of question number one was to find out immediately in the survey


processes what the participant thought about growth in their small city. This was based


upon their own definition of growth. They supplied what growth was, based upon their

beliefs and then answered if that growth was being met within their city. As shown in


Figure 4.3 over seventy percent strongly agreed and over ninety percent had some level


of agreement showing that growth was occurring within their city based upon their

definition. This proves to be an extremely high level and is probably reflective of the


growth that is transpiring in most Florida small cities.







49



Do you believe growth is good for your city?


Q luessn 2 Do yoru be~eve gmwtfh is good for your city?
NuLmber o Responses
Rark N~rrber f Responses lcrutraeof Total
6 Strongly Agree 11 35 48% n
5 Aree 13 41 94% .
4 Aibdars~ly$ree 4 1290%
3 ka~bder~telyr asatree 2 8.6 45
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagre 1 313% c
no N) Opinian 000%, t I
Told RElsponses 31 100.00% 1
"" Lis of General C~mrmens broken dow n by question in 4perdix A Rlse


Uaree 3 9.68% PeroertaeaF bTot-d
N, Opinian 0 0900%

9iO~b07 ~Percertayo EleakdmnvAeoN pnc ntrma


m sage
n N Opiiorzo.corr IIc l aoxa2 .<: so.mc 4o.c a:4s.ors



Figure 4-4. Question 2 Response

Question two was used to discover any bias the respondents had towards growth.


Here, again, as Figure 4.4 shows over ninety percent believe that growth was good for

their city. In fact, a large number placed this belief in the strongly agree category. The


high percentage of "agrees" answering this question allows for an understanding of

further questions involving growth. Most respondents felt a slight bias therefore towards


growth being a positive outcome or at least an outcome desired. The sample city of

Lakeland allows for a look at how a small town can handle a high percentage of growth.


The bias towards growth will sway answers towards a side of wanting future construction


expansion but it should not affect the results in too large of a fashion.


Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on...

a. Growth in a positive manner?
b. Local economic growth?
c. Local population growth?
d. Local commercial construction growth?
e. Local residential construction growth?













Qaenon. -Do you believe fkebuiding construction in7dustry has a7 impact on .....


Number of Responses








S'II
554121no
blrk



Percertage cfTota



smm




o.oiX 20.0% 40.0% 60.0R 80m.0
Pcurconia


Percertag= Breakchwn


5 -Agree
n sage
i o- N, Opinim


Qarcnon 1 :ot


Number of Responses


I i
,il

1r~~r
s s4 21


Peroertage Breakdown

n -Agee
a -Dag~e
i o N:. Opinica
97%


... growt uul a apositivemanner?


Numberof Responses Percentaeeof Total
5 16.13%
18 5806%
7 2258%
000%
000%
1 323%
000%

31 100.00%


strongly Agrea

luder~tely~gree

asag~ee
Stongly Disagrea
No Opinion

Total Responses


'" Us~t of General Comrnats brokw dou~ n by question in Apperdix A


- Ae~e
- isagee
- IJA Opinim


96.77%d
313%
000%


Figure 4-5.


Question 3a Response


... local economic growth?
Ra~nk Nu~mber of Resonses Percentage of Total
6 Stonghly~ree 10 31226
5 Agee 15 4839%
4 Iubderselygree 5 16.13%
3 Mobderselv asagrea 000
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagrea 1 323%d
m It Opinicn 000%d
Tcal Response; 31 100.00%
"" List of General Cartnents broken d~uln byguestion in Apperdi:.A


-Agoe
-Dsaque
-No Opinion


96 77%
323%1
O000%


so-, 2dn. 4trr 6+>


Figure 4-6. Question 3b Response













Queso~n: (cnt


Percertage Ekeakdhnv


S- Agre
a sage
i o No Opinian


Percertage aFTot-d




mm


o.00 10.CR 2.077. 30.0>. 40CR 50.01
Rrmeiar


Percertage Breakdcrwn


n -Agee!
n sa~ee
T n- ND Opinion


... IJocalpopulation growth?
Rark: hLrsarberofResones Frcrotraeof Total
6 Strongly~gre 10 32286%
5 AmeeI 12 38.711
4 lihdrs~elyAgree 7 2258%~
3 th~derseplv sagree 000%d
2 asagee 000%;
1 Strongly Disgree 1 323%6
m Eb Opinian 1 313%6

Toul Responses 31 100.00%6

n" List of General Carments broken dow n by question in Apperdix A


Nurnber of Responses


654121mr
Rlunr


- Agne
- Usage
- N, Opinim


93.554
313%
323%b


Figure 4-7.


Question 3c Response


Qued.-s: n .) ront


.. ocal ommercial construction growfi?

Rark amber of Responses Arcentqgeof Total
6 StronglPgree 6 19351
5 gn 15 48.394
4 IVoderbely~aree 9 29034
3 Iaderrslv asaare9 000%
2 Osagree 000%d
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%
m No Opinimn 000%

Tolal Responses 31 100.00%

"" List of General Cornnents broken dau n by quesion in Apperdix A


E~rnber of Responses



"a



E~rk


- Age
- Osasse
- No Opinion


96 77%
323%;
000%


one. lamc.2no so.ox.4tor-.soar-.eson


Figure 4-8. Question 3d Response











Quesson' 3 cnt

... local residential construction n growirrf?
EaLmber of Responses
Rark mber rof Responses Ibrcentm of Total
6 Sirngly give 10 32~16 n
5 Agne 11 35.48%
4 Maderbely Agree 9 2903%
3 Moderstelv Csaare 000% a
2 Osagee 000%
1Sirngly Disagree 1 313%; E 11
re IJ Opinion 000%
Toul Responses 31 100.00%8
"" Lst of General Comments b~rokn dau n b~y queslion in pecix A Rlk

Aee 3) 96.77%8
isagee 1 313% Percertage ctTold
Na Opinian 0 000% s



II- Agee 1 ll

i ~ ~E .N Opinion R*mug~S





Figure 4-9. Question 3e Response

The answers to question number three concerning the impact of the building

construction industry was overwhelming in terms of agreement as was seen in Figures 4.5

through Figure 4.9. Almost ninety-seven percent feel the building construction industry

has a positive impact on (1) growth, (2) the local economy, (3) population growth, and

(4) both commercial and residential growth. This sets some high demands upon the

industry to perform. As stated before in this thesis paper, the more impact the

construction industry has on growth (or the impact the people believe it has), the more

effort the industry needs to make to assist growth in starting and in expanding. The

industry must take very seriously its responsibility to the community. The ability to

influence these different facets of cities in a positive manner show the need for improved

techniques in dealing with construction in these small cities.








53



Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth?


Qulejln r4 Do you be~eew thebui~ding corrstruction inrdustry seriess as
a catalyst for growthf ?
F6.Jrnbe of R~esponses
Rank Numrber of Responses Farcentage ofTotal
6 StrnaWrauree 6 1936%
6 Agee 16 4839% g
4 Mobderselv~aree 8 2581% 8"
3 MbdElrsely asagre 1 323% R
2 asalgue 080%
1 Strongh; Disagree 1 323% |ii
no No Orpinion 090%s f
Total Responses 31 100.001
"" List of General Cornrnals backen daun by question in Asperdix A us

aeo 29 9356%s
Usage 2 .6A6% Percertage aFTot-d
N, Opinion D -ge D0%04 s

8S~b Percertage Bneakdohwn


S- Asgee

II- N, Opinion RIEtumance
946


Figure 4-10. Question 4 Response


While question number three shows how the building construction industry has


been viewed as towards its impact on growth, the answers to question number four in


Figure 4.10 shows that it is not quite living up to its obligation. The response while still


positive decreased when the industry is looked upon as the catalyst for growth. This


means there is opportunity for the industry to take more of a leadership role. The


construction industry could focus on efforts in reaching out to the communities in the


small cities and trying to determine what is important to the general public. Efforts in


this regard could help to improve construction jobs in terms of quantity and obviously


could also be a good form of advertisement for the construction firms. A reason for the


lowered agreement rate here could be due to the public not being aware of the role the


construction industry has in their cities.








54




Do you believe the following resources are readily available in your city...


a. Construction materials?

b. Skilled labor?

c. Available money to assist growth?

d. Construction equipment?


Peroertage c~tTod







s.T GoXI is.@< 2+@ Rtrcmmar


Percartage Breakdown


n-Agee


; o- No Opinion
9016


COr-nar.5 co..t


~bPercertage! Breakdckmn

S- Agee
a- sagee
ri -No Opinim


Figure 4-12. Question 5b Response


Quessn 5 Do you beliee the follwing resources are readily acaiable in your city .....

.. con~struction maerials?

Rark Numbr of Respon ss FRrona~ritof Total
8 Strongly green 8 25 1%
6 Anne 13 41.94%
4 Mbderr~ely~gree 7 2258%
3 Moderseclv asaaree 3 908%
2 sage~e 000%
1 S~rongl Disagree 000%
m) NO Opinimn 000%
Tota Response 31 100.00%;


N.Jmber of Respon~ss







.u HA
65432im~
FEirk~


"" List of General Comments broken dau n by question in .qperdix A


- Ae
- sagee
- No Opinion


9032%
908%
000%


Figure 4-11.


Question Sa Response


... skilled labor?
R~ark Ilrr2amber ~of Rspnes Perc~entqe fTotal
6 Strnalv~ree 4 1290%
5 Agner 1 32286%
4 IVbderselv~ree 9 29D3%
3 IMbderately asagrea 4 1290%
2 asacree 3 9S88%
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%;
m) No Opinian 080%
Total RElsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of Omneral Corrrents broken dowln bvus~sion in Fpperdix A


N.Jmber of Respmnses






RII





Percedtagy oTold





2f
1or moa~mr~. o.~~c
@.0 1.742cPS3007 40


- Aee
a sagee
- N, Opinia


74.19%6
2581%
080%















... available moneyto assist grovdh?
Number of Responses
Ranrk Number of Responses Feroentqe of Total
6 Stronalv~bree 4 1290%1
5 Agree 12 38.71%g i
4 Ivoderaely~gree 10 3226%
3 Modersely asagre 2 6.46% a
2 asagee 2 6.46% C 6
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%6 6 c
m No Opinion 000%6 g II
Tota Fesponses 31 100.00%
6C412ima
"" List of General Carmnats brokenl dCW n by question in .qperdix A RtIIU

Ame 26 83 87%
Usage 5 10.13% Pe~rertage d Totd
No Opinion 0 0900% r

I b%
Percertage Breakdown


a gee

3 o~ ND Opiniar Rrculnacw
84%.



Figure 4-13. Question Sc Response


Ge~tsn 5 ncnt

... conrrdcmoior eq~uiprerrt?
N.Jmber d Respcnses
Rark arnbs of Responses Fercentage ofTotal
6 Stronalv~ree 6 1935%;
5 agee 13 41.94%6 i
4 MderselvParee 9 29D33% C
3 Modersely asagree 1 323% R
2 asaaes 1 323%
1 Strongly Oisagree ODDY6 "
m Ij Opinimr 1 323%
Tota Fksponses 31 100.00%6 s e 4 2 1
"" List of General Comments broken dowln by question in 4pperdix A h

Agee 28 9032%
sagee 2 ~6 46% PErcentage of Tdal
-No Opinion 1 323%6

Parcant~ga BraIdedow

S- Agee m
A- sagree
rm
8~c No Opirrni save taces 2nec. saow. laoo. seoco-
91%b Prcentar





Figure 4-14. Question 5d Response


Question number five looked at the resources that are necessary for growth to occur


and those resources availability in the city. As might be expected, money and skilled


labor were areas that people felt below adequate for sustained growth as could be seen







56



above in Figures 4. 11 through 4. 14. The question on the availability of skilled labor


received the largest number of disagreement answers of any other question. It is up to the


construction industry to attract and train enough people to satisfy the skilled labor


concerns. Growth will be difficult to continue if enough labor cannot be found to support


the construction projects. The answers did indicate that an industry strength came from


the standpoint of the adequacy of the materials and equipment being used in construction.


Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following...

a. Community leaders?
b. Political leaders?
c. Local residents?
d. Business owner


Qeno~n a Do you be~etse We~E~ is sUPPOrt farores~cfasten growth in your city from ....

... community ~eders?
Rark: A~berof Responses Percae of rTotal mrdRspne
6 Strongly Agree 6 1935% 1,
5 Agne 14 45.186 s
4 Rbderaely/gree 7 2258%
3 Wbdersely asagre 1 323%6
2 asagee 2 86.46
1 Strngly Disagre 000% '
m Nb Opinia 1 323%
Total Respo~nses 31 100.0046
"" List of Omenral Cctrmants brokmn dou n by question in Appendi:.:A name

Anne7 87.10'6
Usagee 3 9d88 Percentage of Tdal
N, Opinimn 1 323% I I


SPercentage Breakdwnr


ol- No Opirim


;1

ua
em.0- lawe 2ne. son4 @. sawc.


Figure 4-15. Question 6a Response

















N.Jmber d Responses


li 2





C~iralr


19%/ Pcentage Breakcwn


m-Agee

n sagree
S;r -. Nb Opinim
81%


Q*.sesin~ 6 cnt


.Irnber d Responses
r
Sa



r
t I a






SPacentagedd ofTa


2j% 34 Percentage Breakdown


Agee

a- sagree

74!6ct N F Opirim


Om.0R t& 00 GR Gp
Rtronian


Figure 4-17. Question 6c Response


Omnsue~n? 6 eT


... political leaders


Nrter of Responses Fbreentgeof Total
4 1290%
17 6484% .
4 1290%
3 988%
2 86.46
1 323%;
000%

31 100.00%


6 Strongly Aree
6 Agree
4 Mobderely Agree
3 Moderaely Dsagre
2 asagree
1 Strongty Disagree
no No Opinia

Total Responses


m" Lst of Gmeral Cawnmrts brkcn dow n by queslion in Apperix A


- Anne
- Usagree
- N, Opinim


8095%
1935%
090%


n~z pow, mee.2our moac. 4acea. ac sore
RPcmina


Figure 4-16. Question 6b Response


... Iocal residents?


Nu~rtr rof Responses Prcente of Total
4 1290%
10 3216%
9 2903%
6 1935%
1 323%
0 00%
1 323%

31 100.00%


Strongly~ree
e ~
Rbdearelv~lree
~dersely asagre
asagee
Strongly Disagr~e
N, Opinim

Total Respon~se


"" Uist of General Cornnents broken dau n bvaussion in lbperdix A


- AgE
- sa ee
- FA Opinion


74.19%
22 58%
323%6







58





... business owners?
N.Jrnber a Responses
Rurk: Numrberof Response s Prentmeof Total
6 Strongly Agree 7 2258%
5 Agree 17 5484%
4 Mobderseplv~aree 7 225846 B
3 Mobdersrelyasagree 090%
2 asaaee 000% :
1 Strongly Disagree 000% 2
re No Opinimn 000%6 1
Total Respnses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Ca~ments broken dow n br oueston in Apperix A sRIe

gee 31 100.00%
sa ee 0 00046 Percentageof Tctal
N, Opinimn 0 000%

OL1 Percentage BreakdwnvnIReaarcL~ t









Figure 4-18. Question 6d Response

Question number six shown in Figures 4.15 through 4.18 was to measure where the


support for growth was coming from within the city. Business owners and community

leaders received the highest endorsement for supporting growth. Local residents were


looked upon as the least supportive of growth. This question tied with the lack of skilled


labor as receiving the most disagreement responses. Support from the political leaders


followed with the next lowest marks concerning agreement. This could speak to the fact


that the building construction industry and the local business and community leaders are


doing a poor j ob of communicating the needs and requirements of the city in association

with growth. This could mean that the industry should look at another small city where


there exists more support from the residents and political leaders for growth. Without the


backing of the residents growth can only go so far, and they impact what growth does


occur and caused it to be very slow and difficult to obtain the rights for the start of







59



construction. Support for construction growth from local residents needs to improve for


construction to be a successful venture in smaller cities.


Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in your city?


Ouenlar.; Are: you satisfied with the currenipace of growthr in your city?

Number of Respcoses
Rark I)Jmbe of Responses Percertaae of Total
6 Strongly~grea 3 98
5 gee 19 6129%; B
4 Idbderselv~qree 5 16.13%
3 IvbderselyOsagree 1 33
2 asasse 26.6
1Strongly Disagree 1 3133; s
re No Opinion 000%s
Total Responses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carorrnns broken dow n by cussion in ADPe~ndix A as

-Ag-ee 27 87.10%
Usammee 4 129% erowtag= of Total
-No Opinicn 0 00



la Percentage Breakdovn






Figure 4-19. Question 7 Response

As could be expected from the answers to previous questions, while still positive, a


fewer number of respondents were satisfied with the pace of growth within their city as


shown in Figure 4.19. This could be anticipated because such a large number supported


growth, looked on growth as being good, and that they felt resources existed to aid in


expansion. The lower response dealing with satisfaction with the pace of growth can be


due to the fact that growth is occurring at a large rate for the city of Lakeland. It can be


difficult for the population in the small city to adjust to such quick changes so when


asked about their overall opinions of growth they felt it was a good thing to be


experiencing. However, when questioned on the actual current growth those same


respondents could still be feeling the effects of the large growth in their city and not be





















































































Percentage Breakckywn


m Aee
m Dsaree
ca rk. Opinic
81%


oar Ince.r 2n meoa me.o .eowr.
Pcrminan


60




accustomed to everything occurring. Growth can experience such opposing views due to



the large impacts it produces on the small cities.



Do you believe the number of businesses and j obs has increased in your city over the past

5 years?



OunrnanE Do you believe fhrenurber of businesses a~d jobs has increased la
your city over the pad 5 years
Number a Respanses
FRnk Nu~rrber ofResponses Percentale of Total
6 Strongil~r gree 12 38 71% =
5 gee 9 29D3%1 B
4 Ivbde~raelvlree 6 19.35%
3 I~bdersely asagrea 2 6 46% ,
2 Disague 000%; s
1 Strongh~rDisagree 000% I I i
re No Opinial 2 6.465%
Total R~Eponse; 31 100.00% 4 3 2
"" Lis of Gmneral Cornrents brokm dauln bvanstsion in ADpardix A Riars

-A as 27 87.10%;
Usaaee 2 6 456% Percentage of Tdal
Nb Opinion 2 6 45%

6%b Percentage Breakdown



Ia -A g re e l

0 NOpinim aa e. nw e sc.sw




Figure 4-20. Question 8 Response


Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry?


Queern r Do you feel the irrcrease based on q~uestior 8 above is due to f#re
construefforr idustry?
Number d Responses
~Rnk Number ofResponses Percerstge ofTotal
6 Strongly.Agre 3 9 68%
5 Aiee 10 3220%2 8
4 Abdersely~gree 12 38.71% i
3 Abderselv asarea 3 9s88
2 asagEue 1 323% l .
1 Strongly Oisagree 090 %II
re th Opinion 2 6 45%
Total Responses 31 100.00%
~" Uist of General Canrnents broken datan by qustion in Apperdix A s

gee 25 8065%6
Usacree 4 1290%L Percentagn of Tdal
F Opinion 2 6.465% 1 I I


Figure 4-21. Question 9 Response







61



10. Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over
the past 5 years?


Quesucn 10' Do you beheem the number ofresiderntia homes hes increased ia your
city our the past 5 years?
Number a Respcnses
Rark NuCrnbe- of Resonses Rercerrtageof Total v
6 Strongly.Agree 18 68D86%
6 Aave 7 225846 B
4 I~bdersely~Agie 6 16.1346C;
3 Mo3derselv asaree 000%
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagrea DDY ii Is
no b Opinion 1 32346
Total Responses 31 100.00% i
664121m
"" List of General Corrments broken down by qustion in Apperdix A r

sasse 0 000% Percentage of Total
N, Opinian 1 323%



S- Agee
9 ~~~ ~ Pcera rad sagree Zoo.mc mgI a~.e;Xr



Figure 4-22. Question 10 Response

Questions number eight, nine, and ten shown in Figures 4.20 through 4.22 all work


together to measure the increase in jobs, businesses, and homes, and whether the

construction industry could take some credit for that growth. Eighty-seven percent


believed the number of jobs and businesses had increased in their city during the past five


years, and over ninety-six percent believed the same thing for the number of homes built.

In fact, the question on number of residential homes being built received the most


"strongly agree" responses of any question asked. The percentage dropped dramatically,


however, when responding on whether this increase was due to the building construction


industry. This is another opportunity for the industry to improve its impact by increasing


its effort towards residential growth and trying to decrease the difference between


population growth and construction growth. In finding a way to involve the residents

who are experiencing that large population growth and using that to improve construction








62



techniques and increase acceptance, growth can succeed for local residents and the


construction firms. Remember these answers are not necessarily based upon fact, but


rather, they constitute the perception of the respondents for what is real, and therefore


must be addressed.


11. Consider large projects to be over $ 3 million and small projects below that; then do
you feel local construction firms work on...

a. Sma ojects?
b. Large project?
c. Both?
d. Neither?



Quesson 11 Consider largeprojects to be o ver 3 trillion $ and small projects below that;
fhren do you feel loca' construction firms workocn .....

... srnall projects?
Number a Responlses
Rark Nurrber f Responses Rromntageof Total
6 Stronaldnre 6 19354 ,
5 Agee 11 35.4846 B
4 Mobderslelv~aree 8 25811 1 L
3 Mobdersrely asagre 4 1290%
2 asaseO 1 3234 I
1 Strong~l, Disagre 8000%
re NC 0pinian 1 323% 2
Total Responses 31 100.00%a
"" Ust of Omenral Cammmis brokmn dotun bygueslion in 4bperdix A Rark

Agee 25 80835%
Osalee 5 16.13'6 Percentage of Tdal
No Opinimr 1 323%6

I 14b 3%C Percentag Breakdwn 4 I I


am.CP 10000 2GOo~ 300. 4GCoa


Figure 4-23. Question 11a Response


3% Percentage Breakdwn 4


G.CPL 10000 2GOGo 3001?. 4GCOG


Figure 4-23. Question 11a Response



















Number d Responses






a

: 1
664321
anIIII


0.E. Lm iS#. 160@ .~QF 2&00 250&. 30&.


aCmber a Responses





r ,
-



6 5 4 2 1


Quraor.11 cont


... large projects?

arrberof Respo~nss Ircentm


FRnk


s of Total
1290%
1290%
1935%
26 81%;
12900%
1290%
323%

100.00%


6 Stro~ngl gree 4
5 .Age 4
4 h4dersely/gree 6
3 hderaely Osagree 8
2 asagee 4
1 StrnglyDisagre 4
m No Opinion 1

Toa~l Responses 31

"" Uist of General Ccmnents broka dow n by gueslion in 4pperdi A


- isasse
- N, Opinia


45.16%;
51 61%;
323%6


3% Prcentage Breakchnv


Figure 4-24.


QuesPon I ce~nt


Rank DJ~ribrof Responses Percentge of Total
6 Sirongly~gree 5 16.13%6
5 Anrer 7 2258%
4 IMbdersely~gre 6 1935%
3 IMbderelyu asagree 5 16.13%6
2 asagee 4 12.90%1
1 Strongly Disagre 3 9.68%
m, E Opinian 1 323%

Total Responses 31 100.00%

"" List of General Cornnents broke dow n by questin in Ipartlix A


- Ape
- sag~ee
- A Opinion


68D6%
38.71%
313%6


G.Ci. Lm IaQ 1000. 10@< 2aaOOL 2500.
Rreminlls


Figure 4-25. Question 11c Response


Question 11b Response















Quneatin 11 cent


Number o RaEper se


rl

IF


C(~l
|"~l


19%* Percenrtage Breakdown


II- Agee

n Usareet
ri No Opinim

84H:


M.Jrnber aF Responses









54!21no
narai


25% ~Percentage Breakdow



11- iA g re e

ri Nor Opinion
71%


con. most, 2ncaps smoot. mostx
Recn-enia


... Re+ither7

Fhrk Numrber f Response FhcErotagof Total
6 Stronniagree 000%
6 Agee 090%
4 Ivbdercy~nelvi 1 323%
3 Modearelyasagree 1 323%
2 asagee 3 Of)8%
1 Strongly Oisaree 22 70971
rK. No Opinion 4 1290%

Total Resiponses 31 100.00%

"" List of General Carmnats broken dow n by quaslion in Apperalix A


- Agree
- Usage
- No Opinia


323%
8387%
1290%


Qa:^- 2nOC^- 4cook most. sece


Figure 4-26. Question 11d Response


12. Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger proj ects?


Oulesnan 12 Do conrstruction firms from outside your loca area offe7 gef t e largerproducts?



Rark Nurber f Responses Percantaleof Total
6 Strongi~Pgrea 4 1290%6
5 .4yee 10 32186% B
4 IMbdebrely gee 8 25 1%
3 IMbdebrely asagree 4 1290%6
2 asagee 2 6.46%6
1Strongl Disagree 1 323%6
no No Opinimn 2 6 46% E

Toa~l Responses 31 100.00%6

"" List of Gmnerl Cmrnrents brokmn dau n by queslon in 4peralix A


-Agoe
- Osagee
- lb Opinion


70.97%;
2258%1
6.45%1


Figure 4-27. Question 12 Response




































































PE~ercetage Breakdown


6 m- Ag-ee


These questions all shown in Figures 4.23 through 4.27 both were designed to


understand the building construction industry within the city and its capabilities. From


the responses, firms located outside the city complete most large construction proj ects.


However, local firms do work on both small and large proj ects, just a larger percentage


on the smaller proj ects. This is thwhere jointuation where j oint efforts between local and


outside large firms work together to complete proj ects. With more j oint ventures to help


improve growth the city can achieve faster results while still upholding the needs of the


communities. Joint ventures enable construction growth to have the capabilities to meet


all financial and size requirements while still looking after the concerns of the small city.


The larger companies from outside the local area take care of all maj or proj ects problems


while the local company can focus on involving the local residents in the growth and


looking after all community issues dealing with construction expansion.


13. Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city?


Qu~eston 1. Do you be~eve growth can infcreae the quasty ofife fer thepeople
la your edfy?
Number d Responses
Rank Nu~Lrnberof R espon s e Froeageof Total
6 Stong A~gree 10 3226%;
5 Agee 13 41 94%
4 Modersely/gree 7 2258% .
3 Mobderselyasagrea 000
2 asagee 1 3213 L
1 Stong~ Disagre 000%ii
re It Opinian 000%
Told Response 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carments broken down by quaslon in perdix A n

Age 30 96.77%
sagee 1 323%6 Percrentar of Tdal
N, Opinian 0 000%


ROX 110~c. i~P~C. ~~C. ~QC~ ~aa~c.
R*c~~~r


Figure 4-28. Question 13 Response

































































Percentage Breakckrwn

II -Agee


ci-N, O-iricr
81% ~


This question was put in the survey to verify the response to question number two,


dealing with whether growth was viewed as good for the city. This question shown in


Figure 4.28 helped to verify the beliefs of the participants in that the percentages were


almost the same for both questions. People believe that growth does increase the quality


of life within a city. This question reasserted the results from question two that as a


whole the respondents do feel that construction growth can benefit the citizens in the


small city. This belief again shows some bias as towards the other answers to the survey


questionnaire however it a result that was expected. This area should be a focus point for


the building industry to use in trying to expand growth and their influence on positive


growth within a small city.


14. Do you believe that the political leaders, community leaders, and the building
construction industry all work together in your city to promote growth?


Questin 14 Do you be~ieew faf Ihepolifical leaders, community leaders, and fhe budding
construction industry aNl uo rk fog ether in your cify to
promofe gro wth?
N.Jrnber a Responses
Flark aLrrber f Responses Fromntmeof Total
6 S~rongly~gree 1 32346
5 AI~ee 14 46.161
4 IJbderztely Agree 10 3226%
3 Ilbderaelv( asaarea 3 988%
2 asague 000%g
1 Strongly Disagree 2 8~6.45 %
e Na Opinian 1 3234$
Total Falsponses 31 100.00% G
"" List of Omenral Camrrents brokmn des. n by questin in APPerdix A nalrr

-Agnee 25 8065%
isauee 5 16.13I Percentage of Tdtal
-,,, I Opini 1 32%I


Figure 4-29. Question 14 Response


sme1O~. lanc~ 2now.mc~o ~acc saer.
Rmceanc







67


This question seen in Figure 4.29 above received the lowest rating of "strongly

agree" and "agree" responses compared to the other questions. People do not believe all

groups and leaders in the city are working together to promote growth. This should be an

immediate warning sign for anyone wanting growth for his or her city. In order to


experience successful growth it needs to be accomplished with the contributions and

teamwork of many different areas within the small cities. The construction industry

cannot manager all growth within these cities by themselves. Using all the assets and

people while getting them to work together should be the best approach for achieving the

goals of growth that are desired.

15. Do you believe that an increase in construction proj ects in your city will increase
jobs for local residents?


Qu~Eson 16 Do you believe that~ af increase la7 construdianrprojects ~in your 'fiy will
inrcrase jobs forlocad president s
Number a Responses
Rank Nunrer of Responses Amenteage of Total
6 StrongliP gree 7 22 $8%
5 Awe18 58D6%
4 Iubderserly Agree 5 16.13% C
3 Idbderserly usaurce 1 323%8
2 asagee 090%iI;
1 Strngli~ Disagree o090% E
m No Opinim, 090%
Total Fsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Commlents broken doll n by qustion in Apperalix A sr

/qer 30 96.77%
Usacree 1 323% Percentaageof Total
No Opinian 0 090% a



S- Ag-ee r

i on Nob Oprian
omc. 2ocst m ost ee. Enook sIOnot





Figure 4-30. Question 15 Response

Almost everyone agreed with the question shown in Figure 4.30 that construction

proj ects would increase j obs for local residents. This is even though many respondents





































































Perce~nage Breakdckmn

m Asaree


841.


68



believed the large proj ects went to companies located outside of the city. This result says


that work for local people are created by growth and not by the actual construction jobs


needed to enact that growth. This should be a point of emphasis for the construction


industry. If growth occurs more successfully with increased residents growth then


involving the local population in the construction work should further the positive impact


of growth. Another point to be taken from the results for this question comes in being


able to find small cities that are experiencing and are suppose to continue having


population growth. This growth will lead to new opportunities for perceptions to be


formed in favor of the construction industry. Finding the small cities that show the signs


of population growth and then by involving those individuals with the construction


industry can lead to positive results for the construction firms involved in the growth.


16. Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next...


a. 1 year?
b. 5 years?
c. 10 years?

OUaca 16rlI Do you be~iel~ growth wiN~ increase substantialy over the uexf .....

Number of Respcnses
Rark Numrbe of RIesonses Percentae of Total
6 Strongly~gree 8 2581%
5 ~Aee 11 35.48%
4 Ideirsely~gree 7 2258% i
3 Modersely asagree 4 1290%
2 asague 000%
1 Strongly Oisagree 1 323% :Ii
re NC Opinian 000% 1
Total FRsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of Ganeral Cormmats broken dmu n by question in parlix A aR11

Agee 26 83874$
Usacree 5 16.134$ Percentag2 of Tatal
,,, NC pii 000% I I


o.ms. la~x. zaco~ ?aoc~ ~a~x.
Rrc~~~r


Figure 4-31. Question 16a Response













Cuestion li cor.t


M.1mber d Respons~es



a




664321m
RIUr


QOX. 2na"F anCT sonCT son
sRongllc


QuEstion 16 cent


m.Jrnb d Respmnss




--

Irr






Percentage o Tdal







ra
amc. incom. 2ne. mPaw. 4aeo. smoot.
IReman~


Rank arnbe-of Response Percentm of Total
6 Sirongly~grea 12 3871%
5 ~aee 11 35 48%
4 Modersely Agree 5 16.13%
3 IMbderrel asagre 2 6.46%6
2 asagee 8000%
1 Strongly Oisgrea 000%
m No Opinian 1 323%6

Total Response; 31 100.00%

"" List of General Comrannts broken dowln by question in 4pperdix A


-Agner 28 9032%
Osagae 2 6.46%
N, Opinimn 1 323%

Prcantap Breakd~~n


S- Agee
II- agree
i i No Olirian
91%


Figure 4-33. Question 16c Response


... 5 years?


Rark


IAmrberof Reponses Percartaa


e of Total
2581%
58D86%
6.464
6.456%
000%
000%
323%6

100.00r


6 Strngl~gree 8
5 we 18
4 ModerstelyAg~re 2
3 MobderselyDsagree 2
2 Disagee
1StoanglyDisagrtee
no No Opinia 1

Toul Response 31

"I List of General Cmmrnras broken doumn by question in gppendix A


- gf98
- Usamee
- N, Opinimn


Figure 4-32.


Question 16b Response


6% g Percentage Breakdcwn

a-Agee

a- sagree
4i o- N, Opirim
91%










What is the future of growth based on a time frame within the city was the last

question asked on the survey. This was shown in the results in Figures 4.31 through 4.33.

Again, a large maj ority believed that growth was occurring now, but most felt that an

even greater growth rate would happen in the future. This proves to be a great sign for

the building construction industry. Again, these answers are not based upon fact, but the

respondent' s perception usually tends to be right in the long term. The fact that growth

can be expected to occur, and at a high rate, should be reason number one for

construction growth in a small city and that should then give successful results.















CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Chart Of Success

The building construction industry is a maj or component for growth in the attitude

of the people in the small, growing Florida city of Lakeland. The completed

questionnaire was analyzed and data reviewed to assist in developing a chart that will be

called the "Chart of Success", see in Figure 4.34. The purpose of the chart is to present

the factors necessary for profitable and sustained growth to occur in a small city.















Working Together


Figure 5-1. Chart of Success

There are seven blocks to this chart, and it is believed all seven blocks are required

for the building construction industry and the city to have successful growth. It would be

difficult to obtain success in a small city if several of the blocks were missing.










Population growth is the foundation for building success. Skilled labor, local support,

and available money can be thought of as building the walls for success. Local and non-

local construction firms are the reinforcements for the building of success. The

importance of working together can then be thought of as putting the roof on the building

of success. Success, the Einal segment, itself can be thought of as the finished building

complete with landscaping and all its aesthetic values. Successful growth does not have a

defined meaning; it comes in the form of the opinions of the individuals and

organizations that make up the small cities. The "Chart of Success" is only a suggestion

to review to make sure all the points are considered when working with construction

growth.

Block One--Population Growth

Population growth is the foundation for the "Chart of Success." The most

important aspect to examine when looking for successful ventures in small city

construction growth comes in the form of population growth. Without a steady increase

in population there exists the possibility of future tough times in dealing with continual

construction growth. The sample city examined (Lakeland, Florida) returned high results

concerning current and future commercial and residential growth. This segment has to be

present in order to have the easiest transition to larger and continued construction proj ects

within the small city. Identifying cities with this characteristic will lead to the best

possible end result. It comes down to the simple fact of supply and demand. An

increasing population in any small city will demand the need for improvements and

related growth in terms of construction.









Block Two--Skilled Labor

One of the maj or issues of concern that was raised by the result of the questionnaire

was the lack of enough skilled labor to help satisfy increased construction requirements.

Having a plentiful and experienced labor force alleviates one of the primary concerns

when dealing with construction in expanding smaller cities. The smaller cities have

maj or issues concerning funding and other Einancial issues so any form of delays or

rework will end up costing them many times more than the actual monetary value

(Gerrante 2002). A lack of skilled labor to Einish all the construction work would be a

primary reason for delays and rework. At the onset of a venture into small city

construction growth any construction firm involved must evaluate their own personnel,

and have predetermined layouts for all work practices and work j obs. Not assessing this

need could lead to mistrust and maj or financial overruns with the cities once the negative

impacts of a decreased labor force are realized. This in return causes the negative

perception of the construction industry in the small cities, and will hurt the overall growth

and prosperity of all businesses involved.

Block Three--Local Support

An issue that can lead to large negative outcomes comes from the lack of local

resident' s support for construction or at the very least the perception of such

circumstances. There has to be time put into communicating and involving as many of

the local residents and businesses men in all possible construction growth issues. One of

the largest complaints in going into a smaller city to improve growth is that it takes away

from the identity of the town, and therefore growth may be looked on as a negative

venture (Copeland 1996). As was shown in the questionnaire responses, the majority of

respondents felt growth was a very good venture and would have a great impact on the










improved living standards for all people involved. This speaks to the fact that the

construction industry as a whole does not have the right approach in dealing with small

cities. Once the majority of the initial construction work has been completed in any city

it is still the local population that makes the city prosper and continue financial

prosperity. This fact needs to be recognized and the local population needs to be more

involved with every aspect of growth for their cities. It can be accomplished through

allowing more jobs opportunities in construction dealing with the smaller city, or even

though weekly or monthly meetings to discuss about arising issues and new concerns.

Whatever approach is used, or any other approaches that may be looked at, that approach

must involve the local residents because only then can the growth of the smaller cities

show the continual production results necessary to be successful.

Block Four--Available Money

The community and the construction industry must have access to money. This can

take the form of revenue sources, bank sources, lines of credit, or private sources.

Continued growth is not accomplished in terms of months or even years. The main point

is that not only does money have to be available at the beginning, but also there has to be

money available to carry growth past the beginning phase.

Blocks Five and Six--Local and Non-Local Construction Firms

Blocks Hyve and six must be looked at together in reviewing the process of joint

venture agreements with the local construction firms in the small cities. Results showed

from the questionnaires indicate that many proj ects in the growing smaller cities go to

construction firms located outside their immediate geographical area. This proves to be

necessary due to both the people and Einancial resource issues involved with maj or









construction growth in any area. Seldom do smaller cities have the construction variety,

size, and numbers to complete full-scale growth. Only non-local firms with a larger

capital base can handle and control such large quantities of work and expansion. This

does not mean that the local firms should be shut out of all operations in the town. In

fact, just the opposite must be true. Local firms must be included in construction proj ects

in any small city. By working in joint venture agreements both the Einancial and

production concerns of the construction firms can be met by the non-local firms, while

community needs can be met by the local firms in which population concerns should also

be addressed. There was overriding agreement with the questions referring to residential

growth in the city. This means more people, and therefore their needs to have more j obs

created by the construction industry to support this growth, and to pave the way for even

further expansion. This actually relates to segment three, which was gain local support

by involving the local community in the construction growth.

Block Seven--Working Together

The important ingredient that can be gained from working with both political and

community leaders is best told by a quote from Edmund Burke who once said, "As

individuals we are weak and foolish, as a society we are wise and powerful" (www.mta).

The same can be said for the construction industry, because between all the many

thousands of contractors, developers, builders, and sub-contractors there exist confusion

when working individually, but in working together the building construction industry

can be powerful. Local and non-local firms working together is another must for

achieving the desired goals and final results. All parties working together can lead to

better relationships, increased construction growth, and improved success and prosperity

for all construction firms and smaller cities involved.









Final Block-Success

Completing these seven segments is not a guarantee to make any venture in small

city growth within Florida positively successful. Each of the segments was looked at

independently, but they are all interrelated. These just give an insight into the concerns

as expressed by local residents in an existing small city with high growth expansion. In

allowing for a better understanding of these factors, and by implementing them into a

construction plan, then smaller city growth can hopefully achieve an improved success

rate. The primary reason for introducing these factors is to make more construction firms

aware of the issues involved with working in small cities. It can be profitable and

rewarding, but it is different than working in large cities. Large cities have completely

distinct key factors to consider. Following the seven segments can lead to successful

growth for all parties involved when dealt with in the proper manner, and with enough

knowledge. One possible measure of success for construction growth in small cities

would be not to determine it by what occurs during expansion, but rather what occurs

once the construction levels off and the city must function on its own. The continual

growth of those cities could then yield the greatest results for local communities and all

involved construction firms.

Learning

The overall impression gained from reviewing the completed questionnaires was

one of satisfaction with the extremely positive tone of almost all respondents. The good

rate of return on the answering of the survey questions indicated that people are definitely

interested in expressing their feelings and attitudes towards growth. The answers to the

survey questions supported the hypothesis that "the building construction industry has a

positive impact on the growth of small cities within the state of Florida." The responses









suggest there is no one solution that is going to satisfy everyone on the subject of growth.

People could not agree to the definition of growth, so they are not going to all agree as to

the best method to improve growth. The construction industry has to consider the

opinions of the general public, but it must move on with positive growth procedures.

The four main elements indicated from the completed surveys that it is felt the

industry should become more responsible in small cities are:

1. To make sure there are enough resources from the standpoint of people (skilled and
unskilled), plus materials and equipment;

2. To gain and understand local support for growth;

3. To fully communicate the industry positive role in growth; and

4. To work with the community leaders and politicians to make sure adequate funding is
available for continual growth.

These elements should be included in any final construction project plan. None of these

elements has a set procedure to follow in which to achieve the desired results. Each

construction firm must look at their existing standards, and determine the best steps to

take to reach the goals outlined in these elements.

Next Steps

A newsletter for developers recently stated, "you must promote economic

development within concurrency limits. You must promote public health, safety,

comfort, and general welfare to all businesses and residents. You must be

environmentally sensitive" (www.homes). These are all points that the building

construction industry must try to accomplish in any small city. They are the points that

the industry must communicate to everyone are being completed, and how they will be

achieved. The construction industry must be a leader in explaining the following

conditions of growth:









a. How growth can be stimulated.
b. Why growth is necessary.
c. Why growth can represent positive outcomes.
d. How growth can occur and still be controlled.

Mr. Duany gave the leaders of the small city of Temple Terrace, FL (located on the

outskirts of Tampa, FL) the following advice. "Temple Terrace has three options for

redevelopment. One, redevelopment can be private, with developers taking the initiative.

Two, redevelopment can be city directed and subsidized. Or, three redevelopment can be

according to a city-initiated master plan, but performed by private developers who bid on

specific proj ects" (www.dpz). From the survey it has been seen that it does not matter

which option should be chosen, the public will see the building construction industry as a

leader in growth in most situations. The industry in any given city must take this

responsibility seriously and do everything possible to make sure they are a part of growth

from the start to the finish. Looking into future studies that can be performed it could be

of interest to see how the types of jobs in the area of the small cities effect the

construction growth. For example, in Lakeland, Publix Super Markets is headquartered

there, so many jobs and the cities economical base comes from how well Publix is doing

in business. It could be possible that if Publix starts to have financial issues the city of

Lakeland may not be able to succeed in profitable construction growth. Obviously,

another viewpoint would come from looking at a small city that does not have a primary

employer such as Publix as their primary employer in their city. These points could all

affects the outcome of the efforts for successful growth. Any increased efforts towards

construction growth in the smaller cities within Florida, when handled with the proper

amount of concern for the local communities, can lead to benefits, growth, and prosperity

for the construction industry and all the firms associated with that success. It is important






79

to review the "Chart of Success" when considering construction projects located in small

cities.



















Table A-1. Cities Based on US Census 2000
City Population City Population
1. ALTAMONTE SPRINGS 41,200 2. APOPKA 26,642
3. ATLANTIC BEACH 13.368 4. AUBURNDALE 11,032


APPENDIX A
TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION
BETWEEN 10,000 100,000


5. AVENTURA
7. BARLOW
9. BAYSHORE GARD
11. BELLVIEW
13. BOCA DEL MAR
15. BONITA SPRING~
17. BRADENTON
19. BRENT
21. CALLAWAY
23. CASSELBERRY
25. CITRUS RIDGE
27. COCOA BEACH
29. CONWAY
31. CORAL GABLES
33. COUNTRY CLUB
35. CRESTVIEW
36. CUTLER RIDGE
38. DANIA BEACH
40. DAYTONA BEAC
42. DEERFIELD BEA(
44. DELRAY BEACH
46. DESTINY
48. DUNEDIN
50. EDGEWATER
52. ELFERS
54. ENSLEY
56. FAIRVIEW
58. FLORIDA RIDGE
59. FORT MYERS
61. FORT WALTON
BEACH
63. FRUIT COVE


,ENS


S














H
CH


6. AZALEA PARK
8. BAYONET POINT
10. BELLE GLADE
12. BLOOMINGDALE
14. BOCA RATON
16. BOYNTON BEACH
18. BRANDON
20. BROWNSVELLE
22. CAROL CITY
24. CITRUS PARK
26. COCOA
28. COCONUT CREEK
30. COOPER CITY
32. CORAL TERRACE
34. COUNTRY WALK
35. CUTLER
37. CYPRESS LAKE
39. DAVIE
41. DE BARY
43. DE LAND
45. DELTONA
47. DORAL
49. EAST LAKE
51. EGYPT LAKE-LETO
53. ENGLEWOOD
55. EUSTIS
57. FERRY PASS
58. FOREST CITY
60. FORT PIERCE
62. FOUNTAINBLEAU


25,367
15,340
17,350
21,201
21,832
32,797
49,504
22,257
14,233
22,629
12,015
12,482
14,394
42,249
36,310
14,766
24,781
20,061
64,112
64,583
60,020
11,119
35,691
16,669
13,161
18,752
13,898
15,217
48,206
19,973

16,077
95,447
16,243


11,073
23,577
14,906
19,839
74,764
60,389
77,895
14,393
59,443
20,266
16,412
43,566
27,939
24,380
10,653
17,390
12,072
75,720
15,559
20,904
69,543
20,436
29,394
32,782
16,198
15,106
27,176
12,612
37,516
59,549

12,741
14,478
20,951


FRUITVILLE
GLADEVIEW
GOLDEN GATE


65. GAINESVELLE
67. GLENVAR HEIGHTS





69. GOLDEN GLADES
71. GONZALES
73. NORTHDALE
75. GREENACRES
77. GULFPORT
79. HALLANDALE
81. HOBE SOUND
83. HOLLY HILL
85. HOMOSASSA
SPRINGS
87. IMMOKALEE
89. IVES ESTATES

91. JASMINTE ESTATES
93. JUPITER
95. KENDALL
97. KEY LARGO
99. KEY WEST
101. KISSIMMEE
103. LAKELAND
105. LAKE MAGDALENE
107. LAKESIDE
109. LAKEWOOD PARK
111. LAND O LAKES
113. LAUDERDALE
LAKES
115. LEESBURG
117. LEISURE CITY
119. LONGWOOD
121. LYNN HAVEN
123. MARATHON
125. MARGATE
127. MELBOURNE
129. MIAMI BEACH
131. MIAMI SPRINGS
133. MYRLIE BEACH
135. NEW PORT RICHEY


32,623
11,365
20,461
27,569
12,527
34,282
11,376
12,119
12,458

19,763
17,586

18,213
39,328
75,226
11,896
25,478
47,814
78,452
28,755
30,927
10,458
20,941
31,705

15,959
22,162
13,745
12,451
10,255
53,909
71,382
87,933
13,712
17,211
16,117

11,684
40,214
59,880
12.064
30,996
45,943
16,642
13,452


GOLDENROD
CARROLLWOOD
SUN CENTER
GULF GATE
HAINES
HAMPTIONS
HOLIDAY
HOMESTAD
HUDSON


12,871
33,519
16,321
11,547
13,174
11,306
21,904
31,909
12,765

11,756
20,990

11,100
56,901
38,034
14,627
12,207
11,828
12,557
11,458
10,194
35,133
69,371
57,585

33.430
12,994
17,081
12,019
14,879
11,286
36,090
22,676
72,739
20,979
20,048

22,995
32,264
40,786
22,797
22,349
24,391
11,910
36,301


88. IONA
90. JACKSONVILLE
BEACH
92. JENSEN BEACH
94. KENDALE LAKES
96. KENDALL WEST
98. KEYSTONE
100. KINGS POINT
102. LADY LAKE
104. LAKELAND HEIGHTS
106. LAKE MARY
108. LAKE WALES
110. LAKE WORTH
112. LARGO
114. LAUDERHILL

116. LEIGH ACRES
118. LOCKHART
120. LUTZ
122. MAITLAND
124. MARCO ISLAND
126. MEADOW WOODS
128. MERRIT ISLAND
130. MIAMI LAKES
132. MIRAMOAR
134. NAPLES
136. NEW SMYRNA
BEACH
138. NORLAND
140. N. LAUDERDALE
142. N. MIAMI BEACH
144. NORTH PORT
146. OAK RIDGE
148. OCOEE
150. OKLEMAR
152. ORMOND BEACH


NICEVILLE
N. FORT MYERS
N. MIAMI
N. PALM BEACH
OAKLAND PARK
OCALA
OJUS
OLYMPIA HEIGHTS


137.
139.
141.
143.
145.
147.
148.
151.





153. OVIEDO
155. PALM B. GARDENS
157. PALM COAST
159. PALMETTO ESTATES
161. PALM RIVER
163. PALM VALLEY
165. PARKLAND
167. PINECREST
169. PINELLAS
170. PLANTATION
172. POINCIANA
174. PORT CHARLOTTE
176. PORT ST. JOHNS
178. PUNTA GORDA
179. RIVIERA BEACH
181. ROYAL PALM
BEACH
183. ST. AUGUSTINE
185. SAN CARLOS PARK
187. SANDFORD
189. SARASOTA SPRINGS
191. SEBASTIAN
193. S. DAYTONA
195. S. VENICE
197. STUART
199. SUNRISE
201. SWEETWATER
203. TAMIAMI
205. TEMPLE TERRACE
207. THE HAMMOCKS
209. TOWN N COUNTRY
211. UNIVERSITY
213. UPPER GRAND
215. VERO BEACH
217. WARRINGTON
219. WELLINGTON
221. WESTCHASE
223. WEST LITTLE RIVER
225. W. PALM BEACH
227. WESTWOOD LAKES
229. WINTER GARDEN
231. WINTER PARK
233. WRIGHT
235. ZEPHYRHILLS


26,315
35,058
32,732
13,675
17,589
19,860
13,835
19,055
45,658
82,934
13,647
46,451
12,112
14,344
29,884
21,523

11,592
16,317
38,291
15,875
16,181
13,177
13,539
14,633
85,779
14,226
54,788
20,918
43,379
72,523
30,736
10,889
17,705
15,207
38,216
11,116
32,498
82,103
12,005
14,351
24,090
21,697
10,883


154. PALM BAY


79,413
20,097
12,571
59,248
11,699
36,417
56,255
41,764
16,523
29,915
78,191
45,823
88,769
28,082
20,170
17,203

20,074
16,582
52,715
14,401
21,587
33,522
69,078
15,315
17,150
55,588
21,003
23,557
40,670
10,191
26,538
17,764
11,346
23,169
21,753
30,271
49,286
21,939
12,697
26,487
31,666
21,778


156.
158.
160.
162.
164.
166.
168.
169.
171.
173.
175.
177.
178.
180.
182.

184.
186.
188.
190.
192.
194.
196.
198.
200.
202.
204.
206.
208.
210.
212.
214.
216.
218.
220.
222.
224.
226.
228.
230.
232.
234.


PALM CITY
PALMETTO
PALM HARBOR
PALM SPRINGS
PANAMA CITY
PENSACOLA
PINE HILLS
PINEWOOD
PLANT CITY
POMPANO BEACH
PORT ORANGE
PORT ST. LUCIE
RICHMOND WEST
ROCKLEDGE
SAFELY HARBOR

ST. CLOUD
SANDAFOOT COVE
SARASOTA
SCOTT LAKE
S. BRADENTON
S. MIAMI HEIGHTS
SPRING HILLS
SUNNY ISLES
SUNSET
TAMARAC
TARPON SPRINGS
THE CROSSINGS
TITUSVILLE
UNION PARK
UNIVERSITY PARK
VENICE
VILLAS
WEKIWA SPRINGS
LEAIMAN
WESTCHESTER
WESTON
W. PENSACOLA
WILTON MANORS
WINTER HAVEN
WINTER SPRINGS
YEEHAW JUNCTION
























APPENDIX B

SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE


Table B-1. Questionnaire
Unvriyof Florida Survey on Growth and Influence of
Scolof Building Construction Building Construction Industry



PrprdBy: Robert Burnett Aug-03

Key for Completion:

6SA = Strongly Agree
ApoiaeTime to Complete 5 A = Agree
5 Minutes 4 MA = Moderately Agree
3MD = Moderately Disagree
2 D =Disagree
1SD = Strongly Disagree
NO = No Opinion





-What is your definition of successful growth?




RepnetAnswer


__


I


4 Do you believe the building construction Industry
serves as a catalyst for growth?


I I I I I I I I


6 5 I4 3 2 11 NO


General Comments


1 Is your city experiencing growth based on your
definition?



2 Do you believe growth Is good for your city?


3 Do you believe the building construction Industry
has an impact on
growth In a positive manner?
local economic growth?
local population growth?
local commercial construction growth?
local residential construction growth?


5 Do you believe the following resources are readily
available In your city
construction materials?
skilled labor?
available money to assist growth?
construction equipment?









84




6 5 4 3 21 1 ND General Comrtnrts
6 hb you believe there is support for construdian gradnh
in your city from... .


local residents?
business amers?




7 Are you satisfied wlith the current pace of gradnh
in your city?



8 hb you believe the nurrber of businesses and jobs
has increased in your city over the past 5 years?




9 h you feel the increase based on question 8 abov~e
is due to the construction industry?




10 hbyou believe the nurrber of residential homes has
increased in your city over the past 5 years?



11 Consider large projectsto be over 3 rrillion $ and
snrll projects belNtvthat; then do you feel
local construction firm vak on ....
snrl projeds?

large projeds?
neither?




12 hb construction firms from outside your local area
often get the larger projeds?



13 Do you believe gradnh can increase the quality of life
for the people in your city?



14 Do you believe that the political leaders, community
leaders, and the building uonstrudian
industry all verk together in your city to
prorrete gradnh?



15 hbyou believe that an increase in construdian
projects in your city wiill increase jobs
for local residents?






Number er yI
E Ma llepon















APPENDIX C
PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT

-Hi, my name is Robert Burnett

-I am a graduate student at the University of Florida working on my master' s thesis

-Which is based on determining the influence the building construction industry has on
small city growth

-In doing this research I am conducting a random phone survey to get opinion from
various individuals within the city of Lakeland

And

-I was hoping I could have 4 to 5 minutes yf your time to answer a few questions about
growth and the construction industry in your city

-Let me reassure you that all information will be kept confidential and will not be
reported individually

-But rather as a composite of all the survey's results
















APPENDIX D
INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK

Robert F. Burnett
M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction University of Florida
Time to Complete: 4 5 minutes

Dear Respondents,

My name is Robert F. Burnett. I graduated in the spring 2003 semester with a Bachelor
of Science in Building Construction Degree from the University of Florida. I then decided to
further my studies and am now finishing up my graduate studies, also in the M.E. Rinker Sr.
School of Building Construction at the University of Florida. My thesis focuses on the effect the
building construction industry has involved with small city growth. In doing this research I
developed a questionnaire for an analysis of what construction firms, government officials, civil
organizations, local businesses, realtors, and local residents opinions are concerning the impact of
construction on small city growth. This is being completed within my sample city of Lakeland,
Florida.
I would greatly appreciate it if you would complete the attached questionnaire and return
it with the pre-addressed, stamped envelope. The answers from the questionnaire will lead to a
better understanding of small city growth and reoccurring positive impacts based on factors that
can be applied in future construction in other small cities throughout the state of Florida. Your
name and company information is optional, but it would be helpful to me if it was included. All
information will be kept confidential, and only used as a composite of all the results. Please help
out and take the short time to respond. Thank you in advance for taking the time to be of
assistance to me in completing my thesis work.
I am performing this questionnaire in both a written (mailed) format as well as a phone
survey. One of the reasons for mailing this survey to you is to allow (1) you time to fill out the
questionnaire and send it back, or (2) be better prepared to answer the questions if you decide to
help in a phone survey format. I plan on beginning to call for the phone survey in two weeks
(Oct.6) to any individuals/businesses that I do not receive the questionnaire back from. I again
thank you for your consideration in helping with the questionnaire. I realize all respondents are
busy, but your contributions shall be Greatly Appreciated. I hope you have a wonderful day.

Robert Burnett


Cg~i ,
-~L~*Jl


Q
E 1Lr .
,~~ h ~
1-I



















Table E-1. Contact B reference List
1-863- LAKELAND, FLORIDA
666-9020 Adult Primar Care 2039 East Edewood Dr 33803 B
648-5787 Advanced Aluminum 2934 Paky St 33811 B
666-1624 America Title Services 109 Allamanda Dr 33803 B
644-4701 Aartment Locator Services 6124 Christina Dr East 33813 B
858-8166 Arthur-Ryan The Salon 5326 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
665-5548 Art-N-Wood 2516 Mine Mill Lane 33801 B
665-2652 Atlantic Filter 2126 East Edewood Dr 33803 B
668-6000 Breed Technologes P.O. Box 33050 33807 B
680-2274 Cash Register Auto Insurance 2810 South Florida Ave 33803 B
665-5777 Central Mobile Homes 3025 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
682-1155 Countr Hearth Bread P.O. Box 1707 33802 B
688-7994 Curt Wheeler 1032 South Florida Ave 33803 B
Wheeler & Wheeler
665-2441 Davis Monument 3503 US Hw 98 South 33803 B
682-8107 Don Marks 1409 North Florida Ave 33805 B
Badcock Furniture
682-7171 Florida Tile Industries P.O. Box 447 33802 B
688-5000 Freida Williams 402 South Kentucky 33801 B
Sclafoni Williams Court Ave
Reprtn
688-8557 Gaines Jewelry 112 South Tennessee 33801 B
Ave
686-3189 Gary Ratcliff 710 East Bella Vista St 33805 B
Speeh &Hearing Center
413-5115 GC Services 1775 Interstate Drive 33805 B
648-2871 GEICO P.O. Box 33040 33807 B
686-2228 Harry's Seafood Bar & Grille 101 North Kentucky 33801 B
Ave
802-3000 ICT Group 333 N. Lake Parker Ave 33801 B
858-2271 Jeffrey Seaman 3850 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
Rooms To Go Furniture
665-2222 Keith Bare 1216 US Hwy South 33801 B
Lee's Furniture
858-5500 Keymark 2540 Knights Station 33810 B
Rd.
686-2125 Lakeland Funeral Homes 2125 Bartow Road 33801 B


APPENDIX E
CONTACT REFERENCE LIST










687-1100 Lakeland Regional Medical P.O. Box 95448 33804 B
Center
688-9477 Learning Resource Center 904 Missouri Ave South 33801 B
687-8545 Lisa Hickey 2710 New Tamp Hwy 33815 B
Douglas Screen Printers
683-3300 Maid Pro 1111 Florida Ave 33803 B
682-4774 Marian Pugh 228 E. Pine St 33801 B
Patchwork Pig
683-4477 Mary Lou Kalisz 114 North Tennessee 33801 B
Citrus & Chemical Bank Ave
815-4400 Mr. Collins 1320 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
Bassett Furniture
686-0553 Mr. Pool Inc. 3216 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
687-0405 Ms. Saunders 105 North Kentucky 33902 B
Pottery By The Park Ave
682-2811 Nathan's Men's Store 221 East Main St 33801 B
665-1526 National Memorials 3815 US Hw 98 South 33813 B
665-1856 Overhead Doors 3412 Reynolds Rd 33803 B
688-7978 Paramount Title 2600 South Florida Ave 33803 B
816-9663 Paul Fawcett 5115 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
Wood World Furniture
688-4000 Peperde Farm 2222 Interstate Drive 33805 B
858-2252 Polk Count Animal Hospital 7433 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
646-0544 Polk Count Pest Control 5410 South Florida Ave 33813 B
853-2340 Polk Count Pools 11510 Rockridge Rd 33809 B
687-9441 Press Express 1339 Ariana St 33803 B
644-5619 Prestige Spa & Tubs 521 West Brannen Rd 33813 B
688-1188 Publix SprMarkets P.O. Box 407 33802 B
665-2233 Recreational Factory 8134 US Hwy 98 North 33801 B
Warehouse
665-6132 Rental Service 3310 Winter Lake Rd 33803 B
616-6053 Ronald Riggs 1401 South Florida Ave 33803 B
Allen & Co
686-1724 Rooms To Go Furniture 1475 Aiprt Rd 33811 B
646-4370 Roto Rooter 3711 Centur Blvd 33811 B
647-9905 Royale Retreat DySa410 West Brannen Rd 33813 B
688-1486 Stacy Campbell-Domineck 717 North Kentucky 33801 B
Work Force 2000 Ave
802-5751 Stewart Title 500 South Florida Ave 33801 B
665-6060 Summit Consulting 2310 A to Z Park Road 33801 B
682-2852 Sun Glo Pools 1543 Memorial Blvd. 33815 B
West
669-0040 Superor Pool & Patio Decks 3353 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
687-4411 Tampa-Maid Foods 1600 Kathleen Rd. 33809 B
688-0800 Terrace Hotel 329 South Main St 33801 B










619-3789 Tom Evans Environmental 3605 Ventura Drive East 33811 B
644-5995 Trent Goss Mimi Storage 215 E. Alamo Drive 33801 B
646-3796 Violette's Salon 4608 Cleveland Heights 33813 B
BI
687-4545 Watkins Motor Lines P.O. Box 95002 95002 B
680-7000 Watson Clinic P.O. Box 95000 33804 B
858-5612 Williford Flooring 4820 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
648-1914 AAA Hih Point Construction 4525 South Florida Ave 33813 C
701-8712 Adams & Murray Custom 202 Lake Mirian Dr 33813 C

Homes
815-3921 Adams Homes 7505 Gunstock Dr 33809 C
646-2395 Adams Homes-Corprate 120 Allamanda Dr 33803 C
646-3310 Al Cardinali Contractor 5205 Charles Lane 33811 C
686-0039 Allied Building Services 5675 New Tampa Hy 33815 C
619-7735 American Heritae Homes 7121 Lake Ealebrooke 33813 C
668-8805 Aguatec Marine Construction 2020 South Combee Rd 33801 C
644-0456 B&M Construction 3706 Dmg Drive 33811 C
859-3464 BHR Construction 6245 Robin Rd 33801 C
644-8813 Bill Taylor Construction 5120 S. Lakeland Dr. #1 33813 C
858-3607 Billy Smith Building 8403 Tom Costine Road 33809 C
Contractor
682-0324 Blevins Builders 210 Lake Hollingsorth 33803 C
816-1414 Branham Construction 924 Fairland Dr 33809 C
984-2966 BTU Construction 8404 Epicenter Blvd 33809 C
646-0988 Built Well Homes 5842 Buck Run Dr 33811 C
644-7776 Cassid Homes 6615 Highands Creek 33813 C
644-6755 Central Florida Contractors 5300 Florida Ave. South 33801 C
858-0820 Cherokee Construction of FL 9010 US Hwy. 98 North 33809 C
683-6500 Cher Hill Construction 5351 Great Oaks Dr 33815 C
701-9100 Comfort Keepers 5150 South Florida Ave 33801 C
858-2426 Compton-Peachee 1210 Baker Dr. 33810 C
Construction
683-4200 Cone & Graham 625 East Lime St. 33801 C
686-0806 Contractors Plus of Florida 305 Winston Creek 33810 C

687-4946 Craven Desin & Construction 501 West Peachtree St. 33815 C
644-6499 Crossroads Construction 3702 Centur Blvd. 33811 C
802-0404 Crovo Construction 1114 Florida Ave. South 33803 C
687-8754 Cruse Construction 520 West 10t St. 33805 C
687-4037 D J Trusses Unlimited 315 Winston Creek 33810 C

683-6516 D K Harwell 814 South Florida Ave 33801 C
834-6082 Dave Bayhan 228 S. Massachusetts 33801 C
Plumbin Inpcor Ave.
859-3066 David Borders Construction 1034 Woodland Dr 33809 C


Construction 1034 Woodland Dr 33809 C