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UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY
ROBERT F. BURNETT
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Robert F. Burnett
THE EFFORT FOR THE RESEARCH AND HARD WORK TO PRESENT THIS
DOCUMENT COMES FROM THE HELP OF MY FAMILY AND FRIENDS. I
WOULD LIKE TO DEDICATE THIS DOCUMENT TO THEM FOR ALL THEIR
SUPPORT. THANK YOU.
I would like to thank all the people who have put time and energy towards the
completion of this document. I want to thank my parents for all their support throughout
my career at the University of Florida, and for their endless emotional support throughout
the entire process. I want to thank Dr. R. Raymond Issa of the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of
Building Construction for his help and guidance throughout my time in the Rinker
School, and especially for his guidance through this thesis preparation. I also want to
thank Dr. Robert F. Cox for his efforts in the development of the document and continual
support throughout my studies. Lastly, I want to thank Dr. Marc Smith for all his support
and advice throughout the research and development of the survey.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... iv
LI ST OF T ABLE S .........__... ..... .__. .............._ vii..
LIST OF FIGURES ........._.__........_. ..............viii...
AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........x
1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......
Statement of Problem ................. ...............4................
Statement of Hypothe si s........._.__....... .__. ...............4...
Scope and Limitations of Study ........._._... .....__ ...............5...
Importance of Study .............. ...............6.....
Research Determinations ........._.__........_. ...............7.....
2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............. ...............8.....
Prework .........._....__......._. ...............8......
Bad Growth............... ...............8.
Good Growth .............. ...............10....
The Good Life. ..........._.._.. ......._. .._ ...............10.....
Commercial and Residential .........._....__......._. ...............11.....
The Public .........._....__....._.. ...............12.....
Factors to Measure ..........._.._.. ...............13..._..........
3 S TY LE S ............. ...... .__ .............. 15..
Scope................. ...... ..........1
Preparation of Questionnaire ............. .....__ ....._ ............1
Individual Questions ............. ...... .__ ...............20...
Completion of Survey ................. .......__ ...............25...
Selecting Representative Sample City .....__.....___ ..........._ ............2
Sample Selection .............. ...............30....
Questionnaire Conducted............... ...............3
Initial Analysis Performed ................. ...............32................
Conclusion ................ ...............32.................
4 SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................ ...............3
Overview ................. ...............34.................
Respondents ................. ...............35.................
Respondents Analysis............... ...............37
W hat Is Growth? ................ ...............44........... ....
Growth Issues .............. ...............45....
Business Issues .............. ...............45....
Issues with Jobs .............. ...............45....
Residential Issues .............. ...............45....
Random Issues ................. ...............46.................
By Question Review ................. ...............47........... ....
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................... ...............7
Chart Of Success. ................. ... ........... ...............71......
Block One--Population Growth .............. ...............72....
Block Two--Skilled Labor .............. ...............73....
Block Three--Local Support .............. ...............73....
Block Four--Available Money .............. ...... .. ... .................7
Blocks Five and Six -Local and Non-Local Construction Firms.......................74
Block Seven--Working Together ....__ ......_____ .......___ ............7
Final Block--Success ............ ..... .._ ...............76...
Learning ............ __. ..... __ ...............76...
Next Steps............... ...............77.
A TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION
BETWEEN 10,000 100,000 .............. ...............80....
B SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE ...................83
C PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT ................. ......................85
D INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK...............86
E CONTACT REFERENCE LIST .............. ...............87....
LIST OF REFERENCES ............_...... ...............97...
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............99....
LIST OF TABLES
4-1 General Respondent Information ...._ ........__............ ............3
4-2 Work Categories .............. ...............37....
4-3 Individual Respondents............... ..............3
4-4 General Comments on Questions............... ...............4
A-1 Cities Based on US Census 2000 ........._.._.. .......... ...._.._ ..........8
B-1 Questionnaire ................. ...............83........ ......
E-1 Contact Reference List................ ...............87.
LIST OF FIGURES
4-1 Respondents ............ ...... __ ...............42....
4-2 Averages of Respondents............... .............4
4-3 Question 1 Response ........._._ ...... .... ...............48..
4-4 Question 2 Response ........._._ ...... .... ...............49..
4-5 Question 3a Response ............ ..... .._ ...............50..
4-6 Question 3b Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............50....
4-7 Question 3c Response ............ ..... .._ ...............51..
4-8 Question 3d Response ........ ................. ...............51.....
4-9 Question 3e Response ............ ..... ..._. ...............52...
4-10 Question 4 Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............53....
4-11 Question Sa Response ............ ..... .._ ...............54..
4-12 Question 5b Response............... ...............54
4-13 Question Sc Response ............ ..... .._ ...............55..
4-14 Question 5d Response ........ ................. ...............55. ....
4-15 Question 6a Response ............ ..... .._ ...............56..
4-16 Question 6b Response ........._._.._......_.. ...............57....
4-17 Question 6c Response ............ ..... .._ ...............57..
4-18 Question 6d Response ........ ................. ...............58. ....
4-19 Question 7 Response ........ ................. ...............59. ....
4-20 Question 8 Response............... ...............60
4-21 Question 9 Response ................. ...............60.._._._ ....
4-22 Question 10 Response............... ...............61
4-23 Question 11a Response ................. ...............62.............
4-24 Question 11b Response ................. ...............63......... ....
4-25 Question 11c Response ................. ...............63.............
4-26 Question 11d Response .............._ ....... ...............64...
4-27 Question 12 Response............... ...............64
4-28 Question 13 Response............... ...............65
4-29 Question 14 Response............... ...............66
4-30 Question 15 Response............... ...............67
4-3 1 Question 16a Response ............ ..... ..__ ...............68.
4-32 Question 16b Response............... ...............69
4-33 Question 16c Response ............ ..... ..__ ...............69..
5-1 Chart of Success .........____... ... ._ ............. ..71.
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction
UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY GROWTH AND THE GROWTH OF A SMALL CITY
Robert F. Burnett
Chair: Dr. R. Raymond Issa
Cochair: Dr. Robert F. Cox
Maj or Department: Building Construction
Factors and standards are needed to determine the impact of the building
construction industry on small Florida cities. There were two main questions to be
answered: (1) does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida
cities, and (2) is the building construction industry a leader of growth in small cities? To
accomplish the obj ective of answering these questions several steps needed to be taken.
First, a small, growing city in Florida, which is representative, was selected as the sample
city. Second, a questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing
answers toward the questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was distributed to
people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, to elected
officials, to community leaders, and to local organizations. Fourth, the results of the
questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks.
Finally, the results were used to set standards for determining the impact of growth in
other small, growing Florida cities.
The results of the questionnaire lead to the understanding of factors that directly
influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These factors
allowed for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features for
building construction expansion. These standards then can be applied to improve the
success of the building construction industry in small, growing Florida cities.
Small cities continually work on improving the prosperity of the residents that live
within their boundaries. A means to find prosperity is through growth. One of the largest
segments of growth revolves around the work of construction. The building construction
industry, therefore, can have maj or impacts on the growth of small cities. For the
purpose of this research it would be too cumbersome to examine the entire country for
the effect that the construction industry has on small cities. For that reason, the study has
been focused on small city growth within the state of Florida. The objective of this study
will be to provide answers as to construction effects, and to identify key factors
pertaining to the role the building construction industry plays in the growth of small cities
Researching past studies and their discussions on growth in small cities was the
first step in understanding the role played by the building construction industry in their
growth. From that information the effects that the building construction industry can
have and the level of magnitude of those effects might be determined. A problem arose
however, and that was the available research related to this issue was very limited, and
tended to not focus on the impact of the construction industry. Most of the studies related
to the growth of the cities focus on its effects on community programs and leadership
styles. This has become a key element in the efforts towards successful growth for many
city governments, and for statewide movements toward helping the startup growth of
cities. A different method had to be used for analyzing the impact of the construction
industry on successful small city growth.
A focused effort on the impact of the construction industry will lead to determining
how influential and beneficial the industry can be towards favorable growth. To
determine the impact of the building construction industry on small cities there exists a
need to establish factors and standards that can be used for all Florida small cities. In
order to look at small cities and their growth tow main questions need to be answered:
Does the building construction industry impact growth in small Florida cities?,
Does the building construction industry fill a role as a catalyst for growth in small Florida
To accomplish the obj ective of answering the above questions, several steps had to be
taken. First, a small and growing city in Florida, which could be considered a
representative city for the entire state, was selected as the sample city. Second, a
questionnaire was developed to obtain specific data aimed at providing answers toward
the two main questions. Third, the prepared questionnaire was used in calls to a sample
of people in the selected city who work in the building construction industry, elected
officials, community leaders, and local organizations. Fourth, the results of the
questionnaire were tallied and analyzed using statistical methods and reliability checks.
Finally, the results were used to set standards for use in other small and growing Florida
cities. Following these steps will lead to the better understanding of growth in small
cities in Florida, the recurring factors, and their level of impact and importance towards
The results of the questionnaire will lead to the understanding of factors that will
directly influence and impact the building construction industry in small cities. These
factors will allow for the prediction of whether other small cities have the right features
for building construction expansion. These standards will improve the success of the
building construction industry in small and growing Florida cities. This can then prove
profitable to both the small cities themselves and the construction industry as a whole,
along with an individual contractor's firm.
The words "small city" brings many images to a person's mind. To some it can be
a place of comfort, security, calm, and a contrast to the fast paced metropolitan style of
living. To other people it represents backward, old style buildings, a slower type of
living and small amounts of growth. Webster' s Dictionary defines small as "restricted in
size by comparison with most others of the same kind or class," and as "of inferior
influence; not prominent; modest" (Encyclopedia, p.495). Both of these meanings assist
in defining a small city. Small cities, however, can represent growing places, chances to
replace the old with the new, and chances to do things the right way, all while
maintaining most of the perceived benefits of a small city in comparison to larger cities.
Construction work in small cities can have many possibilities concerning growth and
profit. Major concerns exist however, on how small cities can embrace growth and still
preserve the small city characteristics that keep them prime targets for expansion. There
have been numerous studies, in many cities of what individual towns and cities need to
do to better themselves. The research usually was completed with only that individual
town in mind, and with little knowledge or discussion of what occurs in other towns and
cities. More important, few of the studies show the impact on a small city from the
standpoint of the building construction industry. That leaves room to explore the benefits
and/or possible negative impacts that the building construction industry has on small
Statement of Problem
Minimum information exists concerning the impact of growth in small cities while
focusing on the building construction industry. Reports written on individual cities and
their growth show trends seen nationwide, but few comprehensive studies tie together the
construction industry and the growth of the city. Many questions continue to be
unanswered concerning small cities, growth, and the building construction industry. The
maj or concerns deal with how the construction process can be improved or even how to
look for details that always exist in the successful growth of cities. The focus should be
on the factors that assisted in the growth of small cities and the standards for the industry
that could be developed to promote a game plan for success.
Statement of Hypothesis
The building construction industry will continue to work in small cities and attempt
to help in the growth of those cities. A question to be looked at is whether profitability
can be realized from the industry in the development of small cities?
Hypothesis Statement The building construction industry has a positive impact on
the growth of small cities within the state of Florida.
To test such a hypothesis a breakdown of all the actions involved in the growth of cities
need to be identified. Every factor must be looked at that deals with growth or the
negative impact of non-growth. These factors can lead to depicting the maj or factors and
allowing those factors to answer the question behind the hypothesis statement. At that
point the hypothesis can be tested.
Scope and Limitations of Study
The definition of a small city for purposes of this study will be a city with a
population of over 25,000 people and under 100,000. The population figures will be
based upon the 2000 U. S. Census. The list of Florida cities that fit this criteria can be
seen in Appendix A. Growth rate will be decided based on the percentage of growth
between the years of 1980 and 2000. Preliminary figures indicate there exist 102 cities in
Florida with growth and population that meet the criteria (Florida, 2002). One city in
Florida will be chosen to represent all of Florida for this study. The city chosen will have
properties considered in the average range for size, location, and growth rate. This
method will keep as many variables as possible the same and enable the survey to look at
the factors that show the biggest deviations from an established mean. A survey form
will be used to contact builders and developers, community leaders, government leaders,
and local businesses within the city selected. The data analysis will include a review of
census data, city directories, interviews with contractors and town leaders, and an
understanding of city policies. All surveyed participants will be randomly chosen within
the determined parameters. The data collected from the telephone surveys will be
reviewed to help determine maj or factors that affect growth in small cities.
The Association of Builders and Contractors (ABC) has over 1,400 builders in the
State of Florida (ABC, 2002). Limited information makes it difficult to find out how
many of these 1400 builders are profitable, active, and work in small cities. An
assumption will be made that the work in the small cities is obtained by hard bids and it is
awarded to the lowest bidder, but that tends to not be the case. In practice the contracts
are drawn up and only given to certain builders that have knowledge or some tie to the
city. This makes it more difficult for outside firms to come in and deliver the best
construction value. The main reason for this approach by the small cities is based on the
concern for budget security. Even though a low bid approach would help lower costs, the
risk of the builder' s backing out or unforeseen costs could in the long run add up to more
than the small city can afford to pay. The tight budgets become one of the deciding
factors in both the growth and decline of small cities. Money drives the industry and
without a large supply of money to draw from it becomes difficult to find funding for
improving a city. These small cities cannot run the risk of the loss of their money, as that
would make too large an impact on their economy. Throughout the study it must be
determined how a small city approaches growth without the backing of substantial money
to get the proj ects started. There are few past statistics or studies to use for comparison
purposes. This shows the need for the survey to get a better understanding of the public
opinion on growth for the small cities, and also to gather all the data needed to make
comparisons of factors impacting growth.
Importance of Study
Examining the factors of small city growth and setting standards will allow builders
and developers to understand the risk and potentials that exist for investing in small
cities. The building construction industry affects the phases of deconstruction,
rebuilding, and early growth, but little is understood on the maj or impetus towards
promoting ongoing growth in the small city. Learning the successful details of small
cities and their growth can assist civic leaders in planning, bringing local business and
construction industries together, and start the process for growth. By determining the
areas in which to put the most emphasis in the growth of small cities, both the building
construction industry and the cities themselves can flourish. There exists a need to learn
how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do to further its influence and
Finding out the components behind growth in small cities will benefit the building
construction industry. The overall benefit will reach both the small cities and the
contracting firms in the construction industry. Both of these areas will enjoy growth and
experience better wealth in the future. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a
standard to measure the different tactics used in construction of small cities it will be
possible to understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the
cities and more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained. It
proves necessary to determine how to continue this process and to help show the building
construction industry the best techniques that have the most impact on growth.
One of the reasons for preparing this report was the lack of written literature on the
subject of the building construction industry and its impact on growth in small cities.
There exists a need to learn how the industry operates in small cities, and what it can do
to further the growth of those small cities. Developing techniques to follow in fostering
small city construction growth will assist both the construction firms and the cities in
successful expansion and financial growth. Additionally, there exist few statistics that
can be used to understand the relationship between small cities and the building
construction industry. Some questions that should be answered concern whether, during
rapid growth in a small city, the building industry can keep up, and what the impact of
controlling growth is in the city? Answering these questions will assist in understanding
the role the building industry plays in the livelihood of small cities. The purpose of this
thesis is to discover whether the building construction industry can be the driving force or
whether it should be the follower in small city growth, and how the construction industry
functions in a small city setting.
Numerous publications have discussed and presented studies on the faults of
growth, particularly unplanned growth. A 1992 presentation by Andres Duany in Boston
entitled "The Merits of Neo-Traditionalism" is widely considered to be the speech that
started the internationally prominent New Urbanism principles (Duany 1992). The
speech was to illustrate the effects of bad growth. Duany, however, actually started in
1980 with the opening of his own architecture firm. In 1981 he started the development
of his landmark city, Seaside, Florida. He has since written the book, Suburban Nation:
The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (Duany 2000). His firm has
completed the design for over 230 communities based upon the New Urbanism
movement. Many of these cities are in the state of Florida, including Coral Gabses and
West Palm Beach. As recently as August 2003, Duany presented his ideas to the city of
Temple Terrace, which is a suburb of Tampa, Florida (www.dcp). While the values of
Duany's ideas can be debated, he still offers a very small connection between growth and
the building construction industry. He attempts to tell the small city how to build a better
community without necessarily including the building industry in a leadership role.
Growth as seen by many individuals has become a word with "bad" connotations.
The problem does not lie in growth factors, but unhealthy growth practices. This
phenomenon first became evident in California, but has quickly been observed
throughout the State of Florida. Negative practices concerning growth have led to
mistrust and misunderstanding when it comes to the actual benefits associated with
growth. It can be argued that growth cannot be stopped and with more dissention against
it, the less successful the growth will be when it must occur. Some studies have been
based on the individual cities and towns and then with growth tactics both in and out of
the state of Florida. These studies include Virginia Beach, Virginia; Coral Gables,
Florida; and Washington, DC. However, all these studies talk of harmful growth and
with little or no concern towards the role of the building construction industry.
There exist reviews on planning tools to assist towns in development, which show
the positive side of growth as presented in some publications. Many resource teams and
consultants offer step by step processes on how to analyze a town in all areas of the
community. One such study was for the town of Stephenville, Texas (www.naylor).
From this study a 147-page report was prepared listing questions to present to other cities
under study and the answers to these questions using Stephenville as the target. The
report did not try to judge the type of growth, but instead found questions that when
answered would help provide good growth. Within this report however, very little was
mentioned about the impact and relationship between growth and the building
construction industry, and the connection both the city and the industry have with each
The Good Life
Another approach in analyzing growth has been described by Larry Kosmont, that
says growth and the building industry must be involved with social needs and
requirements. He states that it used to be generally accepted that expansion and
development would inevitably lead to the "Good Life" (Kosmont 2002). Today,
however, a builder must deliver all the benefits such as jobs, housing, recreation
facilities, schools, medical care, and more. All of these large concerns and all the areas
require putting time and effort towards presenting a much more difficult time for
construction in small city growth. One of the maj or problems with all this extra effort
and the problem that hinders all construction comes from the availability of funds. States
are struggling to meet the financial needs and that places even more demands upon the
construction industry to furnish social contributions. Too many people look at
developers as the source of "deep pockets." This cannot be the view though, as it will
only be through the joint efforts from all the parts of the city that the city will experience
Commercial and Residential
It is necessary to look at both the commercial and residential sides of the building
industry when talking about growth for small cities. The two sides, however, are
different and require different analysis and understanding. It can be difficult for a
company to be successful at both ventures. "The two markets are so different that it is
almost easier for a commercial builder to diversify into heavy highway contracting than
into large-scale single family homebuilding," says Lawrence E. Hirsch, chairman of
Centex Corp., Dallas, the nation' s largest homebuilder and one of the few large
homebuilders that also works as a large general contractor (Krizan 2002). The land
component of large-scale homebuilding acts as a barrier to commercial contractors. Sub-
contractors are not interchangeable because commercial, electrical, and mechanical firms
cost too much for skills that are not needed for homebuilding. In the current economic
environment housing clearly is outperforming its commercial building counterpart.
Between 1997 and 2000, the value of single-family housing increased 35%, compared to
a 20% increase in the value of private nonresidential buildings, according to the U.S.
Department of Commerce (Krizan 2002). The concern for small cities then is how to
succeed in growth when both the commercial and residential components of construction
must be dealt with. Small city growth cannot occur without the businesses and work
created by commercial construction and it clearly will not occur without the residential
growth allowing the influx of residents. One problem as was detailed before is that
because the two areas of construction do not overlap there will be a greater number of
construction firms coming into the cities to help in the growth. Keeping the market fair
and advantageous for all these contractors can prove to be difficult. This study will look
at the question of whether it can be productive to limit the construction firms coming into
small cities and then focus on a chosen few to do all the work within the city. The other
option would be to diversify all the construction jobs allowing the impact from many
more construction firms, but lowering the economic advantage to any one construction
firm. Working with the construction companies may prove to be the single most
important aspect in the successful growth for small cities.
The building construction industry for small cities needs to be in the position that
the great architect Louis Sullivan wrote about in 1906. He wrote, "If you seek to express
the best that is in yourself, you must search out the best that is in your people, for they are
your problem, and you are indissolubly a part of them. It is for you to affirm that which
they really wish to affirm. Namely the best that is in them, if the people seem to have but
little faith, it is because they have been tricked so long. They are weary of dishonestly,
more weary than they know, much more weary than you know. The American people are
in a stupor. Be on hand at the awakening" (Boom 2002). Louis Sullivan understood that
the people make the cities, not the buildings or the structure, it does not even include the
everyday activities and jobs. All these parts however, can have immediate impact on the
people when changed. To have a small city leaning on the verge of growth, not only do
the right pieces need to be in place economically and through the building industry, but
the people also need to want growth. People are needed to help the city expand and work
hard to continue that process. The building construction industry needs to focus on both
the actual building process and types of projects as well as the needs of the people. This
can be done through the work that is available in the construction industry and also in
how the construction process is carried out.
Factors to Measure
In changing the daily events in the construction process large impacts on the overall
growth of the small cities can occur. In a retrospective view, the decline of small towns,
and the deconstruction and lack of economic wealth for the city may be a way to show
the impact of the building construction industry on the growth of cities. It can be seen as
learning from the mistakes of other cities, making improvements, and not duplicating the
same problems. This can be an advantageous approach as the key to successful growth
may be to just move ahead in construction and learn the best ways to correct mistakes and
alleviate problems as they arise. A more finite parameter can be set, by looking at the
negatives of the construction industry and also in determining whether the construction
industry has a zero effect on a town or possibly even hurts a town. From these more
detailed parameters the construction industry can address the changes that need to be
made to improve the growth of small cities. Many items go into the growth of a small
city. All have an impact of some form. Certain factors, however, cannot be overlooked
and should show up in all similar cases. These points of interest need to be detailed and
studied to find their impact on the small cities. Only the maj or impact contributors, or the
practices and factors that are crucial to the line of growth or decline need to be examined.
Crucial factors are those factors that if they were removed would cause the rest of the line
towards growth or decline to break down. This should resemble planning for the
construction industry based on a work schedule as could be seen through activity on the
arrow networks. As seen on these networks, there are certain critical path items that must
be completed before others can be accomplished. The same correlation exists in the
strategies and planning for the expansion or decline of cities. The studies must focus on
details of the building construction industry and the impact it has on other factors.
Current trends and publications suggest that finding the factors behind the growth
of the construction industry in small areas can be helpful to succeeding in the business
field. By focusing on certain aspects and establishing a standard by which to measure the
different tactics used in construction or deconstruction of small cities it will be possible to
understand the correct techniques to use. In the end, more prosperity for the cities and
more prosperity for the building construction industry can be attained.
The survey is intended to determine the influence of the building construction
industry on the growth of small cities. The important aspect impacting the construction
industry starts with how the industry may influence or can be influenced by growth in a
small city. Next, it is necessary to determine the actual influence of the various
construction phases on the growth of small cities. These steps may finally lead to
expanded and possibly continual growth for small cities. From this point, researching the
economic gain of small cities based on the building construction industry will assist in
determining the related gains and losses.
The steps taken in preparing the survey were as follows:
1. Review existing literature from building construction industry organizations and
associations on small cities.
Identify data missing that is required to answer the questions of the relationship between
small city growth and the building construction industry.
Design a questionnaire to collect both qualitative and quantitative information to assist in
an understanding of the missing data.
Decide upon a city to use as a main focal point of obtaining answers from the
Decide on the participants for the questionnaire.
Initiate telephone calls or distribute questionnaires to obtain required data.
Completed surveys are reviewed for completeness and adequate number of responses.
Prepare statistical and descriptive reports.
The literature review discussed steps one and two in detail, which leads to the
completion of step three. As pointed out in the section on the literature review there
exists a very small amount of printed information available on the subj ect of growth in
small cities and its connection with the building construction industry. The determination
was made to develop one questionnaire for data collection purposes to assist in
determining the missing information. It was decided to not only have members of the
building construction industry complete the questionnaire, but also those have
questionnaires completed from those with no affiliation with the construction industry.
This was necessary in order to receive more unbiased answers, which will allow for
reaching better conclusions. The questionnaire contains mainly questions that are to be
answered by choosing one of six options. These questions go towards the general
interpretation of certain strategies and the concept of growth for the small cities. The
questions will be based on a ranking scale. The value of importance will be step graded
from one to six, with six being the most important/impacted. Giving a ranking scale of
this nature is an example of using the Likert technique. A six point system allows for a
large enough range for respondents to give answers based on their perception. Having
just a true and false response available would be too restrictive. The worry was that
someone that was leaning between agreement and disagreement would then answer a
false even though they did have a definitive opinion. The six responses allow for
different variations of agreement or disagreement and a more accurate response for
respondents to find. A response category placed right in the middle of agreement and
disagreement was decided to not be practical. One of the main reasons for this
determination was that a neutral response between the two extremes was not desired. By
eliminating this option, the goal was to force the respondents into deciding whether to
choose an agreement or disagreement level. That was the intention of having different
levels of agreement so that even if a strong feeling of agreement, for example, was not
found the respondent could at least have a choice of moderate agreement instead of being
forced to select a neutral answer. For assessing a situation in which a respondent would
feel unable to answer a particular question or that they did not have proper knowledge,
then a no opinion category was added. An example of this situation would be if there
was a question dealing with time, such as over ten years ago and the respondent had only
lived in the city for a few years. This respondent would then answer a no opinion
because they cannot truly understand the parameters to answer the question. All these
categorized responses will help to portray the perceived impact of the factors based on
the construction industry when applied to the growth of small cities based on the
perception of the respondents. There, also, will be an opportunity for the respondent to
give additional comments as related to the questions. Allowing for an area for general
responses to any question gives a better insight into the respondents' answers if they wish
to add such information. All additional information would always be welcomed and then
can be looked at in comparison to other respondents to understand where the background
and perceptions come from. Another area in the survey will be an optional personal
question section having to do in detail with their position, title, type of work, and type of
construction. Further, detailed discussion of the questionnaire is covered below on a
question by question basis.
Preparation of Questionnaire
A need exists to determine the impact that growth in Florida' s small cities has on
the building construction industry. Past publications and literature does not adequately
address this issue. To fill this gap in information it was necessary to develop a
questionnaire that would be used to survey people in small cities, with emphasis upon
one Florida city in particular. The completed survey will assist in gaining insight into the
connection between small city growth and the building construction industry. The survey
will detail the maj or recurring factors that can be associated with the growth in small
cities. This growth leads to improvements for the cities and for the construction
industries. The Einal goal is to Eind factors leading towards successful growth which will
be answered by the questionnaire.
The Likert scale was used as stated previously, to set up the questionnaire which
was a method for measuring attitudes. The Likert technique is to present a set of
questions that can be answered by expressing agreement or disagreement. These are
close-ended questions, which are suited to get a broad picture of people' s attitudes. The
secret to this method was in (1) not using long complex questions, (2) avoiding ambiguity
in questions, and (3) showing questions that take a lot of thought (Likert 1932).
The questions included in the questionnaire will enable two obj ectives to be
accomplished. First, the questions have to provide answers that will lead to an
understanding of the building construction industry and small cities. Both the
commercial and residential areas of the building construction industry are of equal
concern. Second, the questions when answered have to be in the format so that the
Endings can be tabulated using statistical methods. The end result will be to identify
factors that apply to the construction industry and all small cities in Florida.
Ideally, the survey would be distributed to everyone in all the small cities in the
state of Florida. This, of course, proved unrealistic, so it was determined that two courses
of action could be taken. One, the questionnaire could randomly be used to contact
leaders in the building construction industry throughout the state by telephone. It is felt
that this method will not insure a measurable response. The second course of action was
to choose one small city in Florida and to blanket it with a telephone survey. The belief
is that a greater response rate will be gained from using this approach. In combining the
two methods the Einal decision was made to distribute the questionnaire to the public,
businesses, and construction industry personnel in one small city. In the selected city, the
questionnaire would be used in contacting various individuals ranging from, but not
restricted to civic organizations, political leaders, realtors, businesses, newspapers, and
randomly picked individuals from the telephone book. This would insure diversified
responses and increase the statistical accuracy of the Eindings. It would permit more
depth than just the survey questions. This also would allow for greater insight into the
thinking of respondents, and into the impact of the building construction industry. The
responses from this sample group will give the most correct results to build a hypothesis
and to distinguish the factors that tie small city growth and the building construction
In order to receive the greatest response possible it was necessary to make sure the
questionnaire would take less than five minutes for the participants to complete. It is felt
that the shorter the survey, the greater the response rate (Barnett 1995). The
questionnaire offers a range of opinions for each question. The answers can range from
"strongly agree" to "strongly disagree", or simply "no opinion". This was broken down
into more detail previously but it was important to remember to give the best possible
range for respondents to answer corresponding to their perception on each question.
Again, a section at the end of the questionnaire is also included to list general information
about the respondents. This will permit the ability to sort the responses by gender,
location, experience, level of management, and by organization or business of the
respondent. There is also a "General Comments" section for anyone who wants to give
added input to the survey. Most of the surveys were handled through telephone calls, but
the option is available for participants to respond by mail if they request.
Following are the questions for the questionnaire that was prepared and used in
each telephone and mail survey. An individual survey form was completed for each
telephone and mail participant. The individual results were then broken down and
combined for each question.
After attaining the person's permission to proceed with the telephone survey, the
first question was to gain an understanding of the person' s viewpoint. The question was,
What is you definition of successful gi/ 1,n th? This is the base question to follow with the
additional sixteen questions in the survey.
The questions to be included in the questionnaire and the expected purpose of each
2. Is you city experiencing growth based on your definition?
Purpose: It is important to know the belief of the participant because the design of
the thesis is to link together growth in small Florida cities and the impact of the building
construction industry. If the respondent indicates they feel the city is not growing then
the results will have to be measured differently. The question will lead to an overall
knowledge of where the city stands in terms of growth at this point.
Do you believe growth is good for your city?
Purpose: The answer to this question gives the attitude of the participant, and any
bias that may be included in the balance of the answers. Also of note, this will then set
the tone for the answering of the rest of the questions. An agreement with this question
leads to a bias for construction and a disagreement leads to a bias against.
Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on
a. Growth in a positive manner?
b. Local economic growth?
c. Local population growth?
d. Local commercial construction growth?
e. Local residential construction growth?
Purpose: The entire focus of the thesis is about the answers to this question--what
impact does the construction industry have on growth. In detail on this question, the
items to look for involve whether the building construction industry impacts growth at
all, or whether growth occurs regardless. This will help to tie in with the other questions
of impact and whether it' s positive or negative. This searches for the answer of whether
there is growth in the small city, and if the construction industry had the most impact on
that growth or if the small city was going to grow in other ways. That point becomes
important to note, as when applying factors of growth to other small cities it will be
useful to know if a town had the characteristics to grow and then the extent that the
construction industry needs to be involved. The more impact the construction industry
has on growth the more the industry will have to be included in the efforts to help growth
start and sustain that growth until it can expand on its own.
Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth?
Purpose: This gives the beliefs of the respondents towards the building
construction industry and possibly answers to other questions. This just gives a feeling
towards the positive or negative impact the construction industry has on the small city.
Where does the industry stand in relationship to growth? This focuses on the point of
whether the construction industry has the impact to spur growth or if the industry is only
they are after the fact. This is necessary to determine what cities should focus on for
growth in the future. Should the industry look to already growing cities or is it possible
to have the right factors existing in a city, and then proceed to push the growth.
Do you believe the following resources are readily available n your city
a. Construction materials?
b. Skilled labor?
c. Available money to assist growth?
d. Construction equipment?
Purpose: This will indicate the strength of the building construction industry in this
particular city. It will access the ability of the city and the building construction industry
to grow in the future. The ability to have materials in a city may lead to an easier
transition into growth in comparison to what would occur if there were large expenses for
acquisition and transportation of materials. For a small city to experience successful
growth it must be able to sustain that growth for a long period of time. Money proves to
be the one of the main elements in continual growth and should be important to
determine the extent of the volume of money for growth in other small cities. The more
money available, obviously the easier the potential for growth.
Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following...
a. Community leaders?
b. Political leaders?
c. Local residents?
d. Business owners?
Purpose: To ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This
question has the purpose to try and determine what areas the construction industry should
look for to aid in the original start up, and policies associated with small city growth. To
ascertain where support for growth comes from in this city. This question as stated
before looks to determine where support can be found and if that support would apply in
other small cities or if it is particular to certain cities. In most cities growth can start and
support found from city officials, however, without the help and support from the
residents there will not be the ability to sustain the growth in these small cities. Residents
make up these cities and as they should be are the most important people influential in
terms of growth for the small city.
Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in you city?
Purpose: This is to link the respondent's beliefs with answers to other questions.
This refocuses on possible built in bias from the respondent. At this point in the survey it
should again be noted whether the respondent has a bias for or against growth in their
Do you believe the number of businesses and j obs has increased in your city over the past
Purpose: This question tests whether growth is actually taking place and where. It
may be just in the mind of the respondent, but it is important to understand where they
believe growth is occurring.
Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry?
Purpose: This looks at whether if there does exist an increase in business and j obs
whether that growth can be directly attributed to the building construction industry. If
there were an increase as could be shown in the answer to question 8, and it was not felt
to be due to the construction industry then efforts to improve growth in those smaller
cities would not be necessary from a construction point of view.
Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over the past 5
Purpose: To test whether growth is actually taking place and how. This again leads
to an understanding of where the respondent feels growth is occurring. Comparing this to
where money has been spent on growth leads to efficiency of construction in particular
areas of growth. From this, future efforts in other cities for growth can focus on the areas
of more efficient growth and impact.
Consider large proj ects to be over 3 million $ and small proj ects below that; then do you
feel local construction firms work on ..
a. Small projects?
b. Large projects?
Purpose: To identify the impact of how local construction firms are involved in
small city growth. It may be important not to allow non-local companies to come into the
small cities and take all the meaningful work. A j oint effort in search of growth may
prove to be the best method for success.
Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger proj ects?
Purpose: This leads to a further understanding of what construction firms are
landing jobs in the smaller city. Depending on the answer for question 11 this question
may lead to understanding if local companies do not get larger proj ect then where are the
companies coming from that due receive these contracts.
Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city?
Purpose: To reconfirm the respondent' s beliefs towards growth. By focusing on
this point at three stages throughout the questionnaire allows for a measure of the
strength of the person" bias for or against growth. If the respondent bias seems to change
it can be determined what questions had the impact on that change of opinion and focus
on why it occurred.
Do you believe that the political leaders, community leader, and the building construction
industry all work together in your city to promote growth?
Purpose: Is it necessary for all the groups to work together to obtain growth.
Understanding the extent to which this occurs and then seeing the impact that has on
growth will help in setting up the roles of all those areas in future growth for other small
Do you believe that an increase in construction proj ects in your city will increase j obs for
Purpose: This assists in finding out whether the non-local construction firms bring
in their own employees to complete proj ects. The amount of work increased by the cities
growth needs to go to local companies and residents if the city is to maintain continued
Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next...
a. 1 year?
b. 5 years?
c. 10 years?
Purpose: Is there room for the building construction industry to grow? Growth
needs to be continual, and needs to have the potential for that continual growth. This
question looks to answer these questions and needs associated with growth.
Completion of Survey
Each question will be statistically measured and then broken down into different
factors that can be measured and ranked. This will lead to being able to sort the
completed survey by type of respondent, meaning building construction industry,
political, civic, business, organization, etc., of which the first question for each identified
group will be different. By using the Likert scale each degree of agreement is given a
numerical value from one to five. Thus, a total numerical value can be calculated from
all the responses. This allows for the computation of the intercorrelations between all
pairs of questions. It has the advantage of permitting the easy use of means and standard
deviations. This is used to segregate answers by different sub-groups of people, for
instance by gender or type of work (www. economic).
Selecting Representative Sample City
Step four is to choose a small, Florida city to be representative of all small cities in
Florida. The goal was to select a city that contains determined characteristics. These
1. City had to be located within the state of Florida.
2. City had to have a population of between 10,000 and 100,000 population.
3. City had to have shown growth in the past ten years.
4. City was to be close to the Florida average taking into consideration such areas as
age, gender, number of households, population, area size, and location.
The idea was to stay away from the extremes in any one area. The United States Census
was used to obtain data necessary to decide upon a sample city. The Census presents
data for towns and cities on the basis of less than 10,000; between 10,000 and 100,000;
and over 100,000 population. It provides data on population broken down by age,
number of children, gender, race, income, home ownership, type of jobs, and numerous
other categories (www.census). Growth for the purposes of this paper is measured as the
percentage increase in the population of people in the city. In the State of Florida it can
be difficult to find a place that has not grown in population between the years of 1990
and 2000. Over ninety percent of cities and towns reported population gains (Florida
2002). The census reports only thirteen towns and cities decreased in population during
these ten years. The losses reported were in the hundreds of people, so no town or city
had maj or decreases in number of people. The gains had ranges in values across the
A careful review of all the researched data lead to the decision to choose Lakeland,
Florida as the sample city. There were several reasons for choosing Lakeland. As
previously stated, extremes were to be avoided. Lakeland's population of 78,452 as of
the 2000 census does not lie at either end of the over 10,000 and under 100,000
population guidelines (Florida 2000). As can be seen by the population size it is closer to
the higher limit of 100,000. The 78,452 size however does lie near the median of the
cities that met the criteria. It was felt that this gave a better look at the impact of
construction on the small city. Taking the median city gave a representation based on the
growth occurring to many cities throughout the state of Florida. The census reported two
hundred thirty-five cities that met the criteria. See Appendix A for the complete list of all
two hundred thirty-five cities (www.census). Growth in all Florida small cities ranged
from the extreme of an increase around 271% to a loss of 2%. Lakeland falls near the
medium middle with an increase of 6.9% (estimates for 2002 show a growth increase of
8.2%). There were eighty small cities with greater growth than Lakeland and forty-eight
with less growth. Lakeland is located in the middle of the state so it does not have the
extremes of beaches, hot weather, tourists, theme parks, and of being only a business
community. The city government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city
manager. There, also, exists a Downtown Development Authority (www.1dda).
Lakeland fulfills the established criteria set by this paper for a growing city that is facing
all the opportunities and worries presented by growth.
Listed below are some basic facts about the city of Lakeland, Florida
(www.ledger). This information should help in understanding the lifestyle that some of
the residents of Lakeland, FL experience.
1. Largest city in Polk County with a population in the 80,000's with approximately
Largest employer is Publix Super Markets that is headquartered in Lakeland.
City is located between Tampa and Orlando off of Interstate 4 and is less than two hours
from beaches and theme parks.
City located at Latitude 28.0 N and 81.95 W Longitude
City was incorporated in 1885 and is 45.8 square miles in size (water areas covers about
6 miles), is 216 feet above sea level, 28,000 acres, and contains 38 lakes.
The number of housing units is 39,000.
Population density equals 1,711 per square mile (housing density equals 850.3 per square
City government consists of a mayor, six commissioners, and a city manager with the
annual city budget being $324 million dollars.
While the city's population was 78,412 as of 2000, there are 1 16,400 people living within
five miles of the downtown area, expected to be at 88,741 by the end of 2003.
As with most of Florida the only appreciable rain exists during the months of June-
September, total rainfall is 68 inches a low of 1 inch in March and 12 inches in June.
Average temperature ranges from 61 degrees in January and December to the mid-80's in
the summer months, the average temperature is 72.5 degrees.
The Lakeland Economic Development Council expects to add 2,600 new j obs in the next
City funded public improvements in the downtown core have triggered over $255 million
in private investments to the Lakeland downtown area in the last ten years.
Mean travel time to work is 21.6 minutes.
Medium residents' age is 39.7 years old.
Medium household income is $43,400.
The medium price for homes sold was $88,200.
The medium family income is $43,400 per year, which compares to $47,300 for the state
of Florida and $50,200 for the entire United States.
Lakeland is home to the Detroit Tigers spring training camp.
Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built twelve of the buildings on the Florida Southern
There are three four-year colleges located in Lakeland (Florida Southern, Southeastern
Christian, and The University of South Florida-Lakeland.
The population make up consists of 46% male and 54% female with 50.3% married.
The population breakdown is 21% under 21 years old; 47% between 21-60 years old; and
32% over 60 years of age.
Further population breakdown by race shows 69.5% white, 21.3% black, 6.4% hispanic,
and others make up 2.8%.
The percent of the population with a bachelors degree is 20.9%.
The county leads in citrus production, and is fourth in cattle raising for Florida.
The county leads in state of Florida in number of mobile homes.
Boating and fishing are abundant in Lakeland.
The city's unemployment rate is about 6%.
A review of a Lakeland newspaper, The Ledner, and several other local
publications shows, like in most small cities, that there exists considerable disagreement
on growth, how it should be handled, and who should control it. A few quotes on growth
are: "with all the government agencies working together and the people of Polk County,
the growth will be more beneficial...we must look at the future rather than living from
the past" (www.ledger). A viewpoint on the building industry comes out as, "Should
growth in Polk County be better controlled? Absolutely. Growth in this county should
be regulated, controlled and carefully planned...not by builders and developers, but by
the citizens who live here." Still another view is "Yes, there are certain parts of Lakeland
that should be developed, while some areas, like South and East should remain rural"
(www.ledger). These three comments make a clear statement that growth and the
building construction industry are not always clear winners. It, also, shows how the
building industry must work with the community and leaders in the growth of small
cities. Still, it would be impossible to please everyone.
To get a better feel for Lakeland as a small city some other comments that were
printed by residents in the local newspaper are shown below.
1. "Another case of developers running the state. I'm sick of this, the Commissioners
are not noted for taking the wishes of their constituents in mind, anyway."
"With problems in traffic control, water usage, schools who in their right mind would
want further development in Lakeland? Oh, I know...Developers. But then I did say
right min, didn't I."
"Development is necessary, but it has to be better balanced than it has been."
"The reality is that Lakeland would be much better if we would just accept the fact it is a
bedroom community for Orlando and Tampa."
"Lakeland has so much potential-the leaders, the builders, the people, the investors need
to wake up and realize it."
"I have been told that Lakeland is too small to support the ideas that many of the
community believe are necessary to attract people and j obs, and it would probably be 20
or 30 years before our market would support them."
These comments give a view of what the people in Lakeland are thinking about growth
and in some instances the building industry (www.ledger).
All types of the construction industry were studied which encompassed
commercial, industrial, and residential areas. It was concluded to be essential to include
the political and social leaders of the community in order to have meaningful data. This
was done to get a diversified opinion on the impact of the construction industry on the
expanded growth of the towns (www.agc). Newspapers, telephone directories, and
building organizations and associations were used to identify a targeted group of people.
If possible a name was connected to the telephone number or address in order to make it
more personal and/or to reach the person in charge. The end product was a list of over
300 locations. This list included people names, telephone numbers, business or position
name, addresses, and type of grouping. The groupings were (a) any association with the
building industry, (b) government, (c) newspaper, (d) reactors, (e) civic organization, (f)
businesses, and (g) the general public.
The method used to reach the targeted people on the sample list was mainly by
telephone. However, if requested or if unable to reach by telephone, a questionnaire was
mailed. The goal was to have a minimum of thirty respondents (Hernando 2002). The
list was arranged in name, alphabetical order within the seven groupings. Taking every
Efth name on the list and calling that number started the telephone survey. This meant
starting at number Hye on the list and then calling that person. If a contact was made
then that individual either agreed to 611 out the questionnaire or refused to help. Some
individuals contacted asked to be called back in which case that was done at a later point
in which a response could be gained. Once a contact was made then the next person
called was every fifth person on the list. For example, this would be calling the Efth,
tenth, Efteenth twentieth, etc. on the list. If a contact was not made on the first call then
at a later point that contact was called again until a contact could be made to either gain
or not gain a response to the questionnaire. Upon realizing the end of the list, the same
process was started again. Then, every third name on the list was taken until the desired
sample size was reached. This meant starting at the third name on the list, then moving
on to every fifth name, such as eighth, thirteenth, eighteenth, etc. until the number of
responses desired was reached.
Initial Analysis Performed
The results of the questionnaire are the first step in developing a list of factors that
scored an average of four or better on the scaled questions. With a score of four or better
these procedures will be viewed as having a significant impact on the growth of the small
cities. The list of these objectives will be compiled, and then each aspect detailed and
studied to determine the overriding characteristics involved in the factors. The results
will contain the most frequent similarities in the impact or results of the different
objectives when applied in the Hield. To satisfy requirements and prove conclusions
based on percentages, the statistical variations from all results will be calculated to ensure
that all data falls within the mean variance based on a 90% confidence interval. The
statistical tests will help to prove within a 90% confidence that the responses chosen are
or are not significantly different and therefore can be compared to show similar factors
and when interpreted show tendencies related to the growth in small towns (Likert 1967).
Each question will be analyzed using graphs and charts to identify results and key areas
All the information from the questionnaires and the analysis of the data was used to
test the hypothesis. The desired outcome will be to Eind the determining factors that
influence the growth of small cities related to the building construction industry. These
factors can be analyzed and then broken down to understand how to reproduce the
success for other towns on the side of growth. The entire process from research, thru data
collection, and then analysis, is necessary in determining the overall factors that influence
the construction process in a positive way.
SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
An analysis of all the replies to the sixteen questions asked on the questionnaire
revealed an overwhelming positive belief from the participants concerning growth in
their small city. The purpose of using the Likert technique in preparing the questions was
to measure the attitude of the respondents. This was accomplished by having each
respondent express their level of agreement or disagreement with the questions. As seen
from the graphs and charts presented in the following material, this made it possible to
look at the results of the answers in a variety of different ways. The participants were
from a cross-section of people including those in the building construction industry, civic
and government leaders, the general public, and people in business. The ideal method of
gathering the data was from telephone interviews. The reason for this was that people
were more likely to respond at length if they were speaking rather than writing.
Telephone surveys also avoided the possibility that a mail survey might have a low
response rate and that the responses would only be from one group, and not random. If
requested or in the case that telephone contacts was unable to work then some
questionnaires were mailed. In order to avoid interview distortion, all the telephone
surveys were carried out in the same way with each respondent and by the same person.
The understanding of the questions by the respondents seemed uniform and
straightforward. This assessment leads to the conclusion that all the individual questions
were neither vague nor inappropriate. The people responding to the survey had nothing
to gain or lose, and responded simply to assist in the writing of this thesis by providing
the data to analyze. This makes the validity of the answers more believable and creates a
less biased sample. The questions were designed to elicit people's perceptions of past,
present, or future reality. The survey completion time took about four minutes for the
respondents, which did not deter the respondents from taking the time necessary to
answer all the questions. The responses from all participants with the questionnaire were
friendly and many gave additional comments that were shown in this chapter. The total
number of contacts made by the telephone survey was 102. From that total number of
contacts, the total amount of completed questionnaires came to 31. This gives a response
rate of 30.4% or just under one third, which was the expected return rate at the beginning
of the questionnaire preparation.
The respondents to this survey were as varied as the answers they supplied. They
range from City Commissioners, to vice presidents, to office managers, to sales people, to
stay at home individuals. The average time living in Lakeland, Florida reported by the
respondents was 20.1 years, with one year being the least and fifty years being the most.
This gave a good range of experience living in the sample city. All the respondents
sampled gave an applicable means for assessing their responses and grouping these
responses to allow the best understanding of the city as a whole. All data results
concerning the respondent' s information including years in city and some positions in
their companies can be seen in the additional results shown below. In analyzing this data
it becomes easier to compare each question's responses and see which gave the most
agreeable or most disagreeably response. Please see additional results below in Table
Table 4-1. General Respondent Information
&nte Raspondat's Rasitias Et Their Onpny
(iais positicnsferolt ra21~szv~ith tsinesl3s)
Margr Exe~allite ractcr A~islat Oity Mmy~g
O/\r LPdfE~L~iness Dadcpmis Satay
hes Margr Wa-hxse Mmyg CSR~t Mm
S~es Fpeeddive O/wir R-esictwt
Inicthhes Mmyg Estimi-Ecr
S~es Nmy~ Oity Oxmissiarer PRqja1t Brjneer
Nrrter & Years Faesponderits I.i\Rd in City( M y ~ears)
2 17 17 SC 7 24 1 11 1 1
As noted earlier the respondents contacted for the questionnaire came from a range
of people including those in the building construction industry (C), civic organizations
(0), real estates (R), government leaders (G), the general public (P), and people in
business (B). Of the thirty-one responses received from the questionnaire the breakdown
for which category they fall into can be seen in Table 4.2 following.
Table 4-2. Work Categories
Respondent's Work Cateqories
Work Catenory Number of Responses
Building Construction Industry (C) 12 responses
Civic Organizations (0) 2 responses
Real Estate (R) 0 responses
Government Leaders (G) 5 responses
General Public (P) 3 responses
Business (B) 9 responses
The results of the type of respondents based on their work categories shows a range
of perceptions coming from the respondents. The respondents each have their own
perceptions based on their past history dealing with construction or through their
experience in the city. Due to this variety of perceptions coming from the respondents a
more detailed analysis of the respondents needs to be examined.
In order to analyze the respondents' answers to the questionnaire a system was
needed to rank their responses. This system was made by using a summation rate based
on each individual response. This was done by using the number of responses for each
individual and the level to which that response was rated. The summation rate totals
were reached by using the key of awarding 6 points for strongly agree answers, 5 points
for moderately agree answers, 4 points for agree answers, 3 points for disagree answers, 2
points for moderately disagree answers, and 1 point for strongly disagree answers. For
instance, if a respondent had 6 strongly agree, and 5 agree, and 10 disagree answers the
summation total for that respondent would be 86 points (6 x 6=36, 5 x 4=20, 10 x
3=30==86). A detailed listing and individual graphs for each respondent are shown
throughout the items discussed in this chapter. Looking at the graphs will show the high
peaks for the number of questions answered in the strongly agree or moderately agree
columns of the survey. The highest number of summation points from any one
respondent was 175, while the lowest was 111 (of which there were two). The highest
possible summation points attainable were 186 while the lowest possible would be thirty-
one points. The summation points average for all respondents was 139.2 points. If the
two extremes are discounted the average then becomes 139.9. This data can be seen
below in Table 4.3 which is a chart depicting these results discussed.
Table 4-3. Individual Respondents
Table 4.3 Individual Respondent's
Individual Respondenf's A~nswers
Number of Answers
3 4 11 7 2 4 0
0 18 11 3 0 0 1
0 22 8 0 0 1 0
1 24 5 0 0 1 0
8 12 12 0 0 1 0
0 21 2 0 2 15
13 11 2 3 0 1
4 17 7 1 1 1 0
3 24 1 0 1
0 1 25 4 0 1 0
15 10 5 0 0 1 0
7 13 9 0 0 1
0 28 1 1 1 0
19 5 5 0 1 1 0
3 13 10 4 0 1 0
5 12 8 8 0
4 14 7 1 4 1 0
8 7 11 3 2 2 0
12 8 3 2 2 4 0
12 6 1 3 1 8 0
12 6 4 12 3 3
2 17 6 2 3 10
6 20 3 0 1 0
13 3 7 4 2 2 0
7 9 8 4 2 1 0
12 13 5 0 1 0 0
25 4 1 0 0 0
12 8 8 1 2 0
3 8 9 2 2 7 0
4 12 9 4 1 1 0
4 10 8 8 2 10
5 Molderatel ge
NO No pinio
Repn t 2
Repn t 3
Repn t 4
Repn t 5
R.~espondent 7 ...I,,
Respondent 1- (G)
Based on the above information regarding the breakdown of each individual
respondent to each of the questions on the survey allows for a look at tendencies that
appear based on the type of respondent. Looking at Figure 4. 1 shows graphs based on the
total responses from each respondent. This gives a good visual insight into the
similarities between different individuals who participated on the questionnaire.
Respondent 2- (C)
Respondent 3- (C)
Respondent 4- (C)
Respondent 5- (P)
Respondent 6- (C)
Respondent 7- (B)
Respondent 9- (C)
Respondent 8- (C)
Respondent 10 -(P)
a 54 21 o
a 5 4 s 2 1 No
Respondent 27 (B)
Respondent 24 (B)
Respondent 22 (C)
Respondent 23 (C)
Respondent 25 (0)
Respondent 26 (0)
Respondent 28 (B)
Respondent 29 (G)
Respondent 30 (C)
Respondent 31 (G)
Figure 4-1. Respondents
What Figure 4. 1 shows is how close most respondent' s answers were when all
sixteen questions are considered. This shows the lower possibility of any one respondent
bias towards the issues discussed. This proves to be helpful for showing the perception
of all respondents as being accurate. Taking into account all the components of the
sixteen questions, there were thirty-one possible answers. Even the participants who
scored the lowest on the summation rate totals had three answers in the strongly agree
column. Only five respondents had over eight of the thirty-one answers in the disagree,
moderately disagree, or strongly disagree columns. The high average of 139.2 is
indicative of how positive the answers were to the majority of the questions, and how
positive the maj ority of the respondents were to growth in their city and the building
construction industry. After looking at the graphs of Figure 4. 1 it can be seen that many
of the graphs have similar characteristics in shape. The letters after each respondent
number represent the category to which that respondent falls into. That being (C) for
individuals involved in the building construction industry, (0) for individuals involved in
civic organizations, (G) for those in the government, (P) for the general public, and (B)
for all individuals involved in general business activities. Looking at the results for each
of these areas gives a better insight into how particular individuals based on their
experience would answer on the questionnaire. Shown following in Figure 4.2 are graphs
representing the averages of the respondents based on the categories to which they fall
into as described earlier. This allows for seeing the averages of each respondent and the
similar characteristics as far as the shape of the graph.
Figure 4-2. Averages of Respondents
What Is Growth?
The base question asked what was the participant' s definition of growth and the
first question determined whether that definition was accurate based on present
conditions in the city. The answers came out varied and do not necessarily fall in to a
defined grouping. This is an example of why defining and identifying small cities for
growth can be a difficult task. Everyone seems to have a different belief of what planned
growth should be in the present and in the future. It is necessary for the building
construction industry in dealing with a small city to take into consideration the different
perspectives and try to include them in growth. The answers to the base question are
shown following and are grouped based on similar characteristics.
1. Well planned growth
2. Growth that is strictly controlled in order not to sprint past infrastructure and is in
compliance with a comprehensive plan
3. Continued growth to keep up with overall growth
4. Successful growth is expansion with thoughtful, long-range planning
5. Well developed and planned growth that not only created economic betterment, but
also rehabilitates and revitalizes the community
6. Growth that considers proper planning and addresses the needs and desires of the
7. More industrial growth
Balanced commercial and residential growth that can support the infrastructure
Increased downtown development
A sustained moderate increase of business on an annual basis
Issues with Jobs
Increase in jobs and in population
More jobs in the city
An increase in jobs to bolster economic growth
More jobs created and continual improvements
More jobs for local residents
High pay-high skill jobs
Increase in jobs paying above the national average, increase in development that does not
overly tax the infrastructure
Selling a lot of homes
Increase in residential growth
Not too good right now, and needs improvement
Building growth increase as a whole
More money to help out the local community
Growth without leaving older areas of town depressed
A balance between redevelopment of existing, older parts of the city and new developing
areas of the city
Greater population increase
An excellent infrastructure
The ability to maintain and expand all services and infrastructure as necessary, to sustain
a quality living environment
Equal to cities in adj acent areas
A further look at what the respondents think of the building construction industry
and growth can be seen by reviewing their general comments for individual questions
from the surveys. A breakdown of responses for each question can be seen in Table 4.3
Table 4-4. General Comments on Questions
1 L;dat~isgon~ingttt~fcacardlct baenitdngndctam~imh8esltjithiddollo~istoodaads~tio~s
5 Insmeaaset rttneyheMnfolyiRmhislonge
6 Wrt it rttn3sse liletheirteddq
7 ITofat, TconaypeqE: gingoathad itsao~staljatoloigmraigans
11 Onp7aign7~ld/lft Roiv ~~as lmasaseel tes33inth-edly
12 ILgpjaieJ;~s7sarla~rSwnt EirildEy
16 GIrdt Roidagolinggsl,
The general comments listed here help give an idea as to some of the concerns that
do exist in the sample city of Lakeland. These comments also allow for a better
understanding of a breakdown of the by questions review which come on the following
pages. All the comments show the perception that growth exists in the small city and
concerns are present with how the growth will be handled.
By Question Review
A review and analysis of the answers for each of the individual questions follows.
1. Is your city experiencing growth based on your definition?
O~mnan 1 is your cif y experiencing growth based' on yourdefinifion?
N.Jrnber of Respmnses
Rark NaLrrer of R esponses Prcentageof Total
6 Stronalv~ge 9 29D346 r
5 Agee 13 41 94%6 g
4 Moderstelv~Aree 6 1935% g
3 Modersely asagre 1 323% R
2 asagee 1 323%6
1 Strongly Disagrea 1 323%
no No Opinimn 000%ii
Total Responses 31 100.00%;
"" List of General Corrrents broken doui n by qustion in .4pperdix A arIR
sagee 3 988%g Percertage dTot-d
No Opinimn 0 000%
910~b0b Perertag B~aka~I-Ael No Opinion a t
Figure 4-3. Question 1 Response
The purpose of question number one was to find out immediately in the survey
processes what the participant thought about growth in their small city. This was based
upon their own definition of growth. They supplied what growth was, based upon their
beliefs and then answered if that growth was being met within their city. As shown in
Figure 4.3 over seventy percent strongly agreed and over ninety percent had some level
of agreement showing that growth was occurring within their city based upon their
definition. This proves to be an extremely high level and is probably reflective of the
growth that is transpiring in most Florida small cities.
Do you believe growth is good for your city?
Q luessn 2 Do yoru be~eve gmwtfh is good for your city?
NuLmber o Responses
Rark N~rrber f Responses lcrutraeof Total
6 Strongly Agree 11 35 48% n
5 Aree 13 41 94% .
4 Aibdars~ly$ree 4 1290%
3 ka~bder~telyr asatree 2 8.6 45
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagre 1 313% c
no N) Opinian 000%, t I
Told RElsponses 31 100.00% 1
"" Lis of General C~mrmens broken dow n by question in 4perdix A Rlse
Uaree 3 9.68% PeroertaeaF bTot-d
N, Opinian 0 0900%
9iO~b07 ~Percertayo EleakdmnvAeoN pnc ntrma
n N Opiiorzo.corr IIc l aoxa2 .<: so.mc 4o.c a:4s.ors
Figure 4-4. Question 2 Response
Question two was used to discover any bias the respondents had towards growth.
Here, again, as Figure 4.4 shows over ninety percent believe that growth was good for
their city. In fact, a large number placed this belief in the strongly agree category. The
high percentage of "agrees" answering this question allows for an understanding of
further questions involving growth. Most respondents felt a slight bias therefore towards
growth being a positive outcome or at least an outcome desired. The sample city of
Lakeland allows for a look at how a small town can handle a high percentage of growth.
The bias towards growth will sway answers towards a side of wanting future construction
expansion but it should not affect the results in too large of a fashion.
Do you believe the building construction industry has an impact on...
a. Growth in a positive manner?
b. Local economic growth?
c. Local population growth?
d. Local commercial construction growth?
e. Local residential construction growth?
Qaenon. -Do you believe fkebuiding construction in7dustry has a7 impact on .....
Number of Responses
o.oiX 20.0% 40.0% 60.0R 80m.0
i o- N, Opinim
Qarcnon 1 :ot
Number of Responses
s s4 21
i o N:. Opinica
... growt uul a apositivemanner?
Numberof Responses Percentaeeof Total
'" Us~t of General Comrnats brokw dou~ n by question in Apperdix A
- IJA Opinim
Question 3a Response
... local economic growth?
Ra~nk Nu~mber of Resonses Percentage of Total
6 Stonghly~ree 10 31226
5 Agee 15 4839%
4 Iubderselygree 5 16.13%
3 Mobderselv asagrea 000
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagrea 1 323%d
m It Opinicn 000%d
Tcal Response; 31 100.00%
"" List of General Cartnents broken d~uln byguestion in Apperdi:.A
so-, 2dn. 4trr 6+>
Figure 4-6. Question 3b Response
i o No Opinian
o.00 10.CR 2.077. 30.0>. 40CR 50.01
T n- ND Opinion
... IJocalpopulation growth?
Rark: hLrsarberofResones Frcrotraeof Total
6 Strongly~gre 10 32286%
5 AmeeI 12 38.711
4 lihdrs~elyAgree 7 2258%~
3 th~derseplv sagree 000%d
2 asagee 000%;
1 Strongly Disgree 1 323%6
m Eb Opinian 1 313%6
Toul Responses 31 100.00%6
n" List of General Carments broken dow n by question in Apperdix A
Nurnber of Responses
- N, Opinim
Question 3c Response
Qued.-s: n .) ront
.. ocal ommercial construction growfi?
Rark amber of Responses Arcentqgeof Total
6 StronglPgree 6 19351
5 gn 15 48.394
4 IVoderbely~aree 9 29034
3 Iaderrslv asaare9 000%
2 Osagree 000%d
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%
m No Opinimn 000%
Tolal Responses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Cornnents broken dau n by quesion in Apperdix A
E~rnber of Responses
- No Opinion
one. lamc.2no so.ox.4tor-.soar-.eson
Figure 4-8. Question 3d Response
Quesson' 3 cnt
... local residential construction n growirrf?
EaLmber of Responses
Rark mber rof Responses Ibrcentm of Total
6 Sirngly give 10 32~16 n
5 Agne 11 35.48%
4 Maderbely Agree 9 2903%
3 Moderstelv Csaare 000% a
2 Osagee 000%
1Sirngly Disagree 1 313%; E 11
re IJ Opinion 000%
Toul Responses 31 100.00%8
"" Lst of General Comments b~rokn dau n b~y queslion in pecix A Rlk
Aee 3) 96.77%8
isagee 1 313% Percertage ctTold
Na Opinian 0 000% s
II- Agee 1 ll
i ~ ~E .N Opinion R*mug~S
Figure 4-9. Question 3e Response
The answers to question number three concerning the impact of the building
construction industry was overwhelming in terms of agreement as was seen in Figures 4.5
through Figure 4.9. Almost ninety-seven percent feel the building construction industry
has a positive impact on (1) growth, (2) the local economy, (3) population growth, and
(4) both commercial and residential growth. This sets some high demands upon the
industry to perform. As stated before in this thesis paper, the more impact the
construction industry has on growth (or the impact the people believe it has), the more
effort the industry needs to make to assist growth in starting and in expanding. The
industry must take very seriously its responsibility to the community. The ability to
influence these different facets of cities in a positive manner show the need for improved
techniques in dealing with construction in these small cities.
Do you believe the building construction industry serves as a catalyst for growth?
Qulejln r4 Do you be~eew thebui~ding corrstruction inrdustry seriess as
a catalyst for growthf ?
F6.Jrnbe of R~esponses
Rank Numrber of Responses Farcentage ofTotal
6 StrnaWrauree 6 1936%
6 Agee 16 4839% g
4 Mobderselv~aree 8 2581% 8"
3 MbdElrsely asagre 1 323% R
2 asalgue 080%
1 Strongh; Disagree 1 323% |ii
no No Orpinion 090%s f
Total Responses 31 100.001
"" List of General Cornrnals backen daun by question in Asperdix A us
aeo 29 9356%s
Usage 2 .6A6% Percertage aFTot-d
N, Opinion D -ge D0%04 s
8S~b Percertage Bneakdohwn
II- N, Opinion RIEtumance
Figure 4-10. Question 4 Response
While question number three shows how the building construction industry has
been viewed as towards its impact on growth, the answers to question number four in
Figure 4.10 shows that it is not quite living up to its obligation. The response while still
positive decreased when the industry is looked upon as the catalyst for growth. This
means there is opportunity for the industry to take more of a leadership role. The
construction industry could focus on efforts in reaching out to the communities in the
small cities and trying to determine what is important to the general public. Efforts in
this regard could help to improve construction jobs in terms of quantity and obviously
could also be a good form of advertisement for the construction firms. A reason for the
lowered agreement rate here could be due to the public not being aware of the role the
construction industry has in their cities.
Do you believe the following resources are readily available in your city...
a. Construction materials?
b. Skilled labor?
c. Available money to assist growth?
d. Construction equipment?
s.T GoXI is.@< 2+@
; o- No Opinion
ri -No Opinim
Figure 4-12. Question 5b Response
Quessn 5 Do you beliee the follwing resources are readily acaiable in your city .....
.. con~struction maerials?
Rark Numbr of Respon ss FRrona~ritof Total
8 Strongly green 8 25 1%
6 Anne 13 41.94%
4 Mbderr~ely~gree 7 2258%
3 Moderseclv asaaree 3 908%
2 sage~e 000%
1 S~rongl Disagree 000%
m) NO Opinimn 000%
Tota Response 31 100.00%;
N.Jmber of Respon~ss
"" List of General Comments broken dau n by question in .qperdix A
- No Opinion
Question Sa Response
... skilled labor?
R~ark Ilrr2amber ~of Rspnes Perc~entqe fTotal
6 Strnalv~ree 4 1290%
5 Agner 1 32286%
4 IVbderselv~ree 9 29D3%
3 IMbderately asagrea 4 1290%
2 asacree 3 9S88%
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%;
m) No Opinian 080%
Total RElsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of Omneral Corrrents broken dowln bvus~sion in Fpperdix A
N.Jmber of Respmnses
1or moa~mr~. o.~~c
@.0 1.742cPS3007 40
- N, Opinia
... available moneyto assist grovdh?
Number of Responses
Ranrk Number of Responses Feroentqe of Total
6 Stronalv~bree 4 1290%1
5 Agree 12 38.71%g i
4 Ivoderaely~gree 10 3226%
3 Modersely asagre 2 6.46% a
2 asagee 2 6.46% C 6
1 Strongly Disagree 1 323%6 6 c
m No Opinion 000%6 g II
Tota Fesponses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carmnats brokenl dCW n by question in .qperdix A RtIIU
Ame 26 83 87%
Usage 5 10.13% Pe~rertage d Totd
No Opinion 0 0900% r
3 o~ ND Opiniar Rrculnacw
Figure 4-13. Question Sc Response
Ge~tsn 5 ncnt
... conrrdcmoior eq~uiprerrt?
N.Jmber d Respcnses
Rark arnbs of Responses Fercentage ofTotal
6 Stronalv~ree 6 1935%;
5 agee 13 41.94%6 i
4 MderselvParee 9 29D33% C
3 Modersely asagree 1 323% R
2 asaaes 1 323%
1 Strongly Oisagree ODDY6 "
m Ij Opinimr 1 323%
Tota Fksponses 31 100.00%6 s e 4 2 1
"" List of General Comments broken dowln by question in 4pperdix A h
Agee 28 9032%
sagee 2 ~6 46% PErcentage of Tdal
-No Opinion 1 323%6
S- Agee m
8~c No Opirrni save taces 2nec. saow. laoo. seoco-
Figure 4-14. Question 5d Response
Question number five looked at the resources that are necessary for growth to occur
and those resources availability in the city. As might be expected, money and skilled
labor were areas that people felt below adequate for sustained growth as could be seen
above in Figures 4. 11 through 4. 14. The question on the availability of skilled labor
received the largest number of disagreement answers of any other question. It is up to the
construction industry to attract and train enough people to satisfy the skilled labor
concerns. Growth will be difficult to continue if enough labor cannot be found to support
the construction projects. The answers did indicate that an industry strength came from
the standpoint of the adequacy of the materials and equipment being used in construction.
Do you believe there is support for construction growth in your city from the following...
a. Community leaders?
b. Political leaders?
c. Local residents?
d. Business owner
Qeno~n a Do you be~etse We~E~ is sUPPOrt farores~cfasten growth in your city from ....
... community ~eders?
Rark: A~berof Responses Percae of rTotal mrdRspne
6 Strongly Agree 6 1935% 1,
5 Agne 14 45.186 s
4 Rbderaely/gree 7 2258%
3 Wbdersely asagre 1 323%6
2 asagee 2 86.46
1 Strngly Disagre 000% '
m Nb Opinia 1 323%
Total Respo~nses 31 100.0046
"" List of Omenral Cctrmants brokmn dou n by question in Appendi:.:A name
Usagee 3 9d88 Percentage of Tdal
N, Opinimn 1 323% I I
ol- No Opirim
em.0- lawe 2ne. son4 @. sawc.
Figure 4-15. Question 6a Response
N.Jmber d Responses
19%/ Pcentage Breakcwn
S;r -. Nb Opinim
Q*.sesin~ 6 cnt
.Irnber d Responses
t I a
2j% 34 Percentage Breakdown
74!6ct N F Opirim
Om.0R t& 00 GR Gp
Figure 4-17. Question 6c Response
Omnsue~n? 6 eT
... political leaders
Nrter of Responses Fbreentgeof Total
17 6484% .
6 Strongly Aree
4 Mobderely Agree
3 Moderaely Dsagre
1 Strongty Disagree
no No Opinia
m" Lst of Gmeral Cawnmrts brkcn dow n by queslion in Apperix A
- N, Opinim
n~z pow, mee.2our moac. 4acea. ac sore
Figure 4-16. Question 6b Response
... Iocal residents?
Nu~rtr rof Responses Prcente of Total
"" Uist of General Cornnents broken dau n bvaussion in lbperdix A
- sa ee
- FA Opinion
... business owners?
N.Jrnber a Responses
Rurk: Numrberof Response s Prentmeof Total
6 Strongly Agree 7 2258%
5 Agree 17 5484%
4 Mobderseplv~aree 7 225846 B
3 Mobdersrelyasagree 090%
2 asaaee 000% :
1 Strongly Disagree 000% 2
re No Opinimn 000%6 1
Total Respnses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Ca~ments broken dow n br oueston in Apperix A sRIe
gee 31 100.00%
sa ee 0 00046 Percentageof Tctal
N, Opinimn 0 000%
OL1 Percentage BreakdwnvnIReaarcL~ t
Figure 4-18. Question 6d Response
Question number six shown in Figures 4.15 through 4.18 was to measure where the
support for growth was coming from within the city. Business owners and community
leaders received the highest endorsement for supporting growth. Local residents were
looked upon as the least supportive of growth. This question tied with the lack of skilled
labor as receiving the most disagreement responses. Support from the political leaders
followed with the next lowest marks concerning agreement. This could speak to the fact
that the building construction industry and the local business and community leaders are
doing a poor j ob of communicating the needs and requirements of the city in association
with growth. This could mean that the industry should look at another small city where
there exists more support from the residents and political leaders for growth. Without the
backing of the residents growth can only go so far, and they impact what growth does
occur and caused it to be very slow and difficult to obtain the rights for the start of
construction. Support for construction growth from local residents needs to improve for
construction to be a successful venture in smaller cities.
Are you satisfied with the current pace of growth in your city?
Ouenlar.; Are: you satisfied with the currenipace of growthr in your city?
Number of Respcoses
Rark I)Jmbe of Responses Percertaae of Total
6 Strongly~grea 3 98
5 gee 19 6129%; B
4 Idbderselv~qree 5 16.13%
3 IvbderselyOsagree 1 33
2 asasse 26.6
1Strongly Disagree 1 3133; s
re No Opinion 000%s
Total Responses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carorrnns broken dow n by cussion in ADPe~ndix A as
-Ag-ee 27 87.10%
Usammee 4 129% erowtag= of Total
-No Opinicn 0 00
la Percentage Breakdovn
Figure 4-19. Question 7 Response
As could be expected from the answers to previous questions, while still positive, a
fewer number of respondents were satisfied with the pace of growth within their city as
shown in Figure 4.19. This could be anticipated because such a large number supported
growth, looked on growth as being good, and that they felt resources existed to aid in
expansion. The lower response dealing with satisfaction with the pace of growth can be
due to the fact that growth is occurring at a large rate for the city of Lakeland. It can be
difficult for the population in the small city to adjust to such quick changes so when
asked about their overall opinions of growth they felt it was a good thing to be
experiencing. However, when questioned on the actual current growth those same
respondents could still be feeling the effects of the large growth in their city and not be
ca rk. Opinic
oar Ince.r 2n meoa me.o .eowr.
accustomed to everything occurring. Growth can experience such opposing views due to
the large impacts it produces on the small cities.
Do you believe the number of businesses and j obs has increased in your city over the past
OunrnanE Do you believe fhrenurber of businesses a~d jobs has increased la
your city over the pad 5 years
Number a Respanses
FRnk Nu~rrber ofResponses Percentale of Total
6 Strongil~r gree 12 38 71% =
5 gee 9 29D3%1 B
4 Ivbde~raelvlree 6 19.35%
3 I~bdersely asagrea 2 6 46% ,
2 Disague 000%; s
1 Strongh~rDisagree 000% I I i
re No Opinial 2 6.465%
Total R~Eponse; 31 100.00% 4 3 2
"" Lis of Gmneral Cornrents brokm dauln bvanstsion in ADpardix A Riars
-A as 27 87.10%;
Usaaee 2 6 456% Percentage of Tdal
Nb Opinion 2 6 45%
6%b Percentage Breakdown
Ia -A g re e l
0 NOpinim aa e. nw e sc.sw
Figure 4-20. Question 8 Response
Do you feel the increase based on question 8 above is due to the construction industry?
Queern r Do you feel the irrcrease based on q~uestior 8 above is due to f#re
Number d Responses
~Rnk Number ofResponses Percerstge ofTotal
6 Strongly.Agre 3 9 68%
5 Aiee 10 3220%2 8
4 Abdersely~gree 12 38.71% i
3 Abderselv asarea 3 9s88
2 asagEue 1 323% l .
1 Strongly Oisagree 090 %II
re th Opinion 2 6 45%
Total Responses 31 100.00%
~" Uist of General Canrnents broken datan by qustion in Apperdix A s
gee 25 8065%6
Usacree 4 1290%L Percentagn of Tdal
F Opinion 2 6.465% 1 I I
Figure 4-21. Question 9 Response
10. Do you believe the number of residential homes has increased in your city over
the past 5 years?
Quesucn 10' Do you beheem the number ofresiderntia homes hes increased ia your
city our the past 5 years?
Number a Respcnses
Rark NuCrnbe- of Resonses Rercerrtageof Total v
6 Strongly.Agree 18 68D86%
6 Aave 7 225846 B
4 I~bdersely~Agie 6 16.1346C;
3 Mo3derselv asaree 000%
2 asagee 000%
1 Strongly Disagrea DDY ii Is
no b Opinion 1 32346
Total Responses 31 100.00% i
"" List of General Corrments broken down by qustion in Apperdix A r
sasse 0 000% Percentage of Total
N, Opinian 1 323%
9 ~~~ ~ Pcera rad sagree Zoo.mc mgI a~.e;Xr
Figure 4-22. Question 10 Response
Questions number eight, nine, and ten shown in Figures 4.20 through 4.22 all work
together to measure the increase in jobs, businesses, and homes, and whether the
construction industry could take some credit for that growth. Eighty-seven percent
believed the number of jobs and businesses had increased in their city during the past five
years, and over ninety-six percent believed the same thing for the number of homes built.
In fact, the question on number of residential homes being built received the most
"strongly agree" responses of any question asked. The percentage dropped dramatically,
however, when responding on whether this increase was due to the building construction
industry. This is another opportunity for the industry to improve its impact by increasing
its effort towards residential growth and trying to decrease the difference between
population growth and construction growth. In finding a way to involve the residents
who are experiencing that large population growth and using that to improve construction
techniques and increase acceptance, growth can succeed for local residents and the
construction firms. Remember these answers are not necessarily based upon fact, but
rather, they constitute the perception of the respondents for what is real, and therefore
must be addressed.
11. Consider large projects to be over $ 3 million and small projects below that; then do
you feel local construction firms work on...
a. Sma ojects?
b. Large project?
Quesson 11 Consider largeprojects to be o ver 3 trillion $ and small projects below that;
fhren do you feel loca' construction firms workocn .....
... srnall projects?
Number a Responlses
Rark Nurrber f Responses Rromntageof Total
6 Stronaldnre 6 19354 ,
5 Agee 11 35.4846 B
4 Mobderslelv~aree 8 25811 1 L
3 Mobdersrely asagre 4 1290%
2 asaseO 1 3234 I
1 Strong~l, Disagre 8000%
re NC 0pinian 1 323% 2
Total Responses 31 100.00%a
"" Ust of Omenral Cammmis brokmn dotun bygueslion in 4bperdix A Rark
Agee 25 80835%
Osalee 5 16.13'6 Percentage of Tdal
No Opinimr 1 323%6
I 14b 3%C Percentag Breakdwn 4 I I
am.CP 10000 2GOo~ 300. 4GCoa
Figure 4-23. Question 11a Response
3% Percentage Breakdwn 4
G.CPL 10000 2GOGo 3001?. 4GCOG
Figure 4-23. Question 11a Response
Number d Responses
0.E. Lm iS#. 160@ .~QF 2&00 250&. 30&.
aCmber a Responses
6 5 4 2 1
... large projects?
arrberof Respo~nss Ircentm
s of Total
6 Stro~ngl gree 4
5 .Age 4
4 h4dersely/gree 6
3 hderaely Osagree 8
2 asagee 4
1 StrnglyDisagre 4
m No Opinion 1
Toa~l Responses 31
"" Uist of General Ccmnents broka dow n by gueslion in 4pperdi A
- N, Opinia
3% Prcentage Breakchnv
QuesPon I ce~nt
Rank DJ~ribrof Responses Percentge of Total
6 Sirongly~gree 5 16.13%6
5 Anrer 7 2258%
4 IMbdersely~gre 6 1935%
3 IMbderelyu asagree 5 16.13%6
2 asagee 4 12.90%1
1 Strongly Disagre 3 9.68%
m, E Opinian 1 323%
Total Responses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Cornnents broke dow n by questin in Ipartlix A
- A Opinion
G.Ci. Lm IaQ 1000. 10@< 2aaOOL 2500.
Figure 4-25. Question 11c Response
Question 11b Response
Quneatin 11 cent
Number o RaEper se
19%* Percenrtage Breakdown
ri No Opinim
M.Jrnber aF Responses
25% ~Percentage Breakdow
11- iA g re e
ri Nor Opinion
con. most, 2ncaps smoot. mostx
Fhrk Numrber f Response FhcErotagof Total
6 Stronniagree 000%
6 Agee 090%
4 Ivbdercy~nelvi 1 323%
3 Modearelyasagree 1 323%
2 asagee 3 Of)8%
1 Strongly Oisaree 22 70971
rK. No Opinion 4 1290%
Total Resiponses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carmnats broken dow n by quaslion in Apperalix A
- No Opinia
Qa:^- 2nOC^- 4cook most. sece
Figure 4-26. Question 11d Response
12. Do construction firms from outside your local area often get the larger proj ects?
Oulesnan 12 Do conrstruction firms from outside your loca area offe7 gef t e largerproducts?
Rark Nurber f Responses Percantaleof Total
6 Strongi~Pgrea 4 1290%6
5 .4yee 10 32186% B
4 IMbdebrely gee 8 25 1%
3 IMbdebrely asagree 4 1290%6
2 asagee 2 6.46%6
1Strongl Disagree 1 323%6
no No Opinimn 2 6 46% E
Toa~l Responses 31 100.00%6
"" List of Gmnerl Cmrnrents brokmn dau n by queslon in 4peralix A
- lb Opinion
Figure 4-27. Question 12 Response
6 m- Ag-ee
These questions all shown in Figures 4.23 through 4.27 both were designed to
understand the building construction industry within the city and its capabilities. From
the responses, firms located outside the city complete most large construction proj ects.
However, local firms do work on both small and large proj ects, just a larger percentage
on the smaller proj ects. This is thwhere jointuation where j oint efforts between local and
outside large firms work together to complete proj ects. With more j oint ventures to help
improve growth the city can achieve faster results while still upholding the needs of the
communities. Joint ventures enable construction growth to have the capabilities to meet
all financial and size requirements while still looking after the concerns of the small city.
The larger companies from outside the local area take care of all maj or proj ects problems
while the local company can focus on involving the local residents in the growth and
looking after all community issues dealing with construction expansion.
13. Do you believe growth can increase the quality of life for the people in your city?
Qu~eston 1. Do you be~eve growth can infcreae the quasty ofife fer thepeople
la your edfy?
Number d Responses
Rank Nu~Lrnberof R espon s e Froeageof Total
6 Stong A~gree 10 3226%;
5 Agee 13 41 94%
4 Modersely/gree 7 2258% .
3 Mobderselyasagrea 000
2 asagee 1 3213 L
1 Stong~ Disagre 000%ii
re It Opinian 000%
Told Response 31 100.00%
"" List of General Carments broken down by quaslon in perdix A n
Age 30 96.77%
sagee 1 323%6 Percrentar of Tdal
N, Opinian 0 000%
ROX 110~c. i~P~C. ~~C. ~QC~ ~aa~c.
Figure 4-28. Question 13 Response
This question was put in the survey to verify the response to question number two,
dealing with whether growth was viewed as good for the city. This question shown in
Figure 4.28 helped to verify the beliefs of the participants in that the percentages were
almost the same for both questions. People believe that growth does increase the quality
of life within a city. This question reasserted the results from question two that as a
whole the respondents do feel that construction growth can benefit the citizens in the
small city. This belief again shows some bias as towards the other answers to the survey
questionnaire however it a result that was expected. This area should be a focus point for
the building industry to use in trying to expand growth and their influence on positive
growth within a small city.
14. Do you believe that the political leaders, community leaders, and the building
construction industry all work together in your city to promote growth?
Questin 14 Do you be~ieew faf Ihepolifical leaders, community leaders, and fhe budding
construction industry aNl uo rk fog ether in your cify to
promofe gro wth?
N.Jrnber a Responses
Flark aLrrber f Responses Fromntmeof Total
6 S~rongly~gree 1 32346
5 AI~ee 14 46.161
4 IJbderztely Agree 10 3226%
3 Ilbderaelv( asaarea 3 988%
2 asague 000%g
1 Strongly Disagree 2 8~6.45 %
e Na Opinian 1 3234$
Total Falsponses 31 100.00% G
"" List of Omenral Camrrents brokmn des. n by questin in APPerdix A nalrr
-Agnee 25 8065%
isauee 5 16.13I Percentage of Tdtal
-,,, I Opini 1 32%I
Figure 4-29. Question 14 Response
sme1O~. lanc~ 2now.mc~o ~acc saer.
This question seen in Figure 4.29 above received the lowest rating of "strongly
agree" and "agree" responses compared to the other questions. People do not believe all
groups and leaders in the city are working together to promote growth. This should be an
immediate warning sign for anyone wanting growth for his or her city. In order to
experience successful growth it needs to be accomplished with the contributions and
teamwork of many different areas within the small cities. The construction industry
cannot manager all growth within these cities by themselves. Using all the assets and
people while getting them to work together should be the best approach for achieving the
goals of growth that are desired.
15. Do you believe that an increase in construction proj ects in your city will increase
jobs for local residents?
Qu~Eson 16 Do you believe that~ af increase la7 construdianrprojects ~in your 'fiy will
inrcrase jobs forlocad president s
Number a Responses
Rank Nunrer of Responses Amenteage of Total
6 StrongliP gree 7 22 $8%
5 Awe18 58D6%
4 Iubderserly Agree 5 16.13% C
3 Idbderserly usaurce 1 323%8
2 asagee 090%iI;
1 Strngli~ Disagree o090% E
m No Opinim, 090%
Total Fsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of General Commlents broken doll n by qustion in Apperalix A sr
/qer 30 96.77%
Usacree 1 323% Percentaageof Total
No Opinian 0 090% a
S- Ag-ee r
i on Nob Oprian
omc. 2ocst m ost ee. Enook sIOnot
Figure 4-30. Question 15 Response
Almost everyone agreed with the question shown in Figure 4.30 that construction
proj ects would increase j obs for local residents. This is even though many respondents
believed the large proj ects went to companies located outside of the city. This result says
that work for local people are created by growth and not by the actual construction jobs
needed to enact that growth. This should be a point of emphasis for the construction
industry. If growth occurs more successfully with increased residents growth then
involving the local population in the construction work should further the positive impact
of growth. Another point to be taken from the results for this question comes in being
able to find small cities that are experiencing and are suppose to continue having
population growth. This growth will lead to new opportunities for perceptions to be
formed in favor of the construction industry. Finding the small cities that show the signs
of population growth and then by involving those individuals with the construction
industry can lead to positive results for the construction firms involved in the growth.
16. Do you believe growth will increase substantially over the next...
a. 1 year?
b. 5 years?
c. 10 years?
OUaca 16rlI Do you be~iel~ growth wiN~ increase substantialy over the uexf .....
Number of Respcnses
Rark Numrbe of RIesonses Percentae of Total
6 Strongly~gree 8 2581%
5 ~Aee 11 35.48%
4 Ideirsely~gree 7 2258% i
3 Modersely asagree 4 1290%
2 asague 000%
1 Strongly Oisagree 1 323% :Ii
re NC Opinian 000% 1
Total FRsponses 31 100.00%
"" List of Ganeral Cormmats broken dmu n by question in parlix A aR11
Agee 26 83874$
Usacree 5 16.134$ Percentag2 of Tatal
,,, NC pii 000% I I
o.ms. la~x. zaco~ ?aoc~ ~a~x.
Figure 4-31. Question 16a Response
Cuestion li cor.t
M.1mber d Respons~es
QOX. 2na"F anCT sonCT son
QuEstion 16 cent
m.Jrnb d Respmnss
Percentage o Tdal
amc. incom. 2ne. mPaw. 4aeo. smoot.
Rank arnbe-of Response Percentm of Total
6 Sirongly~grea 12 3871%
5 ~aee 11 35 48%
4 Modersely Agree 5 16.13%
3 IMbderrel asagre 2 6.46%6
2 asagee 8000%
1 Strongly Oisgrea 000%
m No Opinian 1 323%6
Total Response; 31 100.00%
"" List of General Comrannts broken dowln by question in 4pperdix A
-Agner 28 9032%
Osagae 2 6.46%
N, Opinimn 1 323%
i i No Olirian
Figure 4-33. Question 16c Response
... 5 years?
IAmrberof Reponses Percartaa
e of Total
6 Strngl~gree 8
5 we 18
4 ModerstelyAg~re 2
3 MobderselyDsagree 2
no No Opinia 1
Toul Response 31
"I List of General Cmmrnras broken doumn by question in gppendix A
- N, Opinimn
Question 16b Response
6% g Percentage Breakdcwn
4i o- N, Opirim
What is the future of growth based on a time frame within the city was the last
question asked on the survey. This was shown in the results in Figures 4.31 through 4.33.
Again, a large maj ority believed that growth was occurring now, but most felt that an
even greater growth rate would happen in the future. This proves to be a great sign for
the building construction industry. Again, these answers are not based upon fact, but the
respondent' s perception usually tends to be right in the long term. The fact that growth
can be expected to occur, and at a high rate, should be reason number one for
construction growth in a small city and that should then give successful results.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Chart Of Success
The building construction industry is a maj or component for growth in the attitude
of the people in the small, growing Florida city of Lakeland. The completed
questionnaire was analyzed and data reviewed to assist in developing a chart that will be
called the "Chart of Success", see in Figure 4.34. The purpose of the chart is to present
the factors necessary for profitable and sustained growth to occur in a small city.
Figure 5-1. Chart of Success
There are seven blocks to this chart, and it is believed all seven blocks are required
for the building construction industry and the city to have successful growth. It would be
difficult to obtain success in a small city if several of the blocks were missing.
Population growth is the foundation for building success. Skilled labor, local support,
and available money can be thought of as building the walls for success. Local and non-
local construction firms are the reinforcements for the building of success. The
importance of working together can then be thought of as putting the roof on the building
of success. Success, the Einal segment, itself can be thought of as the finished building
complete with landscaping and all its aesthetic values. Successful growth does not have a
defined meaning; it comes in the form of the opinions of the individuals and
organizations that make up the small cities. The "Chart of Success" is only a suggestion
to review to make sure all the points are considered when working with construction
Block One--Population Growth
Population growth is the foundation for the "Chart of Success." The most
important aspect to examine when looking for successful ventures in small city
construction growth comes in the form of population growth. Without a steady increase
in population there exists the possibility of future tough times in dealing with continual
construction growth. The sample city examined (Lakeland, Florida) returned high results
concerning current and future commercial and residential growth. This segment has to be
present in order to have the easiest transition to larger and continued construction proj ects
within the small city. Identifying cities with this characteristic will lead to the best
possible end result. It comes down to the simple fact of supply and demand. An
increasing population in any small city will demand the need for improvements and
related growth in terms of construction.
Block Two--Skilled Labor
One of the maj or issues of concern that was raised by the result of the questionnaire
was the lack of enough skilled labor to help satisfy increased construction requirements.
Having a plentiful and experienced labor force alleviates one of the primary concerns
when dealing with construction in expanding smaller cities. The smaller cities have
maj or issues concerning funding and other Einancial issues so any form of delays or
rework will end up costing them many times more than the actual monetary value
(Gerrante 2002). A lack of skilled labor to Einish all the construction work would be a
primary reason for delays and rework. At the onset of a venture into small city
construction growth any construction firm involved must evaluate their own personnel,
and have predetermined layouts for all work practices and work j obs. Not assessing this
need could lead to mistrust and maj or financial overruns with the cities once the negative
impacts of a decreased labor force are realized. This in return causes the negative
perception of the construction industry in the small cities, and will hurt the overall growth
and prosperity of all businesses involved.
Block Three--Local Support
An issue that can lead to large negative outcomes comes from the lack of local
resident' s support for construction or at the very least the perception of such
circumstances. There has to be time put into communicating and involving as many of
the local residents and businesses men in all possible construction growth issues. One of
the largest complaints in going into a smaller city to improve growth is that it takes away
from the identity of the town, and therefore growth may be looked on as a negative
venture (Copeland 1996). As was shown in the questionnaire responses, the majority of
respondents felt growth was a very good venture and would have a great impact on the
improved living standards for all people involved. This speaks to the fact that the
construction industry as a whole does not have the right approach in dealing with small
cities. Once the majority of the initial construction work has been completed in any city
it is still the local population that makes the city prosper and continue financial
prosperity. This fact needs to be recognized and the local population needs to be more
involved with every aspect of growth for their cities. It can be accomplished through
allowing more jobs opportunities in construction dealing with the smaller city, or even
though weekly or monthly meetings to discuss about arising issues and new concerns.
Whatever approach is used, or any other approaches that may be looked at, that approach
must involve the local residents because only then can the growth of the smaller cities
show the continual production results necessary to be successful.
Block Four--Available Money
The community and the construction industry must have access to money. This can
take the form of revenue sources, bank sources, lines of credit, or private sources.
Continued growth is not accomplished in terms of months or even years. The main point
is that not only does money have to be available at the beginning, but also there has to be
money available to carry growth past the beginning phase.
Blocks Five and Six--Local and Non-Local Construction Firms
Blocks Hyve and six must be looked at together in reviewing the process of joint
venture agreements with the local construction firms in the small cities. Results showed
from the questionnaires indicate that many proj ects in the growing smaller cities go to
construction firms located outside their immediate geographical area. This proves to be
necessary due to both the people and Einancial resource issues involved with maj or
construction growth in any area. Seldom do smaller cities have the construction variety,
size, and numbers to complete full-scale growth. Only non-local firms with a larger
capital base can handle and control such large quantities of work and expansion. This
does not mean that the local firms should be shut out of all operations in the town. In
fact, just the opposite must be true. Local firms must be included in construction proj ects
in any small city. By working in joint venture agreements both the Einancial and
production concerns of the construction firms can be met by the non-local firms, while
community needs can be met by the local firms in which population concerns should also
be addressed. There was overriding agreement with the questions referring to residential
growth in the city. This means more people, and therefore their needs to have more j obs
created by the construction industry to support this growth, and to pave the way for even
further expansion. This actually relates to segment three, which was gain local support
by involving the local community in the construction growth.
Block Seven--Working Together
The important ingredient that can be gained from working with both political and
community leaders is best told by a quote from Edmund Burke who once said, "As
individuals we are weak and foolish, as a society we are wise and powerful" (www.mta).
The same can be said for the construction industry, because between all the many
thousands of contractors, developers, builders, and sub-contractors there exist confusion
when working individually, but in working together the building construction industry
can be powerful. Local and non-local firms working together is another must for
achieving the desired goals and final results. All parties working together can lead to
better relationships, increased construction growth, and improved success and prosperity
for all construction firms and smaller cities involved.
Completing these seven segments is not a guarantee to make any venture in small
city growth within Florida positively successful. Each of the segments was looked at
independently, but they are all interrelated. These just give an insight into the concerns
as expressed by local residents in an existing small city with high growth expansion. In
allowing for a better understanding of these factors, and by implementing them into a
construction plan, then smaller city growth can hopefully achieve an improved success
rate. The primary reason for introducing these factors is to make more construction firms
aware of the issues involved with working in small cities. It can be profitable and
rewarding, but it is different than working in large cities. Large cities have completely
distinct key factors to consider. Following the seven segments can lead to successful
growth for all parties involved when dealt with in the proper manner, and with enough
knowledge. One possible measure of success for construction growth in small cities
would be not to determine it by what occurs during expansion, but rather what occurs
once the construction levels off and the city must function on its own. The continual
growth of those cities could then yield the greatest results for local communities and all
involved construction firms.
The overall impression gained from reviewing the completed questionnaires was
one of satisfaction with the extremely positive tone of almost all respondents. The good
rate of return on the answering of the survey questions indicated that people are definitely
interested in expressing their feelings and attitudes towards growth. The answers to the
survey questions supported the hypothesis that "the building construction industry has a
positive impact on the growth of small cities within the state of Florida." The responses
suggest there is no one solution that is going to satisfy everyone on the subject of growth.
People could not agree to the definition of growth, so they are not going to all agree as to
the best method to improve growth. The construction industry has to consider the
opinions of the general public, but it must move on with positive growth procedures.
The four main elements indicated from the completed surveys that it is felt the
industry should become more responsible in small cities are:
1. To make sure there are enough resources from the standpoint of people (skilled and
unskilled), plus materials and equipment;
2. To gain and understand local support for growth;
3. To fully communicate the industry positive role in growth; and
4. To work with the community leaders and politicians to make sure adequate funding is
available for continual growth.
These elements should be included in any final construction project plan. None of these
elements has a set procedure to follow in which to achieve the desired results. Each
construction firm must look at their existing standards, and determine the best steps to
take to reach the goals outlined in these elements.
A newsletter for developers recently stated, "you must promote economic
development within concurrency limits. You must promote public health, safety,
comfort, and general welfare to all businesses and residents. You must be
environmentally sensitive" (www.homes). These are all points that the building
construction industry must try to accomplish in any small city. They are the points that
the industry must communicate to everyone are being completed, and how they will be
achieved. The construction industry must be a leader in explaining the following
conditions of growth:
a. How growth can be stimulated.
b. Why growth is necessary.
c. Why growth can represent positive outcomes.
d. How growth can occur and still be controlled.
Mr. Duany gave the leaders of the small city of Temple Terrace, FL (located on the
outskirts of Tampa, FL) the following advice. "Temple Terrace has three options for
redevelopment. One, redevelopment can be private, with developers taking the initiative.
Two, redevelopment can be city directed and subsidized. Or, three redevelopment can be
according to a city-initiated master plan, but performed by private developers who bid on
specific proj ects" (www.dpz). From the survey it has been seen that it does not matter
which option should be chosen, the public will see the building construction industry as a
leader in growth in most situations. The industry in any given city must take this
responsibility seriously and do everything possible to make sure they are a part of growth
from the start to the finish. Looking into future studies that can be performed it could be
of interest to see how the types of jobs in the area of the small cities effect the
construction growth. For example, in Lakeland, Publix Super Markets is headquartered
there, so many jobs and the cities economical base comes from how well Publix is doing
in business. It could be possible that if Publix starts to have financial issues the city of
Lakeland may not be able to succeed in profitable construction growth. Obviously,
another viewpoint would come from looking at a small city that does not have a primary
employer such as Publix as their primary employer in their city. These points could all
affects the outcome of the efforts for successful growth. Any increased efforts towards
construction growth in the smaller cities within Florida, when handled with the proper
amount of concern for the local communities, can lead to benefits, growth, and prosperity
for the construction industry and all the firms associated with that success. It is important
to review the "Chart of Success" when considering construction projects located in small
Table A-1. Cities Based on US Census 2000
City Population City Population
1. ALTAMONTE SPRINGS 41,200 2. APOPKA 26,642
3. ATLANTIC BEACH 13.368 4. AUBURNDALE 11,032
TWO HUNDRED THIRTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION
BETWEEN 10,000 100,000
9. BAYSHORE GARD
13. BOCA DEL MAR
15. BONITA SPRING~
25. CITRUS RIDGE
27. COCOA BEACH
31. CORAL GABLES
33. COUNTRY CLUB
36. CUTLER RIDGE
38. DANIA BEACH
40. DAYTONA BEAC
42. DEERFIELD BEA(
44. DELRAY BEACH
58. FLORIDA RIDGE
59. FORT MYERS
61. FORT WALTON
63. FRUIT COVE
6. AZALEA PARK
8. BAYONET POINT
10. BELLE GLADE
14. BOCA RATON
16. BOYNTON BEACH
22. CAROL CITY
24. CITRUS PARK
28. COCONUT CREEK
30. COOPER CITY
32. CORAL TERRACE
34. COUNTRY WALK
37. CYPRESS LAKE
41. DE BARY
43. DE LAND
49. EAST LAKE
51. EGYPT LAKE-LETO
57. FERRY PASS
58. FOREST CITY
60. FORT PIERCE
67. GLENVAR HEIGHTS
69. GOLDEN GLADES
81. HOBE SOUND
83. HOLLY HILL
89. IVES ESTATES
91. JASMINTE ESTATES
97. KEY LARGO
99. KEY WEST
105. LAKE MAGDALENE
109. LAKEWOOD PARK
111. LAND O LAKES
117. LEISURE CITY
121. LYNN HAVEN
129. MIAMI BEACH
131. MIAMI SPRINGS
133. MYRLIE BEACH
135. NEW PORT RICHEY
92. JENSEN BEACH
94. KENDALE LAKES
96. KENDALL WEST
100. KINGS POINT
102. LADY LAKE
104. LAKELAND HEIGHTS
106. LAKE MARY
108. LAKE WALES
110. LAKE WORTH
116. LEIGH ACRES
124. MARCO ISLAND
126. MEADOW WOODS
128. MERRIT ISLAND
130. MIAMI LAKES
136. NEW SMYRNA
140. N. LAUDERDALE
142. N. MIAMI BEACH
144. NORTH PORT
146. OAK RIDGE
152. ORMOND BEACH
N. FORT MYERS
N. PALM BEACH
155. PALM B. GARDENS
157. PALM COAST
159. PALMETTO ESTATES
161. PALM RIVER
163. PALM VALLEY
174. PORT CHARLOTTE
176. PORT ST. JOHNS
178. PUNTA GORDA
179. RIVIERA BEACH
181. ROYAL PALM
183. ST. AUGUSTINE
185. SAN CARLOS PARK
189. SARASOTA SPRINGS
193. S. DAYTONA
195. S. VENICE
205. TEMPLE TERRACE
207. THE HAMMOCKS
209. TOWN N COUNTRY
213. UPPER GRAND
215. VERO BEACH
223. WEST LITTLE RIVER
225. W. PALM BEACH
227. WESTWOOD LAKES
229. WINTER GARDEN
231. WINTER PARK
154. PALM BAY
PORT ST. LUCIE
S. MIAMI HEIGHTS
SMALL CITY CONSTRUCTION TELEPHONE QUESTIONNAIRE
Table B-1. Questionnaire
Unvriyof Florida Survey on Growth and Influence of
Scolof Building Construction Building Construction Industry
PrprdBy: Robert Burnett Aug-03
Key for Completion:
6SA = Strongly Agree
ApoiaeTime to Complete 5 A = Agree
5 Minutes 4 MA = Moderately Agree
3MD = Moderately Disagree
2 D =Disagree
1SD = Strongly Disagree
NO = No Opinion
-What is your definition of successful growth?
4 Do you believe the building construction Industry
serves as a catalyst for growth?
I I I I I I I I
6 5 I4 3 2 11 NO
1 Is your city experiencing growth based on your
2 Do you believe growth Is good for your city?
3 Do you believe the building construction Industry
has an impact on
growth In a positive manner?
local economic growth?
local population growth?
local commercial construction growth?
local residential construction growth?
5 Do you believe the following resources are readily
available In your city
available money to assist growth?
6 5 4 3 21 1 ND General Comrtnrts
6 hb you believe there is support for construdian gradnh
in your city from... .
7 Are you satisfied wlith the current pace of gradnh
in your city?
8 hb you believe the nurrber of businesses and jobs
has increased in your city over the past 5 years?
9 h you feel the increase based on question 8 abov~e
is due to the construction industry?
10 hbyou believe the nurrber of residential homes has
increased in your city over the past 5 years?
11 Consider large projectsto be over 3 rrillion $ and
snrll projects belNtvthat; then do you feel
local construction firm vak on ....
12 hb construction firms from outside your local area
often get the larger projeds?
13 Do you believe gradnh can increase the quality of life
for the people in your city?
14 Do you believe that the political leaders, community
leaders, and the building uonstrudian
industry all verk together in your city to
15 hbyou believe that an increase in construdian
projects in your city wiill increase jobs
for local residents?
Number er yI
E Ma llepon
PHONE SURVEY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT
-Hi, my name is Robert Burnett
-I am a graduate student at the University of Florida working on my master' s thesis
-Which is based on determining the influence the building construction industry has on
small city growth
-In doing this research I am conducting a random phone survey to get opinion from
various individuals within the city of Lakeland
-I was hoping I could have 4 to 5 minutes yf your time to answer a few questions about
growth and the construction industry in your city
-Let me reassure you that all information will be kept confidential and will not be
-But rather as a composite of all the survey's results
INTRODUCTORY LETTER QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THESIS WORK
Robert F. Burnett
M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction University of Florida
Time to Complete: 4 5 minutes
My name is Robert F. Burnett. I graduated in the spring 2003 semester with a Bachelor
of Science in Building Construction Degree from the University of Florida. I then decided to
further my studies and am now finishing up my graduate studies, also in the M.E. Rinker Sr.
School of Building Construction at the University of Florida. My thesis focuses on the effect the
building construction industry has involved with small city growth. In doing this research I
developed a questionnaire for an analysis of what construction firms, government officials, civil
organizations, local businesses, realtors, and local residents opinions are concerning the impact of
construction on small city growth. This is being completed within my sample city of Lakeland,
I would greatly appreciate it if you would complete the attached questionnaire and return
it with the pre-addressed, stamped envelope. The answers from the questionnaire will lead to a
better understanding of small city growth and reoccurring positive impacts based on factors that
can be applied in future construction in other small cities throughout the state of Florida. Your
name and company information is optional, but it would be helpful to me if it was included. All
information will be kept confidential, and only used as a composite of all the results. Please help
out and take the short time to respond. Thank you in advance for taking the time to be of
assistance to me in completing my thesis work.
I am performing this questionnaire in both a written (mailed) format as well as a phone
survey. One of the reasons for mailing this survey to you is to allow (1) you time to fill out the
questionnaire and send it back, or (2) be better prepared to answer the questions if you decide to
help in a phone survey format. I plan on beginning to call for the phone survey in two weeks
(Oct.6) to any individuals/businesses that I do not receive the questionnaire back from. I again
thank you for your consideration in helping with the questionnaire. I realize all respondents are
busy, but your contributions shall be Greatly Appreciated. I hope you have a wonderful day.
E 1Lr .
,~~ h ~
Table E-1. Contact B reference List
1-863- LAKELAND, FLORIDA
666-9020 Adult Primar Care 2039 East Edewood Dr 33803 B
648-5787 Advanced Aluminum 2934 Paky St 33811 B
666-1624 America Title Services 109 Allamanda Dr 33803 B
644-4701 Aartment Locator Services 6124 Christina Dr East 33813 B
858-8166 Arthur-Ryan The Salon 5326 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
665-5548 Art-N-Wood 2516 Mine Mill Lane 33801 B
665-2652 Atlantic Filter 2126 East Edewood Dr 33803 B
668-6000 Breed Technologes P.O. Box 33050 33807 B
680-2274 Cash Register Auto Insurance 2810 South Florida Ave 33803 B
665-5777 Central Mobile Homes 3025 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
682-1155 Countr Hearth Bread P.O. Box 1707 33802 B
688-7994 Curt Wheeler 1032 South Florida Ave 33803 B
Wheeler & Wheeler
665-2441 Davis Monument 3503 US Hw 98 South 33803 B
682-8107 Don Marks 1409 North Florida Ave 33805 B
682-7171 Florida Tile Industries P.O. Box 447 33802 B
688-5000 Freida Williams 402 South Kentucky 33801 B
Sclafoni Williams Court Ave
688-8557 Gaines Jewelry 112 South Tennessee 33801 B
686-3189 Gary Ratcliff 710 East Bella Vista St 33805 B
Speeh &Hearing Center
413-5115 GC Services 1775 Interstate Drive 33805 B
648-2871 GEICO P.O. Box 33040 33807 B
686-2228 Harry's Seafood Bar & Grille 101 North Kentucky 33801 B
802-3000 ICT Group 333 N. Lake Parker Ave 33801 B
858-2271 Jeffrey Seaman 3850 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
Rooms To Go Furniture
665-2222 Keith Bare 1216 US Hwy South 33801 B
858-5500 Keymark 2540 Knights Station 33810 B
686-2125 Lakeland Funeral Homes 2125 Bartow Road 33801 B
CONTACT REFERENCE LIST
687-1100 Lakeland Regional Medical P.O. Box 95448 33804 B
688-9477 Learning Resource Center 904 Missouri Ave South 33801 B
687-8545 Lisa Hickey 2710 New Tamp Hwy 33815 B
Douglas Screen Printers
683-3300 Maid Pro 1111 Florida Ave 33803 B
682-4774 Marian Pugh 228 E. Pine St 33801 B
683-4477 Mary Lou Kalisz 114 North Tennessee 33801 B
Citrus & Chemical Bank Ave
815-4400 Mr. Collins 1320 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
686-0553 Mr. Pool Inc. 3216 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
687-0405 Ms. Saunders 105 North Kentucky 33902 B
Pottery By The Park Ave
682-2811 Nathan's Men's Store 221 East Main St 33801 B
665-1526 National Memorials 3815 US Hw 98 South 33813 B
665-1856 Overhead Doors 3412 Reynolds Rd 33803 B
688-7978 Paramount Title 2600 South Florida Ave 33803 B
816-9663 Paul Fawcett 5115 US Hwy 98 North 33809 B
Wood World Furniture
688-4000 Peperde Farm 2222 Interstate Drive 33805 B
858-2252 Polk Count Animal Hospital 7433 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
646-0544 Polk Count Pest Control 5410 South Florida Ave 33813 B
853-2340 Polk Count Pools 11510 Rockridge Rd 33809 B
687-9441 Press Express 1339 Ariana St 33803 B
644-5619 Prestige Spa & Tubs 521 West Brannen Rd 33813 B
688-1188 Publix SprMarkets P.O. Box 407 33802 B
665-2233 Recreational Factory 8134 US Hwy 98 North 33801 B
665-6132 Rental Service 3310 Winter Lake Rd 33803 B
616-6053 Ronald Riggs 1401 South Florida Ave 33803 B
Allen & Co
686-1724 Rooms To Go Furniture 1475 Aiprt Rd 33811 B
646-4370 Roto Rooter 3711 Centur Blvd 33811 B
647-9905 Royale Retreat DySa410 West Brannen Rd 33813 B
688-1486 Stacy Campbell-Domineck 717 North Kentucky 33801 B
Work Force 2000 Ave
802-5751 Stewart Title 500 South Florida Ave 33801 B
665-6060 Summit Consulting 2310 A to Z Park Road 33801 B
682-2852 Sun Glo Pools 1543 Memorial Blvd. 33815 B
669-0040 Superor Pool & Patio Decks 3353 US Hw 92 East 33801 B
687-4411 Tampa-Maid Foods 1600 Kathleen Rd. 33809 B
688-0800 Terrace Hotel 329 South Main St 33801 B
619-3789 Tom Evans Environmental 3605 Ventura Drive East 33811 B
644-5995 Trent Goss Mimi Storage 215 E. Alamo Drive 33801 B
646-3796 Violette's Salon 4608 Cleveland Heights 33813 B
687-4545 Watkins Motor Lines P.O. Box 95002 95002 B
680-7000 Watson Clinic P.O. Box 95000 33804 B
858-5612 Williford Flooring 4820 US Hw 98 North 33809 B
648-1914 AAA Hih Point Construction 4525 South Florida Ave 33813 C
701-8712 Adams & Murray Custom 202 Lake Mirian Dr 33813 C
815-3921 Adams Homes 7505 Gunstock Dr 33809 C
646-2395 Adams Homes-Corprate 120 Allamanda Dr 33803 C
646-3310 Al Cardinali Contractor 5205 Charles Lane 33811 C
686-0039 Allied Building Services 5675 New Tampa Hy 33815 C
619-7735 American Heritae Homes 7121 Lake Ealebrooke 33813 C
668-8805 Aguatec Marine Construction 2020 South Combee Rd 33801 C
644-0456 B&M Construction 3706 Dmg Drive 33811 C
859-3464 BHR Construction 6245 Robin Rd 33801 C
644-8813 Bill Taylor Construction 5120 S. Lakeland Dr. #1 33813 C
858-3607 Billy Smith Building 8403 Tom Costine Road 33809 C
682-0324 Blevins Builders 210 Lake Hollingsorth 33803 C
816-1414 Branham Construction 924 Fairland Dr 33809 C
984-2966 BTU Construction 8404 Epicenter Blvd 33809 C
646-0988 Built Well Homes 5842 Buck Run Dr 33811 C
644-7776 Cassid Homes 6615 Highands Creek 33813 C
644-6755 Central Florida Contractors 5300 Florida Ave. South 33801 C
858-0820 Cherokee Construction of FL 9010 US Hwy. 98 North 33809 C
683-6500 Cher Hill Construction 5351 Great Oaks Dr 33815 C
701-9100 Comfort Keepers 5150 South Florida Ave 33801 C
858-2426 Compton-Peachee 1210 Baker Dr. 33810 C
683-4200 Cone & Graham 625 East Lime St. 33801 C
686-0806 Contractors Plus of Florida 305 Winston Creek 33810 C
687-4946 Craven Desin & Construction 501 West Peachtree St. 33815 C
644-6499 Crossroads Construction 3702 Centur Blvd. 33811 C
802-0404 Crovo Construction 1114 Florida Ave. South 33803 C
687-8754 Cruse Construction 520 West 10t St. 33805 C
687-4037 D J Trusses Unlimited 315 Winston Creek 33810 C
683-6516 D K Harwell 814 South Florida Ave 33801 C
834-6082 Dave Bayhan 228 S. Massachusetts 33801 C
Plumbin Inpcor Ave.
859-3066 David Borders Construction 1034 Woodland Dr 33809 C
Construction 1034 Woodland Dr 33809 C