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A Twice-Told Gothic Romance: The Anatomical Differences in Jules Barbey D'Aurevilly's L'Ensorcelee and Emily Bronte's Wu...


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A TWICE-TOLD GOTHIC ROMANCE: THE ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES IN JULES BARBEY DAUREVILLYS LENSORCELE AND EMILY BRONTS WUTHERING HEIGHTS By KATHRYN IRENE MOODY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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For Gaga.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................iv CHAPTER 1 THE GENDER OF THE TEXT................................................................................1 2 THE BEAU TNBREUX..........................................................................................5 3 VAMPIRE MOTIFS...................................................................................................11 LEnsorcele and the Vampire...................................................................................13 Wuthering Heights and the Vampire..........................................................................20 4 TOWARD AN CRITURE FMININE....................................................................27 5 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................41 WORKS CITED................................................................................................................52 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................54 iii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A TWICE-TOLD GOTHIC ROMANCE: THE ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES IN JULES BARBEY DAUREVILLYS LENSORCELE AND EMILY BRONTS WUTHERING HEIGHTS By Kathryn Irene Moody December 2003 Chair: William Calin Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures In this thesis, I establish evidence of a proto-criture fminine la Hlne Cixous and Luce Irigaray in Emily Bronts Wuthering Heights by comparing it to a similar novel LEnsorcele, by Jules Barbey DAurevilly. The two novels are similarboth fall into the genre of gothic romance and both contain not only the Byronic hero (which is de rigueur for the genre), but also a nontraditional heroine (remarkable for her fiery independence and refusal to play the role of the traditional gothic heroine, the maiden in flight). In support of my argument, I first assert the existence of a vampire motif in both LEnsorcele and Wuthering Heights and trace this motif through both works. I propose that the abb de la Croix-Jugan and Heathcliff are vampiric figures and that Jeanne de Feuardant and Catherine Earnshaw are their respective victims. However, the difference in each authors retelling of the vampire myth is that, while each heroine reacts similarly to the vampires attack (with attraction to the attacker), only Catherine is permitted to return the attack and to vamp her attacker and others. Thus, we first see evidence of iv

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criture fminine in the fluid, multidirectional quality of Catherines desire as compared to Jeannes more linear desire. Further, we may note that Bronts vampires, like many vampire figures of the nineteenth century, are polymorphously perverse, while Barbeys are not, and this quality is associated with the fminine. Bront also employs the fminine method of mixing the gender roles of her characters, assigning typically masculine roles to women and vice versa. We see this in terms of the vampire myth in that the enabler of her vampire is male, though this role is typically assigned to a female: la Clotte in LEnsorcele. We see further swapping of traditional gender roles in Bronts use of froda and forza, or fraud and violence. According to Northrop Frye, froda is typically the tool of the female, and forza is associated with the male. We find that this is more or less the case in LEnsorcele, where Jhol is the physically violent warrior and Jeanne resorts to mysticism in her attempts to woo Jhol. However, in Wuthering Heights, it is Catherine who prefers physical violence, slapping and pinching at Edgar and Nelly in her anger, while Heathcliff favors froda, plotting and scheming to achieve his ends. We also see the fminine strategy of masquerade in Catherines behavior in Wuthering Heights. I suggest Jeanne is a character obsessed with the Realm of the Proper la Cixous, while Catherine is a character torn between the Gift and the Proper. Finally, I contrast Barbeys polarization of good and evil forces and characters with Bronts refusal to impose a moral code on her characters, who resist the categorization typical to non-fminine works. Thus, using the vampire motif, I assert that Wuthering Heights is a work that anticipates criture fminine by comparing it to LEnsorcele, a work that contains a fiery and independent but not particularly fminine heroine. v

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1 CHAPTER 1 THE GENDER OF THE TEXT Jules-Amede Barbey dAurevillys 1852 gothic romance LEnsorcele1 first appeared in serial form in lAssemble nationale Emily Bronts own work of the same genre Wuthering Heights2 was first published in 1847. E ach novel recounts a similar tale, despite differences in nationality and langua ge, for both novels fall into the genre of gothic romance. The gothic novel, with its pseudomedieval mystery and horror, has its roots in Horace Walpoles 1764 The Castle of Otranto but celebrated its heyday in the 1790s, with Ann Radcliffs The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and The Italian (1797), as well as Matthew Gregory Lewiss The Monk (1796) (Fiedler 1992, 126-7). The gothic novels name derives from the architecture of the ruins of medieval buildings, which inspired themes of darkness, storm, ghosts, madness, outrages, superstition, and revenge ( Merriam-Webster 480). Although the gothic novel reached its peak in the 1790s, later novelists continued to employ gothic elements and themes (481). While the motif of the beautiful woman in flight does not manifest itself, at least not literally, in our two mid-nineteenth century works, we do s ee the general gloomy atmosphere, violence, revenge, and elements which at the very le ast hint at the supernatural. The most important theme left over from the gothic to find its way into Wuthering Heights and 1 Paris: Garnier Flammarion, 1966. 2 Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton & Co, 1990.

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2 LEnsorcele is a certain emphasis that Leslie Fiedler, in Love and Death in the American Novel describes thus: the fully developed gothic centers not in th e heroine . but in the villain (the persecuting principle of damnation). The v illain-hero is, indee d, an invention of the gothic form, while his temptation and suffering, the beauty and terror of his bondage to evil are among its major themes. (128) This is the beau tnbreux of romanticism, the predecessor of Heathcliff3 and labb de la Croix-Jugan. The romance, as a genre, contains a plot whic h is mysterious or adventurous, in a setting which is distant from the world of the reader. In The Secular Scripture: A Study of th e Structure of Romance (1976), Northrop Frye maintains the two key elements of romance are a love story and the adventures which lead up to its consummation (24). LEnsorcele and Wuthering Heights qualify as romances because of their mysterious plots (hinti ng at the supernatural), love stories (weird as they appear), and violent escapades (murder and blood). Finally, we see in both texts the influen ce of the late romantic period in which Barbey DAurevilly and Bront authored thei r respective texts. Of course, much of Romanticism overlaps with the gothic as well In addition, late Romanticism focused on the triumphs and struggles of the exceptional individual. This is evident in both Bront and Barbey, as neither author creates conve ntional characters. Further, Bront and Barbey show romantic trends in their depic tions of nature as re flecting the passions of their characters. In Romanticism Lilian R. Furst asserts the strength of English Romanticism lies in its lack of cohesion . . For its outstanding trait is its individualism, and from this stems its vari ety, its vigour and its fr eshness (48). Emily Bronts work reflects this sentiment in that Wuthering Heights is a distinctly different 3 Fiedler, 133.

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3 work than anything that precedes it. Says David Cecil in Victorian Novelists: Essays in Revaluation Bronts achievement is of an intrin sically different kind from that of any of her contemporaries and one of her disti nguishing features is th e freshness of her imagination (137, 161). Says Furst, Fren ch Romanticism, on the other hand, is characterized by political and re ligious strife (50). This is evident in Barbeys subject matter, as the effects of the revolution and of its consequenc es on the Church necessarily made their way into the works of the French Romantics. Furst continues, In revolt against the old artificial contentions, the French Romantics, repeatedly pleaded for truth and naturalness in . speech (51). We see this in both Bront and Barbey, as each phonetically spells out the speech of the rural, less-educated characters. Even given the fact that the works both reflect the late Romantic trends of the time, and that each falls into the genre of gothi c romance, the two novels bear an almost uncanny resemblance. They depict very simila r stories of class str uggle, revenge, and the conflict between two impossibly ardent passions Barbey and Bronte paint similar tales, with structures, characters, events, settings and themes that correspond. Each novelist uses a similar narrative frame. Each depicts similar characters: the Byronic beau tnbreux the charmed victim, the diabolical vampire, the vengeful intruder or passepassant the strong, independent female, the medd ling, superstitious lower-class figures, the female sorceress, and the cuckolded hus band. I will also argue that each novel contains a vampire motif. However, although his characters are dynamic and can change from one side to another, Barbey, true to the genre of romance, depicts a moral battle with definitive good and evil sides, while Bronte refrains from imposing any moral judgments on the actions of her characters. In contrasting the ways in which these

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4 authors present such similar stories, and focu sing in particular on the manner in which the vampire myth evinces itself in each novel, I will argue that Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights reveals a sort of protocriture fminine. According to Hlne Cixous, with whom th e term originated, feminine texts are those which travaillent sur la diffran ce between the masculine and the feminine ( Rvue 480). Toril Moi, author of Sexual/Textual Politics explains these texts struggle to undermine the dominant phallogocentric logic, split open the closure of the binary opposition and revel in the pleasures of openended textuality (106). Such texts are more fluid than phallogocentric works, re flecting a more fluid feminine logic, as opposed to a linear, more masculine logic, a nd the masculine writing which reflects it. In Feminist Readings/Feminists Reading Sara Mills and Lynne Pearce note Cixous work, as well as that of Julia Kristeva a nd Luce Irigaray, connections are drawn between non-linear or irrational nature of womens writing and th eir gender-specific privileged access to the repressed, unconscious stag es of psychic development (305). Fminine texts often employ the technique of masquerade a term used by Irigaray to illustrate that femininity is a social construct imposed on women by men, rather than a biological reality.4 Masquerade, therefore, occurs wh en a woman self-consciously performs femininitythe role assigned to her by men. The sex of the writer, however, is not to be confused with criture masculine or fminine. In other words, the gender of a text is not necessarily indicative of the gender of its author. 4 Mills and Pierce explain because neither femininity nor heterosexuality are natural, for example, individuals have to work hard at producing them (310).

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5 CHAPTER 2 THE BEAU TNBREUX In Wuthering Heights an intruder from parts unknow n is brought into Wuthering Heights, the home of the Earnshaw family, a nd changes the course of the lives of that family. Catherine Earnshaw, still a child, fa lls desperately in love with Heathcliff the intruder, because of their common bonds: a lo ve of nature and the elements; a wild strength of will and determination to attain their desires at whatever cost; and a fiery, violent temper. They are so similar that Catherine confesses to Ellen Dean, I am Heathcliff (64). LEnsorcele depicts another intruder, a passe -passant into the lives of the Blanchelandais, in another sparsely populat ed agricultural area Jeanne-Madelaine Feuardent de Hardouey, another independent and determined woman, falls hopelessly in love with the newcomer Jhol, labb de la Croix-Jugan, with whom she shares a common bond of social class. Clotilde Mauduit serves as Jeannes confidante as Ellen is Catherines. When the intruder in Wuthering Heights is denied his passion, which is Catherine Earnshaw, as she is married to E dgar Linton, he determines to wreak revenge on those forces that have kept her from hi m. Similarly, Jhol fails to achieve the Chouan victory, the one cause for which he is passionate, and then determines to attain revenge on the Bleus , including Jeannes husband Thomas le Hardouey. Further, he is forbidden to be a soldier because of his posi tion as a monk, that is, his marriage to the church. The two women die because of the fo rce of the male charac ters. Finally, after wreaking much havoc and ensuring their revenge, the two intruders must die in order to

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6 purge Blanchelande and the moor of evil and to return them to their natural courses. The sun comes out; the change in the weather reflec ts the return to peace. The narrators each return just once to have a final glimpse on th e endings to these stories from which they are excluded, and then they go back where th ey came from, unable to truly intertwine their own lives with the great pl ots of the stories any longer. All that is left for them to do is to recount it, second and third hand, from the various sources they have alternately encountered and sought out. By far the most interesting character is that of the beau-tnbreux This Byronic hero and descendent of the Miltonic Satan carries a mysterious attraction bordering on the supernatural. He is a l oner and a monomaniac. And wh en he cannot have what he wants: a Chouan victory or a life with Ca therine Earnshaw, he will exact a merciless revenge, taking no account of the innocents who are destroyed. Heathcliff and labb de la Croix-Jugan are passant-ravageurs In Barbey DAurevilly et limagination Philippe Berthier defines the passant-ravageur scenario in Barbeys works thus: Beaucoup de textes aurevill iens reposent sur un scn ario quon pourrait ainsi rsumer: dans une vie jusque l immobile, ou dans un milieu clos, momifi de rites sociaux et ncros par une liturg ie immuable, surgit un jour quelquun d autre Non pas seulement un visage nouveau, mais un tre de race diffrente. Cet tre passe en mtore. Sa venue d termine des vnements aussi terribles que secrets des profondeurs hypoth tiques. Bientt il dispar at sans laisser dautres traces que des catastrophes inexplicables o lon croit reconnatre sa main. Cette image du passant-ravageur habite le rve aurevillien depuis trs longtemps. (2823) Of course we see this in LEnsorcele Jhol enters the action as a stranger to JeanneMadelaine, who must ask as to his origins. In to the rite social of the vesper mass, into the monde clos of villages de la presquile du Cotentin, comes a stranger. Even though he is known to the older members of the so ciety, Jhol is now a somewhat different

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7 person than he once was; his experiences, a nd certainly his attempted suicide, have changed him. According to Fr anois-Xavier Ey gun, author of Barbey DAurevilly et le fantastique Berthiers scenario varies onl y in accordance with how long the passantravageur remains on the scene after his arrive trange; certa in characters are present throughout the course of the intrigue, and this est le cas aussi de labb de Croix-Jugan dans LEnsorcele (223). Jhols arriva l disrupts the natural flow of events in the Contantin and eventually results in the deaths of Jeanne and Clotilde and the disappearance of Thomas le Hardouey. Jhol is foreign to his environment even though he is a local. His background is aristocratic, a nd his desire is to be a soldier, but as the fourth son in an aristocratic family, he is forced to join the church. His identity as a monk and commitment to the Church conflict with his desire to serve as a soldier. He is therefore out of his elem ent, a foreigner. Similarly, Heathcliff enters Wuthering Hei ghts as a literal foreigner, speaking a foreign language, repeating some gibberish that nobody could understand (29). Even after he learns to speak Eng lish, his voice remains foreign in tone (72). And Heathcliff remains the social autre to all of the charac ters in the story, save perhaps Catherine. Adopted into the Earnshaw family, he is gi ven the name of one of their own offspring who died in childhood, a mark of seeming hi gh regard. However the name Heathcliff serves as both first and last name, therefore he is not truly an Earnshaw He is put to bed with the children, but they do not allow him to remain there. He is Mr. Earnshaws pet, but Hindleys scapegoat, and later he seems somewhere between servant and gentleman, receiving half an education, but working in the fields and dining in the kitchen with Joseph. He returns to Yorkshire with the manners, wealth, and carriage of a gentleman,

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8 but he is still not accepted by Edgar as his and Catherines equal; Edgar suggests Catherine receive him in the kitchen (74). Thus despite the fact that Heathcliff spends the better part of his life in Yorkshire, he rema ins the perpetual foreigner. Like Jhol, Heathcliff is forced into a situation which goe s against his nature: Heathcliff prefers to be free and to pass his days with Catherin e, but Hindley forces him to work like a common servant, and strives to separate him fr om his sister. Also like Jhol, Heathcliff leaves and returns, and no one is entirely certain of his whereabouts or his activities during the interim. According to Berthier, Barbeys passant-ravageur is not only a new face but a being of a totally different race (282). In J hols case, his face is certainly new because it is riven with scars. However, Jhol tr uly returns a man of a different race following his attempt at suicide, which, according to Eygun, is condsidre comme un pacte avec le diable (221). Eygun explains Labb de La Croix-Jugan est pass au Diable depuis quil a tent de se suicider, et sa Presque mo rt est une forme de descente aux Enfers, do il ressortira comme possd, devant expire le pch de son su icide (226). For Berthier as well, Jhol is a prtre dmoniaque though his reasoning is different than Eyguns ( Dsir 155). In LEnsorcele, Les Diaboliques de Barbey DAurevilly. Une criture du dsir Berthier suggests Ce qui rend Jhol vrai ment satanique, cest quon pourrait lui appliquer ce que sainte Thr se disait du dmon : Le malheureux il naime pas [162]. Il naime ni Dieu, ni les cratures, abim quil est dans lassouvissement de ses besoins (155-6). Concerning Jhols status as inhuman, Berthier cites a conversation between Jeanne and la Clotte: Ce nest donc pas un homme? dit Jeanne . . . . . . . . . . .

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9 Cest un prtre, rpondit la Clotte. Les anges sont bien tombs! dit Jeanne Par orgueil, rpondit la vieille ; aucun nest tomb par amour. (168) Thus to Berthier as well, Jhol is not a ma n but a demon. A fallen angel is a demon by definition. And according to la Clotte, lo rgueil tait son plus grand vice (131). Furthermore, our most esteemed story-telle r, le Maitre Tainnebouey informs us ce prtre . semblait le dmon en habit de prtre (159). If Jhol belongs to a demon race, Heathcliff belongs to a different literal race than those native to Yorkshire. Upon his return, Ne lly notes his dark face and hair (72). His skin is indeed darker than th at of his adversary Edgar, as in his youth he complains, I wish I had light hair and a fair skin (44). Mrs. Earnshaw disdainfully calls him a gipsy brat upon his first appearance, and Mr. Linton speculates he is a little Lascar, or an American or Spanish castaway (29, 39). Later Nelly suggests your father was the Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen, therefore Heat hcliff is certainly of a different race than that of the others at Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange (44). Heathcliff, like Jhol, is accused of belonging to a sort of demon race from the beginning. Our earliest hint of this comes from Heathcliffs host and first ally Mr. Earnshaw, who introduces him thus: You must e en take it as a gift of God, thought its as dark almost as if it came from the dev il (28). If Jhol is changed following his attempt at suicide, Hindleys treatment of Heathcliff is enough to make a fiend of a saint (51). If, as Eygun argues, labb retu rns from his experience possd, it seemed to Nelly Dean as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at the period (51). Heathcliff is variously as imp of Satan ( 31), devil (105), legi on of imps (139), the devil himself (204), and a goblin (249). Nell y repeatedly links him to every sort of

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10 fiend, musing Is he a ghoul or a vampire? . .I had heard of such hideous, incarnate demons (250). Demon or no, in speaking with Heathcliff, Nelly marvels I did not feel as though I were in the company of a creature of my own sp ecies (124). And Nelly is not the only one to note this diabolical na ture; Isabella poses the question Is Mr. Heathcliff a man? If so, is he mad? And if not, is he a devil? . I beseech you to explain, if you can, what I have married ( 105). His evil and vengeance goes beyond her human comprehension. Quite independent from a response from Nelly, Isabella reaches her own conclusions about Heathcliffs lack of humanity and shares them thus with Hindley: And his mouth watered to tear you with his teeth; because hes only half a mannot so much (139).

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11 CHAPTER 3 VAMPIRE MOTIFS Thus we may conclude that, in keeping w ith Berthiers illustration of Barbeys passant-ravageur scenario, both labb de la Croi x-Jugan and Heathcliff appear as members of a race apart from th at of the townspeople they en counter as they travel. But what demon race is this? It is of course th e vampire. According to James B. Twitchell, author of The Living Dead: A Study of the Vampire in Romantic Literature While critical attention has been paid to other mythic figures in Romanticism, such as Prometheus, Don Juan, and the Wandering Jew, the vampire has been overlooked (3). The fact that Emily Bront was familiar with the vampire myth (as well as the means by which she learned of it) evinces itself in the admission following her character Nellys question Is he a ghoul or a vamp ire? (250). She continues, I had read of such hideous, incarnate demons (250). We have also he r sister Charlottes mention of the foul German spectrethe Vampyre to prove the knowledge of the subject at the Bront parsonage. As for the source of Emily Bront s knowledge of the myth, Carol A. Senf, author of The Vampire in Nineteenth-Century English Literature asserts she was certainly familiar with Byrons works and with the German Romantic literature of the previous century (82). Ba rbey too would have known of vampires by reading Byron1, as, according to Eygun, he is one of the authors who most influenced Barbey (46). The 1 Specifically, Manfred and The Giaour (see Twitchell 74-79).

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12 works of Sir Walter Scott also profoundly influenced both Bront2 and Barbey3. Twitchell claims the German poem Lenore by Gottfried August Brger was the most influential of the German vampire poems, due in part to Scotts 1796 adaptation The Chase (33). It is important to note that the vamp ire of the mid-nineteenth century is considerably different from the myth popularized by Bram Stokers 1897 Dracula and the subsequent film versions of the novel. The pre-Dracula vampire is much more diabolical than its successors. Neither the disgusting beast of eighteenth century Slavic folklore, nor the often light-hearted depicti on of the twentieth century, the nineteenth century vampire is, according to Senf, the re sult of writers combining . folkloric treatments of posthumous magi c with earlier literary characterssuch as the rake and the villains and the temptresses of the Gothic novel (18). This vampire is not a species of its own, but the result of a demonic posse ssion; says Twitchell, the vampire by the end of the eighteenth century was not simply a ghost or a wraith but the devils spirit which had possessed the body and trapped the so ul of a dead sinner (8). Although both Bronte and Barbey demonstrate familiarity with dominant vampire myths of the midnineteenth century, we must recognize that these myths di ffer not only from our own post-Stoker myths, but also from earlier mythology. That romantic writers had a certain fascination with the vampire myth is not surprising, given their predilection for the supe rnatural and the satanic. The romantics 2 According to Mary Ward, author of Wutheri ng Heights, Emily Bront was during her eager enthusiastic youth a reader of Sir Wa lter Scott (119). Ward asserts Bron ts familiarity with Scott can be seen in her juvenilia: as a nine-year-old child, she cr eated the fictional Isle of Arran, and named Sir Walter Scott one of its inhabitants (119). 3 See P.-J. Yarrow, W. Scott et LEnsorcele de Barbey DAurevilly.

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13 were also interested in folk culture and the kind of lore from which they learned of the vampire. The romantics began to add to the vampire myth the notion that one who returns from the dead even to bestow harm upon those he loved in life transcends life by his emotional strength. The vampire is a kind of a misunderstood loner, never fully satisfied. Horror becomes fascination becomes pity. The return of the vampire from the grave is the triumph of emo tion over the reason and rationali ty of the Enlightenment and the Neoclassicism against which the romantics rebelled. Therefore, it is certainly no shock to find traces of vamp irism in two gothic romances Wuthering Heights and LEnsorcele and no stretch to show the vampir ic tendencies of both Heathcliff and Jhol. However it is their varied manners of treating their victims which reveal one novel to be traditional and the other to touch on the fminine Jhols and Heathcliffs respective victimizations of the female char acters as well as Je anne and Catherines response to this vamping classify the texts as masculine and feminine. LEnsorcele and the Vampire The first evidence of the existence of a vampire motif in LEnsorcele is in its title. I have already stated that the nineteenth century vampire is the result of demonic possession: it might, therefore, be said to be ensorcel by the devil. Further, the vampire population was thought to be prim arily augmented by sinners, especially suicides (8). Labb de la CroixJugan, therefore, is a prime candidate4. In the opening 4 Unlike Wuthering Heights there seems to be little critical work linking LEnsorcele with vampirism. Berthier gives the vampire figure a single mention at the end of Dsir in which he supports his claim by alluding to the calf called le moine de Blanchelande which impales itself (but not specifically stating the connection) (160). Tain nebouey speculates the tauret blanc qui avait des cornes noires entrelaces et recourbes sur son muffle comme lan cien capuchon du moine suicides because the one who so named an animal after a priest must be punished (245). Perhaps the undead Jhol avenges the offense by taking possession of the calf and driving it into the fury by which elle stait ventre sur le pieu ferr dune barrire (245).

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14 pages of the book, he attempts suicide, miraculously recovers, and returns to Blanchelande a changed man. This apparently miraculous recovery can be explained if Jhol actually dies, either of the self-inflicted gunshot wound or of the Bleus who try to finish him off, and then only appears to recu perate because some supernatural force has taken over his body. Or, as Eygun suggests, he ha s descended to hell to make a deal with the devil. Could it be that this change is the result of the fact that he has actually killed himself and returned to life in the form of something like the revenant of vampire myth? Twitchell muses It seems a terrible irony that the price paid for committing suicide was to make the self indestructible, for once th e devil took control, the soul could never escape to an after-life until the demon was demolished (8). Jhol in fact suffers this fate. Though shot in the head while singing th e Easter mass and apparently quite dead, at the end of the novel we find a decayed form of the monks body trapped in the perpetual attempt to conduct a mass which he cannot reme mber and therefore can never escape. In Dsir Berthier notes that this liv ing but not living is vampiric : Sapprochant de lhostie, mais jamais incapable de la tran ssubstantier, Berthier explains, Jhol, comme un vampire qui serait refus e la grce de la mort, et qui vivrait sans vivre, dans les limbes et lentredeux inimaginables dune existence michemin de ltre et du nant, offre lim age cauchemardesque, la hantise onirique du dsir qui sait que lui seul peut faire sens, et que ce sens est barr par un sens suprieur, exclusif, qui en postule imprieusement la dfaite. (160) Berthier describes a status iden tical to that of the undead. Moreover, Jhol admits to his own bloodl ust. After speaki ng with the bloodied and dying Clotilde, he says to himself Ah! . La soif du sang de lennemi desschera donc toujours ta bouche impie? (216). Thus J hol confesses to his own thirst for blood. Further evidence of Jhols fi gurative vampirism is seen in his return to Blanchelande from parts unknown. Blanchelande is his nati ve land, but when the Revolution began, il

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15 tait un des premiers qui aient disparu de son clotre to fight against the Bleus (132). Following the end of the war and his subsequent suicide attempt near the forest of Crisy, he could have stayed elsewhere in France. There was no need for him to undergo the shame of returning to the church and to t hose who knew him in his youth, except to avoid the Bleus (and this seems a weak excuse for his retu rn given that he could have hidden in any rural village, the better to evade the young government, since he would be unknown). Elsewhere in France no one would have known of his history as a man of the cloth, and he could have started his life anew, a much less complicated life. Most likely, he could have located Bleus in any town, on which to wreak his revenge. However he chooses to return to his native land and to endure the sc orn of the people in Blanchelande. This unlikely choice can be explained by Carol A. Senfs statement that among the vampires characteristics is the necessity of sleepi ng in their native soil (9). Perhaps Jhol returns to Blanchelande becau se he has no alternative. According to Twitchell, the vampire choos es victims who will initially recognize him (10). It is in this way, through la Clotte s mediation, that Jea nne, an intelligent and relatively independent woman, becomes Jhols pathetic victim. Further, Jeanne may be more susceptible to the vampires power becau se elle ntait point une devote (88). Any sin against the church, sa ys Twitchell, carried suffici ent promise of damnation to incite the devil (9). The vampire, Twitchell continues, cannot pick and choose [his victims] on his own; rather, he must be picke d, invited into the re lationship (10). We see the cause for this invitation in Jeannes late nt desire for a partner more befitting to her class than her husband. At the idea of marrying a peasant, Le sang des Feuardent bouillonnait dans ce cur vierge (99). For ced to marry a man whose poor manners and

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16 lack of education she finds shocking, Jeanne makes the best of her situation. However, her upbringing has not prepared her to be the wife of a peasant: Jeanne-Madelaine de Feuardent prit sa part dune ducation aussi cultive quelle pouvait ltre la compagne et cette poque, mais qui lt ait trop encore pour la vie qui devait lui choir (99). Tainnebouey queries Ce qui et convenu la fi lle des Feuardent ne devenait-il pas un danger pour une femme dont la de stine ntait pas au niveau du nom ? (99). Is it any wonder Jeanne is attracted to a man who is even better e ducated, courageous, and of noble blood? Twitchell continue s, The victim, not consciou sly realizing that the friend or relative is the devil in disguise, understa ndably and ironically obliges (10). It is, ironically, at mass that she firs t sees and is drawn to the abb, to the extent that she cannot turn away. While not a direct frie nd or relative, Jhol was acquainted with Jeannes mother and father. Further, Jeanne learns of Jhol through her friends Nanon Cocouan and especially through la Clotte. It is at the home of la Clotte that Jeanne meets labb. Clotilde Mauduit acts as a sort of medium through which Jhol and Jeanne come in contact. Though overtly discouraging Jeanne from a rela tionship with the prie st through her tale of Dlaide Malgy, a contemporary of Louisi nes who succumbed to his charms, she actually seems to encourage such a relations hip, because of Jhols noble lineage and because of her own history of attraction to this sort of man. She disapproves of Jeannes marriage to le Hardouey because he lacks noble blood, and refuses to address her as anything but mademoiselle de Feuardent (128) To la Clotte, Jeanne-Madelaine tait toujours mademoiselle de Feuardent, malgr la loi (128). Further, la Clotte speaks of Jhols beau visage de Saint Michel qui tue le dragon with enthusiasm (133).

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17 Through the story of the scorned Dlaide Ma lgy, who drinks herself to death following Jhols cruel refusal, la Clotte confirms that Jhols charms are in fact irresistible and predicts that they will drive Jeanne to her grave. Thus bestirred by la Clottes cautionary tale, Jeanne is emotionally prepared to fall in love with Jhol, and does in fact encourage Jhols advances5. After preparing Jeanne for the meeting, la Clotte then invites Jhol into her house, calling into the seemingly empty night Ah! Tu es donc ici, Jhol de la Croix-Jugan! (138). This coincides with Twitchells st atement that the vampire cannot enter a home without some inviting move (10). Twitche ll continues the vampire cannot cross a threshold without this invitation; he is bound to wait . until invite d in (10). A shadow responds to la Clottes evo cation, and lombre paissie devint un homme qui entra (138, 139). The fact that the shadow beco mes Jhol further smacks of the vampire myth, because, according to Twitchell, the va mpire can change shape at will, becoming as invisible as mist (11). Jho l then confirms that his former self is dead: Il ny a plus de frre Ranulphe, Clotilde! dit le prtre d une voix pre, en jetant ces paroles comme la dernire pellet de terre sur un cercueil (139). Having successfully gained entrance to the house, Jhol is then introduced to Jeanne by la Clotte, who continues to act as a medium between the two6. According to Twitchell, the vampire, once inside, is stil l not in control and so must attempt to 5 Tainnebouey confirms la Clotte avait exalt des facults et des regrets inutiles, par le respect passionn quelle avait pour ceux qui savent la tyrannie des habitudes de notre me, que cette exaltation, entretenue par les conversations de la Clotte, nait prdispose Jean ne-Madelaine au triste amour qui finit sa vie. (221) 6 Perhaps la Clotte too is the victim of a vampire. Sh e shares Jeannes feelings toward the nobility and, in her paralytic legs, she also shares the physical mark of moral death and decay. This would explain her ability to summon Jhol from the shadows.

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18 entrance [his victim] with hi s hypnotic stare, for his powers are initially ocular (10). Jhol thus looks attentivement at Jeanne ( 141). Jeannes respons e to Jhols gaze is to turn red as blood rushes to her face: le vi sage ntait plus quca rlate du tour de gorge jusquaux cheveux (141). Through the power of his gaze, Jhol is able to draw the blood to Jeannes surface, so to speak. The oc ular power of the vampire is later revealed, for according to Tainnebouy, it is les yeux de ce prtre extraordinaire which auraient allume Jeanne comme une torche humain e (146). He continues une couleur violente, couperose ardente de son sang soulev, stablit poste fixe sur le beau visage de Jeanne-Madelaine. Il semblait, monsieur, . quon let plonge, la tte la premire, dans un chaudron de sang de buf (146) According to Twitchell, the recurring image of blood is one of the central el ements of the vampire myth which assert themselves with such regularity in the various retellings of the story that they have become motifs anchoring each version to a cen tral tradition (13). The mark of blood on her face bears witness to Jhols continued power over her. Further, la comtesse Jacqueline de Monsurvent adds quil y avait des moments o, sur la pourpre de ce visage incendi, il passait comme des nues, dun pourpre plus fonc, Presque violettes, o presque noires (146). This purple and bl ack is reminiscent of the purple and black face which reminds the heroine of the vampire in Charlotte Bronts Jane Eyre7. At 7Jane describes Bronts figurative vampire Bertha Masons visitation to Rochester thus: Fearful and ghastly to meoh, sir, I ne ver saw a face like it! It was a discoloured faceit was a savage face. I wish I could forget the roll of the red eyes and the fearful blackened inflation of the lineaments! Ghosts are usually pale, Jane. This, sir, was purple: the lips were swe lled and dark; the brow furrowed: the black eyebrows widely raised over the bloodshot eyes. Shall I tell you of what it reminded me?

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19 supper that night, Jeanne still navait pas per du les couleurs fonces que la vue de Jhol avait tendues sur son visage (144). A vampires victim, sh e continues to bear the mark of his dominance over her on her face and thro at, just as Jhol bears the mark of his attempt at suicide and the consequences thereof in his belabored countenance. Following Jeannes initial view of Jhol, Jeanne returns to her husband to eat supper. Thomas le Hardouey has invited the cur for supper, who illuminates still more of Jhols past. As Jeanne listens, Ce pr tre-soldat, ce chef de Chouans, ce suicid chapp de la mort volontaire et la fureur des Bleus, la frappait maintenant par le ct moral de la physionomie, comme, lglise, il l avait frappe par le ct extrieur (123). In leaving the abbey to become a Chouan, Jhol rebels against God and country. A monk, he has no business shedding blood, yet he kills many Bleus as a Chouan. His familial duty as the fourth son was to join the church, but he always preferred hunting, and he wanted to be a soldier. A priest with a predilection for killing exhibits the rebellion against authority Senf claims is typical of the vampir e (9). Jeanne, it seems, is attracted by his romantic independence. As she considers this second level of his monstrous physiognomy, the moral rebellion as distinguished from his physical deformity [the scars on his face alone are enough to lead others to suspect his diabol ical propensities (9)], Jeanne thoughtfully fingers her jeannette la croix surmonte dun gros coeu r dor quelle portait attache son cou par un ruban de velour noir (123). The heart, symbol of human eros but also the You may. Of the foul German spectrethe Vampyre. (171)

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20 conveyor of blood, surrounds the cross, swallo wing the symbol of her Christian devotion, while the black velvet of the ribbon evokes mourning and death. In the same way, her desire for Jhol overtakes her religious duty as she recklessly and defiantly pursues the priest. Eventually, she gives this cro ss away entirely, exchanging it with the bergers for a means of obtaining Jhol. As she ponde rs, Jeanne becomes enthralled by Jhols otherness, his refusal to conform to societal st andards. Jeanne is able to relate to his rebellion due to her own distaste with her role as the wife of a peasant. As for Jhols characteristic romantic independence, Jeanne also exercises an indpendance que les femmes ne connaissent pas un pareil degr dans les villes, o chaque pas quelles font est un danger et quelques fois un perfidie ( 124). Thus Jhol bear s all the marks of a vampire, and his victim is Jeanne le Hardouey. Wuthering Heights and the Vampire In Wuthering Heights Emily Bront creates another gothic hero-vampire in Heathcliff8. Not only does he come from parts unknown, but he is given the name of a dead child of his benefactors, thus in a sens e, he reanimates the dead son. Carol A. 8 It is Twitchell who contends the vampire reached an artistic peak in the demon-cum-vampire figure of Heathcliff (116). However, Twitche ll does not hold that Heathcliff is a literal vampire, only that his relationships with other people can be explained metaphorically . .. Whether or not he actually does suck blood, he acts as if he were vamping other characters (118-9). Caro l A. Senf, however, goes so far as to assert that while authors and readers of works such as Charlotte Bronts Jane Eyre, George Eliots Middlemarch and Charles Dickens Bleak House accept the [vampire] comparison as metaphor, in Wuthering Heights on the other hand, they must recognize that the metaphor may also be the reality (79). For my purposes, the literal or figurative nature of the vampire is irrelevant. What is relevant is the various ways the two critics form the vampire myth to the novel. While Twitchell focuses on Heathcliff as the vampire figure who repeatedly an d diabolically attacks a helpless Catherine, (119), Senfs argument focuses on Catherine, and while she asserts both Heathcliff and Catherine ar e vampires, Heathcliffs vampirism is more literary and figurative, while the de piction of Catherine as vampire may well be realistic (81). To Senf, it is Catherine who first attacks Heat hcliff, and not the other way around (81). My own assertions concerning the means in which the vampire myth may be related to Wuthering Heights as the reader will see, again vary from those of Twitchell and Senf, in that my focus is the symbiotic relationship between Catherine and Heathcliff, and I wish to show neither that Heat hcliff overpowers Catherine, as in Twitchell, nor that Catherine victimi zes Heathcliff, as in Senf, but that their relationship is more or less equal, regardless of which one initiated the relationship.

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21 Senf defines the vampire as a reanimated corpse (14). Just as frre Ranulphe is dead, the old Heathcliff is also gone, replaced by th e usurper. If Mr. Earnshaws introductory its dark almost as if it came from the de vil isnt enough, Nelly Dean clarifies it appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diaboli cal at that period (28, 51). Though Heathcliff may not literally reanimate a corpse, Earnshaw does treat him as a favorite son, and it is through this adoption that Heathcliff is admitted to Wuthering Heights. According to Twitchell, any social peculiarity might be a sign of diabolical propensities. So in dark-eyed cultures the blue-eyed were suspect; in dark-haired societies the blond was exiled (9). Thus a dark-haired, gibberish-talking foreigner alone in a pale-skinned soci ety already exhibits what Twitchell calls vampiric tendencies (9). Moreover, Heathcliff gains entrance into Wuthering Heights by invitation: he is carried across the threshold by Mr. Earnshaw, who tragically fails to see the destruction of his children s gifts as a forewarning of their own destruction at the hands of the imp. Perhaps the Earnshaw childrens refusal to allow him in the same room with them, much less to share their be d, is due to some perception of Heathcliffs vampirism. Often children and animals are de picted as having a special sense when it comes to detecting evil, especially of the s upernatural variety. In any case, forbidden by Catherine and Hindley even to enter their chamber, Heathcliff is unable to cross the threshold, and Nelly, herself still a child, puts him on the landing of the stairs, hoping it might by gone by the morrow (29). Heathcli ff then creeps to Mr. Earnshaws door, he being the one who allowed him to enter the hous e, but again cannot en ter sans invitation. Heathcliffs near supernatural power is s een in the influence he exercises over Earnshaw, who remains under Heathcliffs sp ell until his death, favoring him above his

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22 own biological son and daughter. Nelly te lls us he took to Heathcliff strangely, believing all he said, underscoring the impr obability of the situation (30). Ellen wondered often what my master saw to admire so much in the sullen boy who never, to my recollection, repaid his indulgence by a ny sign of gratitude (30). Earnshaws favoritism becomes so extreme that Hindley is sent away to school, so that Heathcliff really does supersede him as Earnshaws son. In order for this to occur, it becomes evident that Earnshaw is somehow ensorcel by his adopted child. Thus we can assume Earnshaw is Heathcliffs first victim. Eith er upon their first meeting in Liverpool or during the struggle to bring him home duri ng which the whip was lost and the fiddle destroyed, Heathcliff somehow obtains power over Earnshaw, possibly through some sort of figurative bite. He does, after all, str uggle with Earnshaw on their way back to the Heights and he is certainly animal-like; Nelly initially refers to him as it, so a literal bite is not unlikely, and a figurat ive one quite possible. Nelly informs us that even as an adult, Heathcliff gnashed at me, and fo amed like a mad dog, and Isabella Linton remarks that his mouth watered to tear you with his teeth which are sharp and cannibal (124, 139, 136). Bront is careful to insert that co ntrary to Mrs. Earnshaws expectations, Mr. Earnshaws return is af ter dark, when, according to Twitchell, the vampire is most powerful (11). Furthermore, the death of Mr. Earnshaw occurs only seven years after Heathcliffs ar rival, and Mrs. Earnshaws de ath precedes his. Death is the eventual fate of any vampires victim who does nothing to escape the demons sway. Says Twitchell, if the victim does not defend herself, or if she allows the vampire to return, he will eventually dr ain her of blood until she wast es away (11). Thus the

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23 passings of the elder Earnshaws may well in dicate vampiric activity on the part of Heathcliff. He feeds on their life forces. Heathcliffs second victim is Catherine, who by the second day after his arrival, was very thick with him (29). It is a good thing for Heathcliff that the vampires powers are not verbal because in those first days he doesnt yet speak English, thus his power over her is necessarily located elsewher e. His immediate thickness with Cathy, therefore, seems as unnatural as Earnshaws instant taking to him, after all, only one night has passed since her initi al reaction, to spit on him and not permit him in her room. Apparently, one night in her chamber is all he requires. I do not intend to imply a sexual relationship here, because Catherine remains virginal until her journey to Thrushcross Grange. And yet, there is some physical connection, some figurative exchange of blood, at least figurative and quite pos sibly literal, between Cather ine and Heathcliff. As la Clotte acts as medium between Jhol and J eanne, Earnshaw invites Heathcliff into his home, unintentionally instigating the lia ison between Heathcliff and Catherine. However Catherine, unlike Jeanne de Feua rdent, begins to take on some of the vampish qualities of her attacker . According to folklore, it was not in fact necessary to commit sins religious or social in order to become a vampire. This, Twitchell asserts would occur in the rare case when the va mpire actually attacked and successfully transformed the victim into another vampire (10). Catherines qualities make her a good candidate to play victim to H eathcliffs vampire. First, she is a woman, and according to Twitchell, Usually, if the vampire is male, the first victims are female (10). This makes sense given that Mrs. Earnshaw is firs t to die. Second, th e curate says Hindley lets her grow up in absolute heathenism ( 39). A vampire can be combated by even a

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24 word spoken by the devout, but Cather ine is anything but devout, and she and Heathcliff would not even attend church excep t under Josephs dure ss (11). Catherine and Heathcliffs rebelliousness stands out ag ainst the rest of the household. After his lecture from Mr. Linton, Hindley does make an attempt to keep some order in the house, if only for the sake of his wife. Heathcliff and Catherine both promised fair to grow up rude as savages though the curate might set as many chapters as he pleased for Catherine to get by heart, and Joseph might thrash Heathcli ff till his arm ached (36). This rebelliousness is further proof of their vampire-like na ture, for according to Senf, rebellion against authority is a distinct characteristic of th e vampire (9). Their daily rambles on the moors in spite of the punishment they receive for them sets them apart from the other characters; it is the type of romantic independence Senf cites as characteristic of the vampire. Catherine further makes the famous declar ation that Heathcliff is more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same, and Lintons is as different as a moonbeam from lightening or frost from fire (62). Catherine and Heathcliff differ from Edgar Li nton because their souls appear not human but demonic, or at least possessed. Catherines compar ison between her love for Edgar and for Heathcliff further illuminates her vampirism. Catherine confesses to Nelly My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods. Time will change it, Im well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneatha source of little visible delight, but necessary. (64) Of course Catherines love for Linton is diffe rent, because he, in contrast with Heathcliff and Catherine, is like the victim in the vampir e myth, mortal and destined to die. He does not possess the romantic independence of th e vampire. She and Heathcliff as the vampire figures are like the rocks, immortal. Their love is necessary because they feed

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25 off of one another, literally or figuratively. Each needs the others blood, his life force, to continue to live. Without Heathcliff, Ca therine immediately falls ill, and though an increase in appetite is not usually associated with fever, she complains, Im starving! (67). Catherine does recuperate sans Heathc liff, but only after being tended to by Mrs. Linton, and following a stay at Thrushcross Grange, whereupon Mr. and Mrs. Linton die before her return9. Incidentally, it is Mrs. Linton who insists she stay in her home, thus she has obtained an invitation. Perhaps old Mr s. Lintons insistence is due to Catherines supernatural persuasion. Following his marriage, Edgar avers the stab of a knife could not inflict a worse pang than he suffered at seeing his lady vexed (71). Their marriage then is no surprise despite the differences in their personality. Edgars figurative endurance of the stab of a knife for the sake of Catherines happiness is further evidence of the vampire myth. The elder Earnshaws ev entually waste away, but Catherine is the exception, the rare case in which victim becomes vampire10. Further evidence of a vampire-like rela tionship between Heathcliff and Catherine is seen in their relationship as brother and si ster. Heathcliff is adopt ed into the Earnshaw family and treated, in the beginning, as Earn shaws own son. This of course makes him Catherines adoptive brother. Their love is th erefore incestuous. Ernest Jones, author of On the Nightmare suggests the myth of the vampire originates in the idea that some 9 Similarly, Heathcliffs return to the Grange after three years of absence is marked by a meal which hardly endured ten minutes. Catherines cup was neve r filled, she could neither eat nor drink (75). Though tea is not imbibed, Heathcliff drank deli ght from Catherines face (75). And once Catherine begins to haunt Heathcliff, eating once in twenty-four hours seemed sufficient sustenance for him (247). 10 My assertions concern Catherines life as well as her life-in-death, fo r it is not always necessary to die in order to become a vampire. Ernest Jones, author of On the Nightmare purports there exist mythologies in which the Vampire-like spirit emanates not fr om a dead but from a still living person (106).

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26 people, once dead, cannot remain in the ground due to sexual guilt. Specifically, this unconscious guiltiness owes its origin to the infantile incest uous wishes that have been only imperfectly overcome in the course of de velopment (103). As they have lived as brother and sister, and especi ally since their mutual affection has its root in their childhood, Catherine and Heathcliff seem prime candidates for vampirism. When Heathcliff has Catherine exhumed for the second time, 17 years after her death, her face is still recognizably hers (218 ). Her body has not decomposed because, as Jones suggests, Successful decomposition, and th e reduction of the corpse to a state of simplicity and purity, signified that the dead pe rson was at rest in th e earth and that his soul was at peace, . purified of sin (104). The myth of the vampire then comes from the projection of guilty sexual wishes, so th at as long as Heathcliff and Catherine desire one another, they mutually project this gu ilt upon one another, preventing their corpses from decomposing. For Heathcliff too seems to live on after deat hNelly affirms the eyes of his cadaver met mine so keen and fier ce, I started; and then he seemed to smile. I could not think him dead (254). Whats mo re, the reason the dead person cannot rest is that in order to overcome his sexual guilt, he must overcome it by the characteristic method of defiantly demonstrating that he can commit the forbidden acts (102-3). This is why Heathcliff tells Ellen th at by his contriving to be bur ied next to Catherine, Ellen will have a better chance of keeping me unde rground, when I get there (219). The odds that Heathcliff will remain where hes buried are increased by the fact that his reason for emerging from the grave is to commit a fo rbidden act, namely the act of physical intimacy with Catherine. However, if Catherine is near him, his need to leave the grave after his death is somewhat diminishedat least he will not have far to go.

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27 CHAPTER 4 TOWARD AN CRITURE FMININE Now our two heroines have been attacked by heroes who embody the vampire theme. Each reacts similarly to the attac k, by developing an attract ion to her attacker. However, the demonic heroes react differently to our heroines. Wh ile Heathcliff returns Catherines affection and desire Jhol responds coldly to Jeannes sudden and violent attraction to him. Barbeys is a linear-minde d vampire figure. Satan attacks him and he in turn attacks Jeanne. Heathcliff however goes in all directions. His victims are varied, male and female. One responds to his romantic independence and becomes a vampire figure herself. Others either flee or eventually wa ste away, draine d of their life force. Catherine continues where Heathcli ff left off, killing some, attacking others, allowing still others to go free. By now th e main differences between the vampire motifs in LEnsorcele and Wuthering Heights should be apparent. Jhol commits or attempts to commit suicide, which sin causes him to become possessed, the mark of this possession being his monstrous face. He then goes on to bewitch Jeanne le Hardouey, the sign of his control over her being her re d face, which glows brighter until she dies. The attack causes Jeanne to lust after him, but he refuses her and she dies. Heathcliff vamps Earnshaw, then Catherine, and wh en she responds to the vampire, he reciprocates the affection. We first see evidence of criture fminine in the fluid, multidirectional quality of Catherines desire as compared to Jea nnes more linear desire. First, in LEnsorcele Jhol bewitches Jeanne, who in turn has no victims. Others are affected by Jhols

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28 spell, but Jeanne herself harms no one. Nor is she permitted to sate her physical desire for the abb though she certainly attempts to. Even her own forays into the supernatural via the gypsy shepherds and their spells are to no avail. Eventually she drowns, the water of the lake extinguishing the flame Jhol ign ited within her. Jea nne dies without the metaphorical blood which is vital to her. The associations between blood and semen are obvious and historical, going back to the meta physical poets. Says Ernest Jones, In the unconscious mind blood is commonly an equiva lent for semen (119). The parallels between the attack of the vampire figure and sexual activity are blatant. Senf characterizes vampires as taki ng definite delight in their se xuality (8). Because of Jhols attack, Jeanne needs physical intimacy with himhis blood, but he deliberately deprives her of it, as if tortur ing a helpless animal. Catherine, on the other hand, is permitted to act on her desire, at leas t in the beginning, and so her relationship with Heathcliff is a symbiotic one. Further, Catherine is then able to attack other victims. She continues to devour thos e around her until half way through the novel, and even, symbolically, after he r death. Thus, where Jeanne is simply attacked by a male character, unable to reciprocate, to act on her emotions, or to ha ve any other means of obtaining that which she needs to survive, Bront enables Catherine both to return Heathcliffs attackto share her life force w ith himand to continue to deplete others of their life forces. (Mr. and Mrs. Linton die after Mrs. Linton cares for her.) Catherines desire, like liquid, goes in a ll directions, while Jeannes is linear, and limited. Here we see Bronts deciphe rable libidinal femininity. For water is an element historically associated with woman, and for the French feminists, water imagery characterizes feminine desire logic, and writing, which are fluid and simultaneously

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29 multidirectional (as opposed to masculine desire, which is more linear). Thus for Cixous, as for countless mythologies, according to Moi, water is the feminine element par excellence, and water imagery evokes the endless pleasures of the polymorphously perverse child (115). This is exactly the liquid desire Catherin e exhibits. Barbey, on the other hand, locks Jeanne in her role as vi ctim. Her strength of character and fiery independence prove only to emphasize the extent of the powers which dominate her. Her brave struggle ultimately proves futile. This classification is, according to Cixous, common to the masculine libidinal economy. In her article Castra tion or decapitation? Cixous explains As soon as the question W hat is it? is posed, from the moment a question is put, as soon as a reply is sought, we are already caught up in masculine interrogation (45). What is Jeanne-Madelaine le Hardouey? She is victim. The fluidity of female desire relates direc tly to the traditional depiction of literary vampires as polymorphous perver se. To Cixous and Irigaray, criture fminine emerges directly from the body of the woman. In Ce Sexe qui nen est pas un Irigaray argues the polymorphously perverse nature of female se xuality (24). According to Moi, Cixous too is concerned with evoking the endless pleas ures of the polymorphously perverse child (115). This type of desire, according to Ci xous, exhibits itself in the work of the fminine writer. It is a quality common to criture fminine because the child in the presocialized, pre-Oedi pal, androgynous state1 is said to be polymorphously perverse, that is, 1 Called the Imaginary by Lacan, this is the stat e of development which pr ecedes understanding of language and gender. Woman is said to retain a special connection with this state of development even in adulthood because the symbol of difference at the heart of the language system is the distinction phallus/lack of phallus and from this follow the other differences which form our language system male/female, head/heart, culture/nature, sane/mad, and so on. It is the phallus that can be seen to be the central

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30 attracted to all manner of others regardless of gender, age, or any other specific. Thus, like the liquid-like desire from which criture fminine flows, the polymorphous perverse desire goes in many di rections simultaneously, in th at its desired objects are not limited by any classification. The fminine emphasizes womans permanent and especial connection to this childhood phase Say Millard, Mills, and Pearce in their essay French feminisms, it was basically an assumption that female subjects preserve a special relationship to this stage of development that led to a theorization of Cixouss criture fminine and Irigarays parler femme (156). Polymorphous perver sity is not a genital, but an oral and anal sexuality2, which may be why it can be associated with the vampire and his kiss of death. Senf confirms so me vampires are char acterized as polymorph perverse in that they clearly take erotic pleasure in their relationships with breathing human beings (8). We see Bronts depiction of the polym orphous perverse in both Catherine and Heathcliff. Both Catherine and Heathcliff, as vampires have both male and female victims. Also, I have shown and will continue to show in the discussion of masquerade, that Catherine is not particularly traditionally feminine, and neither is Heathcliff particularly masculine, after all, he is initially referred to as it, a non-gender specific pronoun. Jhol-as-vampire, on the ot her hand, does not exhibit this particular or primary signifier in the language system, since it is the sign of difference and dominance. (Mills and Pearce 310) Therefore since this state precedes language development and since the sign of its termination centers around the phallus, it is theorized that woman never fully leaves behind the childhood androgynous state. 2 Mills and Pearce 311.

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31 trait, in that his victim is a woman. Jeanne of course, has no victims of her own. Bront, through her use of the vampire motif, evokes the fminine theme of the polymorphous perverse child who retains something of this androgynous phase of development into adulthood. We see further evidence of a protocriture fminine in Bronts mixing of traditional male and female roles. While la Clotte mystically summons Jhol and invites him to enter her cottage, Mr. Earnshaw carri es Heathcliff across his threshold. Typically, the male vampire prefers female victims and vice versa, and it is generally the female who initially makes the inviting move whic h allows the vampire to access to his victims. Mr. Earnshaws gender and his ro le as the enabler of the vampire exhibit Bronts mixing the myth. In assigning to Ea rnshaw the traditionally female task of enabling the vampire, she wrenches him from what Hlne Cixous terms The Realm of the Proper in Castration or decapitation? (50). In Sexual/Textual Politics Toril Moi explains it thus, Masculinity or masculine value systems ar e structured according to an economy of the proper. Proper propertyappropriate: signa ling an emphasis on selfidentity, self-aggrandizement and arroga tive dominance, these words characterize the logic of the proper according to Ci xous. The insistence on the proper, on a proper return, leads to the mascu line obsession with classification, systematization and hierarchization. (109) The role of the host of the en abler of the vampire, especia lly the male vampire, is the traditionally assigned to a female character ; Bront sends a man to do a womans job, defying the romantic expectation and revising Earnshaws identity as a man. Enabling the vampire is considered a womans task in th e tradition of Eve, she eats of the fruit and gives it to Adam, so that through her lapse in judgment, evil enters the world, or in the vampires case, the home. Or it is the ta sk of Pandora, the female whose curiosity

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32 unleashes destruction on creation, freeing it from its box, its c ontainment, its coffin. In any case, it is the mans role to suffer the c onsequences of womans actions or attempt to save her from her folly, not to permit the ev il entrance to the home and certainly not to do so unwittingly. Thus Earnshaws role is an early clue that Bront will shake up the formula for romance as we know it. We see further evidence of Bronts sw apping the traditiona l gender roles (and Barbeys adhering to them) in the use of what Northrop Frye terms forza and froda, or violence and fraud. Frye asserts thes e two elements of sin from Dantes Inferno and Miltons Paradise Lost must also be the two cardinal virtues of human life as such (65). Frye continues, When violence and fraud enter literatu re, they help to create the forms of tragedy and comedy respectively and also asserts a romance is normally comic (66, 92). Thus, since we are dealing wi th gothic romances, we can expect to find more examples of froda than of forza in each novel. Further, froda is associated with female characters and forza with male. This is because it requires physical force, and is therefore the realm of a hero. When the hero falls, however, he is most often brought down by some form of froda usually some magical or other power which may be physically weak but is strong in ot her areas that the hero cannot control. Such a power is often wielded, or symbolized, by a . woman. (68) Froda is the tool of the disadvantaged, of women and slaves. This is evident in LEnsorcele ; the romantic heroine uses trickery to get what she wants. Jeanne de Feuardant employs guile in her at tempt to win Jhol by going to the bergers and to mystics for a spell to make him fall in love with her. Her greatest e ffort at attaining the love of the priest involves making a shirt and mixing her sweat with his (166-7). Magic is a common example of froda and one associated with women. Every attempt she makes to escape her bewitched state by physical contact with Jhol is indirect, by way of

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33 guile. Her means of retaliation are therefor e typical of romance and of the romantic heroine. At the same time, Jhol is a sold ier, and therefore dwe lls in the realm of forza of physical violence. Though he is a priest, he was born to be a soldier and is never comfortable in this position as a man of the cloth. Even in his depression at admitting the failure of the Chouan cause, he turns to physical violence, th ough violence against himself, to end his misery. True, he bewitc hes Jeanne using evil magical forces, however at this point, he is like a vampire, that is to say his body has been possessed by a demon. So it is not the hero whose magic surpasses th at of the female mystics Jeanne visits, but that of the demon who possesses him. Catherine Earnshaw, on the other ha nd, is characterized by her use of forza and refusal to employ froda guile is practically foreign to her. Old Earnshaws gift to her is a riding whip, a symbol of her desire for phys ical power over others She expresses her initial dislike for Heathcliff ope nly and freely: when she lear nt the master had lost her whip in attending on the stranger, she show ed her humour by grinning and spitting at the stupid little thing (29). She uses these same physical tactics toward any obstacle to her grand passion. When Ellen refuses to leav e her alone with Edgar, Catherine pinches her, supposing Edgar could not see her, but not bothering to be sure he remains unaware (55). Catherine would rather Edgar not see her display of violence, but this desire is not strong enough to cause her to find another way of convincing Nelly to leave the room. True, Catherine responds with a li e, but not a very good one, since the mark of her attack on Nelly is visible. She then abandons all attempts at froda and slaps Nelly openly. Soon she physically attacks the young Ha reton, and then her suitor himself. Catherines force is assuredly open, physical, and violent.

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34 By the same right, Heathcliff, though a phys ical force to be reckoned with, uses more froda than forza to obtain his goals in Wuthering Heights Ellens example of an instance in the relationship between Heathcliff and Hindley as childr en exhibits this. Ellen describes the scene for Lockwood: As an instance, I remember Mr. Earn shaw once bought a couple of colts at the parish fair, and gave the lads each one. Heathcliff took the handsomest, but it soon fell lame, and when he disc overed it, he said to Hindley You must exchange horses with me; I dont like mine, and if you wont I shall tell your father of the three thrashings youve given me this week, and show him my arm, which is black to the shoulder. Hindley put out his tongue, and cuffed him over the ears. Youd better do it at once, he persisted, escaping to the porch (they were in the stable); you will have to, and if I speak of these blows, youll get them again with interest. Off, dog! cried Hindley, threatening him with an iron weight, used for weighing potatoes and hay. Throw it, he replied, standing still, and then Ill tell how you boasted that you would turn me out of doors as soon as he died, and see whether he will not turn you out directly. Hindley threw it, hitting him on the breas t, and down he fell, but staggered up immediately, breathless and white, and had not I prevented it, he would have gone just so to the master, and got full reve nge by letting his condition plead for him, intimating who had caused it. Take my colt, gipsy, then! said young Earnshaw. And I pray that he may break your neck; take him, and be da mned, you beggarly interloper! And wheedle my father out of all he has, only afterw ards show him what you are, imp of Satan And take that, I hope hel l kick out your brains! Heathcliff had gone to loose the beast, a nd shift it to his own stall. He was passing behind it, when Hindley finished his speech by knocking him under its feet, and without stopping to examine whether his hopes were fulfilled, ran away as fast as he could. I was surprised to witness how coolly the child gathered himself up, and went on with his intention, exchanging saddles and all, which the violent blow occasioned, before he entered the house. (30-1)

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35 Thus Ellen observes Heathcliff uses froda instead of forza He succeeds in obtaining the colt not with the physical violence Hindley uses on him, but by threatening blackmail. Further, he intentionally a ggravates Hindley until he doe s the very violent act which serves to support Heathcliffs story and to secure the colt for Heathcliff. Heathcliffs blackmail is not forza but in this case, it pr oves more effective than Hindleys violence. Ellen contrasts Heathcliffs quiet scheming with Hindleys open violence. Another example of Heathcliffs use of froda occurs following a thrashing from Hindley. After escaping to the kitchen, Heathcliff refuses to respond to Ellens merrymaking, but leant on his hands, and remained rapt in dumb med itation (47). When Ellen asks him what hes thinking of, he responds Im trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I dont care how long I wait, if I can only do it, at last I hope he will not die before I do . Let me alone, and Ill plan it out (47). Granted, Heathcliffs punishment is the result of a physical outburst; he empties a tureen of applesauce over Edgars head. However, Hindleys response to this action is much more violent than Heathcliffs original outburst, which is comical and ultimately harmless. Heathcliff learns, through Hindleys violence toward him, that his most effec tive means of reta liation is through froda His great goal of revenge is obtained by this means. He wins Hindleys family estate by skill or trickery at cards. He marries Isabella in order to obtain his revenge over Edgar. Finally, he keeps Hareton as a servant in his fathers house, unc onscious of what shoul d be his inheritance, by prohibiting him from learning to read. Therefore, while forza plays some role, it is mainly by froda that Heathcliff pursues his goals. Once again, Bront reverses the gender role s of her characters. Catherine works by forza to obtain her goals, using the minimum of froda She marries Edgar to aid

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36 Heathcliff, but this involves little scheming, because she is honest about what she wants from her life with Edgar before they even ma rry. She sees no reason why her marriage to Edgar would separate her from Heathcliff, or why she might meet resistance in attempting to aid him using her husbands weal th (63). Unlike Barb ey and in contrast with Fryes prescription for th e genre of romance, Bront assigns to the female character the use of forza to obtain her desires, and to her hero the use of froda Bronts gender swapping is an example of her lack of con cern for the propriety common to a masculine economy. Further, mixing these gender roles implies that gender diffe rence itself is in fact learned and not a result of biol ogy. This is another element of criture feminine which strives to illustrate that a woman s role is socially constructed and not biologically predetermined. We will see further examples of this in Bronts use of masquerade la Luce Irigaray, and also in he r use of the vampire motif, which evokes the polymorphous perverse child. Bront employs masquerade in Catherin es return from Thrushcross Grange. Says Irigaray in her Questions in Ce Sexe qui nen est pas un Je pense quil faut lentendre comme ce que les femmes font pour rcuprer quelque chose du dsir, pour participer au dsir de lhomme, mais au prix de renoncer au leur. Dans la mascarade, e lles se soumettent lconomie dominante du dsir, pour essayer de rester quand mme sur le march. Mais cest du ct de ce dont on jouit et non de qui jouit. Ce que jentends par mascarade ? Notamment ce que Freud appelle fminit C est croire, par exemple, quil faille devenir une femme, qui plus est normale, al ors que lhomme sera it dentre de jeu homme. Il naurait qua accomplir son t re-homme, tandis que la femme aurait devenir une femme normale, ces t--dire entrer dans la mascarade de la fminit (131-2) Prior to her encounter with Skulker at the Lint on home, she has little concept of herself as innately female. Perhaps this is due to the death of her mother, which occurs when she is eight. Whatever the case, prior to her stay with the Lintons, Catherine lives in an

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37 androgynous state. Sandra M. Gilbert and Su san Gubar affirm in Looking Oppositely: Emily Bronts Bible of Hell that Catherine Ea rnshaw is unfeminine . never docile, never submissive, never ladylike (265). For Gilbert and Gubar, this extended state of androgyny is a kind of prelapsarian Eden. Ho wever, Bronts depiction of Catherines androgynous childhood seems an illustration of Lacans Imaginarythe time prior to socialization before gender roles have b een imposed upon the child (Mills and Pearce 307). It is neither her mothers influence nor Frances arrival which causes Catherines awakening into womanhood, but the attack of the Lintons phallic dog. Her five-week stay at Thrushcross Grange following her in jury teaches her to behave like a lady, whereas prior to this experi ence of socializati on, she dwelt in a state of androgyny in which she was the barefoot, rough-headed counterpart of Heathcliff (41). Mrs. Lintons explanation that she was a young lady and they made a distinction between her treatment and Heathcliffs is Catherines first lesson in femininity (40). Her return to the Heights reveals instantly her masquerade as the fine lady the Lintons envision. The purpose of masquerade, according to Mills and Pearce, is to emphasize the fact that far from being natural or innate, femininity is a culturally produced identity which has to be worked at and performed (163). Cather ines new clothes have a stifling effect upon her actions; she is obliged to hold up with both hands her garments in order to reenter the Heights (40). Bront highl ights the distinct choices Ca therine makes in order to behave like a lady: sailing rather than jumping into th e house, kissing Nelly instead of hugging her, and barely returning the dogs greeting (40). Fran ces warns Cathy to mind and not grow wild again here, signifying that if Cath erine neglects to work at her newfound femininity, she will lose it (41). Pe rforming this role is a difficult task for

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38 Catherine, and her success at remaining i n character is precarious. Thus Bront employs the fminine technique of masquerade in the depiction of her heroine. Another difference between Heathcliff and J hol-as-vampire figure is that Jhols powers over Jeanne are initially ocular. In accordance with Twitchells stipulation, it is his gaze which gives him power over her. This is, of course, Freudgaze is the expression of the attempt at phallic contro l over the feminine. Moi summarizes from The Uncanny : Freuds argument links the act of seeing to anal activity, which he sees as expressing a desire for mastery or for the exercise of power over ones (libidinal) objects, a desire that underli es later (phallic or Oedipal) fantasies about phallic (masculine) power. Thus the gaze enacts the voyeurs desire for sadistic power, in which the object of the gaze is cast as its passive, masochistic, feminine victim. (192-3) Jhols gaze is indeed enough to drive Jeanne to her death with masochistic desire. Barbeys representation of female desire and masculine libidinal power thus follows Freuds prescription. Howe ver, Luce Irigaray, in Ce Sexe qui nen est pas un one of the original textbooks of the concept of the fe minine economy, declares La prvalence du regard . est particulirement trangre lrotisme fminine. La femme jouit plus du toucher que du regard (25). This is because l a femme se touch tout le temps, sans que lon puisse dailleurs le lui interdire, car son sexe est fait de deux lvres qui sembrassent continment (24). Thus Barbey creates a vampire figure whose dominance is assured and whose desire is sa ted by merely watching Jeanne. His vampire motif, as opposed to Bronts, is an acting out of male sexual fantasy. To some extant, Barbey also seems to accu rately represent female sexual desire. Female desire for the forbidden is certainly a theme of the novel. And Jeanne does in fact desire physical contact, the touch Irigaray speaks of, with Jholmere voyeurism

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39 does not satisfy her. However, Barbeys depi ction of Jeanne as initially drawn to the abb because of his monstrous countenance doe s not ring true. He has created a heroine who is more a reflection of that which is masc uline than a truly feminine character in the Cixousian sense. For according to Irigaray, the male often depicts the female as the reflection of the male, sans penis. In her Spculum de lautre femme she resists the binary oppositions which set up woman as man s reflection or opposite instead of being a separate entity in her own right, which, therefore, woul d not necessitate the male opposition in order to form her own identity (5 3). She critiques Freuds depiction of the little girls desire for a penis, in which he simply assumes que la petite fille fasse comme le petit garon, quelle ait les mmes apptits de voir, les mmes regards, et que son dpit de navoir pas de sexe suive, et vienne assister, ltonnement horrifi du petit ga ron devant ltranget du non identique, du non identifiable. (56-7) Moi summarizes for Irigaray, according to Freud, woman becomes a mirror for [mans] own masculinity and this reveals and fulfills his male desire for the same (134). But according to the feminists, a womans love a nd desire are not the same as a mans, and thus Barbeys depiction of Jeanne as taking voyeuristic pleasure in watching Jhol during the mass reveals a mascu line libidinal economy, a desire to create a woman who is a reflection of masculinity rather than a woman in her own right. Bront, on the other hand, depicts a hero ine whose pleasure derives from physical contact rather than gaze. Catherines desire is metshe shares a bed with Heathcliff in her childhood, and later they kiss. It is thei r physical proximity which is so necessary to her that she begs Nelly not to speak of th eir being separated (64). The vampire motif then emphasizes the importance of physical contact, in that Heathcliff has her body exhumed twice after her death in order to pr ovide her with this physical contacttheir

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40 spiritual connection alone cannot sustain them. In her list of reasons for loving Edgar Linton, she does not mention any touch or care ss, but appearance and demeanor. Edgar is handsome, young, and cheerful (61). In her famous proclamation of love for Heathcliff, she clearly differentiates between th e shallow nature of he r attraction to Edgar (a visual attraction to his youth and good looks) and the depth of her attraction of Heathcliff. She compares her sentiment towa rd Linton to the foliage in the woods. Time will change it, Im well aware, as wint er changes the trees (64). Her love for Heathcliff, however, resembles the eternal rocks beneatha source of little visible delight, but necessary (64). Br onts depiction of feminine de sire then is true according to the precepts of criture fminine She emphasizes Catherine s love for Heathcliff is not ocular, a source of little visual delight (64). Her depiction of Lockwood also follows Irigarays precept, but in its masculine form. Lockwood attempts to conduct an affa ir with a woman by gaze, but fails in the attempt. At first, the young lady fails to comprehend Lockwoods intentions, because gaze is not a womans preferred method fo r communication of desire. Still, she understood me at last, and is apparently am enable to the idea, but is rejected when she exhibits the audacity of retu rning his gaze, though it is the sweetest of all imaginable looks (5). Lockwoods masculine economy si mply does not know how to respond to the female return of gaze, which goes against his classification of her as a woman. Why else would Bront even include this cold and otherw ise irrelevant anecdote, if not to contrast it with Heathcliff and Catherines very ta ctile and passionate affair? The power of Bronts vampires may be ini tially ocular, as Twichell prescribes, but it becomes physical immediately thereafter..

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41 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Thus in Wuthering Heights we find the fminine theme of multidirectional and tactile desire in the character of Catherine and in the vampire motif. We also see the fminine literary techniques of reversing ge nder roles and masquerade in Emily Bronts work. LEnsorcele contrasts neatly with the other text in that it is of the same time period and contains many of the same Gothic an d romantic themes as well as an atypical heroine who is uncommonly brave and independen t. As the two tales unfold, we see that the precursors to the fminine are found in a higher concentra tion, oddly enough, in the English text. And yet Jeanne de Feuardent is a fiery enough heroine for her time, not at all the maiden in flight of Fiedlers characterization of the gothic heroine1; it is she who often pursues the hero. In tracing evid ence of the vampire myth through Bront and Barbey, and in studying elements of the fminine, I have attempted to prove by comparison that Bront s hows evidence of a protocriture fminine In Bronts depiction of the fluid desires of the heroin e and Catherines connec tion to the Imaginary, as well as her employment of the fminine techniques of role reve rsal and masquerade, and in a comparison of both authors depiction of voyeurism, I believe it is safe to say that this evidence exists. My study then begs three questions: First, why is the vampire motif evident in both texts? Second, why does Jeanne sp end eternity without Jhol 1 According to Fiedler, Chief of the gothic sy mbols is, of course, the Maiden in flight (131).

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42 while Catherine and Heathcliff walk the Yo rkshire moors? And thirdly, what do we make of the similarities in th e structures of the two novels? Why do both authors seem to employ the vampire myth in works that contain unconventional romantic heroines ? According to Senf, the va mpire is also representative of the female in the nineteenth century b ecause his powers, like hers, are simultaneously vast and limited (84). Says Senf, If the lite rary vampire is an odd hybrid creature that both wields tremendous power over others a nd suffers from severe constraints, the position of women at the time Bronte was writing is no less peculiar (84). Catherine-asvampire has the power to appear in Lockwoods dreams, but she can do nothing but walk the countryside after her death. As a woman, she is helpless under the power of a griefcrazed elder brother and a fanatical manserva nt until she chooses to escape a chaotic household through her marriage to Edgar Lint on. Escape through marriage is an option not readily available to Heat hcliffthus Catherine claims her most important reason for marrying Edgar is to acquire enough money to save Heathcliff from his unenviable position as Hindleys scapegoat at Wuthering Heights. It seem s therefore as if Catherine, with her beauty and wild charm, has an adva ntage over the men in th e novel, who cannot as readily escape their situations to be doted on by a husband and sister-in-law in a comfortable household. And yet, for the sake of her closest friend, Catherine ends up losing her life. This marriage is the source of all of her problem s, and certainly of Heathcliffs problems. For the price of marriage is sex, and though once an athletic, vivacious girl, motherhood, that is, sexuality, puts an end to her life. Thus, like the vampire, Catherine-as-nineteenth century wo man has certain powers of charm and sex appeal, but in the end, she is not able to sh are with Heathcliff the kind of relationship she

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43 desires, and she dies in the common enough act of childbirth. Her streng th of spirit is not enough to overcome the lack of strength of her body. Even after her death, Catherine-asvampire waits in the ground for Heathcliff to co me to her. Similarly, the vampires soul lives on in a rotting corpse, but he is limite d by his basic and corporeal need for blood as sustenance. In the same way, to die in childbirth generally in volves hemorrhaging, and thus bleeding to death. Even a woman as lively as Catherine Earnshaw could not overcome her destiny of sex and death. Br onts use of the vampire motif underscores this simultaneous strength of will and lack of power of woman in nineteenth century England. Barbeys vampire motif reveals this same l ack of power for women in France. Like the Earnshaws, Jeannes parents die early in her childhood, leaving her an orphan. Strong and self-reliant as Louisine--la-hach e had been in life, she can do nothing to protect her daughter after her de ath. Jeanne is completely dependent upon the charity of the family that takes her in. And when Jeanne is grown and she fears her adoptive parents will soon die, she makes the difficult choice to marry Thomas le Hardouey, a man she truly does not wish to wed. Of course her dissatisfaction with le Hardouey and his unjust treatment of others is th e origin of all of her problem s. Jeanne is powerfullike her mother, she is brave and independentbut she must marry or starve. There are no employment opportunities for her. On her ow n, she would face the fate of la Clotte, who is totally dependant on the mercy of others. Thus Barbey too uses the vampire motif to underscore Jeannes unenviable position as a woman. Jeanne-as-vampires victim is helpless, totally at the mercy of her emoti ons which are manipulated by Jhol, and/or by the bergers

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44 Our second question pertains to the denoueme nts of each novel: we last see Jeanne stripped of her glorious hair and dead in a pond, while Catherine at least is said to walk with Heathcliff. In two such structurally similar novels, why are th e heroines fates so dissimilar? Jeannes eventual downfall is due to her obsession with the proper. In the Realm of the Proper, Jeanne should never have married le Hardouey, because as a peasant, he falls into a separate category. He is not an appropriate match for her. She believes she deserves a man of her class, and perhaps, believes she must be Jhols lover in order to propagate her class. Her blue-blooded family dies with her, and it is probable that she has no offspring by her husband becau se she does not want her blood to mingle with his. True, it is only her father who is noble of blood, but Jhol too has his imperfections he has his terrifying face, the thing wh ich first draws Jeanne to him. She is married, but so is he, to the church. And so the idea that they might be proper to one another, that they might fall into the same cat egory, contributes to her irrational behavior. Because she is encouraged in this manner of thinking by the mother figure Clotilde, this obsession with the proper is very much a le arned thing, as opposed to something that comes naturally to her. Her obsession with the proper leads to her downfall. And yet, because Jhol is a priest, Jeannes idea of what is and is not proper is twisted at best. Thus Barbey creates a heroine who is stuck in a mans world, confused by her struggle to differentiate between what is and is not proper. A nd in such a confused position, influenced by la Clotte, labb, and possibl y by the forces of evil, she becomes an easy target for Jhol. Incidentally, this obsession with blood is again indicative of the vampire myth, for to the vampire, blood is life. To use the term blood when speaking of heredity and

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45 class underscores the undue importance Jeanne places on classification, the importance of keeping ones bloodline pure. If Jeannes bl ood is indeed superior to that of those around her, it makes sense that she is Jhol s choice for a victim. As for the vampire, the blood is the life for Jeanne and Jhol, in that they will one day die, and the only way for their aristocratic blood to be passed is through thei r propagation, which of course requires, in a sense, the mixi ng of their blood. For we have already seen vamping as a metaphor for sexual activity. According to Senf eroticism is the single most prominent trait of the nineteenth cent ury literary vampire (152). If not exactly a happy ending, Catherines is at least bearable. In contrast to Jeanne, Catherine is torn between the Gift and the Proper. Her love for Heathcliff is blind to what is and is not proper. In her childhood, he is her adopted brother. And when her brother Hindley takes control of Wuther ing Heights, Heathcliff is reduced to an ignorant servant, something below her, so neve r is he a proper match for Catherine. Her desire to marry Edgar in order to gain the financial power to help Heathcliff comes after her first stay at Thrushcross Grange and time spent with the Lintons. In her sustained androgynous phase, she cannot yet even differentiate between proper and improper, too mischievous and wayward fo r a favourite, she knows only to follow her passions where they lead her (30) And in the tradition of the fminine she retains a close connection to this pre-Oe dipal phase even after her st ay at the Grange marks the end of it. Her misguided wish to marry Edgar is the result of her relatively recent confrontation with the Realm of the Proper, and her concept of what actually is proper never fully matures in her lifetime. Sh e sees no reason why he r relationship with

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46 Heathcliff should end or change because of her marriage. The only reason she believes marriage to Heathcliff would degrade her is that her brother has changed him. She obviously doesnt really believe him to be belo w her, since their sou ls are made of the same stuff (62). She wants to aid Heathcliff to rise, so that he may be on the same level as Edgar (63). But of course, this is not proper either, for once Heathcliff reaches her level, she is married to Edgar and th erefore cannot share w ith her their prior relationship. Besides, Heathcliff does not re quire her aid in or der to rise. He manages it of his own accord. With her undeve loped concept of the Proper, she does not grasp that Heathcliff can achieve on his ow n what Edgar has received by birthright. Catherine does not foresee Heathcliffs need to seek his fortune or the possibility that Edgar might not allow her to aid Heathcliff in the way she would like to. She does not even fully believe he might be aware of such exclusive desires as Edgar has for her, querying whether Heathcliff has no notion of th ese things. He has not, has he? He does not know what being in love is ? (63). If the concept of marriage, of making proper her relationship with Edgar had not occurred to her until rece ntly, she would assume that Heathcliff might know nothing of it. However, in contrast to Catherine, Heathcliff, a man and, having been educated about th e Proper by Hindley, most certainly does understand being in love. At her death, he rails, You loved me then what right had you to leave me? What rightanswer mef or the poor fancy you felt for Linton? (125). Never fully incorporated into the Realm of the Proper, Catherines natural habitat is the Realm of the Gift. Catherines aim in a marriage to Edgar is to please both Edgar and Heathcliff, but mostly Heathcliff, without thought for what is proper. Her intended gift is

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47 to provide for Heathcliff, to place him out of my brothers power so that he will be comfortable (63). That that might mean sacrificing a life with Heathcliff is Catherines gift to him. For if she believes Heathcliff ignor ant of the concept of being in love, then what has he to lose in her marriage to another? It is she who understa nds, at least in part, what she must sacrifice in order to free Heathc liff from the tyranny of life at the Heights. And yet, even before Heathcliffs departure, she agrees to marry Edgar and in that, give of herself for Heathcliff, a gift he can neve r repay. What is more, she probably does not completely understand that her marriage to Edgar will prevent her from sharing her life with Heathcliff. For the Realm of the Gift is open, and in it, love flows freely in several directions simultaneously. It does not limit one s love by categorizing it as marital or brotherly. Thus Catherine, a very fminine character, abides, for the most part, in the Realm of the Gift. Her education concerni ng the Realm of the Proper is sloppy at best, because she never fully comes to understand the exclusivity of its nature. Finally, the structural differences in LEnsorcele and Wuthering Heights reveal the latter to be an exam ple of a sort of protocriture fminine For in LEnsorcele despite the confusion of images, there is a definite polarization of good and evil; Barbey imposes a moral code on his ch aracters. Eygun confirms in LEnsorcele, on retrouve le combat entre le Bien (qui es t la ralit quotidienne) et le Mal (qui est la provocation suscite par le passant-passeur). Le rsultat de ce duel revient la victoire du Mal . comme fin inluctable (223). This is not to say that Barbeys plot is simplistic. True, labb is both a priest and a demon/vampire, the brave Chouan holy warrior in defense of the Church, but simultaneously a murderer in its eyes. We see further conflict in Jeannes role as both Jhols helpless and vi rginal victim (like the Virgin, she always

PAGE 53

48 wears blue) and as vamping harlot who empl oys sorcery in her repeated attempts to seduce a priest. In Clotilde Mauduit as well we see the contrast of the strength of her youthful passions and the frailty of her body, her fiery defense of the actions of her reckless youth and her eventual prayer and co ntrition as she attempts to attend Jeannes funeral. And yet these multifaceted, dynami c characters eventually fall into the categories of good and evil. The very difficulty of categorizing them serves as plot and prime tension of the story. The reader may not know the eventual outcome, and it is true that several of the mysteries Barbey sets up remain unresolved, such as the parties responsible for Jhols and Jeannes murders (o r is Jeannes death a suicide?) and for le Hardoueys disappearance. But this mystery and necessity to determine the difference between reality and illusion serves as th e plot tension for many romances. However, in the end, Barbeys vampire is ev il. Before his arriva l, all is at least peaceful, and after his death, with Jeannes and la Clottes deat hs as a sort of sacrificial offering, Blanchelande, like the church after Jhols murder, is apparently cleansed of the evil Jhol brought to his native land. In fact, Jhols (and J eannes) initial guilt or innocence becomes irrelevant as it is revealed that he is trapped in his destiny and seems to have no choice but to bewitch Jeanne, in the same way that Jeanne, initially such a virtuous and even virginal woma n, cannot help but pursue the prie st. In short, the two are destined to meet their tragic, evil ends, but Barbey is the creator of their terrible destinies, of the world in which good and evil combat and in which innocents, like Tainneboueys innocent child, sometimes have to experience the consequences of evil in the world, or even act as its pawns. Le Bien does not triumph, however. Even death cannot prevent Jhols corpse from continuing to deliver the black mass which terrorizes Blanchelande,

PAGE 54

49 killing Tainneboueys child. And if Jhols corp se continues to walk as a priest, then it is evident that Jeanne will not, as she had hoped lui tuerai son m e! (167). His soul is apparently and unnaturally immortal. Thus, as Eygun claims, LEnsorcele is a juxtaposition de deux mondes, a battle be tween good and evil in which evil wins out (226). Barbey sets up a binary oppos ition between good and evil, and though which category each character and ev ent falls into is not nece ssarily apparent from the beginning, by the end of the novel Barbey make s those particular am biguities clear. In the world of Barbeys creation, all things invisible and supern atural are evil, and events belonging to quotidian rural life are good. Bront too sets up a polarity in Wuthering Heights but hers does not concern morality. These principles are t hose David Cecil defines in his Victorian Novelists as the principle of stormof the harsh, th e ruthless, the wild, the dynamic and the principle of calmof the ge ntle, the merciful, the passive and the tame (141). Wuthering Heights, of course, is the physic al locality of the former, and Thrushcross Grange, of the latter. Those at the Heights, especially Catherine, Heathcliff, and Joseph, wildly and recklessly follow their passions, while those at the Grange, the Lintons, are characterized by the peace and gentle passiv ity of Cecils principle of calm. This contrasts with Barbeys opposing forces of natural and supernat ural in that Bront imposes no moral standard upon her binary oppositions. Says Cecil, Emily Bronts vision of life does away with the ordinary antithesis between good and evil (143). Bronts oppositions also differ from Barbeys in that in the end, as Cecil puts it, each opposition, following its own nature in its ow n sphere, combines to compose a cosmic harmony (153). With the death of Heathc liff, the spiritual union of Heathcliff and

PAGE 55

50 Catherine, and the marriage of the younger Catherine to Hare ton Earnshaw, the cosmic order has been established once more (156) The polarities of the Grange and the Heights, the calm and storm, unite and their sharp extremes are dulled. As daughter of both the calm and the storm, the younger Catherine is the embodiment of the harmonization of both. Thus in the end, Wuthering Heights is a synchronization of polar opposites, so that, in a sense, they no longer exist. In that, not only does Bront do away with the polarity of good and evil, she also refuses to allow the triumph of one opposition over another. In LEnsorcele le Mal wins (Eygun 223). J hol does not die. He does not even spend eternity with Jeanne. He c ontinues to wreak havoc on the Blanchelandais through his terrorizing of livestock and the bl ack masses which apparently cause healthy children to die. Moreover, Jeanne, originally the innocent, dies for Jhols sins. Her death is of course a great injustice, but so is Jhols destiny, and su ch is reality. Bront refuses to take sides: her answer, for the present, is in a kind of moderation which contains both the calm and the storm, in re fusing to separate them, in uniting the two classifications into one. And in this, of course, Wuthering Heights is a text which is incredibly protofminine In Castration, Cixous articulates the need fo r writers of this type of text: Theres work to be done against cla ss, against categorization, agains t classification (51). The fluid desire of woman expresse d in the liquid quality of he r writing and the tearing down of binary oppositions is the essence of criture fminine When Cecil claims the novel alone stirs us as freshly t oday as the day it was written, he has only begun to articulate to what extent Bront is ahead of her time ( 136). The tales of the independent heroines and the gothic heroes of Jules Barbey DAure villy and Emily Bront share similar themes

PAGE 56

51 as they are both works ahead of their tim es, calling for revolution in public attitudes toward the women of their times. Both mi x common genres of the timethe gothic, the romantic, and the romancein creating character s who both reflect the traditions of those genres and exhibit newer, revolu tionary traits. However, while LEnsorcele does much to depict a newer, more modern heroine, it is Wuthering Heights which goes so far as to foreshadow 1970s French feminist thought in it s manifestation of themes and techniques of criture fminine la Luce Irigaray and Hlne Cixous.

PAGE 57

WORKS CITED Barbey dAurevilly, Jules-Amede. LEnsorcele. 1852. Paris: Garnier Flammarion, 1966. Berthier, Philippe. Barbey DAurevilly et limagination. Geneva: Droz, 1978. ---. LEnsorcele, Les Diaboliques de Barbey DAurevilly: Une criture du dsir. Paris: ditions, 1987. Bront, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Charlotte and Emily Bront: The Complete Novels. New York: Random House, 1975. Bront, Emily. Wuthering Heights. 1847. Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton & Co, 1990. Cecil, David. Victorian Novelists: Essays in Revaluation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958. 136-182 Cixous, Hlne. Entretien avec Franoise van Rossum-Guyon. Revue des sciences humaines, 168, (octobre-dcembre, 1977): 479-93. ---. Castration or decapitation? Trans. Annette Kuhn. Le Sexe ou la tte ? Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 7.1 (1981): 41-55. Eygun, Franois-Xavier. Barbey DAurevilly et le fantastique. New York: Lang, 1996. Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. 2 nd ed. New York: Doubleday, 1992. 126-161 Freud, Sigmund. The Uncanny. The Complete Psychological Works. Trans and Ed James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press, 1974. Vol 17. 219-52 Frye, Northrop. The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976. Furst, Lilian R. Romanticism. 2 nd ed. London: Methuen, 1976. Gilbert, Sandra M, and Susan Gubar. Looking Oppositely: Emily Bronts Bible of Hell. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. 2 nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. 248-308 Irigaray, Luce. Spculum de lautre femme. Paris: Minuit, 1974. 52

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53 ---. Ce Sexe qui nen est pas un. Paris: Minuit, 1977. Jones, Ernest. On the Nightmare. 1931. London: Hogarth, 1949. 98-130 Merriam-Websters Encyclopedia of Literature. Ed. Kathleen Kuiper. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995. Millard, Elaine, Sara Mills, and Lynne Pearce. French feminisms. Mills and Pearce. 153-184 Mills, Sara, and Lynne Pearce, eds. Feminist Readings/Feminists Reading. 2 nd ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996. Mills, Sara, and Lynne Pearce. Glossary. Mills and Pearce. 302-315 Moi, Toril. Sexual/Textual Politics. 2 nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2002. Senf, Carol A. The Vampire in Nineteenth-Century Literature. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State U Popular P: 1988. Twitchell, James B. The Living Dead: A Study of the Vampire in Romantic Literature. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1981. Ward, Mary. Wuthering Heights. Critical Essays on Emily Bront. Ed. Thomas John Winnifrith. New York: Hall, 1997. 119-129 Yarrow, P.-J. W. Scott et LEnsorcele de Barbey DAurevilly. LEnsorcele et les Diaboliques : La chose sans nom. Paris: SEDES, 1988. 15-24

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kathryn Irene Moody received her Bachelor of Arts in English and French from Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, in May of 2001. She is currently pursuing a doctorate in English at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. 54


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A TWICE-TOLD GOTHIC ROMANCE: THE ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES IN
JULES BARBEY D'AUREVILLY'S L 'ENSORCELEE AND EMILY BRONTE'S
WUTHERING HEIGHTS















By

KATHRYN IRENE MOODY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA




































For Gaga.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT......... ......................... .... ...................... iv

CHAPTER

1 THE "GENDER" OF THE TEXT..................................... ...................1

2 TH E BEAU TEN EBREU X ......... ................. ................................ .................... 5

3 V A M PIR E M O T IFS............. ........................................................ ....................11

L 'E nsorcelee and the V am pire ..................................................... ................... ...... 13
Wutherng Heights and the Vampire ............................. .............................20

4 TOWARD AN ECRITURE FEMININE ................................................................27

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ............................................. ................................................. 4 1

WORKS CITED ........................... ..................... ....... ...... 52

BIO G R APH IC AL SK ETCH ................................................. .................................. 54
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

A TWICE-TOLD GOTHIC ROMANCE: THE ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES IN
JULES BARBEY D'AUREVILLY'S L 'ENSORCELEE AND EMILY BRONTE'S
WUTHERING HEIGHTS

By

Kathryn Irene Moody

December 2003

Chair: William Calin
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures

In this thesis, I establish evidence of a proto-ecrzturefmmminne a la H6elne Cixous

and Luce Irigaray in Emily Bronte's Wutherng Heights by comparing it to a similar

novelL 'Ensorcelee, by Jules Barbey D'Aurevilly. The two novels are similar-both fall

into the genre of gothic romance and both contain not only the Byronic hero (which is de

rzgueur for the genre), but also a nontraditional heroine (remarkable for her fiery

independence and refusal to play the role of the traditional gothic heroine, the maiden in

flight). In support of my argument, I first assert the existence of a vampire motif in both

L 'Ensorcelee and Wutherng Heights and trace this motif through both works. I propose

that the abbe de la Croix-Jugan and Heathcliff are vampiric figures and that Jeanne de

Feuardant and Catherine Earnshaw are their respective victims. However, the difference

in each author's retelling of the vampire myth is that, while each heroine reacts similarly

to the "vampire's" attack (with attraction to the attacker), only Catherine is permitted to

return the attack and to "vamp" her attacker and others. Thus, we first see evidence of









ecnrture fminine in the fluid, multidirectional quality of Catherine's desire as compared

to Jeanne's more linear desire.

Further, we may note that Bronte's "vampires," like many vampire figures of the

nineteenth century, are polymorphously perverse, while Barbey's are not, and this quality

is associated with the fminine. Bronte also employs the fminine method of mixing the

gender roles of her characters, assigning typically masculine roles to women and vice

versa. We see this in terms of the vampire myth in that the enabler of her vampire is

male, though this role is typically assigned to a female: la Clotte in L 'Ensorcelee. We

see further swapping of traditional gender roles in Bronte's use offroda andforza, or

fraud and violence. According to Northrop Frye,froda is typically the tool of the female,

andforza is associated with the male. We find that this is more or less the case in

L 'Ensorcelee, where J6hoel is the physically violent warrior and Jeanne resorts to

mysticism in her attempts to woo J6hoel. However, in Wuthering Heights, it is Catherine

who prefers physical violence, slapping and pinching at Edgar and Nelly in her anger,

while Heathcliff favorsfroda, plotting and scheming to achieve his ends. We also see the

feminine strategy of "masquerade" in Catherine's behavior in Wutherng Heights. I

suggest Jeanne is a character obsessed with the Realm of the Proper a la Cixous, while

Catherine is a character torn between the Gift and the Proper. Finally, I contrast Barbey's

polarization of good and evil forces and characters with Bronte's refusal to impose a

moral code on her characters, who resist the categorization typical to non-feminine works.

Thus, using the vampire motif, I assert that Wuthering Heights is a work that anticipates

ecriture feminine by comparing it to L 'Ensorcelee, a work that contains a fiery and

independent but not particularly feminine heroine.















CHAPTER 1
THE "GENDER" OF THE TEXT

Jules-Amed6e Barbey d'Aurevilly's 1852 gothic romance L 'Ensorcelee first

appeared in serial form in l 'Assemblee national. Emily Bronte's own work of the same

genre Wutherng Heights2 was first published in 1847. Each novel recounts a similar tale,

despite differences in nationality and language, for both novels fall into the genre of

gothic romance. The gothic novel, with its pseudomedieval mystery and horror, has its

roots in Horace Walpole's 1764 The Castle ofOtranto, but celebrated its heyday in the

1790's, with Ann Radcliff s The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and The Italan (1797), as

well as Matthew Gregory Lewis's The Monk (1796) (Fiedler 1992, 126-7). The gothic

novel's name derives from the architecture of the ruins of medieval buildings, which

inspired themes of darkness, storm, "ghosts, madness, outrages, superstition, and

revenge" (Merriam-Webster 480). Although the gothic novel reached its peak in the

1790s, later novelists continued to employ gothic elements and themes (481). While the

motif of the beautiful woman in flight does not manifest itself, at least not literally, in our

two mid-nineteenth century works, we do see the general gloomy atmosphere, violence,

revenge, and elements which at the very least hint at the supernatural. The most

important theme left over from the gothic to find its way into Wuthering Heights and





SParis Gamier Flammarion, 1966

2 Norton Critical Edition New York Norton & Co, 1990









L 'Ensorcelee is a certain emphasis that Leslie Fiedler, in Love and Death in the American

Novel, describes thus:

the fully developed gothic centers not in the heroine .. but in the villain (the
persecuting principle of damnation). The villain-hero is, indeed, an invention of
the gothic form, while his temptation and suffering, the beauty and terror of his
bondage to evil are among its major themes. (128)

This is the beau tenebreux of romanticism, the predecessor of Heathcliff' and l'abb6 de la

Croix-Jugan. The romance, as a genre, contains a plot which is mysterious or

adventurous, in a setting which is distant from the world of the reader. In The Secular

Scripture: A Study of the Structure ofRomance (1976), Northrop Frye maintains the two

key elements of romance are a love story and the adventures which lead up to its

consummation (24). L 'Ensorcelee and Wuthering Heights qualify as romances because

of their mysterious plots (hinting at the supernatural), love stories (weird as they appear),

and violent escapades (murder and blood).

Finally, we see in both texts the influence of the late romantic period in which

Barbey D'Aurevilly and Bronte authored their respective texts. Of course, much of

Romanticism overlaps with the gothic as well. In addition, late Romanticism focused on

the triumphs and struggles of the exceptional individual. This is evident in both Bronte

and Barbey, as neither author creates conventional characters. Further, Bronte and

Barbey show romantic trends in their depictions of nature as reflecting the passions of

their characters. In Romanticism, Lilian R. Furst asserts the strength of English

Romanticism lies in its "lack of cohesion .... For its outstanding trait is its

individualism, and from this stems its variety, its vigour and its freshness" (48). Emily

Bronte's work reflects this sentiment in that Wuthering Heights is a distinctly different

3 Fledler, 133









work than anything that precedes it. Says David Cecil in Victorian Novelists: Essays in

Revaluation, Bronte's "achievement is of an intrinsically different kind from that of any

of her contemporaries" and one of her distinguishing features is the "freshness" of her

imagination (137, 161). Says Furst, French Romanticism, on the other hand, is

characterized by "political and religious strife" (50). This is evident in Barbey's subject

matter, as the effects of the revolution and of its consequences on the Church necessarily

made their way into the works of the French Romantics. Furst continues, "In revolt

against the old artificial contentions," the French Romantics, "repeatedly pleaded for

truth and naturalness in ... speech" (51). We see this in both Bronte and Barbey, as each

phonetically spells out the speech of the rural, less-educated characters.

Even given the fact that the works both reflect the late Romantic trends of the time,

and that each falls into the genre of gothic romance, the two novels bear an almost

uncanny resemblance. They depict very similar stories of class struggle, revenge, and the

conflict between two impossibly ardent passions. Barbey and Bronte paint similar tales,

with structures, characters, events, settings, and themes that correspond. Each novelist

uses a similar narrative frame. Each depicts similar characters: the Byronic beau

tenebreux, the charmed victim, the diabolical vampire, the vengeful intruder or passe-

passant, the strong, independent female, the meddling, superstitious lower-class figures,

the female sorceress, and the cuckolded husband. I will also argue that each novel

contains a vampire motif. However, although his characters are dynamic and can change

from one side to another, Barbey, true to the genre of romance, depicts a moral battle

with definitive "good" and "evil" sides, while Bronte refrains from imposing any moral

judgments on the actions of her characters. In contrasting the ways in which these









authors present such similar stories, and focusing in particular on the manner in which the

vampire myth evinces itself in each novel, I will argue that Emily Bronte's Wuthering

Heights reveals a sort of proto-ecriture feminine.

According to H6elne Cixous, with whom the term originated, feminine texts are

those which "travaillent sur la diff6rance" between the masculine and the feminine

(Revue 480). Toril Moi, author of Sexual/Textual Politics, explains these texts "struggle

to undermine the dominant phallogocentric logic, split open the closure of the binary

opposition and revel in the pleasures of open-ended textuality" (106). Such texts are

more "fluid" than phallogocentric works, reflecting a more fluid "feminine" logic, as

opposed to a linear, more "masculine" logic, and the masculine writing which reflects it.

In FeministReadings/Feminists Reading, Sara Mills and Lynne Pearce note Cixous'

work, as well as that of Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray, "connections are drawn between

non-linear or 'irrational' nature of women's writing and their gender-specific 'privileged'

access to the repressed, unconscious stages of psychic development" (305). Feminine

texts often employ the technique of masquerade, a term used by Irigaray to illustrate that

femininity is a social construct imposed on women by men, rather than a biological

reality.4 Masquerade, therefore, occurs when a woman self-consciously performs

"femininity"-the role assigned to her by men. The sex of the writer, however, is not to

be confused with ecriture "masculne" or "feminine." In other words, the "gender" of a

text is not necessarily indicative of the "gender" of its author.






4 Mills and Pierce explain "because neither 'femininity' nor 'heterosexuality' are 'natural', for example,
individuals have to work hard at producing them" (310)















CHAPTER 2
THE BEAU TENEBREUX

In Wuthering Heights, an intruder from parts unknown is brought into Wuthering

Heights, the home of the Earshaw family, and changes the course of the lives of that

family. Catherine Earshaw, still a child, falls desperately in love with Heathcliffthe

intruder, because of their common bonds: a love of nature and the elements; a wild

strength of will and determination to attain their desires at whatever cost; and a fiery,

violent temper. They are so similar that Catherine confesses to Ellen Dean, "I am

Heathcliff' (64).

L 'Ensorcelee depicts another intruder, a "passe-passant" into the lives of the

Blanchelandais, in another sparsely populated agricultural area. Jeanne-Madelaine

Feuardent de Hardouey, another independent and determined woman, falls hopelessly in

love with the newcomer J6hoel, l'abb6 de la Croix-Jugan, with whom she shares a

common bond of social class. Clotilde Mauduit serves as Jeanne's confidante as Ellen is

Catherine's. When the intruder in Wuthering Heights is denied his passion, which is

Catherine Earshaw, as she is married to Edgar Linton, he determines to wreak revenge

on those forces that have kept her from him. Similarly, J6hoel fails to achieve the

Chouan victory, the one cause for which he is passionate, and then determines to attain

revenge on the "Bleus," including Jeanne's husband Thomas le Hardouey. Further, he is

forbidden to be a soldier because of his position as a monk, that is, his "marriage" to the

church. The two women die because of the force of the male characters. Finally, after

wreaking much havoc and ensuring their revenge, the two intruders must die in order to









purge Blanchelande and the moor of evil and to return them to their natural courses. The

sun comes out; the change in the weather reflects the return to peace. The narrators each

return just once to have a final glimpse on the endings to these stories from which they

are excluded, and then they go back where they came from, unable to truly intertwine

their own lives with the great plots of the stories any longer. All that is left for them to

do is to recount it, second and third hand, from the various sources they have alternately

encountered and sought out.

By far the most interesting character is that of the beau-tindbreux. This Byronic

hero and descendent of the Miltonic Satan carries a mysterious attraction bordering on

the supernatural. He is a loner and a monomaniac. And when he cannot have what he

wants: a Chouan victory or a life with Catherine Earnshaw, he will exact a merciless

revenge, taking no account of the innocents who are destroyed. Heathcliff and l'abb6 de

la Croix-Jugan are passant-ravageurs. In Barbey D'Aurevilly et imagination, Philippe

Berthier defines the passant-ravageur scenario in Barbey's works thus:

Beaucoup de textes aurevilliens reposent sur un scenario qu'on pourrait ainsi
r6sumer: dans une vie jusque la immobile, ou dans un milieu clos, momifi6 de
rites sociaux et n6cros6 par une liturgie immuable, surgit un jour quelqu'un
d'autre. Non pas seulement un visage nouveau, mais un &tre de race diff6rente.
Cet &tre passe en m6t6ore. Sa venue determine des 6v6nements aussi terrible que
secrets a des profondeurs hypoth6tiques. Bient6t il disparait sans laisser d'autres
traces que des catastrophes inexplicables oi l'on croit reconnaitre sa main. Cette
image du passant-ravageur habite le reve aurevillien depuis tres longtemps. (282-
3)

Of course we see this in L 'Ensorcelee. J6hoel enters the action as a stranger to Jeanne-

Madelaine, who must ask as to his origins. Into the "rite social" of the vesper mass, into

the "monde clos" of villages de la presqu'ile du Cotentin, comes a stranger. Even though

he is known to the older members of the society, J6hoel is now a somewhat different









person than he once was; his experiences, and certainly his attempted suicide, have

changed him. According to Fran9ois-Xavier Eygun, author of BarbeyD 'Aurevilly et le

fantastique, Berthier's scenario varies only in accordance with how long the passant-

ravageur remains on the scene after his arrivee strange"; certain characters are present

throughout the course of the intrigue, and this "est le cas aussi de l'abb6 de Croix-Jugan

dans L 'Ensorcelee" (223). J6hool's arrival disrupts the natural flow of events in the

Contantin and eventually results in the deaths of Jeanne and Clotilde and the

disappearance of Thomas le Hardouey. J6hool is foreign to his environment even though

he is a local. His background is aristocratic, and his desire is to be a soldier, but as the

fourth son in an aristocratic family, he is forced to join the church. His identity as a

monk and commitment to the Church conflict with his desire to serve as a soldier. He is

therefore out of his element, a foreigner.

Similarly, Heathcliff enters Wuthering Heights as a literal foreigner, speaking a

foreign language, "repeating some gibberish that nobody could understand" (29). Even

after he learns to speak English, his voice remains "foreign in tone" (72). And Heathcliff

remains the social "autre" to all of the characters in the story, save perhaps Catherine.

Adopted into the Earnshaw family, he is given the name of one of their own offspring

who died in childhood, a mark of seeming high regard. However the name "Heathcliff"

serves as both first and last name, therefore he is not truly an Earnshaw. He is put to bed

with the children, but they do not allow him to remain there. He is Mr. Earshaw's pet,

but Hindley's scapegoat, and later he seems somewhere between servant and gentleman,

receiving half an education, but working in the fields and dining in the kitchen with

Joseph. He returns to Yorkshire with the manners, wealth, and carriage of a gentleman,









but he is still not accepted by Edgar as his and Catherine's equal; Edgar suggests

Catherine receive him in the kitchen (74). Thus despite the fact that Heathcliff spends the

better part of his life in Yorkshire, he remains the perpetual foreigner. Like J6hoel,

Heathcliff is forced into a situation which goes against his nature: Heathcliff prefers to

be free and to pass his days with Catherine, but Hindley forces him to work like a

common servant, and strives to separate him from his sister. Also like J6hoel, Heathcliff

leaves and returns, and no one is entirely certain of his whereabouts or his activities

during the interim.

According to Berthier, Barbey's passant-ravageur is not only a new face but a

being of a totally different race (282). In J6hool's case, his face is certainly new because

it is riven with scars. However, J6hoel truly returns a man of a different race following

his attempt at suicide, which, according to Eygun, is condsid6r6e comme un pacte avec

le diable > (221). Eygun explains "L'abb6 de La Croix-Jugan est passe au Diable depuis

qu'il a tent6 de se suicide, et sa Presque mort est une forme de descent aux Enfers, d'ou

il ressortira comme poss6d6, devant expire le p6ch6 de son suicide" (226). For Berthier

as well, J6hoel is a pretre d6moniaque >, though his reasoning is different than Eygun's

(Deslr 155). In L 'Ensorcelee, Les Diaboliques de Barbey D 'Aurevilly. Une ecriture du

desir, Berthier suggests "Ce qui rend J6hoel vraiment satanique, c'est qu'on pourrait lui

appliquer ce que sainte The6rse disait du demon : < Le malheureux il n'aime pas >

[162]. Il n'aime ni Dieu, ni les creatures, abim6 qu'il est dans l'assouvissement de ses

besoins" (155-6). Concerning J6hool's status as inhuman, Berthier cites a conversation

between Jeanne and la Clotte:

Ce n'est done pas un homme? dit Jeanne









-C'est un pretre, r6pondit la Clotte.
-Les anges sont bien tombs! dit Jeanne
Par orgueil, r6pondit la vieille ; aucun n'est tomb6 par amour. (168)

Thus to Berthier as well, J6hoel is not a man but a demon. A fallen angel is a demon by

definition. And according to la Clotte, "l'orgueil 6tait son plus grand vice" (131).

Furthermore, our most esteemed story-teller, le Maitre Tainnebouey informs us ce

prtre semblait le demon en habit de pretre > (159).

If J6hoel belongs to a demon race, Heathcliff belongs to a different literal race than

those native to Yorkshire. Upon his return, Nelly notes his "dark face and hair" (72). His

skin is indeed darker than that of his adversary Edgar, as in his youth he complains, "I

wish I had light hair and a fair skin" (44). Mrs. Earshaw disdainfully calls him a "gipsy

brat" upon his first appearance, and Mr. Linton speculates he is "a little Lascar, or an

American or Spanish castaway" (29, 39). Later Nelly suggests "your father was the

Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen," therefore Heathcliff is certainly of

a different race than that of the others at Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange

(44). Heathcliff, like J6hoel, is accused of belonging to a sort of "demon race" from the

beginning. Our earliest hint of this comes from Heathcliff's host and first ally Mr.

Earshaw, who introduces him thus: "You must e'en take it as a gift of God, thought it's

as dark almost as if it came from the devil" (28). If J6hoel is changed following his

attempt at suicide, Hindley's treatment of Heathcliff is "enough to make a fiend of a

saint" (51). If, as Eygun argues, l'abb6 returns from his experience "poss6d6," it seemed

to Nelly Dean "as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at the period" (51).

Heathcliff is variously as "imp of Satan" (31), "devil" (105), "legion of imps" (139), "the

devil himself' (204), and "a goblin" (249). Nelly repeatedly links him to every sort of









fiend, musing "Is he a ghoul or a vampire? .. .I had heard of such hideous, incarnate

demons" (250). Demon or no, in speaking with Heathcliff, Nelly marvels "I did not feel

as though I were in the company of a creature of my own species" (124). And Nelly is

not the only one to note this diabolical nature; Isabella poses the question "Is Mr.

Heathcliff a man? If so, is he mad? And if not, is he a devil? ... I beseech you to

explain, if you can, what I have married" (105). His evil and vengeance goes beyond her

human comprehension. Quite independent from a response from Nelly, Isabella reaches

her own conclusions about Heathcliff s lack of humanity and shares them thus with

Hindley: "And his mouth watered to tear you with his teeth; because he's only half a

man-not so much" (139).















CHAPTER 3
VAMPIRE MOTIFS

Thus we may conclude that, in keeping with Berthier's illustration of Barbey's

passant-ravageur scenario, both l'abb6 de la Croix-Jugan and Heathcliff appear as

members of a race apart from that of the townspeople they encounter as they travel. But

what demon race is this? It is of course the vampire. According to James B. Twitchell,

author of The Living Dead: A Study of the Vampire in Romantic Literature, "While

critical attention has been paid to other mythic figures in Romanticism, such as

Prometheus, Don Juan, and the Wandering Jew, the vampire has been overlooked" (3).

The fact that Emily Bronte was familiar with the vampire myth (as well as the means by

which she learned of it) evinces itself in the admission following her character Nelly's

question "Is he a ghoul or a vampire?" (250). She continues, "I had read of such hideous,

incarnate demons" (250). We have also her sister Charlotte's mention of the "foul

German spectre-the Vampyre" to prove the knowledge of the subject at the Bronte

parsonage. As for the source of Emily Bronte's knowledge of the myth, Carol A. Senf,

author of The Vampire in Nineteenth-Century Enghsh Literature, asserts she "was

certainly familiar with Byron's works and with the German Romantic literature of the

previous century" (82). Barbey too would have known of vampires by reading Byron ,

as, according to Eygun, he is one of the authors who most influenced Barbey (46). The



1 Specifically, Manfred and The Giaour (see Twitchell 74-79)









works of Sir Walter Scott also profoundly influenced both Bronte2 and Barbey.

Twitchell claims the German poem "Lenore" by Gottfried August Biirger was the most

influential of the German vampire poems, due in part to Scott's 1796 adaptation "The

Chase" (33).

It is important to note that the vampire of the mid-nineteenth century is

considerably different from the myth popularized by Bram Stoker's 1897 Dracula and

the subsequent film versions of the novel. The pre-Dracula vampire is much more

diabolical than its successors. Neither the disgusting beast of eighteenth century Slavic

folklore, nor the often light-hearted depiction of the twentieth century, the nineteenth

century vampire is, according to Senf, "the result of writers combining .. folkloric

treatments of posthumous magic" with "earlier literary characters-such as the rake and

the villains and the temptresses of the Gothic novel" (18). This vampire is not a species

of its own, but the result of a demonic possession; says Twitchell, the vampire "by the

end of the eighteenth century was not simply a ghost or a wraith but the devil's spirit

which had possessed the body and trapped the soul of a dead sinner" (8). Although both

Bronte and Barbey demonstrate familiarity with dominant vampire myths of the mid-

nineteenth century, we must recognize that these myths differ not only from our own

post-Stoker myths, but also from earlier mythology.

That romantic writers had a certain fascination with the vampire myth is not

surprising, given their predilection for the supernatural and the satanic. The romantics


2 According to Mary Ward, author of "Wuthering Heights," Emily Bronte was during her "eager
enthusiastic youth" a reader of Sir Walter Scott (119) Ward asserts Bronte's familiarity with Scott can be
seen in her juvenilia as a nine-year-old child, she created the fictional Isle of Arran, and named Sir Walter
Scott one of its inhabitants (119)

3 See P -J Yarrow, "W Scott etL 'Ensorcelee de Barbey D'Aurevilly "










were also interested in folk culture and the kind of lore from which they learned of the

vampire. The romantics began to add to the vampire myth the notion that one who

returns from the dead even to bestow harm upon those he loved in life transcends life by

his emotional strength. The vampire is a kind of a misunderstood loner, never fully

satisfied. Horror becomes fascination becomes pity. The return of the vampire from the

grave is the triumph of emotion over the reason and rationality of the Enlightenment and

the Neoclassicism against which the romantics rebelled. Therefore, it is certainly no

shock to find traces of vampirism in two gothic romances Wuthering Heights and

L 'Ensorcelee, and no stretch to show the vampiric tendencies of both Heathcliff and

J6hoel. However it is their varied manners of treating their victims which reveal one

novel to be traditional and the other to touch on thefeminine. J6hool's and Heathcliffs

respective victimizations of the female characters as well as Jeanne and Catherine's

response to this "vamping" classify the texts as masculine and feminine.

L'Ensorcelde and the Vampire

The first evidence of the existence of a vampire motif in L 'Ensorcelee is in its title.

I have already stated that the nineteenth century vampire is the result of demonic

possession: it might, therefore, be said to be "ensorcel6" by the devil. Further, "the

vampire population was thought to be primarily augmented by sinners, especially

suicides" (8). L'abb6 de la Croix-Jugan, therefore, is a prime candidate4. In the opening



4 Unlike Wutherng Heights, there seems to be little critical work linkmg L 'Ensorcelee with vampirism
Berthier gives the vampire figure a single mention at the end of Desir, in which he supports his claim by
alluding to the calf called le more de Blanchelande which impales itself (but not specifically stating the
connection) (160) Tamnebouey speculates the "tauret blanc qui avalt des comes noires entrelacees et
recourbees sur son muffle comme l'ancien capuchon du mome" suicides because the one who so named an
animal after a priest must be punished (245) Perhaps the "undead" Jehoel avenges the offense by taking
possession of the calf and driving it into the fury by which "elle s'etalt eventree sur le pleu ferret d'une
barrire" (245)









pages of the book, he attempts suicide, miraculously recovers, and returns to

Blanchelande a changed man. This apparently miraculous recovery can be explained if

J6hoel actually dies, either of the self-inflicted gunshot wound or of the Bleus who try to

finish him off, and then only appears to recuperate because some supernatural force has

taken over his body. Or, as Eygun suggests, he has descended to hell to make a deal with

the devil. Could it be that this change is the result of the fact that he has actually killed

himself and returned to life in the form of something like the revenant of vampire myth?

Twitchell muses "It seems a terrible irony that the price paid for committing suicide was

to make the self indestructible, for once the devil took control, the soul could never

escape to an after-life until the demon was demolished" (8). J6hoel in fact suffers this

fate. Though shot in the head while singing the Easter mass and apparently quite dead, at

the end of the novel we find a decayed form of the monk's body trapped in the perpetual

attempt to conduct a mass which he cannot remember and therefore can never escape. In

Desir, Berthier notes that this living but not living is vampiric: "S'approchant de l'hostie,

mais A jamais incapable de la transsubstantier," Berthier explains,

J6hoel, comme un vampire A qui serait refuse la grace de la mort, et qui vivrait
sans vivre, dans les limbes et l'entre-deux inimaginables d'une existence A mi-
chemin de l'Ftre et du n6ant, offre l'image cauchemardesque, la hantise onirique du
d6sir qui sait que lui seul peut faire sens, et que ce sens est barr6 par un sens
sup6rieur, exclusif, qui en postule imp6rieusement la d6faite. (160)

Berthier describes a status identical to that of the undead.

Moreover, J6hoel admits to his own bloodlust. After speaking with the bloodied

and dying Clotilde, he says to himself "Ah! ... La soif du sang de l'ennemi dess6chera

done toujours ta bouche impie?" (216). Thus J6hoel confesses to his own thirst for blood.

Further evidence of Jhool's figurative vampirism is seen in his return to Blanchelande

from parts unknown. Blanchelande is his native land, but when the Revolution began, "il









6tait un des premiers qui aient disparu de son cloitre" to fight against the Bleus (132).

Following the end of the war and his subsequent suicide attempt near the forest of C6risy,

he could have stayed elsewhere in France. There was no need for him to undergo the

shame of returning to the church and to those who knew him in his youth, except to avoid

the Bleus (and this seems a weak excuse for his return given that he could have hidden in

any rural village, the better to evade the young government, since he would be unknown).

Elsewhere in France no one would have known of his history as a man of the cloth, and

he could have started his life anew, a much less complicated life. Most likely, he could

have located Bleus in any town, on which to wreak his revenge. However he chooses to

return to his native land and to endure the scorn of the people in Blanchelande. This

unlikely choice can be explained by Carol A. Senfs statement that among the vampire's

characteristics is "the necessity of sleeping in their native soil" (9). Perhaps J6hool

returns to Blanchelande because he has no alternative.

According to Twitchell, the vampire chooses victims who will initially recognize

him (10). It is in this way, through la Clotte's mediation, that Jeanne, an intelligent and

relatively independent woman, becomes J6hool's pathetic victim. Further, Jeanne may be

more susceptible to the vampire's power because "elle n'6tait point une devote" (88).

Any sin against the church, says Twitchell, "carried sufficient promise of damnation to

incite the devil" (9). The vampire, Twitchell continues, "cannot pick and choose [his

victims] on his own; rather, he must be picked, 'invited' into the relationship" (10). We

see the cause for this invitation in Jeanne's latent desire for a partner more befitting to her

class than her husband. At the idea of marrying a peasant, "Le sang des Feuardent

bouillonnait dans ce ccur vierge" (99). Forced to marry a man whose poor manners and









lack of education she finds shocking, Jeanne makes the best of her situation. However,

her upbringing has not prepared her to be the wife of a peasant: "Jeanne-Madelaine de

Feuardent prit sa part d'une education aussi cultiv6e qu'elle pouvait l'Ftre A la compagne

et A cette 6poque, mais qui l'6tait trop encore pour la vie qui devait lui choir" (99).

Tainnebouey queries "Ce qui eit convenu A la fille des Feuardent ne devenait-il pas un

danger pour une femme don't la destine n'6tait pas au niveau du nom ?" (99). Is it any

wonder Jeanne is attracted to a man who is even better educated, courageous, and of

noble blood? Twitchell continues, "The victim, not consciously realizing that the friend

or relative is the devil in disguise, understandably and ironically obliges" (10). It is,

ironically, at mass that she first sees and is drawn to the abbe, to the extent that she

cannot turn away. While not a direct friend or relative, J6hoel was acquainted with

Jeanne's mother and father.

Further, Jeanne learns of J6hoel through her friends Nanon Cocouan and especially

through la Clotte. It is at the home of la Clotte that Jeanne meets l'abb6. Clotilde

Mauduit acts as a sort of medium through which J6hoel and Jeanne come in contact.

Though overtly discouraging Jeanne from a relationship with the priest through her tale

of Dlaide Malgy, a contemporary of Louisine's who succumbed to his charms, she

actually seems to encourage such a relationship, because of J6hool's noble lineage and

because of her own history of attraction to this sort of man. She disapproves of Jeanne's

marriage to le Hardouey because he lacks noble blood, and refuses to address her as

anything but "mademoiselle de Feuardent" (128). To la Clotte, "Jeanne-Madelaine 6tait

toujours mademoiselle de Feuardent, malgr6 la loi" (128). Further, la Clotte speaks of

J6hool's "beau visage de Saint Michel qui tue le dragon" with enthusiasm (133).










Through the story of the scorned Dlaide Malgy, who drinks herself to death following

J6hool's cruel refusal, la Clotte confirms that J6hool's charms are in fact irresistible and

predicts that they will drive Jeanne to her grave. Thus bestirred by la Clotte's

"cautionary" tale, Jeanne is emotionally prepared to fall in love with J6hoel, and does in

fact encourage J6hool's advances5.

After preparing Jeanne for the meeting, la Clotte then invites J6hoel into her house,

calling into the seemingly empty night "Ah! Tu es done ici, 6 J6hoel de la Croix-Jugan!"

(138). This coincides with Twitchell's statement that the vampire cannot enter a home

without some "inviting move" (10). Twitchell continues "the vampire cannot cross a

threshold without this invitation; he is bound to wait until invited in" (10). A shadow

responds to la Clotte's "evocation," and "l'ombre 6paissie devint un homme qui entra"

(138, 139). The fact that the shadow "becomes" J6hoel further smacks of the vampire

myth, because, according to Twitchell, the vampire "can change shape at will, becoming

as invisible as mist" (11). J6hoel then confirms that his former self is dead: "11 n'y a plus

de frere Ranulphe, Clotilde! dit le pretre d'une voix apre, enjetant ces paroles comme la

dernibre pellet de terre sur un cercueil" (139).

Having successfully gained entrance to the house, J6hoel is then introduced to

Jeanne by la Clotte, who continues to act as a medium between the two6. According to

Twitchell, the vampire, once inside, "is still not in control and so must attempt to

5 Tainnebouey confirms la Clotte

avalt exalted des faculties et des regrets mutiles, par le respect passionne qu'elle avalt pour ceux qui
savent la tyrannie des habitudes de notre ame, que cette exaltation, entretenue par les
conversations de la Clotte, n'ait predispose Jeanne-Madelaine au triste amour qui fnit sa vie
(221)

6 Perhaps la Clotte too is the victim of a vampire She shares Jeanne's feelings toward the nobility and, in
her paralytic legs, she also shares the physical mark of moral death and decay This would explain her
ability to summon Jehoel from the shadows










entrance [his victim] with his hypnotic stare, for his powers are initially ocular" (10).

J6hoel thus looks "attentivement" at Jeanne (141). Jeanne's response to J6hool's gaze is

to turn red as blood rushes to her face: "le visage n'6tait plus qu'6carlate du tour de gorge

jusqu'aux cheveux" (141). Through the power of his gaze, J6hoel is able to draw the

blood to Jeanne's surface, so to speak. The ocular power of the vampire is later revealed,

for according to Tainnebouy, it is "les yeux de ce pretre extraordinaire" which "auraient

allum6e" Jeanne "comme une torche humaine" (146). He continues "une couleur

violent, couperose ardente de son sang soulev6, s'6tablit a poste fixe sur le beau visage

de Jeanne-Madelaine. I1 semblait, monsieur, qu'on l'eft plong6e, la tete la premiere,

dans un chaudron de sang de bceuf (146). According to Twitchell, "the recurring

image of blood" is one of the central "elements of the vampire myth" which "assert

themselves with such regularity in the various retellings of the story that they have

become motifs anchoring each version to a central tradition" (13). The mark of blood on

her face bears witness to J6hool's continued power over her. Further, la comtesse

Jacqueline de Monsurvent adds "qu'il y avait des moments oi, sur la pourpre de ce

visage incendi6, il passait comme des nu6es, d'un pourpre plus fonc6, Presque violettes,

ou presque noires" (146). This purple and black is reminiscent of the purple and black

face which reminds the heroine of the vampire in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre7. At



7Jane describes Bronte's figurative vampire Bertha Mason's visitation to Rochester thus

'Fearful and ghastly to me-oh, sir, I never saw a face like itr It was a discoloured
face-it was a savage face I wish I could forget the roll of the red eyes and the fearful blackened
inflation of the lineaments!'

'Ghosts are usually pale, Jane

'This, sir, was purple the lips were swelled and dark, the brow furrowed the black
eyebrows widely raised over the bloodshot eyes Shall I tell you of what it reminded me?'









supper that night, Jeanne still "n'avait pas perdu les couleurs fonc6es que la vue de J6hoel

avait 6tendues sur son visage" (144). A vampire's victim, she continues to bear the mark

of his dominance over her on her face and throat, just as J6hoel bears the mark of his

attempt at suicide and the consequences thereof in his belabored countenance.

Following Jeanne's initial view of J6hoel, Jeanne returns to her husband to eat

supper. Thomas le Hardouey has invited the cure for supper, who illuminates still more

of J6hool's past. As Jeanne listens, "Ce pretre-soldat, ce chef de Chouans, ce suicide

6chapp6 de la mort volontaire et A la fureur des Bleus, la frappait maintenant par le c6t6

moral de la physionomie, comme, A l'Fglise, il l'avait frapp6e par le c6t6 exterieur" (123).

In leaving the abbey to become a Chouan, J6hoel rebels against God and country. A

monk, he has no business shedding blood, yet he kills many Bleus as a Chouan. His

familial duty as the fourth son was to join the church, but he always preferred hunting,

and he wanted to be a soldier. A priest with a predilection for killing exhibits the

rebellion against authority Senf claims is typical of the vampire (9). Jeanne, it seems, is

attracted by his "romantic independence."

As she considers this second level of his monstrous physiognomy, the moral

rebellion as distinguished from his physical deformity [the scars on his face alone are

enough to lead others to suspect his "diabolical propensities" (9)], Jeanne thoughtfully

fingers herjeannette, "la croix surmont6e d'un gros coeur d'or qu'elle portait attache A

son cou par un ruban de velour noir" (123). The heart, symbol of human eros but also the



'You may

'Of the foul German spectre-the Vampyre (171)










conveyor of blood, surrounds the cross, swallowing the symbol of her Christian devotion,

while the black velvet of the ribbon evokes mourning and death. In the same way, her

desire for J6hoel overtakes her religious duty as she recklessly and defiantly pursues the

priest. Eventually, she gives this cross away entirely, exchanging it with the bergers for a

means of obtaining J6hoel. As she ponders, Jeanne becomes enthralled by J6hool's

"otherness," his refusal to conform to societal standards. Jeanne is able to relate to his

rebellion due to her own distaste with her role as the wife of a peasant. As for J6hool's

characteristic "romantic independence," Jeanne also exercises an "ind6pendance que les

femmes ne connaissent pas a un pareil degr6 dans les villes, ou chaque pas qu'elles font

est un danger et quelques fois un perfidie" (124). Thus J6hoel bears all the marks of a

vampire, and his victim is Jeanne le Hardouey.

Wuthering Heights and the Vampire

In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronto creates another gothic hero-vampire in

Heathcliff". Not only does he come from parts unknown, but he is given the name of a

dead child of his benefactors, thus in a sense, he reanimatess" the dead son. Carol A.


8 It is Twitchell who contends "the vampire reached an artistic peak in the demon-cum-vampire figure of
Heathcliff" (116) However, Twitchell does not hold that Heathcliff is a literal vampire, "only that his
relationships with other people can be explained metaphorically Whether or not he actually does suck
blood, he acts as if he were vamping other characters" (118-9) Carol A Senf, however, goes so far as to
assert that while authors and readers of works such as Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, George Ehot's
Middlemarch, and Charles Dickens' BleakHouse "accept the [vampire] comparison as metaphor," in
Wuthenng Heights, "on the other hand, they must recognize that the metaphor may also be the reality"
(79) For my purposes, the literal or figurative nature of the vampire is irrelevant What is relevant is the
various ways the two critics form the vampire myth to the novel While Twitchell focuses on Heathchff as
the vampire figure who repeatedly and diabolically attacks a helpless Catherine, (119), Senf's argument
focuses on Catherine, and while she asserts both Heathchff and Catherine are vampires, Heathcliff s
vampirism is more literary and figurative, while the depiction of Catherine as vampire may well be realistic
(81) To Senf, it is Catherine who first attacks Heathchff, and not the other way around (81) My own
assertions concerning the means m which the vampire myth may be related to Wutherng Heights, as the
reader will see, again vary from those of Twitchell and Senf, in that my focus is the symbiotic relationship
between Catherine and Heathcliff, and I wish to show neither that Heathcliff overpowers Catherine, as m
Twitchell, nor that Catherine victimizes Heathcliff, as in Senf, but that their relationship is more or less
equal, regardless of which one initiated the relationship









Senf defines the vampire as "a reanimated corpse" (14). Just as "frbre Ranulphe" is dead,

the old Heathcliff is also gone, replaced by the usurper. If Mr. Earshaw's introductory

"it's dark almost as if it came from the devil" isn't enough, Nelly Dean clarifies "it

appeared as if the lad were possessed of something diabolical at that period" (28, 51).

Though Heathcliff may not literally reanimate a corpse, Earnshaw does treat him as a

favorite son, and it is through this "adoption" that Heathcliff is admitted to Wuthering

Heights. According to Twitchell, "any social peculiarity might be a sign of diabolical

propensities. So in dark-eyed cultures the blue-eyed were suspect; in dark-haired

societies the blond was exiled" (9). Thus a dark-haired, "gibberish"-talking foreigner

alone in a pale-skinned society already exhibits what Twitchell calls vampiricc

tendencies" (9). Moreover, Heathcliff gains entrance into Wuthering Heights by

invitation: he is carried across the threshold by Mr. Earnshaw, who tragically fails to see

the destruction of his children's gifts as a forewarning of their own destruction at the

hands of the "imp." Perhaps the Earnshaw children's refusal to allow him in the same

room with them, much less to share their bed, is due to some perception of Heathcliff s

vampirism. Often children and animals are depicted as having a special sense when it

comes to detecting evil, especially of the supernatural variety. In any case, forbidden by

Catherine and Hindley even to enter their chamber, Heathcliff is unable to cross the

threshold, and Nelly, herself still a child, puts him on the landing of the stairs, "hoping it

might by gone by the morrow" (29). Heathcliff then creeps to Mr. Earnshaw's door, he

being the one who allowed him to enter the house, but again cannot enter sans invitation.

Heathcliff's near supernatural power is seen in the influence he exercises over

Earnshaw, who remains under Heathcliff s spell until his death, favoring him above his









own biological son and daughter. Nelly tells us "he took to Heathcliff strangely,

believing all he said," underscoring the improbability of the situation (30). Ellen

"wondered often what my master saw to admire so much in the sullen boy who never, to

my recollection, repaid his indulgence by any sign of gratitude" (30). Earshaw's

favoritism becomes so extreme that Hindley is sent away to school, so that Heathcliff

really does supersede him as Earshaw's son. In order for this to occur, it becomes

evident that Earnshaw is somehow ensorcele by his adopted child. Thus we can assume

Earnshaw is Heathcliff's first victim. Either upon their first meeting in Liverpool or

during the struggle to bring him home during which the whip was lost and the fiddle

destroyed, Heathcliff somehow obtains power over Earnshaw, possibly through some sort

of figurative bite. He does, after all, struggle with Earnshaw on their way back to the

Heights and he is certainly animal-like; Nelly initially refers to him as "it," so a literal

bite is not unlikely, and a figurative one quite possible. Nelly informs us that even as an

adult, Heathcliff "gnashed at me, and foamed like a mad dog," and Isabella Linton

remarks that "his mouth watered to tear you with his teeth" which are "sharp" and

cannibal" (124, 139, 136). Bronto is careful to insert that contrary to Mrs. Earshaw's

expectations, Mr. Earshaw's return is after dark, when, according to Twitchell, the

vampire is most powerful (11). Furthermore, the death of Mr. Earnshaw occurs only

seven years after Heathcliff's arrival, and Mrs. Earshaw's death precedes his. Death is

the eventual fate of any vampire's victim who does nothing to escape the demon's sway.

Says Twitchell, "if the victim does not defend herself, or if she allows the vampire to

return, he will eventually drain her of blood until she wastes away" (11). Thus the









passing of the elder Earshaws may well indicate vampiric activity on the part of

Heathcliff. He feeds on their life forces.

Heathcliff's second "victim" is Catherine, who by the second day after his arrival,

"was very thick" with him (29). It is a good thing for Heathcliff that the vampire's

powers are not verbal because in those first days he doesn't yet speak English, thus his

power over her is necessarily located elsewhere. His immediate "thickness" with Cathy,

therefore, seems as unnatural as Earnshaw's instant taking to him, after all, only one

night has passed since her initial reaction, to spit on him and not permit him in her room.

Apparently, one night in her chamber is all he requires. I do not intend to imply a sexual

relationship here, because Catherine remains virginal until her journey to Thrushcross

Grange. And yet, there is some physical connection, some figurative exchange of blood,

at least figurative and quite possibly literal, between Catherine and Heathcliff. As la

Clotte acts as medium between J6hool and Jeanne, Earnshaw invites Heathcliff into his

home, unintentionally instigating the liaison between Heathcliff and Catherine.

However Catherine, unlike Jeanne de Feuardent, begins to take on some of the

vampish qualities of her "attacker." According to folklore, it was not in fact necessary to

commit sins religious or social in order to become a vampire. "This," Twitchell asserts

"would occur in the rare case when the vampire actually attacked and successfully

transformed the victim into another vampire" (10). Catherine's qualities make her a good

candidate to play victim to Heathcliffs vampire. First, she is a woman, and according to

Twitchell, "Usually, if the vampire is male, the first victims are female" (10). This

makes sense given that Mrs. Earnshaw is first to die. Second, the curate says Hindley

"lets her grow up in absolute heathenism" (39). A vampire can be combated by even a









word "spoken by the devout," but Catherine is anything but devout, and she and

Heathcliff would not even attend church except under Joseph's duress (11). Catherine

and Heathcliff's rebelliousness stands out against the rest of the household. After his

lecture from Mr. Linton, Hindley does make an attempt to keep some order in the house,

if only for the sake of his wife. Heathcliff and Catherine "both promised fair to grow up

rude as savages" though "the curate might set as many chapters as he pleased for

Catherine to get by heart, and Joseph might thrash Heathcliff till his arm ached" (36).

This rebelliousness is further proof of their vampire-like nature, for according to Senf,

rebellion against authority is a distinct characteristic of the vampire (9). Their daily

rambles on the moors in spite of the punishment they receive for them sets them apart

from the other characters; it is the type of "romantic independence" Senf cites as

characteristic of the vampire.

Catherine further makes the famous declaration that Heathcliff "is more myself

than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same, and Linton's is as

different as a moonbeam from lightening or frost from fire" (62). Catherine and

Heathcliff differ from Edgar Linton because their souls appear not human but demonic,

or at least possessed. Catherine's comparison between her love for Edgar and for

Heathcliff further illuminates her vampirism. Catherine confesses to Nelly

My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods. Time will change it, I'm well
aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal
rocks beneath-a source of little visible delight, but necessary. (64)

Of course Catherine's love for Linton is different, because he, in contrast with Heathcliff

and Catherine, is like the victim in the vampire myth, mortal and destined to die. He does

not possess the "romantic independence" of the vampire. She and Heathcliff as the

vampire figures are like the rocks, immortal. Their love is "necessary" because they feed










off of one another, literally or figuratively. Each needs the other's blood, his life force, to

continue to live. Without Heathcliff, Catherine immediately falls ill, and though an

increase in appetite is not usually associated with fever, she complains, "I'm starving!"

(67). Catherine does recuperate sans Heathcliff, but only after being tended to by Mrs.

Linton, and following a stay at Thrushcross Grange, whereupon Mr. and Mrs. Linton die

before her return. Incidentally, it is Mrs. Linton who insists she stay in her home, thus

she has obtained an invitation. Perhaps old Mrs. Linton's insistence is due to Catherine's

supernatural persuasion. Following his marriage, Edgar avers "the stab of a knife could

not inflict a worse pang than he suffered at seeing his lady vexed" (71). Their marriage

then is no surprise despite the differences in their personality. Edgar's figurative

endurance of the stab of a knife for the sake of Catherine's happiness is further evidence

of the vampire myth. The elder Earnshaws eventually waste away, but Catherine is the

exception, the "rare case" in which victim becomes vampire .

Further evidence of a vampire-like relationship between Heathcliff and Catherine

is seen in their relationship as brother and sister. Heathcliff is adopted into the Earnshaw

family and treated, in the beginning, as Earnshaw's own son. This of course makes him

Catherine's adoptive brother. Their love is therefore incestuous. Ernest Jones, author of

On the Nightmare, suggests the myth of the vampire originates in the idea that some



9 Similarly, Heathcliffs return to the Grange after three years of absence is marked by a meal which
"hardly endured ten minutes Catherine's cup was never filled, she could neither eat nor drink" (75)
Though tea is not imbibed, Heathcliff "drank" delight from Catherine's face (75) And once Catherine
begins to haunt Heathcliff, "eating once m twenty-four hours seemed sufficient sustenance for him (247)



10 My assertions concern Catherine's life as well as her "life-m-death," for it is not always necessary to die
in order to become a vampire Ernest Jones, author of On the Nightmare purports there exist mythologies
in which "the Vampire-like spirit emanates not from a dead but from a still living person" (106)









people, once dead, cannot remain in the ground due to sexual guilt. Specifically, this

"unconscious guiltiness owes its origin to the infantile incestuous wishes that have been

only imperfectly overcome in the course of development" (103). As they have lived as

brother and sister, and especially since their mutual affection has its root in their

childhood, Catherine and Heathcliff seem prime candidates for vampirism.

When Heathcliff has Catherine exhumed for the second time, 17 years after her

death, her face is still recognizably hers (218). Her body has not decomposed because, as

Jones suggests, "Successful decomposition, and the reduction of the corpse to a state of

simplicity and purity, signified that the dead person was at rest in the earth and that his

soul was at peace, .. purified of sin" (104). The myth of the vampire then comes from

the projection of "guilty sexual wishes," so that as long as Heathcliff and Catherine desire

one another, they mutually project this guilt upon one another, preventing their corpses

from decomposing. For Heathclifftoo seems to live on after death-Nelly affirms the

eyes of his cadaver "met mine so keen and fierce, I started; and then he seemed to smile.

I could not think him dead" (254). What's more, the reason the dead person cannot rest

is that in order to overcome his sexual guilt, he must "overcome it by the characteristic

method of defiantly demonstrating that he can commit the forbidden acts" (102-3). This

is why Heathcliff tells Ellen that by his contriving to be buried next to Catherine, Ellen

will "have a better chance of keeping me underground, when I get there" (219). The odds

that Heathcliff will remain where he's buried are increased by the fact that his reason for

emerging from the grave is to commit a forbidden act, namely the act of physical

intimacy with Catherine. However, if Catherine is near him, his need to leave the grave

after his death is somewhat diminished-at least he will not have far to go.















CHAPTER 4
TOWARD AN ECRITURE FEMININE

Now our two heroines have been attacked by heroes who embody the vampire

theme. Each reacts similarly to the attack, by developing an attraction to her attacker.

However, the demonic heroes react differently to our heroines. While Heathcliff returns

Catherine's affection and desire, J6hoel responds coldly to Jeanne's sudden and violent

attraction to him. Barbey's is a linear-minded vampire figure. Satan attacks him and he

in turn attacks Jeanne. Heathcliff however goes in all directions. His "victims" are

varied, male and female. One responds to his "romantic independence" and becomes a

vampire figure herself. Others either flee or eventually waste away, drained of their life

force. Catherine continues where Heathcliff left off, killing some, attacking others,

allowing still others to go free. By now the main differences between the vampire motifs

in L 'Ensorcelee and Wutherng Heights should be apparent. J6hoel commits or attempts

to commit suicide, which sin causes him to become possessed, the mark of this

possession being his monstrous face. He then goes on to bewitch Jeanne le Hardouey,

the sign of his control over her being her red face, which glows brighter until she dies.

The attack causes Jeanne to lust after him, but he refuses her and she dies. Heathcliff

"vamps" Earnshaw, then Catherine, and when she responds to the "vampire," he

reciprocates the affection.

We first see evidence of ecrzture fminine in the fluid, multidirectional quality of

Catherine's desire as compared to Jeanne's more linear desire. First, in L 'Ensorcelee,

J6hoel bewitches Jeanne, who in turn has no victims. Others are affected by J6hool's









spell, but Jeanne herself harms no one. Nor is she permitted to sate her physical desire

for the abb6, though she certainly attempts to. Even her own forays into the supernatural

via the gypsy shepherds and their spells are to no avail. Eventually she drowns, the water

of the lake extinguishing the flame J6hool ignited within her. Jeanne dies without the

metaphorical blood which is vital to her. The associations between blood and semen are

obvious and historical, going back to the metaphysical poets. Says Ernest Jones, "In the

unconscious mind blood is commonly an equivalent for semen" (119). The parallels

between the attack of the vampire figure and sexual activity are blatant. Senf

characterizes vampires as taking "definite delight in their sexuality" (8). Because of

J6hool's attack, Jeanne needs physical intimacy with him-his "blood," but he

deliberately deprives her of it, as if torturing a helpless animal. Catherine, on the other

hand, is permitted to act on her desire, at least in the beginning, and so her relationship

with Heathcliffis a symbiotic one. Further, Catherine is then able to "attack" other

victims. She continues to "devour" those around her until halfway through the novel,

and even, symbolically, after her death. Thus, where Jeanne is simply attacked by a male

character, unable to reciprocate, to act on her emotions, or to have any other means of

obtaining that which she needs to survive, Bronto enables Catherine both to return

Heathcliff's "attack"-to share her life force with him-and to continue to deplete others

of their life forces. (Mr. and Mrs. Linton die after Mrs. Linton cares for her.) Catherine's

desire, like liquid, goes in all directions, while Jeanne's is linear, and limited.

Here we see Bronte's decipherable libidinal femininity. For water is an element

historically associated with woman, and for the French feminists, water imagery

characterizes feminine desire, logic, and writing, which are fluid and simultaneously










multidirectional (as opposed to "masculine" desire, which is more linear). Thus for

Cixous, "as for countless mythologies," according to Moi, water is "the feminine element

par excellence," and water imagery evokes "the endless pleasures of the polymorphously

perverse child" (115). This is exactly the "liquid desire" Catherine exhibits. Barbey, on

the other hand, locks Jeanne in her role as victim. Her strength of character and fiery

independence prove only to emphasize the extent of the powers which dominate her. Her

brave struggle ultimately proves futile. This classification is, according to Cixous,

common to the masculine libidinal economy. In her article "Castration or decapitation?"

Cixous explains "As soon as the question 'What is it?' is posed, from the moment a

question is put, as soon as a reply is sought, we are already caught up in masculine

interrogation" (45). What is Jeanne-Madelaine le Hardouey? She is victim.

The fluidity of female desire relates directly to the traditional depiction of literary

vampires as polymorphous perverse. To Cixous and Irigaray, ecriturefeminine emerges

directly from the body of the woman. In Ce Sexe qui n 'en estpas un, Irigaray argues the

polymorphously perverse nature of female sexuality (24). According to Moi, Cixous too

is concerned with "evoking the endless pleasures of the polymorphously perverse child"

(115). This type of desire, according to Cixous, exhibits itself in the work of the feminine

writer. It is a quality common to ecriturefeminine because the child in the pre-

socialized, pre-Oedipal, androgynous state is said to be polymorphously perverse, that is,


1 Called the "Imaginary" by Lacan, this is the state of development which precedes understanding of
language and gender Woman is said to retain a special connection with this state of development even in
adulthood because

the symbol of difference at the heart of the language system is the distinction phallus/lack of
phallus and from this follow the other differences which form our language system male/female,
head/heart, culture/nature, sane/mad, and so on It is the phallus that can be seen to be the central









attracted to all manner of others regardless of gender, age, or any other specific. Thus,

like the liquid-like desire from which ecriture feminne "flows," the polymorphous

perverse desire goes in many directions simultaneously, in that its desired objects are not

limited by any classification. The fminine emphasizes woman's permanent and especial

connection to this childhood phase. Say Millard, Mills, and Pearce in their essay "French

feminisms," "it was basically an assumption that female subjects preserve a special

relationship to this stage of development that led to a theorization of Cixous's ecriture

feminine and Irigaray'sparlerfemme" (156). Polymorphous perversity is not a genital,

but an oral and anal sexuality2, which may be why it can be associated with the vampire

and his kiss of death. Senf confirms some vampires are "characterized as polymorph

perverse" in that they "clearly take erotic pleasure in their relationships with breathing

human beings" (8).

We see Bronte's depiction of the polymorphous perverse in both Catherine and

Heathcliff. Both Catherine and Heathcliff, as "vampires" have both male and female

"victims." Also, I have shown and will continue to show in the discussion of

masquerade, that Catherine is not particularly traditionally feminine, and neither is

Heathcliff particularly masculine, after all, he is initially referred to as "it," a non-gender

specific pronoun. J6hool-as-vampire, on the other hand, does not exhibit this particular




or primary signifier m the language system, since it is the sign of difference and dominance
(Mills and Pearce 310)

Therefore since this state precedes language development and since the sign of its termination centers
around the phallus, it is theorized that woman never fully leaves behind the childhood androgynous state


2 Mills and Pearce 311









trait, in that his victim is a woman. Jeanne, of course, has no victims of her own. Bronte,

through her use of the vampire motif, evokes the feminine theme of the polymorphous

perverse child who retains something of this androgynous phase of development into

adulthood.

We see further evidence of a proto-ecrture fminine in Bronte's mixing of

traditional male and female roles. While la Clotte mystically summons J6hool and invites

him to enter her cottage, Mr. Earnshaw carries Heathcliff across his threshold. Typically,

the male vampire prefers female victims and vice versa, and it is generally the female

who initially makes the "inviting move" which allows the vampire to access to his

victims. Mr. Earshaw's gender and his role as the enabler of the vampire exhibit

Bronte's mixing the myth. In assigning to Earnshaw the traditionally female task of

enabling the vampire, she wrenches him from what H6elne Cixous terms "The Realm of

the Proper" in "Castration or decapitation?" (50). In Sexual/Textual Politics, Toril Moi

explains it thus,

Masculinity or masculine value systems are structured according to an 'economy
of the proper'. Proper-property-appropriate: signaling an emphasis on self-
identity, self-aggrandizement and arrogative dominance, these words characterize
the logic of the proper according to Cixous. The insistence on the proper, on a
proper return, leads to the masculine obsession with classification,
systematization and hierarchization. (109)

The role of the host of the enabler of the vampire, especially the male vampire, is the

traditionally assigned to a female character; Bronte sends a man to do a woman's job,

defying the romantic expectation and revising Earnshaw's identity as a man. Enabling

the vampire is considered a woman's task in the tradition of Eve, she eats of the fruit and

gives it to Adam, so that through her "lapse" in judgment, evil enters the world, or in the

vampire's case, the home. Or it is the task of Pandora, the female whose curiosity









unleashes destruction on creation, freeing it from its box, its containment, its coffin. In

any case, it is the man's role to suffer the consequences of woman's actions or attempt to

save her from her folly, not to permit the evil entrance to the home and certainly not to do

so unwittingly. Thus Earnshaw's role is an early clue that Bronte will shake up the

formula for romance as we know it.

We see further evidence of Bronte's swapping the traditional gender roles (and

Barbey's adhering to them) in the use of what Northrop Frye terms forza andfroda, or

violence and fraud. Frye asserts these two elements of sin from Dante's Inferno and

Milton's Paradise Lost must also be "the two cardinal virtues of human life as such"

(65). Frye continues, "When violence and fraud enter literature, they help to create the

forms of tragedy and comedy respectively" and also asserts "a romance is normally

comic" (66, 92). Thus, since we are dealing with gothic romances, we can expect to find

more examples offroda than offorza in each novel. Further, froda is associated with

female characters and forza with male. This is because it requires physical force, and is

therefore the realm of a hero. When the hero falls, however, he is most often

brought down by some form offroda, usually some magical or other power which
may be physically weak but is strong in other areas that the hero cannot control.
Such a power is often wielded, or symbolized, by a ... woman. (68)

Froda is the tool of the disadvantaged, of women and slaves. This is evident in

L 'Ensorcelee; the romantic heroine uses trickery to get what she wants. Jeanne de

Feuardant employs guile in her attempt to win J6hoel by going to the bergers and to

mystics for a spell to make him fall in love with her. Her greatest effort at attaining the

love of the priest involves making a shirt and mixing her sweat with his (166-7). Magic

is a common example offroda, and one associated with women. Every attempt she

makes to escape her bewitched state by physical contact with J6hoel is indirect, by way of









guile. Her means of retaliation are therefore typical of romance and of the romantic

heroine. At the same time, J6hool is a soldier, and therefore dwells in the realm offorza,

of physical violence. Though he is a priest, he was born to be a soldier and is never

comfortable in this position as a man of the cloth. Even in his depression at admitting the

failure of the Chouan cause, he turns to physical violence, though violence against

himself, to end his misery. True, he bewitches Jeanne using evil magical forces, however

at this point, he is like a vampire, that is to say his body has been possessed by a demon.

So it is not the hero whose magic surpasses that of the female mystics Jeanne visits, but

that of the demon who possesses him.

Catherine Earnshaw, on the other hand, is characterized by her use offorza and

refusal to employfroda-guile is practically foreign to her. Old Earnshaw's gift to her is

a riding whip, a symbol of her desire for physical power over others. She expresses her

initial dislike for Heathcliff openly and freely: "when she learnt the master had lost her

whip in attending on the stranger," she "showed her humour by grinning and spitting at

the stupid little thing" (29). She uses these same physical tactics toward any obstacle to

her grand passion. When Ellen refuses to leave her alone with Edgar, Catherine pinches

her, "supposing Edgar could not see her," but not bothering to be sure he remains

unaware (55). Catherine would rather Edgar not see her display of violence, but this

desire is not strong enough to cause her to find another way of convincing Nelly to leave

the room. True, Catherine responds with a lie, but not a very good one, since the mark of

her attack on Nelly is visible. She then abandons all attempts atfroda and slaps Nelly

openly. Soon she physically attacks the young Hareton, and then her suitor himself.

Catherine's force is assuredly open, physical, and violent.






34


By the same right, Heathcliff, though a physical force to be reckoned with, uses

morefroda thanforza to obtain his goals in Wuthering Heights. Ellen's example of an

instance in the relationship between Heathcliff and Hindley as children exhibits this.

Ellen describes the scene for Lockwood:

As an instance, I remember Mr. Earnshaw once bought a couple of colts at
the parish fair, and gave the lads each one. Heathcliff took the handsomest, but it
soon fell lame, and when he discovered it, he said to Hindley

'You must exchange horses with me; I don't like mine, and if you won't I
shall tell your father of the three thrashings you've given me this week, and show
him my arm, which is black to the shoulder.'

Hindley put out his tongue, and cuffed him over the ears.

'You'd better do it at once,' he persisted, escaping to the porch (they were in
the stable); 'you will have to, and if I speak of these blows, you'll get them again
with interest.'

'Off, dog!' cried Hindley, threatening him with an iron weight, used for
weighing potatoes and hay.

'Throw it,' he replied, standing still, 'and then I'll tell how you boasted that
you would turn me out of doors as soon as he died, and see whether he will not turn
you out directly.'

Hindley threw it, hitting him on the breast, and down he fell, but staggered up
immediately, breathless and white, and had not I prevented it, he would have gone
just so to the master, and got full revenge by letting his condition plead for him,
intimating who had caused it.

'Take my colt, gipsy, then!' said young Earnshaw. 'And I pray that he may
break your neck; take him, and be damned, you beggarly interloper! And wheedle
my father out of all he has, only afterwards show him what you are, imp of Satan
And take that, I hope he'll kick out your brains!'

Heathcliff had gone to loose the beast, and shift it to his own stall. He was
passing behind it, when Hindley finished his speech by knocking him under its feet,
and without stopping to examine whether his hopes were fulfilled, ran away as fast
as he could.

I was surprised to witness how coolly the child gathered himself up, and went
on with his intention, exchanging saddles and all, which the violent blow
occasioned, before he entered the house. (30-1)









Thus Ellen observes Heathcliff uses froda instead offorza. He succeeds in obtaining the

colt not with the physical violence Hindley uses on him, but by threatening blackmail.

Further, he intentionally aggravates Hindley until he does the very violent act which

serves to support Heathcliff's story and to secure the colt for Heathcliff. Heathcliff's

blackmail is notforza, but in this case, it proves more effective than Hindley's violence.

Ellen contrasts Heathcliff's quiet scheming with Hindley's open violence. Another

example of Heathcliff's use offroda occurs following a thrashing from Hindley. After

escaping to the kitchen, Heathcliff refuses to respond to Ellen's merrymaking, but leantt

on his hands, and remained rapt in dumb meditation" (47). When Ellen asks him what

he's thinking of, he responds "I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don't

care how long I wait, if I can only do it, at last. I hope he will not die before I do ... Let

me alone, and I'll plan it out" (47). Granted, Heathcliff's punishment is the result of a

physical outburst; he empties a tureen of applesauce over Edgar's head. However,

Hindley's response to this action is much more violent than Heathcliffs original outburst,

which is comical and ultimately harmless. Heathcliff learns, through Hindley's violence

toward him, that his most effective means of retaliation is throughfroda. His great goal

of revenge is obtained by this means. He wins Hindley's family estate by skill or trickery

at cards. He marries Isabella in order to obtain his revenge over Edgar. Finally, he keeps

Hareton as a servant in his father's house, unconscious of what should be his inheritance,

by prohibiting him from learning to read. Therefore, whileforza plays some role, it is

mainly byfroda that Heathcliff pursues his goals.

Once again, Bronto reverses the gender roles of her characters. Catherine works by

forza to obtain her goals, using the minimum offroda. She marries Edgar to aid









Heathcliff, but this involves little scheming, because she is honest about what she wants

from her life with Edgar before they even marry. She sees no reason why her marriage to

Edgar would separate her from Heathcliff, or why she might meet resistance in

attempting to aid him using her husband's wealth (63). Unlike Barbey and in contrast

with Frye's prescription for the genre of romance, Bronte assigns to the female character

the use offorza to obtain her desires, and to her hero the use offroda. Bronte's gender

swapping is an example of her lack of concern for the propriety common to a masculine

"economy." Further, mixing these gender roles implies that gender difference itself is in

fact learned and not a result of biology. This is another element of ecrturefeminine,

which strives to illustrate that a "woman's role" is socially constructed and not

biologically predetermined. We will see further examples of this in Bronte's use of

masquerade A la Luce Irigaray, and also in her use of the vampire motif, which evokes the

polymorphous perverse child.

Bronte employs masquerade in Catherine's return from Thrushcross Grange.

Says Irigaray in her "Questions" in Ce Sexe qu n 'en est pas un,

Je pense qu'il faut l'entendre comme ce que les femmes font pour r6cup6rer
quelque chose du d6sir, pour participer au d6sir de l'homme, mais au prix de
renoncer au leur. Dans la mascarade, elles se soumettent A l'6conomie dominant
du d6sir, pour essayer de rester quand meme sur le marchh6. Mais c'est du c6t6 de
ce don't on jouit et non de qui jouit. Ce que j'entends par mascarade ? Notamment
ce que Freud appelle f6minit6 >. C'est croire, par example, qu'il faille devenir
une femme, qui plus est normalle, alors que l'homme serait d'entr6e de jeu
homme. I1 n'aurait qu'a accomplir son &tre-homme, tandis que la femme aurait A
devenir une femme normal, c'est-a-dire A entrer dans la mascarade de lafeminite.
(131-2)

Prior to her encounter with Skulker at the Linton home, she has little concept of herself as

innately female. Perhaps this is due to the death of her mother, which occurs when she is

eight. Whatever the case, prior to her stay with the Lintons, Catherine lives in an









androgynous state. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar affirm in "Looking Oppositely:

Emily Bronte's Bible of Hell" that Catherine Earnshaw is "'unfeminine' never docile,

never submissive, never ladylike" (265). For Gilbert and Gubar, this extended state of

androgyny is a kind of prelapsarian Eden. However, Bronte's depiction of Catherine's

androgynous childhood seems an illustration of Lacan's Imaginary-the time prior to

socialization before gender roles have been imposed upon the child (Mills and Pearce

307). It is neither her mother's influence nor Frances' arrival which causes Catherine's

awakening into womanhood, but the attack of the Lintons' phallic dog. Her five-week

stay at Thrushcross Grange following her injury teaches her to behave "like a lady,"

whereas prior to this experience of socialization, she dwelt in a state of androgyny in

which she was the barefoot, "rough-headed counterpart" of Heathcliff (41). Mrs.

Linton's explanation that "she was a young lady and they made a distinction between her

treatment" and Heathcliffs is Catherine's first lesson in "femininity" (40). Her return to

the Heights reveals instantly her masquerade as the fine lady the Lintons envision. The

purpose of masquerade, according to Mills and Pearce, is "to emphasize the fact that far

from being 'natural' or 'innate', femininity is a culturally produced identity which has to

be 'worked at' and performed" (163). Catherine's new clothes have a stifling effect upon

her actions; she is "obliged to hold up with both hands" her garments in order to reenter

the Heights (40). Bronto highlights the distinct choices Catherine makes in order to

behave "like a lady": "sailing" rather than 'jumping" into the house, kissing Nelly instead

of hugging her, and barely returning the dogs' greeting (40). Frances warns Cathy to

"mind and not grow wild again here," signifying that if Catherine neglects to work at her

newfound femininity, she will lose it (41). Performing this role is a difficult task for









Catherine, and her success at remaining "in character" is precarious. Thus Bronto

employs the feminine technique of masquerade in the depiction of her heroine.

Another difference between Heathcliff and J6hool-as-vampire figure is that J6hool's

powers over Jeanne are "initially ocular." In accordance with Twitchell's stipulation, it is

his gaze which gives him power over her. This is, of course, Freud-gaze is the

expression of the attempt at phallic control over the feminine. Moi summarizes from The

Uncanny:

Freud's argument links the act of seeing to anal activity, which he sees as
expressing a desire for mastery or for the exercise of power over one's libidinall)
objects, a desire that underlies later (phallic or Oedipal) fantasies about phallic
(masculine) power. Thus the gaze enacts the voyeur's desire for sadistic power, in
which the object of the gaze is cast as its passive, masochistic, feminine victim.
(192-3)

J6hoel's gaze is indeed enough to drive Jeanne to her death with masochistic desire.

Barbey's representation of female desire and masculine libidinal power thus follows

Freud's prescription. However, Luce Irigaray, in Ce Sexe qui n 'en estpas un, one of the

original textbooks of the concept of the feminine economy, declares "La prevalence du

regard est particulierement 6trangere a l'6rotisme feminine. La femme jouit plus du

toucher que du regard" (25). This is because "la femme < se touch > tout le temps, sans

que l'on puisse d'ailleurs le lui interdire, car son sexe est fait de deux levres qui

s'embrassent contintiment" (24). Thus Barbey creates a vampire figure whose

dominance is assured and whose desire is sated by merely watching Jeanne. His vampire

motif, as opposed to Bronte's, is an acting out of male sexual fantasy.

To some extant, Barbey also seems to accurately represent female sexual desire.

Female desire for the forbidden is certainly a theme of the novel. And Jeanne does in fact

desire physical contact, the "touch" Irigaray speaks of, with J6hool-mere voyeurism









does not satisfy her. However, Barbey's depiction of Jeanne as initially drawn to the

abbe because of his monstrous countenance does not ring true. He has created a heroine

who is more a reflection of that which is masculine than a truly feminine character in the

Cixousian sense. For according to Irigaray, the male often depicts the female as the

reflection of the male, sans penis. In her Speculum de 1 'autrefemme, she resists the

binary opposition which set up woman as man's reflection or opposite instead of being a

separate entity in her own right, which, therefore, would not necessitate the male

opposition in order to form her own identity (53). She critiques Freud's depiction of the

little girl's desire for a penis, in which he simply assumes

que la petite fille fasse comme le petit gargon, qu'elle ait les memes app6tits de
voir, les memes regards, et que son d6pit de n'avoir pas de sexe suive, et vienne
assister, l'6tonnement horrific du petit gargon devant l'6tranget6 du non identique,
du non identifiable. (56-7)

Moi summarizes for Irigaray, according to Freud, woman "becomes a mirror for [man's]

own masculinity" and this reveals and fulfills his male desire for the same (134). But

according to the feminists, a woman's love and desire are not the same as a man's, and

thus Barbey's depiction of Jeanne as taking voyeuristic pleasure in watching J6hool

during the mass reveals a masculine libidinal economy, a desire to create a woman who is

a reflection of masculinity rather than a woman in her own right.

Bronto, on the other hand, depicts a heroine whose pleasure derives from physical

contact rather than gaze. Catherine's desire is met-she shares a bed with Heathcliffin

her childhood, and later they kiss. It is their physical proximity which is so necessary to

her that she begs Nelly not to speak of their being separated (64). The vampire motif

then emphasizes the importance of physical contact, in that Heathcliff has her body

exhumed twice after her death in order to provide her with this physical contact-their









spiritual connection alone cannot sustain them. In her list of reasons for loving Edgar

Linton, she does not mention any touch or caress, but appearance and demeanor. Edgar

is "handsome, young, and cheerful" (61). In her famous proclamation of love for

Heathcliff, she clearly differentiates between the shallow nature of her attraction to Edgar

(a visual attraction to his youth and good looks) and the depth of her attraction of

Heathcliff. She compares her sentiment toward Linton to "the foliage in the woods.

Time will change it, I'm well aware, as winter changes the trees" (64). Her love for

Heathcliff, however, "resembles the eternal rocks beneath-a source of little visible

delight, but necessary" (64). Bronte's depiction of feminine desire then is true according

to the precepts of ecrzture fmznzne. She emphasizes Catherine's love for Heathcliff is

not ocular, "a source of little visual delight" (64).

Her depiction of Lockwood also follows Irigaray's precept, but in its masculine

form. Lockwood attempts to conduct an affair with a woman by gaze, but fails in the

attempt. At first, the young lady fails to comprehend Lockwood's intentions, because

gaze is not a woman's preferred method for communication of desire. Still, she

"understood me at last," and is apparently amenable to the idea, but is rejected when she

exhibits the audacity of returning his gaze, though it is "the sweetest of all imaginable

looks" (5). Lockwood's masculine economy simply does not know how to respond to the

female return of gaze, which goes against his classification of her as a woman. Why else

would Bronto even include this cold and otherwise irrelevant anecdote, if not to contrast

it with Heathcliff and Catherine's very tactile and passionate affair? The power of

Bronte's vampires may be "initially ocular," as Twichell prescribes, but it becomes

physical immediately thereafter..















CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

Thus in Wutherng Heights we find the feminine theme of multidirectional and

tactile desire in the character of Catherine and in the vampire motif. We also see the

feminine literary techniques of reversing gender roles and masquerade in Emily Bronte's

work. L 'Ensorcelee contrasts neatly with the other text in that it is of the same time

period and contains many of the same Gothic and romantic themes as well as an atypical

heroine who is uncommonly brave and independent. As the two tales unfold, we see that

the precursors to the feminine are found in a higher concentration, oddly enough, in the

English text. And yet Jeanne de Feuardent is a "fiery" enough heroine for her time, not at

all the "maiden in flight" of Fiedler's characterization of the gothic heroine ; it is she who

often pursues the hero. In tracing evidence of the vampire myth through Bronte and

Barbey, and in studying elements of the feminine, I have attempted to prove by

comparison that Bronte shows evidence of a proto-ecriturefeminine. In Bronte's

depiction of the fluid desires of the heroine and Catherine's connection to the Imaginary,

as well as her employment of the feminine techniques of role reversal and masquerade,

and in a comparison of both authors' depiction of voyeurism, I believe it is safe to say

that this evidence exists. My study then begs three questions: First, why is the vampire

motif evident in both texts? Second, why does Jeanne spend eternity without J6hool





1 According to Fledler, "Chief of the gothic symbols is, of course, the Maiden in flight" (131)









while Catherine and Heathcliff "walk" the Yorkshire moors? And thirdly, what do we

make of the similarities in the structures of the two novels?

Why do both authors seem to employ the vampire myth in works that contain

unconventional romantic heroines? According to Senf, the vampire is also representative

of the female in the nineteenth century because his powers, like hers, are simultaneously

vast and limited (84). Says Senf, "If the literary vampire is an odd hybrid creature that

both wields tremendous power over others and suffers from severe constraints, the

position of women at the time Bronte was writing is no less peculiar" (84). Catherine-as-

vampire has the power to appear in Lockwood's dreams, but she can do nothing but walk

the countryside after her death. As a woman, she is helpless under the power of a grief-

crazed elder brother and a fanatical manservant until she chooses to escape a "chaotic

household" through her marriage to Edgar Linton. Escape through marriage is an option

not readily available to Heathcliff-thus Catherine claims her most important reason for

marrying Edgar is to acquire enough money to save Heathcliff from his unenviable

position as Hindley's scapegoat at Wuthering Heights. It seems therefore as if Catherine,

with her beauty and wild charm, has an advantage over the men in the novel, who cannot

as readily escape their situations to be doted on by a husband and sister-in-law in a

comfortable household. And yet, for the sake of her closest friend, Catherine ends up

losing her life. This marriage is the source of all of her problems, and certainly of

Heathcliffs problems. For the price of marriage is sex, and though once an athletic,

vivacious girl, motherhood, that is, sexuality, puts an end to her life. Thus, like the

vampire, Catherine-as-nineteenth century woman has certain powers of charm and sex

appeal, but in the end, she is not able to share with Heathcliff the kind of relationship she









desires, and she dies in the common enough act of childbirth. Her strength of spirit is not

enough to overcome the lack of strength of her body. Even after her death, Catherine-as-

vampire waits in the ground for Heathcliffto come to her. Similarly, the vampire's soul

lives on in a rotting corpse, but he is limited by his basic and corporeal need for blood as

sustenance. In the same way, to die in childbirth generally involves hemorrhaging, and

thus bleeding to death. Even a woman as lively as Catherine Earnshaw could not

overcome her destiny of sex and death. Bronte's use of the vampire motif underscores

this simultaneous strength of will and lack of power of woman in nineteenth century

England.

Barbey's vampire motif reveals this same lack of power for women in France. Like

the Earnshaws, Jeanne's parents die early in her childhood, leaving her an orphan.

Strong and self-reliant as Louisine-a-la-hache had been in life, she can do nothing to

protect her daughter after her death. Jeanne is completely dependent upon the charity of

the family that takes her in. And when Jeanne is grown and she fears her adoptive

parents will soon die, she makes the difficult choice to marry Thomas le Hardouey, a man

she truly does not wish to wed. Of course, her dissatisfaction with le Hardouey and his

unjust treatment of others is the origin of all of her problems. Jeanne is powerful-like

her mother, she is brave and independent-but she must marry or starve. There are no

employment opportunities for her. On her own, she would face the fate of la Clotte, who

is totally dependant on the mercy of others. Thus Barbey too uses the vampire motif to

underscore Jeanne's unenviable position as a woman. Jeanne-as-vampire's victim is

helpless, totally at the mercy of her emotions which are manipulated by J6hool, and/or by

the bergers.









Our second question pertains to the denouements of each novel: we last see Jeanne

stripped of her glorious hair and dead in a pond, while Catherine at least is said to "walk"

with Heathcliff. In two such structurally similar novels, why are the heroines' fates so

dissimilar? Jeanne's eventual downfall is due to her obsession with the proper. In the

Realm of the Proper, Jeanne should never have married le Hardouey, because as a

peasant, he falls into a separate category. He is not an appropriate match for her. She

believes she deserves a man of her class, and perhaps, believes she must be J6hool's lover

in order to propagate her class. Her blue-blooded family dies with her, and it is probable

that she has no offspring by her husband because she does not want her blood to mingle

with his. True, it is only her father who is noble of blood, but J6hoel too has his

imperfections-he has his terrifying face, the thing which first draws Jeanne to him. She

is married, but so is he, to the church. And so the idea that they might be proper to one

another, that they might fall into the same category, contributes to her irrational behavior.

Because she is encouraged in this manner of thinking by the mother figure Clotilde, this

obsession with the proper is very much a learned thing, as opposed to something that

comes naturally to her. Her obsession with the proper leads to her downfall. And yet,

because J6hoel is a priest, Jeanne's idea of what is and is not "proper" is twisted at best.

Thus Barbey creates a heroine who is stuck in "a man's world," confused by her struggle

to differentiate between what is and is not proper. And in such a confused position,

influenced by la Clotte, l'abb6, and possibly by the forces of evil, she becomes an easy

target for J6hoel.

Incidentally, this obsession with blood is again indicative of the vampire myth, for

to the vampire, blood is life. To use the term "blood" when speaking of heredity and









class underscores the undue importance Jeanne places on classification, the importance of

keeping one's bloodline "pure." If Jeanne's blood is indeed superior to that of those

around her, it makes sense that she is J6hool's choice for a victim. As for the vampire,

the blood is the life for Jeanne and J6hool, in that they will one day die, and the only way

for their aristocratic blood to be passed is through their propagation, which of course

requires, in a sense, the mixing of their blood. For we have already seen vamping as a

metaphor for sexual activity. According to Senf, eroticism is "the single most prominent

trait" of the nineteenth century literary vampire (152).

If not exactly a happy ending, Catherine's is at least bearable. In contrast to

Jeanne, Catherine is torn between the Gift and the Proper. Her love for Heathcliffis

blind to what is and is not proper. In her childhood, he is her adopted brother. And when

her brother Hindley takes control of Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff is reduced to an

ignorant servant, something below her, so never is he a "proper" match for Catherine.

Her desire to marry Edgar in order to gain the financial power to help Heathcliff comes

after her first stay at Thrushcross Grange and time spent with the Lintons. In her

sustained androgynous phase, she cannot yet even differentiate between proper and

improper, "too mischievous and wayward for a favourite," she knows only to follow her

passions where they lead her (30). And in the tradition of the feminine, she retains a

close connection to this pre-Oedipal phase even after her stay at the Grange marks the

end of it.

Her misguided wish to marry Edgar is the result of her relatively recent

confrontation with the Realm of the Proper, and her concept of what actually is proper

never fully matures in her lifetime. She sees no reason why her relationship with









Heathcliff should end or change because of her marriage. The only reason she believes

marriage to Heathcliff would degrade her is that her brother has changed him. She

obviously doesn't really believe him to be below her, since their "souls are made of the

same stuff' (62). She wants to "aid Heathcliff to rise," so that he may be on the same

level as Edgar (63). But of course, this is not proper either, for once Heathcliff reaches

her level, she is married to Edgar and therefore cannot share with her their prior

relationship. Besides, Heathcliff does not require her "aid" in order to "rise." He

manages it of his own accord. With her undeveloped concept of the Proper, she does not

grasp that Heathcliff can achieve on his own what Edgar has received by birthright.

Catherine does not foresee Heathcliff's need to "seek his fortune" or the possibility that

Edgar might not allow her to "aid" Heathcliff in the way she would like to. She does not

even fully believe he might be aware of such exclusive desires as Edgar has for her,

querying whether "Heathcliff has no notion of these things. He has not, has he? He does

not know what being in love is?" (63). If the concept of marriage, of making "proper"

her relationship with Edgar had not occurred to her until recently, she would assume that

Heathcliff might know nothing of it. However, in contrast to Catherine, Heathcliff, a

man and, having been educated about the Proper by Hindley, most certainly does

understand "being in love." At her death, he rails, "You loved me-then what right had

you to leave me? What right-answer me-for the poor fancy you felt for Linton?"

(125).

Never fully incorporated into the Realm of the Proper, Catherine's natural habitat is

the Realm of the Gift. Catherine's aim in a marriage to Edgar is to please both Edgar and

Heathcliff, but mostly Heathcliff, without thought for what is proper. Her intended gift is









to provide for Heathcliff, to "place him out of my brother's power" so that he will be

comfortable (63). That that might mean sacrificing a life with Heathcliff is Catherine's

gift to him. For if she believes Heathcliff ignorant of the concept of "being in love," then

what has he to lose in her marriage to another? It is she who understands, at least in part,

what she must sacrifice in order to free Heathcliff from the tyranny of life at the Heights.

And yet, even before Heathcliffs departure, she agrees to marry Edgar and in that, give

of herself for Heathcliff, a gift he can never repay. What is more, she probably does not

completely understand that her marriage to Edgar will prevent her from sharing her life

with Heathcliff. For the Realm of the Gift is open, and in it, love flows freely in several

directions simultaneously. It does not limit one's love by categorizing it as marital or

brotherly. Thus Catherine, a very feminine character, abides, for the most part, in the

Realm of the Gift. Her education concerning the Realm of the Proper is sloppy at best,

because she never fully comes to understand the exclusivity of its nature.

Finally, the structural differences in L 'Ensorcelee and Wutherng Heights reveal

the latter to be an example of a sort of proto-ecriture feminine. For in L 'Ensorcelee,

despite the confusion of images, there is a definite polarization of good and evil; Barbey

imposes a moral code on his characters. Eygun confirms in L 'Ensorcelee, "on retrouve le

combat entire le Bien (qui est la r6alit6 quotidienne) et le Mal (qui est la provocation

suscit6e par le "passant-passeur"). Le r6sultat de ce duel revient a la victoire du Mal .

comme fin ineluctable" (223). This is not to say that Barbey's plot is simplistic. True,

I'abb6 is both a priest and a demon/vampire, the brave Chouan holy warrior in defense of

the Church, but simultaneously a murderer in its eyes. We see further conflict in

Jeanne's role as both J6hool's helpless and virginal victim (like the Virgin, she always









wears blue) and as vamping harlot who employs sorcery in her repeated attempts to

seduce a priest. In Clotilde Mauduit as well we see the contrast of the strength of her

youthful passions and the frailty of her body, her fiery defense of the actions of her

reckless youth and her eventual prayer and contrition as she attempts to attend Jeanne's

funeral. And yet these multifaceted, dynamic characters eventually fall into the

categories of good and evil. The very difficulty of categorizing them serves as plot and

prime tension of the story. The reader may not know the eventual outcome, and it is true

that several of the mysteries Barbey sets up remain unresolved, such as the parties

responsible for J6hool's and Jeanne's murders (or is Jeanne's death a suicide?) and for le

Hardouey's disappearance. But this mystery and necessity to determine the difference

between reality and illusion serves as the plot tension for many romances.

However, in the end, Barbey's vampire is evil. Before his arrival, all is at least

peaceful, and after his death, with Jeanne's and la Clotte's deaths as a sort of sacrificial

offering, Blanchelande, like the church after J6hool's murder, is apparently cleansed of

the evil J6hool brought to his native land. In fact, J6hool's (and Jeanne's) initial guilt or

innocence becomes irrelevant as it is revealed that he is trapped in his destiny and seems

to have no choice but to bewitch Jeanne, in the same way that Jeanne, initially such a

virtuous and even virginal woman, cannot help but pursue the priest. In short, the two are

destined to meet their tragic, evil ends, but Barbey is the creator of their terrible destinies,

of the world in which good and evil combat, and in which innocents, like Tainnebouey's

innocent child, sometimes have to experience the consequences of evil in the world, or

even act as its pawns. Le Bien does not triumph, however. Even death cannot prevent

J6hool's corpse from continuing to deliver the black mass which terrorizes Blanchelande,









killing Tainnebouey's child. And if J6hool's corpse continues to "walk" as a priest, then

it is evident that Jeanne will not, as she had hoped "lui tuerai son ame!" (167). His soul

is apparently and unnaturally immortal. Thus, as Eygun claims, L 'Ensorcelee is a

"juxtaposition de deux mondes," a battle between good and evil in which evil wins out

(226). Barbey sets up a binary opposition between good and evil, and though which

category each character and event falls into is not necessarily apparent from the

beginning, by the end of the novel Barbey makes those particular ambiguities clear. In

the world of Barbey's creation, all things invisible and supernatural are evil, and events

belonging to quotidian rural life are good.

Bronte too sets up a polarity in Wuthering Heights, but hers does not concern

morality. These principles are those David Cecil defines in his Victorian Novelsts as

"the principle of storm-of the harsh, the ruthless, the wild, the dynamic" and "the

principle of calm-of the gentle, the merciful, the passive and the tame" (141).

Wuthering Heights, of course, is the physical locality of the former, and Thrushcross

Grange, of the latter. Those at the Heights, especially Catherine, Heathcliff, and Joseph,

wildly and recklessly follow their passions, while those at the Grange, the Lintons, are

characterized by the peace and gentle passivity of Cecil's principle of calm. This

contrasts with Barbey's opposing forces of natural and supernatural in that Bronte

imposes no moral standard upon her binary opposition. Says Cecil, "Emily Bronte's

vision of life does away with the ordinary antithesis between good and evil" (143).

Bronte's opposition also differ from Barbey's in that in the end, as Cecil puts it, each

opposition, "following its own nature in its own sphere, combines to compose a cosmic

harmony" (153). With the death of Heathcliff, the spiritual union of Heathcliff and









Catherine, and the marriage of the younger Catherine to Hareton Earnshaw, "the cosmic

order has been established once more" (156). The polarities of the Grange and the

Heights, the calm and storm, unite and their sharp extremes are dulled. As daughter of

both the calm and the storm, the younger Catherine is the embodiment of the

harmonization of both. Thus in the end, Wutherng Heights is a synchronization of polar

opposites, so that, in a sense, they no longer exist. In that, not only does Bronte do away

with the polarity of good and evil, she also refuses to allow the triumph of one opposition

over another. In L 'Ensorcelee, le Mal wins (Eygun 223). J6hool does not die. He does

not even spend eternity with Jeanne. He continues to wreak havoc on the Blanchelandais

through his terrorizing of livestock and the black masses which apparently cause healthy

children to die. Moreover, Jeanne, originally the innocent, dies for J6hool's sins. Her

death is of course a great injustice, but so is J6hool's destiny, and such is reality. Bronte

refuses to take sides: her answer, for the present, is in a kind of moderation which

contains both the calm and the storm, in refusing to separate them, in uniting the two

classifications into one. And in this, of course, Wutherng Heights is a text which is

incredibly proto-feminine.

In "Castration," Cixous articulates the need for writers of this type of text: "There's

work to be done against class, against categorization, against classification" (51). The

fluid desire of woman expressed in the liquid quality of her writing and the tearing down

of binary opposition is the essence of ecrturefeminine. When Cecil claims the novel

alone "stirs us as freshly today as the day it was written," he has only begun to articulate

to what extent Bronte is ahead of her time (136). The tales of the independent heroines

and the gothic heroes of Jules Barbey D'Aurevilly and Emily Bronte share similar themes






51


as they are both works ahead of their times, calling for revolution in public attitudes

toward the women of their times. Both mix common genres of the time-the gothic, the

romantic, and the romance-in creating characters who both reflect the traditions of those

genres and exhibit newer, revolutionary traits. However, while L 'Ensorcelee does much

to depict a newer, more modem heroine, it is Wuthering Heights which goes so far as to

foreshadow 1970s French feminist thought in its manifestation of themes and techniques

of ecrturefeminine a la Luce Irigaray and H6elne Cixous.
















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Bronto, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Charlotte and Emily Bronte: The Complete Novels. New
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Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. 1847. Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton &
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Cecil, David. Victorian Novelsts: Essays in Revaluation. Chicago: University of Chicago
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Cixous, H6elne. "Entretien avec Fran9oise van Rossum-Guyon." Revue des sciences
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Kathryn Irene Moody received her Bachelor of Arts in English and French from

Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, in May of 2001. She is currently pursuing

a doctorate in English at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.