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Proof of Concept of the Ion Collider in Refrigeration Systems

HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Nomenclature
 Abstract
 Introduction and objectives
 Review of literature
 Experimental program
 Analysis
 Results and discussion
 Conclusions
 Appendices
 References
 Biographical sketch
 

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PROOF OF CONCEPT OF THE ION COLL IDER IN REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS By JASON Z. ALPHONSO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Jason Z. Alphonso

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This document is dedicated to my deares t parents, Mr. Albe rt C. Alphonso and Mrs. Lalita T.Alphonso.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor and mentor, Dr. S.A. Sherif, for all his guidance, patience and understanding. Special thanks go to my graduate supervisory committee consisting of Dr. Ingley and Dr. Lear for their valuable input and suggestions. I would like to especially thank my parents, Mr. Albert Cajetian. Alphonso and Mrs. Lalita Theresa. Alphonso for the constant encouragement and blessings. Even though very far away, my brother and sisters have always been a source of support and encouragement. I thank them for being there for me. I also wish to thank the staff of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Florida. Special thanks go to my dear friends Navin, Archit, Siddartha and Dhruv. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii NOMENCLATURE..........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES......................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................3 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM...................................................................................7 Experimental Facility....................................................................................................7 Chilled/Heated Water Loop...................................................................................7 Data Acquisition System.......................................................................................8 Experimental Procedures............................................................................................10 Post Data Analysis Note.............................................................................................11 4 ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................15 Analysis Based on the First Law of Thermodynamics...............................................15 Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System.................................................21 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................26 Tests Involving New Refrigerants..............................................................................26 Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity..................................................................26 Instantaneous Compressor Power........................................................................28 Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance..........................................................28 Total Energy Consumption..................................................................................29 Tests Involving Old/Used Refrigerant........................................................................30 Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity..................................................................30 Instantaneous Compressor Power........................................................................31 v

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Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance..........................................................31 Total Energy Consumption..................................................................................31 Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System.................................................47 6 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................52 APPENDIX A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAMS FOR ACTUAL CYCLE............................55 B SAMPLE CALCULATIONS.....................................................................................58 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................66 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Physical design of Ion Collider device....................................................................6 2 Experimental setup.................................................................................................13 3 Ion Colliders (black and blue tubing) installed in the system................................13 4 Schematic diagram of experimental facility..........................................................14 5 Ideal vapor compression cycle...............................................................................24 6 Schematic diagrams of actual vapor compression cycle........................................25 7 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Standard mode.......................................................................................................33 8 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Cut-Off mode.........................................................................................................34 9 Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................35 10 Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode.........................................................................................................36 11 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................37 12 Total energy consumption using new refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes.......................................................................................................38 13 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................39 14 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode.........................................................................................................40 15 Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................41 vii

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16 Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode.........................................................................................................42 17 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................43 18 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode.........................................................................................................44 19 Total energy consumption using old/used refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes.......................................................................................................45 20 COP measured using new and old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode............46 21 Compressor irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode...............49 22 Condenser irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.................49 23 Expansion valve irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode........50 24 Evaporator irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.................50 25 Ion Collider device irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.......................................................................................................51 26 Total irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode..........................51 27 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Base Case.......................................................55 28 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 1.................................................56 29 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 2.................................................57 viii

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NOMENCLATURE Latin Symbols COP coefficient of performance, dimensionless C p specific heat, kJ/(kg.C) h specific enthalpy, kJ/kg I current, Amp I irreversibility, kW/K m mass flow rate, kg/s n polytropic exponent, dimensionless P pressure, Pascal Q heat transfer rate, kW T temperature, K V voltage, V V volume, 3 m v specific volume, /kgm3 W power, Watts Greek Symbols power factor, dimensionless e electrical efficiency, dimensionless m mechanical efficiency, dimensionless v volumetric efficiency, dimensionless density, 3kg/m Subscripts a air amb ambient calc calculated cond condenser comp compressor e evaporator exp expansion valve i inlet meas measured ix

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o outlet r refrigerant ref space refrigeration space total total w water x

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science. PROOF OF CONCEPT OF THE ION COLLIDER IN REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS By Jason Z. Alphonso December 2003 Chair: Sherif A. Sherif Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. The objective of this study was to examine and analyze the effects of employing a device labeled the Ion Collider on the performance of a vapor compression refrigeration system. Tests were conducted for two types of refrigerants; (1) new refrigerants and (2) used refrigerants (at least five years old). The Ion Collider was directly introduced into the vapor compression system and data were collected using state-of-the-art data acquisition software. An analysis of the acquired data was later conducted. The study examined the effect of employing Ion Collider technology on key performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance (COP), the refrigerating capacity (Q), and the compressor power (W). A comparative study of the total energy consumption (kW-hr) based on the energy inputted to the system in the form of compressor power was also conducted and results were presented. e comp xi

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The study also examined the effects of employing Ion Collider technology with respect to the second law of thermodynamics. The irreversibilities of the individual refrigeration system components were studied, along with their effects on the total irreversibility. From the analysis performed, it was concluded that the Ion Collider technology had no beneficial effects on the performance of the refrigeration system tested. xii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES The Ion Collider technology according to International Cavitation Technologies, Inc. [1] brings out several beneficial effects in fluids as they flow through the Ion Collider device. These effects include changes in the properties of the fluid such as viscosity, molecular homogeneity, lubricity, combustion efficiency, and heat exchange properties. The Ion Collider technology was also reported to bring about a reduction or elimination of nonhomogenous materials and separation of dissimilar components in mixtures [2]. Allen et al. [3] listed certain phenomena that are induced in the fluid as it flows through the device. This includes hot spot chemistry, electric discharges, catalytic chemistry, surfactant chemistry, and the propagation of acoustical waves. The inventors of the Ion Collider, Rippetoe and Shroff [2], reported being able to use the Ion Collider technology to separate immiscible solid or liquid particles such as oil, from a liquid-based mixture or emulsion. In another application of the Ion Collider, Rippetoe and Shroff [4] have patented the use of the Ion Collider to facilitate the economical recovery of crude oil from an oil well. Furthermore, Rippetoe and Shroff [5] reported using the technology to increase the amount of hydrocarbons in a crude oil mixture. Other applications of the Ion Collider include water purification, altering the physical characteristics of the fluids, and removal of hydrocarbons from soils [1]. To understand the principles involved in the Ion Collider technology, a study was conducted by Allen et al. [3] who reported that cavitation-driven catalytic chemistries were the most likely explanation for the phenomena taking place in the Ion Collider 1

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2 device. The Ion Collider as reported by Allen et al. [3] is particularly capable of promoting cavitation chemistry. The objective of the experimental program described in this thesis is to investigate the effects or lack thereof of employing the Ion Collider technology in a vapor compression refrigeration system. This will be accomplished by employing two Ion Colliders of different compositions. The first Ion Collider is made of 100% copper, hereon referred to as Ion Collider 1, while the second collider is 80 % copper and 20% nickel, hereon referred to as Ion Collider 2. There will be two categories of tests. The first category involves testing the technology employing a new refrigerant, while the second employs an already used refrigerant whose age is at least five years old. Key performance parameters such as the refrigerating capacity, compressor power, coefficient of performance, and the total energy consumption will be computed and analyzed. The study also examined the effects of employing Ion Collider technology with respect to a system irreversibility analysis. To achieve an in-depth understanding of the effects of the Ion Collider on the performance, samples of the refrigerant used in the various test runs will be stored in sealed containers for possible future chemical and/or physical analysis.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The patented Ion Collider technology [2,4,5] claims to affect the molecular charge and structure of organic fluids [1]. Several beneficial effects are claimed to be reported, which include separation of dissimilar components, reduction of non-homogeneous materials in the medium, changes in viscosity, enhanced lubricity, enhanced heat exchange properties, greater volatility, greater oxidation efficiencies and enhanced molecular homogeneity. The inventors of the Ion Collider technology have patented the use of the Ion Collider device as a method of separating immiscible particles from a liquid mixture or emulsion [2]. The scientific principle, which is claimed to be used in the working of this device for this application, is the introduction of a similar charge to both the solid and liquid particles as it flows through the device, thereby causing the particles to repel and separate from each other. In its simplest form, according to Allen et al. [3] and Rippetoe and Shroff [2, 4, 5], the Ion Collider consists of two spaced-apart concentric and elongated metal cylinders. The wall of the inner cylinder consists of a multiplicity of spaced-apart radially bored perforations and its exit end is capped. The high-pressure fluid entering the Ion Collider flows through the inner cylinder with small perforations. These perforations, coupled with the high inlet pressure cause jets to emerge from the perforations. The outer surface of the inner cylinder and the inner surface of the outer cylinder are flame coated with a copper alloy. The high velocity jets impinge on the copper-alloycoated surface, thus 3

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4 forming low-pressure regions, which in turn leads to the formation of bubbles. These bubbles collapse as they are entrained into the flow. As bubbles collapse, a variety of phenomena is reported to occur. These include formation of local high pressures and temperatures in the fluid, which in turn leads to electrical discharges from the copper alloy surface. Bubble collapse also generates shock waves that propagate through the fluid. These waves are claimed to induce a variety of phenomena throughout the fluid. Figure 1 shows the cross sectional plan view of the Ion Collider device. Allen et al. [3] conducted a study to explain the effects of the Ion Collider technology. In the study they investigated the possibility that cavitation was driving many of the phenomena observed in the Ion Collider. Allen et al. [3] further listed certain phenomena said to be occurring due to cavitation in the Ion Collider, these include, hot spot chemistry, electrical discharges and catalytic chemistry, surfactant chemistry and propagation of acoustical waves. Hot spot chemistry is driven by the very high temperatures and pressures caused by cavitation in the region of bubble collapse. Allen et al. [3] through experimental methods proved that as water flows through the Ion Collider device, the locally high values of temperature and pressure cause dissociation of the water molecule into hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals. The study went on to prove that cavitation induced chemistry occurs in the Collider. The study suggests that electric discharges from the surface of the metal were also the result of high-localized temperature and pressures associated with cavitation in the Ion Collider device. According to the study, cavitation may also have caused microstructures in the metal that could have unusual catalytic effects.

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5 Allen et al.[3] also said that the pressure waves induced by cavitation could propagate throughout the fluid. The Ion Collider device was considered by them to be well designed for pressure wave propagation. The inventors, Rippetoe and Shroff [4] have patented the application of the Ion Collider technology to facilitate the economical recovery of crude oil from an oil well. The Ion Collider is attached to the lower end at the level of the crude oil reservoir. The Ion Collider consists of two spaced apart cylindrical metal tubes whose common vertical axis coincides with the axis of the tubing. In this application, the Ion Collider device is claimed to treat crude oil, wherein it separates the crude oil from the paraffin and other waste. The technology is also claimed to break up the long chained hydrocarbons making the oil less capable of transporting suspended solid particles. The inventors, Rippetoe and Shroff [5] also claim to use the Ion Collider technology as a method of increasing the amount of hydrocarbons from an underground reservoir. This was claimed to be achieved by breaking up the undesirable oil-water emulsions, freeing entrained gases and preventing the formation of scale and corrosion.

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6 Figure 1. Physical design of Ion Collider device Reference: Allen et al. [3] and Rippetoe and Shroff [2, 4, 5]

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CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Experimental Facility Chilled/Heated Water Loop The experimental facility employed in this investigation consists of a R-22 water chiller with an imposed heat load from a water heater. The system is designed in such a way that the drop in water temperature because of cooling is equal to the rise in its temperature because of heating. Figure 2 shows the system used in the experiments. The water heater (Vanguard VG 0301C09767, model no. 6E725, wattage: 4500 / 3380, capacity: 119.9 US. gallons) was used to add an adjustable heating load to the water loop. The water heater employs two electrically-heated coils to heat the water. The coil temperature can be adjusted employing electronic thermostatic controls located on the water heater control panel. The experimental procedure requires the water heater to be used in two modes of operation. The first mode (called the Standard mode) was structured in such a way that the water heater provides a larger heating load to the water loop. This corresponds to preset upper and lower coil temperatures of 55F and 54F, respectively, with a 1F temperature differential applied to both coils. The second mode (called the Cut-Off mode) was structured in such a way that the heater provides a comparatively lower heating load to the water loop. This corresponds to preset upper and lower coil temperatures of 50F and 49F, respectively, with a 1F temperature differential applied to both coils. The water heater was fitted with a blow-off safety valve to guard against undesirable pressure buildup. 7

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8 The water chiller (model RTP201, 24000 BTU/hr 208-230 VAC air cooled condenser) was used to chill the water as it flowed through the water loop. The Ion Colliders, in different compositions, along with a pipe section of a similar size and shape were reconstructed to form a manifold. This manifold with the help of valves permitted either one of the Ion Colliders or the pipe to be used for a given test. The Ion Collider device was sized by the manufacturer based on the size of the water chiller unit. It was the manufacturers recommendation that the Ion Collider device be introduced in the refrigerant line at the discharge end of the compressor as shown in Figure 3. Based on previous studies by Allen et al. [3], cavitation of the liquid was the key principle involved in the working of the Ion Collider device. Since the Ion Collider employed in this experiment was placed at the discharge end of the compressor where superheated vapor normally exists, cavitation is very unlikely to take place in this case. The constant-temperature water loop also included a hydronic expansion tank, besides the water chiller and the water heater. Rubber hoses and copper pipes were used to connect the water chiller and the water heater. The entire piping of the chilled/heated-closed loop was very well insulated with foam insulation to prevent heat loss/gain from and to the loop. Data Acquisition System Temperatures were measured in the experimental facility using copper constantan (type-T) thermocouples with an uncertainty of 0.2C. This type is suitable for low temperature applications as well as temperatures up to 370C. All thermocouples were calibrated using a constant-temperature water bath (model Polyscience-80). The thermocouples were insulated for accuracy. Temperatures of the refrigerant as it flows through the refrigeration system were measured at the inlet of the Ion Collider and at the

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9 inlet and exit of the condenser and evaporator. The temperature of the air flowing through the air-cooled condenser of the water chiller was also measured. In the constant-temperature water loop, the temperature of the water was measured at the inlet and exit of the water chiller tank and at the outlet of the pump. Pressure transducers (Mamac Systems, model no. PR-264, accuracy 1% of the full scale) were used to measure the pressures of the refrigerant at five locations in the refrigeration system. These transducers were calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a pressure range of 0-2000 kPa. These transducers were used to measure the refrigerant pressures upstream in the Ion Collider as well as at the inlet and outlet of the condenser and evaporator. Air humidity at the inlet and exit of the air-cooled condenser was measured using a humidity transducer (Mamac Systems, model no HU-225, accuracy 3% of the full scale). The transducers were calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a relative humidity range of 0-100%. The refrigerant mass flow rate as it flows through the chiller was measured using a flow rate transducer (Sponsler Co., Inc., model no SP711-3). This transducer was calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition system corresponding linearly to a flow rate range of 047.4293 lb m /min. The water loop mass flow rate was measured using a flow rate indicator (Sponsler Co., Inc., model no. SP3/4-CB-PHL-A-4X). The water flow rate was read off the digital display of the transducer. Compressor power was measured employing the voltage and current transducers across the compressor motor. The voltage was measured using a voltage transducer (Flex-Core, model no. AVT-300CX5, accuracy 0.25%), which was calibrated to give an output voltage of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a range

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10 of 0-300 AC line voltage. The current flowing through the compressor motor coils was measured using a current transducer (Flex-Core, model no. CTD-025A, accuracy 0.5%), which was calibrated to give an output voltage of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a current range of 0-25 Amps. A schematic diagram of the experimental facility is shown in Figure 4, outlining the location of the Ion Collider device and the location of the different transducers. Experimental Procedures Testing was divided into two categories; (1) testing with a new refrigerant, and, (2) testing with an old/used refrigerant (at least five years old). The refrigeration system was charged with 14.4 lb m (6.54 kg) of R-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) for both categories of testing. Testing performed for both categories was done for (a) Standard mode conditions, and, (b) CutOff mode conditions. The Standard mode conditions were structured in such a way that the heater provides a larger heating load to the water loop. This corresponds to a temperature setting in which the upper and lower coil temperatures are 55F and 54F respectively, with a 1F temperature differential applied to both coils. The Cut-Off mode conditions, on the other hand, were structured in such a way that the heater provides a lower heating load to the water in the loop. This corresponds to a temperature setting in which the upper and lower coil temperatures are set at 50F and 49F respectively, with a 1F temperature differential applied to both coils. The chilled water exit set point temperature was kept at 43F throughout for all categories and modes of testing. The water flow rate in the loop was kept constant by regulating the flow using a gate valve, which was preset to a flow rate of 4.5 gpm.

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11 All test runs were conducted under similar ambient conditions (same period of the day, during summer months) for a period of 10 hours and the effects of the Ion Collider on the system were studied over the testing period. A data point was a result of averaging readings at the rate of 1 kHz for a 60 second time interval. Tests were conducted to study the effects of using the Ion Colliders of different compositions on the performance of the refrigeration system. Utmost care was taken at all times not to contaminate the refrigerants. Samples of the refrigerant used in the various test runs were stored in sealed containers for possible future chemical/physical analysis. Post Data Analysis Note Observation of the numerical values of the chiller heat transfer rate, which was examined after all data had been collected and analyzed, revealed a possible instrument calibration problem which would have added a bias error in the temperature readings in the order of 2-3C. The error in question was noticed in the chilled water inlet and outlet temperatures. Obtaining a fresh data set with recalibrated thermocouples would have been an ideal situation. However, since the experimental program has since been completed it was not possible to do so. During the initial calibration of the system, a single-point calibration was used. This was undertaken by calibrating the thermocouples using the ice point of water measured at atmospheric pressure. A multi-point calibration system should have been used using at least two known temperatures, namely the ice point and boiling point of water under atmospheric pressure. Had there been a data point at time zero (i.e. before the system was turned on) we could have used it to correct the data measured initially. However, since the very first

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12 reading in the data set is one that has been averaged over a minute, it would not have given us the correction that would have needed to be applied. The reading when averaged over the minute consists not only of temperatures at the zero minute but also of the effect caused by the cooling in that minute. Hence, we cannot use the first minute to apply a correction to that reading. The second method would be to check the calibration at the present moment, however it was found out that there existed too much of a drift in the readings over time. This was expected after the lapse of about a year since the thermocouples were originally calibrated. Hence a decision was taken to present the data without correction as neither of the available approaches would give satisfactory results. Since there was very little time lapse between the test runs for the various cases involved, the error in the calibration remained the same for all cases of testing, i.e. for the Base Case and either of the cases pertaining to the Ion Colliders. The COP is directly proportional to the difference in the water temperatures. Thus an equal error in the measurement of temperature for all three cases would have resulted in the error canceling out when the differences in the COP are examined. As outlined in the objectives of this experimental program, the purpose of this study was to compare the relative effect of the Ion Colliders on the system. This objective could still be met despite the above shift in calibration.

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13 Figure 2. Experimental setup Figure 3. Ion Colliders (black and blue tubing) installed in the system

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14 Figure 4. Schematic diagram of experimental facility

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CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS Analysis Based on the First Law of Thermodynamics The chiller used in the experimental setup employs a vapor compression refrigeration system. The system consists of four main components; (1) compressor, (2) condenser, (3) expansion valve, and (4) evaporator. Figure 5 shows how the various components of the system are connected to each other. The different state points and their locations on the pressure-enthalpy diagram are also shown in Figure 5. As can be seen, saturated vapor (State Point 1) enters the compressor and undergoes an isentropic compression process. Compression increases the pressure and temperature of the vapor (State Point 2). The vapor is then de-superheated to the saturation temperature corresponding to the condenser pressure. The vapor then undergoes a phase change process and transforms to saturated liquid. The heat rejected from the refrigerant as it flows through the condenser is absorbed by either cooling water or flowing air. Next, the liquid refrigerant undergoes an isenthalpic expansion process through the expansion device. This throttling process involves a pressure drop across the expansion device, whereby the saturated liquid transforms into a mixture of liquid and vapor. Finally, the liquid in the mixture is vaporized in the evaporator at constant pressure. The vaporization process involves absorption of heat from the surroundings or the fluid to be chilled, thus resulting in refrigeration. The refrigerant leaves the evaporator as saturated vapor (State Point 1). 15

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16 The compressor power may be evaluated as the product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference between State Points 1 and 2 in Figure 5. W (1) )h( hm rompc12 The heat rejected by the refrigerant in the condenser may be calculated as the product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference across the condenser (State Points 2 and 3 in Figure 5) (2) )(32hhmQrcond Process 3-4 in Figure 4 is isenthalpic. Thus, 43hh (3) The heat absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator is defined as the product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference between State Points 4 and 1 in Figure 5. (4) )-h (hm Qre41 The above analysis deals only with the ideal vapor compression cycle. The actual cycle deviates considerably from the ideal. These deviations are due to the pressure drop associated with the flow of the working fluid through the pipes along with the heat transfer to and from the surroundings. In an actual cycle (shown in Figure 6), State Point 1 is generally in the superheated region. The compression process (represented by 1-2 in Figure 6) is not isentropic, unlike the ideal cycle, due to the addition and rejection of heat to the refrigerant through the valves and walls of the compressor. In the condenser, the heat rejection process (represented by 2-3 in Figure 6) is not isobaric as there is a pressure drop associated with the condenser piping. Furthermore, the refrigerant may be subcooled below the liquid saturation temperature in the condenser as represented by

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17 State Point 3. The isenthalpic process (represented by 3-4 in Figure 6) in the expansion valve could be safely assumed to apply for the actual cycle as well. Pressure drops due to the piping in the evaporator coils and superheating of the refrigerant to State 1 are the deviations seen in the actual cycle (represented by 4-1 in Figure 6) as compared to the ideal cycle. The state points of the actual cycle plotted on a pressure-enthalpy chart for R-22 for the Base Case as well as for the case representing Ion Colliders 1 and 2 is shown in Figures 26, 27, and 28 in Appendix A. These state points are taken from the actual experimental data after the lapse of 100 minutes of system operation. One of the striking features of these figures is that the state points are almost the same whether or not the Ion Colliders are used. Figure 6 also shows the variation of pressure with the compressor piston position. Due to the effect of the compressor inlet valves, the cylinder pressure during intake = may be less than the pressure in the suction line Similarly, due to the compressor outlet valves the pressure = is greater than the discharge line pressure The difference between State Points a and b are due to the heat exchange between the vapor and the cylinder walls. The same reason could be stated for difference in State Points c and d. aP bP 1P cP dP 2P As mentioned earlier, the actual compression (Process b-c) is not isentropic, but instead a polytropic process given by the expression (5) nccnbbvPvP

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18 At the end of the intake stroke, the total mass of vapor in the cylinder is bbvV The mass of the clearance vapor is bav V. Therefore, babbvVvVcycleper intake Mass = bbavVV (6) The compressor volumetric efficiency is the mass of vapor actually pumped by the compressor divided by the mass of vapor that the compressor could pump if it handled a volume of vapor equal to its piston displacement ..DP Volumetric efficiency may be given by the expression v bdbabvvVVVV2 (7) The term may also be written as abVV dadbabVVVVV V (8) nbcdnbddaPPVPPV/1/1 V (9) Let dbdVVV Cbe the clearance factor, thus nbcdbabPPCCVVVV/11 (10) Substituting in Equation (7) bnbcvvvPPCC2/11 (11)

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19 However, the volumetric efficiency can also be written as ..2DPvmrv (12) Hence, the refrigerant mass flow rate could be given by the expression bnbcrvDPPPCCm..1/1 (13) The compressor work in a polytropic process may be expressed by 1)1(1nnbcbbcompPPvPnn W (14) emcomprcompWm W (15) For the purpose of this analysis, the refrigeration system will be evaluated based on certain key performance parameters. This includes (1) the instantaneous refrigerating capacity, (2) instantaneous compressor power, (3) instantaneous coefficient of performance, and (4) total energy consumed. The instantaneous refrigerating capacity () is a measure of the cooling of the water as it flows through the chiller. This can be calculated as the product of the water mass flow rate, specific heat of water at constant pressure, and the difference in the water inlet and outlet temperatures. This is expressed as eQ (16) )-T ( T Cm Qw, ow, ip,wwe The instantaneous compressor power is a measure of the amount of power inputted to the compressor at any given instant, which could be calculated as the product of the

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20 voltage, current, and the power factor ( ). The power factor is assumed equal to 0.85 throughout this study. W (17) compIV The coefficient of performance (COP) expresses the effectiveness of the refrigeration system. It is a dimensionless ratio defined by the expression sources external from suppliedpower Net capacity ingrefrigerat Useful COP The instantaneous coefficient of performance (COP) will be calculated for the purpose of this analysis as the ratio of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity (Q) to the instantaneous compressor power (W) e comp compeWQCOP (18) The total energy consumed by the compressor over the duration of the test is calculated as the area under the instantaneous compressor power-time curve. An uncertainty analysis based on the work of Kline and McClintock [6] was performed to compute the propagation of uncertainty in the derived quantities. The uncertainty is calculated for the instantaneous refrigerating capacity (which is defined in Equation (16)) by the following equation 1/22222,,,,,,eeeeepwwiwopwwiwoQQQQQmCTTmCTT (19) The values of can be obtained from the manufacturers data for the respective data acquisition transducer. The uncertainty in the specific heat is assumed zero since it is not a measured quantity, hence ,, wiwomTT ,0pwC

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21 In the calculation of uncertainty of the instantaneous compressor power the following equation may be used 1/222VVIcompcompcompWWW I (20) Once again the values of V and I are obtained from the manufacturers data for the voltage and current transducers, respectively. The uncertainty in the coefficient of performance is given by the following equation: 1/222eecompCOPCOPCOPQWQW comp (21) The values of the uncertainty in the computed quantities of eQ and are obtained from Equations 19 and 20. Thus, an uncertainty analysis of the various key performance parameters can be achieved. compW Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System Availability is the maximum amount of work obtainable from a combined system as the control mass is bought into equilibrium with the surroundings. The availability of the system is an extensive thermodynamic property dependent only on the initial state of the system and the final state of the environment. Unlike energy in the first law of thermodynamics, availability of a system is never conserved, as some part of it is always destroyed by irreversibilities. The destruction of the available energy is seen to be proportional to the creation of entropy due to irreversibilities. In a vapor compression refrigeration system irreversibilities could arise from the various components of the system. Irreversibilities in the system could be caused by motor inefficiencies, frictional

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22 losses, pressure drops, mixing, heat transfer between system and surroundings and expansion in the throttling device. In performing an irreversibility analysis, one could determine the percentage contribution of the individual component irreversibilities to the total irreversibility of the system. Irreversibility analysis could also be used to compute the additional irreversibilities resulting from the use of the Ion Collider. One of the manufacturers claims was that the Ion Collider device altered the physical and chemical structure of the organic fluid flowing through the device. For the purpose of this irreversibility analysis we shall assume the properties of R-22 to remain unchanged. The physical design of the Ion Collider and its promise for change could bring out a change in the irreversibility of the system, which could be later compared to the Base Case. In the irreversibility analysis of the refrigeration system, the irreversibilities of the various components of the system could be calculated based on the following equations. The evaporator irreversibility could be expressed as 14ref space()eerQImssT (22) Where Tis the temperature of the refrigerating space, which was calculated by the mean of the water inlet and outlet temperatures, ref space w,iw,oref space T+T2 T (23) The irreversibility of the Ion Collider could be calculated based on the following equation: 2'2(devrImss ) (24) In the condenser irreversibility could be expressed as

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23 32'()condcondrcondQImssT (25) Similarly, the temperature of the ambient air T is determined by the mean inlet and outlet air temperatures, cond ,2aoaicondTT T (26) The irreversibility of the compressor is calculated based on the following equations, where Qis the heat losses from the compressor. comp 21()compcomprambQImssT (27) (28) Irreversibility in the expansion valve is expressed as 21()comprcompQmhhW exp43(rImss ) (29) The total irreversibility of the system is calculated to be the summation of the irreversibilities of the individual components. (30) exptotalecondcompdevIIIIII

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24 Expansion Device Condenser Evaporator 34 Compressor 21compW condQeQ log Ph3241 eQcondQcompW Figure 5. Ideal vapor compression cycle

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25 Expansion DeviceV Condenser Evaporator Single Stage Reciprocating CompressorabcdP2P3P 1234 compWcondQeQ pipeQpipeQ log Phabc, d134 2 compWeQcondQ Figure 6. Schematic diagrams of actual vapor compression cycle

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As discussed in the objectives, the purpose of this experimental program was to investigate the effects or lack thereof of employing the Ion Collider device in refrigeration systems. The results will be presented for two main categories of tests. The first category deals with the effects of the Ion Collider device on new refrigerants, while the second category deals with the effects on old/used refrigerants. Key performance parameters discussed in the earlier chapters will be the focus of the discussion in this chapter. These parameters will be investigated for both the Standard and Cut-Off modes of operation as explained in the earlier chapters. Tests Involving New Refrigerants This section deals with the effect of installing Ion Colliders 1 and 2 on the system performance when an unused (new) refrigerant is employed. Four key performance measures are discussed below. These are the instantaneous refrigerating capacity, the instantaneous compressor power, the instantaneous coefficient of performance, and the total energy consumption. Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity As discussed before, the instantaneous refrigerating capacity is a measure of the cooling achieved by the water as it flows through the chiller. Equation (16) was used to evaluate the instantaneous refrigerating capacity, which was calculated as the product of the water mass flow rate, specific heat of water at constant pressure, and the difference in the water inlet and outlet temperatures. Equation (4), which calculates the instantaneous 26

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27 refrigerating capacity based on the difference in the refrigerant enthalpy, could not be used since it was impossible to determine the two-phase mixture quality from the refrigerant pressure and temperature readings. The instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Standard and Cut-off modes of operation is shown in Figures 7 and 8, respectively. As seen from Figures 7 and 8, a negative refrigerating effect can be observed in the first five minutes of the test runs. This may be explained by a possible instrument calibration problem that would have added a bias error to the temperature readings. While this error affected the numerical values of the temperature readings, the overall trends of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for all three cases of testing remain unchanged and could still be used for comparison purposes. As seen in Figure 7, the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Standard mode is larger when no Ion Collider device is used (Base Case). Figure 7 also shows that Ion Collider 2 produced a slightly larger instantaneous refrigerating capacity than that produced by Ion Collider 1. Figure 8 shows the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Cut-Off mode for the three cases mentioned above. As explained in the earlier chapters, the Cut-Off mode of operation was structured in such a way to allow the compressor to cycle off when the chilled water exit set point temperature was reached. Figure 8 shows that there were many more compressor off cycles associated with the Base Case than with operating either Ion Colliders. This suggests that the chilled water exit set point temperature in the Base Case was reached more often than with employing Ion Colliders. This simply

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28 means that the instantaneous refrigerating capacity employing the Ion Colliders was smaller than that of the Base Case. Instantaneous Compressor Power As discussed earlier, the instantaneous compressor power for the chiller was calculated as the product of the voltage, amperage, and the electrical efficiency of the motor ( )e Figures 9 and 10 show the instantaneous compressor power for the Standard and Cut-Off modes of operation, respectively. For the Standard mode, the use of Ion Colliders 1 and 2 produced slightly larger instantaneous compressor power consumption. This may be attributed to the higher-pressure drop across the Colliders. The physical design of the Colliders partially accounts for the higher-pressure drop. For the Cut-Off mode, whenever the compressor was on, the instantaneous compressor power consumption could be seen to be almost the same for all cases (see Figure 10). Figure 10 also shows that the Base Case had a compressor down-time of eighteen cycles over the duration of the test. The corresponding numbers of down-time cycles for Ion Colliders 1 and 2 are eight and seven, respectively, over an equal duration. Evidently, the use of the Ion Colliders made it harder for the chiller to reach the desired chilled water exit set point temperature, thus contributing to a fewer number of compressor down time cycles. Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance The instantaneous coefficient of performance is a dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity to the instantaneous compressor

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29 power. The instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard mode is presented in Figure 11. As seen in Figure 11, a negative COP exists in the first five minutes of the test runs. As was mentioned earlier, this may be attributed to a possible instrumentation calibration problem that would have added a bias error in the temperature readings. While this error would affect the numerical values of the temperature readings, the overall trends of all test cases remain unchanged and results of comparisons among these cases are still valid. As can be seen, the instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard mode is higher for the Base Case than for the cases involving Ion Colliders. This may be attributed to the fact that for the Base Case the instantaneous power consumption was lower, while the instantaneous refrigerating capacity was higher. The higher instantaneous coefficient of performance in the Base Case suggests that the use of the Ion Colliders did not appear to have an overall positive effect on the chiller performance. The coefficient of performance was not evaluated for the Cut-Off mode as the compressor power, which is the denominator in the equation defining the coefficient of performance, drops to zero during compressor down-times, thus rendering the coefficient of performance inapplicable during down-times. Total Energy Consumption The total energy consumption is calculated as the area under the instantaneous compressor power-time curve (Figures 9 and 10). The total energy consumption is the energy supplied to the compressor over a single test run of ten hours. The total energy consumption for both the Standard and Cut-Off modes is shown in Figure 12. As can be seen, the total energy consumption in the Standard mode is almost equal for all tests with and without the Colliders. The marginal increase in the energy

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30 consumption when the Ion Colliders are used may be attributed to the larger compressor power needed to overcome the increased pressure drop brought about by the physical design of the Ion Colliders. For the Cut-Off mode, there is higher total energy consumption when the Ion Colliders are in use. This is due to the fact that the compressor run time cycle is longer, with fewer cut-offs. This is because the chiller did not produce the required amount of cooling to attain the desired chilled water exit set point temperature. Tests Involving Old/Used Refrigerant This section deals with the effect on the system performance of installing Ion Colliders 1 and 2 in the refrigeration system when an old/used refrigerant is employed. Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity The instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Standard and Cut-Off modes of operation is shown in Figures 13 and 14, respectively. As observed from Figures 13 and 14, a negative refrigerating effect can be observed in the first five minutes of test runs. This may be explained by the error bias in the temperature readings as explained earlier in this chapter. The refrigerating capacity produced when Ion Collider 2 was used in the Standard mode was a bit smaller than either of the other two cases (see Figure 13). The refrigerating capacity produced for the other cases appears to be nearly equal over the duration of the tests. For the Cut-Off mode, all cases appear to have a similar refrigerating capacity regardless of whether or not an Ion Collider was used (see Figure 14). It is important to observe here that the Cut-Off mode when a used refrigerant was employed did not result in cycling off the compressor throughout the duration of the test for all cases tested. This may suggest that the cooling performed in the chiller was not sufficient to allow the chilled water exit set point temperature to be achieved. This

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31 should be contrasted with the identical test performed employing a new refrigerant, whereby the compressor cycled off eighteen times over the ten-hour test. Instantaneous Compressor Power Figures 15 and 16 show the instantaneous compressor power for the Standard and Cut-Off modes of operation, respectively. The compressor power consumption for Ion Collider 2 was marginally larger than either of the other two cases (see Figure 15). The power consumption for the Base Case appears to be a bit smaller than that of Ion Collider 1. However, the differences among all the cases are believed to be marginal and statistically insignificant. For the Cut-Off mode, on the other hand, Ion Collider 1 and the Base Case appear to have an equal amount of power consumption (see Figure 16) Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance The instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard and Cut-Off modes of operation is presented in Figures 17 and 18, respectively. Figure 17 shows that the coefficient of performance in the Standard mode for both the Base Case and Ion Collider 1 is nearly the same. Ion Collider 2 seems to have a marginally lower coefficient of performance than either of the other two cases. Again, the differences are statistically insignificant and, thus, should not be viewed as constituting a meaningful trend. For the Cut-Off mode (see Figure 18), on the other hand, all three test cases appear to have a near identical performance. Total Energy Consumption The total energy consumption is shown graphically in Figure 19. It is calculated as the area under the instantaneous compressor power-time curves (Figures 15 and 16). As seen in Figure 19, the total energy consumption for all three cases in both the Standard and Cut-Off modes are remarkably similar over the duration of the test runs.

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32 The comparison of the COP for the two cases of testing, i.e. the new refrigerant and the old/used refrigerant is shown graphically in Figure 20. The comparison was done for the Standard mode of testing. For the new refrigerant, it can be seen that the time averaged COP is lower in the cases involving the use of the Ion Collider as compared to the Base case. For the case involving the old/used refrigerant, the COP for the Base Case and that of Ion Collider 1 can be seen to be nearly similar. Both of these values are seen to be higher than the case involving Ion Collider 2.

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-8-6-4-202460100200300400500600700Time, MinutesRefrigerating Capacity, kW Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 33 Figure 7. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Standard mode

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-8-6-4-202460100200300400500600700Time, MinutesRefrigerating Capacity, kW Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 34 Figure 8. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Cut-Off mode

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14001500160017001800190020000100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCompressor Power, Watts Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 35 Figure 9. Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

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0500100015002000250030000100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCompressor Power, Watts Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 36 Figure 10. Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode

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-4-3-2-1012340100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCoefficient of Performance (COP) Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 37 Figure 11. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

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010002000300040005000600070008000900010000Standard Mode Cut-Off ModeEnergy Consumed, kW-hr 38 Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 12. Total energy consumption using new refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes

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-6-4-202468100100200300400500600700Time, MinutesRefrigerating Capacity, kW Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 39 Figure 13. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode

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-6-4-202468100100200300400500600700Time, MinutesRefrigerating Capacity, kW Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 40 Figure 14. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode

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500700900110013001500170019000100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCompressor Power, Watts Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 41 Figure 15. Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode

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500700900110013001500170019000100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCompressor Power, Watts Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 42 Figure 16. Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode

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-3-2-1012345670100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCoefficient of Performance (COP) Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 43 Figure 17. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode

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-3-2-1012345670100200300400500600700Time, MinutesCoefficient of Peformance (COP) Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 44 Figure 18. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode

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010002000300040005000600070008000900010000Standard Mode Cut off ModeEnergy Consumed, kW-hr 45 Base Case Ion Collider1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 19. Total energy consumption using old/used refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes

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00.511.522.533.54New Refrigerant Old / Used RefrigerantCoefficient of Performance (COP) 46 Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 20. COP measured using new and old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode

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47 Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System As discussed in an earlier section of this thesis the irreversibility of the various components of the refrigeration system were calculated from Equations (22), (24), (25), (27) and (29). The latter part of the sample calculations presented in Appendix B of this thesis outlines the irreversibility analysis of the system. The state points are taken from actual experimental data after the lapse of 100 minutes of system operation for the Base Case in the Standard mode of operation. On careful observation, it is seen that the compressor had the largest irreversibilities as compared to the other system components. The irreversibility of the compressor (46% of the total irreversibility calculated for the sample calculation as outlined in Appendix B) could be attributed to motor inefficiencies, frictional losses, mixing, irreversibilities due to pressure drop and heat transfer between the compressor and the surroundings. The irreversibility of the evaporator attributed to the next largest percentage of the total irreversibility of the system, followed by irreversibilities in the condenser and expansion valve. Comparing the irreversibilities produced in each of the components in each of cases involving the use of the Ion Colliders and the Base Case, it was noted as follows, The irreversibilities produced in the compressor of the refrigeration system when the Ion Collider devices were in use are attributed to be marginally larger than the Base Case. However, the statistically insignificant increase in the irreversibilities produced cannot be attributed to fact that the Ion Collider devices alone did cause the compressor be more irreversible. Figure 21 outlines a representation of the compressor irreversibility as calculated for all cases of testing with respect a time scale spanning the entire duration of a single test in the Standard mode of operation. The value of the irreversibility in the case involving the Ion Collider 2 for the 400 th minute of operation should be regarded as

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48 a stray case, not reflecting the general trend of the compressor irreversibilities in the system. Figure 22 shows the irreversibilities produced in the condenser for the cases involving use of Ion Colliders and the Base Case. It is observed that the irreversibilities produced in the condenser is nearly similar for all cases, and that the Ion Collider did not have much effect on the irreversibility produced in this component. The similar results are noticeable in Figure 23, which shows the irreversibilities produced in the expansion valve. Since the expansion valve does not have any heat interaction with the surroundings and the irreversibilities are calculated only as difference in the inlet and exit entropies, a nearly similar irreversibility was expected. The case of evaporator irreversibility as seen from Figure 24, the irreversibility involving the Base Case and Ion Colliders were found to be nearly equal. Once again, the case involving the Ion Collider 2 for the 400 th minute of operation should be regarded as a stray case, not reflecting the general trend of the evaporator irreversibilities in the system. It was seen from the graph showing the total irreversibility of the system for the duration of one test in the Standard mode of operation (Figure 26), the total irreversibilities of the system for all cases are found to be remarkably similar. This brings us to the conclusion that the Ion Colliders had no significant effect on the system. One would have expected the Ion Colliders, because its design and effects on the refrigerant to produce a marginally higher measure of irreversibilities as compared to the Base Case. However, as shown in the above discussion this was not the case.

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49 00.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060100200300400500600700Time, minsCompressor Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 21. Compressor irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode -0.000500.00050.0010.00150.0020100200300400500600700Time, minsCondenser Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 22. Condenser irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

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50 00.00010.00020.00030.00040.00050.00060.00070.00080.00090.0010100200300400500600700Time, minsExpansion Valve Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 23. Expansion valve irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode 00.00050.0010.00150.0020.00250.0030.00350.0040100200300400500600700Time, minsEvaporator Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 24. Evaporator irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

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51 -0.0003-0.00010.00010.00030.00050.00070.00090.00110.00130.00150100200300400500600700Time, minsDevice Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 25. Ion Collider device irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode 00.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060100200300400500600700Time, minsTotal Irreversibilty, kW/K Base Case Ion Collider 1 Ion Collider 2 Figure 26. Total irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS A study was conducted to investigate the effects or lack thereof of employing the Ion Collider technology in refrigeration systems. The study covered two main categories of tests. The first category dealt with the effects of using Ion Colliders in the presence of new refrigerants, while the second category dealt with their effects in the presence of old/used refrigerants. The study included testing of two types of colliders corresponding to different collider compositions. Ion Collider 1 was made up of 100% copper, while Ion Collider 2 was made up of 80% copper and 20% nickel. In the category of tests involving a new refrigerant, the following are the main conclusions: 1. The refrigerating capacity was a bit lower when the Ion Colliders were employed relative to the Base Case (which represents operating the system without the Ion Colliders). This was manifested in the fact that the chilled water exit set point temperature in the Base Case was reached more frequently than with employing either of the Colliders (for Cut-Off mode of operation). 2. The instantaneous compressor power was a bit higher for the tests employing the Ion Colliders than those for the Base Case. 3. The chiller coefficient of performance when the Ion Colliders were in use was a bit lower than that associated with the Base Case. 4. The total energy consumption of the compressor in the Standard mode of operation was similar for all cases. The total energy consumption of the compressor in the Cut-Off mode over the testing period was significantly larger for the cases involving the Ion Colliders than those of the Base Case (23.22% larger for Ion Collider 1 and 21.77% larger for Ion Collider 2). This was attributed to a fewer number of compressor down time cycles when the Ion Colliders were in use. 52

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53 In the category of tests involving an old/used refrigerant, the following are the main conclusions: 1. The Base Case and the cases involving the use of the Ion Colliders appear to have near similar refrigerating capacity. 2. The instantaneous compressor power for all cases with or without the Ion Colliders was found to be nearly similar. 3. The Base Case and the cases involving the use of the Ion Colliders appear to have similar coefficient of performance. 4. The total energy consumption of the compressor for all the cases involving use of Ion Colliders and the Base Case were nearly similar, within a specified mode of operation. This concludes that the Ion Colliders had a no effect on the total energy consumption. It is important to emphasize that there were no significant differences in performance between the old and new refrigerants for the Base Case in the Standard mode. In other words, there was no deterioration in the performance of the system while employing old/used refrigerant as compared to its performance when employing a new refrigerant. This is evident by examining key performance parameters in the Standard mode. In the Cut-Off mode, on the other hand, there were differences between the performance of the system depending on whether a new or an old/used refrigerant were used. As indicated in the main body of the thesis, the compressor cycled off 18 times over the duration of the test in the Base Case with a new refrigerant, whereas it did not cycle off at all in the Base Case with the old/used refrigerant. A similar behavior was observed when the Ion Colliders were used; namely, the compressor cycled off with the new refrigerant, whereas it did not cycle off at all with the old/used refrigerant. It is worth observing that since test results showed virtually no change when the Colliders were used relative to the Base Case, the refrigerant properties were probably not altered as a result of introducing the Colliders in the refrigerant line. One indication

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54 of the validity of this conclusion is the fact that the state points on the pressure-enthalpy charts for the refrigerant in the Standard mode for all cases were remarkably close, thus indicating a lack of change in properties. Finally yet importantly, the effects or lacks thereof of the Ion Colliders are better quantified in the Standard mode of operation (as opposed to the Cut-Off mode) for both the new and old/used refrigerants. It may be safely concluded that the effect of the Ion Colliders on the performance of the system in the Standard mode was marginal and statistically insignificant. We firmly believe that the results as presented in the Standard mode justify our conclusion that the Ion Colliders have no effect on the refrigeration system.

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APPENDIX A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAMS FOR ACTUAL CYCLE Figure 27. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Base Case 55

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56 Figure 28. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 1

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57 Figure 29. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 2

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APPENDIX B SAMPLE CALCULATIONS The purpose of this appendix is to provide sample calculations that can guide the reader into understanding the analysis section of this report. In the process of performing these calculations, comparisons between certain calculated and measured quantities were made for the purpose of gaining confidence in the experimental results and thus validating the experimental methods and techniques employed. The following data were obtained from a test run with a new refrigerant for the Base Case in the Standard mode of operation. Data reflect the conditions after the lapse of 100 minutes of system operation. (85%) 0.85)((80%) 0.80)(/sm0023950/hrft53040.03C 2s84403751PFV)-0200-(CRD1Amps 5928(I)V439205(V)/kgm0710)(vkPa350PkPa1344Pem333112iciency trical effMotor eleciciency anical effMotor mech .placementPiston DisfactorClearance ndersNo of cyli inche.Stroke inches. Bore a presor Datpeland ComSource::Co.Current .essor ross comprVoltage ac nlet mpressor iapor at coolume of vSpecific v ressure rigerant p inlet refCompressor essure igerant pr exit refrCompressor Polytropic exponent (R-22), n=1.12 58

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59 The refrigerant mass flow rate is given by Equation (13), assuming for the calculation the specific volume of the refrigerant before compression to be equal to the specific volume of the refrigerant at the compressor inlet bv 1v 1/1,..1vDPPPCCmnbccalcr kg/s 0313007100023950350134403003011211.....m./r,calc This calculated value of the mass flow rate could be compared to the measured refrigerant mass flow rate kg/s 02660.mr,meas which is a percentage difference of 17.67%. From Equation (14), the compressor work can be calculated as 1)1(1nnbcbbcompPPvPnnW while the compressor power is expressed by emcompcompWmW kW 658.113501344071.010350)112.1(12.1)85.0)(80.0(0313.012.1112.13compW From Equation (17), the compressor power can be calculated as the product of the voltage, amperage, and the power factor ( ) Amps5928V439205 .Current .Voltage 85.0 VIcompW

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60 kW 51 W3615005)8.592)(0.8(205.439)(. .Wcomp The measured power of 1.5 kW compares very favorably with the calculated power of 1.658 kW (percent difference is 10.53%). The refrigerating capacity as calculated from Equation (16) is )-T ( T Cm Qw, ow, ip,wwe GPM54 .teme flow raWater volu (preset at this value for all experiments) kg/s15860GPM 1w kg/s1008282.m flow rateWater massw Ckg.kJ18.4,wpC C 6.69)(T C 10.08)(T ow,iw, re temperatuter outletChilled waetemperaturter inlet Chilled wa kW 3.9766.69)(10.084.181028.082eQ From Equation (18) the coefficient of performance is calculated as 3.9762.6511.5ecompQCOPW Uncertainty Analysis to calculate the propagation of uncertainty in derived quantities based on Equations (19), (20) and (21). Instantaneous refrigerating capacity, ,,,21/22222,,,,,,()28.08104.18(10.086.69)3.976 kWewpwwiwoeeeeeewpwwiwowpwwiwoQmCTTQQQQQQmCTTmCTT

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61 1222,,,,,,22,,,,()()pwwiwowwwiwopwewpwwiwpwwoCTTmmTTCQmCTmCT 122-222-2-24.18(10.08-6.69)(28.08100.01)028.08104.180.228.08104.180.2eQ 0.3343 kWeQ 0.3343%Uncertainity1001008.40%3.976 eeQQ Instantaneous compressor power, 1/222VI(205.439)(8.592)(0.85)150036W 15 kWVIVIcompcompcompcompW.WWW 1222IVVIcompW 12228.5920.850.0025205.439205.4390.850.0058.5928.388 W0.008388 kWcompcompcompWWW 0.008388%Uncertainity1001000.56%1.5compcompWW Instantaneous coefficient of performance, 1/2223.9762.6511.5ecompececompQCOPWCOPCOPCOPQWQW omp

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62 122221eeccompcompQCOPQWWW omp 122221(3.976)0.3343(0.008388)1.51.50.2233COPCOP 0.2233%Uncertainity1001008.42%2.651COPCOP Calculation of the irreversibilities in the various components of the refrigeration system By plotting the pressure and temperature of the various stage points of the refrigeration cycle the following values were obtained, 11222'2'334414.24 kJ/kg 1.8149 kJ/kg.K453.23 kJ/kg 1.8216 kJ/kg.K455.93 kJ/kg 1.8282 kJ/kg.K241.49 kJ/kg 1.1408 kJ/kg.K241.49 kJ/kg hshshshsh4 1.1505 kJ/kg.Ks The heat absorbed by the refrigerant was calculated from Equation (4) as follows 14()0.0266(414.24241.49)4.595 kWerQmhh The refrigerating space temperature was evaluated as the average of the water inlet and outlet temperatures. w,ow,iref spaceref spaceref spaceT+T= 210.086.698.3852=273.15+8.385=281.53 KTTCT From Equation (22) the irreversibility in the evaporator was calculated as follows

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63 14ref space4.595()0.0266(1.81491.1505)0.00135 kW/K281.535eerQImssT The heat rejected by the refrigerant in the condenser was calculated from Equation (2) as 2'3()0.0266(455.23241.49)5.633 kWcondrQmhh The condenser space temperature is the average temperature of the inlet and outlet air temperatures, a,oa,i T+T235.1828.0331.605 C231.065273.15304.755 KcondcondcondTTT Condenser irreversibility was calculated from Equation (25) as 32'5.6330()0.0266(1.14081.8282) 0.00037 kW/K304.755condcondrcondQImssT To calculate the irreversibility in the compressor unit, the heat losses from the compressor were computed as 21()0.0266(453.23414.24)1.50.4628 kWcomprcompQmhhW 301.184 KambT Compressor irreversibility from Equation (27) was calculated as follows 210.4628()0.0266(1.82161.8149)0.00172 kW/K301.184compcomprambQImssT The irreversibilities in the Ion Collider device was calculated from Equation (24), 2'2()0.0266(1.82821.8216)0.00017 kW/KdevrImss Expansion valve irreversibility from Equation (29) exp43()0.0266(1.15051.1408)0.00025 kW/KrImss

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64 The total irreversibility of the system is given as by Equation (30) as the summation of the irreversibilities of the individual components. exp0.001350.000370.001720.000250.000170.00387 kW/KtotalecondcompdevtotalIIIIIII

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. International Cavitation Technologies, Inc., ICTI, www.ioncollider.com 08/25/2002. 2. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., Method and Apparatus for Separating Particles from Liquids, United States Patent No. 5, 482,629, January 9, 1996. 3. Allen, D., Kim, D. and Quigley, C.,Cavitation Driven Chemistry in Ion Collider, Technical Report submitted to Falcon Seaboard, Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Energy Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 1998. 4. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., Method and Apparatus to Enhance the Recovery of Crude Oil, United States Patent No. 5,485,883, January 23, 1996. 5. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., Method of Increasing the Amount of Hydrocarbons from an Underground Reservoir, United States Patent No. 5,538,081, July 23, 1996. 6. Kline, S.J. and F.A. McClintock, Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 75, pp. 3-8, ASME International, New York, 1953. 65

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mr. Jason Z.Alphonso was born in Mumbai, India, on October 29, 1978. He received his undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Bombay in October 2000. He started graduate studies at the University of Florida in Fall 2001. His interests are in the field of refrigeration and air-conditioning. In his early academic life, Mr. Alphonso always strived to maintain a very effective balance between his studies and extra-curricular activities, which earned him the prestigious Lady Jackson Trophy for all round development in his high school. He also stood All-India first in mathematics at the Indian Council of Secondary Education [ICSE, 1994]. During his undergraduate studies, Mr.Alphonso was fortunate to serve as an elected student body senate member for three consecutive terms [1997-2000]. He was also the elected class representative for his undergraduate class, a liaison between the faculty and the students of the department. 66


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Nomenclature
        Page ix
        Page x
    Abstract
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction and objectives
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Review of literature
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Experimental program
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Analysis
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Results and discussion
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
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        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Conclusions
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Appendices
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    References
        Page 65
    Biographical sketch
        Page 66
Full Text












PROOF OF CONCEPT OF THE ION COLLIDER IN REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS


By

JASON Z. ALPHONSO















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Jason Z. Alphonso

































This document is dedicated to my dearest parents, Mr. Albert C. Alphonso and
Mrs. Lalita T.Alphonso.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor and mentor, Dr. S.A. Sherif, for all his guidance,

patience and understanding. Special thanks go to my graduate supervisory committee

consisting of Dr. Ingley and Dr. Lear for their valuable input and suggestions. I would

like to especially thank my parents, Mr. Albert Cajetian. Alphonso and Mrs. Lalita

Theresa. Alphonso for the constant encouragement and blessings. Even though very far

away, my brother and sisters have always been a source of support and encouragement. I

thank them for being there for me.

I also wish to thank the staff of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace

Engineering at the University of Florida. Special thanks go to my dear friends Navin,

Archit, Siddartha and Dhruv.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF FIGURES ............................. ............ .................................... vii

N O M E N C L A T U R E ............................................................................... .............. ix

ABSTRACT .................................................... ................. xi

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES.....................................................1...

2 R E V IEW O F L ITER A TU R E ........................................... ....................... ............... 3

3 EXPERIM EN TAL PR O GRA M .............................................................. ...............7...

Experimental Facility .......................... ........... ...............................7
C hilled/H eated W ater L oop .............................................................. ...............7...
D ata A acquisition Sy stem ........................................ ....................... ...............8...
E xperim ental Procedures ................................................................... ............... 10
P ost D ata A analysis N ote .................................................................... ............... 11

4 A N A L Y SIS .......................................................................................... ............... 15

Analysis Based on the First Law of Thermodynamics.........................................15
Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System ...........................................21

5 RE SU LTS AN D D ISCU SSION ............................................................ ................ 26

Tests Involving N ew R efrigerants......................................................... ................ 26
Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity............................................. ................ 26
Instantaneous C om pressor Pow er ......................... .................... .....................28
Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance .............. .................................... 28
T otal E energy C onsum ption............................................................. ................ 29
Tests Involving Old/U sed Refrigerant.................................................... 30
Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity............................................. ................ 30
Instantaneous C om pressor Pow er................................................... ................ 31





v









Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance .............. ....................................31
T otal E energy C onsum ption............................................................. .................. 31
Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System ...........................................47

6 C O N C L U SIO N S .................................................. .............................................. 52

APPENDIX

A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAMS FOR ACTUAL CYCLE.........................55

B SA M PLE C A L CU L A TIO N S .....................................................................................58

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ... ........................................................................ ................ 65

BIO GR APH ICAL SK ETCH .................................................................... ................ 66















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1 Physical design of Ion Collider device ............................................... ...............6...

2 E x p erim ental setu p ... ... ......................................... ....................... ............... 13

3 Ion Colliders (black and blue tubing) installed in the system...............................13

4 Schematic diagram of experimental facility .....................................................14

5 Ideal vapor com pression cycle.......................................................... ................ 24

6 Schematic diagrams of actual vapor compression cycle...................................25

7 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 3 3

8 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in
C u t-O ff m o d e ......................................................................................................... 3 4

9 Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 3 5

10 Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the
C u t-O ff m o d e ......................................................................................................... 3 6

11 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using new refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 3 7

12 Total energy consumption using new refrigerant in the Standard and
C u t-O ff m o d es ....................................................................................................... 3 8

13 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 3 9

14 Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the
C u t-O ff m o d e ......................................................................................................... 4 0

15 Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 4 1









16 Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the
C u t-O ff m o d e ......................................................................................................... 4 2

17 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 4 3

18 Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the
C u t-O ff m o d e ......................................................................................................... 4 4

19 Total energy consumption using old/used refrigerant in the Standard and
C u t-O ff m o d es ....................................................................................................... 4 5

20 COP measured using new and old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode............46

21 Compressor irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode ............49

22 Condenser irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode ..............49

23 Expansion valve irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode........50

24 Evaporator irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode.............. 50

25 Ion Collider device irreversibility using new refrigerant in the
S tan d ard m o d e ....................................................................................................... 5 1

26 Total irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode....................... 51

27 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Base Case..................................................55

28 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 1 ............................................56

29 Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 2...........................................57
















NOMENCLATURE

Latin Symbols

COP coefficient of performance, dimensionless
Cp specific heat, kJ/(kg.C)
h specific enthalpy, kJ/kg
I current, Amp
j irreversibility, kW/K
rh mass flow rate, kg/s
n polytropic exponent, dimensionless
P pressure, Pascal
Q heat transfer rate, kW
T temperature, K
V voltage, V
V volume, m3
v specific volume, m3/kg
W power, Watts

Greek Symbols

0f power factor, dimensionless
77e electrical efficiency, dimensionless
r77 mechanical efficiency, dimensionless
r7, volumetric efficiency, dimensionless
p density, kg/m3

Subscripts

a air
amb ambient
calc calculated
cond condenser
comp compressor
e evaporator
exp expansion valve
i inlet
meas measured










o outlet
r refrigerant
ref space refrigeration space
total total
w water















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science.

PROOF OF CONCEPT OF THE ION COLLIDER IN REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

By

Jason Z. Alphonso

December 2003

Chair: Sherif A. Sherif
Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

The objective of this study was to examine and analyze the effects of employing a

device labeled the "Ion Collider" on the performance of a vapor compression

refrigeration system. Tests were conducted for two types of refrigerants; (1) new

refrigerants and (2) used refrigerants (at least five years old).

The Ion Collider was directly introduced into the vapor compression system and

data were collected using state-of-the-art data acquisition software. An analysis of the

acquired data was later conducted.

The study examined the effect of employing Ion Collider technology on key

performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance (COP), the refrigerating

capacity (Qe), and the compressor power (Wcomp). A comparative study of the total

energy consumption (kW-hr) based on the energy inputted to the system in the form of

compressor power was also conducted and results were presented.









The study also examined the effects of employing Ion Collider technology with

respect to the second law of thermodynamics. The irreversibilities of the individual

refrigeration system components were studied, along with their effects on the total

irreversibility.

From the analysis performed, it was concluded that the Ion Collider technology had

no beneficial effects on the performance of the refrigeration system tested.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES

The Ion Collider technology according to International Cavitation Technologies,

Inc. [1] brings out several beneficial effects in fluids as they flow through the Ion

Collider device. These effects include changes in the properties of the fluid such as

viscosity, molecular homogeneity, lubricity, combustion efficiency, and heat exchange

properties. The Ion Collider technology was also reported to bring about a reduction or

elimination of nonhomogenous materials and separation of dissimilar components in

mixtures [2]. Allen et al. [3] listed certain phenomena that are induced in the fluid as it

flows through the device. This includes hot spot chemistry, electric discharges, catalytic

chemistry, surfactant chemistry, and the propagation of acoustical waves.

The inventors of the Ion Collider, Rippetoe and Shroff [2], reported being able to

use the Ion Collider technology to separate immiscible solid or liquid particles such as

oil, from a liquid-based mixture or emulsion. In another application of the Ion Collider,

Rippetoe and Shroff [4] have patented the use of the Ion Collider to facilitate the

economical recovery of crude oil from an oil well. Furthermore, Rippetoe and Shroff [5]

reported using the technology to increase the amount of hydrocarbons in a crude oil

mixture. Other applications of the Ion Collider include water purification, altering the

physical characteristics of the fluids, and removal of hydrocarbons from soils [1].

To understand the principles involved in the Ion Collider technology, a study was

conducted by Allen et al. [3] who reported that cavitation-driven catalytic chemistries

were the most likely explanation for the phenomena taking place in the Ion Collider









device. The Ion Collider as reported by Allen et al. [3] is particularly capable of

promoting cavitation chemistry.

The objective of the experimental program described in this thesis is to investigate

the effects or lack thereof of employing the Ion Collider technology in a vapor

compression refrigeration system. This will be accomplished by employing two Ion

Colliders of different compositions. The first Ion Collider is made of 100% copper,

hereon referred to as Ion Collider 1, while the second collider is 80 % copper and 20%

nickel, hereon referred to as Ion Collider 2.

There will be two categories of tests. The first category involves testing the

technology employing a new refrigerant, while the second employs an already used

refrigerant whose age is at least five years old. Key performance parameters such as the

refrigerating capacity, compressor power, coefficient of performance, and the total

energy consumption will be computed and analyzed. The study also examined the effects

of employing Ion Collider technology with respect to a system irreversibility analysis.

To achieve an in-depth understanding of the effects of the Ion Collider on the

performance, samples of the refrigerant used in the various test runs will be stored in

sealed containers for possible future chemical and/or physical analysis.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The patented Ion Collider technology [2,4,5] claims to affect the molecular charge

and structure of organic fluids [1]. Several beneficial effects are claimed to be reported,

which include separation of dissimilar components, reduction of non-homogeneous

materials in the medium, changes in viscosity, enhanced lubricity, enhanced heat

exchange properties, greater volatility, greater oxidation efficiencies and enhanced

molecular homogeneity.

The inventors of the Ion Collider technology have patented the use of the Ion

Collider device as a method of separating immiscible particles from a liquid mixture or

emulsion [2]. The scientific principle, which is claimed to be used in the working of this

device for this application, is the introduction of a similar charge to both the solid and

liquid particles as it flows through the device, thereby causing the particles to repel and

separate from each other.

In its simplest form, according to Allen et al. [3] and Rippetoe and Shroff [2, 4, 5],

the Ion Collider consists of two spaced-apart concentric and elongated metal cylinders.

The wall of the inner cylinder consists of a multiplicity of spaced-apart radially bored

perforations and its exit end is capped. The high-pressure fluid entering the Ion Collider

flows through the inner cylinder with small perforations. These perforations, coupled

with the high inlet pressure cause jets to emerge from the perforations. The outer surface

of the inner cylinder and the inner surface of the outer cylinder are flame coated with a

copper alloy. The high velocity jets impinge on the copper-alloy- coated surface, thus









forming low-pressure regions, which in turn leads to the formation of bubbles. These

bubbles collapse as they are entrained into the flow. As bubbles collapse, a variety of

phenomena is reported to occur. These include formation of local high pressures and

temperatures in the fluid, which in turn leads to electrical discharges from the copper

alloy surface. Bubble collapse also generates shock waves that propagate through the

fluid. These waves are claimed to induce a variety of phenomena throughout the fluid.

Figure 1 shows the cross sectional plan view of the Ion Collider device.

Allen et al. [3] conducted a study to explain the effects of the Ion Collider

technology. In the study they investigated the possibility that cavitation was driving many

of the phenomena observed in the Ion Collider. Allen et al. [3] further listed certain

phenomena said to be occurring due to cavitation in the Ion Collider, these include, hot

spot chemistry, electrical discharges and catalytic chemistry, surfactant chemistry and

propagation of acoustical waves.

Hot spot chemistry is driven by the very high temperatures and pressures caused by

cavitation in the region of bubble collapse. Allen et al. [3] through experimental methods

proved that as water flows through the Ion Collider device, the locally high values of

temperature and pressure cause dissociation of the water molecule into hydrogen atoms

and hydroxyl radicals. The study went on to prove that cavitation induced chemistry

occurs in the Collider.

The study suggests that electric discharges from the surface of the metal were also

the result of high-localized temperature and pressures associated with cavitation in the

Ion Collider device. According to the study, cavitation may also have caused

microstructures in the metal that could have unusual catalytic effects.









Allen et al.[3] also said that the pressure waves induced by cavitation could

propagate throughout the fluid. The Ion Collider device was considered by them to be

well designed for pressure wave propagation.

The inventors, Rippetoe and Shroff [4] have patented the application of the Ion

Collider technology to facilitate the economical recovery of crude oil from an oil well.

The Ion Collider is attached to the lower end at the level of the crude oil reservoir. The

Ion Collider consists of two spaced apart cylindrical metal tubes whose common vertical

axis coincides with the axis of the tubing. In this application, the Ion Collider device is

claimed to treat crude oil, wherein it separates the crude oil from the paraffin and other

waste. The technology is also claimed to break up the long chained hydrocarbons making

the oil less capable of transporting suspended solid particles.

The inventors, Rippetoe and Shroff [5] also claim to use the Ion Collider

technology as a method of increasing the amount of hydrocarbons from an underground

reservoir. This was claimed to be achieved by breaking up the undesirable oil-water

emulsions, freeing entrained gases and preventing the formation of scale and corrosion.












WALL OF OUTER TUBE COATED WITH AN ALLOY OF COPPER


ORGANIC FLUID IN






INNER TUBE CAPPED-













ORGANIC FLUID OUT









RADIALLY BORED PERFORATIONS


Figure 1. Physical design of Ion Collider device


Reference: Allen et al. [3] and Rippetoe and Shroff [2, 4, 5]














CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Experimental Facility

Chilled/Heated Water Loop

The experimental facility employed in this investigation consists of a R-22 water

chiller with an imposed heat load from a water heater. The system is designed in such a

way that the drop in water temperature because of cooling is equal to the rise in its

temperature because of heating. Figure 2 shows the system used in the experiments.

The water heater (Vanguard VG 0301C09767, model no. 6E725, wattage: 4500 /

3380, capacity: 119.9 US. gallons) was used to add an adjustable heating load to the

water loop. The water heater employs two electrically-heated coils to heat the water.

The coil temperature can be adjusted employing electronic thermostatic controls located

on the water heater control panel. The experimental procedure requires the water heater

to be used in two modes of operation. The first mode (called the Standard mode) was

structured in such a way that the water heater provides a larger heating load to the water

loop. This corresponds to preset upper and lower coil temperatures of 550F and 540F,

respectively, with a IF temperature differential applied to both coils. The second mode

(called the Cut-Off mode) was structured in such a way that the heater provides a

comparatively lower heating load to the water loop. This corresponds to preset upper and

lower coil temperatures of 50F and 49F, respectively, with a IF temperature

differential applied to both coils. The water heater was fitted with a blow-off safety valve

to guard against undesirable pressure buildup.









The water chiller (model RTP201, 24000 BTU/hr 208-230 VAC air cooled

condenser) was used to chill the water as it flowed through the water loop. The Ion

Colliders, in different compositions, along with a pipe section of a similar size and shape

were reconstructed to form a manifold. This manifold with the help of valves permitted

either one of the Ion Colliders or the pipe to be used for a given test. The Ion Collider

device was sized by the manufacturer based on the size of the water chiller unit. It was

the manufacturer's recommendation that the Ion Collider device be introduced in the

refrigerant line at the discharge end of the compressor as shown in Figure 3. Based on

previous studies by Allen et al. [3], cavitation of the liquid was the key principle involved

in the working of the Ion Collider device. Since the Ion Collider employed in this

experiment was placed at the discharge end of the compressor where superheated vapor

normally exists, cavitation is very unlikely to take place in this case.

The constant-temperature water loop also included a hydronic expansion tank,

besides the water chiller and the water heater. Rubber hoses and copper pipes were used

to connect the water chiller and the water heater. The entire piping of the chilled/heated-

closed loop was very well insulated with foam insulation to prevent heat loss/gain from

and to the loop.

Data Acquisition System

Temperatures were measured in the experimental facility using copper constantan

(type-T) thermocouples with an uncertainty of + 0.20C. This type is suitable for low

temperature applications as well as temperatures up to 3700C. All thermocouples were

calibrated using a constant-temperature water bath (model Polyscience-80). The

thermocouples were insulated for accuracy. Temperatures of the refrigerant as it flows

through the refrigeration system were measured at the inlet of the Ion Collider and at the









inlet and exit of the condenser and evaporator. The temperature of the air flowing

through the air-cooled condenser of the water chiller was also measured. In the constant-

temperature water loop, the temperature of the water was measured at the inlet and exit of

the water chiller tank and at the outlet of the pump.

Pressure transducers (Mamac Systems, model no. PR-264, accuracy 1% of the full

scale) were used to measure the pressures of the refrigerant at five locations in the

refrigeration system. These transducers were calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to

the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a pressure range of 0-2000 kPa.

These transducers were used to measure the refrigerant pressures upstream in the Ion

Collider as well as at the inlet and outlet of the condenser and evaporator.

Air humidity at the inlet and exit of the air-cooled condenser was measured using a

humidity transducer (Mamac Systems, model no HU-225, accuracy 3% of the full

scale). The transducers were calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to the data

acquisition board corresponding linearly to a relative humidity range of 0-100%.

The refrigerant mass flow rate as it flows through the chiller was measured using a

flow rate transducer (Sponsler Co., Inc., model no SP711-3). This transducer was

calibrated to give an output of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition system corresponding

linearly to a flow rate range of 0- 47.4293 lbm/min. The water loop mass flow rate was

measured using a flow rate indicator (Sponsler Co., Inc., model no. SP3/4-CB-PHL-A-

4X). The water flow rate was read off the digital display of the transducer.

Compressor power was measured employing the voltage and current transducers

across the compressor motor. The voltage was measured using a voltage transducer

(Flex-Core, model no. AVT-300CX5, accuracy 0.25%), which was calibrated to give an

output voltage of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board corresponding linearly to a range









of 0-300 AC line voltage. The current flowing through the compressor motor coils was

measured using a current transducer (Flex-Core, model no. CTD-025A, accuracy +0.5%),

which was calibrated to give an output voltage of 0-5 VDC to the data acquisition board

corresponding linearly to a current range of 0-25 Amps. A schematic diagram of the

experimental facility is shown in Figure 4, outlining the location of the Ion Collider

device and the location of the different transducers.

Experimental Procedures

Testing was divided into two categories; (1) testing with a new refrigerant, and, (2)

testing with an old/used refrigerant (at least five years old). The refrigeration system was

charged with 14.4 lbm (6.54 kg) of R-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) for both categories of

testing.

Testing performed for both categories was done for (a) Standard mode conditions,

and, (b) Cut- Off mode conditions. The Standard mode conditions were structured in

such a way that the heater provides a larger heating load to the water loop. This

corresponds to a temperature setting in which the upper and lower coil temperatures are

55F and 54F respectively, with a IF temperature differential applied to both coils.

The Cut-Off mode conditions, on the other hand, were structured in such a way that the

heater provides a lower heating load to the water in the loop. This corresponds to a

temperature setting in which the upper and lower coil temperatures are set at 500F and

490F respectively, with a 1F temperature differential applied to both coils. The chilled

water exit set point temperature was kept at 430F throughout for all categories and modes

of testing.

The water flow rate in the loop was kept constant by regulating the flow using a

gate valve, which was preset to a flow rate of 4.5 gpm.









All test runs were conducted under similar ambient conditions (same period of the

day, during summer months) for a period of 10 hours and the effects of the Ion Collider

on the system were studied over the testing period. A data point was a result of averaging

readings at the rate of 1 kHz for a 60 second time interval.

Tests were conducted to study the effects of using the Ion Colliders of different

compositions on the performance of the refrigeration system. Utmost care was taken at

all times not to contaminate the refrigerants. Samples of the refrigerant used in the

various test runs were stored in sealed containers for possible future chemical/physical

analysis.

Post Data Analysis Note

Observation of the numerical values of the chiller heat transfer rate, which was

examined after all data had been collected and analyzed, revealed a possible instrument

calibration problem which would have added a bias error in the temperature readings in

the order of 2-30C. The error in question was noticed in the chilled water inlet and outlet

temperatures. Obtaining a fresh data set with recalibrated thermocouples would have

been an ideal situation. However, since the experimental program has since been

completed it was not possible to do so.

During the initial calibration of the system, a single-point calibration was used.

This was undertaken by calibrating the thermocouples using the ice point of water

measured at atmospheric pressure. A multi-point calibration system should have been

used using at least two known temperatures, namely the ice point and boiling point of

water under atmospheric pressure.

Had there been a data point at time zero (i.e. before the system was turned on) we

could have used it to correct the data measured initially. However, since the very first









reading in the data set is one that has been averaged over a minute, it would not have

given us the correction that would have needed to be applied. The reading when

averaged over the minute consists not only of temperatures at the zero minute but also of

the effect caused by the cooling in that minute. Hence, we cannot use the first minute to

apply a correction to that reading.

The second method would be to check the calibration at the present moment,

however it was found out that there existed too much of a drift in the readings over time.

This was expected after the lapse of about a year since the thermocouples were originally

calibrated. Hence a decision was taken to present the data without correction as neither

of the available approaches would give satisfactory results.

Since there was very little time lapse between the test runs for the various cases

involved, the error in the calibration remained the same for all cases of testing, i.e. for the

Base Case and either of the cases pertaining to the Ion Colliders. The COP is directly

proportional to the difference in the water temperatures. Thus an equal error in the

measurement of temperature for all three cases would have resulted in the error canceling

out when the differences in the COP are examined. As outlined in the objectives of this

experimental program, the purpose of this study was to compare the relative effect of the

Ion Colliders on the system. This objective could still be met despite the above shift in

calibration.


































Figure 2. Experimental setup


Figure 3. Ion Colliders (black and blue tubing) installed in the system


rp 1 HaMIT














DEVICE


EXPANSION VALVE



Ml


Refrigerant Mass Flow Meter

Water Volume Flow Indicator
Humidity Transducer

Pressure Transducer


Voltage Transducer

Current Transducer
Thermostatic Controls

Water Pump


Thermocouple


Figure 4. Schematic diagram of experimental facility














CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS

Analysis Based on the First Law of Thermodynamics

The chiller used in the experimental setup employs a vapor compression

refrigeration system. The system consists of four main components; (1) compressor, (2)

condenser, (3) expansion valve, and (4) evaporator. Figure 5 shows how the various

components of the system are connected to each other. The different state points and

their locations on the pressure-enthalpy diagram are also shown in Figure 5.

As can be seen, saturated vapor (State Point 1) enters the compressor and

undergoes an isentropic compression process. Compression increases the pressure and

temperature of the vapor (State Point 2). The vapor is then de-superheated to the

saturation temperature corresponding to the condenser pressure. The vapor then

undergoes a phase change process and transforms to saturated liquid. The heat rejected

from the refrigerant as it flows through the condenser is absorbed by either cooling water

or flowing air. Next, the liquid refrigerant undergoes an isenthalpic expansion process

through the expansion device. This throttling process involves a pressure drop across the

expansion device, whereby the saturated liquid transforms into a mixture of liquid and

vapor. Finally, the liquid in the mixture is vaporized in the evaporator at constant

pressure. The vaporization process involves absorption of heat from the surroundings or

the fluid to be chilled, thus resulting in refrigeration. The refrigerant leaves the

evaporator as saturated vapor (State Point 1).









The compressor power may be evaluated as the product of the refrigerant mass

flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference between State Points 1 and 2 in Figure 5.

WcoM = h, (h,2-h) (1)

The heat rejected by the refrigerant in the condenser may be calculated as the

product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference across

the condenser (State Points 2 and 3 in Figure 5)

Qcond = (h2 h3) (2)

Process 3-4 in Figure 4 is isenthalpic. Thus,

h3 = h4 (3)

The heat absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator is defined as the product of

the refrigerant mass flow rate and the refrigerant enthalpy difference between State Points

4 and 1 in Figure 5.

Qe = m, (h,-h4) (4)

The above analysis deals only with the ideal vapor compression cycle. The actual

cycle deviates considerably from the ideal. These deviations are due to the pressure drop

associated with the flow of the working fluid through the pipes along with the heat

transfer to and from the surroundings. In an actual cycle (shown in Figure 6), State Point

1 is generally in the superheated region. The compression process (represented by 1-2 in

Figure 6) is not isentropic, unlike the ideal cycle, due to the addition and rejection of heat

to the refrigerant through the valves and walls of the compressor. In the condenser, the

heat rejection process (represented by 2-3 in Figure 6) is not isobaric as there is a

pressure drop associated with the condenser piping. Furthermore, the refrigerant may be

subcooled below the liquid saturation temperature in the condenser as represented by









State Point 3. The isenthalpic process (represented by 3-4 in Figure 6) in the expansion

valve could be safely assumed to apply for the actual cycle as well. Pressure drops due to

the piping in the evaporator coils and superheating of the refrigerant to State 1 are the

deviations seen in the actual cycle (represented by 4-1 in Figure 6) as compared to the

ideal cycle. The state points of the actual cycle plotted on a pressure-enthalpy chart for

R-22 for the Base Case as well as for the case representing Ion Colliders 1 and 2 is shown

in Figures 26, 27, and 28 in Appendix A. These state points are taken from the actual

experimental data after the lapse of 100 minutes of system operation. One of the striking

features of these figures is that the state points are almost the same whether or not the Ion

Colliders are used.

Figure 6 also shows the variation of pressure with the compressor piston position.

Due to the effect of the compressor inlet valves, the cylinder pressure during intake Pa =

Pb may be less than the pressure in the suction line PI. Similarly, due to the compressor

outlet valves the pressure P d=Pd is greater than the discharge line pressure P2. The

difference between State Points a and b are due to the heat exchange between the vapor

and the cylinder walls. The same reason could be stated for difference in State Points c

and d.

As mentioned earlier, the actual compression (Process b-c) is not isentropic, but

instead a polytropic process given by the expression

Pv = Pv" (5)








vb
At the end of the intake stroke, the total mass of vapor in the cylinder is vb The


Vb


Mass intake per cycle = b V b (6)
vb Vb Vb

The compressor volumetric efficiency is the mass of vapor actually pumped by the

compressor divided by the mass of vapor that the compressor could pump if it handled a

volume of vapor equal to its piston displacement (P.D.). Volumetric efficiency may be

given by the expression

(Vb V) v2 (7)
vb Vd )vb

The term (Vb V) may also be written as

Vb V = (Vb Vd) ( -Vd) (8)


V, = Vd Vd\ (9)


Let C = d be the clearance factor,
Vb Vd

thus

V V PI
b- = 1 +CC (10)
Vb VdPb

Substituting in Equation (7)


c CPb (









However, the volumetric efficiency can also be written as


v/ = -2 (12)
P.D.

Hence, the refrigerant mass flow rate could be given by the expression


I C c I P.D. (13)
Pb Vb

The compressor work in a polytropic process may be expressed by

n-1

(n Pb Pc n 1 (14)
(n 1) Pb



WComP = mWcomp (15)
cme

For the purpose of this analysis, the refrigeration system will be evaluated based on

certain key performance parameters. This includes (1) the instantaneous refrigerating

capacity, (2) instantaneous compressor power, (3) instantaneous coefficient of

performance, and (4) total energy consumed.

The instantaneous refrigerating capacity (Qe) is a measure of the cooling of the

water as it flows through the chiller. This can be calculated as the product of the water

mass flow rate, specific heat of water at constant pressure, and the difference in the water

inlet and outlet temperatures. This is expressed as

Qe = C, (T ,-T o) (16)

The instantaneous compressor power is a measure of the amount of power inputted

to the compressor at any given instant, which could be calculated as the product of the









voltage, current, and the power factor ( ). The power factor is assumed equal to 0.85

throughout this study.

Womp =VI (17)

The coefficient of performance (COP) expresses the effectiveness of the

refrigeration system. It is a dimensionless ratio defined by the expression

COP = Useful refrigerating capacity
Net power supplied from external sources

The instantaneous coefficient of performance (COP) will be calculated for the

purpose of this analysis as the ratio of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity (0e) to the

instantaneous compressor power (Wcomp)


COP = (18)
Wcomp

The total energy consumed by the compressor over the duration of the test is

calculated as the area under the instantaneous compressor power-time curve.

An uncertainty analysis based on the work of Kline and McClintock [6] was

performed to compute the propagation of uncertainty in the derived quantities. The

uncertainty is calculated for the instantaneous refrigerating capacity (which is defined in

Equation (16)) by the following equation

2 2 2 2 2-1/2
A0,= Arh + ACp, w + AT + AT (19)
9fl ) acp, ) aT w aT0T w

The values of Ath, AT,,, ATo can be obtained from the manufacturer's data for

the respective data acquisition transducer. The uncertainty in the specific heat is assumed

zero since it is not a measured quantity, hence ACp, w = 0.








In the calculation of uncertainty of the instantaneous compressor power the

following equation may be used

7 >2 ( >2 1 / 2
A W = mp AV + 9omp Al (20)
av 9 a

Once again the values of AV and AI are obtained from the manufacturer's data for

the voltage and current transducers, respectively.

The uncertainty in the coefficient of performance is given by the following

equation:


ACOP=L a-o AQe + op AW omp (21)


The values of the uncertainty in the computed quantities of AQe and A omp are

obtained from Equations 19 and 20. Thus, an uncertainty analysis of the various key

performance parameters can be achieved.

Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System

Availability is the maximum amount of work obtainable from a combined system

as the control mass is bought into equilibrium with the surroundings. The availability of

the system is an extensive thermodynamic property dependent only on the initial state of

the system and the final state of the environment. Unlike energy in the first law of

thermodynamics, availability of a system is never conserved, as some part of it is always

destroyed by irreversibilities. The destruction of the available energy is seen to be

proportional to the creation of entropy due to irreversibilities. In a vapor compression

refrigeration system irreversibilities could arise from the various components of the

system. Irreversibilities in the system could be caused by motor inefficiencies, frictional









losses, pressure drops, mixing, heat transfer between system and surroundings and

expansion in the throttling device. In performing an irreversibility analysis, one could

determine the percentage contribution of the individual component irreversibilities to the

total irreversibility of the system. Irreversibility analysis could also be used to compute

the additional irreversibilities resulting from the use of the Ion Collider. One of the

manufacturer's claims was that the Ion Collider device altered the physical and chemical

structure of the organic fluid flowing through the device. For the purpose of this

irreversibility analysis we shall assume the properties of R-22 to remain unchanged. The

physical design of the Ion Collider and its promise for change could bring out a change in

the irreversibility of the system, which could be later compared to the Base Case.

In the irreversibility analysis of the refrigeration system, the irreversibilities of the

various components of the system could be calculated based on the following equations.

The evaporator irreversibility could be expressed as


le = hr(Sl S4) --
Tref space (22)


Where Tref space is the temperature of the refrigerating space, which was calculated by

the mean of the water inlet and outlet temperatures,

Twl+Tw,o
Tref space -- (23)
2

The irreversibility of the Ion Collider could be calculated based on the following

equation:

Ldev = h(S2- S2) (24)


In the condenser irreversibility could be expressed as










cond = mr(S3- S2) Qcond (25)
1cond

Similarly, the temperature of the ambient air Tcond is determined by the mean inlet

and outlet air temperatures,

Ta, +Ta,0
Tcond (26)
2

The irreversibility of the compressor is calculated based on the following

equations, where Qcomp is the heat losses from the compressor.


Qcomp
comp = mhr(S2 S (l)- )
STamb (27)



Qcomp = mhr(h2 hi) Wcomp (28)

Irreversibility in the expansion valve is expressed as

I exp = hr(S4 S3) (29)

The total irreversibility of the system is calculated to be the summation of the

irreversibilities of the individual components.

total = je + icond + Icomp + 1 exp+ Idev (30)
















Q cond


Expansion
Device


log P


Figure 5. Ideal vapor compression cycle

























Expansion
Device (


























log P


,d
2



- comp


Figure 6. Schematic diagrams of actual vapor compression cycle














CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As discussed in the objectives, the purpose of this experimental program was to

investigate the effects or lack thereof of employing the Ion Collider device in

refrigeration systems. The results will be presented for two main categories of tests. The

first category deals with the effects of the Ion Collider device on new refrigerants, while

the second category deals with the effects on old/used refrigerants. Key performance

parameters discussed in the earlier chapters will be the focus of the discussion in this

chapter. These parameters will be investigated for both the Standard and Cut-Off modes

of operation as explained in the earlier chapters.

Tests Involving New Refrigerants

This section deals with the effect of installing Ion Colliders 1 and 2 on the system

performance when an unused (new) refrigerant is employed. Four key performance

measures are discussed below. These are the instantaneous refrigerating capacity, the

instantaneous compressor power, the instantaneous coefficient of performance, and the

total energy consumption.

Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity

As discussed before, the instantaneous refrigerating capacity is a measure of the

cooling achieved by the water as it flows through the chiller. Equation (16) was used to

evaluate the instantaneous refrigerating capacity, which was calculated as the product of

the water mass flow rate, specific heat of water at constant pressure, and the difference in

the water inlet and outlet temperatures. Equation (4), which calculates the instantaneous









refrigerating capacity based on the difference in the refrigerant enthalpy, could not be

used since it was impossible to determine the two-phase mixture quality from the

refrigerant pressure and temperature readings. The instantaneous refrigerating capacity

for the Standard and Cut-off modes of operation is shown in Figures 7 and 8,

respectively.

As seen from Figures 7 and 8, a negative refrigerating effect can be observed in the

first five minutes of the test runs. This may be explained by a possible instrument

calibration problem that would have added a bias error to the temperature readings.

While this error affected the numerical values of the temperature readings, the overall

trends of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for all three cases of testing remain

unchanged and could still be used for comparison purposes.

As seen in Figure 7, the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Standard mode

is larger when no Ion Collider device is used (Base Case). Figure 7 also shows that Ion

Collider 2 produced a slightly larger instantaneous refrigerating capacity than that

produced by Ion Collider 1.

Figure 8 shows the instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Cut-Off mode for

the three cases mentioned above. As explained in the earlier chapters, the Cut-Off mode

of operation was structured in such a way to allow the compressor to cycle off when the

chilled water exit set point temperature was reached. Figure 8 shows that there were

many more compressor off cycles associated with the Base Case than with operating

either Ion Colliders. This suggests that the chilled water exit set point temperature in the

Base Case was reached more often than with employing Ion Colliders. This simply









means that the instantaneous refrigerating capacity employing the Ion Colliders was

smaller than that of the Base Case.

Instantaneous Compressor Power

As discussed earlier, the instantaneous compressor power for the chiller was

calculated as the product of the voltage, amperage, and the electrical efficiency of the

motor (7l). Figures 9 and 10 show the instantaneous compressor power for the Standard

and Cut-Off modes of operation, respectively.

For the Standard mode, the use of Ion Colliders 1 and 2 produced slightly larger

instantaneous compressor power consumption. This may be attributed to the higher-

pressure drop across the Colliders. The physical design of the Colliders partially

accounts for the higher-pressure drop.

For the Cut-Off mode, whenever the compressor was on, the instantaneous

compressor power consumption could be seen to be almost the same for all cases (see

Figure 10). Figure 10 also shows that the Base Case had a compressor down-time of

eighteen cycles over the duration of the test. The corresponding numbers of down-time

cycles for Ion Colliders 1 and 2 are eight and seven, respectively, over an equal duration.

Evidently, the use of the Ion Colliders made it harder for the chiller to reach the desired

chilled water exit set point temperature, thus contributing to a fewer number of

compressor down time cycles.

Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance

The instantaneous coefficient of performance is a dimensionless quantity calculated

as the ratio of the instantaneous refrigerating capacity to the instantaneous compressor









power. The instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard mode is presented

in Figure 11.

As seen in Figure 11, a negative COP exists in the first five minutes of the test runs.

As was mentioned earlier, this may be attributed to a possible instrumentation calibration

problem that would have added a bias error in the temperature readings. While this error

would affect the numerical values of the temperature readings, the overall trends of all

test cases remain unchanged and results of comparisons among these cases are still valid.

As can be seen, the instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard mode

is higher for the Base Case than for the cases involving Ion Colliders. This may be

attributed to the fact that for the Base Case the instantaneous power consumption was

lower, while the instantaneous refrigerating capacity was higher. The higher

instantaneous coefficient of performance in the Base Case suggests that the use of the Ion

Colliders did not appear to have an overall positive effect on the chiller performance.

The coefficient of performance was not evaluated for the Cut-Off mode as the

compressor power, which is the denominator in the equation defining the coefficient of

performance, drops to zero during compressor down-times, thus rendering the coefficient

of performance inapplicable during down-times.

Total Energy Consumption

The total energy consumption is calculated as the area under the instantaneous

compressor power-time curve (Figures 9 and 10). The total energy consumption is the

energy supplied to the compressor over a single test run often hours. The total energy

consumption for both the Standard and Cut-Off modes is shown in Figure 12.

As can be seen, the total energy consumption in the Standard mode is almost equal

for all tests with and without the Colliders. The marginal increase in the energy









consumption when the Ion Colliders are used may be attributed to the larger compressor

power needed to overcome the increased pressure drop brought about by the physical

design of the Ion Colliders.

For the Cut-Off mode, there is higher total energy consumption when the Ion

Colliders are in use. This is due to the fact that the compressor run time cycle is longer,

with fewer cut-offs. This is because the chiller did not produce the required amount of

cooling to attain the desired chilled water exit set point temperature.

Tests Involving Old/Used Refrigerant

This section deals with the effect on the system performance of installing Ion

Colliders 1 and 2 in the refrigeration system when an old/used refrigerant is employed.

Instantaneous Refrigerating Capacity

The instantaneous refrigerating capacity for the Standard and Cut-Off modes of

operation is shown in Figures 13 and 14, respectively. As observed from Figures 13 and

14, a negative refrigerating effect can be observed in the first five minutes of test runs.

This may be explained by the error bias in the temperature readings as explained earlier

in this chapter. The refrigerating capacity produced when Ion Collider 2 was used in the

Standard mode was a bit smaller than either of the other two cases (see Figure 13). The

refrigerating capacity produced for the other cases appears to be nearly equal over the

duration of the tests. For the Cut-Off mode, all cases appear to have a similar

refrigerating capacity regardless of whether or not an Ion Collider was used (see Figure

14). It is important to observe here that the Cut-Off mode when a used refrigerant was

employed did not result in cycling off the compressor throughout the duration of the test

for all cases tested. This may suggest that the cooling performed in the chiller was not

sufficient to allow the chilled water exit set point temperature to be achieved. This









should be contrasted with the identical test performed employing a new refrigerant,

whereby the compressor cycled off eighteen times over the ten-hour test.

Instantaneous Compressor Power

Figures 15 and 16 show the instantaneous compressor power for the Standard and

Cut-Off modes of operation, respectively. The compressor power consumption for Ion

Collider 2 was marginally larger than either of the other two cases (see Figure 15). The

power consumption for the Base Case appears to be a bit smaller than that of Ion Collider

1. However, the differences among all the cases are believed to be marginal and

statistically insignificant. For the Cut-Off mode, on the other hand, Ion Collider 1 and

the Base Case appear to have an equal amount of power consumption (see Figure 16)

Instantaneous Coefficient of Performance

The instantaneous coefficient of performance for the Standard and Cut-Off modes

of operation is presented in Figures 17 and 18, respectively.

Figure 17 shows that the coefficient of performance in the Standard mode for both

the Base Case and Ion Collider 1 is nearly the same. Ion Collider 2 seems to have a

marginally lower coefficient of performance than either of the other two cases. Again,

the differences are statistically insignificant and, thus, should not be viewed as

constituting a meaningful trend. For the Cut-Off mode (see Figure 18), on the other

hand, all three test cases appear to have a near identical performance.

Total Energy Consumption

The total energy consumption is shown graphically in Figure 19. It is calculated as

the area under the instantaneous compressor power-time curves (Figures 15 and 16). As

seen in Figure 19, the total energy consumption for all three cases in both the Standard

and Cut-Off modes are remarkably similar over the duration of the test runs.






32


The comparison of the COP for the two cases of testing, i.e. the new refrigerant and

the old/used refrigerant is shown graphically in Figure 20. The comparison was done for

the Standard mode of testing. For the new refrigerant, it can be seen that the time

averaged COP is lower in the cases involving the use of the Ion Collider as compared to

the Base case. For the case involving the old/used refrigerant, the COP for the Base Case

and that of Ion Collider 1 can be seen to be nearly similar. Both of these values are seen

to be higher than the case involving Ion Collider 2.


























































0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time, Minutes



Figure 7. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Standard mode


4




2




0.


C
2 -2

4-

-4




-6




-8


























4-


Base Case
-2 Ion Collider 1
-2
03 Ion Collider 2

W3 Cut-OffMode
-4
Water Heater Temperatures

-Coil50F,Difkereal =1F
Coil 2 49F,Diffrenal =1F

Chilled Water Exit Teperatur=43F
-8
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes
Figure 8. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using new refrigerant in Cut-Off mode















2000
Base Case
-- Ion Collider 1
1900 Ion Collider 2


Stuadud Mod
a 1800


C I Cll55F, Diffenal-IF
0 110 CI2 54F, Diffsal =IF
1700

Chilled Water Exit Tempatum -43F

0 1600



1500



1400
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes


Figure 9. Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Standard mode



















Number of Down-line Cycles

BueCm 18
n Collider 1 8
IonCllider 2 7


I iV


- Base Case
- Ion Collider
Ion Collider


Cut-OffMode

2 Water Heater Temperatures

Coil 150F,Differential=1F
Coil 2 49F,Differenial =1F

Chilled Water Exit Temperaturn =43F


2500



j 2000


0
- 1500
0

E
0
o 1000



500



0


0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Time, Minutes
Figure 10. Instantaneous compressor power using new refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode


3000


.________ 2 & i J 2 d. i .-. .Jd i L r. d w--J L JU dJ .


1ir, I















4


3


2


S1 I --Base Case
Ion Collider 1
0 Ion Collider 2

SStandard Mode
.4-1
-Water Heater Conditions

o Coil 1 55F, Differential =1F
2 Coil 2 54F, Diff tial =1F

Chiled Water Exit Temperature =43F
-3
Uncertainity = +/- 0.22

-4
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes
Figure 11. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using new refrigerant in the Standard mode











10000

9000- Hf H T= df

8000- Stn Mode
Coil 55F Diflbrenial=1F
7000 Codl2 54FDihrenlial=IF

Cut-Off Mode
3:6000 -
Coil 1 5OF, Difibrenlial =1F
Eoi2 49F,Dilreta=IF
*0

4000-

3000 -

E] Base Case
2000-
Ion Collider 1
1000-
5 Ion Collider 2
0


btanaara ivioae


Mode


Figure 12. Total energy consumption using new refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes



















- Base Case
--Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2








StandardMode

Water Heater Tempetures

Coil 1 55F, Differential =1F
Coil 2 54F, Differential =1F

Chilled Water Exit Temperature =43F


300 400
Time, Minutes


Figure 13. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode



















8
Base Case
-lon Collider 1
6 on Collider2




-2








-2-
C 50F, Mm =IF
-4 .







ChalltdWr Exi Tmpo =43F



Te, IVinutes
Figure 14. Instantaneous refrigerating capacity using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode

















1900


1700






S-- Base Case
1300 -- Ion Collider 1
o
n. Ion Collider 2

a 1100
1100 Standard Mode
E
0

900

Coil 155F, Differential =1F
Coil 2 54F, Differential =1F
700

Chilled Water Exit Temperature =43F

500 ---
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes

Figure 15. Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode
















91nn


1700



1500 ,



--1300 -- Base Case
Ion Collider 1
0
Ion Collider 2

, 1100
. Cut-OffMode
E
o

900

Coil 150F, Diffirential=1F
Coil 2 49F, Diflentia l=1F
700

Chilled Water Exit Temperature =43F

500
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes

Figure 16. Instantaneous compressor power using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode



















6

Base Case
-- Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2

0












SCoil 55F,D -f =IF



-2
Chilled Waft Exit Tcmpernat =43F
-3
-2



0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes

Figure 17. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode



















6


5 Base Case
Ion Collider 1
4 l Ion Collider 2
















Coil249F, Dif4f-ial=1F
-3





Figure 18. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode
-2-
0MiWar MTCpMtR=43F
-3
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, Minutes
Figure 18. Instantaneous coefficient of performance using old/used refrigerant in the Cut-Off mode











10000

9000-- 777 Water Heater Temperatures

8000

7000 Coil 55F, Differential=1F
Coil 2 54F, Differential=1F

SCOff Mode
E5000 Coil 50FDiff, rntal=1F
0 Coil2 49F, Differential =1F
4000
chilW NOW WxtT r =43F
3000
Li Base Case
2000
l Ion Collider
1000 1
El on Collider 2
Standard Mode Cut off Mode
Figure 19. Total energy consumption using old/used refrigerant in the Standard and Cut-Off modes













Water Heater T1


3.5 Standad Mode
Coil I 55F, Diffrentia=1F
Coil 2 54F, Differential=1F
3
E W Cut-OffMode
0 ___ -- Coil 1 50F, Diflfrentia =1F
2.5 Coil 2 49FDifferenial =1F
E
S2-- O tEMitTmnputm =43F
4-
Uncertainity = +/- 0.23
1.5
0
1- Base Case


0.5- M Ion Collider 1

0 Ion Collider 2
New Refrigerant Old 0 Used Refrigerant
New Refrigerant Old IUsed Refrigerant


Figure 20. COP measured using new and old/used refrigerant in the Standard mode






47

Irreversibility Analysis on the Refrigeration System

As discussed in an earlier section of this thesis the irreversibility of the various

components of the refrigeration system were calculated from Equations (22), (24), (25),

(27) and (29). The latter part of the sample calculations presented in Appendix B of this

thesis outlines the irreversibility analysis of the system. The state points are taken from

actual experimental data after the lapse of 100 minutes of system operation for the Base

Case in the Standard mode of operation.

On careful observation, it is seen that the compressor had the largest

irreversibilities as compared to the other system components. The irreversibility of the

compressor (46% of the total irreversibility calculated for the sample calculation as

outlined in Appendix B) could be attributed to motor inefficiencies, frictional losses,

mixing, irreversibilities due to pressure drop and heat transfer between the compressor

and the surroundings. The irreversibility of the evaporator attributed to the next largest

percentage of the total irreversibility of the system, followed by irreversibilities in the

condenser and expansion valve.

Comparing the irreversibilities produced in each of the components in each of cases

involving the use of the Ion Colliders and the Base Case, it was noted as follows,

The irreversibilities produced in the compressor of the refrigeration system when

the Ion Collider devices were in use are attributed to be marginally larger than the Base

Case. However, the statistically insignificant increase in the irreversibilities produced

cannot be attributed to fact that the Ion Collider devices alone did cause the compressor

be more irreversible. Figure 21 outlines a representation of the compressor irreversibility

as calculated for all cases of testing with respect a time scale spanning the entire duration

of a single test in the Standard mode of operation. The value of the irreversibility in the

case involving the Ion Collider 2 for the 400th minute of operation should be regarded as






48

a stray case, not reflecting the general trend of the compressor irreversibilities in the

system.

Figure 22 shows the irreversibilities produced in the condenser for the cases

involving use of Ion Colliders and the Base Case. It is observed that the irreversibilities

produced in the condenser is nearly similar for all cases, and that the Ion Collider did not

have much effect on the irreversibility produced in this component. The similar results

are noticeable in Figure 23, which shows the irreversibilities produced in the expansion

valve. Since the expansion valve does not have any heat interaction with the surroundings

and the irreversibilities are calculated only as difference in the inlet and exit entropies, a

nearly similar irreversibility was expected.

The case of evaporator irreversibility as seen from Figure 24, the irreversibility

involving the Base Case and Ion Colliders were found to be nearly equal. Once again, the

case involving the Ion Collider 2 for the 400th minute of operation should be regarded as

a stray case, not reflecting the general trend of the evaporator irreversibilities in the

system.

It was seen from the graph showing the total irreversibility of the system for the

duration of one test in the Standard mode of operation (Figure 26), the total

irreversibilities of the system for all cases are found to be remarkably similar. This brings

us to the conclusion that the Ion Colliders had no significant effect on the system. One

would have expected the Ion Colliders, because its design and effects on the refrigerant to

produce a marginally higher measure of irreversibilities as compared to the Base Case.

However, as shown in the above discussion this was not the case.




















C11 1 55F,Di~Ul-lF
Cga12S4F,Dflfuh-lP
Wwmd~ i'tnl=4 ,,


0.006



0.005



0.004



0.003



0.002



0.001



0


100 200 300 400 500 600 7


Time, mins

Figure 21. Compressor irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode



0.002 .


Coi5m5,DisEma u=

Coil 1i5ifflMid=IF
Coil25I'iDffilld=1F

ChilmdWidwEAiTpmtum=4F


- Base Case
- Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


Time, mins


Figure 22. Condenser irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode


- Base Case
- Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


0.0015 -


0.001




0.0005


0-




-0.0005


^












0001


0 0009


0 0008


0 0007


. 00006


0 0005


= 00004
0

-. 0 0003


0 0002


00001


0


- Base Case
--Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, mins

Figure 23. Expansion valve irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode


0004



0 0035


SandnlMode




Coil 155F, Diffential =1F
Coil 254F, Difential =IF

OhiIledWater Eit Tempatue =43F


--Base Case
--Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, mins

Figure 24. Evaporator irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode


Waff Ht Tpntm

Coil 55F,MDif~etial=1F
Coil2 54F, Difaetial =1F

afied Water EtTmnperutmi =43F


0 003



0 0025



> 0002



0 0015



0001



0 0005



0












0.0015


0.0013


0.0011


0.0009


0.0007


0.0005


0.0003


0.0001


-0.0001

-0.0003


- Base Case
--Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


ai~.BXIz~-43F


Time, mins


Figure 25. Ion Collider device irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode

0.006




0.005


ShnkdMode

Wtff Heatr Tempeatmu

Coil 155F, Difflntial=IF
Coil 2 54F, Diffmtial=IF

Uled Water Eit Tmperaturm =43F


100 200 300


- Base Case
-Ion Collider 1
Ion Collider 2


400 500 600 700


Time, mins

Figure 26. Total irreversibility using new refrigerant in the Standard mode


S11midMode



Ci 155F,D iD Dbcal-IF
Cl 25 4,DIf, limal-lF


0.004




' 0.003



0
I--
0.002




0.001




0














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS

A study was conducted to investigate the effects or lack thereof of employing the

Ion Collider technology in refrigeration systems. The study covered two main categories

of tests. The first category dealt with the effects of using Ion Colliders in the presence of

new refrigerants, while the second category dealt with their effects in the presence of

old/used refrigerants. The study included testing of two types of colliders corresponding

to different collider compositions. Ion Collider 1 was made up of 100% copper, while

Ion Collider 2 was made up of 80% copper and 20% nickel.

In the category of tests involving a new refrigerant, the following are the main

conclusions:

1. The refrigerating capacity was a bit lower when the Ion Colliders were employed
relative to the Base Case (which represents operating the system without the Ion
Colliders). This was manifested in the fact that the chilled water exit set point
temperature in the Base Case was reached more frequently than with employing
either of the Colliders (for Cut-Off mode of operation).

2. The instantaneous compressor power was a bit higher for the tests employing the
Ion Colliders than those for the Base Case.

3. The chiller coefficient of performance when the Ion Colliders were in use was a bit
lower than that associated with the Base Case.

4. The total energy consumption of the compressor in the Standard mode of operation
was similar for all cases. The total energy consumption of the compressor in the
Cut-Off mode over the testing period was significantly larger for the cases
involving the Ion Colliders than those of the Base Case (23.22% larger for Ion
Collider 1 and 21.77% larger for Ion Collider 2). This was attributed to a fewer
number of compressor down time cycles when the Ion Colliders were in use.









In the category of tests involving an old/used refrigerant, the following are the main

conclusions:

1. The Base Case and the cases involving the use of the Ion Colliders appear to have
near similar refrigerating capacity.

2. The instantaneous compressor power for all cases with or without the Ion Colliders
was found to be nearly similar.

3. The Base Case and the cases involving the use of the Ion Colliders appear to have
similar coefficient of performance.

4. The total energy consumption of the compressor for all the cases involving use of
Ion Colliders and the Base Case were nearly similar, within a specified mode of
operation. This concludes that the Ion Colliders had a no effect on the total energy
consumption.

It is important to emphasize that there were no significant differences in performance

between the old and new refrigerants for the Base Case in the Standard mode. In other

words, there was no deterioration in the performance of the system while employing

old/used refrigerant as compared to its performance when employing a new refrigerant.

This is evident by examining key performance parameters in the Standard mode. In the

Cut-Off mode, on the other hand, there were differences between the performance of the

system depending on whether a new or an old/used refrigerant were used. As indicated in

the main body of the thesis, the compressor cycled off 18 times over the duration of the

test in the Base Case with a new refrigerant, whereas it did not cycle off at all in the Base

Case with the old/used refrigerant. A similar behavior was observed when the Ion

Colliders were used; namely, the compressor cycled off with the new refrigerant, whereas

it did not cycle off at all with the old/used refrigerant.

It is worth observing that since test results showed virtually no change when the

Colliders were used relative to the Base Case, the refrigerant properties were probably

not altered as a result of introducing the Colliders in the refrigerant line. One indication









of the validity of this conclusion is the fact that the state points on the pressure-enthalpy

charts for the refrigerant in the Standard mode for all cases were remarkably close, thus

indicating a lack of change in properties.

Finally yet importantly, the effects or lacks thereof of the Ion Colliders are better

quantified in the Standard mode of operation (as opposed to the Cut-Off mode) for both

the new and old/used refrigerants. It may be safely concluded that the effect of the Ion

Colliders on the performance of the system in the Standard mode was marginal and

statistically insignificant. We firmly believe that the results as presented in the Standard

mode justify our conclusion that the Ion Colliders have no effect on the refrigeration

system.




















APPENDIX A
PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAMS FOR ACTUAL CYCLE


FNTHALPY (kJlkal
Figure 27. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Base Case


15
10



4,


2.



1.
(L


0.4


a 0.2
0-

0.1



0.04


0.02


0.01








































150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
ENTHALPY (kJ/kg)
Figure 28. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 1








57





15 .
10 3 ,








II I ...


L 0.42 0- 1 0

2. 0.





0.04 -

0.02 1-t
001 l l I d4__ I I
0.04 .. ..
0.02




100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
ENTHALPY (kJ/kg)


Figure 29. Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for the Ion Collider 2














APPENDIX B
SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

The purpose of this appendix is to provide sample calculations that can guide the

reader into understanding the analysis section of this report. In the process of performing

these calculations, comparisons between certain calculated and measured quantities were

made for the purpose of gaining confidence in the experimental results and thus

validating the experimental methods and techniques employed.

The following data were obtained from a test run with a new refrigerant for the

Base Case in the Standard mode of operation. Data reflect the conditions after the lapse

of 100 minutes of system operation.

Compressor exit refrigerant pressure (P2) 1344 kPa
Compressor inlet refrigerant pressure (P1) = 350 kPa
Specific volume of vapor at compressor inlet (v,) = 0.071 m3/kg
Voltage across compressor (V) = 205.439 V
Current (I) = 8.592 Amps


Source::Copeland Compresor Data (CRD 1 0200 PFV)
Bore = 1.375 inches
Stroke = 0.844 inches
No of cylinders = 2
Clearance factor C = 0.03
Piston Displacement = 304.5 ft3/hr = 0.002395 m3/s
Motor mechanical efficiency (rim) = 0.80 (80%)
Motor electrical efficiency (Te) = 0.85 (85%)

Polytropic exponent (R-22), n 1.12








The refrigerant mass flow rate is given by Equation (13), assuming for the

calculation the specific volume of the refrigerant before compression (vb) to be equal to

the specific volume of the refrigerant at the compressor inlet (v,)


1/n


r 1+ 0.03 0.0 1344 1/1.12 (0002395) 0.0313 kg/s
,ca = 350 0.071


This calculated value of the mass flow rate could be compared to the measured

refrigerant mass flow rate

th,mea = 0.0266 kg/s
which is a percentage difference of 17.67%.

From Equation (14), the compressor work can be calculated as

n-1
W -Pbv p _-
com (n 1) Pb

while the compressor power is expressed by

W __ comp
comp

0.0313 1.12 (3 X134 12 16
p (0.80)(0.85) (1.12-1) 5 350)

From Equation (17), the compressor power can be calculated as the product of the

voltage, amperage, and the power factor (q )

Voltage = 205.439 V
Current = 8.592 Amps
=0.85
Wcomp = VIO









comp = (205.439)(8.592)(0.85) = 1500.36 W = 1.5 kW

The measured power of 1.5 kW compares very favorably with the calculated power of

1.658 kW (percent difference is 10.53%).

The refrigerating capacity as calculated from Equation (16) is

Qe = 1 CP (T ,-T, o)

Water volumeflow rate = 4.5 GPM (preset at this value for all experiments)


1 GPM = P kg/s
15860
Water mass flow rate = h = 28.08 x 10-2 kg/s


C = 4.18 -
kg.C
Chilled water inlet temperature (T,) = 10.08 C
Chilled water outlet temperature (T ) = 6.69 C


Q, = (28.08 x10 2X4.18)(10.08- 6.69) =3.976 kW

From Equation (18) the coefficient of performance is calculated as


COP- 3.976 = 2.651
RWj 1.5
comp

Uncertainty Analysis to calculate the propagation of uncertainty in derived quantities

based on Equations (19), (20) and (21).

Instantaneous refrigerating capacity,

Qe = IwCp, w.(Tw, Tw, o)

0, = (28.08 x 10 2)(4.18)(10.08 6.69) = 3.976 kW


9 ) 9 aCp, J T ) alT )O









(Cp, w(Tw,, T,o)Amo ) 2+ (m(T,, T, o)ACp, 21
AQe =
+(AMCp,w Tw,i) + 2-MwCp, AT.,o) 2


((4.18)(10.08-6.69)(28.08x 10-2 x 0.01))2 +0+ 2

((28.08 x 10-2)(4.18)(0.2)) + ((28.08 x 10-2)(4.18)(0.2))2

AQe = 0.3343 kW

AQe 0.3343
%Uncertainity = x 100 = x 100 = 8.40%
Qe 3.976

Instantaneous compressor power,

omp = VIO = (205.439)(8.592)(0.85) = 1500.36 W = 1.5 kW

AW = comp AV + comp A I
co av al ]

Akomp = [(IbAV)2 +(VbAI)2 ]

Aomp =[((8.5 92)(0.85)(0.0025 x 205.439))2 + ((205.439)(0.85)(0.005 x 8.592))2 2
AW = 8.388 W
AW = 0.008388 kW


AW 0.008388
%Uncertainity = comp x 100 = x 100 = 0.56%
WT 1.5
comp

Instantaneous coefficient of performance,

COP- 39762.651
WC 1.5

ACOP = ao AQ + AWeo
Se a Pcomp











ACOP= 1--AQ + AWmR
Wmp ) [(w p) 2

2 ( 2
ACOP = (0.3343) + -(396) (0.008388)
_l1.5 (1.5)2
ACOP = 0.2233
ACOP 0.2233
%Uncertainity = x 100 = x 100 = 8.42%
COP 2.651

Calculation of the irreversibilities in the various components of the refrigeration system

By plotting the pressure and temperature of the various stage points of the refrigeration

cycle the following values were obtained,

hi = 414.24 kJ/kg si = 1.8149 kJ/kg.K
h2= 453.23 kJ/kg 2 = 1.8216 kJ/kg.K
h2' = 455.93 kJ/kg s2' = 1.8282 kJ/kg.K
h3= 241.49 kJ/kg 3 = 1.1408 kJ/kg.K
h4= 241.49 kJ/kg 4 = 1.1505 kJ/kg.K

The heat absorbed by the refrigerant was calculated from Equation (4) as follows

Qe = rhr(hi h4) = 0.0266(414.24 241.49) = 4.595 kW

The refrigerating space temperature was evaluated as the average of the water inlet and

outlet temperatures.

ref space_ T -,o+T,-
2
10.08+6.69
Tref space + 8.3850C
2
Trefspace=273.15+8.385=281.53 K

From Equation (22) the irreversibility in the evaporator was calculated as follows









Qe_ 4.595
L= -r(si S4)- e = 0.0266(1.8149- 1.1505) 4595 0.00135 kW/K
Tref space 281.535
The heat rejected by the refrigerant in the condenser was calculated from Equation (2) as

Qcond = r(h2- h3) = 0.0266(455.23 241.49) = 5.633 kW

The condenser space temperature is the average temperature of the inlet and outlet air

temperatures,

Td a,o+Ta,i
Tcond --
2
35.18+28.03 1.605
T1ond = =31.605 C
2
Tond = 31.065 +273.15= 304.755 K

Condenser irreversibility was calculated from Equation (25) as

Icond r(S3 -s') Qod= 0.0266(1.1408 -1.8282) =5.6330 0.00037 kW/K
oTLond 304.755 _
To calculate the irreversibility in the compressor unit, the heat losses from the

compressor were computed as

Qcomp = tr(h2 hi) Wcon = 0.0266(453.23 414.24) -1.5 = -0.4628 kW

Tb =301.184 K

Compressor irreversibility from Equation (27) was calculated as follows


Lop= l(s2 -s Qo) p = 0.0266(1.8216 -1.8149)- 0.462 0.00172kW/K
STmb 301.184 ]

The irreversibilities in the Ion Collider device was calculated from Equation (24),

Ide = Thr(S2- S2) = 0.0266(1.8282 -1.8216) = 0.00017 kW/K

Expansion valve irreversibility from Equation (29)

i exp = Thr(S4 S3) = 0.0266(1.1505 -1.1408) = 0.00025 kW/K






64


The total irreversibility of the system is given as by Equation (30) as the summation of

the irreversibilities of the individual components.

Itotal = + Icond + Icomp + I exp+ Jdev
Lota = 0.00135 + 0.00037 + 0.00172 + 0.00025 + 0.00017 = 0.00387 kW/K















LIST OF REFERENCES


1. International Cavitation Technologies, Inc., ICTI, www.ioncollider.com, 08/25/2002.

2. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., "Method and Apparatus for Separating Particles
from Liquids," United States Patent No. 5, 482,629, January 9, 1996.

3. Allen, D., Kim, D. and Quigley, C.,"Cavitation Driven Chemistry in Ion Collider,"
Technical Report submitted to Falcon Seaboard, Department of Chemical
Engineering and Center for Energy Studies, The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, Texas, 1998.

4. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., "Method and Apparatus to Enhance the
Recovery of Crude Oil," United States Patent No. 5,485,883, January 23, 1996.

5. Rippetoe, W.W. and Shroff, D.N., "Method of Increasing the Amount of
Hydrocarbons from an Underground Reservoir," United States Patent No.
5,538,081, July 23, 1996.

6. Kline, S.J. and F.A. McClintock, "Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample
Experiments," Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 75, pp. 3-8, ASME International,
New York, 1953.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Mr. Jason Z.Alphonso was born in Mumbai, India, on October 29, 1978. He

received his undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from the University of

Bombay in October 2000. He started graduate studies at the University of Florida in Fall

2001. His interests are in the field of refrigeration and air-conditioning.

In his early academic life, Mr. Alphonso always strived to maintain a very effective

balance between his studies and extra-curricular activities, which earned him the

prestigious Lady Jackson Trophy for all round development in his high school. He also

stood All-India first in mathematics at the Indian Council of Secondary Education [ICSE,

1994].

During his undergraduate studies, Mr.Alphonso was fortunate to serve as an elected

student body senate member for three consecutive terms [1997-2000]. He was also the

elected class representative for his undergraduate class, a liaison between the faculty and

the students of the department.