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Evaluation of Heat Recovery Devices with Carbon Dioxide Ventilation Controls


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EVALUATION OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE VENTILATION CONTROLS By PATRICK WILLIAM JOHNS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As my advisor, Dr. Herbert Ingley has helped me follow an organized path in the completion of my Master of Science degree. I would like to thank him for his time and guidance that he has given me. Dr. Ingley provides generous amounts of time to all his students and I am appreciative that I was able to act as his graduate student. I thank Dr. Yogi Goswami and Dr. Sherif Sherif for serving as my committee members and the time they have provided. My greatest appreciation is to my family and friends who have supported me with my education and so much more. I also acknowledge the funding that Florida Power & Light Company has provided for this research. Finally, I acknowledge Larry Nelson for all the support he has given. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................................................................................ii LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vii NOMENCLATURE.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND.........................................................................................................1 Heat Recovery Devices................................................................................................1 Carbon Dioxide and Demand Control Ventilation......................................................6 Energy Analysis Software............................................................................................9 Carrier HAP..........................................................................................................9 Savings Spreadsheets..........................................................................................10 Research Objectives...................................................................................................11 2 ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES.............................................................................12 Computer Model........................................................................................................12 Addition of HRDs...............................................................................................16 CO 2 Ventilation Controls....................................................................................18 Energy Spreadsheet Model........................................................................................18 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................22 Heat Recovery Devices..............................................................................................22 Carbon Dioxide Demand Control Ventilation...........................................................31 Heat Recovery with a CO 2 Control System...............................................................34 4 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................37 5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK....................................................40 Modeling Recommendations.....................................................................................40 Case Study Recommendations...................................................................................41 iii

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APPENDIX A SPREADSHEET EQUATIONS................................................................................43 Psychrometric Equations............................................................................................43 Savings Equations......................................................................................................45 B CARRIER HAP AND SPREADSHEET DATA.......................................................47 LIST OF REFERENCES..................................................................................................57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................58 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Annual energy cost and electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD................................................................................................................23 3-2. Monthly electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD.23 3-3. Monthly maximum demand for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD applied.....................................................................................................................24 3-4. HRD effectiveness and power consumption values..................................................25 3-5. Annual energy cost for the case-study building with each HRD..............................26 3-6. Cost savings data comparisons for each cooling model...........................................27 3-7. Total annual cost savings for each HRD in all five Florida cities............................28 3-8. Simple payback for each HRD retrofit in all five Florida cities...............................30 3-9. CO 2 annual energy cost for a continuously operating system..................................32 3-10. Simple payback for a CO 2 control system operating in a continuously operating system......................................................................................................................33 3-11. Simple paybacks for all three scenarios with 24-hour building operation and adjusted ventilation flow.........................................................................................36 B-1. First floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville.........................49 B-2. Second floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville...................50 B-3. Tallahassee annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.................51 B-4. Jacksonville annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD................51 B-5. Tampa annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.........................52 B-6. Orlando annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.......................52 B-7. Miami annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.........................53 v

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B-8. Jacksonville annual cost for the changed operating schedule with and without CO 2 controls....................................................................................................................53 B-9. Tallahassee psychrometric data for January 1 st ........................................................54 B-10. Tallahassee membrane savings and payback table................................................55 B-11. Tallahassee sample data of the consumption and demand values associated with a membrane HRD.......................................................................................................56 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Plate/membrane HRD labeled diagram (permission of use from Florida Power & Light Company).........................................................................................................2 1-2. Image of an HRD core and fan motor on the inside of the unit..................................3 1-3. Heat and mass transfer occurring in a heat pipe (permission of use from Heat Pipe Technology)...............................................................................................................4 1-4. Heat pipe with air bypass damper arrangement..........................................................4 1-5. Heat wheel diagram illustrating airflows (permission of use from Xetex, Inc.).........5 1-6. Diagram of an actual heat recovery unit assembly with labeled airflows..................6 1-7. Wall-mountable CO 2 sensor (permission of use from AirTest)..................................8 1-8. Duct-mountable CO 2 sensor illustration showing the probe (permission of use from AirTest)......................................................................................................................8 2-1. First floor duct layout displaying the locations of the 24 VAV boxes.....................15 2-2. Second floor duct layout consisting of 25 VAV boxes.............................................16 2-3. HRD illustration of the orientation of the airflows for equation 2.2........................17 3-1. Geographical locations for designation of recommended HRDs.............................26 vii

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NOMENCLATURE AHU air handling unit CAV constant air volume CO 2 carbon dioxide DCV demand control ventilation DDC direct digital control FTU fan terminal unit HAP hourly analysis program HRD heat recovery device HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Q airflow rate [cfm] T dry-bulb temperature [F] TMY typical meteorological year T(R) temperature [R] VAV variable air volume W humidity ratio h enthalpy [Btu/lb da ] hr hour min minute p pressure [psia] viii

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yr year Greek degree of saturation relative humidity [%] specific volume [ft 3 /lb da ] density [lb/ft 3 ] efficiency subscripts EA exhaust air OA outdoor air OA_Supply outdoor air supply R room air air based on air d dew point da dry air fan based on fan motor based on motor s saturated static based on static (pertaining to static pressure) w partial based on water vapor ws saturation vapor superscripts based on wet-bulb ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EVALUATION OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE VENTILATION CONTROLS By Patrick William Johns August 2003 Chair: H. A. Ingley Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of combining the use of heat recovery devices with carbon dioxide ventilation controls. The cost effectiveness of using these systems together was compared with the effectiveness of operating each system separately. This study modeled a commercial office building with current software to simulate annual energy costs for five different Florida cities. Each scenario was applied to the model to determine the reduction of annual energy cost. A spreadsheet was also used to model each heat recovery device to compensate for deficiencies in the commercial computer software also used for this study. The software did not produce savings due to reductions in the heating load. This was partially due to the inability to schedule chiller operation. The actual operating schedule for the case-study building did not promote significant energy reduction associated with carbon dioxide controls. This operating schedule was changed to allow chiller operation during the evening hours. This change x

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in building operation created a different reference case for the heat recovery and carbon dioxide control savings. The heat recovery devices were modeled with the original reference case that did not involve evening operation. The carbon dioxide controls were modeled against a different reference that did allow the evening operation. Each of these reference cases produced different annual energy costs, which resulted in the remodeling of the heat recovery devices. The heat recovery devices were remodeled with evening operation so that an estimate of savings due to operating both systems could be determined. It was concluded that the heat recovery devices with enthalpy exchange are cost effective for several areas in Florida and could possibly be considered for others. The carbon dioxide control was also determined to be effective for some areas. The combination of using both these systems was not found to be cost effective for Florida cities with the modeling technique that this research used. It has been recommended that additional research be conducted for a more accurate modeling of simultaneous use of both systems. xi

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CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND This chapter provides the technical background supporting the thesis on heat recovery devices and carbon dioxide controls as tools for saving energy. Previous work described in the literature on heat recovery devices, carbon dioxide controls, and energy analysis software has been reviewed and provides a benchmark for the current research. This literature review resulted in the development of the research objectives that are addressed within this report. Heat Recovery Devices Heat recovery devices have demonstrated their capability of reducing energy cost by the preconditioning of ventilation air. These devices are categorized as sensible or enthalpy heat exchangers (Crowther, 2001). The ventilation air exchanges heat with the exhaust air from the building to reduce or raise, depending on whether the season is summer or winter, its temperature and/or the enthalpy. The rates of ventilation airflows are generally based on the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (Wellford, Aug. 2002). Some common sensible devices are plate exchangers, heat-pipes, and sensible wheels. Typical enthalpy exchangers are enthalpy wheels and permeable-membrane plates. A heat recovery device (HRD) can be an important addition to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a building because 30% or more of the cooling or heating load can be attributed to ventilation (Crowther, 2001). By reducing the load due to ventilation great amounts of energy can be saved. Each HRD 1

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2 has its own advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when designing an HVAC system. According to an article in HPAC Engineering, heat recovery devices (specifically enthalpy wheels) should be selected by assessing the tradeoff between energy effectiveness, pressure drop, and first cost (Wellford, Aug. 2002). This can be stated for all HRDs with additional selection criteria including maintenance, additional moving parts, and size. Figure 1-1. Plate/membrane HRD labeled diagram (permission of use from Florida Power & Light Company). The plate and permeable-membrane are two types of cross-flow HRDs. These two devices require no moving parts, are easy to clean and install, but will require a large mechanical space (Crowther, 2001). The permeable-membrane uses adsorption and convection to remove heat and water from the warmer and more humid air stream (Zhang et al., 2000). Desorption and convection adds heat and mass into the cooler dryer air stream. For membrane type heat exchangers the vapor pressure is normally the driving force for moisture transfer. During cooling, the vapor pressure of the ventilation air would be greater than the exhaust air and would cause the water molecules to pass through the membrane. Membranes can consist of many milli-pores that only allow the

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3 water molecules to pass thru and can stop others, such as the ammonia molecule. The plate exchanger does not use water diffusion, which is why this is a sensible only device. The cross flow exchangers tend to have small pressure drops with thermal effectiveness values ranging from 50 to 80% and up to 85% for the permeable-membranes. A diagram of an HRD is shown in Figure 1-1. This type of HRD can use a plate or permeable-membrane, which slides into the core. Figure 1-1 also labels the airstreams and their direction of flow. The core is the actual plate or membrane used. The inside of an HRD is shown in Figure 1-2 and the core is the main aspect of this image. Figure 1-2. Image of an HRD core and fan motor on the inside of the unit. Heat-pipe heat exchangers use an intermediate fluid to exchange heat between building exhaust air and ventilation air. The heat-pipe device does not occupy much space, but this is a sensible only device (Crowther, 2001). Figure 1-2 illustrates the heat and mass transfer that occurs in a heat pipe (heat pipe figures used with the permission of Heat Pipe Technology). The intermediate fluid will vaporize in the pipe when the hotter air passes over the pipe (Mathur, 2000). This is shown in Figure 1-3 as the liquid (A) boils and becomes a vapor (B). The intermediate fluid then condenses on the cold-air

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4 side of the pipe to heat the air. At point C in the heat pipe diagram the heat is released to the cold air stream (C) and becomes a liquid that moves by gravity (D) to the liquid pool. Figure 1-3. Heat and mass transfer occurring in a heat pipe (permission of use from Heat Pipe Technology). Heat pipes are becoming more advanced. Heat Pipe Technology has implemented an air bypass damper for the outdoor air to flow through for situations of moderate outdoor temperatures. This is done because at these moderate temperatures there is no savings from passing the air across the heat pipe. A good visual of this design is shown in Figure 1-4. This figure illustrates winter operation and the arrangement of the bypass damper. Thermal effectiveness values up to 50% have been recorded for the heat-pipe HRDs (Shao et al., 1998). However, other reports state that the effectiveness can reach 70% (Mahon et al., 1983). Figure 1-4. Heat pipe with air bypass damper arrangement.

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5 The sensible and enthalpy wheels do just as their names imply by exchanging sensible or sensible and latent heat, respectively. The wheels do not affect air handling unit (AHU) cabinet length significantly and have low pressure drops, but require moving parts. Cross-contamination is also an issue with these wheels (Crowther, 2001). The wheels tend to use the same type of heat transfer mechanisms as the cross-flow HRDs. However, the wheels rotate between the building exhaust air and ventilation air. Due to the possibility of cross-contamination, the wheels are not used when there may be toxins or fumes in the building exhaust air. If ventilation air contamination is an issue then a cross-flow HRD is a better choice. The sensible wheels have effectiveness values ranging from 50 to 80% and up to 85% for the enthalpy wheels (Crowther, 2001). A diagram of a heat wheel is shown in Figure 1-5. Figure 1-5. Heat wheel diagram illustrating airflows (permission of use from Xetex, Inc.). Wheels, plates and membranes tend to be placed in similar looking units. The heat pipe is generally smaller. Figure 1-6 is a labeled photo of what a unit could look like with the duct attached. This image has been used with permission by Florida Power &

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6 Light Company. The photo provides a good visual of the outdoor air hood that keeps debris and any other foreign objects from entering the unit. Figure 1-6. Diagram of an actual heat recovery unit assembly with labeled airflows. The maintenance for a HRD is dependent on construction and the methods of heat transfer that are incorporated. It is very important to keep a schedule for maintenance on the HRD so that it operates at the optimum efficiency. Common tasks are to replace filters, clean the device with a manufacturers suggested cleaner, check moving parts, and other tasks required by the manufacturer (Wellford, Oct. 2002). Carbon Dioxide and Demand Control Ventilation ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 states that if ventilation air holds indoor spaces to CO 2 concentrations below 700 ppm above outdoor air concentrations then the space should be properly ventilated (ANSI/ASHRAE, 2001). This specification results in 15-25 cfm/person (8-13 L/sperson) of ventilation needed for physical activities in the 1-2 met units. A met is the unit of measure for the metabolic rate a sedentary person. One met is equal to 18.4 Btu/hft 2 (50kcal/hm 2 ). Common practice is to use 20 cfm/person of ventilation air to satisfy ASHRAE Std. 62. The ventilation air will then be a constant flow for each space even when there may not be any occupants. This ventilation load on

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7 the cooling coil results in wasted energy and is why a new system has been recently devised, demand control ventilation (DCV) with CO 2 monitoring. DCV monitors the amount of CO 2 in the space and controls the amount of ventilation per person in real-time (Schell, 2001). The measurement of the CO 2 is generally accomplished with infrared sensors. The CO 2 absorbs light at a specific wavelength and a sensor relates the light intensity to the CO 2 concentration (Schell, 2001). The sensors can be placed within the space or within the return air from that particular space. The CO 2 sensors require frequent calibration with calibration periods occurring approximately every six months. However, some CO 2 products may require recalibration every three months. The calibration periods seem to be functions of the particular sensor and manufacturer. Self-calibrating sensors have also been discussed as an option. These sensors will recalibrate in the evening when all occupants are gone and the only contribution of CO 2 is due to the outdoor reference concentration (Schell, 2001). A problem with this method of calibration is that the ventilation system would have to be run in the evening, which is normally when the system is turned off to save on energy. However, the sequence of operation could be defined to only run the system long enough to recalibrate. Sensors can be placed on a wall in the space or the return air duct. A wall-mounted sensor may look something like Figure 1-7. This sensor has digital display that provides the parts per million (ppm) of CO 2 but there are cheaper models that do not have displays. Figure 1-8 displays a sensor that probes a duct to take measurements. Placement of the sensor in the duct returns an average CO 2 concentration of all the zones

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8 as opposed to wall placement, which have more control over specific space ventilation (Schell, 2001). Schell also makes note to not place these sensors near doors, windows, air registers, or any place a person would most likely stand. Carbon dioxide control can be very simple. The strategy of using a sensor in the return duct simply enables a control over total ventilation air by modulating this air quantity based on an average CO 2 value. The control becomes more complicated when integrated with variable air volume (VAV) control. Figure 1-7. Wall-mountable CO 2 sensor (permission of use from AirTest). Figure 1-8. Duct-mountable CO 2 sensor illustration showing the probe (permission of use from AirTest). The CO 2 and thermostat must work together to provide enough ventilation and maintain the space at a comfortable temperature. Consider this example to better understand how CO 2 control and a thermostat would work. A room may contain a few

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9 people with no windows or the blinds being closed. There may not be much heat from the occupants and the window load could be low enough that the thermostat would be satisfied. The VAV box would want to close because the room does not need as much air to condition the space. However, the CO 2 sensors would notice that the room was occupied and would minimize the VAV box turndown. The controls would make sure the VAV box would still provide enough ventilation for the occupancy. This may result in some reheating of the air. Reheat is an energy cost but will be required to provide the proper ventilation to the space. Energy Analysis Software The energy analysis software used to model the office building is Carriers Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) version 4.10b. Spreadsheets are used in conjunction with the model calculating the savings from each HRD and a simple payback. A brief background follows for a better understanding of the methodologies regarding these two computer programs. Carrier HAP In the HVAC industry, engineers use computer software to model buildings. These models are created so that the building load can be calculated. This load data are then used to size the HVAC equipment. HAP is used to calculate the load for commercial buildings (Carrier Corporation, 2002). For these load calculations, HAP uses a transfer function method, one of the methods ASHRAE recognizes for load calculation. Not only does Carriers HAP estimate the load and provide data for design equipment but it also simulates the energy use and cost for the modeled building. This software is very comprehensive because it simulates the building for every hour of the year.

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10 The design of the equipment consists of using the cooling and heating loads to determine airflow, coil, fan, and chiller sizes (Carrier Corporation, 2002). The hour-by-hour energy simulations are run for both HVAC and non-HVAC systems. HAP simulates the HVAC systems with Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data to estimate the energy cost of the building. These data are produced for the most typical months using long-term weather observations. The cost of this energy determined from the simulated data is determined by applying utility local rates. The engineers modeling of a building becomes a great aid in the design of HVAC systems and can be easily changed for many building scenarios. More information about Carriers HAP can be found in the next chapter. Savings Spreadsheets This section is a brief discussion of the spreadsheets used for savings calculations. More detail is provided within the methodologies in the next chapter. The spreadsheets model the annual savings for an HRD and the simple payback associated with each device. To calculate the savings, the weather data for a given city must be reduced using psychrometric equations. These equations are taken from the most recent ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, 2002. These equations are listed in Appendix A. The savings spreadsheets were made for this particular application and have the potential to be used to determine the effectiveness of a specific HRD in any city where dry and wet-bulb temperature data are known. These calculations are done for each of the 8,760 hours in a year just as Carriers HAP does. This results in a detailed program that is also very flexible, with many of the components of an HRD system being treated as variables. These variables and other information about these spreadsheet methodologies are explained in Chapter Two of this thesis.

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11 Research Objectives The basis of this thesis is to determine if it is cost effective to use HRDs with CO 2 ventilation controls. A two-story office building that uses a VAV system with one AHU per floor and a rooftop unit for the computer room was selected for the case study. Data for five cities listed in ASHRAE Std. 90.1-2001 for Florida were studied. These cities are major metropolitan areas: Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando and Miami. Tallahassee has the most heating degree-days and least cooling degree-days for Florida. Miami has the least heating and most cooling degree-days for a large metropolitan area in Florida. With these five cities there is a diverse set of situations. The approach was to model the subject building with Carriers HAP using CO 2 sensors, each type of HRD, and then with both HRDs and CO 2 controls in operation simultaneously. The relative savings associated with each scenario was determined. The cost effectiveness of using each scenario based on a simple payback calculation was then determined as another comparison between each circumstance. Finally, the practicality of using HRDs with CO 2 controls was addressed while noting any restrictions or requirements of operation. With the conclusion to these research objectives, guidelines for the use of heat recovery devices and CO 2 demand control will be developed.

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CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES The analysis of savings related to HRDs and CO 2 DCV was modeled with the Carrier HAP v.4.10b software. The modeling of an office building with several scenarios of different HRDs and CO 2 control strategies produces estimates of savings for each scenario. As a part of the model, a spreadsheet was created for each city chosen. The spreadsheets calculate the savings and payback for each HRD. This chapter provides the methodology devised to determine the savings and cost effectiveness. Computer Model The Carrier HAP computer model was used to analyze cooling and heating loads for the selected office building. This model was verified by data that was collected from the actual building. The monthly kilowatt-hour data metered at the building was compared to the computer model results to prove the validity of the model. Once verified, the model was executed for the building with different HRDs and then with a CO 2 controls strategy. Finally, a scenario combining the CO 2 sensors with each HRD was executed. A savings report was created to compare the savings for each model. The following will discuss the modeling process of different building components. The office building was modeled for each particular city stated in the research objectives. For the control most resembling actual control in the building, the zones were assigned as if they were their own spaces. This translates into some rooms (spaces) being modeled as many individual spaces. Some zones do provide the same control to two or three different rooms, which results in 63 rooms for 49 zones in the building. Each space 12

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13 requires specific inputs to calculate the load for that particular space. Some examples of inputs are listed below: Floor area Ceiling height Lighting and equipment loads Occupancy and activity levels Schedules of occupants, lights and equipment Wall, roof, window and floor dimensions and thermal properties Infiltration rates All wall, roof, window and floor dimensions and thermal properties were needed to calculate the building load. This information was determined by analyzing the drawings and plans for the case-study building. The wall construction in the subject two-story office building is comprised of precast concrete, two inch sprayed on insulation, metal studs and drywall. To calculate the heat transfer through the walls the overall heat transfer coefficient had to be found. The R-values for each wall component, the exterior film coefficient, and internal film coefficient were found in the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamental Handbook. Equation 2.1 used these R-values to calculate the U-factor for that particular wall. =niivalueR1factor-U (2.1) The horizontal roof is comprised of built-up roofing on one and a half-inch light concrete and a four-inch insulation board. With this information the U-factor for the roof can be calculated with Equation 2.1. The windows are one-inch insulating glass (approximately 40% of the exterior walls are glass). The floor is a four-inch slab-on-grade. All wall, floor, roof, and window dimensions were measured from the drawings to account for all surfaces that transfer heat. Other information, such as the wattage of

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14 lighting, was taken from the drawings. The wattage for the lights was broken up for each particular zone. Each zone has a particular number of different light fixtures and the lighting schedule was used to determine the wattage of each. The total wattage for each zone was then calculated by summing all the light fixtures for that particular area. A site visit was made to verify all the building construction and other characteristics. The interior wall construction and lighting was surveyed to assure the building was properly modeled. During the site visit new construction was noted. There were new interior wall constructions and local occupancy for each particular zone had changed. The lighting and other systems were as the drawings indicated. This field verification of the building was very important in the modeling of the studied building. The systems were modeled with each floor of the two-story building being assigned an AHU. Both AHUs use chilled water for cooling and provide air to a VAV system with ducted return. The majority of the VAV boxes are parallel fan powered boxes with electric resistance for reheat. There is also a rooftop unit that provides air through a constant air volume (CAV) system to a computer room on the second floor. For an understanding of each floors layout, the duct layouts are shown in figures 2-1 and 2-2. The fan-powered boxes are identified by the fan terminal unit (FTU) symbol. The boxes that are noted with VAV do not have fans. The ventilation airflow rate is set for the original design conditions, which designated 125 occupants. The building does not currently have this many occupants, but the ventilation airflow rate is set for the original design. The new occupancy was taken during the site visit. A head count was made and a total of approximately 90 people occupied the building. This level of occupancy was modeled with an excess of

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15 ventilation entering the building. The modeled occupancy schedule is from 6 AM till 6 PM and the HVAC systems start an hour before the building is in use. The chilled water is supplied from one of two identical 40-ton air-cooled screw chillers with the other acting as a back up. The chiller information was taken from the manufacturers specification sheets. Finally, all these systems were assigned to a building with specific electric rates. The utility rates were designated by Florida Power & Light Company as the GSD-1 rate. This rate charges $0.0428/kWh of electrical consumption and $8.16/kW of demand for each month. The tax rate applied in this utility rate is 10%. A monthly customer charge of $32.54 is applied regardless of the consumption or demand levels. Figure 2-1. First floor duct layout displaying the locations of the 24 VAV boxes.

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16 Figure 2-2. Second floor duct layout consisting of 25 VAV boxes. Addition of HRDs To input an HRD into the HAP model certain criteria are needed. The devices need to be noted as a sensible or sensible and latent device. The plate and heat-pipe units were entered as sensible devices. The enthalpy wheel and permeable-membrane were modeled as sensible and latent devices. The effectiveness and power consumed differs for all the HRDs. For the effectiveness and power consumed, commonly used HRDs of each type were chosen based on the design ventilation airflow rate. The effectiveness and power can be easily changed and are stated within the analysis and results chapter. Effectiveness is calculated differently for sensible and total heat exchangers. The sensible effectiveness values were computed using the following equation: EAOAOA_SupplyOATTTTess(%)Effectiven Thermal= (2.2)

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17 Sensible effectiveness uses the dry-bulb temperatures of the outdoor air (OA), outdoor air supply (OA_Supply), and exhaust air (EA). Figure 2-3 is a diagram of these flow orientations, as they would be in a plate or membrane HRD. Figure 2-3. HRD illustration of the orientation of the airflows for equation 2.2. The outdoor air supply is the preconditioned outdoor air that mixes with the return air before entering the AHU. The exhaust air is normally taken from the bathrooms or general exhaust and then exits the HRD to the atmosphere. For the total heat exchangers that transfer sensible and latent heat, dry-bulb temperatures are replaced with enthalpies at the same states, see equation 2.3. EAOAOA_SupplyOAh-hh-h %)(nessEffective Thermal= (2.3) An HRD schedule can be created if the system is to only operate during particular months of the year. By changing the schedule, the system could be turned off in the winter or summer, but the schedule for this model was left enabled to operate year-round. For simplicity the HAP model allows for the duplication of the model. This allows several copies of the same model in one file and the HRD can be changed very easily without recreating the same model many times.

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18 CO 2 Ventilation Controls Carriers HAP controls the amount of ventilation to a space based on the occupancy level. This is not the most effective way to control ventilation. The ventilation should be controlled by the amount of CO 2 in a space. HAP uses a constant design airflow (cfm/person) that will only change with the change of occupancy. This does not work properly unless people leave the building. After discussion with Carriers technical staff, discovery of a future model of HAP has been reported to model the CO 2 control method in a more proper manner that measures CO 2 levels. HAP requires a design airflow, minimum airflow (%), and damper leakage rate (%). As stated previously, the design airflow is defined by using flow rate per person (cfm/person). The model uses this value and the number of occupants that the air system serves to determine the air flow rate. The minimum airflow is the percentage that VAV boxes must stay open. This minimum setting may provide the following two benefits. The electric heat strips that are in the VAV boxes must have a nominal amount of air passing over them to prevent failure. Normal practice is to use a 40% minimum opening for the boxes just for heat strip protection. The second benefit to constrain the minimum flow is to provide the minimum outside air requirement. The damper leakage rate is the percentage of outdoor air leaks in when dampers are closed due to the building being unoccupied. This value is assumed to be zero for the model. Energy Spreadsheet Model The energy spreadsheet model was originally created to deal with heating savings, which were not estimated properly using the HAP software. The spreadsheet model does not work directly with data supplied by the HAP model. This is an independent program that does use the same TMY data that HAP uses. The spreadsheet specializes in HRDs

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19 and can be easily run for different units very quickly. The spreadsheet is comparable to the HAP model for HRD savings. With the HAP model not predicting any heating savings the comparison between each computer program must be done purely by cooling savings. In order to validate the spreadsheet model, spreadsheet results for cooling only were compared to HAP results for cooling. The HAP energy savings results were calculated by the difference in annual energy costs between the building modeled with and without an HRD. The spreadsheet model allows for the balance point temperature of the building to be changed so that chillers can be turned off at this outdoor temperature, which is how the subject building operates. The internal loads of the building can create enough heat to reduce the need for the heating systems to operate. The outdoor temperature at which heating is finally needed is the balance point temperature. This spreadsheet calculates the ventilation load savings and does not model a particular building or CO 2 control system. The spreadsheets will help compare each HRD individually with annual savings and simple payback being the calculated results. The simple payback does not take into account savings from reduction in equipment size due to HRD use. The use of an HRD will allow the load on the cooling coil to drop and the amount of energy needed from the chiller to be reduced. This may result in a smaller chiller size with a cheaper first cost. The simple payback is modeled as if the HRD was used in a retrofit situation and the reduction of other equipment size is not a factor. The first page of each of the five spreadsheets contains all the psychrometric data for every hour for a typical year. The dry and wet-bulb temperatures are taken from TMY data and the rest of the psychrometric data is calculated with equations taken from

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20 the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (see Appendix A). The TMY data are text files that include average dry and wet-bulb temperatures for a particular city. The TMY data are typically used in load-calculating software and is used in HAP. The dry and wet-bulb temperatures and enthalpies are then taken to the next page of the spreadsheet where the savings are calculated for each hour. This savings page calculates kilowatt-hour and peak kilowatt savings for cooling and heating. Each HRD can be modeled by changing the variables located at the top of the savings sheet. These variables include: Effectiveness (%) Ventilation airflow rate (cfm) Air density (lb m /ft 3 ) Building balance point (F) Exhaust air enthalpy for cooling and heating (Btu/lb da ) Fan and motor efficiency (%) Fan static pressure drop (psia) Cooling and heating power (kW/ton) The building will only operate in the heating mode when the outdoor air temperature drops below the balance point. This creates a dead band region from the balance point up to the point where the ventilation air supply enthalpy or temperature is above the same exhaust condition. Whether it is a sensible or total HRD determines whether this condition is considered as enthalpy or temperature. This dead band region is where it actually costs money to have the HRD in operation. To resolve this issue a bypass could be put in place for dead band periods. A bypass will not be considered for this thesis. The spreadsheet is set up to run a bypass for a given system, but the cost of a bypass system has not been researched. The bypass system will involve different components depending on the type of HRD. The cost must include dampers, sensors, controls and any additional ductwork. Other issues with controls and how these will

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21 match with the CO 2 controls have not been addressed and may produce more costs that have not been researched. The final page of the spreadsheet tabulates the monthly totals of kilowatt-hours and the peak kilowatt value for that month. With these consumption and demand values, the annual savings were determined using the utility rates discussed in the Computer Model section. The first cost and installation cost of the HRD system is then used to calculate the simple payback (years) for each system. This simple payback is calculated by comparing the operating cost of a constant ventilation airflow system that uses no preconditioning of the outdoor air to the operating cost with an HRD. Equation 2.4 calculates the simple payback and is also listed in Appendix A as Equation A.16. Cos t Totalyearper SavingsCost Total(yrs)Payback Simple= (2.4) The paybacks prescribed are for retrofits. The cost of an HRD for new construction would be slightly offset by the fact that the refrigeration equipment could be sized down. The retrofit payback that is being calculated is actually larger than what it would be for new construction.

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter discusses the results created with both computer models for each scenario involving HRDs and CO 2 DCV. The sections are categorized by scenario type. The first section is dedicated to HRDs operating alone and the results from the HAP model and the spreadsheet model. The use of a CO 2 control system is addressed next. The final section discusses the scenarios involving an HRD with a CO 2 control system. Heat Recovery Devices Each HRD was first simulated in the HAP model that was created for the case-study office building. The case-study building was modeled in HAP for each of the five Florida cities as a reference for each HRD to be compared to for annual savings. The annual savings for each HRD is only associated with savings due to cooling. The HAP model does not take into account any savings for heating mode. The reason for this has not been identified, but the model also cannot be set to shut off the chillers when the outdoor air drops below the balance point. This operation of shutting down chillers is how the case-study building conducted energy management, but this is not a standard for all buildings. Assuming equal electric rates for all five Florida cities, the annual energy cost, annual electrical consumption and maximum demand cost was compared between each city without the use of an HRD. The annual energy cost and electrical consumption is listed in Table 3-1. This comparison is used to create an idea of how the case-study building would operate in any of the given Florida cities. For a more detailed comparison 22

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23 of these cities, Tables 3-2 and 3-3 compare the monthly electrical consumption and maximum demand for each of the five cities. Table 3-1. Annual energy cost and electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD. Florida City Annual Energy Cost ($) Annual Electrical Consumption (kWh) Energy Cost ($/ft 2 ) Electrical Consumption (kWh/ft 2 ) Tallahassee 55,037 747,656 2.13 28.9 Jacksonville 54,604 745,059 2.11 28.8 Tampa 53,791 742,988 2.08 28.7 Orlando 53,933 742,978 2.08 28.7 Miami 54,081 748,261 2.09 28.9 Table 3-2. Monthly electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD. Electrical Consumption (kWh) Month Tallahassee Jacksonville Tampa Orlando Miami Jan. 66,782 65,759 63,199 63,269 62,541 Feb. 57,249 56,420 55,403 54,720 55,299 March 59,702 58,564 59,111 59,225 60,336 April 59,528 59,852 59,681 59,818 61,296 May 63,357 63,910 64,790 64,980 65,085 June 60,302 60,494 61,025 61,230 60,977 July 66,732 66,784 67,034 67,503 67,643 Aug. 64,981 65,503 65,956 65,478 66,286 Sept. 61,179 61,270 62,375 62,029 63,397 Oct. 62,398 62,257 64,092 64,003 64,866 Nov. 59,776 59,568 58,656 58,826 59,500 Dec. 65,671 64,677 61,666 61,895 61,036 The costs associated with the office building are very similar for Tampa and Orlando. This is to be expected due to the close distance between the cities and that they are almost on the same latitude line. The other cities vary in operating energy and annual cost. It is important to note that for each city the energy costs due to cooling and heating account for 26% of the annual cost. This is a large percentage and leaves a lot of room for reducing annual energy cost. This leads to operating the building with each HRD to find the savings associated with each.

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24 Table 3-3. Monthly maximum demand for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD applied. Maximum Demand (kW) Month Tallahassee Jacksonville Tampa Orlando Miami Jan. 211.7 197.4 172.8 174.0 159.8 Feb. 174.2 165.8 162.8 160.7 165.9 March 180.6 160.9 158.7 165.3 165.6 April 163.7 170.7 164.5 165.2 169.6 May 171.7 174.1 172.7 177.1 172.5 June 183.7 189.7 177.9 182.5 177.9 July 183.1 180.2 180.5 185.1 179.2 Aug. 180.5 186.4 180.4 180.7 180.6 Sept. 176.9 179.9 174.6 175.5 180.3 Oct. 163.1 159.2 175.8 167.3 176.5 Nov. 171.9 167.1 164.9 162.8 163.0 Dec. 201.2 196.1 162.1 167.7 161.4 The effectiveness values and power consumed by each HRD was needed for modeling purposes. Different vendors were contacted for selection data. These data include the effectiveness values that are needed. The permeable-membrane is not a device that can be purchased at this time. The values for this HRD are taken from uncertified data provided by the vendor. Since this is a retrofit, additional fans were required to overcome the pressure drop of the HRD. The fan power was calculated for each HRD with the following equation. 63560.746pQ(kW)Power Fan airmotorfanstatic= (3.1) The pressure drop is substituted in for the p static value to calculate the fan power. The fan power equation also consists of the air flow rate, Q (cfm), efficiencies, air density, air (lb/ft 3 ), and specific volume, (ft 3 /lb). This power must be doubled because there are two fans in the HRD. The effectiveness values and power are listed in Table 3-4 for each HRD. The effectiveness values are sensible effectiveness for the heat pipe and plate, but the heat wheel and permeable-membrane have the total effectiveness values listed.

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25 Table 3-4. HRD effectiveness and power consumption values. Heat Recovery Device Effectiveness (%) Power Consumed (kW) Permeable-membrane 70 1.1 Enthalpy wheel 69 1.3 Heat pipe 58 0.48 Plate 61 1.1 For the enthalpy wheel and membrane, the two that use sensible and latent heat exchange, the effectiveness values are relatively the same but notice that the enthalpy wheel requires more power. This is due to the need for power to rotate the wheel at all times. The heat pipe has a low effectiveness value, which is a flag that this will not produce much savings, especially since this is only for the sensible exchange. The plate has a slightly higher effectiveness, but this consumes considerable power. With these data the model was then run for each city with each HRD. The first result compared for each HRD was the annual energy cost. The annual energy cost for the building is listed for each HRD and without an HRD in Table 3-5. These results show that the membrane is the best HRD to use according to annual energy cost reduction. The heat pipe and plate do not reduce the annual energy cost significantly. The plate tends to increase the energy cost and only reduces the cost slightly in Tallahassee and Jacksonville where the temperatures become colder. It can be stated that the use of HRDs that only exchange sensible heat should not be used in Florida. This confirms information that has already been stated by some vendors. Figure 3-1 designates the geographical locations in the U.S. where sensible HRDs should be used according to Venmar Company. With permission from Tom Barrow Co., this figure was taken from the Venmar web page. This figure designates sensible HRDs as HRV units. The darker of the two regions is where enthalpy HRDs should be used and the lighter regions designate HRV unit use.

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26 Table 3-5. Annual energy cost for the case-study building with each HRD. Annual Energy Cost ($) Florida City No HRD Membrane Enthalpy wheel Heat pipe Plate Tallahassee 55,037 54,427 54,474 54,950 55,020 Jacksonville 54,604 53,945 53,996 54,513 54,587 Tampa 53,791 53,095 53,153 53,715 53,806 Orlando 53,933 53,158 53,219 53,836 53,935 Miami 54,081 53,084 53,156 54,034 54,157 Figure 3-1. Geographical locations for designation of recommended HRDs. The data that have been presented have only taken into account the savings due to cooling. As stated previously, the heating savings does not show up in the HAP model. For the total savings associated with each HRD, the energy spreadsheet model was run. To compare these two models the spreadsheet heating savings was deleted to only account for cooling. These data compare well for the enthalpy exchangers, but the sensible device data do not match. The data are shown in Table 3-6 with the HAP model data being assumed as the correct data in the percent difference calculation.

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27 Table 3-6. Cost savings data comparisons for each cooling model. Florida City HRD Spreadsheet ($) HAP ($) % Difference Membrane 562 610 7.8 Enthalpy wheel 508 563 9.8 Heat pipe 0 87 100 Tallahassee Plate -112 17 758 Membrane 557 659 15 Enthalpy wheel 502 608 17 Heat pipe 2 91 98 Jacksonville Plate -112 17 758 Membrane 725 696 4.2 Enthalpy wheel 666 638 4.4 Heat pipe 20 76 74 Tampa Plate -97 -15 547 Membrane 752 775 3.0 Enthalpy wheel 692 714 3.1 Heat pipe 53 97 45 Orlando Plate -64 -2 310 Membrane 1018 997 2.1 Enthalpy wheel 954 925 3.0 Heat pipe 84 47 79 Miami Plate -31 -76 59 The percent difference between the spreadsheet and the HAP model, for energy cost, ranges from 2.1 to 17% for the enthalpy exchangers. The high-end difference is not technically an issue with the spreadsheet. Contact with Carrier resulted in the knowledge that the software does not allow for simulations of reclaim devices that are counter productive. In terms of the HRD use, this means that the penalty due to operating in the dead band region is not taken into account. This becomes more of an issue for larger dead band regions and is most likely the issue with the Jacksonville and Tallahassee HAP data. Why the sensible HRD values are not closer between models is not completely understood. Carrier has been contacted and this issue is being addressed. A part of this may be due to the void of penalty in the HAP model. Regardless of this difference, the HAP model has shown that the use of sensible HRDs is not effective. The spreadsheet

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28 readdresses this by accounting for heating. The heating savings does increase the total savings, but this does not mean the simple payback is reasonable. The spreadsheet model calculates the total cost savings based on electrical consumption and demand. The utility rate for electrical consumption and monthly demand are taken from the previously mentioned FP&Ls GSD-1 rate. The consumption rate is $0.0428/kWh and the monthly demand rate is $8.16/kW. These rates are applied to the total consumption and total maximum demand for each month to produce the total cost savings. These total cost savings for each HRD are shown in Table 3-7 for all five Florida cities. Table 3-7. Total annual cost savings for each HRD in all five Florida cities. Florida City HRD Total Annual Cost Savings ($) Membrane 2,532 Enthalpy wheel 2,436 Heat pipe 1,055 Tallahassee Plate 965 Membrane 2,247 Enthalpy wheel 2,155 Heat pipe 895 Jacksonville Plate 796 Membrane 1,918 Enthalpy wheel 1,831 Heat pipe 634 Tampa Plate 522 Membrane 1,684 Enthalpy wheel 1,602 Heat pipe 533 Orlando Plate 420 Membrane 1,666 Enthalpy wheel 1,586 Heat pipe 433 Miami Plate 320 The spreadsheet yields the same conclusions as the HAP results. The enthalpy HRDs produce considerably more cost reduction than the sensible devices. This defends

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29 Figure 3-1 more in regards to sensible devices not being used in the southeast. These cost savings values were then used to calculate the simple payback associated with each HRD. The vendors gave the estimated cost for each unit when selection data were provided. Some costs for fans, filters and other components have been estimated and added onto the price of the HRD. The installation cost for most of these units is similar because the devices come as a packaged unit that would have similar duct arrangements, controls, and weight to be hoisted onto the roof. The total cost combines the first cost and installation and was then used in the simple payback. The simple payback must be less than the life of the system for it to have any benefit. For a new construction installation, a payback between one and three years is generally an indication of a cost effective system. The payback would be slightly longer for a retrofit. This must be taken into account when observing Table 3-8 for the simple payback for each HRD in all five cities. The total costs of the enthalpy wheel and membrane units were estimated as the same price and both devices payback within the same year. These results show that for a retrofit application, an enthalpy wheel or membrane could be used and both devices will provide similar savings and simple payback. The payback is less for the cities located above 28.4 latitude for Florida. The north Florida outdoor temperatures are colder during the winter and provide more opportunities for savings due to heating. The life of most of these systems can be from 10-15 years or longer. The heat pipe and plate produce paybacks less than 9.5 years. This re-enforces that sensible devices should not be used in Florida. The permeable-membrane HRD types are not commercially available at the moment. However, this product will be available in the near future.

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30 In new construction, the first cost would be less when using an HRD because booster fans may not be needed in the units and ductwork requirements may be less. As previously mentioned, partial cost of the HRD could be offset by reduction in other HVAC systems, such as chiller size. For example, if a system were selected and sized for Orlando with a membrane HRD, then the chiller size could be reduced by 7 tons. The chiller in operation for the case-study building has a capacity of 40 tons. A reduction of 7 tons results in an 18% reduction in chiller capacity. This is a significant reduction and in some cases will offset a significant fraction of the price of an HRD in new construction. This reduction was calculated for the Florida city with the least chiller size reduction. The reduction will result in a much shorter payback and should be considered when the retrofit scenario data are reviewed. Table 3-8. Simple payback for each HRD retrofit in all five Florida cities. Florida City HRD Estimated Total Cost ($) Simple Payback (yrs) Membrane 13,750 5.4 Enthalpy wheel 13,750 5.6 Heat pipe 10,000 9.5 Tallahassee Plate 12,500 13.0 Membrane 13,750 6.1 Enthalpy wheel 13,750 6.4 Heat pipe 10,000 11.2 Jacksonville Plate 12,500 15.7 Membrane 13,750 7.2 Enthalpy wheel 13,750 7.5 Heat pipe 10,000 15.8 Tampa Plate 12,500 24.0 Membrane 13,750 7.4 Enthalpy wheel 13,750 7.8 Heat pipe 10,000 18.8 Orlando Plate 12,500 29.7 Membrane 13,750 8.3 Enthalpy wheel 13,750 8.7 Heat pipe 10,000 23.1 Miami Plate 12,500 31.2

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31 Carbon Dioxide Demand Control Ventilation There are some issues with modeling the CO 2 controls in Carriers HAP. As addressed in Chapter 2, the program sets the ventilation flow rate by occupancy level and a design airflow rate. There is no monitoring of CO 2 to create demand control. This means that there will be no significant savings unless people leave the building and there is significant diversity in the occupancy schedule. With HAPs method of controlling ventilation flow, the savings could be under estimated. If the outdoor airs concentration is less than 350 parts per million of CO 2 and the occupants are not very active and in good health, then the controls could lower the ventilation flow rate even with full occupancy. This can not be modeled with the current modeling technique that HAP uses. Another issue with the model is that the ventilation airflow has been defined by the original occupancy of the building. The current occupancy is considerably less than the initial design called for and would result in the HVAC systems providing excess ventilation. A comparison of a CO 2 controlled case with the excess ventilation case would result in great savings that is not due to the CO 2 controls. For a better benchmark for comparison, a model was created by using the appropriate ventilation flow rate for the current occupancy level. The building is estimated to have 91 occupants which results in 1,820 cfm of ventilation flow. To give reference to how much savings would have been falsely attributed to the CO 2 controls if compared to the excess ventilation case, the excess and non-excess ventilation loads were compared. Equation 3.2 was used to calculate the ventilation load (tons), which is based on the difference in outdoor and room enthalpy. The resulting difference in these loads for Orlando is 2.8 tons under design conditions.

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32 () 12,000hh60(min/hr)QLoadn VentilatioROAair= (3.2) With both of these issues in mind another change was made in the modeling strategy. The case-study building shuts off all systems during the evenings and this provides significant savings to the owner. Not all buildings operate this way, many buildings operate their HVAC systems in the evening also. These systems may run to serve security or janitorial occupants, or to maintain the quality of the materials in the building. If ventilation is not controlled then there can be a large excess of ventilation. CO 2 monitoring can provide significant savings for commercial buildings by reducing this excess ventilation. Therefore, a modification for CO 2 control modeling was conducted with cooling operating during unoccupied times. This is compared with the modified constant ventilation scenario that also operates during off hours. The HAP model is the only CO 2 modeling done for this research so there is no comparison required with a spreadsheet model. The new scenario was produced in HAP for each of the five cities and the results are illustrated in Table 3-9. Table 3-9. CO 2 annual energy cost for a continuously operating system. Annual Energy Cost ($) Florida City No CO 2 Control CO 2 Control Annual Cost Savings ($) Tallahassee 62,000 61,757 243 Jacksonville 61,643 61,279 364 Tampa 61,291 60,752 539 Orlando 61,294 60,767 527 Miami 62,107 61,266 841 Miami is the best candidate for a CO 2 control system. Tallahassee and Jacksonville do not fair as well due to their colder climates. The simple payback for a control system was calculated for each city. The prices for CO 2 sensors are from AirTests catalog of

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33 CO 2 sensors. These sensors can come with integrated temperature control and other accessories. This is not needed due to the building already being equipped with thermostats and direct digital control (DDC). For CO 2 sensor first cost, an arrangement of two sensors, one for each AHU return air duct, was assumed to provide sufficient control. The cost also accounts for connections and installation. It was assumed that this would be adequate because of the building size. This type of control would not work for most large buildings because averaging over many more spaces might allow for a space to become under ventilated more easily. This would be an average CO 2 level for all the zones associated with that AHU. For more detailed control, wall-mounted sensors would be used in many zones to control the ventilation in each zone separately. The wall-mounted sensors cost is equal to the duct-mounted, but there would be more sensors in total. Based on AirTest technical staff, the sensors have a cost of $409 with the installation being estimates as double the first cost. Table 3-10 lists the savings, total cost and simple payback for a control system used in each of the five Florida cities. Table 3-10. Simple payback for a CO 2 control system operating in a continuously operating system. Florida City Annual Cost Savings ($) Total Control System Cost ($) Payback (yrs) Tallahassee 243 2,500 10.3 Jacksonville 364 2,500 6.9 Tampa 539 2,500 4.6 Orlando 527 2,500 4.7 Miami 841 2,500 3.1 The simple payback results conclude that a CO 2 system, as described above, is not a reasonable choice for this size of a building located in Tallahassee and most likely not reasonable for a building in Jacksonville. The life of a system is normally 10 to 15 years and the Tallahassee payback is much too long. The Jacksonville scenario is half the life

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34 of the system. The other cities do have favorable payback and would be definite candidates for a CO 2 control system. Cost effective simple paybacks are normally considered in a range from one to three years. For a building that saves energy by shutting the HVAC systems off during the evenings, there may not be a significant need for CO 2 control unless there are large variations in the occupancy levels throughout the day. This variation in occupancy schedule could not be modeled with the resources at hand and should be tested in the future when more updated software becomes available. However, a building of this size and construction could use DCV effectively for cities in and south of central Florida if the HVAC systems run 24 hours a day. Heat Recovery with a CO 2 Control System The previous sections have concluded that heat recovery devices that exchange total heat are cost effective for cities north of 28 latitude for Florida. The case-study building would not be a great candidate for a CO 2 control system, but a similar building under continuous HVAC operation would be south of 28.4 latitude for Florida. At first glance the combination of these systems would only be cost effective for areas around 28 latitude in Florida. Due to the CO 2 modeling of a different operating procedure, this assumption cannot be taken. The combination of both systems was modeled with 24 hour HVAC system operation. This is the same modeling technique applied to the CO 2 demand control. The HRDs were remodeled for the evening operation so that all three scenarios could be compared properly. The issue of modeling these systems under a new operational schedule is that there is no data for verification.

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35 There were many assumptions for a HAP model using the continuous scenario with the selected HRDs and CO 2 controls. The ventilation flow rate for HRDs was decreased because ventilation was not modeled in excess. The decrease in airflow through the HRD would require a new selection, but for a rough estimate it was assumed that the effectiveness and pressure drops are the same. However, the power consumed was recalculated for each HRD. The HAP model does not calculate any heating savings and this is a big issue for this analysis. To try and compare the use of only HRDs, only CO 2 control and the combination of both for the case-study building these assumptions were used. Based on the previous modeling results, modeling was conducted for Tampa since this is in a region where we know HRDs and CO 2 controls are cost effective. The simple paybacks were calculated with the membrane HRD without heating and then an estimated heating cost savings was added based off previous spreadsheet models. The data for the simple paybacks are not completely accurate to actual operational data. The simple payback for a building with a membrane HRD was within half a year of using both CO 2 controls and a membrane HRD. The simple payback estimates were between six to seven years, but these are still not as short as 4.6 years that CO 2 controls produce alone. Based on this estimate it would be more cost effective to only use the ventilation controls. However, the building has been changed and many assumptions were taken when this conclusion was made. I would not take this as a guideline in choosing whether to use an HRD or CO 2 controls. The rough estimate may still be a good indicator that the use of both is not effective for Florida cities. Table 3-11 provides the simple paybacks for use

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36 of HRDs, CO 2 controls and both systems with the case involving 24-hour building operation and adjusted ventilation flow. Table 3-11. Simple paybacks for all three scenarios with 24-hour building operation and adjusted ventilation flow. Tampa Membrane HRD CO 2 control Both HRD and CO 2 control Simple payback (yrs) 6.6 4.6 7.2 For selection of which system to use, the previous sections should be used. A more detailed solution is needed to fully determine whether or not both types of systems should be used in conjunction. The CO 2 modeling should also be readdressed when the next Carrier software comes available. More recommendations will be listed in the next chapter.

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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS Conclusions to this thesis are discussed in full detail below, but for something the main conclusions are listed as the following: 1. Heat recovery devices that exchange only sensible heat are not cost effective for Florida. 2. Heat recovery devices that exchange sensible and latent heat are cost effective for regions in northern Florida (cities above 28.4 latitude). 3. Heat recovery devices that exchange sensible and latent heat could be considered for areas in central and south Florida (cities below and at 28.4 latitude). 4. Carbon dioxide demand control ventilation is cost effective for regions in and south of central Florida (cities below and at 28.4 latitude). 5. Carbon dioxide demand control ventilation could be considered for northeast Florida (cities above 28.4 latitude), but control should not be considered for northwest Florida. 6. Using both energy conservation systems is not cost effective for Florida, but more research should be conducted before this combination is abandoned. Due to the rising costs of energy, there is a continued emphasis to develop energy conservation measure to reduce building energy bills. Two systems that have received considerable attention in todays marketplace are heat recovery devices and carbon dioxide demand control ventilation. Both of these systems have been proven to reduce a buildings annual energy, but the use of them together has not been extensively studied. This thesis evaluated this situation by analyzing each energy conservation system separately and then combined for five Florida cities. All three scenarios were then compared by the amount of energy saved and the simple payback associated with each. 37

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38 A central Florida commercial office building was selected for the case study and was modeled and verified with actual data collected at the site to aid in this study. The heat recovery devices were studied by modeling four different devices. These devices exchange heat, mass or both between ventilation air and building exhaust. A plate heat exchanger and heat pipe, which exchange only sensible heat, were studied and results determined that these devices were not cost effective to operate in Florida. An enthalpy wheel and permeable-membrane heat exchanger, which exchange both heat and moisture, were analyzed for the same cities and were found to be cost effective for most of northern Florida. Sensible devices were concluded not to be effective for Florida and enthalpy devices could be considered for most cities in Florida with best effectiveness in the north. The carbon dioxide demand control for this case-study building would not produce much savings with the HVAC system operating schedule that was applied. Another issue that affected the results was the fact that the building was operating with ventilation due to a decline in occupancy over the years. After validating the computer model with the actual building schedule and metered data, the model input was revised. For modeling purposes the operating schedule and ventilation flow rate were changed so that the systems would function at night and the savings would only be a function of the control and not exaggerated. The model would have shown that the control system reduced the original design ventilation flow rate to the rate needed for the new occupancy. This savings would not be observed in a building that had a proper ventilation design and is not a function of occupancy changing throughout the day. The analysis of the carbon dioxide control, under the new operating schedule, resulted in positive cost effectiveness

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39 for cities in and south of central Florida. Cities that are in northeast Florida, near Jacksonville, could be considered for this type of control, but northwest cities probably should not consider it. Combining the two types of systems was not as accurate as studying each separately. This was because each system was modeled differently due to the demand Carrier HAP control model changing the operating schedule and ventilation flow rate. This change created a different reference for each study. To try and determine some type of effectiveness, the heat recovery devices were modeled again for one city so that the reference would be the same. This was done for central Florida due to both systems being cost effective separately in this region. Assumptions had to be made for the remodeling of the heat recovery devices, which made this part of the study less accurate. With all the systems analyzed under the new schedule and ventilation flow rate, it was determined that using both energy reduction systems was just as effective as using only recovery devices. This should only be considered for most Florida cities and not other states. It may be that these types of systems are effective, but until more detailed research is done, the idea of using heat recovery with demand control should not be abandoned. Future study of a building with carbon dioxide demand control ventilation has been recommended. The building in this study should operate under general 24-hour HVAC operation for better modeling. Other recommendations have been given and should be addressed or considered in any future research.

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CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK There are a few issues related to this work that should be considered for future research. The following recommendations have been divided into issues regarding modeling and the case-study building. Some of these recommendations are now being studied by other researchers. Modeling Recommendations The modeling recommendations address both Carriers HAP model and the energy spreadsheet model. The HAP model did not produce any heating savings. At first it was thought that the outdoor temperature did not reach a cold enough temperature for HAP to evaluate savings. To test if this was the issue, the building simulation was run for several northern cities and the HRDs still did not provide any heating savings. This issue is being addressed with Carrier technical staff to find if this is a limitation with this specific model or if the software is not operating correctly. Another matter that Carrier is being asked to study is why the spreadsheet model and HAP model do not agree on energy savings associated with sensible HRDs. Both of these issues need to be solved so the spreadsheet heating savings can be verified and sensible HRDs can be modeled correctly. It is recommended that the CO 2 modeling be reproduced when a new simulation technique that measures CO 2 levels becomes available. Carrier has new software being issued in the near future that will provide this modeling technique. With a better modeling technique, an improved understanding of energy savings due to CO 2 control will be created. 40

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41 The spreadsheets are specific to a given city and have been formatted so that four days of data fill a given page. The formatting was difficult when producing a spreadsheet with the TMY data. These spreadsheets could be beneficial to engineers once heating savings are verified. If this spreadsheet is reformatted to facilitate the input of TMY data then practicing engineers could use this as a useful tool in evaluating heat recovery devices. Other recommendations for the spreadsheets are listed below: Allow operating schedule to be a variable Provide for continuous chiller operation Verify bypass operation with field data Add costs associated with a bypass system Compare results with other energy savings estimates (ex: bin temperature method) Case Study Recommendations The case-study building that was used for this thesis did not have a CO 2 control system. It would be extremely useful if a building that uses CO 2 control could be studied with this model and then retrofitted with a heat recovery device to evaluate the effectiveness of HRDs with CO 2 controls. This study could be used to verify future modeling techniques involving CO 2 If possible there should also be studies done with different types of control systems. Systems involving several wall-mounted sensors should be compared with return air duct sensor systems. This would provide helpful design information to engineers. There were issues when comparing the use of HRDs, CO 2 control and then both systems together. This was due to the modeling of two different HVAC system operating schedules. When a building is chosen for future research, the operating schedules of the building should be noted because simulations may become an issue. A building with a more general operating schedule, where the system runs during the evenings, should be

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42 studied because it should be more representative of the operation of large commercial office buildings or retail stores. The current case-study building was modeled with HAP and verification was made through electrical consumption data collected at the site. Further verification should be made over the upcoming summer months. This operation will provide extreme outdoor air conditions for the HRD to condition and will give a chance for a new bypass system to be modeled. This scenario would then allow the spreadsheet bypass operation to be verified.

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APPENDIX A SPREADSHEET EQUATIONS This appendix lists the equations used to develop the savings spreadsheets. Some equations may differ in the spreadsheet due to if statements. The values for some of the equations in the savings section are variables and can be changed for different systems. All psychrometric equations are from the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. Psychrometric Equations The dry and wet-bulb temperatures are taken from the TMY data and converted from Fahrenheit to Rankine, using equation A.1. These temperatures are used to calculate the saturation pressure associated with each. If the temperature is below 32F then equation A.2 is used, equation A.3 is used for temperatures greater than 32F. 459.67TR)T(+= (A.1) ln(T)CTCTCTCTCCTC)ln(p7463524321ws++++++= (A.2) ln(T)CTCTCTCCTC)ln(p133122111098ws+++++= (A.3) C 1 = -10214.165 C 2 = -4.8932428 C 3 = -0.53765794 E-02 C 4 = 0.19202377 E-06 C 5 = 0.35575832 E-09 C 6 = -0.90344688E-13 C 7 = 4.1635019 C 8 = -10440.397 C 9 = -11.29465 C 10 = -0.027022355 C 11 = 0.1289036 E-04 C 12 = -0.24780681 E-08 C 13 = 6.5459673 43

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44 The following equations are used to calculate the relative humidity and enthalpy of the air. See the nomenclature section for a list of all symbols. *wsws**sppp0.62198W= (A.4) ()( ) ***s*TT0.4441093TT0.24WT0.5561093W+= (A.5) wswssppp0.62198W= (A.6) pT,sWW= (A.7) () () 100pp11ws= (A.8) () 29.92W1.60781R)T(0.7543+= (A.9) (T0.4441061WT0.240h++= )) (A.10) The final two calculations within the psychrometric section of the spreadsheet are for the water vapor partial pressure and dew point temperature. The dew point calculation is iterative and A.12 should be used when temperatures are above 32F and A.13 when below. ( W0.62198Wppw+= (A.11) ()()0.1984w3w2wwdp1.2063)ln(p0.17074)ln(p2.319)ln(p33.193100.45T++++= (A.12) (2wwd)ln(p0.8927)ln(p26.14290.12T++= ) (A.13)

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45 Savings Equations There are several equations used to calculate the kilowatt-hour savings for every hour of the year. First, equation 2.1 is used to calculate the outdoor air supply enthalpy or temperature with all other states and the effectiveness are known. The process is to evaluate the savings in tons for cooling or heating and then determine the kilowatt value for that hour. The average kilowatt over a one-hour interval results in an average kilowatt-hour value for that hour. The following equations are for the enthalpy and sensible heat exchangers. Equation A.14 can be used to evaluate the savings associated with cooling and heating. The reduction for cooling/heating is calculated in tons and the electrical savings is expressed in kilowatt-hours. The kW/ton value used in A.15 is the amount of power required for every ton of cooling produced by the cooling coil. For heating the kW/ton value is the amount of energy an electric heat strip or any other heat source would require. ( ) 12,000hhQ60atingCooling/He ofReduction OA_SupplyOAair= (A.14) () () =63560.746pQtonkWreductionSavings Electricalairmotorfanstatic (A.15) The electrical savings is corrected for the fan power that may be needed if additional fan power is required for a retrofit application. The spreadsheet allows for a different equation to be used instead of A.15 so that a known power may be subtracted instead of the fan power calculation. The monthly electrical consumption (kWh) and electrical demand (kW) savings values are recorded for evaluating the total savings. The consumption and demand are assessed different utility costs and added to determine the

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46 total cost savings. A first cost of the HRD including installation is calculated using a unit price per cfm of ventilation air. With these values a simple payback is determined. Cos t Totalyearper SavingsCost Total(yrs)Payback Simple= (A.16)

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APPENDIX B CARRIER HAP AND SPREADSHEET DATA This appendix provides sample data for different cities and scenarios for the HAP and spreadsheet models. The following information is the HAP air system output data for the first floor air Jacksonville handling unit: Air System Information Air System Name .................................. AHU-1 Equipment Class ............................... CW AHU Air System Type ....................................... VAV Number of zones ............................................... 24 Floor Area ........................................... 12754.1 ft Sizing Calculation Information Zone and Space Sizing Method: Zone CFM .................. Peak zone sensible load Space CFM ......... Individual peak space loads Calculation Months ............................. Jan to Dec Sizing Data .......................................... Calculated Central Cooling Coil Sizing Data Total coil load .................................... 30.9 Tons Total coil load ................................ 370.8 MBH Sensible coil load ........................... 310.8 MBH Coil CFM at Jul 1600 .................... 10512 CFM Max block CFM at Aug 1600 ........ 10644 CFM Sum of peak zone CFM ................. 11179 CFM Sensible heat ratio .................................... 0.838 ft/Ton ...................................................... 412.8 BTU/(hr-ft) ............................................... 29.1 Water flow @ 10.0 F rise ............... 74.20 gpm Load occurs at ..........................................Jul 1600 OA DB / WB .................................. 93.5 / 76.9 F Entering DB / WB .......................... 79.4 / 63.2 F Leaving DB / WB ........................... 51.9 / 50.5 F Coil ADP .................................................. 48.9 F Bypass Factor ............................................... 0.100 Resulting RH ................................................ 43 % Design supply temp. ................................. 55.0 F Zone T-stat Check ............................ 23 of 24 OK Max zone temperature deviation ................ 0.3 F Supply Fan Sizing Data Actual max CFM at Aug 1600 ....... 10644 CFM Standard CFM ................................ 10633 CFM Actual max CFM/ft ..................... 0.83 CFM/ft Fan motor BHP ................................... 13.96 BHP Fan motor kW ....................................... 10.41 kW Fan static ............................................ 4.00 in w.g. Outdoor Ventilation Air Data Design airflow CFM ........................ 1250 CFM CFM/ft ........................................ 0.10 CFM/ft CFM/person ............................. 28.28 CFM/person 47

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48 This data and the following second floor Jacksonville air handling unit data are for the modeled case-study office building with no HRD or CO 2 ventilation controls. This data provides very important information for system design. Air System Information Air System Name .................................. AHU-2 Equipment Class ............................... CW AHU Air System Type ....................................... VAV Number of zones ............................................... 25 Floor Area ........................................... 12845.0 ft Sizing Calculation Information Zone and Space Sizing Method: Zone CFM .................. Peak zone sensible load Space CFM ......... Individual peak space loads Calculation Months ............................. Jan to Dec Sizing Data .......................................... Calculated Central Cooling Coil Sizing Data Total coil load .................................... 31.4 Tons Total coil load ................................ 376.2 MBH Sensible coil load ........................... 316.5 MBH Coil CFM at Aug 1600 .................. 10632 CFM Max block CFM at Aug 1600 ........ 10787 CFM Sum of peak zone CFM ................. 11389 CFM Sensible heat ratio .................................... 0.841 ft/Ton ...................................................... 409.7 BTU/(hr-ft) ............................................... 29.3 Water flow @ 10.0 F rise ............... 75.29 gpm Load occurs at ....................................... Aug 1600 OA DB / WB ................................... 93.5 / 76.9 F Entering DB / WB ........................... 79.5 / 63.2 F Leaving DB / WB ............................ 52.0 / 50.5 F Coil ADP ................................................... 48.9 F Bypass Factor ............................................... 0.100 Resulting RH ................................................. 43 % Design supply temp. .................................. 55.0 F Zone T-stat Check ............................. 25 of 25 OK Max zone temperature deviation ................. 0.0 F Supply Fan Sizing Data Actual max CFM at Aug 1600 ....... 10787 CFM Standard CFM ................................ 10776 CFM Actual max CFM/ft ..................... 0.84 CFM/ft Fan motor BHP ................................... 14.14 BHP Fan motor kW ....................................... 10.55 kW Fan static ............................................ 4.00 in w.g. Outdoor Ventilation Air Data Design airflow CFM ........................ 1250 CFM CFM/ft ........................................ 0.10 CFM/ft CFM/person ............................. 26.15 CFM/person

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49 The following is a design load summary for the first floor Jacksonville air handling unit. This HAP output provides loads due to heat transfer through walls, windows, the roof and loads created by people, equipment and lighting. Table B-1 tabulates this data for both design cooling and heating conditions. Table B-2 is the design load summary for the second floor Jacksonville air handling unit. Table B-1. First floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville. DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING COOLING DATA AT Jul 1600 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG COOLING OA DB / WB 93.5 F / 76.9 F HEATING OA DB / WB 29.0 F / 24.4 F Sensible Latent Sensible Latent ZONE LOADS Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Window & Skylight Solar Loads 3528 ft 66149 3528 ft Wall Transmission 2830 ft 3737 2830 ft 14988 Roof Transmission 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Window Transmission 3528 ft 31482 3528 ft 82438 Skylight Transmission 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Door Loads 25 ft 590 25 ft 582 Floor Transmission 12754 ft 0 12754 ft 16592 Partitions 992 ft 4434 992 ft 0 Ceiling 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Overhead Lighting 21637 W 34900 0 0 Task Lighting 1350 W 4606 0 0 Electric Equipment 11479 W 37298 0 0 People 44 8810 9948 0 0 0 Infiltration 0 0 0 0 Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0 Safety Factor 0% / 0% 0 0 0% 0 0 >> Total Zone Loads 192005 9948 114600 0 Zone Conditioning 215513 9948 99365 0 Plenum Wall Load 32% 4522 0 0 Plenum Roof Load 0% 0 0 0 Plenum Lighting Load 45% 33222 0 0 Return Fan Load 10512 CFM 0 8400 CFM 0 Ventilation Load 1250 CFM 21598 49980 1250 CFM 48249 0 Supply Fan Load 10512 CFM 34623 8400 CFM -20824 Space Fan Coil Fans 341 -6419 Duct Heat Gain / Loss 0% 0 0% 0 >> Total System Loads 309819 59928 120372 0 Central Cooling Coil 310807 59948 -61189 0 Terminal Reheat Coils -991 181549 >> Total Conditioning 309816 59948 120360 0

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50 Tables B-3 through B-7 are the annual energy costs of each Florida City for the case-study building with each HRD applied. All five of these tables are output from the HAP model. In each city the building was run with and without an HRD and the data for all six scenarios can be compiled into one table to assess the savings associated with each HRD due to cooling. Table B-2. Second floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville. DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING COOLING DATA AT Aug 1600 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG COOLING OA DB / WB 93.5 F / 76.9 F HEATING OA DB / WB 29.0 F / 24.4 F Sensible Latent Sensible Latent ZONE LOADS Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Window & Skylight Solar Loads 3552 ft 66789 3552 ft Wall Transmission 2682 ft 2049 2682 ft 10915 Roof Transmission 12827 ft 3028 12827 ft 25932 Window Transmission 3552 ft 31704 3552 ft 83020 Skylight Transmission 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Door Loads 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Floor Transmission 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Partitions 642 ft 2416 642 ft 0 Ceiling 0 ft 0 0 ft 0 Overhead Lighting 20356 W 32920 0 0 Task Lighting 952 W 3248 0 0 Electric Equipment 11560 W 37563 0 0 People 47 9064 9607 0 0 0 Infiltration 0 0 0 0 Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0 Safety Factor 0% / 0% 0 0 0% 0 0 >> Total Zone Loads 188782 9607 119867 0 Zone Conditioning 215679 9607 90475 0 Plenum Wall Load 32% 3616 0 0 Plenum Roof Load 70% 7065 0 0 Plenum Lighting Load 45% 31254 0 0 Return Fan Load 10632 CFM 0 8900 CFM 0 Ventilation Load 1250 CFM 21267 50069 1250 CFM 47304 0 Supply Fan Load 10632 CFM 34949 8900 CFM -23393 Space Fan Coil Fans 719 -5199 Duct Heat Gain / Loss 0% 0 0% 0 >> Total System Loads 314549 59676 109187 0 Central Cooling Coil 316538 59707 -63253 0 Terminal Reheat Coils -1991 172413 >> Total Conditioning 314547 59707 109160 0

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51 Table B-3. Tallahassee annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD. Component FPL Office ($) FPL Office (HeatPipe) ($) FPL Office (Membrane) ($) FPL Office (Plate) ($) FPL Office (Wheel) ($) Air System Fans 4,114 4,158 4,273 4,221 4,308 Cooling 11,472 11,384 10,806 11,383 10,817 Heating 3,264 3,263 3,263 3,263 3,263 Pumps 1,519 1,517 1,515 1,518 1,515 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 20,369 20,323 19,857 20,385 19,902 Lights 11,014 11,000 10,982 11,003 10,983 Electric Equipment 23,655 23,627 23,587 23,632 23,589 Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,669 34,627 34,570 34,635 34,572 Grand Total 55,037 54,950 54,427 55,020 54,474 Table B-4. Jacksonville annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD. Component FPL Office ($) FPL Office (HeatPipe) ($) FPL Office (Membrane) ($) FPL Office (Plate) ($) FPL Office (Wheel) ($) Air System Fans 4,141 4,187 4,304 4,253 4,341 Cooling 11,745 11,654 11,055 11,653 11,065 Heating 2,690 2,689 2,689 2,690 2,689 Pumps 1,512 1,511 1,507 1,511 1,507 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 20,089 20,041 19,555 20,106 19,603 Lights 10,965 10,952 10,926 10,954 10,927 Electric Equipment 23,551 23,521 23,464 23,527 23,466 Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,516 34,472 34,390 34,481 34,393 Grand Total 54,604 54,513 53,945 54,587 53,996

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52 Table B-5. Tampa annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD. Component FPL Office ($) FPL Office (HeatPipe) ($) FPL Office (Membrane) ($) FPL Office (Plate) ($) FPL Office (Wheel) ($) Air System Fans 4,182 4,239 4,370 4,318 4,411 Cooling 12,416 12,316 11,644 12,316 11,656 Heating 1,595 1,595 1,593 1,595 1,593 Pumps 1,495 1,493 1,490 1,494 1,490 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 19,688 19,643 19,096 19,722 19,150 Lights 10,835 10,825 10,802 10,829 10,804 Electric Equipment 23,268 23,246 23,197 23,254 23,199 Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,103 34,072 33,999 34,083 34,003 Grand Total 53,791 53,715 53,095 53,806 53,153 Table B-6. Orlando annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD. Component FPL Office ($) FPL Office (HeatPipe) ($) FPL Office (Membrane) ($) FPL Office (Plate) ($) FPL Office (Wheel) ($) Air System Fans 4,131 4,192 4,318 4,276 4,361 Cooling 12,609 12,497 11,790 12,497 11,804 Heating 1,500 1,499 1,497 1,499 1,497 Pumps 1,498 1,497 1,493 1,497 1,493 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 19,738 19,685 19,098 19,770 19,154 Lights 10,864 10,850 10,821 10,854 10,823 Electric Equipment 23,331 23,301 23,239 23,310 23,243 Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,194 34,151 34,060 34,164 34,065 Grand Total 53,933 53,836 53,158 53,935 53,219 The HAP data shown in Table B-8 are the results for the CO 2 controls with the compared reference case that uses the changed operating schedule. Table B-8 is the Jacksonville annual energy cost associated with the new reference case using evening operation and the same case using CO 2 ventilation controls.

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53 Table B-7. Miami annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD. Component FPL Office ($) FPL Office (HeatPipe) ($) FPL Office (Membrane) ($) FPL Office (Plate) ($) FPL Office (Wheel) ($) Air System Fans 4,253 4,331 4,464 4,435 4,513 Cooling 13,434 13,329 12,417 13,330 12,434 Heating 857 856 852 857 853 Pumps 1,492 1,491 1,484 1,492 1,484 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 20,035 20,008 19,218 20,113 19,283 Lights 10,816 10,810 10,759 10,815 10,761 Electric Equipment 23,230 23,216 23,107 23,228 23,111 Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,046 33,866 34,043 33,873 Grand Total 54,081 54,034 53,084 54,157 53,156 34,026 Table B-8. Jacksonville annual cost for the changed operating schedule with and without CO 2 controls. Component FPL Office(1820) ($) FPL Office(CO2) ($) Air System Fans 5,629 5,638 Cooling 17,238 16,814 Heating 3,651 3,650 Pumps 3,571 3,576 Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 HVAC Sub-Total 30,089 29,679 Lights 10,025 10,039 Electric Equipment 21,529 21,561 Misc. Electric 0 0 Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 Non-HVAC Sub-Total 31,554 31,600 Grand Total 61,643 61,279 To determine the savings with the spreadsheet the psychrometric data for each hour and each city was produced. A sample section of this data is shown in Table B-9. This is the data for Tallahassee on January 1 st This table had to be reformatted from the spreadsheet due differences in margins. The spreadsheet formats are considerably neater. The column providing the temperatures in Rankine had to be deleted for formatting issues.

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54 Table B-9. Tallahassee psychrometric data for January 1 st 1-Jan Dry Bulb Wet Bulb P ws (t*) W s W P ws (t) W s U RH V H P w T d Hour (F) (F) (psia) (psia) (%) (ft 3 /lb da ) (Btu/lb da ) (psia) (F) 0 42.9 41.1 0.127 0.005 0.005 0.136 0.006 0.862 86.3 12.8 15.7 0.118 39.1 100 39.3 35.6 0.102 0.004 0.004 0.118 0.005 0.699 70.0 12.7 13.2 0.083 30.3 200 38 34.6 0.098 0.004 0.003 0.113 0.005 0.714 71.6 12.6 12.8 0.081 29. 6 300 37.1 34 0.096 0.004 0.003 0.109 0.005 0.733 73.4 12.6 12.6 0.080 29.3 400 36 33.2 0.093 0.004 0.003 0.104 0.004 0.752 75.3 12.6 12.2 0.078 28.9 500 34.1 31.9 0.088 0.004 0.003 0.096 0.004 0.794 79.5 12.5 11.7 0.077 28.3 600 31.9 30.2 0.082 0.003 0.003 0.088 0.004 0.823 82.4 12.5 11.0 0.073 27.0 700 32.9 30.8 0.084 0.004 0.003 0.092 0.004 0.792 79.3 12.5 11.230 0.073 27.1 800 37 33.7 0.095 0.004 0.003 0.108 0.005 0.716 71.7 12.6 12.437 0.078 28.6 900 41 36.5 0.106 0.005 0.004 0.127 0.005 0.650 65.2 12.7 13.628 0.082 30.1 1000 44.3 38.4 0.114 0.005 0.004 0.144 0.006 0.578 58.0 12.8 14.5 0.083 30.4 1100 47 39.6 0.120 0.005 0.003 0.159 0.007 0.506 50.9 12.8 15.007 0.081 29.7 1200 49.7 40.8 0.126 0.005 0.003 0.176 0.008 0.444 44.7 13.0 15.6 0.079 29.0 1300 51.7 41.7 0.130 0.006 0.003 0.190 0.008 0.405 40.8 13.0 16.0 0.077 28.6 1400 53.1 42.4 0.134 0.006 0.003 0.200 0.009 0.384 38.7 13.0 16.3 0.077 28.5 1500 54.4 43.1 0.137 0.006 0.003 0.209 0.009 0.368 37.1 13.0 16.7 0.078 28.7 1600 52.2 42.2 0.133 0.006 0.003 0.193 0.008 0.411 41.4 13.0 16.2 0.080 29.4 1700 46.5 39.6 0.120 0.005 0.004 0.156 0.007 0.532 53.5 12.8 15.0 0.084 30.5 1800 40.8 36.8 0.107 0.005 0.004 0.126 0.005 0.686 68.8 12.7 13.8 0.086 31.3 1900 36.8 34.5 0.098 0.004 0.004 0.107 0.005 0.799 80.0 12.6 12.8 0.086 31.2 2000 34.4 32.3 0.090 0.004 0.003 0.098 0.004 0.805 80.6 12.5 11.9 0.079 29.0 2100 32.1 30.1 0.081 0.003 0.003 0.089 0.004 0.794 79.54 12.5 11.0 0.071 26.3 2200 30.6 28.6 0.076 0.003 0.003 0.083 0.004 0.785 78.6 12.4 10.3 0.065 24.4 2300 30.1 28.2 0.074 0.003 0.003 0.081 0.003 0.792 79.3 12.4 10.2 0.064 24.0 Table B-10 illustrates a page in the spreadsheet that logs the consumption and demand values from the savings page to determine total savings and calculate a simple payback. This table is set up for the membrane HRD in Tallahassee. Table B-11 is a section of the savings page of the Tallahassee spreadsheet. All the numbers that are in double lined boxes are variables and can be changed for different HRD systems. The static pressure that must be overcome by the fan must be doubled to account for both fans.

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55 Table B-10. Tallahassee membrane savings and payback table. Savings Max kW per month Total kWh per month System Peak Tallahassee, Florida Cooling Heating Cooling Heating kW Reduction January 1.15 46.6 -983 2.57 E+03 38.8 February 0.23 34.1 -1.25 E+03 2.34 E+03 32.8 March 4.47 28.5 -763 1.04 E+03 24.1 April 3.79 26.2 -436 205 3.73 May 9.09 17.5 649 74.0 8.38 June 11.1 0 1.26 E+03 0 11.1 July 10.4 0 2.12 E+03 0 8.44 August 10.4 0 1.95 E+03 0 8.74 September 8.49 0 1.33 E+03 0 7.07 October 5.35 16.3 -34.21 47.0 5.35 N ovembe r 3.32 37.9 -948 1.42 E+03 36.6 December 3.29 40.9 -940 2.51 E+03 34.3 Total kWh Cooling Heating Total 1,950 10,210 12,160 Energy Save $ Saving=> $ 0.0428 $ 521 Total Demand 247 $ 8.16 $ 2,010 $ Saving Total===> $ 2,531 Systems kW Peak Summer 4pm => 11.1 Systems kW Peak Winter 8am => 38.8 Cost System $ 3.50 per cfm $ 8,750 Installation $ 2.00 per cfm $ 5,000 Total Cost ===> $ 13,750 Payback =====> 5.4 Years

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Table B-11. Tallahassee sample data of the consumption and demand values associated with a membrane HRD. 56 ERV Efficiency (%) 70 Exhaust Air T db (F) T wb (F) H (Btu/lb da ) Fan Effic. 0.6 Bypass Mode 0 1=On 0=Off Air Flow (cfm) 2500 Cooling 75 63 28.4321 Motor Effic. 0.9 Air Density (lb/ft 3 ) 0.075 Heating 70 58 25.0059 Static Press. 2 Aux. Power 1 1=Fan 0=Other Balance Point(F) 50 Other Power 0 kW Cooling (kW/ton) 1.165 Outdoor Supply Tons of Savings Heating (kW/ton) 3.516 Cooling Heating 1-Jan Dry Bulb Wet Bulb H H H Cooling Heating Cooling Heating System Hour (F) (F) (Btu/lbda) (Btu/lb da ) (Btu/lb da ) (tons) (tons) (kWh) (kWh) Peak (kW) 0 42.9 41.1 15.7 24.6 22.2 0.000 6.10 0.000 0.000 100 39.3 35.6 13.2 23.9 21.5 0.000 7.72 0.000 0.000 200 38 34.6 12.8 23.7 21.3 0.000 8.00 0.000 0.000 300 37.1 34 12.6 23.7 21.3 0.000 8.17 0.000 0.000 400 36 33.2 12.2 23.6 21.2 0.000 8.38 0.000 0.000 500 34.1 31.9 11.7 23.4 21.0 0.000 8.74 0.000 29.6 600 31.9 30.2 11.0 23.2 20.8 0.000 9.20 0.000 31.2 700 32.9 30.8 11.2 23.3 20.9 0.000 9.04 0.000 30.6 800 37 33.7 12.4 23.6 21.2 0.000 8.25 0.000 27.8 27.8 900 41 36.5 13.6 24.0 21.6 0.000 7.47 0.000 25.1 1000 44.3 38.4 14.5 24.2 21.8 0.000 6.92 0.000 23.2 1100 47 39.6 15.0 24.4 22.0 0.000 6.56 0.000 21.9 1200 49.7 40.8 15.6 24.6 22.2 0.000 6.20 0.000 20.7 1300 51.7 41.7 16.0 24.7 22.3 -8.17 0.000 -10.6 0.000 1400 53.1 42.4 16.3 24.8 22.4 -7.95 0.000 -10.4 0.000 1500 54.4 43.1 16.6 24.9 22.5 -7.73 0.000 -10.1 0.000 1600 52.2 42.2 16.2 24.8 22.4 -8.02 0.000 -10.5 0.000 1700 46.5 39.6 15.0 24.4 22.0 0.000 6.56 0.000 21.9 1800 40.8 36.8 13.8 24.0 21.6 0.000 7.38 0.000 24.8 1900 36.8 34.5 12.8 23.7 21.3 0.000 8.03 0.000 0.000 2000 34.4 32.3 11.9 23.5 21.1 0.000 8.63 0.000 0.000

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LIST OF REFERENCES American National Standard Institue/American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE), 2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Standard 62-2001. ASHRAE STANDARD. Carrier Corporation, 2002, HAP Quick Reference Guide. Carrier Software Systems Network, USA. Crowther H, December 2001, Enthalpy Wheel for Energy Recovery, HPAC Engineering, pp. 39-55. Mahon H, Kiss M, Leimer H, 1983, Efficient Energy Management, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 325-336. Mathur G, 2000, Controlling Space Humidity with Heat-Pipe exchangers, 35 th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Las Vegas, NV, vol. 2, pp. 835-842. Wellford B, October 2002, O&M for Enthalpy-Recovery systems, HPAC Engineering, pp. 58-59. Wellford B, August 2002, Sizing and Selecting Enthalpy-Recovery Ventilation Systems, HPAC Engineering, pp. 50-52. Schell M, Int-Hout D, Feb. 2001, Demand Control Ventilation using CO 2 , ASHRAE Journal, vol. 43, pp. 18-29. Shao L, Riffat S, Gan G, 1998,Heat Recovery with Low Pressure Loss for Natural Ventilation, Energy and Buildings, vol. 28, pp. 179-184. Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Zhang L, Deng Y, Jin Z, 2000, Analysis of Thermal Performance and Energy Savings of Membrane based Heat Recovery Ventilator, Energy, vol. 25, pp. 515-527. 57

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Patrick William Johns was born in Florida in 1979. While residing in Ocala he received his A.A. from Central Florida Community College in 1997. In the fall of 1999, he entered the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Florida. In 2001 he completed his B.S.M.E. He enrolled as a graduate student at the University of Florida in spring of 2002. 58


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0001380/00001

Material Information

Title: Evaluation of Heat Recovery Devices with Carbon Dioxide Ventilation Controls
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0001380:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0001380/00001

Material Information

Title: Evaluation of Heat Recovery Devices with Carbon Dioxide Ventilation Controls
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0001380:00001


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EVALUATION OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES WITH
CARBON DIOXIDE VENTILATION CONTROLS















By

PATRICK WILLIAM JOHNS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As my advisor, Dr. Herbert Ingley has helped me follow an organized path in the

completion of my Master of Science degree. I would like to thank him for his time and

guidance that he has given me. Dr. Ingley provides generous amounts of time to all his

students and I am appreciative that I was able to act as his graduate student. I thank Dr.

Yogi Goswami and Dr. Sherif Sherif for serving as my committee members and the time

they have provided.

My greatest appreciation is to my family and friends who have supported me with

my education and so much more. I also acknowledge the funding that Florida Power &

Light Company has provided for this research. Finally, I acknowledge Larry Nelson for

all the support he has given.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................... ii

L IST O F T A B L E S ................ .... .............. .............................. ................... v

LIST O F FIG U R E S .................... ................................... .... ... ... ... ...... ........ vii

N O M EN CLA TU R E ...................... .... ....................................................... viii

A B STR A C T ............. .... ....................................................................................... x

CHAPTER

1 B A C K G R O U N D ............ ............................................................. ............... .. 1

H eat R recovery D evices ........................................ .... ....... ........ ............. 1
Carbon Dioxide and Demand Control Ventilation ....................................... ......... 6
Energy A analysis Softw are...................................................................................... 9
Carrier HAP ........................................ 9
Savings Spreadsheets ........................................... .... ........ ........ ............ 10
R research Obj ectives ............................................... .. .. .... .. ............ 11

2 ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES................... ................. .. .............. 12

Com puter M odel ......... ...................... .. .. ....... .. .... .......... 12
A addition of H R D s .......................................................... .. .......... 16
C O 2 V entilation C ontrols.......................................................... ... ................. 18
E energy Spreadsheet M odel ........................................................................................ 18

3 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION ....................................................... .... ........ .. 22

H eat R ecov ery D ev ices ............................................................................ ...... ........ 22
Carbon Dioxide Demand Control Ventilation ................................. .............. 31
Heat Recovery with a CO2 Control System................................................... 34

4 CON CLU SION S .................. ........................................ ............. 37

5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK .............................................. 40

M odeling R ecom m endations ....................... .............................. ............ .............. 40
Case Study R ecom m endations........................................................ .............. 41









APPENDIX

A SPREADSHEET EQUATIONS........................................................... ........ .. 43

P sychrom etric E quations...................................................... .......................... 43
Savings Equations .................................................... ....... .. .......... 45

B CARRIER HAP AND SPREADSHEET DATA................................... ........ 47

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................................. 57

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................................................. ......................... 58











































iv
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

3-1. Annual energy cost and electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use
of an H R D ............................................................................................. 23

3-2. Monthly electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD. 23

3-3. Monthly maximum demand for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD
applied. ...................... .......................... ........ ............... 24

3-4. HRD effectiveness and power consumption values................................. ............. 25

3-5. Annual energy cost for the case-study building with each HRD............................. 26

3-6. Cost savings data comparisons for each cooling model. ........................................ 27

3-7. Total annual cost savings for each HRD in all five Florida cities ........................ 28

3-8. Simple payback for each HRD retrofit in all five Florida cities.............................. 30

3-9. CO2 annual energy cost for a continuously operating system. ................................ 32

3-10. Simple payback for a CO2 control system operating in a continuously operating
system. .................. .......................... ............... 33

3-11. Simple paybacks for all three scenarios with 24-hour building operation and
adjusted ventilation flow ..................................... ........................... ............ 36

B-1. First floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville........................ 49

B-2. Second floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville ............... 50

B-3. Tallahassee annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD ............. 51

B-4. Jacksonville annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD............... 51

B-5. Tampa annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD........................ 52

B-6. Orlando annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD..................... 52

B-7. Miami annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD ..................... 53









B-8. Jacksonville annual cost for the changed operating schedule with and without CO2
controls. ............................................................ ......... ..... 53

B-9. Tallahassee psychrometric data for January 1st.................... ...... ............................ 54

B-10. Tallahassee membrane savings and payback table. ......................................... 55

B-11. Tallahassee sample data of the consumption and demand values associated with a
membrane HRD. .............. ........ .. ..... ..... .... ........ ..... 56
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1-1. Plate/membrane HRD labeled diagram (permission of use from Florida Power &
Light Company) ............................................ ...................... ........ 2

1-2. Image of an HRD core and fan motor on the inside of the unit............................. 3

1-3. Heat and mass transfer occurring in a heat pipe (permission of use from Heat Pipe
Technology) ..................... ......... .... .......... ................................. 4

1-4. Heat pipe with air bypass damper arrangement............... .... ................. 4

1-5. Heat wheel diagram illustrating airflows (permission of use from Xetex, Inc.)......... 5

1-6. Diagram of an actual heat recovery unit assembly with labeled airflows ................ 6

1-7. Wall-mountable CO2 sensor (permission of use from AirTest).............................. 8

1-8. Duct-mountable CO2 sensor illustration showing the probe (permission of use from
A irT e st) ...................................... ............................ .. ....... .............. 8

2-1. First floor duct layout displaying the locations of the 24 VAV boxes. ................ 15

2-2. Second floor duct layout consisting of 25 VAV boxes....................................... 16

2-3. HRD illustration of the orientation of the airflows for equation 2.2. ....................... 17

3-1. Geographical locations for designation of recommended HRDs. ......................... 26















NOMENCLATURE


AHU air handling unit

CAV constant air volume

CO2 carbon dioxide

DCV demand control ventilation

DDC direct digital control

FTU fan terminal unit

HAP hourly analysis program

HRD heat recovery device

HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

Q airflow rate [cfm]

T dry-bulb temperature [F]

TMY typical meteorological year

T(OR) temperature [OR]

VAV variable air volume

W humidity ratio

h enthalpy [Btu/lbda]

hr hour

min minute

p pressure [psia]










yr

Greek






v


p




subscripts

EA

OA

OASupply

R

air

d

da

fan

motor

s

static

w

ws

superscripts


year




degree of saturation

relative humidity [%]

specific volume [ft3/lbda]

density [lb/ft3]

efficiency




exhaust air

outdoor air

outdoor air supply

room air

based on air

dew point

dry air

based on fan

based on motor

saturated

based on static (pertaining to static pressure)

partial based on water vapor

saturation vapor


based on wet-bulb















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science
EVALUATION OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES WITH
CARBON DIOXIDE VENTILATION CONTROLS

By

Patrick William Johns

August 2003

Chair: H. A. Ingley
Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of combining the

use of heat recovery devices with carbon dioxide ventilation controls. The cost

effectiveness of using these systems together was compared with the effectiveness of

operating each system separately. This study modeled a commercial office building with

current software to simulate annual energy costs for five different Florida cities.

Each scenario was applied to the model to determine the reduction of annual energy

cost. A spreadsheet was also used to model each heat recovery device to compensate for

deficiencies in the commercial computer software also used for this study. The software

did not produce savings due to reductions in the heating load. This was partially due to

the inability to schedule chiller operation.

The actual operating schedule for the case-study building did not promote

significant energy reduction associated with carbon dioxide controls. This operating

schedule was changed to allow chiller operation during the evening hours. This change









in building operation created a different reference case for the heat recovery and carbon

dioxide control savings. The heat recovery devices were modeled with the original

reference case that did not involve evening operation. The carbon dioxide controls were

modeled against a different reference that did allow the evening operation. Each of these

reference cases produced different annual energy costs, which resulted in the remodeling

of the heat recovery devices. The heat recovery devices were remodeled with evening

operation so that an estimate of savings due to operating both systems could be

determined.

It was concluded that the heat recovery devices with enthalpy exchange are cost

effective for several areas in Florida and could possibly be considered for others. The

carbon dioxide control was also determined to be effective for some areas. The

combination of using both these systems was not found to be cost effective for Florida

cities with the modeling technique that this research used. It has been recommended that

additional research be conducted for a more accurate modeling of simultaneous use of

both systems.














CHAPTER 1
BACKGROUND

This chapter provides the technical background supporting the thesis on heat

recovery devices and carbon dioxide controls as tools for saving energy. Previous work

described in the literature on heat recovery devices, carbon dioxide controls, and energy

analysis software has been reviewed and provides a benchmark for the current research.

This literature review resulted in the development of the research objectives that are

addressed within this report.

Heat Recovery Devices

Heat recovery devices have demonstrated their capability of reducing energy cost

by the preconditioning of ventilation air. These devices are categorized as sensible or

enthalpy heat exchangers (Crowther, 2001). The ventilation air exchanges heat with the

exhaust air from the building to reduce or raise, depending on whether the season is

summer or winter, its temperature and/or the enthalpy. The rates of ventilation airflows

are generally based on the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, Ventilationfor

Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (Wellford, Aug. 2002). Some common sensible devices

are plate exchangers, heat-pipes, and sensible wheels. Typical enthalpy exchangers are

enthalpy wheels and permeable-membrane plates.

A heat recovery device (HRD) can be an important addition to the heating,

ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a building because 30% or more of

the cooling or heating load can be attributed to ventilation (Crowther, 2001). By

reducing the load due to ventilation great amounts of energy can be saved. Each HRD









has its own advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when designing an

HVAC system. According to an article in HPAC Engineering, heat recovery devices

(specifically enthalpy wheels) should be selected by assessing the tradeoff between

energy effectiveness, pressure drop, and first cost (Wellford, Aug. 2002). This can be

stated for all HRDs with additional selection criteria including maintenance, additional

moving parts, and size.







Core








Figure 1-1. Plate/membrane HRD labeled diagram (permission of use from Florida
Power & Light Company).



devices require no moving parts, are easy to clean and install, but will require a large

mechanical space (Crowther, 2001). The permeable-membrane uses adsorption and

convection to remove heat and water from the warmer and more humid air stream (Zhang

et al., 2000). Desorption and convection adds heat and mass into the cooler dryer air

stream. For membrane type heat exchangers the vapor pressure is normally the driving

force for moisture transfer. During cooling, the vapor pressure of the ventilation air

would be greater than the exhaust air and would cause the water molecules to pass

through the membrane. Membranes can consist of many milli-pores that only allow the









water molecules to pass thru and can stop others, such as the ammonia molecule. The

plate exchanger does not use water diffusion, which is why this is a sensible only device.

The cross flow exchangers tend to have small pressure drops with thermal effectiveness

values ranging from 50 to 80% and up to 85% for the permeable-membranes. A diagram

of an HRD is shown in Figure 1-1. This type of HRD can use a plate or permeable-

membrane, which slides into the core. Figure 1-1 also labels the airstreams and their

direction of flow. The core is the actual plate or membrane used. The inside of an HRD

is shown in Figure 1-2 and the core is the main aspect of this image.
















Figure 1-2. Image of an HRD core and fan motor on the inside of the unit.

Heat-pipe heat exchangers use an intermediate fluid to exchange heat between

building exhaust air and ventilation air. The heat-pipe device does not occupy much

space, but this is a sensible only device (Crowther, 2001). Figure 1-2 illustrates the heat

and mass transfer that occurs in a heat pipe (heat pipe figures used with the permission of

Heat Pipe Technology). The intermediate fluid will vaporize in the pipe when the hotter

air passes over the pipe (Mathur, 2000). This is shown in Figure 1-3 as the liquid (A)

boils and becomes a vapor (B). The intermediate fluid then condenses on the cold-air










side of the pipe to heat the air. At point C in the heat pipe diagram the heat is released to

the cold air stream (C) and becomes a liquid that moves by gravity (D) to the liquid pool.


CD
.-_
Condenser
Section






A Evaporator
Section
Figure 1-3. Heat and mass transfer occurring in a heat pipe (permission of use from Heat
Pipe Technology).

Heat pipes are becoming more advanced. Heat Pipe Technology has implemented

an air bypass damper for the outdoor air to flow through for situations of moderate

outdoor temperatures. This is done because at these moderate temperatures there is no

savings from passing the air across the heat pipe. A good visual of this design is shown

in Figure 1-4. This figure illustrates winter operation and the arrangement of the bypass

damper. Thermal effectiveness values up to 50% have been recorded for the heat-pipe

HRD's (Shao et al., 1998). However, other reports state that the effectiveness can reach

70% (Mahon et al., 1983).

WARM SUPPLY AIR AIR BYPASS DAMPER
WARM INSIDE AIR








COLD OUTSIDE AIR

COOL EXHAUST AIR
Figure 1-4. Heat pipe with air bypass damper arrangement.









The sensible and enthalpy wheels do just as their names imply by exchanging

sensible or sensible and latent heat, respectively. The wheels do not affect air handling

unit (AHU) cabinet length significantly and have low pressure drops, but require moving

parts. Cross-contamination is also an issue with these wheels (Crowther, 2001). The

wheels tend to use the same type of heat transfer mechanisms as the cross-flow HRDs.

However, the wheels rotate between the building exhaust air and ventilation air. Due to

the possibility of cross-contamination, the wheels are not used when there may be toxins

or fumes in the building exhaust air. If ventilation air contamination is an issue then a

cross-flow HRD is a better choice. The sensible wheels have effectiveness values

ranging from 50 to 80% and up to 85% for the enthalpy wheels (Crowther, 2001). A

diagram of a heat wheel is shown in Figure 1-5.



4 --

---^J __ ^ ..~1








Figure 1-5. Heat wheel diagram illustrating airflows (permission of use from Xetex,
Inc.).

Wheels, plates and membranes tend to be placed in similar looking units. The heat

pipe is generally smaller. Figure 1-6 is a labeled photo of what a unit could look like

with the duct attached. This image has been used with permission by Florida Power &









Light Company. The photo provides a good visual of the outdoor air hood that keeps

debris and any other foreign objects from entering the unit.













Figure 1-6. Diagram of an actual heat recovery unit assembly with labeled airflows.

The maintenance for a HRD is dependent on construction and the methods of heat

transfer that are incorporated. It is very important to keep a schedule for maintenance on

the HRD so that it operates at the optimum efficiency. Common tasks are to replace

filters, clean the device with a manufacturer's suggested cleaner, check moving parts, and

other tasks required by the manufacturer (Wellford, Oct. 2002).

Carbon Dioxide and Demand Control Ventilation

ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 states that if ventilation air holds indoor spaces to CO2

concentrations below 700 ppm above outdoor air concentrations then the space should be

properly ventilated (ANSI/ASHRAE, 2001). This specification results in 15-25

cfm/person (8-13 L/s-person) of ventilation needed for physical activities in the 1-2 met

units. A met is the unit of measure for the metabolic rate a sedentary person. One met is

equal to 18.4 Btu/h-ft2 (50kcal/h.m2). Common practice is to use 20 cfm/person of

ventilation air to satisfy ASHRAE Std. 62. The ventilation air will then be a constant

flow for each space even when there may not be any occupants. This ventilation load on









the cooling coil results in wasted energy and is why a new system has been recently

devised, demand control ventilation (DCV) with CO2 monitoring.

DCV monitors the amount of CO2 in the space and controls the amount of

ventilation per person in real-time (Schell, 2001). The measurement of the CO2 is

generally accomplished with infrared sensors. The CO2 absorbs light at a specific

wavelength and a sensor relates the light intensity to the CO2 concentration (Schell,

2001). The sensors can be placed within the space or within the return air from that

particular space.

The CO2 sensors require frequent calibration with calibration periods occurring

approximately every six months. However, some CO2 products may require recalibration

every three months. The calibration periods seem to be functions of the particular sensor

and manufacturer. Self-calibrating sensors have also been discussed as an option. These

sensors will recalibrate in the evening when all occupants are gone and the only

contribution of CO2 is due to the outdoor reference concentration (Schell, 2001). A

problem with this method of calibration is that the ventilation system would have to be

run in the evening, which is normally when the system is turned off to save on energy.

However, the sequence of operation could be defined to only run the system long enough

to recalibrate.

Sensors can be placed on a wall in the space or the return air duct. A wall-mounted

sensor may look something like Figure 1-7. This sensor has digital display that provides

the parts per million (ppm) of CO2, but there are cheaper models that do not have

displays. Figure 1-8 displays a sensor that probes a duct to take measurements.

Placement of the sensor in the duct returns an average CO2 concentration of all the zones









as opposed to wall placement, which have more control over specific space ventilation

(Schell, 2001). Schell also makes note to not place these sensors near doors, windows,

air registers, or any place a person would most likely stand. Carbon dioxide control can

be very simple. The strategy of using a sensor in the return duct simply enables a control

over total ventilation air by modulating this air quantity based on an average CO2 value.

The control becomes more complicated when integrated with variable air volume (VAV)

control.













Figure 1-7. Wall-mountable CO2 sensor (permission of use from AirTest).














Figure 1-8. Duct-mountable CO2 sensor illustration showing the probe (permission of
use from AirTest).

The CO2 and thermostat must work together to provide enough ventilation and

maintain the space at a comfortable temperature. Consider this example to better

understand how CO2 control and a thermostat would work. A room may contain a few









people with no windows or the blinds being closed. There may not be much heat from

the occupants and the window load could be low enough that the thermostat would be

satisfied. The VAV box would want to close because the room does not need as much air

to condition the space. However, the CO2 sensors would notice that the room was

occupied and would minimize the VAV box turndown. The controls would make sure

the VAV box would still provide enough ventilation for the occupancy. This may result

in some reheating of the air. Reheat is an energy cost but will be required to provide the

proper ventilation to the space.

Energy Analysis Software

The energy analysis software used to model the office building is Carrier's Hourly

Analysis Program (HAP) version 4.10b. Spreadsheets are used in conjunction with the

model calculating the savings from each HRD and a simple payback. A brief background

follows for a better understanding of the methodologies regarding these two computer

programs.

Carrier HAP

In the HVAC industry, engineers use computer software to model buildings. These

models are created so that the building load can be calculated. This load data are then

used to size the HVAC equipment. HAP is used to calculate the load for commercial

buildings (Carrier Corporation, 2002). For these load calculations, HAP uses a transfer

function method, one of the methods ASHRAE recognizes for load calculation. Not only

does Carrier's HAP estimate the load and provide data for design equipment but it also

simulates the energy use and cost for the modeled building. This software is very

comprehensive because it simulates the building for every hour of the year.









The design of the equipment consists of using the cooling and heating loads to

determine airflow, coil, fan, and chiller sizes (Carrier Corporation, 2002). The hour-by-

hour energy simulations are run for both HVAC and non-HVAC systems. HAP

simulates the HVAC systems with Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data to estimate

the energy cost of the building. These data are produced for the most typical months

using long-term weather observations. The cost of this energy determined from the

simulated data is determined by applying utility local rates. The engineer's modeling of a

building becomes a great aid in the design of HVAC systems and can be easily changed

for many building scenarios. More information about Carrier's HAP can be found in the

next chapter.

Savings Spreadsheets

This section is a brief discussion of the spreadsheets used for savings calculations.

More detail is provided within the methodologies in the next chapter. The spreadsheets

model the annual savings for an HRD and the simple payback associated with each

device. To calculate the savings, the weather data for a given city must be reduced using

psychrometric equations. These equations are taken from the most recent ASHRAE

Fundamentals Handbook, 2002. These equations are listed in Appendix A.

The savings spreadsheets were made for this particular application and have the

potential to be used to determine the effectiveness of a specific HRD in any city where

dry and wet-bulb temperature data are known. These calculations are done for each of

the 8,760 hours in a year just as Carrier's HAP does. This results in a detailed program

that is also very flexible, with many of the components of an HRD system being treated

as variables. These variables and other information about these spreadsheet

methodologies are explained in Chapter Two of this thesis.









Research Objectives

The basis of this thesis is to determine if it is cost effective to use HRDs with CO2

ventilation controls. A two-story office building that uses a VAV system with one AHU

per floor and a rooftop unit for the computer room was selected for the case study. Data

for five cities listed in ASHRAE Std. 90.1-2001 for Florida were studied. These cities

are major metropolitan areas: Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando and Miami.

Tallahassee has the most heating degree-days and least cooling degree-days for Florida.

Miami has the least heating and most cooling degree-days for a large metropolitan area in

Florida. With these five cities there is a diverse set of situations.

The approach was to model the subject building with Carrier's HAP using CO2

sensors, each type of HRD, and then with both HRDs and CO2 controls in operation

simultaneously. The relative savings associated with each scenario was determined. The

cost effectiveness of using each scenario based on a simple payback calculation was then

determined as another comparison between each circumstance. Finally, the practicality

of using HRDs with CO2 controls was addressed while noting any restrictions or

requirements of operation. With the conclusion to these research objectives, guidelines

for the use of heat recovery devices and CO2 demand control will be developed.














CHAPTER 2
ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

The analysis of savings related to HRDs and CO2 DCV was modeled with the

Carrier HAP v.4.10b software. The modeling of an office building with several scenarios

of different HRDs and CO2 control strategies produces estimates of savings for each

scenario. As a part of the model, a spreadsheet was created for each city chosen. The

spreadsheets calculate the savings and payback for each HRD. This chapter provides the

methodology devised to determine the savings and cost effectiveness.

Computer Model

The Carrier HAP computer model was used to analyze cooling and heating loads

for the selected office building. This model was verified by data that was collected from

the actual building. The monthly kilowatt-hour data metered at the building was

compared to the computer model results to prove the validity of the model. Once

verified, the model was executed for the building with different HRDs and then with a

CO2 controls strategy. Finally, a scenario combining the CO2 sensors with each HRD was

executed. A savings report was created to compare the savings for each model. The

following will discuss the modeling process of different building components.

The office building was modeled for each particular city stated in the research

objectives. For the control most resembling actual control in the building, the zones were

assigned as if they were their own spaces. This translates into some rooms (spaces) being

modeled as many individual spaces. Some zones do provide the same control to two or

three different rooms, which results in 63 rooms for 49 zones in the building. Each space









requires specific inputs to calculate the load for that particular space. Some examples of

inputs are listed below:

* Floor area
* Ceiling height
* Lighting and equipment loads
* Occupancy and activity levels
* Schedules of occupants, lights and equipment
* Wall, roof, window and floor dimensions and thermal properties
* Infiltration rates

All wall, roof, window and floor dimensions and thermal properties were needed to

calculate the building load. This information was determined by analyzing the drawings

and plans for the case-study building. The wall construction in the subject two-story

office building is comprised of precast concrete, two inch sprayed on insulation, metal

studs and drywall. To calculate the heat transfer through the walls the overall heat

transfer coefficient had to be found. The R-values for each wall component, the exterior

film coefficient, and internal film coefficient were found in the 2001 ASHRAE

Fundamental Handbook. Equation 2.1 used these R-values to calculate the U-factor for

that particular wall.


U- factor = (2.1)
nR,-value


The horizontal roof is comprised of built-up roofing on one and a half-inch light

concrete and a four-inch insulation board. With this information the U-factor for the roof

can be calculated with Equation 2.1. The windows are one-inch insulating glass

(approximately 40% of the exterior walls are glass). The floor is a four-inch slab-on-

grade. All wall, floor, roof, and window dimensions were measured from the drawings to

account for all surfaces that transfer heat. Other information, such as the wattage of









lighting, was taken from the drawings. The wattage for the lights was broken up for each

particular zone. Each zone has a particular number of different light fixtures and the

lighting schedule was used to determine the wattage of each. The total wattage for each

zone was then calculated by summing all the light fixtures for that particular area.

A site visit was made to verify all the building construction and other

characteristics. The interior wall construction and lighting was surveyed to assure the

building was properly modeled. During the site visit new construction was noted. There

were new interior wall constructions and local occupancy for each particular zone had

changed. The lighting and other systems were as the drawings indicated. This field

verification of the building was very important in the modeling of the studied building.

The systems were modeled with each floor of the two-story building being assigned

an AHU. Both AHUs use chilled water for cooling and provide air to a VAV system

with ducted return. The majority of the VAV boxes are parallel fan powered boxes with

electric resistance for reheat. There is also a rooftop unit that provides air through a

constant air volume (CAV) system to a computer room on the second floor. For an

understanding of each floor's layout, the duct layouts are shown in figures 2-1 and 2-2.

The fan-powered boxes are identified by the fan terminal unit (FTU) symbol. The boxes

that are noted with VAV do not have fans.

The ventilation airflow rate is set for the original design conditions, which

designated 125 occupants. The building does not currently have this many occupants, but

the ventilation airflow rate is set for the original design. The new occupancy was taken

during the site visit. A head count was made and a total of approximately 90 people

occupied the building. This level of occupancy was modeled with an excess of









ventilation entering the building. The modeled occupancy schedule is from 6 AM till 6

PM and the HVAC systems start an hour before the building is in use. The chilled water

is supplied from one of two identical 40-ton air-cooled screw chillers with the other

acting as a back up. The chiller information was taken from the manufacturer's

specification sheets. Finally, all these systems were assigned to a building with specific

electric rates. The utility rates were designated by Florida Power & Light Company as

the GSD-1 rate. This rate charges $0.0428/kWh of electrical consumption and $8.16/kW

of demand for each month. The tax rate applied in this utility rate is 10%. A monthly

customer charge of $32.54 is applied regardless of the consumption or demand levels.


Figure 2-1. First floor duct layout displaying the locations of the 24 VAV boxes.





























Figure 2-2. Second floor duct layout consisting of 25 VAV boxes.

Addition of HRDs

To input an HRD into the HAP model certain criteria are needed. The devices need

to be noted as a sensible or sensible and latent device. The plate and heat-pipe units were

entered as sensible devices. The enthalpy wheel and permeable-membrane were modeled

as sensible and latent devices. The effectiveness and power consumed differs for all the

HRD's. For the effectiveness and power consumed, commonly used HRDs of each type

were chosen based on the design ventilation airflow rate. The effectiveness and power

can be easily changed and are stated within the analysis and results chapter.

Effectiveness is calculated differently for sensible and total heat exchangers. The

sensible effectiveness values were computed using the following equation:

T -T
Thermal Effectiveness(%) = OA A_Suppy (2.2)
TOA TEA










Sensible effectiveness uses the dry-bulb temperatures of the outdoor air (OA), outdoor air

supply (OA_Supply), and exhaust air (EA). Figure 2-3 is a diagram of these flow

orientations, as they would be in a plate or membrane HRD.

Outdoor Air Relief Air


Plate or Membrane
S Heat Exchanger




Exhaust Air Outdoor Air Supply
Figure 2-3. HRD illustration of the orientation of the airflows for equation 2.2.

The outdoor air supply is the preconditioned outdoor air that mixes with the return

air before entering the AHU. The exhaust air is normally taken from the bathrooms or

general exhaust and then exits the HRD to the atmosphere. For the total heat exchangers

that transfer sensible and latent heat, dry-bulb temperatures are replaced with enthalpies

at the same states, see equation 2.3.

h QA -h QA Supply
Thermal Effectiveness(%) = OA OASppy (2.3)
hoA -hEA

An HRD schedule can be created if the system is to only operate during particular

months of the year. By changing the schedule, the system could be turned off in the

winter or summer, but the schedule for this model was left enabled to operate year-round.

For simplicity the HAP model allows for the duplication of the model. This allows

several copies of the same model in one file and the HRD can be changed very easily

without recreating the same model many times.









CO2 Ventilation Controls

Carrier's HAP controls the amount of ventilation to a space based on the occupancy

level. This is not the most effective way to control ventilation. The ventilation should be

controlled by the amount of CO2 in a space. HAP uses a constant design airflow

(cfm/person) that will only change with the change of occupancy. This does not work

properly unless people leave the building. After discussion with Carrier's technical staff,

discovery of a future model of HAP has been reported to model the CO2 control method

in a more proper manner that measures CO2 levels.

HAP requires a design airflow, minimum airflow (%), and damper leakage rate

(%). As stated previously, the design airflow is defined by using flow rate per person

(cfm/person). The model uses this value and the number of occupants that the air system

serves to determine the air flow rate. The minimum airflow is the percentage that VAV

boxes must stay open. This minimum setting may provide the following two benefits.

The electric heat strips that are in the VAV boxes must have a nominal amount of air

passing over them to prevent failure. Normal practice is to use a 40% minimum opening

for the boxes just for heat strip protection. The second benefit to constrain the minimum

flow is to provide the minimum outside air requirement. The damper leakage rate is the

percentage of outdoor air leaks in when dampers are closed due to the building being

unoccupied. This value is assumed to be zero for the model.

Energy Spreadsheet Model

The energy spreadsheet model was originally created to deal with heating savings,

which were not estimated properly using the HAP software. The spreadsheet model does

not work directly with data supplied by the HAP model. This is an independent program

that does use the same TMY data that HAP uses. The spreadsheet specializes in HRDs









and can be easily run for different units very quickly. The spreadsheet is comparable to

the HAP model for HRD savings. With the HAP model not predicting any heating

savings the comparison between each computer program must be done purely by cooling

savings. In order to validate the spreadsheet model, spreadsheet results for cooling only

were compared to HAP results for cooling. The HAP energy savings results were

calculated by the difference in annual energy costs between the building modeled with

and without an HRD.

The spreadsheet model allows for the balance point temperature of the building to

be changed so that chillers can be turned off at this outdoor temperature, which is how

the subject building operates. The internal loads of the building can create enough heat to

reduce the need for the heating systems to operate. The outdoor temperature at which

heating is finally needed is the balance point temperature.

This spreadsheet calculates the ventilation load savings and does not model a

particular building or CO2 control system. The spreadsheets will help compare each

HRD individually with annual savings and simple payback being the calculated results.

The simple payback does not take into account savings from reduction in equipment size

due to HRD use. The use of an HRD will allow the load on the cooling coil to drop and

the amount of energy needed from the chiller to be reduced. This may result in a smaller

chiller size with a cheaper first cost. The simple payback is modeled as if the HRD was

used in a retrofit situation and the reduction of other equipment size is not a factor.

The first page of each of the five spreadsheets contains all the psychrometric data

for every hour for a typical year. The dry and wet-bulb temperatures are taken from

TMY data and the rest of the psychrometric data is calculated with equations taken from









the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (see Appendix A). The TMY data are text

files that include average dry and wet-bulb temperatures for a particular city. The TMY

data are typically used in load-calculating software and is used in HAP. The dry and wet-

bulb temperatures and enthalpies are then taken to the next page of the spreadsheet where

the savings are calculated for each hour. This savings page calculates kilowatt-hour and

peak kilowatt savings for cooling and heating. Each HRD can be modeled by changing

the variables located at the top of the savings sheet. These variables include:

* Effectiveness (%)
* Ventilation airflow rate (cfm)
* Air density (lbm/ft3)
* Building balance point (F)
* Exhaust air enthalpy for cooling and heating (Btu/lbda)
* Fan and motor efficiency (%)
* Fan static pressure drop (psia)
* Cooling and heating power (kW/ton)

The building will only operate in the heating mode when the outdoor air

temperature drops below the balance point. This creates a dead band region from the

balance point up to the point where the ventilation air supply enthalpy or temperature is

above the same exhaust condition. Whether it is a sensible or total HRD determines

whether this condition is considered as enthalpy or temperature. This dead band region is

where it actually costs money to have the HRD in operation. To resolve this issue a

bypass could be put in place for dead band periods. A bypass will not be considered for

this thesis. The spreadsheet is set up to run a bypass for a given system, but the cost of a

bypass system has not been researched. The bypass system will involve different

components depending on the type of HRD. The cost must include dampers, sensors,

controls and any additional ductwork. Other issues with controls and how these will









match with the CO2 controls have not been addressed and may produce more costs that

have not been researched.

The final page of the spreadsheet tabulates the monthly totals of kilowatt-hours and

the peak kilowatt value for that month. With these consumption and demand values, the

annual savings were determined using the utility rates discussed in the Computer Model

section. The first cost and installation cost of the HRD system is then used to calculate

the simple payback (years) for each system. This simple payback is calculated by

comparing the operating cost of a constant ventilation airflow system that uses no

preconditioning of the outdoor air to the operating cost with an HRD. Equation 2.4

calculates the simple payback and is also listed in Appendix A as Equation A. 16.

S e P k () Total Cost Savings per year .
Simple Payback (yrs) = (2.4)
Total Cost

The paybacks prescribed are for retrofits. The cost of an HRD for new construction

would be slightly offset by the fact that the refrigeration equipment could be sized down.

The retrofit payback that is being calculated is actually larger than what it would be for

new construction.














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter discusses the results created with both computer models for each

scenario involving HRDs and CO2 DCV. The sections are categorized by scenario type.

The first section is dedicated to HRD's operating alone and the results from the HAP

model and the spreadsheet model. The use of a CO2 control system is addressed next.

The final section discusses the scenarios involving an HRD with a CO2 control system.

Heat Recovery Devices

Each HRD was first simulated in the HAP model that was created for the case-

study office building. The case-study building was modeled in HAP for each of the five

Florida cities as a reference for each HRD to be compared to for annual savings. The

annual savings for each HRD is only associated with savings due to cooling. The HAP

model does not take into account any savings for heating mode. The reason for this has

not been identified, but the model also cannot be set to shut off the chillers when the

outdoor air drops below the balance point. This operation of shutting down chillers is

how the case-study building conducted energy management, but this is not a standard for

all buildings.

Assuming equal electric rates for all five Florida cities, the annual energy cost,

annual electrical consumption and maximum demand cost was compared between each

city without the use of an HRD. The annual energy cost and electrical consumption is

listed in Table 3-1. This comparison is used to create an idea of how the case-study

building would operate in any of the given Florida cities. For a more detailed comparison









of these cities, Tables 3-2 and 3-3 compare the monthly electrical consumption and

maximum demand for each of the five cities.

Table 3-1. Annual energy cost and electrical consumption for five Florida cities without
the use of an HRD.
Annual Energy Annual Electrical Energy Electrical
Cost Consumption Cost Consumption
Florida City ($) (kWh) ($/ft2) (kWh/ft2
Tallahassee 55,037 747,656 2.13 28.9
Jacksonville 54,604 745,059 2.11 28.8
Tampa 53,791 742,988 2.08 28.7
Orlando 53,933 742,978 2.08 28.7
Miami 54,081 748,261 2.09 28.9

Table 3-2. Monthly electrical consumption for five Florida cities without the use of an
HRD.
Electrical Consumption (kWh)
Month Tallahassee Jacksonville Tampa Orlando Miami
Jan. 66,782 65,759 63,199 63,269 62,541
Feb. 57,249 56,420 55,403 54,720 55,299
March 59,702 58,564 59,111 59,225 60,336
April 59,528 59,852 59,681 59,818 61,296
May 63,357 63,910 64,790 64,980 65,085
June 60,302 60,494 61,025 61,230 60,977
July 66,732 66,784 67,034 67,503 67,643
Aug. 64,981 65,503 65,956 65,478 66,286
Sept. 61,179 61,270 62,375 62,029 63,397
Oct. 62,398 62,257 64,092 64,003 64,866
Nov. 59,776 59,568 58,656 58,826 59,500
Dec. 65,671 64,677 61,666 61,895 61,036

The costs associated with the office building are very similar for Tampa and

Orlando. This is to be expected due to the close distance between the cities and that they

are almost on the same latitude line. The other cities vary in operating energy and annual

cost. It is important to note that for each city the energy costs due to cooling and heating

account for 26% of the annual cost. This is a large percentage and leaves a lot of room

for reducing annual energy cost. This leads to operating the building with each HRD to

find the savings associated with each.









Table 3-3. Monthly maximum demand for five Florida cities without the use of an HRD
applied.
Maximum Demand (kW)
Month Tallahassee Jacksonville Tampa Orlando Miami
Jan. 211.7 197.4 172.8 174.0 159.8
Feb. 174.2 165.8 162.8 160.7 165.9
March 180.6 160.9 158.7 165.3 165.6
April 163.7 170.7 164.5 165.2 169.6
May 171.7 174.1 172.7 177.1 172.5
June 183.7 189.7 177.9 182.5 177.9
July 183.1 180.2 180.5 185.1 179.2
Aug. 180.5 186.4 180.4 180.7 180.6
Sept. 176.9 179.9 174.6 175.5 180.3
Oct. 163.1 159.2 175.8 167.3 176.5
Nov. 171.9 167.1 164.9 162.8 163.0
Dec. 201.2 196.1 162.1 167.7 161.4

The effectiveness values and power consumed by each HRD was needed for

modeling purposes. Different vendors were contacted for selection data. These data

include the effectiveness values that are needed. The permeable-membrane is not a

device that can be purchased at this time. The values for this HRD are taken from

uncertified data provided by the vendor.

Since this is a retrofit, additional fans were required to overcome the pressure drop

of the HRD. The fan power was calculated for each HRD with the following equation.

Q P p 0.746
Fan Power (kW) = static 746(3.1)
6356 r1fan motor Pair V

The pressure drop is substituted in for the pstatic value to calculate the fan power. The fan

power equation also consists of the air flow rate, Q (cfm), efficiencies, r1, air density, pair

(lb/ft3), and specific volume, v (ft3/lb). This power must be doubled because there are

two fans in the HRD. The effectiveness values and power are listed in Table 3-4 for each

HRD. The effectiveness values are sensible effectiveness for the heat pipe and plate, but

the heat wheel and permeable-membrane have the total effectiveness values listed.









Table 3-4. HRD effectiveness and power consumption values.
Heat Recovery Device Effectiveness (%) Power Consumed (kW)
Permeable-membrane 70 1.1
Enthalpy wheel 69 1.3
Heat pipe 58 0.48
Plate 61 1.1

For the enthalpy wheel and membrane, the two that use sensible and latent heat

exchange, the effectiveness values are relatively the same but notice that the enthalpy

wheel requires more power. This is due to the need for power to rotate the wheel at all

times. The heat pipe has a low effectiveness value, which is a flag that this will not

produce much savings, especially since this is only for the sensible exchange. The plate

has a slightly higher effectiveness, but this consumes considerable power. With these

data the model was then run for each city with each HRD.

The first result compared for each HRD was the annual energy cost. The annual

energy cost for the building is listed for each HRD and without an HRD in Table 3-5.

These results show that the membrane is the best HRD to use according to annual energy

cost reduction. The heat pipe and plate do not reduce the annual energy cost

significantly. The plate tends to increase the energy cost and only reduces the cost

slightly in Tallahassee and Jacksonville where the temperatures become colder. It can be

stated that the use of HRDs that only exchange sensible heat should not be used in

Florida. This confirms information that has already been stated by some vendors. Figure

3-1 designates the geographical locations in the U.S. where sensible HRD's should be

used according to Venmar Company. With permission from Tom Barrow Co., this figure

was taken from the Venmar web page. This figure designates sensible HRD's as HRV

units. The darker of the two regions is where enthalpy HRDs should be used and the

lighter regions designate HRV unit use.









Table 3-5. Annual energy cost for the case-study building with each HRD.
Annual Energy Cost ($)
No HRD Membrane Enthalpy Heat pipe Plate
Florida City wheel
Tallahassee 55,037 54,427 54,474 54,950 55,020
Jacksonville 54,604 53,945 53,996 54,513 54,587
Tampa 53,791 53,095 53,153 53,715 53,806
Orlando 53,933 53,158 53,219 53,836 53,935
Miami 54,081 53,084 53,156 54,034 54,157


HRVs -
SEnthalpy
HR.Ds


Figure 3-1. Geographical locations for designation of recommended HRDs.

The data that have been presented have only taken into account the savings due to

cooling. As stated previously, the heating savings does not show up in the HAP model.

For the total savings associated with each HRD, the energy spreadsheet model was run.

To compare these two models the spreadsheet heating savings was deleted to only

account for cooling. These data compare well for the enthalpy exchangers, but the

sensible device data do not match. The data are shown in Table 3-6 with the HAP model

data being assumed as the correct data in the percent difference calculation.


";









Table 3-6. Cost savings data comparisons for each cooling model.
Spreadsheet HAP %
Florida City HRD ($) ($) Difference
Tallahassee Membrane 562 610 7.8
Enthalpy wheel 508 563 9.8
Heat pipe 0 87 100
Plate -112 17 758
Jacksonville Membrane 557 659 15
Enthalpy wheel 502 608 17
Heat pipe 2 91 98
Plate -112 17 758
Tampa Membrane 725 696 4.2
Enthalpy wheel 666 638 4.4
Heat pipe 20 76 74
Plate -97 -15 547
Orlando Membrane 752 775 3.0
Enthalpy wheel 692 714 3.1
Heat pipe 53 97 45
Plate -64 -2 310
Miami Membrane 1018 997 2.1
Enthalpy wheel 954 925 3.0
Heat pipe 84 47 79
Plate -31 -76 59

The percent difference between the spreadsheet and the HAP model, for energy

cost, ranges from 2.1 to 17% for the enthalpy exchangers. The high-end difference is not

technically an issue with the spreadsheet. Contact with Carrier resulted in the knowledge

that the software does not allow for simulations of reclaim devices that are counter

productive. In terms of the HRD use, this means that the penalty due to operating in the

dead band region is not taken into account. This becomes more of an issue for larger

dead band regions and is most likely the issue with the Jacksonville and Tallahassee HAP

data. Why the sensible HRD values are not closer between models is not completely

understood. Carrier has been contacted and this issue is being addressed. A part of this

may be due to the void of penalty in the HAP model. Regardless of this difference, the

HAP model has shown that the use of sensible HRDs is not effective. The spreadsheet









readdresses this by accounting for heating. The heating savings does increase the total

savings, but this does not mean the simple payback is reasonable.

The spreadsheet model calculates the total cost savings based on electrical

consumption and demand. The utility rate for electrical consumption and monthly

demand are taken from the previously mentioned FP&L's GSD-1 rate. The consumption

rate is $0.0428/kWh and the monthly demand rate is $8.16/kW. These rates are applied

to the total consumption and total maximum demand for each month to produce the total

cost savings. These total cost savings for each HRD are shown in Table 3-7 for all five

Florida cities.

Table 3-7. Total annual cost savings for each HRD in all five Florida cities.
Total Annual Cost
Florida City HRD Savings ($)
Tallahassee Membrane 2,532
Enthalpy wheel 2,436
Heat pipe 1,055
Plate 965
Jacksonville Membrane 2,247
Enthalpy wheel 2,155
Heat pipe 895
Plate 796
Tampa Membrane 1,918
Enthalpy wheel 1,831
Heat pipe 634
Plate 522
Orlando Membrane 1,684
Enthalpy wheel 1,602
Heat pipe 533
Plate 420
Miami Membrane 1,666
Enthalpy wheel 1,586
Heat pipe 433
Plate 320

The spreadsheet yields the same conclusions as the HAP results. The enthalpy

HRDs produce considerably more cost reduction than the sensible devices. This defends









Figure 3-1 more in regards to sensible devices not being used in the southeast. These

cost savings values were then used to calculate the simple payback associated with each

HRD. The vendors gave the estimated cost for each unit when selection data were

provided. Some costs for fans, filters and other components have been estimated and

added onto the price of the HRD. The installation cost for most of these units is similar

because the devices come as a packaged unit that would have similar duct arrangements,

controls, and weight to be hoisted onto the roof. The total cost combines the first cost

and installation and was then used in the simple payback. The simple payback must be

less than the life of the system for it to have any benefit. For a new construction

installation, a payback between one and three years is generally an indication of a cost

effective system. The payback would be slightly longer for a retrofit. This must be taken

into account when observing Table 3-8 for the simple payback for each HRD in all five

cities.

The total costs of the enthalpy wheel and membrane units were estimated as the

same price and both devices payback within the same year. These results show that for a

retrofit application, an enthalpy wheel or membrane could be used and both devices will

provide similar savings and simple payback. The payback is less for the cities located

above 28.40 latitude for Florida. The north Florida outdoor temperatures are colder

during the winter and provide more opportunities for savings due to heating. The life of

most of these systems can be from 10-15 years or longer. The heat pipe and plate

produce paybacks less than 9.5 years. This re-enforces that sensible devices should not

be used in Florida. The permeable-membrane HRD types are not commercially available

at the moment. However, this product will be available in the near future.









In new construction, the first cost would be less when using an HRD because

booster fans may not be needed in the units and ductwork requirements may be less. As

previously mentioned, partial cost of the HRD could be offset by reduction in other

HVAC systems, such as chiller size. For example, if a system were selected and sized for

Orlando with a membrane HRD, then the chiller size could be reduced by 7 tons. The

chiller in operation for the case-study building has a capacity of 40 tons. A reduction of 7

tons results in an 18% reduction in chiller capacity. This is a significant reduction and

in some cases will offset a significant fraction of the price of an HRD in new

construction. This reduction was calculated for the Florida city with the least chiller size

reduction. The reduction will result in a much shorter payback and should be considered

when the retrofit scenario data are reviewed.

Table 3-8. Simple payback for each HRD retrofit in all five Florida cities.
Estimated Total Simple Payback
Florida City HRD Cost ($) (yrs)
Tallahassee Membrane 13,750 5.4
Enthalpy wheel 13,750 5.6
Heat pipe 10,000 9.5
Plate 12,500 13.0
Jacksonville Membrane 13,750 6.1
Enthalpy wheel 13,750 6.4
Heat pipe 10,000 11.2
Plate 12,500 15.7
Tampa Membrane 13,750 7.2
Enthalpy wheel 13,750 7.5
Heat pipe 10,000 15.8
Plate 12,500 24.0
Orlando Membrane 13,750 7.4
Enthalpy wheel 13,750 7.8
Heat pipe 10,000 18.8
Plate 12,500 29.7
Miami Membrane 13,750 8.3
Enthalpy wheel 13,750 8.7
Heat pipe 10,000 23.1
Plate 12,500 31.2










Carbon Dioxide Demand Control Ventilation

There are some issues with modeling the CO2 controls in Carrier's HAP. As

addressed in Chapter 2, the program sets the ventilation flow rate by occupancy level and

a design airflow rate. There is no monitoring of CO2 to create demand control. This

means that there will be no significant savings unless people leave the building and there

is significant diversity in the occupancy schedule. With HAP's method of controlling

ventilation flow, the savings could be under estimated. If the outdoor air's concentration

is less than 350 parts per million of CO2 and the occupants are not very active and in

good health, then the controls could lower the ventilation flow rate even with full

occupancy. This can not be modeled with the current modeling technique that HAP uses.

Another issue with the model is that the ventilation airflow has been defined by the

original occupancy of the building. The current occupancy is considerably less than the

initial design called for and would result in the HVAC systems providing excess

ventilation. A comparison of a CO2 controlled case with the excess ventilation case

would result in great savings that is not due to the CO2 controls. For a better benchmark

for comparison, a model was created by using the appropriate ventilation flow rate for the

current occupancy level. The building is estimated to have 91 occupants which results in

1,820 cfm of ventilation flow. To give reference to how much savings would have been

falsely attributed to the CO2 controls if compared to the excess ventilation case, the

excess and non-excess ventilation loads were compared. Equation 3.2 was used to

calculate the ventilation load (tons), which is based on the difference in outdoor and room

enthalpy. The resulting difference in these loads for Orlando is 2.8 tons under design

conditions.









QVentilation Load Pa60(min/hr). (hOA hR )
Ventilation Load = (3.2)
12,000

With both of these issues in mind another change was made in the modeling

strategy. The case-study building shuts off all systems during the evenings and this

provides significant savings to the owner. Not all buildings operate this way, many

buildings operate their HVAC systems in the evening also. These systems may run to

serve security or janitorial occupants, or to maintain the quality of the materials in the

building. If ventilation is not controlled then there can be a large excess of ventilation.

CO2 monitoring can provide significant savings for commercial buildings by reducing

this excess ventilation. Therefore, a modification for CO2 control modeling was

conducted with cooling operating during unoccupied times. This is compared with the

modified constant ventilation scenario that also operates during off hours.

The HAP model is the only CO2 modeling done for this research so there is no

comparison required with a spreadsheet model. The new scenario was produced in HAP

for each of the five cities and the results are illustrated in Table 3-9.

Table 3-9. CO2 annual energy cost for a continuously operating system.
Annual Energy Cost ($) Annual Cost
Florida City No C02 Control CO2 Control Savings ($)
Tallahassee 62,000 61,757 243
Jacksonville 61,643 61,279 364
Tampa 61,291 60,752 539
Orlando 61,294 60,767 527
Miami 62,107 61,266 841


Miami is the best candidate for a CO2 control system. Tallahassee and Jacksonville

do not fair as well due to their colder climates. The simple payback for a control system

was calculated for each city. The prices for CO2 sensors are from AirTest's catalog of









CO2 sensors. These sensors can come with integrated temperature control and other

accessories. This is not needed due to the building already being equipped with

thermostats and direct digital control (DDC). For CO2 sensor first cost, an arrangement

of two sensors, one for each AHU return air duct, was assumed to provide sufficient

control. The cost also accounts for connections and installation. It was assumed that this

would be adequate because of the building size. This type of control would not work for

most large buildings because averaging over many more spaces might allow for a space

to become under ventilated more easily. This would be an average CO2 level for all the

zones associated with that AHU. For more detailed control, wall-mounted sensors would

be used in many zones to control the ventilation in each zone separately. The wall-

mounted sensors cost is equal to the duct-mounted, but there would be more sensors in

total. Based on AirTest technical staff, the sensors have a cost of $409 with the

installation being estimates as double the first cost. Table 3-10 lists the savings, total cost

and simple payback for a control system used in each of the five Florida cities.

Table 3-10. Simple payback for a CO2 control system operating in a continuously
operating system.
Annual Cost Total Control
Florida City Savings ($) System Cost ($) Payback (yrs)
Tallahassee 243 2,500 10.3
Jacksonville 364 2,500 6.9
Tampa 539 2,500 4.6
Orlando 527 2,500 4.7
Miami 841 2,500 3.1

The simple payback results conclude that a CO2 system, as described above, is not

a reasonable choice for this size of a building located in Tallahassee and most likely not

reasonable for a building in Jacksonville. The life of a system is normally 10 to 15 years

and the Tallahassee payback is much too long. The Jacksonville scenario is half the life









of the system. The other cities do have favorable payback and would be definite

candidates for a CO2 control system. Cost effective simple paybacks are normally

considered in a range from one to three years.

For a building that saves energy by shutting the HVAC systems off during the

evenings, there may not be a significant need for CO2 control unless there are large

variations in the occupancy levels throughout the day. This variation in occupancy

schedule could not be modeled with the resources at hand and should be tested in the

future when more updated software becomes available. However, a building of this size

and construction could use DCV effectively for cities in and south of central Florida if

the HVAC systems run 24 hours a day.

Heat Recovery with a CO2 Control System

The previous sections have concluded that heat recovery devices that exchange

total heat are cost effective for cities north of 280 latitude for Florida. The case-study

building would not be a great candidate for a CO2 control system, but a similar building

under continuous HVAC operation would be south of 28.40 latitude for Florida. At first

glance the combination of these systems would only be cost effective for areas around

280 latitude in Florida. Due to the CO2 modeling of a different operating procedure, this

assumption cannot be taken. The combination of both systems was modeled with 24

hour HVAC system operation. This is the same modeling technique applied to the CO2

demand control. The HRDs were remodeled for the evening operation so that all three

scenarios could be compared properly. The issue of modeling these systems under a new

operational schedule is that there is no data for verification.









There were many assumptions for a HAP model using the continuous scenario with

the selected HRDs and CO2 controls. The ventilation flow rate for HRDs was decreased

because ventilation was not modeled in excess. The decrease in airflow through the HRD

would require a new selection, but for a rough estimate it was assumed that the

effectiveness and pressure drops are the same. However, the power consumed was

recalculated for each HRD. The HAP model does not calculate any heating savings and

this is a big issue for this analysis. To try and compare the use of only HRDs, only CO2

control and the combination of both for the case-study building these assumptions were

used.

Based on the previous modeling results, modeling was conducted for Tampa since

this is in a region where we know HRDs and CO2 controls are cost effective. The simple

paybacks were calculated with the membrane HRD without heating and then an estimated

heating cost savings was added based off previous spreadsheet models. The data for the

simple paybacks are not completely accurate to actual operational data. The simple

payback for a building with a membrane HRD was within half a year of using both CO2

controls and a membrane HRD. The simple payback estimates were between six to seven

years, but these are still not as short as 4.6 years that CO2 controls produce alone. Based

on this estimate it would be more cost effective to only use the ventilation controls.

However, the building has been changed and many assumptions were taken when this

conclusion was made. I would not take this as a guideline in choosing whether to use an

HRD or CO2 controls. The rough estimate may still be a good indicator that the use of

both is not effective for Florida cities. Table 3-11 provides the simple paybacks for use









of HRDs, CO2 controls and both systems with the case involving 24-hour building

operation and adjusted ventilation flow.

Table 3-11. Simple paybacks for all three scenarios with 24-hour building operation and
adjusted ventilation flow.
Tampa Membrane CO2 control Both HRD and
HRD CO2 control
Simple payback 6.6 4.6 7.2
(yrs)

For selection of which system to use, the previous sections should be used. A more

detailed solution is needed to fully determine whether or not both types of systems should

be used in conjunction. The CO2 modeling should also be readdressed when the next

Carrier software comes available. More recommendations will be listed in the next

chapter.














CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSIONS

Conclusions to this thesis are discussed in full detail below, but for something the

main conclusions are listed as the following:

1. Heat recovery devices that exchange only sensible heat are not cost effective for
Florida.

2. Heat recovery devices that exchange sensible and latent heat are cost effective for
regions in northern Florida (cities above 28.40 latitude).

3. Heat recovery devices that exchange sensible and latent heat could be considered
for areas in central and south Florida (cities below and at 28.40 latitude).

4. Carbon dioxide demand control ventilation is cost effective for regions in and south
of central Florida (cities below and at 28.40 latitude).

5. Carbon dioxide demand control ventilation could be considered for northeast
Florida (cities above 28.40 latitude), but control should not be considered for
northwest Florida.

6. Using both energy conservation systems is not cost effective for Florida, but more
research should be conducted before this combination is abandoned.

Due to the rising costs of energy, there is a continued emphasis to develop energy

conservation measure to reduce building energy bills. Two systems that have received

considerable attention in today's marketplace are heat recovery devices and carbon

dioxide demand control ventilation. Both of these systems have been proven to reduce a

building's annual energy, but the use of them together has not been extensively studied.

This thesis evaluated this situation by analyzing each energy conservation system

separately and then combined for five Florida cities. All three scenarios were then

compared by the amount of energy saved and the simple payback associated with each.









A central Florida commercial office building was selected for the case study and was

modeled and verified with actual data collected at the site to aid in this study.

The heat recovery devices were studied by modeling four different devices. These

devices exchange heat, mass or both between ventilation air and building exhaust. A

plate heat exchanger and heat pipe, which exchange only sensible heat, were studied and

results determined that these devices were not cost effective to operate in Florida. An

enthalpy wheel and permeable-membrane heat exchanger, which exchange both heat and

moisture, were analyzed for the same cities and were found to be cost effective for most

of northern Florida. Sensible devices were concluded not to be effective for Florida and

enthalpy devices could be considered for most cities in Florida with best effectiveness in

the north.

The carbon dioxide demand control for this case-study building would not produce

much savings with the HVAC system operating schedule that was applied. Another issue

that affected the results was the fact that the building was operating with ventilation due

to a decline in occupancy over the years. After validating the computer model with the

actual building schedule and metered data, the model input was revised. For modeling

purposes the operating schedule and ventilation flow rate were changed so that the

systems would function at night and the savings would only be a function of the control

and not exaggerated. The model would have shown that the control system reduced the

original design ventilation flow rate to the rate needed for the new occupancy. This

savings would not be observed in a building that had a proper ventilation design and is

not a function of occupancy changing throughout the day. The analysis of the carbon

dioxide control, under the new operating schedule, resulted in positive cost effectiveness









for cities in and south of central Florida. Cities that are in northeast Florida, near

Jacksonville, could be considered for this type of control, but northwest cities probably

should not consider it.

Combining the two types of systems was not as accurate as studying each

separately. This was because each system was modeled differently due to the demand

Carrier HAP control model changing the operating schedule and ventilation flow rate.

This change created a different reference for each study. To try and determine some type

of effectiveness, the heat recovery devices were modeled again for one city so that the

reference would be the same. This was done for central Florida due to both systems

being cost effective separately in this region. Assumptions had to be made for the

remodeling of the heat recovery devices, which made this part of the study less accurate.

With all the systems analyzed under the new schedule and ventilation flow rate, it was

determined that using both energy reduction systems was just as effective as using only

recovery devices. This should only be considered for most Florida cities and not other

states. It may be that these types of systems are effective, but until more detailed

research is done, the idea of using heat recovery with demand control should not be

abandoned.

Future study of a building with carbon dioxide demand control ventilation has been

recommended. The building in this study should operate under general 24-hour HVAC

operation for better modeling. Other recommendations have been given and should be

addressed or considered in any future research.














CHAPTER 5
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

There are a few issues related to this work that should be considered for future

research. The following recommendations have been divided into issues regarding

modeling and the case-study building. Some of these recommendations are now being

studied by other researchers.

Modeling Recommendations

The modeling recommendations address both Carrier's HAP model and the energy

spreadsheet model. The HAP model did not produce any heating savings. At first it was

thought that the outdoor temperature did not reach a cold enough temperature for HAP to

evaluate savings. To test if this was the issue, the building simulation was run for several

northern cities and the HRDs still did not provide any heating savings. This issue is

being addressed with Carrier technical staff to find if this is a limitation with this specific

model or if the software is not operating correctly. Another matter that Carrier is being

asked to study is why the spreadsheet model and HAP model do not agree on energy

savings associated with sensible HRDs. Both of these issues need to be solved so the

spreadsheet heating savings can be verified and sensible HRDs can be modeled correctly.

It is recommended that the CO2 modeling be reproduced when a new simulation

technique that measures CO2 levels becomes available. Carrier has new software being

issued in the near future that will provide this modeling technique. With a better

modeling technique, an improved understanding of energy savings due to CO2 control

will be created.









The spreadsheets are specific to a given city and have been formatted so that four

days of data fill a given page. The formatting was difficult when producing a spreadsheet

with the TMY data. These spreadsheets could be beneficial to engineers once heating

savings are verified. If this spreadsheet is reformatted to facilitate the input of TMY data

then practicing engineers could use this as a useful tool in evaluating heat recovery

devices. Other recommendations for the spreadsheets are listed below:

* Allow operating schedule to be a variable
* Provide for continuous chiller operation
* Verify bypass operation with field data
* Add costs associated with a bypass system
* Compare results with other energy savings estimates (ex: bin temperature method)

Case Study Recommendations

The case-study building that was used for this thesis did not have a CO2 control

system. It would be extremely useful if a building that uses CO2 control could be studied

with this model and then retrofitted with a heat recovery device to evaluate the

effectiveness of HRDs with CO2 controls. This study could be used to verify future

modeling techniques involving CO2. If possible there should also be studies done with

different types of control systems. Systems involving several wall-mounted sensors

should be compared with return air duct sensor systems. This would provide helpful

design information to engineers.

There were issues when comparing the use of HRDs, CO2 control and then both

systems together. This was due to the modeling of two different HVAC system operating

schedules. When a building is chosen for future research, the operating schedules of the

building should be noted because simulations may become an issue. A building with a

more general operating schedule, where the system runs during the evenings, should be






42


studied because it should be more representative of the operation of large commercial

office buildings or retail stores.

The current case-study building was modeled with HAP and verification was made

through electrical consumption data collected at the site. Further verification should be

made over the upcoming summer months. This operation will provide extreme outdoor

air conditions for the HRD to condition and will give a chance for a new bypass system

to be modeled. This scenario would then allow the spreadsheet bypass operation to be

verified.














APPENDIX A
SPREADSHEET EQUATIONS

This appendix lists the equations used to develop the savings spreadsheets. Some

equations may differ in the spreadsheet due to if statements. The values for some of the

equations in the savings section are variables and can be changed for different systems.

All psychrometric equations are from the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

Psychrometric Equations

The dry and wet-bulb temperatures are taken from the TMY data and converted

from Fahrenheit to Rankine, using equation A. 1. These temperatures are used to

calculate the saturation pressure associated with each. If the temperature is below 32F

then equation A.2 is used, equation A.3 is used for temperatures greater than 320F.

T( R)= T+459.67 (A.1)

ln(p,) = C, /T + C2 +C3 T+C4 T2+C5 T3 +C6 T4 +C7.ln(T) (A.2)

ln(p,) = C,/T+ C9 +C0 T +C.T2 +C12 .T3 +C13 .ln(T) (A.3)

C = -10214.165
C2 = -4.8932428
C3 = -0.53765794 E-02
C4 =0.19202377 E-06
C5= 0.35575832 E-09
C6 =-0.90344688E-13
C7= 4.1635019
C8 = -10440.397
C9 = -11.29465
Cio = -0.027022355
C11 = 0.1289036 E-04
C12 =-0.24780681 E-08
C13 = 6.5459673









The following equations are used to calculate the relative humidity and enthalpy of

the air. See the nomenclature section for a list of all symbols.


Ws = 0.62198 p ws, (A.4)
P Pws

S(1093 0.556 T*)- W* 0.24 -(T T*)
W = s (A.5)
1093 + 0.444 T T*


Ws =0.62198 Pws (A.6)
P-Pws
W
W = (A.7)
Ws a
s T,p


=i= 100 (A.8)
S- (1- ) (p ws /P)

0.7543 T('R) (1+1.6078.W)
v = (A.9)
29.92

h = 0.240 T + W (1061+ 0.444 T) (A. 10)

The final two calculations within the psychrometric section of the spreadsheet are

for the water vapor partial pressure and dew point temperature. The dew point

calculation is iterative and A. 12 should be used when temperatures are above 320F and

A.13 when below.

p.W
p, P (A.11)
(0.62198+ W)

Td =100.45 + 33.193 n(p, )+ 2.319. (ln(p ))2 + 0.17074. (ln(p ))3
(A.12)
+1.2063 pw1984


Td = 90.12 + 26.142. ln(p,)+ 0.8927. (In(p. ))2


(A.13)









Savings Equations

There are several equations used to calculate the kilowatt-hour savings for every

hour of the year. First, equation 2.1 is used to calculate the outdoor air supply enthalpy

or temperature with all other states and the effectiveness are known. The process is to

evaluate the savings in tons for cooling or heating and then determine the kilowatt value

for that hour. The average kilowatt over a one-hour interval results in an average

kilowatt-hour value for that hour. The following equations are for the enthalpy and

sensible heat exchangers. Equation A. 14 can be used to evaluate the savings associated

with cooling and heating. The reduction for cooling/heating is calculated in tons and the

electrical savings is expressed in kilowatt-hours. The kW/ton value used in A. 15 is the

amount of power required for every ton of cooling produced by the cooling coil. For

heating the kW/ton value is the amount of energy an electric heat strip or any other heat

source would require.

Pair 60.Q (ho A hOA Supply
Reduction of Cooling/Heating = hOA -h Suply (A.14)
12,000


Electrical Savings= (reduction). (kW/ton) Q Pstatic -0.746 (A.15)
K6356 rlfan motorr *Pair "V

The electrical savings is corrected for the fan power that may be needed if

additional fan power is required for a retrofit application. The spreadsheet allows for a

different equation to be used instead of A. 15 so that a known power may be subtracted

instead of the fan power calculation. The monthly electrical consumption (kWh) and

electrical demand (kW) savings values are recorded for evaluating the total savings. The

consumption and demand are assessed different utility costs and added to determine the






46


total cost savings. A first cost of the HRD including installation is calculated using a unit

price per cfm of ventilation air. With these values a simple payback is determined.

STotal Cost Savings per year
Simple Payback (yrs) = (A. 16)
Total Cost

















APPENDIX B
CARRIER HAP AND SPREADSHEET DATA

This appendix provides sample data for different cities and scenarios for the HAP

and spreadsheet models. The following information is the HAP air system output data

for the first floor air Jacksonville handling unit:


Air System Information
Air System Name ................................ AHU-1
Equipment Class ............................... CW AHU
Air System Type ..................................... VAV


Number of zones ........................................ .. 24
Floor Area ....................................... 12754.1 ft2


Sizing Calculation Information
Zone and Space Sizing Method:


Zone CFM ................ Peak zone sensible load
Space CFM ......... Individual peak space loads


Calculation Months ........................... Jan to Dec
Sizing Data ....................................... Calculated


Central Cooling Coil Sizing Data


Total coil load .................................. 30.9 Tons
Total coil load .............................. 370.8 MBH
Sensible coil load ......................... 310.8 MBH
Coil CFM at Jul 1600 .................... 10512 CFM
Max block CFM at Aug 1600 ........ 10644 CFM
Sum of peak zone CFM .............. 11179 CFM
Sensible heat ratio ................................ 0.838
ft/Ton ................. .................................. 412.8
B TU /(hr-ft2) ........................ ................ 29.1
Water flow @ 10.0 OF rise ............... 74.20 gpm


Load occurs at .................... .................Jul 1600
OADB /WB ............................... 93.5 / 76.9 F
Entering DB / WB .......................... 79.4 / 63.2 F
Leaving DB / WB ........................... 51.9 / 50.5 F
Coil ADP ................. .............................. 48.9 F
Bypass Factor ................. ..... .............. 0.100
Resulting RH ....................... ... .............. .. 43 %
Design supply temp. ............................... 55.0 F
Zone T-stat Check .......................... 23 of 24 OK
Max zone temperature deviation .............. 0.3 F


Supply Fan Sizing Data


Actual max CFM at Aug 1600 ....... 10644 CFM
Standard CFM .............................. 10633 CFM
Actual max CFM/ft2 ................... 0.83 CFM/ft2

Outdoor Ventilation Air Data
Design airflow CFM ...................... 1250 CFM
CFM /ft2 ...................................... 0.10 CFM /ft2


Fan motor BHP ............................... 13.96 BHP
Fan motor kW ..................................... 10.41 kW
Fan static ............... ............ ..... 4.00 in w.g.


CFM/person........................... 28.28 CFM/person







48


This data and the following second floor Jacksonville air handling unit data are for

the modeled case-study office building with no HRD or CO2 ventilation controls. This

data provides very important information for system design.


Air System Information
Air System Name ................................ AHU-2
Equipment Class ............................... CW AHU
Air System Type ..................................... VAV


N um ber of zones ........................................ .. 25
Floor Area ....................................... 12845.0 ft2


Sizing Calculation Information
Zone and Space Sizing Method:


Zone CFM ................ Peak zone sensible load
Space CFM ......... Individual peak space loads


Central Cooling Coil Sizing Data


Total coil load ................................. 31.4 Tons
Total coil load .............................. 376.2 MBH
Sensible coil load ......................... 316.5 MBH
Coil CFM at Aug 1600 .................. 10632 CFM
Max block CFM at Aug 1600 ........ 10787 CFM
Sum of peak zone CFM ................. 11389 CFM
Sensible heat ratio ................................. 0.841
ftW /Ton ................ ..................... ........... 409.7
BTU/(hr-ft2) ................... ..... ................ 29.3
Water flow @ 10.0 OF rise ............... 75.29 gpm


Calculation Months ........................... Jan to Dec
Sizing Data ....................................... Calculated



Load occurs at ..................................... Aug 1600
OADB /WB ................................ 93.5 / 76.9 F
Entering DB / WB ......................... 79.5 / 63.2 F
Leaving DB / WB ............................ 52.0 / 50.5 F
C oil A D P ................................ ....... ...... 48.9 F
Bypass Factor ............................................ 0.100
Resulting RH .............................................. 43 %
Design supply temp. ............................... 55.0 F
Zone T-stat Check ........................... 25 of 25 OK
Max zone temperature deviation ............... 0.0 F


Supply Fan Sizing Data


Actual max CFM at Aug 1600 ....... 10787 CFM
Standard CFM .............................. 10776 CFM
Actual max CFM/ft2 ..................... 0.84 CFM/ft2

Outdoor Ventilation Air Data
Design airflow CFM ...................... 1250 CFM
CFM /ft2 ....................................... 0.10 CFM /ft2


Fan motor BHP ................................. 14.14 BHP
Fan motor kW ...................................... 10.55 kW
Fan static ......................................... 4.00 in w .g.


CFM/person............................ 26.15 CFM/person











The following is a design load summary for the first floor Jacksonville air handling

unit. This HAP output provides loads due to heat transfer through walls, windows, the

roof and loads created by people, equipment and lighting. Table B-1 tabulates this data

for both design cooling and heating conditions. Table B-2 is the design load summary for

the second floor Jacksonville air handling unit.

Table B-1. First floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville.
DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING
COOLING DATA AT Jul 1600 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG
COOLING OA DB / WB 93.5 F / HEATING OA DB / WB 29.0 F /
76.9 OF 24.4 OF
Sensible Latent Sensible Latent
ZONE LOADS Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr)
Window & Skylight Solar 3528 ft2 66149 3528 ft2
Loads
Wall Transmission 2830 ft2 3737 2830 ft2 14988
Roof Transmission 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Window Transmission 3528 ft2 31482 3528 ft2 82438
Skylight Transmission 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Door Loads 25 ft2 590 25 ft2 582
Floor Transmission 12754 ft2 0 12754 ft2 16592
Partitions 992 ft2 4434 992 ft2 0
Ceiling 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Overhead Lighting 21637 W 34900 0 0
Task Lighting 1350 W 4606 0 0
Electric Equipment 11479 W 37298 0 0
People 44 8810 9948 0 0 0
Infiltration 0 0 0 0
Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0
Safety Factor 0% / 0% 0 0 0% 0 0
>> Total Zone Loads 192005 9948 114600 0
Zone Conditioning 215513 9948 99365 0
Plenum Wall Load 32% 4522 0 0
Plenum Roof Load 0% 0 0 0
Plenum Lighting Load 45% 33222 0 0
Return Fan Load 10512 CFM 0 8400 CFM 0
Ventilation Load 1250 CFM 21598 49980 1250 CFM 48249 0
Supply Fan Load 10512 CFM 34623 8400 CFM -20824
Space Fan Coil Fans 341 -6419
Duct Heat Gain / Loss 0% 0 0% 0
>> Total System Loads 309819 59928 120372 0
Central Cooling Coil 310807 59948 -61189 0
Terminal Reheat Coils -991 181549
>> Total Conditioning 309816 59948 120360 0










Tables B-3 through B-7 are the annual energy costs of each Florida City for the

case-study building with each HRD applied. All five of these tables are output from the

HAP model. In each city the building was run with and without an HRD and the data for

all six scenarios can be compiled into one table to assess the savings associated with each

HRD due to cooling.

Table B-2. Second floor air handling unit design load summary for Jacksonville.
DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING
COOLING DATA AT Aug 1600 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG
COOLING OA DB / WB 93.5 F / HEATING OA DB / WB 29.0 F /
76.9 OF 24.4 OF
Sensible Latent Sensible Latent
ZONE LOADS Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr) Details (BTU/hr) (BTU/hr)
Window & Skylight Solar
Window & Skylight Solar 3552 ft2 66789 3552 ft2
Loads
Wall Transmission 2682 ft2 2049 2682 ft2 10915
Roof Transmission 12827 ft2 3028 12827 ft2 25932
Window Transmission 3552 ft2 31704 3552 ft2 83020
Skylight Transmission 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Door Loads 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Floor Transmission 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Partitions 642 ft2 2416 642 ft2 0
Ceiling 0 ft2 0 0 ft2 0
Overhead Lighting 20356 W 32920 0 0
Task Lighting 952 W 3248 0 0
Electric Equipment 11560 W 37563 0 0
People 47 9064 9607 0 0 0
Infiltration 0 0 0 0
Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0
Safety Factor 0%/0% 0 0 0% 0 0
>> Total Zone Loads 188782 9607 119867 0
Zone Conditioning 215679 9607 90475 0
Plenum Wall Load 32% 3616 0 0
Plenum Roof Load 70% 7065 0 0
Plenum Lighting Load 45% 31254 0 0
Return Fan Load 10632 CFM 0 8900 CFM 0
Ventilation Load 1250 CFM 21267 50069 1250 CFM 47304 0
Supply Fan Load 10632 CFM 34949 8900 CFM -23393
Space Fan Coil Fans 719 -5199
Duct Heat Gain / Loss 0% 0 0% 0
>> Total System Loads 314549 59676 109187 0
Central Cooling Coil 316538 59707 -63253 0
Terminal Reheat Coils -1991 172413
>> Total Conditioning 314547 59707 109160 0










Table B-3. Tallahassee annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.
FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office
FPL Office (HeatPipe) (Membrane) (Plate) (Wheel)
Component ($) ($) ($) ($) ($)
Air System Fans 4,114 4,158 4,273 4,221 4,308
Cooling 11,472 11,384 10,806 11,383 10,817
Heating 3,264 3,263 3,263 3,263 3,263
Pumps 1,519 1,517 1,515 1,518 1,515
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 20,369 20,323 19,857 20,385 19,902
Lights 11,014 11,000 10,982 11,003 10,983
Electric Equipment 23,655 23,627 23,587 23,632 23,589
Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,669 34,627 34,570 34,635 34,572
Grand Total 55,037 54,950 54,427 55,020 54,474

Table B-4. Jacksonville annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.
FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office
FPL Office (HeatPipe) (Membrane) (Plate) (Wheel)
Component ($) ($) () (($) ($)
Air System Fans 4,141 4,187 4,304 4,253 4,341
Cooling 11,745 11,654 11,055 11,653 11,065
Heating 2,690 2,689 2,689 2,690 2,689
Pumps 1,512 1,511 1,507 1,511 1,507
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 20,089 20,041 19,555 20,106 19,603
Lights 10,965 10,952 10,926 10,954 10,927
Electric Equipment 23,551 23,521 23,464 23,527 23,466
Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,516 34,472 34,390 34,481 34,393
Grand Total 54,604 54,513 53,945 54,587 53,996










Table B-5. Tampa annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.
FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office
FPL Office (HeatPipe) (Membrane) (Plate) (Wheel)
Component ($) ($) ($) ($) ($)
Air System Fans 4,182 4,239 4,370 4,318 4,411
Cooling 12,416 12,316 11,644 12,316 11,656
Heating 1,595 1,595 1,593 1,595 1,593
Pumps 1,495 1,493 1,490 1,494 1,490
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 19,688 19,643 19,096 19,722 19,150
Lights 10,835 10,825 10,802 10,829 10,804
Electric Equipment 23,268 23,246 23,197 23,254 23,199
Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,103 34,072 33,999 34,083 34,003
Grand Total 53,791 53,715 53,095 53,806 53,153

Table B-6. Orlando annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.
FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office
FPL Office (HeatPipe) (Membrane) (Plate) (Wheel)
Component ($) ($) ($) ($) ($)
Air System Fans 4,131 4,192 4,318 4,276 4,361
Cooling 12,609 12,497 11,790 12,497 11,804
Heating 1,500 1,499 1,497 1,499 1,497
Pumps 1,498 1,497 1,493 1,497 1,493
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 19,738 19,685 19,098 19,770 19,154
Lights 10,864 10,850 10,821 10,854 10,823
Electric Equipment 23,331 23,301 23,239 23,310 23,243
Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,194 34,151 34,060 34,164 34,065
Grand Total 53,933 53,836 53,158 53,935 53,219

The HAP data shown in Table B-8 are the results for the CO2 controls with the

compared reference case that uses the changed operating schedule. Table B-8 is the

Jacksonville annual energy cost associated with the new reference case using evening


operation and the same case using CO2 ventilation controls.










Table B-7. Miami annual cost for the case study with and without each HRD.
FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office FPL Office
FPL Office (HeatPipe) (Membrane) (Plate) (Wheel)
Component ($) ($) ($) ($) ($)
Air System Fans 4,253 4,331 4,464 4,435 4,513
Cooling 13,434 13,329 12,417 13,330 12,434
Heating 857 856 852 857 853
Pumps 1,492 1,491 1,484 1,492 1,484
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0 0 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 20,035 20,008 19,218 20,113 19,283
Lights 10,816 10,810 10,759 10,815 10,761
Electric Equipment 23,230 23,216 23,107 23,228 23,111
Misc. Electric 0 0 0 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0 0 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 34,046 34,026 34,043 33,873
Grand Total 54,081 54,034 53,084 54,157 53,156


Table B-8. Jacksonville annual
CO2 controls.


cost for the changed operating schedule with and without


FPL FPL
Office(1820) Office(CO2)
Component ($) ($)
Air System Fans 5,629 5,638
Cooling 17,238 16,814
Heating 3,651 3,650
Pumps 3,571 3,576
Cooling Tower Fans 0 0
HVAC Sub-Total 30,089 29,679
Lights 10,025 10,039
Electric Equipment 21,529 21,561
Misc. Electric 0 0
Misc. Fuel Use 0 0
Non-HVAC Sub-Total 31,554 31,600
Grand Total 61,643 61,279


To determine the savings with the spreadsheet the psychrometric data for each hour

and each city was produced. A sample section of this data is shown in Table B-9. This is

the data for Tallahassee on January 1st. This table had to be reformatted from the

spreadsheet due differences in margins. The spreadsheet formats are considerably neater.

The column providing the temperatures in Rankine had to be deleted for formatting


issues.










Table B-9. Tallahassee psychrometric data for January 1t.
1-Jan Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Pws(t*) Ws* W Pws(t) Ws U RH V H Pw Td
Hour (F) (F) (psia) (psia) (%) (ft3/lbda) (Btu/lbda) (pia) (F)
0 42.9 41.1 0.127 0.005 0.005 0.136 0.006 0.862 86.3 12.8 15.7 0.118 39.1
100 39.3 35.6 0.102 0.004 0.004 0.118 0.005 0.699 70.0 12.7 13.2 0.083 30.3
200 38 34.6 0.098 0.004 0.003 0.113 0.005 0.714 71.6 12.6 12.8 0.081 29.6
300 37.1 34 0.096 0.004 0.003 0.109 0.005 0.733 73.4 12.6 12.6 0.080 29.3
400 36 33.2 0.093 0.004 0.003 0.104 0.004 0.752 75.3 12.6 12.2 0.078 28.9
500 34.1 31.9 0.088 0.004 0.003 0.096 0.004 0.794 79.5 12.5 11.7 0.077 28.3
600 31.9 30.2 0.082 0.003 0.003 0.088 0.004 0.823 82.4 12.5 11.0 0.073 27.0
700 32.9 30.8 0.084 0.004 0.003 0.092 0.004 0.792 79.3 12.5 11.230 0.073 27.1
800 37 33.7 0.095 0.004 0.003 0.108 0.005 0.716 71.7 12.6 12.437 0.078 28.6
900 41 36.5 0.106 0.005 0.004 0.127 0.005 0.650 65.2 12.7 13.628 0.082 30.1
1000 44.3 38.4 0.114 0.005 0.004 0.144 0.006 0.578 58.0 12.8 14.5 0.083 30.4
1100 47 39.6 0.120 0.005 0.003 0.159 0.007 0.506 50.9 12.8 15.007 0.081 29.7
1200 49.7 40.8 0.126 0.005 0.003 0.176 0.008 0.444 44.7 13.0 15.6 0.079 29.0
1300 51.7 41.7 0.130 0.006 0.003 0.190 0.008 0.405 40.8 13.0 16.0 0.077 28.6
1400 53.1 42.4 0.134 0.006 0.003 0.200 0.009 0.384 38.7 13.0 16.3 0.077 28.5
1500 54.4 43.1 0.137 0.006 0.003 0.209 0.009 0.368 37.1 13.0 16.7 0.078 28.7
1600 52.2 42.2 0.133 0.006 0.003 0.193 0.008 0.411 41.4 13.0 16.2 0.080 29.4
1700 46.5 39.6 0.120 0.005 0.004 0.156 0.007 0.532 53.5 12.8 15.0 0.084 30.5
1800 40.8 36.8 0.107 0.005 0.004 0.126 0.005 0.686 68.8 12.7 13.8 0.086 31.3
1900 36.8 34.5 0.098 0.004 0.004 0.107 0.005 0.799 80.0 12.6 12.8 0.086 31.2
2000 34.4 32.3 0.090 0.004 0.003 0.098 0.004 0.805 80.6 12.5 11.9 0.079 29.0
2100 32.1 30.1 0.081 0.003 0.003 0.089 0.004 0.794 79.54 12.5 11.0 0.071 26.3
2200 30.6 28.6 0.076 0.003 0.003 0.083 0.004 0.785 78.6 12.4 10.3 0.065 24.4
2300 30.1 28.2 0.074 0.003 0.003 0.081 0.003 0.792 79.3 12.4 10.2 0.064 24.0

Table B-10 illustrates a page in the spreadsheet that logs the consumption and

demand values from the savings page to determine total savings and calculate a simple

payback. This table is set up for the membrane HRD in Tallahassee. Table B-11 is a

section of the savings page of the Tallahassee spreadsheet. All the numbers that are in

double lined boxes are variables and can be changed for different HRD systems. The

static pressure that must be overcome by the fan must be doubled to account for both


fans.









Table B-10. Tallahassee membrane savings and payback table.
Savings Max kW per month Total kWh per month System
Tallahassee, eak
Florida kW Reduction
January 1.15 46.6 -983 2.57 E+03 38.8
February 0.23 34.1 -1.25 E+03 2.34 E+03 32.8
March 4.47 28.5 -763 1.04 E+03 24.1
April 3.79 26.2 -436 205 3.73
May 9.09 17.5 649 74.0 8.38
June 11.1 0 1.26 E+03 0 11.1
July 10.4 0 2.12 E+03 0 8.44
August 10.4 0 1.95 E+03 0 8.74
September 8.49 0 1.33 E+03 0 7.07
October 5.35 16.3 -34.21 47.0 5.35
November 3.32 37.9 -948 1.42 E+03 36.6
December 3.29 40.9 -940 2.51 E+03 34.3
Total kWh
Cooling Heating Total
1,950 10,210 12,160
Energy Save $ Saving=> $ 0.0428 $ 521
Total Demand 247 $ 8.16 $ 2,010
$ Saving Total===> $ 2,531

Systems kW Peak Summer 4pm => 11.1
Systems kW Peak Winter 8am => 38.8

Cost System $ 3.50 per cfm $ 8,750
Installation $ 2.00 per cfm $ 5,000
Total Cost ===> $ 13,750
Payback =====> 5.4
Years














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LIST OF REFERENCES

American National Standard Institue/American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and
Air-Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE), 2001, Ventilation for Acceptable
Indoor Air Quality, Standard 62-2001. ASHRAE STANDARD.

Carrier Corporation, 2002, HAP Quick Reference Guide. Carrier Software Systems
Network, USA.

Crowther H, December 2001, "Enthalpy Wheel for Energy Recovery," HPAC
Engineering, pp. 39-55.

Mahon H, Kiss M, Leimer H, 1983, Efficient Energy Management, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 325-336.

Mathur G, 2000, "Controlling Space Humidity with Heat-Pipe exchangers," 35th
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, The American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Las Vegas, NV, vol. 2, pp. 835-842.

Wellford B, October 2002, "O&M for Enthalpy-Recovery systems," HPAC Engineering,
pp. 58-59.

Wellford B, August 2002, "Sizing and Selecting Enthalpy-Recovery Ventilation
Systems," HPAC Engineering, pp. 50-52.

Schell M, Int-Hout D, Feb. 2001, "Demand Control Ventilation using C02," ASHRAE
Journal, vol. 43, pp. 18-29.

Shao L, Riffat S, Gan G, 1998,"Heat Recovery with Low Pressure Loss for Natural
Ventilation," Energy and Buildings, vol. 28, pp. 179-184.

Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Zhang L, Deng Y, Jin Z, 2000, "Analysis of Thermal Performance and
Energy Savings of Membrane based Heat Recovery Ventilator," Energy, vol. 25,
pp. 515-527.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Patrick William Johns was born in Florida in 1979. While residing in Ocala he

received his A.A. from Central Florida Community College in 1997. In the fall of 1999,

he entered the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Florida. In 2001

he completed his B.S.M.E. He enrolled as a graduate student at the University of Florida

in spring of 2002.