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Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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INTERACTIONOFLIGHTNINGWITHPOWERDISTRIBUTIONLINES:2001AND2002EXPERIMENTSATTHEINTERNATIONALCENTERFORLIGHTNINGRESEARCHANDTESTING(ICLRT)ByANGELG.MATAATHESISPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOLOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOFMASTEROFSCIENCEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA2003

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Copyright2003byAngelG.Mata

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Idedicatethisworktomyparents,AngelT.andTeresa,tomybrotherCarlosT.,tomysisterTeresita,andtomynephewsAngelAlejandro,CarlosMiguelandAndresEduardo.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFirstofallthanksgotoGodforallthethingsIhavehad.Thanksgotomyparents,whoseunconditionalsupportandhelphavebeenvitalduringmywholelife,especiallyduringtherealizationofthiswork.SpecialthanksgotoDr.V.A.RakovandDr.M.A.Uman.Theirguidanceandknowl-edgehavebeenfundamentalforthiswork;withouttheirhelpthisdocumentwouldhavenotbeenpossible.ThanksgotoDr.D.M.Jordanforhishelpfulcommentsandforprovidingsoftwarefordataanalysis.SpecialthanksgotoDr.C.T.MataforintroducingmetotheLightningLaboratory,leadingmetoworkwithLATEXandLinux,andgivingmeunconditionalsupportwiththedataanalysissystemhedeveloped.HehasbeenalwaysavailabletoanswerquestionsregardingpreviousFPLexperimentsatCampBlanding.ThanksgotoallthehardworkingpeopleattheICLRTatCampBlandinginvolvedintheseexperiments,amongwhomIshouldmentionKeithRambo,MichaelStapleton,AlonsoGuarisma,RobOlsen,JasonJerauld,JensSchoene,MattRiley,AndrewOwens,VenkateswaraKodali,OliverPankiewicz,ThomasRamboandCliffJordan.AlsothanksgotoGeorgeSchnetzer'stechnicalhelp.ThanksgotoallthestaffintheElectricalandComputerEngineeringDepartmentthathavehelpedmeinonewayoranothersincemyarrivalattheLightningLaboratory.Lastbutnotleast,thanksgotomyfamilyandfriendsforallthehelp,supportandattentionthatIhavereceivedfromthem.iv

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TABLEOFCONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................iv LISTOFTABLES ...............................................................viii LISTOFFIGURES ..............................................................x ABSTRACT .....................................................................xix CHAPTER1INTRODUCTION ..........................................................1 2LITERATUREREVIEW ....................................................2 2.1LightningPhenomenology ...........................................2 2.1.1NaturalLightning .............................................2 2.1.1.1Downwardnegativelightning ..........................4 2.1.1.2Upwardnegativelightning .............................7 2.1.2Articially-Initiated(Triggered)Lightning .....................8 2.2Lightning'sInteractionwithPowerLines ..............................11 2.2.11999Experiments ............................................16 2.2.22000Experiments ............................................17 3EXPERIMENTALFACILITIES .............................................19 3.1RocketLaunchers ....................................................19 3.1.1TowerLauncher ..............................................21 3.1.2MobileLauncher .............................................22 3.2TestDistributionLine ................................................23 3.2.1FPL-A-01(DirectStrikeatPole8) .............................24 3.2.2FPL-B-01(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8) ................26 3.2.3FPL-C-01(StriketoGround20mfromtheLine) ...............27 3.2.4FPL-A-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8) ................27 3.2.5FPL-B-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8) ................29 3.2.6FPL-C-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8) ................29 3.2.7FPL-D-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8) ................30 3.2.8FPL-E-02(StriketoGround100mfromtheLine) ..............30 3.2.9FPL-F-02(StriketoGround30mfromtheLine) ...............30 3.3Grounding ...........................................................31 3.4Arresters ............................................................31v

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3.5Instrumentation ......................................................33 3.5.1Sensors .......................................................33 3.5.2DataRecordingEquipment ....................................35 4OVERVIEWOFTESTS ....................................................39 4.12001Experiments ....................................................39 4.22002Experiments ....................................................43 5DATAPRESENTATIONANDANALYSIS(DIRECTSTRIKES) .............52 5.1CharacterizationofMeasuredCurrent .................................57 5.1.1ParametersofReturn-StrokeCurrentWaveforms ...............61 5.1.2InitialStageCurrent ..........................................64 5.1.2.1Precursorcurrentpulses ................................66 5.1.2.2Initialcurrentvariation .................................70 5.2SelectedFlashes .....................................................73 5.3CurrentWaveforms(FPL0226,FPL0228,andFPL0229) ...............84 5.4SystemDamage .....................................................84 5.5ATPModeling .......................................................90 5.5.1Model1 ......................................................91 5.5.2Model2 ......................................................91 5.5.3Results .......................................................91 6SUMMARY ................................................................100 7RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURERESEARCH ........................102 REFERENCES ..................................................................104 APPENDIXAMEASURINGSTATIONSONPOWERDISTRIBUTIONLINES(DRAW-INGS) ...................................................................109 BINSTRUMENTATIONSETTINGS ..........................................120 CLECROYCURRENTRECORDSFORTHE2001EXPERIMENTS ..........145 C.1TimeWindowof100s ..............................................145 C.1.1FlashFPL0107 ...............................................145 C.1.2FlashFPL0108 ...............................................148 C.1.3FlashFPL0110 ...............................................154 C.1.4FlashFPL0112 ...............................................156 C.2TimeWindowof500s ..............................................162 C.2.1FlashFPL0107 ...............................................162 C.2.2FlashFPL0108 ...............................................165 C.2.3FlashFPL0110 ...............................................171 C.2.4FlashFPL0112 ...............................................173vi

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DLECROYCURRENTRECORDSFORTHE2002EXPERIMENTS ..........179 D.1TimeWindowof100s ..............................................179 D.1.1FlashFPL0208 ...............................................179 D.1.2FlashFPL0210 ...............................................181 D.1.3FlashFPL0213 ...............................................183 D.1.4FlashFPL0218 ...............................................186 D.1.5FlashFPL0219 ...............................................188 D.1.6FlashFPL0220 ...............................................191 D.1.7FlashFPL0221 ...............................................198 D.1.8FlashFPL0226 ...............................................204 D.1.9FlashFPL0228 ...............................................211 D.1.10FlashFPL0229 ...............................................218 D.2TimeWindowof500s ..............................................228 D.2.1FlashFPL0208 ...............................................228 D.2.2FlashFPL0210 ...............................................230 D.2.3FlashFPL0213 ...............................................232 D.2.4FlashFPL0218 ...............................................235 D.2.5FlashFPL0219 ...............................................237 D.2.6FlashFPL0220 ...............................................240 D.2.7FlashFPL0221 ...............................................247 D.2.8FlashFPL0226 ...............................................253 D.2.9FlashFPL0228 ...............................................260 D.2.10FlashFPL0229 ...............................................267 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH ......................................................277vii

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LISTOFTABLES Table page 2–1Summaryoftriggersandreturnstrokespercongurationforsummers1999and2000. ..............................................................17 3–1Verticallinecongurationbyyear. ........................................26 3–2Measuredgroundingresistances(in)forthevertical-congurationline. ...32 3–3V-IcharacteristicoftheCooperPowerSystemsUltraSILHousedVariSTARHeavyDutynarrester. ..........................................32 3–4V-IcharacteristicoftheOhioBrassPDV100nMOVarrester. .......32 3–5ParametersforthePearsonElectronics,Inc.CurrentTransformers(CTs). ...33 3–6ParametersfortheT&MResearchProducts,Inc.CurrentViewingResistors. 34 3–7Cameralocationsandobjectsintheireldsofviewforthesummerof2001experiments ...........................................................37 3–8Cameralocationsandobjectsintheireldsofviewforthesummerof2002experiments ...........................................................38 4–1Summaryoflaunchesforthe2001and2002experiments. ..................39 4–2Summaryofthelaunchesandstrikestothevertically-conguredtestdistri-butionlineduringthe2001experiments. ................................40 4–3Summaryofthelaunchesandstrikestothevertically-conguredtestdistri-butionlineduringthemonthsofJuneandSeptemberof2002. ............49 4–4Summaryoftherecordedreturnstrokesduringthe2002experimentsforallthetriggeredashes. ...................................................51 5–1Summaryofstrokeswhosecurrentsweredirectlyinjectedintothevertically-conguredtestdistributionlineduringsummer2001. ....................53 5–2Summaryofstrokesintendedtobedirectlyinjectedintothevertically-conguredtestdistributionlineduringsummer2002. ....................54 5–3LabelingschemesandcorrespondancebetweenYokogawaandLeCroyrecordedeventsforthedirect-striketestsduringthe2002experiments. ............55viii

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5–4Parametersofreturn-strokecurrentwaveformsforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2001 ...........................................62 5–5Parametersofreturn-strokecurrentwaveformsforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2002 ...........................................63 5–6InitialstageparametersofashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2002 ..................................................................65 5–7OccurrenceofprecursorpulsesforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringthe2001and2002experiments. ...........................................68 5–8OccurrenceofICVcurrentsignature(seeFigure5–8)forashestriggeredatICLRTduringthe2001and2002experiments. .......................71 B–1InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0101,FPL0102,FPL0105,FPL0107,andFPl0108,striketophaseoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlineatpole8. ..........................................................121 B–2InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0110,FPL0111,andFPl0112,striketophaseoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinebetweenpoles8and7. ..........................................................124 B–3InstrumentationsummaryforashFPL0115,striketoground15mfromtheverticalcongurationdistributionline. ..................................127 B–4InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0205,FPL0206,FPL0208,andFPl0210,striketophaseoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7 .......................................130 B–5InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-A-02 ...................132 B–6InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0213,FPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220,andFPl0221,striketophaseoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7 ...................................134 B–7InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-B-02 ...................136 B–8InstrumentationsummaryforashFPL0226,striketophaseoftheverti-calcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7 ......137 B–9InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-C-02 ...................139 B–10InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0228,FPL0229,andFPL0230,striketophaseoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7 .................................................140 B–11InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-D-02 ...................143ix

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure page 2–1Generaldistributionofchargeinacumulonimbus(thundercloud)asob-servedinEngland.Arrowsindicateaircurrentow. ....................3 2–2Schematicofthebasicchargestructureintheconvectiveregionofathun-derstorm. .............................................................4 2–3Thefourcategoriesofcloud-to-groundlightningdependingonleaderprop-agationdirectionandpolarityofchargetransferredtoground. ..........5 2–4Streak-cameraphotographofa12-strokeash.Timeadvancesfromlefttoright.NewMexicoInstituteofMiningandTechnologyphotograph. .....7 2–5PhotographsoflightningtriggeredattheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT),atCampBlanding,Florida,inSummerof2002. ..............................................................9 2–6Sequenceofeventsinvolvedintheformationoftherstreturnstrokeinclassical(grounded-wire)triggeredlightning. ..........................10 2–7Sequenceofeventsinvolvedintheinitialstageofaltitude(ungrounded-wire)triggeredlightning. .............................................11 2–8Okushishikutesttransmissionlinetower. .................................13 2–9FPL-ICLRTtestdistributionlines ........................................16 3–1OverviewoftheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,Florida,Summers2001and2002 ...........20 3–2Towerlaunchercongurationduringthesummer2001experiments. .......22 3–3TowerlaunchercongurationfortestcongurationFPL-A-02. .............22 3–4TowerlaunchercongurationfortestcongurationsFPL-B-02,FPL-C-02,andFPL-D-02.Lauchercurrentmeasurementboxnotseeninthispicture. 23 3–5MobilelauncherfortestcongurationFPL-E-02. .........................24 3–6Verticalframingconguration,Summer2001 .............................25 3–7Verticalframingconguration,Summer2002. ............................28x

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3–8Identiersforthegroundingresistancemeasuringlocationsforthemultiplerodsscheme. ..........................................................31 5–1Low-levelincidentcurrentofashFPL0228recordedusingYokogawaos-cilloscope ............................................................58 5–2Returnstroke1inashFPL0226(LeCroydata)showingmultipleM-components ..........................................................59 5–3FlashFPL0226,stroke1. ................................................60 5–4Exampleofareturnstrokewaveformdisplayedas:a)rawdataand,b)ltereddatawithatwo-pointaveraginganti-causalzero-phaselter. .....62 5–5Initialstageasseeninthelow-leveltowercurrentrecordofeventFPL0218 .64 5–6IllustrationofprecursorpulsescorrespondingtoashFPL0218 ...........67 5–7Illustrationofprecursorpulsescategories ................................69 5–8Initialcurrentvariationsignaturecorrespondingtothelow-levelincidentcurrentrecordsofeventFPL0112 .....................................71 5–9Irregularinitialcurrentvariationsignaturecorrespondingtothelow-levelincidentcurrentrecordsofeventFPL0220 .............................73 5–10FlashFPL0226,stroke1,a)phaseAarresterandterminatingresistorchargedistribution,andb)percentageoftotalphaseAarresterandterminatingresistorcharge.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. .........75 5–11SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,r,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke1ofashFPL0226 ................75 5–12Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke1ofashFPL0226 ................76 5–13FlashFPL0228,stroke4,a)phaseAarresterandterminatingresistorchargedistribution,andb)percentageoftotalphaseAarresterandterminatingresistorcharge.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. .........77 5–14SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,r,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke4ofashFPL0228 ................77 5–15Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke4ofashFPL0228 ................78 5–16FlashFPL0229,stroke1,distributionofchargetransferred ................79 5–17FlashFPL0229,stroke1,percentageoftotalchargetransferred ............79xi

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5–18SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,r,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke1ofashFPL0229 ................80 5–19Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke1ofashFPL0229 ................80 5–20FlashFPL0229,stroke2,distributionofchargetransferred ................81 5–21FlashFPL0229,stroke2,percentageoftotalchargetransferred ............82 5–22SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,r,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke2ofashFPL0229 ................82 5–23Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,,forstroke2ofashFPL0229 ................83 5–24FlashFPL0226,stroke1. ................................................85 5–25FlashFPL0228,stroke4. ................................................86 5–26FlashFPL0229,stroke1. ................................................87 5–27FlashFPL0229,stroke2. ................................................88 5–28Overviewofmodels1and2comparedtoarepresentationoftheverticaltestline. ..............................................................92 5–29Model1schematic. ......................................................93 5–30Model2schematic. ......................................................93 5–31Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6Groundcurrentsobtainedwithmodel1when100,200,500and800lightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and. ..............95 5–32Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel1when1,2,5and8klightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and. ...................96 5–33Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel2when100,200,500and800lightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and. ..............97 5–34Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel2when1,2,5and8klightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and. ...................98 5–35FlashFPL0108,RS5:measuredandmodel-predicted(model1)waveformsdisplayedonatimescale ........................................99xii

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A–1Conductor'slayoutandclearancedistancesofthedistributionlinewithver-ticalphaseconductorarrangement. ....................................109 A–2DiagramofconnectionsatPole15oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................110 A–3DiagramofconnectionsatPole14oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................111 A–4DiagramofconnectionsatPole10oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................112 A–5DiagramofconnectionsatPole7oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................113 A–6DiagramofconnectionsatPole7oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,fortestcongurationFPL-D-02,summer2002. ...................114 A–7DiagramofconnectionsatPole6oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................115 A–8DiagramofconnectionsatPole3oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................116 A–9DiagramofconnectionsatPole2oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................117 A–10DiagramofconnectionsatPole1oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001. ...................................................118 A–11Multiplegroundingscheme,duringpartofsummer2001andsummer2002,forpoles1,2,6,10,14,and15.Dottedlinesrepresentconnectingleadsandhorizontaldistancesbetweenrods. .................................119 B–1MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-A-01(ashesFPL0101,FPL0102,FPL0105,FPL0107,andFPl0108).StriketophaseAoftheverticallineatpole8. ..................................................123 B–2MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-B-01(ashesFPL0110,FPL0111,andFPl0112).StriketophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7. ...........................................126 B–3MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-C-01(ashFPL0115).Striketogroundat15mfromtheverticalcongurationdistributionline. .129 B–4MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationsFPL-A-02(ashesFPL0208andFPL0210),FPL-B-02(ashesFPL0213,FPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220andFPL0221)andFPL-C-02(ashFPL0226).AllashestophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7. .....................133xiii

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B–5MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-D-02(ashesFPL0228andFPL0229).AllashestophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7. ................................................142 B–6MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationsFPL-E-02(ashFPL0236;mobilelauncheratnorthoftheverticalline)andFPL-F-02(ashesFPL0240,FPL0241,FPL0244,FPL0245,FPL0241;mobilelauncheratnorthoftheverticalline). .............................144 C–1FlashFPL0107,stroke1. ................................................146 C–2FlashFPL0107,stroke2. ................................................147 C–3FlashFPL0108,stroke1. ................................................149 C–4FlashFPL0108,stroke2. ................................................150 C–5FlashFPL0108,stroke3. ................................................151 C–6FlashFPL0108,stroke4. ................................................152 C–7FlashFPL0108,stroke5. ................................................153 C–8FlashFPL0110,stroke1. ................................................155 C–9FlashFPL0112,stroke1. ................................................157 C–10FlashFPL0112,stroke2. ................................................158 C–11FlashFPL0112,stroke3. ................................................159 C–12FlashFPL0112,stroke4. ................................................160 C–13FlashFPL0112,stroke5. ................................................161 C–14FlashFPL0107,stroke1. ................................................163 C–15FlashFPL0107,stroke2. ................................................164 C–16FlashFPL0108,stroke1. ................................................166 C–17FlashFPL0108,stroke2. ................................................167 C–18FlashFPL0108,stroke3. ................................................168 C–19FlashFPL0108,stroke4. ................................................169 C–20FlashFPL0108,stroke5. ................................................170 C–21FlashFPL0110,stroke1. ................................................172 C–22FlashFPL0112,stroke1. ................................................174xiv

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C–23FlashFPL0112,stroke2. ................................................175 C–24FlashFPL0112,stroke3. ................................................176 C–25FlashFPL0112,stroke4. ................................................177 C–26FlashFPL0112,stroke5. ................................................178 D–1FlashFPL0208,stroke1. ................................................180 D–2FlashFPL0210,stroke1. ................................................182 D–3FlashFPL0213,stroke1. ................................................184 D–4FlashFPL0213,stroke2. ................................................185 D–5FlashFPL0218,stroke1. ................................................187 D–6FlashFPL0219,stroke1. ................................................189 D–7FlashFPL0219,stroke2. ................................................190 D–8FlashFPL0220,stroke1. ................................................192 D–9FlashFPL0220,stroke2. ................................................193 D–10FlashFPL0220,stroke3. ................................................194 D–11FlashFPL0220,stroke4. ................................................195 D–12FlashFPL0220,stroke5. ................................................196 D–13FlashFPL0220,stroke6. ................................................197 D–14FlashFPL0221,stroke1. ................................................199 D–15FlashFPL0221,stroke2. ................................................200 D–16FlashFPL0221,stroke3. ................................................201 D–17FlashFPL0221,stroke4. ................................................202 D–18FlashFPL0221,stroke5. ................................................203 D–19FlashFPL0226,stroke1. ................................................205 D–20FlashFPL0226,stroke2. ................................................206 D–21FlashFPL0226,stroke3. ................................................207 D–22FlashFPL0226,stroke4. ................................................208 D–23FlashFPL0226,stroke5. ................................................209xv

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D–24FlashFPL0226,stroke6. ................................................210 D–25FlashFPL0228,stroke1. ................................................212 D–26FlashFPL0228,stroke2. ................................................213 D–27FlashFPL0228,stroke3. ................................................214 D–28FlashFPL0228,stroke4. ................................................215 D–29FlashFPL0228,stroke5. ................................................216 D–30FlashFPL0228,stroke6. ................................................217 D–31FlashFPL0229,stroke1. ................................................219 D–32FlashFPL0229,stroke2. ................................................220 D–33FlashFPL0229,stroke3. ................................................221 D–34FlashFPL0229,stroke4. ................................................222 D–35FlashFPL0229,stroke5. ................................................223 D–36FlashFPL0229,stroke6. ................................................224 D–37FlashFPL0229,stroke7. ................................................225 D–38FlashFPL0229,stroke8. ................................................226 D–39FlashFPL0229,stroke9. ................................................227 D–40FlashFPL0208,stroke1. ................................................229 D–41FlashFPL0210,stroke1. ................................................231 D–42FlashFPL0213,stroke1. ................................................233 D–43FlashFPL0213,stroke2. ................................................234 D–44FlashFPL0218,stroke1. ................................................236 D–45FlashFPL0219,stroke1. ................................................238 D–46FlashFPL0219,stroke2. ................................................239 D–47FlashFPL0220,stroke1. ................................................241 D–48FlashFPL0220,stroke2. ................................................242 D–49FlashFPL0220,stroke3. ................................................243 D–50FlashFPL0220,stroke4. ................................................244xvi

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D–51FlashFPL0220,stroke5. ................................................245 D–52FlashFPL0220,stroke6. ................................................246 D–53FlashFPL0221,stroke1. ................................................248 D–54FlashFPL0221,stroke2. ................................................249 D–55FlashFPL0221,stroke3. ................................................250 D–56FlashFPL0221,stroke4. ................................................251 D–57FlashFPL0221,stroke5. ................................................252 D–58FlashFPL0226,stroke1. ................................................254 D–59FlashFPL0226,stroke2. ................................................255 D–60FlashFPL0226,stroke3. ................................................256 D–61FlashFPL0226,stroke4. ................................................257 D–62FlashFPL0226,stroke5. ................................................258 D–63FlashFPL0226,stroke6. ................................................259 D–64FlashFPL0228,stroke1. ................................................261 D–65FlashFPL0228,stroke2. ................................................262 D–66FlashFPL0228,stroke3. ................................................263 D–67FlashFPL0228,stroke4. ................................................264 D–68FlashFPL0228,stroke5. ................................................265 D–69FlashFPL0228,stroke6. ................................................266 D–70FlashFPL0229,stroke1. ................................................268 D–71FlashFPL0229,stroke2. ................................................269 D–72FlashFPL0229,stroke3. ................................................270 D–73FlashFPL0229,stroke4. ................................................271 D–74FlashFPL0229,stroke5. ................................................272 D–75FlashFPL0229,stroke6. ................................................273 D–76FlashFPL0229,stroke7. ................................................274 D–77FlashFPL0229,stroke8. ................................................275xvii

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D–78FlashFPL0229,stroke9. ................................................276xviii

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AbstractofThesisPresentedtotheGraduateSchooloftheUniversityofFloridainPartialFulllmentoftheRequirementsfortheDegreeofMasterofScienceINTERACTIONOFLIGHTNINGWITHPOWERDISTRIBUTIONLINES:2001AND2002EXPERIMENTSATTHEINTERNATIONALCENTERFORLIGHTNINGRESEARCHANDTESTING(ICLRT)ByAngelG.MataAugust2003Chair:VladimirA.RakovMajorDepartment:ElectricalandComputerEngineeringTriggeredlightningexperimentswereconductedattheInternationalCenterforLight-ningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,Florida,tostudybothdirectandnearbytriggeredlightningstrikestoa812-mstandardthree-phaseplusneutraloverheadtestdistributionlinebuiltbyamajorFloridautilitycompany.Thisthesisconcernsdirectstrikeexperimentsconductedin2001and2002.Currentmeasurementsonthetestdistributionlineareusedtoanalysethedistributionofpeakcur-rentsandchargetransferthroughthefourarrestersandthesixconnectionstogroundontheline.Incidentcurrentwaveformparametersforrecordedreturnstrokesandtheinitialstagearepresented,asareoverallcurrentwaveformsforalltherecordedevents.Alterna-tiveTransientProgram(ATP)modelingisusedinanattempttoreproducetheobservedlinecurrents.Videoandstillpicturesoflightningchannelsareusedtohelpidentifytheoccurenceofashoversonthetestdistributionline.xix

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CHAPTER1INTRODUCTIONFrom1999to2002,twodifferent3-phasedistributionlinecongurations,horizontalandvertical,standardtoFloridaPowerandLight,havebeentestedattheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,Florida.Duringeachoftherstthreeyears,triggeredlightningcurrentwasdirectlyinjectedintoonephaseconductoroftheline.Thehorizontally-conguredlinewastheonlylinetestedduringsum-mer1999(see Mataetal. [ 1999a 1999b ]).Duringsummer2000,boththehorizontally-andthevertically-conguredlinesweremodiedandtested(see Mataetal. [ 2000b ]).Themodicationsinvolvedincreasingthelengthofthelinesandthenumberofarresterstationsinordertobetterapproximatereal-lifelines.During2001and2002,onlythevertically-conguredlinewastested(see Mataetal. [ 2001 2002 ]).In2001,itsgroundingwasmod-iedinordertoequalizethedcgroundingresistancesatdifferentpolesoftheline.Testswereperformedforbothdirectandnearbystrikes.Modicationsforthe2002experimentsinclude(1)theuseoftwoarrestersinparallelonthestruckphaseand(2)thediversionoftheinitialcontinuouscurrent(ICC)precedingtherstreturnstrokeofthetriggeredashesawayfromthelinetoaseparatepathtoground.Chapter 2 givesthepertinentliteraturereviewonlightningphenomenologyandalsoprovidessalientinformationfromthe1999and2000experimentsattheICLRT.InChap-ter 3 ,theICLRTandexperimentalsetupforthetestspresentedinthisthesis,aredescribed.InChapter 4 ,salientresultsfromthe2001and2002experimentsarereviewed.Detailedanalysisofdataacquiredduring2001and2002ispresentedinChapter 5 .AsummaryoftestsandrecommendationsforfutureexperimentsaregiveninChapters 6 and 7 ,re-spectively.Measuringstationsdrawings,detailedinstrumentationsettings,andrecordedcurrentwaveformsarepresentedintheAppendices.1

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CHAPTER2LITERATUREREVIEWTheliteraturereviewedinthischapterprimarilyconcernstwosubjects:lightningphenomenology(Section 2.1 ),includingabriefreviewoftheprocessesinvolvedinbothnaturallightningandlightningarticially-initiated(triggered)usingtherocket-and-wiretechnique,lightning'sinteractionwithpowersystems(Section 2.2 ),includingareviewofprevious(before1999)experimentsconcernedwithlightning'sinteractionwithpowersystemsandsalientinformationfromthe1999and2000experimentsperformedatCampBlanding. 2.1 LightningPhenomenology 2.1.1 NaturalLightningLightningisanaturalelectricaldischargethatismostoftenproducedbycloudstermedcumulonimbiorthunderclouds.Thedistributionofelectricalchargeinsuchacloudwaspresentedrstby SimpsonandScrase [ 1937 ]andisillustratedinFigure 2–1 .AmorerecentlyobserveddistributionofelectricalchargeinthundercloudsisshowninFigure 2–2 .Achargedcloudcanbeviewedasaverticalelectricaldipolewhosenegative-chargecenterislocatednearanaltitudewheretheambientairtemperatureisabout-10to-25C,whichisfromabout6to8kmorsoforsummerthunderstormsinFlorida( Krehbieletal. [ 1983 ]).Thepositive-chargecenterissituatedabovethenegativechargeregionintheupperpartofthecloudandcanextendupto12to15kminaltitudeinFlorida.Thisprimarychargestructureisoftensupplementedbyasecond,smallerregionofpositivechargelocatedinthelowerpartofthecloudbeneaththenegativechargecenter.Lessthanhalfofthelightningashesproducedduringtheactivestageofathun-derstormactuallystrikeground,andthisfractionisevenlessduringthenalstagesofa2

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3 PSfragreplacementsHeightin "!#%$'&C#)(&C&C(&(&**++,,$$RAINRAINPOSITIVENEGATIVEFigure2–1:Generaldistributionofchargeinacumulonimbus(thundercloud)asobservedinEngland.Arrowsindicateaircurrentow.Adaptedfrom SimpsonandScrase [ 1937 ].storm.Themajorityoflightningareintraclouddischarges.However,itistheminority,cloud-to-groundlightning,thatisofmorepracticalconcernforground-basedstructures.Cloud-to-groundlightningisinitiatedbyanextendingplasmachannelcalledaleader,whichoriginatesfromachargesourceinsidethecloudorfromastructureonearth.Intheformercase,theleaderinitiallydevelopsinsidethecloudandpropagatestowardearth;andinthelattercase,theleaderiselicitedfromagroundedobjectandpropagatestowardcloud.Therearefourcategoriesofcloud-to-groundlightning,illustratedinFigure 2–3 ,de-pendingonthepolarityofchargetransferredtogroundanddirectionofpropagationoftheinitialleader:downwardnegativelightning,upwardnegativelightning,downwardpositivelightning,andupwardpositivelightning.TypesandresultintheloweringofnegativechargetoEarth;typesandresultintheloweringofpositivechargetoEarth.Categoryisthemostcommonform,accountingforover90%ofallcloud-to-groundlightningworldwide.Categoryischaracteristicoftallstructuresandmoderate-heightstructuresonmountaintops.Negativerocket-triggeredlightningdiscussedinSection 2.1.2 issimilartocategorylightning.Onlycategoriesand,thatis,negativecloud-to-groundasheswillbeconsideredinthisthesis.

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4 Figure2–2:Schematicofthebasicchargestructureintheconvectiveregionofathunder-storm.Adaptedfrom Stolzenburgetal. [ 1998 ]. 2.1.1.1 DownwardnegativelightningNegativecloud-to-groundlightningashesbeginwiththein-cloudinitialbreakdownfollowedbysteppedleader.Theleaderstepsarediscreteadvancementsinthelengthoftheleader,thathavebeenobservedwithhigh-speedphotographiccameras.Stepshavebeenreportedtobefromasshortas3minlength( BergerandVogelsanger [ 1966 ])toaslongas200mreportedby Schonland [ 1956 ](typicalsteplengthis50m),andthetimeintervalbetweenstepscanrangefrom5( KriderandRadda [ 1975 ])to50s( Kitagawa [ 1957 ]).Itisgenerallyobservedthatthelongerintervalscorrespondtolongersteps,withthelongersteps(foradownward-movingleader)usuallyoccurringathigheraltitudesandshorterstepsoccurringatloweraltitudes.Electricandmagneticeldpulsescorrespondingtoindividualstepshavebeenobserved,priortothereturn-strokeeldpulse.Asthesteppedleaderadvances,branchesusuallydevelop,andthiscansometimesbiastheinterstepinter-valmeasurementsmeasuredfromeldpulserates.Theaveragepropagationspeedofthesteppedleaderisabout2x.-ms-1,andthetotalleaderdurationistypicallyabout35ms( Uman [ 2001 ]; Rakovetal. [ 1994 ]).

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5 PSfragreplacementsGroundPlaneGroundPlaneFigure2–3:Thefourcategoriesofcloud-to-groundlightningdependingonleaderprop-agationdirectionandpolarityofchargetransferredtoground.Adaptedfrom BergerandVogelsanger [ 1966 ].Thesteppedleaderportionofthelightningdischargeendswhentheleaderattachestoearthortoagroundedobject.Attachmentprocessmayinvolveanupwardconnect-ingleaderdevelopingfromthegroundorgroundedobjectinresponsetothedescendingsteppedleader.Upwardconnectingleadersareusuallyoftheorderoftensofmetersinlengthandareoppositelychargedwithrespecttothedescendingleader.Afterthejunctionbetweenthesteppedleaderandtheupwardconnectingleader,areturnstrokeensueswhicheffectivelyneutralizesthenegativechargesintheleaderchannelviaapotentialdiscontinu-itywavepropagatingfromearthtowardthecloudatabout/10ms-1( Uman [ 2001 ]).Afteranocurrentinterval,followingtherstreturnstroke,subsequentleadersmayoriginateinthecloudandprogressdownwardalongtheremnantsoftherststrokechan-nel.Typically,thereare3to5leader/return-strokesequencesinalightningash,andthegeometricmeaninterstrokeintervalis60ms( Rakovetal. [ 1994 ]).Subsequentdownwardleadersusuallydonotexhibitsteppingliketherstleader(suchleadersarereferredtoas

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6dartleaders).Sometimesdartleaderstransformtosteppedleadersinthebottomportionofthechannel(dart-steppedleaders)ordeectfromthepreviouslyformedchannelandcreatenewgroundstrikepoints( Rakovetal. [ 1994 ]).Thepropagationspeedofdartleaders,incontrasttosteppedleaders,isabout32ms-1( Uman [ 2001 ]).Upwardconnectingleaders,ifany,fromgroundedobjectsinresponsetodartleadersareapparentlyshortanddifculttodetect( Wangetal. [ 1999b ]).Returnstrokesareresponsiblefortheluminosity(seethestreakcamerapictureinFig-ure 2–4 )andtheloudthunderassociatedwithlightning.Themedianpeakcurrentoftherstreturnstrokeinnaturallightningisabout30kA,withlessthan1%ofallrstreturnstrokecurrentsexceeding200kA.Themedianrisetimeoftherst-strokecurrentpulse,measuredfrom2kAtopeak,is5.5s;andthemedianwidthofthepulse,measuredfrom2kAtohalf-peakvalue,is75s.Themedianpeakcurrentforsubsequentreturnstrokesinnaturallightningisabout12kA.Therisetimeofthecurrentpulseforsubsequentstrokes,measuredfrom2kAtopeak,is1.1salthoughthisvalueisprobablyoverestimateduetothetimeresolution(about0.2s)ofthemeasurementsystemof Bergeretal. [ 1975 ];andthemedianwidthofthepulse,measuredfrom2kAtohalf-peakvalue,is32s.Towerstudies( Eriksson [ 1978 ])otherthanthoseof Bergeretal. [ 1975 ]andtriggered-lightningstudies( Fisheretal. [ 1993 ]; Leteinturieretal. [ 1991 ])haveshownsubsequent-strokecur-rentrisetimesof300to600nsandtypicalvaluesofmaximumrateofriseofcurrentoftheorderof100As-1.Approximately25%ofallinterstrokesintervalscontainaso-calledlongcontinuingcurrent( RakovandUman [ 1990 ]).Longcontinuingcurrentisdenedascurrentofdu-rationlongerthan40mswithmagnitudeoftenstohundredsofamperesthatcanowinthelightningchannel(foruptohundredsofmilliseconds)afterthereturn-strokecurrentpeak.Currentpulses,called4componentpulses,maybesuperimposedonthecontinuingcurrent( Thottappilliletal. [ 1995 ]).4componentcurrentpulsesdifferfromreturnstroke

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7 Figure2–4:Streak-cameraphotographofa12-strokeash.Timeadvancesfromlefttoright.NewMexicoInstituteofMiningandTechnologyphotograph.Adaptedfrom Uman [ 2001 ].pulsesintheirwaveshapecharacteristics.Accordingto Thottappilliletal. [ 1995 ],thege-ometricmeancurrentpeakfor4componentsis117A;thegeometricmean/90%risetimeis422s;thegeometricmeanhalf-peakwidthis816s;thegeometricmeantimeintervalbetween4componentsis4.9ms;andtheprecedingcontinuingcurrenthasage-ometricmeanvalueof177A(returnstrokesoccuronlyafterno-currentintervals).1Some4componenthavecurrentpeaksinthekiloamperesrange. 2.1.1.2 UpwardnegativelightningUpwardnegativelightningisinitiatedbyanupwardpositiveleaderfromthegroundedobject.Theleaderstageendswhentheleaderentersanegativechargesourcewithinthethundercloud.Unlikethecaseofadownwardnegativeleaderattachingtoearth,there 1The/90%risetimeisdenedasthetimeonthewavefrontbetween10%ofthepeakvalueand90%ofthepeakvalue,andthehalf-peakwidthisthetimebetween50%ofthepeakvalueonthewavefrontand50%ofthepeakvalueonthewavetail.

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8isnoreturnstroke.Instead,aninitialcontinuouscurrent(ICC)owsbetweenthecloudandtheearthforsometenstosomehundredsofmilliseconds.Afterano-currentintervalfollowingtheICC,downward-movingnegativedartleadersmay(althoughnotnecessarily)startinsidethecloudandtraversethesamepathastheICC,resultinginanupwardreturnstrokeuponattachmenttoearth.ThedartleadersandreturnstrokesinthistypeofasharesimilartosubsequentstrokesindownwardnegativelightningdescribedinSection 2.1.1.1 .Nearlyalllightningstrikestoverytallstructures(hundredsofmetersinheight)areinitiatedbyupwardpositiveleaders( Eriksson [ 1978 ]). 2.1.2 Articially-Initiated(Triggered)LightningLightningcanbearticiallyinitiatedfromanoverheadthundercloudbyusingasmallrocketequippedwithaspoolofmetallicwire.Twostillphotographsofrocket-triggeredlightningareshowninFigure 2–5 .Thepresenceofchargeinsidethecloudisinferredfromtheverticalelectriceldmeasuredatground.InexperimentsattheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,Florida,usuallywhentheeldisintherangeof5kVm-1to9kVm-1atground,arocketislaunchedtowardthecloud.Therocketascendswithaspeedofabout200ms-1andistrailedbytheunspoolingwire.Inthe“classical”triggeringtechnique,illustratedinFigure 2–6 ,thetriggeringwire,acopperlamentreinforcedforstrengthbyakevlarsheath,thatisabout500mto700mlong,iselectricallyconnectedtothegroundedrocket-launchingunit.Astherocketascendstoaheightofabout200mto300m,electriceldenhancementatthetipoftherocketre-sultsinanupward-movingpositiveleader(thepolaritystatedisforthetypicalconditionswhenthemainnegative-chargecenterisbelowthemainpositive-chargecenter).Theup-wardpositiveleaderisfollowedbyaninitialcontinuouscurrent(ICC).Thetriggeringwireisdestroyedduringtheupwardpositiveleaderstage.TheupwardpositiveleaderandICCconstitutetheinitialstageofaclassicaltriggeredlightning.Afterano-currentintervalfollowingtheICC,negativedownward-movingdartleadersmayoriginateinthecloud.Thedart-leader/return-strokesequencesusuallyfollowthepreviouslyformedchanneland

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9 Figure2–5:PhotographsoflightningtriggeredattheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT),atCampBlanding,Florida,inSummerof2002.aresimilar( Fisheretal. [ 1993 ])tosubsequentstrokesinnaturallightning.Dartleaders,though,donotalwaysoccur,inwhichcasetheashesarecomposedoftheinitialstageonly.Theprocessesinvolvedinclassicaltriggered-lightningaresimilartothosedescribedfornaturalupwardnegativelightningdischargesinitiatedfromtallstructures,theonlydif-ferencebeingthat,inthetriggered-lightningcase,the“tallstructure”iserectedinafewsecondsandquickly(inseveralmilliseconds)replacedbyaplasmachannel.Incontrast,thedifferencebetweenclassicalrocket-triggeredlightningandnaturallightningthatisini-tiatedbyanegativedownward-movingsteppedleaderissignicant.Theinitialdownwardstepped-leaderandrstreturnstrokearenotpresentinclassicaltriggeredlightning,therstreturnstrokebeingonaveragelargerthansubsequentreturnstrokes.Atriggeringtechniquedevelopedtoyieldadownward-movingsteppedleaderisthealtitudeorungrounded-wiretriggeringtechniquewhichisillustratedinFigure 2–7 .Inthiscase,thetriggeringwireisseparatedfromgroundbyaninsulatingcable.Onedesignusedby Larocheetal. [ 1991 ]hassomehundredsofmetersofcopperwire(triggeringwire)

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10 PSfragreplacements AscendingRocketUpwardPositiveLeaderInitialContinuousCurrentNo-CurrentIntervalDownwardNegativeLeaderUpwardReturnStrokeLeader/ReturnStrokeSequenceInitialStage53687sHundredsofmsTensofms97:5<;/=ms-195<;?>ms-195<;?@ms-195<;/Ams-1300mCopperWireWire-TraceChannelChannelNaturalFigure2–6:Sequenceofeventsinvolvedintheformationoftherstreturnstrokeinclas-sical(grounded-wire)triggeredlightning.Adaptedfrom Rakovetal. [ 1998 ].attachedtotherocketfollowedby400mofinsulationwithanadditional50-mcopperwiresection(interceptingwire)attachedtotherocket-launchingunit.Anupwardpositiveleaderiselicitedfromtheupperendofthetriggeringwirewhentherocketisatanaltitudeofseveralhundredmeters,andsometimelateradownwardnegativesteppedleaderisinitiatedfromthelower-endoftheelevatedtriggeringwire.Thedownwardsteppedleaderdoesnotalwaysattachtothegrounded50-msectionofcopperwire.Uponattachment(whichinvolvesanupwardconnectingleader)ofthedownwardleadertoground,anupwardreturnstrokeensues.Thereturnstrokeisrelativelyshort-livedbecause,atapropagationspeed100-1000timesfasterthanthatoftheupwardleader,itsooncatchesuptotheleadertip

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11 PSfragreplacements AscendingRocketUpwardPositiveLeaderBidirectionalLeaderandUpwardConnectingLeaderUpwardReturnStrokeUpwardPositiveLeaderInitialStage93s96ms91ms(10-100)Bs97:C5<;/=ms-195<;>ms-195<;>ms-195<;?>ms-195D;?>ms-1E5<;A36F5D;?@HGmmE5D;?>36I5<;JHGm-;LKM;H;LK95-;NK95PO7LQKTriggeringInterceptingWireWireKevlarCableFigure2–7:Sequenceofeventsinvolvedintheinitialstageofaltitude(ungrounded-wire)triggeredlightning.Adaptedfrom Rakovetal. [ 1998 ].andintensiesthisleader.Thus,thereturnstrokeshowninFigure 2–7 servestoestablishalowimpedancepathbetweentheupwardleadertipandground.Theprocessesthatfollowinaltitudetriggeredlightningaresimilartothose(events3to6)inclassicaltriggeredlightning(Figure 2–6 ). 2.2 Lightning'sInteractionwithPowerLinesLightningisamajorcauseofpowerdistributionsystemfailuresinregionsofappre-ciablethunderstormactivity.Severalresearcheffortshavebeenundertakeninthepasttodeterminetheresponsesofdistributionsystemstodirectandnearbylightningstrikes.In1978,aprojectwasfundedbytheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy(DoE)tostudytheresponsestolightningofpowerdistributionsystemsintheTampaBayareaofFlorida

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12( SchneiderandStillwell [ 1979 ]; Masteretal. [ 1984 1986 ]).AresearchgroupfromGen-eralElectricrecordedwaveformsofarresterdischargecurrentsfortwonaturallightningstrikestoa7.62-kV,single-phase,overheaddistributionlineatunknowndistances(al-thoughprobablyveryclose)fromthearresters( SchneiderandStillwell [ 1979 ]).Oneeventwasasingle-strokeashthatlowerednegativechargetoground.Thearresterdischargecurrenthadapeakamplitudeof15kA,arise-timeofabout2s,anddecayedtohalfofthepeakvalueinabout36s.Theothereventwasathree-strokeashthatloweredpositivechargetoground.Thepeakamplitudesofthearresterdischargecurrentwere42kA,32kA,and40kAforthethreestrokes,respectively,withrise-timesof5.6sforthersteventandabout1sforthesecondandthirdevents.Thetimetohalfvalueofeacheventwasabout60s,9s,and5s,respectively( SchneiderandStillwell [ 1979 ]).InaseparatepartoftheDoEstudy,aresearchgroupfromtheUniversityofFloridameasuredvoltagesonanunen-ergized,460-moverheaddistributionline,simulatingastandard7.62-kV,single-phaseline,withbothendsopen-circuited( Masteretal. [ 1984 1986 ]).Themajorityofthelightningactivityduringtheexperimentwasbetween4kmand12kmaway( Masteretal. [ 1984 ]).InSouthAfrica,an11-kV,three-phase,overheaddistributionline(withnoshieldwire)wasconstructedaspartofajointprojectbetweentheElectricitySupplyCommis-sion(Johannesburg,SouthAfrica)andtheNationalElectricalEngineeringResearchIn-stitute(Pretoria,SouthAfrica),tostudytheinteractionbetweenlightningandoverheadlines( Erikssonetal. [ 1982 ]).Thelinewas9.9kmlong,withthewesternendofthelinegroundedtoaburiedcounterpoiseandtheeasternendopen-circuited.Arresterdischargecurrentsfromeachphaseweremeasuredattheeastendoftheline.Voltagesoneachphaseconductorweremeasurednearthemidpointoftheline,aswellasononephaseattheeastend.Themeasuredarresterdischargecurrentswerefromnaturallightningstrikinggroundneartheline.Thelargestarrestercurrentrecordedhadapeakvalueofabout1kA.Voltagewaveformswereobtainedatthemidpointofthelineforalargerdatasetthanthecurrentwaveforms,including281casesinwhichthepeakvalueexceeded12kV.Themajorityof

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13thevoltageswereunipolarwithapositivepolarityandwereduetonearbylightninglow-eringnegativechargetoground.Atotalof12ofthe281eventswerefromdirectstrikestotheline.Themaximumvoltagerecordedduringtwoyearsoftheprojectwas300kV( Erikssonetal. [ 1982 ]). PSfragreplacements ShieldingWireCircuit1Circuit2LightningrodFigure2–8:Okushishikutesttransmissionlinetower.Adaptedfrom Matsumotoetal. [ 1996 ].InJapan,theshieldingwireofadouble-circuit,275-kV,“Okushishiku”testtransmis-sionline,wassubjecttorocket-triggeredandnaturallightning,from1987to1996( Mat-sumotoetal. [ 1996 ], Motoyamaetal. [ 1998 ], Kobayashietal. [ 1998 ]).Thetesttransmis-sionlinewas2.15kmlong,havingatotalofseventransmissiontowers,doubleinsulatorstringswitharcinghorngaps,threegapless154-kVMOVarresters,asingleshieldingwire,and500terminationresistors.Arresterswereconnectedoneachphaseofoneofthecir-cuitsofthetransmissionline,atthesuspensionsteeltowerbeingstruckfrom1987to1993,andtheywereremovedin1994.500terminationresistors(182mfromthestrikepoint)wereconnectedatoneendofthetransmissionline.Attheotherend,thephaseconductorswereconnecteddirectlytothemetalliccrossarm,whichwasgrounded.From1993to1996,

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14thetowerwasstruck10times,eightwithtriggeredlightning,andtwowithnaturallightning( Motoyamaetal. [ 1998 ]).Thelightningchannelpeakcurrentmeasuredforthetwonaturalstrikeswere132kAand159kA,in1993and1994,respectively.Lightningchannelcur-rents,shieldingwirecurrents,towerbottomcurrents,arrestercurrents,andinsulatorstringsvoltagesweremeasuredsimultaneously.ThemaximumrecordedpeakvoltageacrosstheinsulatorstringsthatwerenotprotectedbyMOVarrestersin1993was935kV,andthemaximumarresterpeakcurrentandvoltagemeasuredwere3kAand293kV,respectively( Matsumotoetal. [ 1996 ]).In1994,abackashoverwasobservedontheline,andamax-imumpeakofapproximately2.5MVwasmeasuredacrossthestringinsulatorwherebackashovertookplace( Motoyamaetal. [ 1998 ]).Sincetheauthorsclaimedthat“Thein-creaseofthevoltagesjustbeforetheashover...mightbeduetothemalfunctionofthemeasuringdevice”,referringtothespikeseenwiththeresistivevoltagedividerused,thisspikemightwellhavebeenduetotheeffectofmagneticcouplingtothemeasuringloop,asobservedinmeasuringthevoltageacrossanarresterin Mataetal. 'sexperiments( Mataetal. [ 2000a ]).In1985and1986,theUniversityofFloridawasfundedbytheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,underacontractwithMartinMariettaEnergySystems,toinstrumentanunener-gized,448-mlong,overheaddistributionlineonatriggered-lightningresearchfacilityattheNASAKennedySpaceCenterinFlorida( Georgiadisetal. [ 1992 ]; Rubinsteinetal. [ 1994 ]).Thelineconsistedofthreeconductors,onlyoneofwhichwasterminatedateachendintheline'scharacteristicimpedanceofabout600.Voltagesweremeasuredateachendoftheterminatedline. Georgiadisetal. [ 1992 ]describeandmodelthevoltagesin-ducedonthelinefromdistantnaturallightning.Additionally,lightningwasarticiallyinitiated,usingtherocket-and-wiretechnique,andthelightningcurrentwasdirectedtoground20mfromtheeasternendoftheline.Voltagesinducedonthelinewereobtainedforthreelightningashes,containingelevenstrokes,loweringnegativechargetoground,asdescribedby Rubinsteinetal. [ 1994 ].Thevoltagewaveformsweregroupedintotwo

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15categories,oscillatoryandimpulsive,bothwithalmostanequalnumberofoccurrences.Forbothcases,thewaveformswereinitiallybipolar,withthepositivecrestbeingabout40%oftheamplitudeofthenegativecrestfollowingit.Theoscillatorywaveformsaver-agednegativecrestsof47kV(standarddeviationof9kV)attheeastendofthelineand72kV(standarddeviationof20kV)atthewestendfollowedbydampedoscillationsatbothendswithaverageperiodsof3.3s(standarddeviationof0.3s).Theseperiodsareconsistentwithreectionsonthelineforawavewithapropagationspeedslightlylessthanthespeedoflight.Theimpulsivewaveformsaveragednegativecrestsof354kV(standarddeviationof44kV)attheeastendofthelineand870kV(standarddeviationof102kV)atthewestend.Modelingofthedatahasbeenpresentedby Rubinsteinetal. [ 1994 ]and Rachidietal. [ 1997 ].From1993to1997,aseriesofstudieswereconductedbytheUniversityofFloridaattheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,FloridafundedbytheElectricPowerResearchInstitute(EPRI).Overtheseveyears,theresponsesofasinglephaseunenergizedtestpowerdistributionsystemtodirectandnearbylightning(triggeredandnatural)werestudied( Fernandez [ 1997 ]; Fernandezetal. [ 1997a 1997b 1998 ]; Mataetal. [ 1998 ]).Duringthe1995-1996experiments,therstsimultane-ouslymeasuredarresterdischargecurrentandvoltagewaveformsduringveryclose,directlightningstrikestoanunenergizedpowerdistributionsystemwereobtained( Fernandezetal. [ 1997b ]).TwoEPRInalreportssummarizingtheexperimentsfrom1993-1997includingadiscussionofdamagetoundergroundcables,testsonaresidentialserviceen-trance,andtestsonanoverheaddistributionlinearepresentedby Fernandezetal. [ 1998 ]and Mataetal. [ 1998 ].Insummer1999twostandarddistributiontestlines(seeFigure 2–9 )werebuildbyFloridaPowerandLight,accordingtotheirstandards( FPL [ 1996 ]),attheICLRTatCamp

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16Blanding,Florida.Figure 2–9 showsthesketchesofatypicalcrossarmwith2Tcon-ductorhorizontal-congurationline(a)andtypicalverticalwith568conductorvertical-congurationline(b).Thelineswererstbuiltwithlenghtsofapproximately245and365mrespectively.Insummer2000,bothlineswereextendedtotheiractuallenghtofapproximately856and812mrespectively.TheselineswerebuiltinajointeffortwiththeUniversityofFloridatoanalyzethelines'interactionwithbothdirectandnearbylightningstrikes.Thisstudyiscurrentlyinprogress(itisinthePhase5,thefthyear),andtheseexperimentshavebeenreportedby Mataetal. [ 1999b 2000b ]and Mataetal. [ 2001 2002 ].The2001and2002experimentsarethesubjectofstudyinthisthesis.Salientinformationfromthepreviousexperimentsisdiscussedbelow. PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutral(a) PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutral(b)Figure2–9:FPL-ICLRTtestdistributionlines.a)Horizontally-,andb)vertically-congured.Table 2–1 providesasummaryofthe1999and2000triggeredlightningashescon-tainingatleastonereturnstroke,thatis,asheswithoutreturnstrokes(wireburns)arenotincludedinthistable. 2.2.1 1999ExperimentsDuringthe1999experiments,the245-mlonghorizontal-congurationdistributionlinewassubjectedtoatotalofsevenashes,eachwithtwoormorereturnstrokes.One

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17Table2–1:Summaryoftriggersandreturnstrokespercongurationforsummers1999and2000. CongurationYearTotalTotalRSPhaseLargestRSLineTriggersRStruckpeakcurrent[kA] Horizontal199939C15 417B15 2000834C56 Vertical2SA TOnlyashescontainingreturnstrokesareincludedhere.UThetriggeringcircuitfailed.Datafortheseashesneedstoberecoveredfrommagnetictaperecords,whichneedstoberepaired.oftheseasheswastriggeredwithafailedarresterontheline,andashoverswereob-served(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.3]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.3]).OnearresterfailedduringtheICCofoneash(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.2]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.2]).TerminationresistorsfailedduringtheICCofoneashandalsoashoverswereobserved,perhapscausedbyatriggeringwireleftbyapreviousun-successfullaunch(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.1]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.1]).Voltagedividersatthemiddleofthelinefailedduringoneashandashoverswereobservedonthelineclosetotheinjectionpoint(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.4]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.4]).Oneashwastriggeredwiththefailedvoltagedividersatthemiddleofthelineandashoverswereobservedatvariouspointsontheline(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.5]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.5]).Thereweretwoasheswithnovisuallyobservedashoverandnofailedarresterfound(see Mataetal. [ 1999b ,Section4.6,4.7]and Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2.6]). 2.2.2 2000ExperimentsDuringthe2000experiments,the856-mlonghorizontal-congurationdistributionlinewassubjectedtoatotaloftenashes,eightofwhichcontainedreturnstrokes.Oneoftheseasheswastriggeredwithafailedarresterontheline(see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.2]).Twoarrestersfailedaftertherststrokeoftwoashes(oneofthemwithatriggeringwireinvolved,see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.1]andotherswithouttriggering

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18wireinvolved,see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.7]),threearrestersfailedduringtheICCofthethreedifferentashes(see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.3,6.6and6.9]),andtwoashesdidnotdestroyanyarresters(oneofthemwithtriggeringwireinvolved,see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.4],andtheotherwithouttriggeringwirebutvisiblearcingontheline,see Mataetal. [ 2000b ,Section6.5]).

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CHAPTER3EXPERIMENTALFACILITIESTheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)isanoutdoorfacilityoccupyingaboutL7attheCampBlanding,FloridaArmyNationalGuardBase,locatedapproximatelymidwaybetweenGainesvilleandJacksonville,Florida.Thefacilityisusedfortriggering(articiallyinitiating)lightningfromnaturaloverheadthundercloudsusingtherocket-and-wiretechnique(e.g., Uman [ 2001 ]; Rakovetal. [ 1998 ])seeFig-ure 2–6 .AnoverviewoftheICLRTisshowninFigure 3–1 .TwodistributionlinesectionswerebuiltbyFPLinsummer1999:atypicalcrossarmwith2Tconductor,referredtohereasthehorizontalcongurationandatypicalverticalwith568conductor,referredtohereasthemodiedverticalconguration.Thesedistribu-tionlinesectionswerebuiltaccordingtoFPL'sstandards( FPL [ 1996 ]).Insummer2000,bothlineswereextendedinlengthresultinginapproximately'V8forthehorizontalcon-gurationandapproximatelyWXYfortheverticalconguration.Forthesummer2002and2001experiments,duringwhichonlytheverticalframingcongurationwastested,bothlineswerethesameasin2000,butthegroundingschemefortheverticalframingcon-gurationwasdifferentfromthatin1999( Mataetal. [ 1999b ]),2000( Mataetal. [ 2000b ])andpartof2001( Mataetal. [ 2001 ]),asdescribedinSection 3.3 3.1 RocketLaunchersArocketlauncherisemployedtoinitiate(trigger)lightningusingtherocket-and-wiretechnique.Duringthe2001experiments,onerocketlauncherunitwasused:theTowerLauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 )intendedtoinjectlightningcurrentdirectlyintotheline(di-rectstrikes)andclosetotheline(nearbystrikes).Duringthe2002experiments,tworocketlauncherunitswereused:theTowerLauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 )andtheMobileLauncher(seeSection 3.1.2 )intendedtoinjectlightningcurrenttogroundneartheline(toproduce19

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20 PSfragreplacements Pole1Pole1Pole2Pole2Pole3Pole3Pole4Pole4Pole5Pole5Pole6Pole6Pole7Pole7Pole8Pole8Pole9Pole9Pole10Pole10Pole11Pole11Pole12Pole12Pole13Pole13Pole14Pole14Pole15Pole15Pole16Pole17Pole18HorizontalCongurationDistributionLineVerticalCongurationDistributionLineInstrumentStation1InstrumentStation2InstrumentStation3InstrumentStation4StorageTrailersTestRunwaySATTLIFTestHouseSimulatedHouse&StreetLightUndergroundCablesTowerLauncherLaunchControlOfceBuildingEnergizedDupontlineElectricalVaultUndergroundLauncherNFigure3–1:OverviewoftheInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)atCampBlanding,Florida,Summers2001and2002(boldfacefontindicatespolesequippedwitharresters).

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21lightninginducedeffects1).Rocketsusedinallthetestscarriedspoolsintendedforclassi-caltriggering,usingakevlar-coatedcopperwireofapproximately8Llengthand0.2mmindiameter.BothrocketlauncherunitswereoperatedremotelyfromtheLaunchControltrailerviaberopticlinksandpneumatichoses.Theberopticsandpneumaticsareusedtoselecttherockettobelaunchedandtoactuateignitionoftherocket'smotor,respectively. 3.1.1 TowerLauncherThetowerlauncherismountedonan11mtowerlocatedabout20mnorthoftheoverheadverticalline(nearitsmidpoint),andithasamaximumcapacityof12rockets.Forthesummer2002experiments,thetowerlauncherdifferedfrompreviousyears'experimentsinthatthreemodications(seeSections 3.2.4 3.2.5 ,and 3.2.6 )weremadeinordertoprovideaseparatepathtoground(otherthanviatheline)fortheinitialcontinuouscurrent(ICC)precedingtherstreturnstrokeinatriggeredash.Thetriggered-lightningcurrentwasmeasuredatthelauncherwithone(2001)ortwo(2002)1.25mT&MResearchProducts,Inc.shunts,modelR-5600-8havingabandwidthof12MHz(seeSection 3.5.1 ).Oneshuntwasinsertedbetweenthelauncher(2001and2002experiments)andaver-ticalconductorconnectingthelaunchertothegroundingatthetowerbase.Theothershunt(onlyduringthe2002experiments)wasinsertedinaconductorconnectingahorizontally-oriented“U”shapestructure(interceptingconductor)installedapproximately2.5mabovethetowerlaunchertotheline(seeFigures 3–3 and 3–4 ).Inthisway,thelinewas“isolated”fromtheinitialstageoftherocket-triggered-lightning,includingthesocalledInitialCon-tinuousCurrent(ICC),whichprimarilyfollowedapathdownthetowertoground.Thelinewouldthenbeexposedonlytothosereturnstrokes(andtheirfollowingcontinuingcurrent,ifany)whosedescendingleadersattachedtotheinterceptingconductor. 1Discussionoflightninginducedeffects( Mataetal. [ 2002 ])isnotincludedinthisdocument.

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22 LauncherCurrentMeasurementLead to the lineBox Figure3–2:Towerlaunchercongurationduringthesummer2001experiments. LauncherLead to the lineBoxesMeasurementCurrentConductorInterceptingPVCPoles Figure3–3:TowerlaunchercongurationfortestcongurationFPL-A-02. 3.1.2 MobileLauncherThemobilelauncherwasmountedonabucket-truck(seeFigure 3–5 )andgroundedwithfourandeightten-footgroundrodsforthe30and100imnducedeffectstests,respec-tively.Thegroundrodswerearrangedinasemicirclearoundthelauncherandconnected

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23 CurrentMeasurementInterceptingConductorLauncherBoxLead to the lineConductorInterceptingLead from thePolesPVCFiber OpticCable Figure3–4:TowerlaunchercongurationfortestcongurationsFPL-B-02,FPL-C-02,andFPL-D-02.Lauchercurrentmeasurementboxnotseeninthispicture.withametalstrap.Thechannelbasecurrentwasmeasuredwitha1.25mT&MResearchProducts,Inc.shunt,modelR-5600-8havingabandwidthof12MHz(seeSection 3.5.1 ).Isobeberopticlinkswitha15MHzbandwidthwereemployed.Themobilelauncherwasusedduringthe2002experiments.Itwaspositioned100or30mnorthofpole7forashesFPL0231-FPL0236orFPL0237-FPL0246,respectively.Itsmainpurposewastoproducenearbylightningstrikestoground.Forthispurpose,duringthe2001experiments(ashFPL0115),thetowerlaunchergroundedatthetowerbase(about20mfromtheline)andwithoutanymetallicconnectiontoanyofthepowerlineswasused. 3.2 TestDistributionLineThedistributionlinesectiontestedduring2001and2002wasthetypicalmodiedverticalwith568conductor( Mataetal. [ 1999b 2000b ]and Mataetal. [ 2001 2002 ])withatotallengthofapproximately812m,containingfteenwoodenpolesand4arrester

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24 Lead to groundMeasurementCurrentBox Launcher Figure3–5:MobilelauncherfortestcongurationFPL-E-02.stations(seeFigures 3–6 and 3–7 ).Phaseconductorswere568,(whichareconcentric-lay-strandedaluminumconductors,aluminum-alloyreinforced)587.2MCM,nineteen-strandconductors(fteenwirestype1350-H19andfourwirestype6201-TB1,withthediameterofeachwirebeing[Z]\I^P)withanequivalentdiameterofXZ"X'I^P`_aZ"'8bdc8e,andadc-X[fresistanceof[Z]g'gFIhLi_a[Zj/Vkhlbme.TheneutralconductorwasAWG3/0,seven-strandconductorwithanequivalentdiameterof1Zj/n^P_o[Z]\Vpbdc8e,andadc-X'3fresistanceofZ"'\YIhLq_o[Z]\rhlbme.Thedistributionlinesectiontestedduring2002wasthesameastheonetestedduring2001and2000.ForasummaryofthedifferencesbetweenthislineandtheonetestedduringpreviousyearsseeTable 3–1 3.2.1 FPL-A-01(DirectStrikeatPole8)TestcongurationFPL-A-01wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL0101(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0102(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0105(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0107andFPL0108.Atotalof30measurementinstrumentswereinstalledonthedistributionlineandoneinstrumentwasinstalledonthelauncherforrecordingin-cidentcurrent(seeTable B–1 forinstrumentationsummary).Thelauncherusedwasthe

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25 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototo Pole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15Figure3–6:Verticalframingconguration,Summer2001(after07/31/02,whenneutral-to-groundconnec-tionsatPoles5and11wereremoved).

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26Table3–1:Verticallinecongurationbyyear. SummerTotalWoodenArresterGroundingtestedlength[m]polesstationspointsR 1999S36572s4t2000812154u8v2001812154u8v.wx2002812154u6y RThegroundingschemefortheverticalframingcongurationwasmodiedduring2001,seeSection 3.3 .SDuringthisyeartheverticallinesectionwasnottested.sPoles6and10.tPoles5,6,10and11.uPoles2,6,10and14.vPoles1,2,5,6,10,11,14and15.xNeutral-to-groundconnectionsatPoles5and11wereremovedon7/31/02.yPoles1,2,6,10,14and15.towerlauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 ),andthedownleadfromthetowerlauncherwascon-nectedtothephaseAconductoratpole8.AllarrestersusedwereOhioBrass18-kVMOVexceptforthreearrestersatpole14andtwo(phasesBandC)arrestersatpole2whichwereCooperPowerSystem18-kVarresters(seeSection 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Groundconnectionswereatthearresterstations(Poles2,6,10,and14)andatthetermi-nationpoles(1and15).Connectionstogroundwerepresentatpoles5and11thatwerenotintendedtobethereand,whendiscoveredon7/31/01,theywereremovedpriortotest-ingcongurationsFPL-B-01andFPL-C-01.Flux-compensatedvoltagedividers(see Mata [ 2000 ])wereinstalledontheline(phasesA,BandCatpole6andphaseAatpole2)tomeasurearrestervoltages.ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFig-ure B–1 3.2.2 FPL-B-01(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8)TestcongurationFPL-B-01wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL0110,FPL0111(ashwithoutreturnstrokes)andFPL0112.Atotalof26measurementinstrumentswereinstalledonthedistributionline,andoneinstrumentwasinstalledonthelauncherforrecordingincidentcurrent(seeTable B–2 forinstrumentationsummary).Thelauncherusedwas

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27thetowerlauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 ),andthedownleadfromthetowerlauncherwasconnectedtothephaseAconductoratthemidpointbetweenpoles8and7.AllarrestersusedwereCooperPowerSystem18-kV(seeSection 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Theux-compensatedvoltagedividers(see Mata [ 2000 ])wereremovedfromtheline(phasesA,BandCatpole6andphaseAatpole2),sothatnoarrestervoltagemeasurementsweremadewiththisconguration.Groundconnectionswereatthearresterstations(Poles2,6,10,and14)andattheterminationpoles(1and15).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–2 3.2.3 FPL-C-01(StriketoGround20mfromtheLine)TestcongurationFPL-C-01wasusedfortriggeredashFPL0115(ashwithoutre-turnstrokes).Atotalof26measurementinstrumentswereinstalledonthedistributionlineandoneinstrumentwasinstalledonthelauncherforrecordingincidentcurrent(seeTable B–3 forinstrumentationsummary).Thelauncherusedwasthetowerlauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 ),groundedatthetowerbaseandwithoutanymetallicconnectionbetweenthelauncherandtheline.AllarrestersusedwereCooperPowerSystem18-kV(seeSec-tion 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Theux-compensatedvoltagedividers(see Mata [ 2000 ])wereremovedfromtheline(phasesA,BandCatpole6andphaseAatpole2),sothatnoarrestervoltagemeasurementsweremadewiththisconguration.Groundcon-nectionswereatthearresterstations(Poles2,6,10,and14)andattheterminationpoles(1and15).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–3 3.2.4 FPL-A-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8)TestcongurationFPL-A-02wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL-0205(altitudetrig-geredash),FPL0206(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0208,andFPL0210.Atotalof24instrumentswereinstalledonthedistributionlineand2instrumentswereinstalledonthelauncherforrecordingincidentcurrent(seeTable B–4 forinstrumentationsummaryandTable B–5 forrangesandsensitivityvaluescorrespondingtotheLeCroyoscilloscopes).Thelauncherusedwasthetowerlauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 )andthedownleadfromthe

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28 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototo Pole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15Figure3–7:Verticalframingconguration,Summer2002.

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29interceptingconductor(seeSection 3.1.1 )wasconnectedtotheinstrumentationboxforthelightningcurrentinjectedtotheline,placedonthetower,andfromtheretothephaseAconductor,mid-spanbetweenpoles8and7.AllarrestersusedwereCooperPowerSystem18-kVarresters(seeSection 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Groundconnectionswereatthearresterstations(Poles2,6,10,and14)andattheterminationpoles(1and15).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–4 3.2.5 FPL-B-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8)TestcongurationFPL-B-02wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL02132,FPL0218,FPL02193,FPL0220,andFPL0221andwasthesameasFPL-A-02exceptthatthedown-leadfromtheinterceptingconductorwasconnectedtotheinstrumentationboxforthelightningcurrentinjectedtotheline,placedonanauxiliarystructurebuildbetweenthetowerlauncherandthehorizontalline,andfromtheretothephaseAconductor,mid-spanbetweenpoles8and7(seeFigure 3–4 ).Measurementrangesweremodied(seeTable B–6 forinstrumentationsummaryandTable B–7 forrangesandsensitivityvaluescorrespond-ingtotheLeCroyoscilloscopes).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–4 3.2.6 FPL-C-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8)TestcongurationFPL-C-02wasusedfortriggeredashFPL0226andwasthesameasFPL-B-02exceptthattherewasathincopperwireconnectedfromthebottomofthetowerlauncherdirectlytogroundactingasa“fuse”fortheinitialstageofeachtriggeredash.Measurementrangesweremodied(seeTable B–8 forinstrumentationsummaryand 2Striketoground20mfromthelineanddownthetower,becausenoneofthede-scendingleadersofthisashattachedtothetowerlauncher'sinterceptingconductor(seeSection 3.1.1 ).3Therstreturnstroke(onlyrecordedbytheYokogawaoscilloscopes)wasdownthetowertoground20mfromtheline.

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30Table B–9 forrangesandsensitivityvaluescorrespondingtotheLeCroyoscilloscopes).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–4 3.2.7 FPL-D-02(DirectStrikebetweenPoles7and8)TestcongurationFPL-D-02wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL0228,FPL0229,andFPL0230(ashwithoutreturnstrokes)andwasthesameasFPL-C-02,exceptthatallar-restersusedwereOhioBrass18-kVMOVarresters(seeSection 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Also,theinstrumentationcongurationatpole7possiblyinvolvedinfacilitatingashoversbetweenphasesAandBwasimproved(seeFigures A–5 and A–6 ).Measure-mentrangesweremodied(seeTable B–10 forinstrumentationsummaryandTable B–11 forrangesandsensitivityvaluescorrespondingtotheLeCroyoscilloscopes).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–5 3.2.8 FPL-E-02(StriketoGround100mfromtheLine)TestcongurationFPL-E-02wasusedfortriggeredashFPL0236.Atotalof24in-strumentswereinstalledonthedistributionlineand2instrumentswereinstalledonthelauncherforrecordingincidentcurrent.Thelauncherusedwasthemobilelauncher(seeSection 3.1.2 )placed100mnorthofpole7(oftheverticalline),withametalstrapcon-nectedfromthebottomofthelauncherdirectlytoground(seeSection 3.1.2 ),sothatthecompleteashwouldbedirectlyinjectedtoground.AllarrestersusedwereOhioBrass18-kVMOVarresters(seeSection 3.4 fordetailsonarrestersused).Groundconnectionswereatthearresterstations(Poles2,6,10,and14)andattheterminationpoles(1and15).ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–6 3.2.9 FPL-F-02(StriketoGround30mfromtheLine)TestcongurationFPL-F-02wasusedfortriggeredashesFPL0240(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0241(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0244(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0245,andFPL0241(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),andwasthesameasFPL-E-02,exceptthatthemobilelauncherwasplaced30mnorthofpole7.ThecircuitdiagramforthiscongurationisshowninFigure B–6

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31 3.3 GroundingThegroundingresistancesforthevertical-congurationlineweremodiedduringJune2001(see Mataetal. [ 2001 ])inanefforttoequalizethedcgroundingresistancesofallthegroundedpoles.Thismodicationinvolvedaddingnewgroundingrodsectionsnearbyeachgroundedpole.Figure 3–8 showsageneralizationofthemultiplerodsectionsaddedtoeachpole,whereaparticularrodsectionwillbereferredtoasz{c,withcrangingfrom1(poleclosestgroundingrodsection)tothemaximumnumberofrodsectionsofanyparticularpole.Figure A–11 showsamorespecicviewofthenewrodschemeofeachpole.Sincethesenewrodsectionswerenotfollowinganyparticularpath,theirlocationwillbereferredtoinTable 3–2 basedonphasesBandCinsulatorsfacingsouth.Nofurtherchangesweremadetothegroundingschemeofthedistributionlines. Rod 1Rod nRSShuntPhase APhase BPhase CNeutral Figure3–8:Identiersforthegroundingresistancemeasuringlocationsforthemultiplerodsscheme. 3.4 ArrestersForthe2001and2002experiments,arrestersmanufacturedbyCooperPowerSystems(thesametypeastheonesusedinthe2000experiments)andOhioBrass(thesametypeastheonesusedinthe1999and2000experiments)wereused.

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32Table3–2:Measuredgroundingresistances(in)forthevertical-congurationline,seeFigures 3–8 and A–11 Date MeasurementLocation PoleNumber 1 2 6 10 14 15 7/31/01 S 24 20 18 17.8 28 24 R1 28 24 27 19 22 23 TheCooperPowerSystemsarresterswereusedfortestcongurationsFPL-A-01(Sec-tion 3.2.1 ),FPL-B-01(Section 3.2.2 ),FPL-C-01(Section 3.2.3 ),FPL-A-02(Section 3.2.4 ),FPL-B-02(Section 3.2.5 ),andFPL-C-02(Section 3.2.6 );andtheOhioBrassarresterswereusedfortestcongurationsFPL-A-01(Section 3.2.1 ),FPL-D-02(Section 3.2.7 ),FPL-E-02(Section 3.2.8 ),andFPL-F-02(Section 3.2.9 ).TheCooperPowerSystemsarrestersaretheUltraSILHousedVariSTARHeavyDutywitharatedvoltageof|n.ThemanufacturerspeciedV-Icharacteristic,inresponsetoan[hLXwave,isgiveninTable 3–3 .TheOhioBrassarrestersarethePDV-100withratedvoltageof18kV.Themanufac-turerspeciedV-Icharacteristic,inresponsetoanh'X'wave,isgiveninTable 3–4 .Table3–3:V-IcharacteristicoftheCooperPowerSystemsUltraSILHousedVariS-TARHeavyDuty/}narrester. Voltage[kV] Current[kA] 48.5 1.5 51.6 3 53.9 5 58.8 10 65.0 20 73.2 40 Table3–4:V-IcharacteristicoftheOhioBrassPDV100/nMOVarrester. Voltage[kV] Current[kA] 49 1.5 52 3 55 5 60 10 70 20 82 40 ArresterswereinstalledatPoles2,6,10and14oftheline.PhaseAarresterswerereplacedaftereachstorm-daywhenthelinewasstruckbytriggeredlightningashes.In2002,twonewarrestersofthesametype(CooperPower

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33SystemsorOhioBrass)wereinstalledinparallelonthestruckphase(A)ateacharresterstation. 3.5 InstrumentationTheinstrumentationusedduringthe2001and2002experimentswassimilartothatemployedduringthe1999and2000experiments.EachmeasurementwasremotelyrecordedintheLaunchControltrailer(seeFig-ure 3–1 )viaapairofNicoletIsobe3000receiver-transmitterandaconnectingberopticcable.AlltheNicoletIsobe3000receiverswerehousedintheLaunchControltrailer,andalltheNicoletIsobe3000transmitterswerebatteryoperatedandmountedinshieldedcontainersatthesensorlocation.ThesetransmitterswerealsocontrolledremotelyfromtheLaunchControltrailerbyawirelesscommunicationsystem(2002experiments)orbyadifferentcommunicationberopticsystem(2001experiments)allowingtheremoteturningonandoff,signalcalibration,andsettingofattenuationlevelsforeachtransmitter.TheequipmenthousedintheLaunchControltrailerwaspoweredbyanindependentpowergenerator,andtheoscilloscopes,computers,andberopticreceiversalsohaveUPSbackup. 3.5.1 SensorsCurrentTransformers(CTs):CTsusedduringthe2001and2002experimentsweremanufacturedbyPearsonElectronics,Inc.Threedifferentmodelswereusedintheexperi-ment:110A,3525andaclamp-onversion(3025C)ofthe3025Pearsoncoil(seeTable 3–5 forasummaryoftheparametersoftheseCTs).Atotalof18CTswereusedintheseex-Table3–5:ParametersforthePearsonElectronics,Inc.CurrentTransformers(CTs). Current Output Peak I-tProduct RiseTime Frequency Transformer [V/A] Current[kA] [C] [ns] Response 110A 0.1 10 0.5 20 1Hz-20MHz 3025CR 0.025 20 3.0 100 7Hz-5MHz 3525S 0.1 10 0.5 25 5Hz-15MHz RTheseareaclamp-onversionofthe3025model,withawiderbandwidth.SThesearecustombuiltdevices;theregular3525CThasamaximumpeakcurrentof5kA.

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34periments,andtheywerelabeled110A-n,5179-n(correspondingtothe3525)and6801-n(correspondingtothe3025C)wheren=1,Z.Z1Z,7.ItissuspectedthattheCTsusedformeasuringstruckphaseandarrestercurrents(model3025C)areinadequatetodetectthefulldurationofthecontinuingcurrentduetoitsinadequatelowerfrequencyresponse(7Hz).CurrentlyusedCTs(models3025Cand3525)wereindividuallytestedatthebeginningofthe2003summeranddecaytimestoaninputstepfunctionwasmeasured,alsocleaningandpulishingofthecorefacesoftheseclap-onCTswasperformed.Thebiggestandsmallestdecaytime,correspondingtotheCTsmodel3025C,werefoundtobe79msand39msbeforecleaning,and65msand39msaftercleaning,respectively.Foroneunititwasnotpossibletoobtainthisresultbeforecleaningit.Thebiggestandsmallestdecaytime,correspondingtotheCTsmodel3525,werefoundtobe61msand24msbeforepolishing,and129msand41msafterpolishing,respectively.Currentviewingresistors(CVRsorShunts):CVRsusedduringthe2001and2002experimentswerelow-inductanceresistancesmanufacturedbyT&MResearchProducts,Inc.modelsR-7000-10andR-5600-8(seeTable 3–6 forasummaryoftheparametersoftheseCVRs).Atotalofeightshuntswereusedintheseexperiments,andtheywerelabeledasShunt#n(wheren=2,Z1Z1Z,9).Shunts2through4aremodelR-7000-10,andshunts5through9aremodelR-5600-8.Theseshuntswereusedtomeasurecurrentstogroundandthelightningincidentcurrent.ShuntsmodelR-5600-8wereinstalledonthelaunchers.Table3–6:ParametersfortheT&MResearchProducts,Inc.CurrentViewingResistors. Model V/A[] Energy Power Rise Output Frequency Rating Rating Time Impedance Response [J] [W] [ns] [] [MHz] R-5600-8 0.00125 5200 13 0.00125 0-12 R-7000-10 0.001 7000 225 45 0.001 0-9 A50terminationwasusedonalltheCTsandShunts,reducingthesensoroutputbyafactorof2.

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35 3.5.2 DataRecordingEquipmentDuringthe2001experiment,oneYokogawaDL716(with1612-bitchannelslabeledY18)andsevenLeCroyWaverunnerLT344L(eachwith48-bitchannelslabeledLn,wheren=11,Z1Z1Z,17)digitizingoscilloscopeswereused,providing44digitalchannelsfortheexperiment.Duringthe2002experiment,twoYokogawaDL716(eachwith1612-bitchannelslabeledYn,wherenwaseither7or18),sixLeCroyWaverunnerLT344L(eachwith48-bitchannelslabeledLn,wheren=11,Z.Z1Z,16),andoneLeCroy9354(with48-bitchannelslabeledL6)digitizingoscilloscopeswereused,providing60digitalchannelsfortheexperiment.~TheYokogawaDL716digitizingoscilloscopeshaveaninputbandwidthof5MHzforeachofthe1612-bitchannels.AllYokogawachannelsweresettosampleata1MHzratewithacontinuousrecordof4secondsandapre-triggertimeof1second(foralltestcongurationsofthe2002experiments)and200ms(foralltestcongurationsofthe2001experiments).Themaximumdatastorageperchannelwas16Mword,andeachchannelwassettostore4Mword.~TheLeCroyWaverunnerLT344Ldigitizingoscilloscopeshaveabandwidthof500MHzandfoursegmentable8-bitchannels.Themaximumdatastorageforeachchannelis1,000,000points.AllLeCroyLT344Lchannelsweresettosampleata20MHzratewithapre-triggertimeof500s,eachchannelbeingsettorecordamaximumofvesegmentswithadatastorageof200,000points(10ms)persegment(fortestcongurationsFPL-A-01,FPL-B-01,FPL-C-01,FPL-A-02,FPL-B-02,andFPL-C-02)ortensegmentswithadatastorageof100,000points(5ms)persegment(fortestcongurationsFPL-D-02,FPL-E-02,andFPL-F-02).~TheLeCroy9354digitizingoscilloscopehasaninputbandwidthof500MHzandfoursegmentable8-bitchannelswithadigitizationrateofupto2GHz.Themaximumdatastorageforeachchannelis500,000points.AllLeCroy9354channelsweresettosample

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36ata20MHzratewithapre-triggertimeof500sforalltestcongurationsofthe2002experiments.Eachchannelwassettorecordamaximumofvesegmentswithadatastorageof100,000points(5ms)persegment.~Videoandphotographicequipmentusedinthe2001and2002experimentswasthesameasthatusedduringthe2000experiments.AllvideocameraswerestandardNTSCcamcordersandconsistedofthreeSonyDV,threePanasonicSVHS,andthreeSonyHi8Hi-Fithatweremanuallystartedatthebeginningofthestormwitheithertwohourtapes(PanasonicSVHSandSonyHi8)orninetyminutestapes(SonyDV).AllstillcameraswereNikon35-mmSLRs(four)thatwereremotelytriggeredatthetimeofrocketlaunchwithshuttersopenforabout5seconds.Additionally,forthe2002experiments,recordsfromapersonalJVCDVvideocameraandaPentax35-mmstillcameraareavailableforsomeevents.Duringthe2001experimentsvideorecordswerelabeledbasedonthemediatype(seeTable 3–7 ),whileduringthe2002experimentsvideorecordswerelabeledbasedonthefollowingids:CB(CameraBox),LC(LaunchControl),SAN(StandAloneNorth),SAS(StandAloneSouth),andST(SouthofTower),ascanbeseeninTable 3–8 .FormoreinformationregardingthevideoandstillcameraslocationsandtheobjectsintheireldofviewseeTables 3–7 and 3–8 forthe2001and2002experiments,respectively.

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37Table3–7:Cameralocationsandobjectsintheireldsofviewforthesummerof2001experiments(congurationsFPL-A-01andFPL-B-01,Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 ). Camera Location ObjectsintheFieldofView S-VHS-1R LaunchTrailer TowerLauncher S-VHS-2R SimulatedHouse Currentinjectionpoint S-VHS-3R TowerLauncher Currentinjectionpoint DV-1Sw TowerLauncher Pole6,VerticalConguration DV-2S TowerLauncher Westviewofdistributionline DV-3Sw TowerLauncher Eastviewofdistributionline Hi-8-1s TowerLauncher Pole10,VerticalConguration Still1u TowerLauncher Currentinjectionpoint Still2u LaunchTrailer TowerLauncherclose-up TheseCamerasweremisplacedforcongurationFPL-B-01RPanasonicSVHSsSonyHi8SSonyDigitalVideoCamerauNikon35-mmSLR

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38Table3–8:Cameralocationsandobjectsintheireldsofviewforthesummerof2002experiments(congurationsFPL-A-02,FPL-B-02,FPL-C-02andFPL-D-02Sec-tions 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 and 3.2.7 ). Camera Location ObjectsintheFieldofView LCR LaunchTrailer TowerLauncher CB1S TowerLauncher Westviewofdistributionline CB2€ TowerLauncher Currentinjectionpoint ST€ Field NorthtowardTower SouthofTower OFFICE MainOfceBuilding Towerwideview SAS‚ TowerLauncher Eastviewofdistributionline SAN‚ TowerLauncher Eastviewofdistributionline CB3‚ TowerLauncher Eastviewofdistributionline Still1ƒ LauncherTrailer TowerLauncher Still2ƒ TowerLauncher Currentinjectionpoint Still3ƒ TowerLauncher Eastviewofdistributionline Still4ƒ Field NorthtowardTower SouthofTower Still5„ MainOfceBuilding Towerwideview …PanasonicSVHS‚SonyHi8€SonyDigitalVideoCameraƒNikon35-mmSLRJVCDigitalVideoCamera„Pentax35-mmSLR

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CHAPTER4OVERVIEWOFTESTSAlltestsduring2001and2002wereperformedontheUF/FPLdistributionlinehavingamodiedverticalconguration.LightningcurrentwasintendedtobedirectlyinjectedintoeitherthephaseA(topphase)conductor(directstrikestest)orground(nearbystrikestest).Table4–1:Summaryoflaunchesforthe2001and2002experiments. YearTestRocketsTriggeredFlashesLaunchedClassicalAltitudeWireburn… 2001Direct1244Nearby31 Total1545 2002Direct€301012Nearby1733 Total471315 †Flashcontainingtheinitialstageonly(noreturnstrokes).‡Duringthesetestssomecurrentowedtogroundthroughthetower(resultinginneabystrikes). 4.1 2001ExperimentsDuringtheperiodfromJuly26toSeptember5of2001,therewereatotalof15rocketsred(seeTable 4–1 )fromthetowerlauncher,yieldingatotalof9ashes(probabilityoftriggeringof60%)includingˆ4(44.4%)Classicaltriggeredlightningashescontainingatleastonereturnstroke(atotalof14)andˆ5(55.6%)Classicaltriggeredlightningashescontainingnoreturnstrokes(wireburns).Inalltests,lightningcurrentwasinjectedintothephaseAconductorexceptforFPL0115whichwasatriggeredlightningstriketoground20mfromtheline(downthetowerlauncher).39

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40Table4–2:Summaryofthelaunchesandstrikestothevertically-conguredtestdistribu-tionlineduringthe2001experiments. Date TimeUT FlashID Result NumberofRSrecorded… MaximumRScurrentpeak[kA]€ Conguration 7/26/01 21:26:42 FPL0101 Flash N/A FPL-A-01 withoutRS 21:32:45 FPL0102 Flash N/A withoutRS 21:35:00 FPL0103 Notrigger 7/27/01 20:51:00 FPL0104 Notrigger 21:01:45 FPL0105 Flash N/A withoutRS 21:43:02 FPL0106 Notrigger 21:50:58 FPL0107 Flash 2 12.0 withRS 21:58:06 FPL0108 Flash 5 23.9 withRS 8/18/01 22:56:00 FPL0109 Notrigger FPL-B-01 23:45:09 FPL0110 Flash 1 9.9 withRS 23:50:46 FPL0111 Flash withoutRS 23:56:00 FPL0112 Flash 6 28.1 withRS 9/5/01 22:43:00 FPL0113 Notrigger FPL-C-01 22:45:00 FPL0114 Notrigger 22:56:00 FPL0115 Flash 3.5 withoutRS †ByLeCroyandYokowagaoscilloscopes.‡ValuesfromLeCroyoscilloscoperawdata.‰RecordedontheYokogawaoscilloscope,theLecroysrecordedonly5.AllashescontainingreturnstrokeshadmultiplereturnstrokesexceptforFPL0110whichwasasingle-strokeash.Forthetwotestcongurationsusingthetowerlauncher(seeSections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 )anyportionofthelightningashcurrentsuchastheICC,returnstrokes,andCCwas

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41completelyinjectedintothepowerline(assumingtherewerenoashoversonthetower),thisbeingarepresentativecaseofadirectlightningstriketotheline.AsummaryoflaunchesandstrikesisgiveninTable 4–2 ,wherespeciedarethecongurationforeachash,themaximumnumberofstrokesrecordedonbothtypesofoscilloscopes(seeSection 3.5.2 ),andthepeakcurrentvalueofthelargestreturnstrokeofeachash.Abriefdescriptionforeachstormdayduringwhichlightningashesweretriggeredisgivenbelow.ˆ7/26/01:ashesFPL0101andFPL0102(bothasheswithoutreturnstrokes),therewerenoobviousarcsordamagedarrestersontheline.Thereareneithercurrentnorvoltagerecordsfortheseevents.ˆ7/27/01:ashesFPL0105(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0107andFPL0108.Mea-surementsŠ‹Œ,ŠŽ,ŠW,Š‘n,andŠŽ’‹{“D”werelostfortheday,alsomeasurements•–ŽW,•Ž‹—,and•‘C‹—arenotavailable(recordingdevicesweredisconnected).Unintendedconnectionstogroundatpoles5and11werepresent.Fromvideorecords:1)itisas-sumedthatthephaseAarresteratPole2wasdamagedbytheinitialcontinuouscurrentofashFPL0105(whichwasaashwithoutreturnstrokes),2)itisassumedthatphaseAarresteratpole6failed,presumablyduringthesecondreturnstrokeofeventFPL0107,butfromcurrentrecordsitseemsthatthisarresterfailedpriortotheoccuranceofanyre-turnstrokeofeventFPL0107.Basedonvisualobservationsmadeduringthisdayevents,arcsmighthaveoccurredclosetothestrikingpoint(phaseAconductoratpole8).Visualinspectionmadeclosetothestrikepointnextdayoftheseeventsrevealedmultipleburn-marksonthephaseAandBconductorsandonthebaseofthephaseBinsulator.Thestrikepointwasmovedmid-spanbetweenpoles7and8forthenexttestconguration(seeSection 3.2.2 ).

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42ˆ8/18/01:ashesFPL0110,FPL0111(ashwithoutreturnstrokes)andFPL0112.Mea-surementsŠn™,Š‹—Œ,Š‘n,andŠŽ’‹{“D”werelostfortheday.Fromvideorecords,itisas-sumedthatthephaseAarresteratpole10failed,presumablyduringtheinitialcontinuouscurrentofeventFPL0110,thefailureofthephaseAarresteratpole14wasassociatedwiththeinitialcontinuouscurrentofashFPL0111(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),andphaseAarresteratpole2failed,presumablyduringtheinitialcontinuouscurrentofashFPL0112.Thus,afterashFPL0112allphaseAarrestersexcepttheoneonpole6werefoundfailed,eventhough,fromcurrentrecords,itseemsthatthearrestercurrentinstru-mentationatpole6didnotrecordanyconsiderablecurrentforalltheevents.ˆ9/05/01:ashFPL0115(ashwithoutreturnstrokes)whosecurrentwasinjectedintothegroundforstudyinginducedeffects.MeasurementsŠ‹Œ,ŠŽ,Š‘n,andŠŽ‹k“<”werelostfortheday.Insummary,duringthe2001experimentsthevertical-congurationlinewassubjectedtoatotalofonenearbyashand8asheswhosecurrentsweredirectlyinjectedintotheline,4ofwhichcontainedmultiplereturnstrokes(atotalof14returnstrokes).Oneoftheseashes(FPL0110)wastheonlysinglestrokeashoftheseason.Threeoffourashescontainingreturnstrokesweretriggeredwithatleastonefailedarresteralreadyontheline(seeSection 4.1 ).OnearresterfailedpresumablyduringtheICC(FPL0110)fortheonlyashthathadnopreviouslyfailedarrestersontheline.Oneashwithreturnstrokes(FPL0112)wastriggeredwhenthelinecontainedtwofailedarresters(phaseAatpole10,failureassociatedwithashFPL0110,andphaseAatpole14,failureassociatedwithashFPL0111),resultinginthefailureofathirdarrester(phaseAatpole2).Duringsummer2001,noevidenceoftrailingwiresonthelinewerefoundafteranyeventandpossibleashovers(probablybetweenphaseAandphaseBconductorsatPole8)wereobservedduringtwoashes(FPL0107andFPL0108).Outoftheeightdirecttriggeredashestothemodiedverticalconguration,onlyashesFPL0101andFPL0102(bothasheswithoutreturnstrokes)showednoevidenceoffailedarresters(thoughnoinitial

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43stagecurrentrecordsareavaibalefortheseevents).FlashFPL0115(ashwithoutreturnstrokes)wastheonlynearbytriggeredlightningash(whosecurrentwasinjectedintoground15meterstothenorthofpole8ofthevertical-congurationline)inanattempttomeasureinducedvoltagesandcurrentsontheline. 4.2 2002ExperimentsDuringtheperiodfromJune07toSeptember13of2002,therewereatotalof47rocketsred(seeTable 4–1 )fromthetowerandthemobilelauncher,yieldingatotalof19ashes(probabilityoftriggeringof40.4%),includingˆ13(68.4%)Classicaltriggeredlightningashescontainingatleastonereturnstroke(atotalof77returnstrokes1),ˆ5(26.3%)Classicaltriggeredlightningashescontainingnoreturnstrokes(wireburns)andˆ1(5.3%)AltitudetriggeredlightningashthatterminatedonInstrumentStation1(seeFigure 3–1 ),containingfourreturnstrokes.DirectstrikesFrom06/07/02to08/02/02therewereatotalof30rocketslaunchedwhichresultedin13ashes(9ashescontainingmultiplereturnstrokes,onesingle-strokeash,2asheswithoutreturnstrokes,andonealtitudetriggeredash).AlldirecttriggeredlightningasheswereintendedtobeinjectedintothephaseAconductorofthemodiedverticalconguration,mid-spanbetweenpoles8and7. 1ThesereturnstrokesinvolvealltheonesrecordedbytheYokogawaoscilloscopes,theLeCroyWaverunnerLT344Loscilloscopesstoredatotalof40segmentsofwhich38werereturnstrokesand2wereM-components.

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44Theonlymodicationmadetothetestlinein2002comparedtotheendof2001wasinstallingtwoarrestersinsteadofoneonthestruckphaseconductor(phaseA).Theinitialcontinuouscurrentwasessentiallyblockedfromreachingthelineforalldirectstrikesbyanewmodicationtothetowerlaunchingfacility.NearbystrikesFrom08/15/02to09/13/02therewereatotalof17rocketslaunchedwhichresultedin6ashes;onesingle-strokeashtriggered100metersnorthoftheverticalline,2ashescontainingmultiplereturnstrokesand3asheswith-outreturnstrokestriggered30metersnorthoftheverticalline.Also,duringthedirectstrikestest,therewasoneashtogrounddownthelaunchtower20mfromthelinecontainingmultiplereturnstrokesandoneadditionalreturnstrokefromoneashtothelinewhichwenttogroundatthelaunchtowerat20m.Fordifferenttestcongurationsusingthetowerlauncher(seeSections 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 ,and 3.2.7 )anyportionofthelightningashcurrentsuchasICC,returnstrokes,andCCcouldbe1)completelyinjectedintothepowerline;2)completelyinjectedintogroundthroughthetowerlaunchergroundingsystem,wherenolightningcurrentwasinjectedintotheline,onlyinducedeffectsfromlightningwithin20mbeingobservedand3)acombinationof1)and2),whichresultedincurrentsplittingbetweenthelineandthetowerlauncherground,thisbeingarepresentativecaseoflightningsimultaneouslystrikingalineandanotherobjectnearby,forexample,atree.AsummaryoflaunchesandstrikesisgiveninTable 4–3 ,wherespeciedarethecongurationforeachash,themaximumnumberofstrokesrecordedonanyofthetypesofoscilloscopes(seeSection 3.5.2 ),andthepeakcurrentvalueofthelargestreturnstrokeofeachash.

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45Asummaryofthe2002strikesisgiveninTable 4–4 wherereturnstrokesareorganizedbythetwotypesofoscilloscopeswhichrecordedthemandalsobythethreepreviouslymentionedpossiblecurrentinjectionscenarios.Further,thestrikelocationisspecied.Abriefdescriptionforeachstormdayduringwhichlightningashesweretriggeredisgivenbelow.ˆ07/09/02:ashesFPL0205(AltitudeTrigger),FPL0206(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0208,andFPL0210.Thersttowerlaunchertestconguration(seeSection 3.2.4 )waspronetoashoveronthetower.FromvideorecordsandstillpicturesarcswereseentooccuratthetowerforthetwotriggeredashesrecordedbytheLeCroyoscilloscopes(FPL0208andFPL0210).FromvideorecordsofashFPL0210,somearcingisseenonthehorizontally-conguredlineatthebeginningoftheevent,whichmighthavebeencausedbytrailingwireleftbythepreviousunsuccessfullaunchandapparentarcingfromphaseBtophaseC,laterintheevent.Theseapparentarcscouldpossiblyberaindropreection.ˆ07/19/02:ashFPL0213.Fromcurrentwaveforms,itappearsthatnocurrentwasdi-rectlyinjectedintothelineforthiseventsincebothLeCroyandYokogawarecordsshowonlycurrentinthetowerlauncher,andsomeinducedcurrentintheline.Fromvideorecordsitseemsthatallreturnstrokeswereattachedtothelauncher,andnoneseemtoattachtotheinterceptingconductor.Noarcsareseenonthelines.ˆ07/20/02:ashesFPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220,andFPL0221.MeasurementŠš“<›waslostforthisstormdayandŠ‹—Œwasunreliable.Fromstillpictures,itappearsthattherewassomearcingonthetower.TherewasconsiderablecurrentinphaseB(closestphasetophaseA,thestruckone)whichmighthavebeencausedbyaninstrumentationdevicefacilitatingashoversfromphaseAtophaseB.Fromvideorecords:ˆFPL0218:Noarcsseen.Forthisevent,thelightningcurrentappearstosplitbetweenthelineandthelauncher.

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46ˆFPL0219:ThereissomevisiblearcingatPole7correspondingtotherstreturnstroke,andthereisnoothervisualevidenceofarcsontheline.ˆFPL0220:Thereisadenitelightsourcenearpoles1-3.Althoughweatherobscurestheexactlocation,itisassumedthattherewasanarcatpole2(arresterfailure)dur-ingtherstreturnstroke.Afterthis,severalarcsareseenatPole7fromphaseAtopresumablyphaseBforthefollowingvereturnstrokes.ˆFPL0221:Noarcsvisible,butsomecameraswereobscuredbyrocketexhaust.Forthiseventthemajorityofreturnstrokecurrentsappeartosplitbetweenthelineandthelauncher.ˆ07/25/02:ashFPL0226.MeasurementŠš“<›waslostforthisstormday,andŠ‹—Œwasunreliable.TherewasconsiderablecurrentinphaseB(closestphasetophaseA,thestruckone)whichmighthavebeencausedbyaninstrumentationdevicefacilitatingashoversfromphaseAtophaseB.Fromvideorecords,itappearsthatatrailingwire(leftbyapreviousunsuccessfullaunch)helpeddiverttogroundtherstreturnstrokecurrentinjectedintotheline.ThesecondreturnstrokecausedsustainedlightemissionnearPole10(presumablyassociatedwithPhaseAarresterfailure)andagaintwostrokeslater.Bothoftheseappeartocontinuelongerthanthestrokeswhichcausethem.ThelasttworeturnstrokesinitiatedarcsonPole6,nearthePhaseBmountingpoint(presumablyassociatedwithPhaseAarresterfailure).TherewasalsolightemissionnearPole1or2coincidentwiththelastreturnstroke(presumablyassociatedwithPhaseAarresterfailureatPole2).ˆ08/02/02:ashesFPL0228andFPL0229.TherewassomeproblemwithŠš“<”measure-mentforashFPL0228,andŠ‹—Œwasunreliableforbothashes.Fromvideorecords:ˆFPL0228:ArcsareclearlyvisiblefromphaseAtophaseBatPoles7and8,whichmostlikelycorrespondtotherstreturnstroke.Afterthat,anarcfromphaseAtophaseBatPole7repeatedlyoccurredduringthefollowingreturnstrokes.Duringthenal

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47returnstroke,thereissomeluminousactivitynearPole1or2,whichmightcorrespondtophaseAarresterfailureatPole2.ˆFPL0229:ThereisarepeatedlyoccurringarcfromphaseAtophaseBonPole7,andalso,laterintheevent,anapparentarc,mostlikelyfromphaseBtophaseC,canbeseenonPole8.Insummary,duringthedirectstriketestsofthe2002experiments,therewereatotalof13triggeredashes(10classicalwithreturnstrokes,1altitudeand2classicalwithoutreturnstrokes)from30attempts,resultingin64returnstrokes2fromwhich39weredi-rectlyinjectedintothepowerline,17resultedinthecurrentsplittingbetweenthetowerlauncherandtheline,and8resultedinnearbyreturnstrokes.3Duringthenearbystriketestsofthe2002experiments,therewereatotalof6trig-geredashes(3classicalwithreturnstrokesand3classicalwithoutreturnstrokes)from17attempts,resultingin13returnstrokes.4Althoughduringthe2002experimentstwoarrestersinparallelwereusedonthestruckphaseateacharresterstation,forthedirectstrikes,arresterswerefoundfailedonthreestormdays(7/20/02,7/25/02,and8/02/02)ofatotalofveduringwhichreturnstrokecurrentsoftriggeredlightningasheswereintendedtobeinjectedintotheline.Itshouldbenotedthatinoneofthestormdays(7/19/02),noarresterswerefoundfailedontheline,butallreturnstrokeswereinjectedintotheground(20mnorthfromthelinenearthemiddle)throughthetowerlauncher.ForashesFPL0208toFPL0226aninstrumentation 2RecordedbytheYokogawas,theLeCroysrecording37returnstrokesand2M-components.3Fourofthesestrokesweredownthelaunchtower20mnorthoftheline,andthere-mainingfourstrokeswereinjectedintoInstrumentStation1,duetoanunintendedaltitudetrigger,seeFigure 3–1 .4TheYokogawasrecorded12returnstrokesnoneofthemrecordedbytheLeCroysandtheLeCroysrecordedonly1returnstrokenotrecordedbytheYokogawas.

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48device(atpole7)mightpossiblyhavehelpeddrainsomecurrentfromphaseA(struckphase)tophaseB(closestphasetothestruckone),mostlikelyviaaashover.Duringthethreestormdaysthatarresterswerefoundfailedontheline,theonlysinglearresterstationfailurewasfoundafterstormday08/02/02,wherephaseAarresteratpole2wasfoundfailed.Fortheremainingtwostormdaysinwhichfailedarresterwerefoundontheline,multiplearresterstationsfailureswerefound,thesebeingphaseAarresteratpoles2,6,10,and14forstormday7/20/02,andphaseAarresteratpoles2,6,and10forstormday07/25/02.Thearresterfailuresduring2002cannotbeattributedtoinitialstagecurrents,sincethesecurrentswereeffectivelydivertedawayfromtheline.

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49Table4–3:Summaryofthelaunchesandstrikestothevertically-conguredtestdistributionlineduringthemonthsofJuneandSeptem-berof2002. Date TimeUT FlashID Result NumberofRSrecorded MaximumRSmagnitude[kA]œ Conguration LeCroy Yokogawa 6/27/02 12:05 FPL0201 NoTrigger FPL-A-02 12:06 FPL0202 NoTrigger 7/3/02 21:21 FPL0203 NoTrigger 22:00 FPL0204 NoTrigger 7/9/02 16:27:27 FPL0205 AltitudeTriggerFlash 4 16:28:46 FPL0206 FlashwithoutRS 16:34:11 FPL0207 NoTrigger 16:35:05 FPL0208 FlashwithRS 1 3 14.8 16:43:50 FPL0209 NoTrigger 16:43:50 FPL0210 FlashwithRS 1 9 10.5 7/19/02 21:47:50 FPL0211 NoTrigger FPL-B-02 21:52:40 FPL0212 NoTrigger 21:58:05 FPL0213 FlashwithRS 2 3 8.8 22:22:13 FPL0214 NoTrigger 22:22:50 FPL0215 NoTrigger 22:23:50 FPL0216 NoTrigger 22:26:21 FPL0217 NoTrigger 7/20/02 20:19:18 FPL0218 FlashwithRS 1 1 13.2 20:26:32 FPL0219 FlashwithRS 2 3 22.7 20:39:58 FPL0220 FlashwithRS 6 7 19.1 20:51:42 FPL0221 FlashwithRS 5 11 23.0 7/22/02 21:51:34 FPL0222 NoTrigger 7/25/02 21:35:47 FPL0223 NoTrigger FPL-C-02 21:38 FPL0224 NoTrigger ValuesfromLeCroyoscilloscopescorrespondingtorawdata.

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50Table 4–3 –continued. Date TimeUT FlashID Result NumberofRSrecorded MaximumRSmagnitude[kA]œ Conguration LeCroy Yokogawa 7/25/02 21:39:10 FPL0225 NoTrigger FPL-C-02 21:41:10 FPL0226 FlashwithRS 6 8 26.9 7/26/02 22:30:20 FPL0227 NoTrigger 8/02/02 00:20:15 FPL0228 FlashwithRS 6 6 33.9 FPL-D-02 00:55:23 FPL0229 FlashwithRS 9 9 27.4 01:11 FPL0230 FlashwithoutRS Norecord 8/15/02 15:54:34 FPL0231 NoTrigger FPL-E-02 15:57:59 FPL0232 NoTrigger 15:59:56 FPL0233 NoTrigger 8/18/02 19:58 FPL0234 NoTrigger 20:16:18 FPL0235 NoTrigger 20:18:16 FPL0236 FlashwithRS 1 8.9 8/27/02 22:39:45 FPL0237 NoTrigger FPL-F-02 22:41:43 FPL0238 NoTrigger 22:41:57 FPL0239 NoTrigger 22:46:33 FPL0240 FlashwithoutRS 8/28/02 00:03:05 FPL0241 FlashwithoutRS 00:08:05 FPL0242 NoTrigger 9/13/02 19:05:10 FPL0243 NoTrigger 19:05:40 FPL0244 FlashwithoutRS 19:10:06 FPL0245 FlashwithRS 10 19:18:14 FPL0246 FlashwithRS 2 19:23:15 FPL0247 NoTrigger ValuesfromLeCroyoscilloscopescorrespondingtorawdata.

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51Table4–4:Summaryoftherecordedreturnstrokesduringthe2002experimentsforallthetriggeredashes. Date TimeUT FlashID RS Struck LeCroy Yokogawa Launcher Line Both Launcher Line Both 7/9/02 16:27:27 FPL0205 4œ 16:35:05 FPL0208 1 1 2 PhaseA 16:43:50 FPL0210 1 6 3 7/19/02 21:58:05 FPL0213 2 3 7/20/02 20:19:18 FPL0218 1 1 20:26:32 FPL0219 1 1 1 1 1 20:39:58 FPL0220 5 1 6 1 20:51:42 FPL0221 1 4 4 7 7/25/02 21:41:10 FPL0226 6 8 8/02/02 00:20:15 FPL0228 5 1 5 1 00:55:23 FPL0229 8 1 8 1 8/18/02 20:18:16 FPL0236 1 Ground(100m) 9/13/02 19:10:06 FPL0245 10 Ground(30m) 19:18:14 FPL0246 2 AltitudetriggerwithallreturnstrokesterminatedonInstrumentStation1.

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CHAPTER5DATAPRESENTATIONANDANALYSIS(DIRECTSTRIKES)Inthischapter,parametersofthe2001and2002returnstrokesandofthe2002initialstagecurrentsarepresented,additionally,thedistributionofchargeamongthedifferentarrestersandgroundedpolesiscalculatedforselectedeventsfrom2002,andcorrespond-ingcurrentwaveformsarepresented.FinallyasimpleATPmodelofasingle-phaselinewithtwoarrestersisanalyzedandtheresultsrelatedtotheobservedfeaturesofincidentlightningcurrentsarepresented.AsummaryofreturnstrokesrecordedbytheLeCroyoscilloscopesisshowninTa-bles 5–1 and 5–2 wheremaximumpeakcurrent,1universaltimeandtimefromthepre-viousevent(ifnottherstrecordedevent)areshown.TwoparticulareventspresentedinTable 5–2 ,labeledRS6ofashesFPL0226andFPL0229,areapparentlyM-componentsthatwererecordedinindividualLeCroysegments.Adifferentnumbering(labeling)schemeofrecordedeventsresultedduringthe2002experimentsduetothedifferentcapabilitiesoftheoscilloscopesused,wherenotalltheeventsrecordedbytheYokogawas2wererecordedbytheLeCroys.3Duringthe2001 1Thesepeakcurrentvaluescorrespondstorawdata,thatis,nolteringofthedatahasbeendonetopopulatethesetables( 5–1 and 5–2 ).2Theseoscilloscopesweresettorecordatotaloffourcontinuousseconds;onesecondofpre-triggertimeandthreesecondsaftertrigger.3Theseoscilloscopes(theWaverunnersLT344L)weresettorecordveortensegments(10or5ms,respectively)aftertrigger.52

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53Table5–1:Summaryofstrokeswhosecurrentsweredirectlyinjectedintothevertically-conguredtestdistributionlineduringsummer2001. Date FlashID RS…order Time[UT] PeakCurrent€[kA] RS previousRS 7/27/01 FPL0107 1 21:50:58.132272 12.0 2 21:50:58.607249 0.474977 11.1 FPL0108 1 21:58:06.759791 21.5 2 21:58:06.925620 0.165829 22.1 3 21:58:07.324398 0.398382 23.9 4 21:58:07.433775 0.109772 16.2 5 21:58:07.557507 0.123732 17.1 8/18/01 FPL0110 1 23:45:09.511217 9.9 FPL0112 1 23:56:00.302483 28.1 2 23:56:00.365636 0.06364 20.1 3 23:56:00.458852 0.093216 17.1 4 23:56:00.636574 0.177657 15.9 5 23:56:00.715497 0.078986 6.0 †LabelingoftheeventscorrespondingtothedataacquiredbytheLeCroyoscilloscopes.‡Thesevaluescorrespondstorawdata,nodatadilteringisinvolved.experimentsthislimitationdidnotoccur,sinceonlyoneash4hadmorereturnstrokesthancouldberecordedintheve(10ms)segmentsoftheLeCroys.Becauseofthedifferenttowercongurationsusedforthe2002experiments(seeSec-tion 3.1.1 ),wherethelightningincidentcurrent,insomecases,dividedbetweenthetowerlauncherandthetestline,Table 5–3 showstworecordedeventlabelingschemes.therstone,usedwiththeYokogawaoscilloscopes,ismorecomplete,but,sincemostoftheanal-ysisandwaveformspresentedinthisdocumentcorrespondtotheLeCroyoscilloscopesrecords,thelabelingschemeusedinthisdocumentcorrespondstotheLeCroylabelingscheme.ThistableshowsthecorrespondenceofeventsrecordedbybothLeCroyandYokogawaoscilloscopes,andalsotheincidentcurrentpathforanyrecordedevent. 4FlashFPL0112,withatotalofsixreturnstrokes.

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54Table5–2:Summaryofstrokesintendedtobedirectlyinjectedintothevertically-conguredtestdistributionlineduringsummer2002. Date FlashID RS…order Time[UT] PeakCurrent€[kA] RS previousRS 7/9/02 FPL0208 1 16:35:05.072628 14.8 FPL0210 1 16:43:14.688480 10.5 7/19/02 FPL0213 1 21:58:05.813167 6.1 2 21:58:06.041278 0.228111 8.8 7/20/02 FPL0218 1 20:19:18.546040 13.2 FPL0219 1 20:26:32:545161 14.6 2 20:26:32:.718503 0.173340 22.7 FPL0220 1 20:39:58.172685 11.0 2 20:39:58.360231 0.187545 19.1 3 20:39:58.426260 0.066029 17.7 4 20:39:58.552635 0.126376 14.6 5 20:39:58.558800 0.006165 7.4 6 20:39:58.580432 0.021631 18.6 FPL0221 1 20:51:42.721567 10.4 2 20:51:42.758266 0.036700 11.8 3 20:51:42.800572 0.042306 12.7 4 20:51:42.824356 0.022701 8.6 5 20:51:42.931172 0.106816 23.0 7/25/02 FPL0226 1 21:41:10.012786 26.9 2 21:41:10.071219 0.058433 10.1 3 21:41:10.244688 0.173469 6.2 4 21:41:10.249526 0.004838 9.3 5 21:41:10.405462 0.155933 26.3 6 21:41:10.416592 0.011130 6.7 8/02/02 FPL0228 1 00:20:15.797340 21.2 2 00:20:15.829588 0.032248 14.0 3 00:20:15.861836 0.084856 9.2 4 00:20:15.911926 0.050087 25.1 5 00:20:16.258172 0.346247 33.9 6 00:20:16.428915 0.171739 21.4 FPL0229 1 00:55:23.706576 13.5 2 00:55:23.709528 0.002952 9.5 3 00:55:23.748288 0.038760 20.6 4 00:55:23.777737 0.029449 13.2 5 00:55:23.789713 0.011976 7.0 6 00:55:23.794730 0.005017 6.7 7 00:55:23.811019 0.016289 9.8 8 00:55:23.854113 0.043094 8.1 9 00:55:23.935826 0.081711 27.4 †LabelingoftheeventscorrespondingtothedataacquiredbytheLeCroyoscilloscopes.‡Thesevaluescorrespondstorawdata,nodatadilteringisinvolved.

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55Table5–3:LabelingschemesandcorrespondancebetweenYokogawaandLeCroyrecordedeventsforthedirect-striketestsduringthe2002experiments. FlashID Line1:Yokogawalabel(RSnumber) Line2:LeCroylabel(RSnumber) Line3:Incidentcurrentpath Line4:TimefrompreviousRS FPL0205 1234 -0.0089530.0058970.008988 FPL0208 123 1 -0.0876590.035444 FPL0210 123456789 1 -0.0129040.0236310.022670.0241580.0173140.0179930.0207210.034599 FPL0213 123 12 -0.0646720.163437 FPL0218 1 1 FPL0219 123 12 -0.2026210.173338 Downthetowerlaunchertoground.Splitsbetweenthetowerlauncherandtheline.Intothepowerline.InstrumentStation1,altitudetrigger.

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56Table 5–3 –continued. FlashID Line1:Yokogawalabel(RSnumber) Line2:LeCroylabel(RSnumber) Line3:Incidentcurrentpath Line4:TimefrompreviousRS FPL0220 1234567 123456 -0.875460.0660270.1263750.0061650.0216320.02445 FPL0221 1234567891011 12345 -0.0576970.0367010.0423030.02270.1068160.0355240.1157420.0443280.1106220.059601 FPL0226 12345678 123456 -0.0584330.1734670.0048390.1559320.1344370.0185620.070422 FPL0228 123456 123456 -0.0322480.0848560.0500870.3462470.170739 FPL0229 123456789 123456789 -0.0029520.038760.0294490.0119760.0050170.0162890.0430940.081711 Downthetowerlaunchertoground.ŸM-componentmislabeledasaReturnStroke.ThecorrespondingIntothepowerline.YokogawalabeledRSwasnotrecordedintheLeCroyssinceSplitsbetweenthetowerlauncherandtheline.M-componentwasrecordedonthecorrespondingLeCroy'ssegment.

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57 5.1 CharacterizationofMeasuredCurrentFigure 5–1 showsthelow-levelincidentcurrentofashFPL0228recordedusingYokogawaoscilloscopesdisplayedonarelativetimescale,sincethe“zero”timecorre-spondstothetriggertimeandthesystemtriggeredduringtheInitialCurrentVariation(ICV).Theserecordsareintentionallyclippedat1.5kA,sothatlow-levelcurrentdetailscanbeobservedinthisgure.Sincethisashwastriggeredwiththe“interceptingcon-ductor”installedabovethetowerlauncher(seeSection 3.1.1 )therearetworecordsshown:a)thetopgurecorrespondstothelauncherortowercurrentthatwasdrainedtoground,andb)thebottomgurecorrespondstotheinterceptingconductor(“ring”)currentorthecurrentthatwasinjectedintothetestline.ThetowercurrentapparentlyshowsonlytheInitialStage(IS)oftheash,sincetherocket'scopperwireisphysicallyconnectedtothemetalicpartofthetowerlauncher,whichisconnectedtoground.ThiscopperwireisdestroyedbythecurrentcorrespondingtotheUpwardPositiveLeader(UPL)andreplacedbyaplasmachannel.Thefollowinginitialcontinuouscurrent(ICC)lowerschargeoftheorderoftensofcoulombsfromthecloudchargeregiontoground.AfterthecessationoftheICC,dartleader-returnstrokesequencesfollow(ascanbeseenonFigure 5–1 b).Thesesequencesusually,followthesamepath(thepreviouslyformedchannel)astheICC,althoughdescendingdartleadersarelikelytoterminateonthe“interceptingconductor”,sinceitislocatedabovethelauncher.Thus,itislikelythatthecurrentintothelinecontainsonlyreturnstrokescurrenpulses(andanyCCthatmightfollowreturnstrokes)asisclearlyseenonFigure 5–1 b.Ontheotherhand,thetowercurrentmighthavesomereturnstrokecurrent(Figure 5–1 a),sinceitispossiblethatashoversbetweenbothstructures(launcherandinterceptingconductor)occur,orthatinducedcurrentsmightappearinthestructurenotsubjectedtodirectcurrentinjection.InFigure 5–1 onecanidentifyseveralprocessescharacteristicofbothnaturalupwardandtriggeredlightning.OneoftheseistheIS(seeSection 5.1.2 )precededby

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58 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 ILTy, Flash FPL0228, 08/02/02, 00:20:14 EDT 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 ILRy, Flash FPL0228, 08/02/02, 00:20:14 EDT Student Version of MATLAB PSfragreplacements Current, ¡Current, ¡Time,¢£¤¦§¢Time,¢£¤¦§¢a)b)PrecursorPulsesISICVICCReturn-StrokeInducedPulsesRS1RS1RS2RS3RS4RS5RS6CCCurrenttoGround20mfromtheLineCurrentintotheLineFigure5–1:Low-levelincidentcurrentofashFPL0228recordedusingYokogawaoscilloscope.a)Currenttoground20mfromtheline(labeledILTy,TowerLow-levelIncidentcurrent)andb)currentinjectedintotheLine(labeledILRy,RingLow-levelIncidentcurrent).Subscript“y”referstoYokogawarecordsand“Ring”refersto“interceptingconductor”.ISistheinitialstagecurrent,ICVistheinitialcurrentvariation,ICCistheinitialcontinuouscurrent,RSisthereturn-strokecurrent,CCisthecontinuingcurrent.

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59precursorpulses(seeSection 5.1.2.1 ).TheISincludestheICCandusualyexhibitstheICV(seeSection 5.1.2.2 ).AftertheIS,sixreturnstrokesfollow(thesameasorverysimilartosubsequentstrokesinnaturallightning Uman [ 2001 ], Rakov [ 2001 ]).Onlyoneofthesereturnstrokes(returnstroke3)isnotfollowedbyCC.M-componentsafterRS1arenotresolvedinthisgure,buttheycanbeseenonFigure 5–2 .LargerM-componentsafterreturnstroke4,duringaconsiderablylongerperiod(afewhundredmilliseconds)ofcontinuingcurrent(CC),areseeninFigure 5–1 .Figure 5–2 showshigh(top)andlow(bottom)levelincidentcurrentinjectedintotheline.Dashedlinesindicatethe“severe”saturationlevel(whichcorrespondstothelimitofthescope)anddottedlinesindicatethe“light”saturationlevel(whichcorrespondstothe100%rangeoftheISOBE).NoteonFigure 5–2 a(high-levelcurrent)onlytwoM-componentsareresolved,labeledM1andM2(notethatthemag-nitudeofthissecondM-componentisapproximately¨/'ofthepeakvalueofthereturnstroke.OnFigure 5–2 b(low-levelcurrent)fourM-componentsareresolved.PartofthereturnstrokeandthefourthlabeledM-component(correspondingtotheonelabeled2onFigure 5–2 a)aresaturated. -1 0 1 2 3 4 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21:41:7.322 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements Current,Time,—a)b)RS1M1M2M3M4 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ILR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21:41:7.044 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements Current,Time,a)b)RS1M1M2M3M4Figure5–2:Returnstroke1inashFPL0226(LeCroydata)showingmultipleM-components,a)highand,b)low-levelcurrentinjectedintotheline.

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60 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 2.5 5 ms -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 2.5 5 ms -32 kA -16 0 Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–3:FlashFPL0226,stroke1.

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61ForfutherillustrationofM-components( Rakovetal. [ 2001 ])seeFigure 5–3 ,whichshowswaveforms(LeCroyrecords)correspondingtoreturnstroke1ofashFPL0226ona5mstimescale.Figure 5–3 showsanoverviewoftheM-componentdistributionamongthedifferentmeasuringlocationsontheline.Thehigh-levelincidentcurrentinjectedintotheline(cen-tertop),arrestercurrents(toprow),phaseAandBlinecurrentsatpoles7and6(middleguresofrowstwoandthree),phaseAandBterminationresistorcurrents(righmostg-uresinrowstwoandthree),neutralcurrents(fourthrow),andgroundcurrents(bottomrow).Forthisevent,therearenorecordsavailableofcurrenttogroundatpole15.Ascanbeseenonthearrestercurrentgures,itappearsthattheM-componentcurrentissharedbetweenthearrestersclosesttothestrikingpoint.Thegroundedpolesclosesttothestrikepointdrainsomeofthiscurrenttoground,althoughthecontributionofthecurrenttogroundatpole2isobviouslygreaterthanthoseclosertothestrikingpoint.Asimilarrepresentationofthiseventbutona100stimescale,canbeseeninFigure 5–24 5.1.1 ParametersofReturn-StrokeCurrentWaveformsForthecalculationoftheincidentcurrentparameterspresentedinthissection,atwo-pointaveraginganti-causalzero-phaselter( MATLAB [ 1996 ])wasusedtoltertherawdatainordertoreducethenoiseofthecurrentwaveformandtofacilitatetheprocessofparameterscalculation;anillustrationofthedifferenceinthedatabetweenusingthislterandnotusingitisshowninFigure 5–4 .BasedontheIncidentCurrentrecordedbytheLeCroyoscilloscopesduringthe2001and2002experiments,returnstrokesstatisticalparametersareshowninTables 5–4 and 5–5 .Itisworthnotingthedifferencebetweenthe2001andthe2002IncidentCurrents.Fortheformer,therewasaxedmetalstrapattachedfromthetowerlaunchertothelineduringallthetests.Forthelatter,differenttowercongurations(seeSection 3.1.1 )wereused,inwhichametalstrapwasconnectedtothelinefroman“u”shapedinterceptingconductor

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62 -10 0 10 20 30 40 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21:41:7.322 EDTus Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements Current,Time,a)b) -10 0 10 20 30 40 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21:41:7.322 EDTus Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements Current,Time,a)b)Figure5–4:Exampleofareturnstrokewaveformdisplayedas:a)rawdataand,b)ltereddatawithatwo-pointaveraginganti-causalzero-phaselter.Table5–4:Parametersofreturn-strokecurrentwaveformsforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2001(atimewindowof1mswasusedtocalculatethecharge). FlashID RS Peak[kA] 10-90%-rise[s] 50%-decay[s] maxHLL?[kA/s] Charge[C] FPL0107 1 11.70 0.90 29.45 41.90 1.36 2 10.72 1.30 24.45 19.45 1.25 FPL0108 1 21.05 1.30 41.80 38.91 1.89 2 21.65 1.40 32.35 56.86 2.25 3 23.67 1.45 18.20 31.43 7.30 4 15.89 0.95 27.65 46.39 2.16 5 16.64 1.30 25.60 46.39 1.43 FPL0110 1 9.73 1.55 24.00 10.48 0.72 FPL0112 1 28.19 1.45 57.70 65.84 4.27 2 19.89 1.35 33.35 46.39 2.38 3 16.90 1.45 34.60 38.91 1.67 4 15.70 1.65 15.50 49.38 2.70 5 5.97 1.90 16.90 10.48 0.54 Mean(13) 16.75 1.38 29.35 38.68 2.30 Geo.Mean(13) 15.54 1.36 27.54 33.92 1.85 Std.Dev.(13) 6.19 0.26 11.37 16.80 1.78 Median(13) 16.64 1.40 27.65 41.90 1.89 Minimum(13) 5.97 0.90 15.50 10.48 0.54 Maximum(13) 28.19 1.90 57.70 65.84 7.30 Numbersinparenthesesaresamplesizes.installedabovethetowerlauncher,andthelauncherwaseitherdirectlyconnectedtogroundorwasnot.

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63Table5–5:Parametersofreturn-strokecurrentwaveformsforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2002(atimewindowof1mswasusedtocalculatethecharge). FlashID RS Peak[kA] 10-90%-rise[s] 50%-decay[s] maxHLL?[kA/s] Charge[C] FPL0219 2 22.43 1.55 8.85 36.02 2.16 FPL0220 2 18.71 1.50 17.00 40.53 1.07 3 17.47 1.25 7.85 24.77 1.34 4 14.10 1.45 5.55 40.53 0.76 5 7.01 1.90 14.05 18.01 0.37 6 18.38 1.55 14.40 38.27 1.00 FPL0221 2 11.55 0.55 14.90 33.77 0.67 3 12.33 0.45 26.55 27.02 0.76 FPL0226 1 27.98 2.50 33.05 31.10 3.82 2 10.43 1.50 10.50 10.37 0.56 3 6.36 1.55 6.40 10.37 0.52 4 9.39 1.40 12.55 19.25 0.35 5 27.31 1.20 13.65 37.03 1.89 FPL0228 2 13.90 1.30 17.50 24.15 0.89 3 9.14 1.40 6.50 17.05 0.44 4 25.05 1.50 18.90 46.88 2.35 5 33.72 1.30 30.75 56.82 3.12 6 21.43 1.15 9.75 26.99 2.19 FPL0229 2 9.39 2.00 27.65 8.52 0.57 3 20.61 1.50 24.55 36.93 1.33 4 12.94 1.45 17.60 21.31 0.74 5 6.76 6.80 38.80 8.52 0.99 7 9.74 1.45 12.20 11.36 1.15 8 7.90 2.05 20.90 8.52 0.52 9 27.14 1.50 31.60 61.08 1.93 Mean(25) 16.05 1.67 17.68 27.81 1.26 Geo.Mean(25) 14.28 1.47 15.39 23.64 1.01 Std.Dev.(25) 7.85 1.15 9.30 14.96 0.90 Median(25) 13.90 1.50 14.90 26.99 0.99 Minimum(25) 6.36 0.45 5.55 8.52 0.35 Maximum(25) 33.72 6.80 38.80 61.08 3.82 Numbersinparenthesesaresamplesizes.AllthereturnstrokesrecordedbytheLeCroyoscilloscopeswereanalyzedinordertocompleteTable 5–4 .ForthepurposeofpopulatingTable 5–5 onlyselectedreturnstrokes,theonescompletelyinjectedintothepowerlineandrecordedbytheLeCroyoscilloscopes,

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64wereanalyzed.ThisselectionwasbasedontheincidentcurrentpathaspresentedonTable 5–3 5.1.2 InitialStageCurrentTheIScurrentischaracteristicofrocket-triggeredlightningandnaturallightningini-tiatedfromtallstructures( Uman [ 2001 ], Mikietal. [ 2002 ]).OnefeatureoftheISob-servedinrocket-triggeredlightningcurrentrecordistheICV(see Wangetal. [ 1999a ],Section 5.1.2.2 ,Figure 5–8 )whichisnotpresentinnaturallightninginitiatedfromtallstructuressinceitisassociatedwiththedestructionofthetriggeringwireanditsreplace-mentbyaplasmachannel( Rakovetal. [ 2003 ]). -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20:18:45 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements Current,Time,Figure5–5:Initialstageasseeninthelow-leveltowercurrentrecordofeventFPL0218(Yokogawadata).TheIScouldhaveimpulsivecomponentssuperimposedontheinitialcontinuouscur-rent(typicalICCpulsesareseeninFigure 5–1 ,andunusuallynumerousICCpulsesin

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65Figure 5–5 ).ProcessesgivingrisetoICCpulsesresembletheMprocessesobserveddur-ingthecontinuingcurrentthatoftenfollowreturnstrokesinbothnaturalandtriggeredlightning( Wangetal. [ 1999a ], Rakovetal. [ 2001 ]).Table5–6:InitialstageparametersofashestriggeredattheICLRTduringsummer2002(chargehasbeencalculatedoverthespecieddurationoftheevent). FlashID Charge[C] Duration[ms] Current[A] Average… Maximum FPL0213 71.89 561.45 128.05 243.42 FPL0218 185.26 742.90 249.37 2398.03 FPL0219 130.13 626.52 207.70 1694.31 FPL0220 35.75 393.77 90.80 911.01 FPL0221 11.34 250.53 45.27 130.70 FPL0226 134.24 781.85 171.70 547.59 FPL0228 36.64 489.25 74.89 685.38 FPL0229 15.15 276.92 54.69 1854.86 Mean(8) 77.55 515.40 127.81 1058.17 Geo.Mean(8) 51.86 478.12 108.48 731.50 Std.Dev.(8) 64.71 199.90 75.04 826.35 Median(8) 54.27 525.35 109.42 798.20 Minimum(8) 11.34 250.53 45.27 130.70 Maximum(8) 185.26 781.85 249.37 2398.03 †FoundastheISchargedividedbytheISduration.Numbersinparenthesesaresamplesizes.Accordingto Wangetal. [ 1999a ],whoused37channel-basecurrentrecordsobtainedatFortMcClellan(1994),AlabamaandatCampBlanding,Florida(1996and1997),theISofrockettriggeredlightningeffectivelylowerstogroundaGMchargeof27C,overtheGMdurationof279msandhasaGMaveragecurrentof96A.Using8currentrecords,obtainedduringthe2002experimentsatCampBlanding,Florida,itwasfoundthataGMchargeof52CwaseffectivelyloweredtogroundovertheGMdurationof478ms,resultingonaGMaveragecurrentof108A,ascanbeseeninTable 5–6 .ThistablepresentsISparameterscalculatedbasedontheYokogawadata(obtainedduringthe2002experiments).Yokogawadatafromthe2001experimentsandfromeventsFPL0206(ashwithoutreturnstrokes),FPL0208andFPL0210arenotincludedsincenoDC-coupledincidentcurrentrecordsareavailable.

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66AlldatarelatedtotheinitialstagewereobtainedfromYokogawarecords,whichwererstusedinthe2001experiments(seeSection 3.5.2 ),duringwhich,apre-triggertimeof200mswasused.Thispre-triggertimewasinsufcientforthepurposeofrecordingthecompleteIScurrents,soforthe2002experimentsitwasincreasedto1s.Forbothyears,theYokogawaoscilloscopesweresettostoreacontinuous4srecordlengthsamplingat1MHz. 5.1.2.1 PrecursorcurrentpulsesPrecursorpulsesareaseriesofpulses(orgroupsofpulses)withinitialamplitudesoftensofamperes( Lalandeetal. [ 1998 ])whichoccurpriortotheonsetoftheIS,andtheyareapparentlyassociatedwithunsuccessfulattemptsoftheinceptionofanupwardpositiveleader(e.g., Rakov [ 1999 ]).PrecursorpulsescanbeseeninFigure 5–6 b).The“zero”timeonFigure 5–6 a)correspondtothetimethesystemtriggered,andcurrentrecordsareintentionallyclippedat400A.TheremainingportionoftheIScanbeseenonFigure 5–5 .Figure 5–6 c)showsaburstofpulsespriortotheonsetoftheupwardpositiveleader.Both,Figures 5–6 b)andc)areshownonatimewindowof450s.Duringthe2001experiments,outofatotalofveeventsrecordedduringthedi-rectstriketests(seeTable 4–2 ),twoofthem(FPL0111,ashwithoutreturnstrokes,andFPL0112)showfewprecursorpulses,whilefortheremainingthreerecordedevents,itisnotpossibletoobtainthisinformationsincethesystemtriggeredontherstreturnstroke,withthepre-triggertime(200ms)beingnotenougthtoobtainthecompleteISofthoseparticularevents.Astothepreviouslymentionedevents,FPL0111showsnumerouspro-nouncedprecursorpulses,whileFPL0112showsjustafewpulses.

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67 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20:18:45 EDT Student Version of MATLAB 0.5197 0.5197 0.5198 0.5198 0.5199 0.5199 0.52 0.52 0.5201 0.5201 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20:18:45 EDT Student Version of MATLAB 0.8778 0.8778 0.8779 0.8779 0.878 0.878 0.878 0.8781 0.8781 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20:18:45 EDT Student Version of MATLAB PSfragreplacements a)b)c)Current,Current,Current,Current,Time,Time,Time,Figure5–6:IllustrationofprecursorpulsescorrespondingtoashFPL0218(obtainedfromlow-levelincidentcurrentrecords,Yokogawadata).Duringthe2002experiments,ofatotalofeleven5eventsrecordedduringthedirectstriketests,oneevent(ashFPL0220)showsnoevidenceatallofprecursospulsesandeventFPL0213showsmanypulsesessentiallywithoutquietintervals.Ofthenineremain-ingevents,veshownumerousandpronouncedprecursorpulses,andonlyafewofthesepulsescanbeseenintheremainingfour. 5NeitherFPL0205norFPL0230eventsareincludedherebecausenoincidentcurrentrecordsareavailable.Theformereventwasanaltitudetriggerwithallreturnstrokesterminatingontheinstrumentstation1,andtherearenorecordsforthelatterevent.

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68Precursorpulsesobservedduringthe2001and2002experimentshaveamplitudes6rangingfrom20to90A,showinginseveralcasesbipolarbehaviorwheneverthesepulsesexeeded10A.Forasummaryofprecursorpulsesoccurrenceduringtheseexperiments,seeTa-ble 5–7 ,whereprecursorpulsesobservedinYokogawarecordsaregroupedinthreecat-egories.Inoneash,FPL0220,noprecursorpulsesweredetected.EventsFPL0107,FPL0108,andFPL0110arenotincludedsinceno(orincomplete)ISrecordsareavail-ablebecausethesystemtriggeredonrstreturnstrokeandtheYokogawapre-triggertime(during2001)was200ms.Table5–7:OccurrenceofprecursorpulsesforashestriggeredattheICLRTduringthe2001and2002experiments. PrecursorPulses Numerous NotMany Continuous NotPresent Pronounced PulseActivity (5) (6) (1) (1) FPL0208 FPL0111 FPL0213 FPL0220 FPL0210 FPL0112 FPL0221 FPL0206 FPL0226 FPL0218 FPL0228 FPL0219 FPL0229 Numbersinparenthesisaretotalnumberofashesineachcategory.Figure 5–7 illustratesthefourdifferentcategoriesfoundinTable 5–7 ,wherethecur-rentrecordsareclippedat400Aandtimescalesof1and1.2sareused.Oftheashesshowedonthisgure,onlyforashFPL0213thesystemdidnottriggerontheICV,butthepre-triggertimeof1swassufcienttocompletelyrecordtheIS;thiseventalsoshowscontinuouspulseactivity(therearenointervalsbetweenthepulses),whichmakesitim-possibletodeneindividualpulsesorgroupsofpulses. 6Thenoiselevelofthelow-leveltowercurrentrecordis10A.

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69 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 -100 0 100 200 300 400 ILTy, Flash FPL0226, 07/25/02, 21:41:08 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements a)b)c)d)Current,Current,Time, 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 ILTy, Flash FPL0219, 07/20/02, 20:25:58 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacementsa) b)c)d)Current,Current,Time, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 -100 0 100 200 300 400 ILTy, Flash FPL0213, 07/19/02, 21:56:06 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacementsa)b) c)d)Current,Current,Time, 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 -100 0 100 200 300 400 ILTy, Flash FPL0220, 07/20/02, 20:39:25 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacementsa)b)c) d)Current,Current,Time,Figure5–7:Illustrationofprecursorpulsescategories(seeTable 5–7 )as:a)NumerousPronounced,b)NotMany,c)ContinuousPulseActivity,andd)NotPresent.

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70Fortheremainingashesofthisgure,thesystemtriggeredduringtheICV,whichmakestheISappearincomplete.Flashescategorizedunder“NotMany”(precursorpulses)showedlessthan6identiedindividualpulsesorgroupsofpulses.Itisalsoimportanttocommenthereontheoccurrenceofaburstofpulses(seeFig-ure 5–6 c)justpriortotheonsetoftheupwardpositiveleader(UPL),identiedbyagraduallyincreasingsteadycurrent.Thesepulsesareverysimilartotheprecursorpulsesintheirwaveshapeandamplitudebutareseparatedbyafewtensofmicrosecondsandtheyhavebeenattributedtoleadersteps( Rakov [ 1999 ]).Theseburstsofpulsesareobservedineveryevent(duringthe2001and2002experiments)inwhichcompleteISrecordsareavailable,andtheirmagnitudesrangefrom20to100A. 5.1.2.2 InitialcurrentvariationTheterm“InitialCurrentVariation”hasbeenusedtoidentifyacurrentsignature(seeFigure 5–8 )regularlyseenatthebeginingoftheISofrockettriggeredlightning( Wangetal. [ 1999a ]and Rakovetal. [ 2003 ]).Itcomprisesasteadycurrentincreasefollowedbyanabruptcurrentdecreaseor“cut-off”,probablyassociatedwiththedisintegrationoftheKevlar-coatedcoppertriggeringwire( Rakovetal. [ 2003 ])andasubsequentabruptcurrentincrease,associatedwiththecurrentre-establishment( Rakovetal. [ 2003 ]).Accordingto Wangetal. [ 1999a ],theICVdurationdoesnotexceed10ms,theGMtimebetweentheonsetoftheICVandtheabruptdecreaseincurrentis8.6ms,theGMcurrentleveljustpriortothecurrentdecreaseis312A(seeFigure 5–8 ,labelA),withthecurrenttypicallydroppingtozeroortoaround100A,(seeFigure 5–8 ,labelB),andafollowingpulsewithatypicalpeakofabout1kA(seeFigure 5–8 ,labelC).ForasummaryofICVcurrentsignatureduringtheseexperiments,seeTable 5–8 ,whereICVisidentiedinYokogawadata.EventsFPL0107,FPL0108,andFPL0110arenotincludedsinceno(orincomplete)ISrecordsareavailablebecausethesystemtriggeredonrstreturnstrokeandtheYokogawapre-triggertime(during2001)was200ms.

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71Table5–8:OccurrenceofICVcurrentsignature(seeFigure 5–8 )forashestriggeredatICLRTduringthe2001and2002experiments. ICV Identied NotIdentied (5) (8) FPL0111 FPL0206 FPL0112 FPL0208 FPL0210 FPL0213 FPL0220 FPL0218 FPL0228 FPL0219 FPL0221 FPL0226 FPL0229 AsdescribedinFigure 5–8 .Questionablezerocurrentinterval(seeFigure 5–9 ).Numbersinparenthesisaretotalnumberofashesineachcategory. 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 ILy, Flash FPL0112, 08/18/01, 23:56:05 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements ABCCurrent,""Time,'Figure5–8:Initialcurrentvariationsignaturecorrespondingtothelow-levelincidentcur-rentrecordsofeventFPL0112(obtainedfromYokogawadata).Duringthe2001experiments,forbothevents(FPL0111andFPL0112)forwhichcompleteISwererecorded(seeTable 5–8 ),anICVsignature(seeFigure 5–8 )canbeseen.

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72FortheICVofeventFPL0112seeninFigure 5–8 ,timeisrelativetotheburstofpulses(attributedtoleadersteps)havinganapproximatemaximumamplitudeof40A.Themaximumvalueofcurrentjustpriortotheabruptdecreaseis570A,occuring3.9msaftertheonsetoftheICV,whereafterthecurrentdropsto100Aandthefollowingpulsehasapeakof2.7kA.ForeventFPL0111,themaximumvalueofcurrentjustpriortotheabruptdecreaseis680A,occuring3.93msaftertheonsetoftheICV,whereafterthecurrentdropsto240Aandthefollowingpulsehasapeakof2.1kA.Duringthe2002experiments,thepreviouslydiscussedICVcurrentsignature(seeFigure 5–8 )canbeseenonlyinthreeevents(seeTable 5–8 ).ForeventFPL0210,themaximumvalueofcurrentjustpriortotheabruptdecreaseis395A,occuring6.06msaftertheonsetoftheICV,whereafterthecurrentdropsto80Aandthefollowingpulsehasapeakof789A.ForeventFPL0220,themaximumvalueofcurrentjustpriortotheabruptdecreaseis160A,occuring61.5msaftertheonsetoftheICV,whereafterthecurrentdropstoes-sentiallyzero,andthefollowingpulsehasapeakof910A.ThisICVsignatureshowsapeculiarbehavior(seeFigure 5–9 ,where,asonFigure 5–8 timeisrelativetotheburstofpulses),sincethecurrentdropstozeroandstaysatnearlyzeroforabout2.75ms(whichisaconsiderablylongertimethanthefewhundredmicrosecondsreportedby Rakovetal. [ 2003 ]).Itispossiblethatthisprolongedzero-currentintervalmightinvolvesomekindofinstrumentationmalfunction.ForeventFPL0228,themaximumvalueofcurrentjustpriortotheabruptdecreaseis110A,occuring9.2msaftertheonsetoftheICV,whereafterthecurrentdropstonearlyzero,andthefollowingpulsehasapeakof680A.Similarlytothepreviousevent's(FPL0220)ICVsignature,thiseventshowsazero-currentinterval,butitlastsonlyforabout0.5ms.

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73 55 60 65 70 75 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 ILTy, Flash FPL0220, 07/20/02, 20:39:25 EDT Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements ABCCurrent,Time,'Figure5–9:Irregularinitialcurrentvariationsignaturecorrespondingtothelow-levelin-cidentcurrentrecordsofeventFPL0220(obtainedfromYokogawadata). 5.2 SelectedFlashesCurrentwaveformsforfourreturnstrokesfromdifferentashesarepresentedinSec-tion 5.3 ,wheredatafromtheLeCroyoscilloscopesareshownona100stimescale.InAppendices C and D ,dataforallthereturnstrokesrecordedontheLeCroyoscilloscopesduringthe2001and2002experimentsarepresentedon100s( C.1 and D.1 )and500s( C.2 and D.2 )timescales,respectively.Forthesamefourselectedashescurrentstogroundandarrestercurrentsareplotedandadded(algebraically)inordertovisuallycomparethetotalcurrenttoground(com-posedofsixcomponentsmeasuredatPoles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andthetotalcurrentthroughthearresters(composedoffourcomponentsmeasuredatPoles2,6,10,and14)tothemeasuredincidentcurrentinjectedintothelinefortherst40s.

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74Basedonthelightningincidentcharge,thedistributionofcharges(amongphaseAarrestersandpole1terminationresistor7andamongthegroundconnections)areshownforthefourstrokesoftheselectedashescalculatedatfourdifferentinstantsoftime(100s,500s,1msand2ms)fromthebeginningofthereturnstroke.Also,thetotalcharge(inpercentofthelightningincidentcharge)transferredtogroundandthetotalarresterandterminationresistorschargeareshown.Notethatforthecalculationoftotalarrestercharge,assumingsymmetryofthesystem,pole15terminationresistorchargehasbeenassumedtobethesameasthepole1terminationresistorcharge.1.FlashFPL0226,returnstroke1,peakcurrentvalueof26.9kA(seeFigure 5–24 )andtheincidentchargetransferhavenotendedafter5ms(thisisthesegmentmemorylengthfortheLeCroyoscilloscopes).Triggeredonthefthattemptduring7/25/02,beingprecededonlybyunsuccessfullaunches,soitispossiblethatthereweretrail-ingwiresovertheline.Allthelightningcurrentwenttothepowerline.Currenttogroundatpole15isnotavailable.Itisassumedthatallarresterswerehealthy,atleastforthisreturnstroke.AninstrumentationproblemmayhavefacilitatedashoversonPole7.ThisreturnstrokeisfollowedbyMcomponents,whichcanbeseenonthelineatalllocations.FromthecalculatedphaseAarrestersandpole1terminationresistorchargedistribution(Figure 5–10 a)itcanbeseenthatthereisasymmetricaldistributionofthechargetransferthrougharresters,relativetothestrikepoint(notethatthestrikepointisclosertopole6thantopole10).2.FlashFPL0228,returnstroke4,peakcurrentvalueof25.1kA(seeFigure 5–25 )andtheincidentchargetransferhavenotendedafter5ms(thisisthesegmentmemorylengthfortheLeCroyoscilloscopes).Triggeredontherstattemptduring8/02/02.Allthelightningcurrentwenttothepowerline.Sincethisashwastherstattempt,therecouldbenotrailingwireoverthelines.Arcsareseenfortheinitialreturn 7Terminationresistoratpole15wasnotinstrumented.

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75 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distributiona)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms 0.1 0.5 1 2 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Chargeb)Charge, %Time [ms] Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–10:FlashFPL0226,stroke1,a)phaseAarresterandterminatingresistorchargedistribution,andb)percentageoftotalphaseAarresterandterminatingresistorcharge.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 FPL0226, RS1Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIAN2IAN6IAN10IAN14Total IAN IHR IAN2 IAN6 IAN10 IAN14 Total IAN Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–11:SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,’,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke1ofashFPL0226.

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76 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 FPL0226, RS1Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIG1IG2IG6IG10IG14IG15Total IG IHR IG1 IG2 IG6 IG10 IG14 IG15 Total IG Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–12:Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke1ofashFPL0226.strokes,andphaseAPole2arrestersareassumedtofailtowardstheendofthisash.Thisreturnstrokeisfollowedbysomecontinuingcurrent(CC).Becauseofaninstrumentationproblem(mostlikelyanIsobemalfunction)groundcurrentatpole14waslostforthisash,sothedistributionofchargetransferredtogroundandpercentageofthetotalchargetransferredtogroundarenotshownforthisstroke.ThephaseAarresterandterminationresistorchargedistribution(Figure 5–13 a)showsasimilarbehaviorasforthepreviousselectedash,alsothetotalpercentagechargeforarrestersandterminationresistors(Figure 5–13 b)progressivelydecreaseswithtime.3.FlashFPL0229,returnstroke1,peakcurrentvalueof13.5kA(seeFigure 5–26 )andtheincidentchargetransferapparentlyendsafter1.5ms(incidentcurrentsensitivityis284.1Amperesperquantizationlevel,seeTable B–11 ).Triggeredonthesecondattemptduring8/02/02,beingprecededbyashFPL0228whichpresumablycausedphaseAarresterfailureatPole2.Thelightningcurrentisdividedbetweenthetower

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77 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distributiona)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms 0.1 0.5 1 2 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Chargeb)Charge, %Time [ms] Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–13:FlashFPL0228,stroke4,a)phaseAarresterandterminatingresistorchargedistribution,andb)percentageoftotalphaseAarresterandterminatingresistorcharge.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 FPL0228, RS4Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIAN2IAN6IAN10IAN14Total IAN IHR IAN2 IAN6 IAN10 IAN14 Total IAN Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–14:SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,’,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke4ofashFPL0228.

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78 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 FPL0228, RS4Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIG1IG2IG6IG10IG14IG15Total IG IHR IG1 IG2 IG6 IG10 IG14 IG15 Total IG Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–15:Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke4ofashFPL0228.launcherandthepowerline.Notrailingwirewasoverthelines.Thisreturnstrokeisoneofthree(outofatotalofnine)showingnoevidenceofcurrentinphaseB.Eventhough,itisassumedthatthepreviousevent(ashFPL0228)leftPole2phaseAarrestersdamaged,somechargetransferwasdetectedatpole2(Figure 5–16 a).Theoverallbehaviorofthearresterchargedistributionissimilartothatforthepreviouslydiscussedstrokes.Adifferentdistributionofchargetransfertoground(Figure 5–17 b),wheremostchargeowstogroundatpole2,whichdcgroundingresistanceisnotthelowestvalueontheline.Notethatthedcgroundingresistancevaluesofthestrikepointclosestgroundedlocations(poles6and10),are18and17.8respectively,thesevaluesarelowerthanthatcorrespondingtopole2(20).4.FlashFPL0229,returnstroke2,peakcurrentvalueof9.5kA(seeFigure 5–27 )andtheincidentchargetransferapparentlyendsafter500s(incidentcurrentsensitivityis284.1Amperesperquantizationlevel,seeTable B–11 ).Itwastriggeredonthesecondattemptduring8/02/02,beingprecededbyashFPL0228whichpresumably

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79 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distributiona)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Charge transfer to ground distributionb)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–16:FlashFPL0229,stroke1,distributionofchargetransferreda)throughphaseAarrestersandterminatingresistors,andb)togroundatdifferentpoles.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. 0.1 0.5 1 2 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Chargea)Charge, %Time [ms] 0.1 0.5 1 2 70 80 90 100 110 Total charge transferred to ground, in percent of the Incident Chargeb)Charge, %Time [ms] Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–17:FlashFPL0229,stroke1,percentageoftotalchargetransferreda)throughphaseAarrestersandterminatingresistors,andb)togroundatdifferentpoles.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8.

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80 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 FPL0229, RS1Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIAN2IAN6IAN10IAN14Total IAN IHR IAN2 IAN6 IAN10 IAN14 Total IAN Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–18:SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,’,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke1ofashFPL0229. -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 FPL0229, RS1Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIG1IG2IG6IG10IG14IG15Total IG IHR IG1 IG2 IG6 IG10 IG14 IG15 Total IG Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–19:Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke1ofashFPL0229.leftPole2phaseAarresterfailed.Allthelightningcurrentwenttothepowerline.Notrailingwirewasovertheline.Thisreturnstrokeisthesecondofthree(outof

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81atotalofnine)showingnoevidenceofcurrentinphaseB.Notethesmallchargevalueshown(Figure 5–20 a)forphaseAarrestersatpoles2and14,comparedtopoles6and10,andalsocomparedtothesamepoles(2and14)correspondingtothepreviouslydiscussedstrokes.Thedistributionofthechargetransferredtoground(Figure 5–20 b)showsasimilarbehaviorasforthepreviousstroke. 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distributiona)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms 15 14 10 6 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Charge transfer to ground distributionb)Charge, %Pole number 100 us500 us1 ms 2 ms Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–20:FlashFPL0229,stroke2,distributionofchargetransferreda)throughphaseAarrestersandterminatingresistors,andb)togroundatdifferentpoles.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8.Itworthnotingthedifferencebetweenthetotalpercentagechargeforarrestersandterminationresistors(Figures 5–10 b, 5–13 b, 5–17 a,and 5–21 a)whichprogres-sivelydecreaseswithtime,8andthatforgrounds(Figures 5–17 band 5–21 b).Inthelattercase,thechargeinjectedintothesystem(lightningcharge)equalsthechargetransferredtogroundwithina10%error.Anpeculiarcharacteristicisseen 8ThisislikelyduetotheinsufcientlowerfrequencyresponseoftheCTs,seeSec-tion 3.5.1

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82 0.1 0.5 1 2 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Chargea)Charge, %Time [ms] 0.1 0.5 1 2 70 80 90 100 110 Total charge transferred to ground, in percent of the Incident Chargeb)Charge, %Time [ms] Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–21:FlashFPL0229,stroke2,percentageoftotalchargetransferreda)throughphaseAarrestersandterminatingresistors,andb)togroundatdifferentpoles.Lightningstrikepointisbetweenpoles7and8. -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 FPL0229, RS2Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIAN2IAN6IAN10IAN14Total IAN IHR IAN2 IAN6 IAN10 IAN14 Total IAN Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–22:SumofphaseAarrestercurrents,’,(poles2,6,10,and14)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke2ofashFPL0229.

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83 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 FPL0229, RS2Time, usCurrent, kA IHRIG1IG2IG6IG10IG14IG15Total IG IHR IG1 IG2 IG6 IG10 IG14 IG15 Total IG Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–23:Sumofcurrentstoground,,(poles1,2,6,10,14,and15)andcurrentinjectedintotheline,—,forstroke2ofashFPL0229.forgroundchargeatpoles2and1,which,forbothcases,thechargeincreaseswithtime(seeFigures 5–16 band 5–20 b).Thischaracteristicismoreaccentuatedforpole2,havingthisthehighestchargevaluesamongthedifferentgroundcharges. Mata [ 2000 ]presentedthedistributionofthepeakcurrentstogroundasafunctionofthedistancetothestrikepoint(forthehorizontalline)andfoundanexponentialcurvethattstheaveragedistributionofthesepeakcurrentstobej['[WPHH,whereisinpercentandisinmeters.AsshowninFigures 5–12 5–15 ,and 5–23 ,thereisnobalancebetweenthecurrententeringthesystemandthesumofcurrentsleavingthesystem(groundcurrents),thepeakvalueofthesumofgroundcurrentsbeinggreaterthanthepeakvalueoftheincidentcurrent.Becauseofthisimbalace,itisnotpossibletoobtainpeakcurrentsdistributionsimilartothatpresentedby Mata [ 2000 ].Doingsowouldresultintheaveragegroundpeakcurrentatpoles6and10ofabout130%oftheincidentpeakcurrent.

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84 5.3 CurrentWaveforms(FPL0226,FPL0228,andFPL0229)Selectedstrokes(seeSection 5.2 )areshownonatimescaleof100sinFigures 5–24 5–25 5–26 and 5–27 .PhaseAarrestercurrent(atthefourarresterstations)andthelightningcurrent(injectedintotheline)areshowninthetoprowofthegures.ThesecondandthirdrowsshowphaseAandphaseBlineandterminatingresistorcurrents,respectively.ThefourthrowshowsneutralcurrentsatPoles10,6and3,andthebottomrowshowsallgroundcurrents. 5.4 SystemDamageDuringthe2001experiments,themodiedverticalcongurationwassubjectedtoatotalofeightashesdirectlyinjectedintotheline,fourofwhichcontainedreturnstrokes.Threeoftheseashesweretriggeredwithatleastonefailedarresteralreadyontheline(seeSection 4.1 ).OnearresterfailedpresumablyduringtheICC(seeSection 4.1 )fortheonlyashthathadnopreviouslyfailedarresterontheline.Duringsummer2001,noevidenceoftrailingwireonthelinewasfoundafteranyeventandpossibleashovers(probablybetweenphasesAandBconductorsatPole8)wereobservedduringtwoashes(FPL0107andFPL0108).Ofthetotalofnineashestriggeredduringthe2001experiments,onlyashesFPL0101andFPL0102(bothwireburns)showednoevidenceoffailedarrestersduringthedirectstriketests.FlashFPL0115(wireburn)wasatriggeredlightningstriketoground15meterstothenorthofpole8ofthelineinanattempttomeasureinducedvoltagesandcurrentsontheline.Duringtheexperimentsconductedinsummer2002,therewasasmalldecreaseinthenumberofarrestersfounddamagedafteranystormdayinvolvingsuccessfultriggeredlightningashescontainingreturnstrokeswhosecurrentswereinjectedintotheline,comparedtotheobservationsmadeduringthe2001experiments(seeSection 4.1 ).Duringthe2002campaign,arresterswerefoundfailedonthreestorm

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85 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -31 kA -15.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–24:FlashFPL0226,stroke1.

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86 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -29 kA -14.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–25:FlashFPL0228,stroke4.

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87 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -16 kA -8 0 Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–26:FlashFPL0229,stroke1.

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88 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–27:FlashFPL0229,stroke2.

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89days(7/20/02,7/25/02,and8/02/02)ofatotalofve9(seeSection 4.2 )duringwhichreturnstrokecurrentsoftriggeredlightningasheswereintendedtobeinjectedintotheline,comparedwithtwoofatotalofthree10stormdayscorrespondingtothe2001experiments.Thetwomajordifferencesbetweenthe2001and2002experimentsarethat(1)thelat-terusedtwoarrestersinparallelonthestruckphaseateacharresterstation(seeSection 3.4 )whichmighthavehelpedreducearresterdamageand(2)adifferenttowerlaunchingsys-temconguration(seeSections 3.2.4 3.2.5 ,and 3.2.6 )allowedthediversionofmostoftheICCtogroundatthetowerbase,sothatitcouldnotenterthelineandcausedamage.ItwasfoundfromcurrentrecordsandfrominspectionofthelinethatforashesFPL0208toFPL0226aninstrumentationdevice(atpole7)mightpossiblyhavehelpeddrainsomecurrentfromphaseA(struckphase)tophaseB(closestphasetothestruckone),mostlikelyviaaashover.Ontheotherhand,similarcurrentsinphaseBwerefoundforashestriggeredafterthepositionoftheinstrumentationdevicewaschangedtoavoidashovers(seeFigures A–5 and A–6 ).ItisassumedthatphaseAarresteratpole2failedduringtherstreturnstrokeofashFPL0220,andattheendofthecorrespondingstormday,07/20/02,(containingashesFPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220,andFPL0221)phaseAarresterswerefoundfailedatallthearresterstations(locatedatpoles2,6,10,and14).DuringashFPL0226,itseemsthattrailingwire(leftbyapreviouslaunch)helpedtodiverttogroundthelightningcurrentinjectedintothelinefortherstreturnstroke.Threearresterstationswerefoundfailedonthelineafterthisevent,phaseAarresteratpole10(associatedwiththesecondreturnstroke),pole6(associatedwithreturnstroke5)andatpole2(associatedwiththelastreturn 9Oneofthestormdayswhennoarresterdamagewasfoundcorresponstoasingleashdaywhichresultedinallreturnstrokesinjectedintogroundthroughthetowerlauncher.10Oneofthesethreestormdaysduringwhichnoarresterdamagewasfoundinvolvedonlywireburns(see Mataetal. [ 2001 ,Table4-5].

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90stroke).PhaseAarresteratpole2wasfoundfailedafterashesFPL0228andFPL0229(eventscorrespondingtodate08/02/02),thearresterfailurewasassociatedpresumablywiththelastreturnstrokeofashFPL0228.Eventhoughtheinstrumentationdevice(pos-siblyinvolvedinrepeatedarcingduringtheJulyevents)wasrelocated(seeFigures A–5 and A–6 )beforethesestormday,repeatedvisiblearcsatpole7andseldomatpole8wereseen. 5.5 ATPModelingBasedonthecharacterizationofthelightningincidentcurrent(discussedinSec-tion 5.1.1 )andduetoreectionsseeninthegroundcurrentwaveformsattheclosestgroundedpoles(seeSection 5.2 ),twosimpliedmodelsforthevertical-congurationlinearepresented.Bothmodelsrepresentareduced(andincomplete)versionofthetestline(seeFigure 5–28 )andareintendedonlytocalculatethearresterandgroundcurrentwave-formsoftheclosestarresterstationstothestrikepointandtocomparethemtothelight-ningincidentcurrentinjectedintothemidleofthissimpliedlinewhenthecharacteristicimpedanceofthelightningchannelisvaried.Thesemodelsinclude:1.LightningsourcecomposedofanATPDrawtype15source(idealHeidlerFunction,seeEquation 5.1 )witha10-90%risetimeof0.75s,a50%decaytimeof30.7sandanabsolutepeakvalueof18kAinparallelwithalinearresistance,whichrepre-sentsthelightningchannelimpedance.]? m 8 m ) (5.1)% where:istheamplitudeofthecurrent,isthefront-timeconstant,isthedecay-timeconstant,istheamplitudecorrectionfactor,andisafactorinuencingtherateofrise.

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912.TransmissionlinesectionmodeledusingtheJMartiLineModel( Marti [ 1982 ]).Forthismodel,anoverheadsingle-phaselinesectionwasusedwithalengthof120meters.Thissectionlengthisfromthestrikepoint,atPole8,toeachofthenearestarresterstations,atPoles10and6.3.MOVarrestermodeledusinganATPDrawtype92nonlinearMOVelementwiththemanufacturerspeciedV-Icharacteristic(nrrsresponse)correspondingtotheCooperPowerSystemarrester(seeTable 3–3 ),whicharethearrestersusedduringthebeginningofthe2002experimentsandpartofthe2001experiments.4.Groundresistancemodeledusingalinearresistancewiththecorrespondingeldmeasuredvalueforeachpole,seeSection 3.3 .Bothvalues(correspondingtoPole10and6)havebeensetto20. 5.5.1 Model1Arstapproachforthesystemmodel(seegure 5–28 and 5–29 )wastomakeaverysimplerepresentationoftheexperimentaldistributionline,whichincludesonlythetwoclosestarresterstations;thedistributionlineisconsideredasjustasinglephaseline(thestruckphase)andtheincidentcurrentisinjectedatPole8. 5.5.2 Model2Asecondapproach(seegure 5–28 and 5–30 )wastoaddasectionofanoverheadline(’long)modelingtheconnectingleadfromtheTowerLaunchertotheTestPowerLine.Allotherparametersarethesameasformodel1(seesection 5.5.1 ). 5.5.3 ResultsThemodelswereranfor50s,Figures 5–31 and 5–32 correspondingtomodel1,andgures 5–33 and 5–34 correspondingtomodel2,showtheshortcircuitcurrent,theincidentcurrentandthecurrenttogroundatpole611ontwodifferenttimescales(10 11Becauseofthesymmetryofthesysteminthemodel,groundcurrentatpole10isidenticaltothatatpole6.

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92 Phase BNeutralPhase APhase C VariSTAR Heavy Duty 18kVCooper Power Systems UltraSIL Housed Pole 1Pole 2Pole 9Pole 14Pole 15Pole 5Pole 6Pole 7Pole 10Pole 11Pole 8AArresters:Distance:B = 20 mA = 30 mB 120 m 120 m 20 m Pole 8Model 2Pole 6Pole 10 120 m 120 m Pole 8Model 1Pole 10Pole 6 176 m 179 m 59 m 59 m 59 m 59 m 59 m 59 m 58 m 55 m Based on Test Configuration FPL_A_02 Figure5–28:Overviewofmodels1and2comparedtoarepresentationoftheverticaltestline.

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93 1ph LineModelCurrent to GroundMeasurement 1ph LineModelLightningChannelImpedance Incident CurrentMeasurement ModelArresterResistanceGroundModelArresterResistanceGroundShortCircuitCurrent Figure5–29:Model1schematic. 1ph LineModelCurrent to GroundMeasurement 1ph LineModel ModelArresterResistanceGroundModelArresterResistanceGround 1ph LineModelLightningChannelImpedance Incident CurrentMeasurementShortCircuitCurrent Figure5–30:Model2schematic.and)correspondingtodifferentvalues(100,200,500,800,1000,2000,5000andrr)ofthelightningchannelimpedanceforbothmodels.Whenthelightningchannelcharacteristicimpedancevalueissetto800or1000,themodelreproducedcurrentsaresimilarforbothmodelsandshowfairlygoodagreementwiththegroundcurrentwaveformspresentedforselectedashesinSection 5.2 .Regarding

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94theincidentcurrent,forthevaluesoflightningchannelcharacteristicimpedancebetween1and8k,theincidentcurrentfrommodel2failstoreproducethemeasuredincidentcurrent,whiletheincidentcurrentreproducedbymodel1tendstobemoresimilartothewaveformcorrespondingtotheshortcircuitcurrent.Figure 5–35 showsacomparisonbetweenmeasuredandmodel-predictedwaveformsofashFPL0108,stroke5.Themodelusedwasmodel1(seeSection 5.5.1 ),theshortcircuitcurrentusedinthemodelisalsoshowninFigure 5–35 andthreedifferentvaluesofthelightningchannelcharacteristicimpedancevaluesareindicated.Duetothesimplicityofthemodel,thereareconsiderabledifferencesbetweenthemodel-predictedandmeasuredcurrents.Afairlygoodagreementcanbeseenonlyfortherst2softheincidentcurrentwaveform.Currentstogroundshowmoredisagreement,inmagnitudeandalsointheoscillationperiod.Amorecomplexmodeltakingintoaccountthepresenceoftheneutralconductorandtheentirelenghtofthelinemaybeneededtoachieveabetteragreementbetweenthesecurrents.

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95 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 100 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 100 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 200 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 200 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 500 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 500 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 800 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 800 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–31:Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6Groundcurrentsobtainedwithmodel1when100,200,500and800lightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and.

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96 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 1000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 1000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 2000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 2000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 5000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 5000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 8000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 8000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–32:Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel1when1,2,5and8klightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and.

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97 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 100 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 100 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 200 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 200 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 500 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 500 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 800 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 800 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–33:Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel2when100,200,500and800lightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and.

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98 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 1000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 1000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 2000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 2000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 5000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 5000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 8000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 Short-Circuit Incident To Ground Model 2, Lightning Channel Impedance = 8000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLAB Figure5–34:Short-Circuit,IncidentandPole6GroundcurrentsobtainedwithModel2when1,2,5and8klightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevalueareused,presentedontwotimescales,10and.

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99 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Incident Measured IG10 Measured Short-Circuit Current Incident Model IG10 Model FPL0108 RS 5 and Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 500 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacements a) -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Incident Measured IG10 Measured Short-Circuit Current Incident Model IG10 Model FPL0108 RS 5 and Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 800 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacementsa) b) -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Incident Measured IG10 Measured Short-Circuit Current Incident Model IG10 Model FPL0108 RS 5 and Model 1, Lightning Channel Impedance = 1000 OhmCurrent in kATime in us Student Version of MATLABPSfragreplacementsa)b) c)Figure5–35:FlashFPL0108,RS5:measuredandmodel-predicted(model1)waveformsdisplayedonatimescale.Lightning-channelcharacteristicimpedancevaluesusedinthemodelwerea)500,b)800,andc)1000.Short-circuitcurrentwasgivenbyEqua-tion 5.1 : 16.640kA,!"#2s,!$20s,%&'(.

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CHAPTER6SUMMARYFromatotaloffourseasons(1999-2002)duringwhichFPLpowerlineshavebeentestedatCampBlanding,wefocusonthelasttwoseasons(2001-2002)inthisthesis.Formoreinformationregardingthersttwoseasonsofexperiments(1999-2000),see Mataetal. [ 1999b 2000b ]and Mata [ 2000 ].Duringthe2001experiments,therewereatotalof9successfultriggers(4asheswithreturnstrokesand5asheswithoutreturnstrokes)fromatotalof15attempts(seeSection 4 ).Theprobabilityoftriggeringwas60%,with44.4%and55.6%ofthetriggeredashescontainingatleastoneornoreturnstrokes,respectively.Duringthe2002experiments,therewereatotalof19successfultriggers(14asheswithreturnstrokes1and5asheswithoutreturnstrokes)fromatotalof47attempts(seeSection 4 ).Theprobabilityoftriggeringwas40%,with74%and26%ofthetriggeredashescontainingatleastoneornoreturnstrokes,respectively.Thereareconsiderabledifferencesamongthewaveshapesofcurrentsowingfromthestruckphasetoneutralandfromtheneutraltogroundatdifferentpolesoftheline.Fromanalysisperformedonthedatafromthe2002experiments,itcanbeseenthatthechargetransferredfromthestruckphase(phaseA)totheneutralappearstobesym-metricallydistributedrelativetothestrikepointatthecenteroftheline,withtheclosestarresterstothestrikepointshowingthemostchargetransferredtotheneutral.Regardingthechargetransfertoground,the2002datashowamoreevendistributionalongthelinethanthegroundchargetransferdistributionfoundforthe2000data(see Mata 1Includingonealtitudetriggeredashwith4returnstrokesterminatingontheInstru-mentStation1.100

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101 etal. [ 2000b ]and Mata [ 2000 ]).Fortherst100sitisobservedthattheclosestgroundedpolestransferaround20%eachofthetotalchargeandthechargetransferredatpole2isaround30%.Aftertherst100s,theonlygroundedpoletransferringmorethan10%ofchargetogroundispole2,whichtransferstogroundbetween40and50%ofthetotalincidentcharge.Itshouldbenotedthatthesmallestdcgroundingresistancesareatpole10(17.8)andpole6(18)whicharetheclosestpolestothestrikepoint,whilethenextsmallerdcgroundingresistanceisatpole2(20),andtheremaininggroundingresistancesare24(poles1and15)and28(pole14).Thehigher-frequencycurrentcomponentsthatareassociatedwiththeinitialcurrentpeaktendtoowfromthestruckphasetoneutralandthentogroundatthetwopolesadjacenttothelightningcurrentinjectionpoint.

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CHAPTER7RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURERESEARCHFlashoverswerefrequentlyseenonthevertical-congurationtestlineduringthe2002experimentsinspiteof1)ourusingtwoarrestersinparallelonthestruckphaseateachofthefourarresterstationsand2)ourprovidingaseparatepathtogroundfortheinitialcon-tinuouscurrent(ICC),thatis,havingonlyreturn-strokecurrentsandfollowingcontinuingcurrentsinjectedintotheline.Itisrecommendedthatanewimprovedinsulatorbracketsupportforthetopphaseofthemodiedverticalcongurationreplacesthecurrentonetoassessiftheseashoverscanbesuppressedbyhigherinsulationlevels.Currentlyhigherinsulationlevelinsulators(installedonthesamebracketsupports)arebeingusedforthe2003experiments.Further,atransformerisrecommendedtobeconnectedtothelinetoprovideapreferredpathtogroundforlow-frequencycurrentcomponentsandtoevaluatetheexpectedreductioninlow-frequencycurrentowthrougharresters.Currentlytherearetwotransformersinstalledatpoles2and14forthe2003experiments,withonlyoneofthem(atpole2)beingconnectedtothestruckphaseconductor.Additionally,itisknownthatthecurrenttransformersusedtomeasurethelineandarrestercurrentsareinadequatetodetectthefulldurationofthecontinuingcurrents.Itisrecommendedthatmeasuringdeviceswithbetterlowfrequencyresponse(suchasshunts)beusedforthesemeasurementlocations.Itisalsorecommendedthatalongerlinebetested.Theshortlengthofthetestlinesusedduringtheseexperiments(lessthan1km),thevertical-congurationtestlinehavingfourarresterstationsandthehorizontal-congurationtestlinehavingsixarresterstations,mayhavecontributedtotherepeatedarresterfailures,regardlessof,forthecaseofthevertical-congurationtestlineexperimentsduring2002,thefactthatadifferentpathfortheinitialstagecurrentswasprovided.Usingaconsiderablylongerlinemightanswerthe102

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103questionofwhethersurgearrestersonreal-lifepowerdistributionlineswillalmostalwaysfailwhenlightningdirectlystrikestheline;i.e.whetherlightningenergywillspreadoutoveralonglineinamoreuniformmannerthanovertheshortline.

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106C.T.Mata.InteractionofLightningwithPowerDistributionLines.PhDthesis,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida,December2000.C.T.Mata,M.I.Fernandez,V.Rakov,andM.A.Uman.EMTPmodelingofatriggered-lightningstriketothephaseconductorofanoverheaddistributionline.IEEETransac-tionsonPowerDelivery,15(4):1175–1181,2000a.C.T.Mata,M.I.Fernandez,V.A.Rakov,M.A.Uman,M.Bejleri,K.J.Rambo,andM.V.Stapleton.OvervoltagesinUndergroundSystems,Phase2Results.TechnicalReportTR-109669-R1,ElectricPowerResearchInstitute(EPRI),PaloAlto,CA,December1998.Co-sponsoredbyDuquesneLightCo.,Pittsburgh,PA.C.T.Mata,V.A.Rakov,K.J.Rambo,M.V.Stapleton,andM.A.Uman.UF/FPLstudyoftriggeredlightningstrikestoFPLdistributionlines.Technicalreport,FloridaPowerandLight,Miami,Florida,September1999a.PreliminaryReport.C.T.Mata,V.A.Rakov,K.J.Rambo,M.V.Stapleton,andM.A.Uman.UF/FPLstudyoftriggeredlightningstrikestoFPLdistributionlines.Technicalreport,FloridaPowerandLight,Miami,Florida,December1999b.FinalReport.C.T.Mata,V.A.Rakov,K.J.Rambo,andM.A.Uman.UF/FPLstudyoftriggeredlightningstrikestoFPLdistributionlines:2000experiments.Technicalreport,FloridaPowerandLight,Miami,Florida,December2000b.FinalReport.MATLAB.SignalProcessingToolbox.TheMathworks,Inc.,Natick,MA,)+*-,edition,1996.Y.Matsumoto,O.Sakuma,K.Shinjo,M.Saiki,T.Wakai,T.Sakai,H.Nagasaka,H.Mo-toyama,andM.Ishii.Measurementoflightningsurgesontesttransmissionlineequippedwitharrestersstruckbynaturalandtriggeredlightning.IEEETransactionsonPowerDelivery,11(2):996–1002,Apr1996.M.Miki,V.A.Rakov,K.J.Rambo,G.H.Schnetzer,andM.A.Uman.Electriceldsneartriggeredlightningchannelsmeasuredwithpockelssensors.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,107(D16),2002.H.Motoyama,Y.Matsumoto,andN.Itamoto.Observationandanalysisofmultiphasebackashoverontheokushishikutesttransmissionlinecausedbywinterlightning.IEEETransactionsonPowerDelivery,13(4):1391–1398,Oct1998.F.Rachidi,M.Rubinstein,S.Guerrieri,andC.A.Nucci.Voltagesinducedonoverheadlinesbydartleadersandsubsequentreturnstrokesinnaturalandtriggeredlightning.IEEETransactionsonElectromagneticCompatibility,39(2):160–166,May1997.V.A.Rakov.Lightningdischargestriggeredusingrocket-and-wiretechniques.RecentRes.Devel.Geophysics,2:141–171,1999.V.A.Rakov.Transientresponseofatallobjecttolightning.IEEETransactionsonElec-tromagneticCompatibility,43(4):654–661,November2001.

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107V.A.Rakov,D.E.Crawford,V.Kodali,V.P.Idone,M.A.Uman,G.H.Schnetzer,andK.J.Rambo.Cutoffandre-establishmentofcurrentinrocket-triggeredlightning.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,2003.Submitted.V.A.Rakov,D.E.Crawford,K.J.Rambo,G.H.Schnetzer,andM.A.Uman.M-componentmodeofchargetransfertogroundinlightningdischarges.JournalofGeo-physicalResearch,106(D19):22,817–22,831,October2001.V.A.RakovandM.A.Uman.Longcontinuingcurrentinnegativelightninggroundashes.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,95(D5):5455–5470,1990.V.A.Rakov,M.A.Uman,K.J.Rambo,M.I.Fernandez,R.J.Fisher,G.H.Schnetzer,R.Tottappillil,A.Eybert-Berard,J.P.Berlandis,P.Lalande,A.Bonamy,P.Laroche,andA.Bondiou-Clergerie.Newinsightsintolightningprocessesgainedfromtriggered-lightningexperimentsinFloridaandAlabama.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,103:14,117–14,130,1998.V.A.Rakov,M.A.Uman,andR.Thottappillil.ReviewoflightningpropertiesfromelectriceldandTVobservations.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,99(D5):10745–10759,May1994.M.Rubinstein,M.A.Uman,P.J.Medelius,andE.MThomson.Measurementsofthevoltageinducedonanoverheadpowerline20mfromtriggeredlightning.IEEETrans-actionsonElectromagneticCompatibility,36(2):134–140,May1994.H.M.SchneiderandH.R.Stillwell.Measurementoflightningcurrentwaveshapesondistributionsystems.IEEEPESSummerMeeting,PaperA79526-5,July15-201979.B.F.J.Schonland.Thelightningdischarge.Handb.Phys.,22:576–628,1956.G.SimpsonandF.J.Scrase.Thedistributionofelectricityinthethunderclouds.Proc.R.Soc.LondonSer.A,161:309–352,1937.M.Stolzenburg,W.D.Rust,andT.C.Marshall.Electricalstructureinthunderstormcon-vectiveregions3.Syntesys.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,103(D12):14,097–14,108,June1998.R.Thottappillil,J.D.Goldberg,V.A.Rakov,andM.A.Uman.PropertiesofMcompo-nentsfromcurrentsmeasuredattriggeredlightningchannelbase.JournalofGeophysi-calResearch,100(D12):25711–25720,December1995.M.A.Uman.TheLightningDischarge.DoverPublications,inc.,Mineola,NewYork,2001.D.Wang,V.A.Rakov,M.A.Uman,M.I.Fernandez,K.J.Rambo,G.H.Schnetzer,andR.J.Fisher.Characterizationoftheinitialstageofnegativerocket-triggeredlightning.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,104:4213–4222,1999a.

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108D.Wang,V.A.Rakov,M.A.Uman,N.Takaggi,T.Watanabe,D.E.Crawford,K.J.Rambo,G.H.Schnetzer,R.J.Fisher,andZ.I.Kawasaki.Attachmentprocessinrockettriggeredlightningstrokes.JournalofGeophysicalResearch,104:2143–2150,1999b.

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APPENDIXAMEASURINGSTATIONSONPOWERDISTRIBUTIONLINES(DRAWINGS) PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutral69.3cm61.5cm42cm18cm1.53m8.65mtogroundFigureA–1:Conductor'slayoutandclearancedistancesofthedistributionlinewithver-ticalphaseconductorarrangement.109

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110 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralArresterTerminationResistorHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.0/2143NFigureA–2:DiagramofconnectionsatPole15oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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111 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralArresterHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.0567148.0/21-8NFigureA–3:DiagramofconnectionsatPole14oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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112 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralArresterHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.05691-:.6914:.0/214:NFigureA–4:DiagramofconnectionsatPole10oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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113 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.05r;.0<=;.0>;N3m5mFigureA–5:DiagramofconnectionsatPole7oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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114 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.5r;.0;N3m5mFigureA–6:DiagramofconnectionsatPole7oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,fortestcongurationFPL-D-02,summer2002.

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115 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson5179Pearson6805Pearson6805ShuntGroundRodArrester@0ArB@CB@0DB@EB@AEB@0CFEB@D?EB@GBN3m3m5mFigureA–7:DiagramofconnectionsatPole6oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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116 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.6IHNFigureA–8:DiagramofconnectionsatPole3oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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117 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralArresterHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.056IJ.0/JNFigureA–9:DiagramofconnectionsatPole2oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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118 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutralArresterTerminationResistorHoffmanShieldedBoxShieldedCoaxialCableFiberOpticCableToLaunchControlPearson110APearson5179Pearson6805ShuntGroundRod.5691.0?691.0/21NFigureA–10:DiagramofconnectionsatPole1oftheverticalcongurationdistributionline,summer2001.

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119 PSfragreplacements Pole1Pole2Pole6Pole10Pole14Pole15LineLineLineLineLineLineShuntShuntShuntShuntShuntShuntNR1R1R1R1R1R1R2R2R2R2R2R2R3R3R3R3R3R3R4R4R4R4R5R50.58m0.58m3.22m3.26m3.11m3.55m3.54m3.69m3.87m3.88m4.94m0.61m0.61m0.64m0.73m0.73m1.08m2.06m2.29m2.24m2.85mFigureA–11:Multiplegroundingscheme,duringpartofsummer2001andsummer2002,forpoles1,2,6,10,14,and15.Dottedlinesrepresentconnectingleadsandhorizontaldistancesbetweenrods.

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APPENDIXBINSTRUMENTATIONSETTINGSThefollowingisalistofabbreviationsandconceptsusedinthetablesanddiagramsinthisappendix.LLeCroyScopeYYokogawaScopeChChannelAtt.AttenuationSett.SettingO/BOrange/BlueY/RYellow/RedG/BrGreen/BrownFiber:thisistheberopticlabeloftheform:a)XXX-YYorb)LabelC1/C2.a)XXXisthelengthoftheberinmeters(thisisnottrueforallberssincesomeofthemhavebeencutandreterminated),andYYisauniqueID.b)LabelrepresentsalocationontheeldandC1/C2representsacombinationoffespecicberopticcolors,asidentiedpreviously.Ratio:thisindicatestheratioofV/VandV/Aforvoltageandcurrentsensors,respectively.Conversionfactor:thisfactorisobtainedasfollows:K#LMNMPOQ%IRIS TVUWMNO0XVYZ([\*-*^]_$P` Arresters:DarkandcleararresterscorrespondstoOhioBrassandCooperPowerSys-tems,repectively.120

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121TableB–1:InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0101,FPL0102,FPL0105,FPL0107,andFPl0108,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlineatpole8. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–1 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor bdc 134-12 639ns 1 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 26 47.89kA/V L17Ch1Y18Ch1 bQnc 110-01 573ns 19 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 6 4.79kA/V Y18Ch2 b^opq 500-20 2.75us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 20 200.00A/V L14Ch4Y18Ch14 b^tpq 500-00 2.75us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 14 100.24A/V L15Ch1 b^upq 550-14 2.75us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 14 100.24A/V L15Ch2 b^vq 550-16 2.75us R1A 1.0 Shunt#3 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA/V L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opw 500-02 2.51us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch1 b^vw 500-21 2.52us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifsrmklme 6 3.19kA/V L11Ch2Y18Ch4 xopw 500-03 2.52us 20 0.1 175kV-5 hfysmklmi 3 73.57kV/V L17Ch2 bpz 500-12 2.51us R7A 1.0 6805-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L12Ch3 b^o{ 500-07 2.52us R3C 1.0 6805-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA/V L15Ch3 b^t{ 550-03 2.35us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch4 b^u{ 500-05 2.51us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L16Ch1 bp{ 420-01 2.02us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L12Ch4 b^v{ 400-01 2.02us R3A 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsrmklme 16 10.10kA/V L11Ch3Y18Ch5 b^op{ 350-02 1.51us R2B 1.0 6805-3 hfsrmklms 40 8.00kA/V L13Ch2Y18Ch9 bdtp{ 310-01 1.60us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch3Y18Ch15 b^up{ 298-01 1.28us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch4 xop{ 500-04 2.36us 21 0.1 175kV-1 hfys|klmi 3 73.45kV/V L17Ch4 xtp{ 350-01 1.78us 23 0.1 175kV-2 hfys|klmi 0 52.00kV/V Y18Ch11 xup{ 360-01 1.87us 25 0.1 175kV-3 hfys|klmi 0 52.00kV/V NM xot{ 500-01 2.49us 22 1.0 350kV-1 rfmmmklmi 0 200.00kV/V NM Subscriptsiandlstandfor“incident”and“low”,respectively.NM=NotMeasured.

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122Table B–1 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–1 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^o} 220-08 1.19us R6C 1.0 6805-4 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA/V L16Ch2Y18Ch13 b^t} 220-01 1.17us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L16Ch3 b^u} 220-04 1.13us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L16Ch4 bdopq~ 220-07 1.17us R5B 1.0 6805-5 hfsrmklms 40 8.00kA/V L14Ch1Y18Ch10 bpq~ 220-03 1.12us R7B 1.0 6805-6 hfsrmklms 30 2.53kA/V L14Ch3 b^vq~ 220-02 1.14us R4A 1.0 Shunt#2 rfmmmklme 14 10.02kA/V L11Ch4Y18Ch6 xouq~ 220-06 1.14us 9 1.0 350kV-4 rfmmmklmi 0 200.00kV/V L17Ch3Y18Ch12 b^opq 500-08 2.49us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L14Ch2 b^vq 500-09 2.51us R5A 1.0 Shunt#5 ifsrmklme 6 3.19kA/V L12Ch1Y18Ch7 b^vq€ 510-04 2.51us R6A 1.0 Shunt#4 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA/V L12Ch2Y18Ch8

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123 ++++ PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototod‚ƒd„…ƒd†…ƒd‡…ƒd‚ˆ„…ˆ‰„…ˆ…Š‚‹„…‹^†…‹‡…‹„‹†‹d‡‹…‹‰„…‹‰†…‹‰‡…‹‰„†‹„Œd†Œ‡Œ‚ƒ„…ƒ…ƒ‰„‡ƒd‚ƒŽ„…ƒŽ‚ƒPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–1:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-A-01(ashesFPL0101,FPL0102,FPL0105,FPL0107,andFPl0108).StriketophaseAoftheverticallineatpole8.

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124TableB–2:InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0110,FPL0111,andFPl0112,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinebetweenpoles8and7. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–2 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor bdc 134-12 639ns 1 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 26 47.89kA/V L17Ch1Y18Ch1 bQnc 110-01 573ns 19 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 6 4.79kA/V Y18Ch2 b^opq 500-20 2.75us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A/V L14Ch4Y18Ch14 b^tpq 500-00 2.75us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A/V L15Ch1 b^upq 550-14 2.75us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A/V L15Ch2 b^vq 550-16 2.75us R1A 1.0 Shunt#3 rfmmmklme 9 5.64kA/V L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opw 500-02 2.51us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch1 b^vw 500-21 2.52us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifsrmklme 9 4.51kA/V L11Ch2Y18Ch4 bpz 500-12 2.51us R7A 1.0 6805-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L12Ch3 b^o{ 500-07 2.52us R3C 1.0 6805-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA/V L17Ch2 b^t{ 240-01 1.35us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch4 b^u{ 500-05 2.51us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L16Ch1 bp{ 420-01 2.02us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 50 6.32kA/V L12Ch4 b^v{ 400-01 2.02us R3A 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsrmklme 16 10.10kA/V L11Ch3Y18h5 b^op{ 350-02 1.51us R2B 1.0 6805-3 hfsrmklms 40 8.00kA/V L13Ch2Y18Ch9 b^tp{ 310-01 1.60us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 47 4.48kA/V L13Ch3Y18Ch15 bdup{ 298-01 1.28us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch4 xot{ 500-01 2.49us 22 1.0 350kV-1 rfmmmklmi 3 282.51kV/V L17Ch4Y18Ch11 b^o} 220-08 1.19us R6C 1.0 6805-4 hfsrmklms 47 17.91kA/V L16Ch2Y18Ch13 b^t} 220-01 1.17us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch3 b^u} 220-04 1.13us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch4 b^opq~ 220-07 1.17us R5B 1.0 6805-5 hfsrmklms 40 8.00kA/V L14Ch1Y18Ch10 Subscriptsiandlstandfor“incident”and“low”,respectively.NM=NotMeasured.

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125Table B–2 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–2 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor bpq~ 220-03 1.12us R7B 1.0 6805-6 hfsrmklms 36 5.05kA/V L14Ch3 b^vq~ 220-02 1.14us R4A 1.0 Shunt#2 rfmmmklme 17 14.16kA/V L11Ch4Y18Ch6 xouq~ 220-06 1.14us 9 1.0 350kV-4 rfmmmklmi 3 282.51kV/V L17Ch3Y18Ch12 bdopq 500-08 2.49us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L14Ch2 b^vq 500-09 2.51us R5A 1.0 Shunt#5 ifsrmklme 6 3.19kA/V L12Ch1Y18Ch7 b^vq€ 510-04 2.51us R6A 1.0 Shunt#4 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA/V L12Ch2Y18Ch8

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126 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototod‚ƒd„…ƒd†…ƒd‡…ƒd‚ˆ„…ˆ …Š‚‹„…‹d†…‹d‡…‹„‹†‹d‡‹…‹ ‰„†‹„Œd†Œ‡Œ‚ƒ„…ƒ…ƒ‰„‡ƒd‚ƒŽ„…ƒŽ‚ƒPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–2:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-B-01(ashesFPL0110,FPL0111,andFPl0112).StriketophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7.

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127TableB–3:InstrumentationsummaryforashFPL0115,striketoground15mfromtheverticalcongurationdistributionline. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–3 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor bdc 134-12 639ns 1 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 26 47.89kA/V L17Ch1Y18Ch1 bQnc 110-01 573ns 19 1.0 Shunt#9 egfhijklme 6 4.79kA/V Y18Ch2 b^opq 500-20 2.75us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 20 200.00A/V L14Ch4Y18Ch14 b^tpq 500-00 2.75us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 20 200.00A/V L15Ch1 b^upq 550-14 2.75us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 20 200.00A/V L15Ch2 b^vq 550-16 2.75us R1A 1.0 Shunt#3 rfmmmklme 0 2.00kA/V L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opw 500-02 2.51us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 37 1.42kA/V L13Ch1 b^vw 500-21 2.52us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifsrmklme 0 1.60kA/V L11Ch2Y18Ch4 bpz 500-12 2.51us R7A 1.0 6805-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L12Ch3 b^o{ 500-07 2.52us R3C 1.0 6805-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA/V L17Ch2 b^t{ 550-03 2.35us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L15Ch4 b^u{ 500-05 2.51us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L16Ch1 bp{ 420-01 2.02us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 39 1.78kA/V L12Ch4 b^v{ 400-01 2.02us R3A 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsrmklme 16 10.10kA/V L11Ch3Y18h5 b^op{ 350-02 1.51us R2B 1.0 6805-3 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L13Ch2Y18Ch9 b^tp{ 310-01 1.60us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch3Y18Ch15 b^up{ 298-01 1.28us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch4 xot{ 500-01 2.49us 22 1.0 350kV-1 rfmmmklmi 0 200.00kV/V L17Ch4Y18Ch11 bdo} 220-08 1.19us R6C 1.0 6805-4 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L16Ch2Y18Ch13 b^t} 220-01 1.17us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch3 b^u} 220-04 1.13us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch4 b^opq~ 220-07 1.17us R5B 1.0 6805-5 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L14Ch1Y18Ch10 Subscriptsiandlstandfor“incident”and“low”,respectively.NM=NotMeasured.

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128Table B–3 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–3 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor bpq~ 220-03 1.12us R7B 1.0 6805-6 hfsrmklms 27 1.79kA/V L14Ch3 b^vq~ 220-02 1.14us R4A 1.0 Shunt#2 rfmmmklme 0 2.00kA/V L11Ch4Y18Ch6 xouq~ 220-06 1.14us 9 1.0 350kV-4 rfmmmklmi 3 282.51kV/V L17Ch3Y18Ch12 bdopq 500-08 2.49us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L14Ch2 b^vq 500-09 2.51us R5A 1.0 Shunt#5 ifsrmklme 0 1.60kA/V L12Ch1Y18Ch7 b^vq€ 510-04 2.51us R6A 1.0 Shunt#4 rfmmmklme 0 2.00kA/V L12Ch2Y18Ch8

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129 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototod‚ƒd„…ƒd†…ƒd‡…ƒd‚ˆ„…ˆ …Š‚‹„…‹d†…‹d‡…‹„‹†‹d‡‹…‹ ‰„†‹„Œd†Œ‡Œ‚ƒ„…ƒ…ƒ‰„‡ƒd‚ƒŽ„…ƒŽ‚ƒPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–3:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-C-01(ashFPL0115).Striketogroundat15mfromtheverticalcongurationdistributionline.

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130TableB–4:InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0205,FPL0206,FPL0208,andFPl0210,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongu-rationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7(seealsoTable B–5 ). Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^‘’ TAO/B 4.43us R3A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 36 102.35kA/V L6Ch2Y18Ch1 b^“‘’ TAY/R 4.43us R6A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 9 4.57kA/V L6Ch3Y18Ch2Y7Ch14 b^“”• TBY/R 4.43us R4A 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 9 4.55kA/V L6Ch4Y18Ch4Y18Ch16 b^”• TBG/Br 4.43us 7 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 36 101.77kA/V L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opq P1AY/R 2.24us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A/V L13Ch1Y18Ch12 b^opq P1AY/R 2.24us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A/V L13Ch1Y18Ch12 b^tpq P1AO/B 2.24us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A/V L12Ch4Y18Ch11 b^vq P1BO/B 2.10us 11 1.0 Shunt#3 rfhjmklme 9 5.45kA/V L11Ch2Y18Ch5 b^opw P2Y/R 2.57us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch3Y18Ch14 b^vw P2O/B 2.57us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifhyjklme 9 4.55kA/V L11Ch3Y18Ch6 bpz P3AO/B 2.17us R7A 1.0 6801-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L13Ch4Y18Ch15 bdop{ P6BY/R 2.15us R2B 1.0 6801-3 hfsrmklms 26 1.60kA/V L14Ch1Y7Ch15 b^tp{ P6BG/Br 2.15us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A/V L14Ch2Y7Ch1 b^up{ P6BO/B 2.15us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A/V L14Ch3Y7Ch2 b^v{ P6CO/B 3.73us 12 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsssklme 19 14.32kA/V L11Ch4Y18Ch7 b^o{ P6AY/R 2.54us R3C 1.0 6801-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA/V L14Ch4Y7Ch3 b^t{ P6AG/Br 2.54us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch1Y7Ch4 b^u{ P6AO/B 2.54us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch2Y7Ch5 bp{ P6CY/R 3.73us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L15Ch3Y7Ch6 b^o} P7O/B 3.79us R6C 1.0 6801-4 hfsrmklms 47 17.91kA/V L15Ch4Y7Ch7 b^t} P7Y/R 3.79us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch1Y7Ch9 b^u} P7G/Br 3.79us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L16Ch2Y7Ch10 SubscriptsT,I,H,andLstandfor“tower”,“interceptingconductor”,“high”,and“low”,respectively.’Currentdownthetower;notshowninFigure B–4 .•Currentinjectedintotheline.

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131Table B–4 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^vq~ P10O/B 3.08us 18 1.0 Shunt#2 rfhjmklme 17 13.69kA L12Ch1Y18Ch8 b^opq~ P10Y/R 3.08us R5B 1.0 6801-5 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA L16Ch3Y7Ch11 bpq~ P10G/Br 3.08us R7B 1.0 6801-6 hfsrmklms 27 1.79kA L16Ch4Y7Ch12 bdopq P10Y/R 2.12us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 39 1.78kA L6Ch1Y7Ch13 b^vq P14O/B 2.12us 14 1.0 Shunt#5 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA L12Ch2Y18Ch9 b^vq€ P15O/B 1.98us 13 1.0 Shunt#4 rfhemklme 6 3.88kA L12Ch3Y18Ch10

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132TableB–5:InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-A-02(seealsoTable B–4 ). ID Sensitivity,Amperesperquantizationlevel ScopeRange SamplingRate,MHz Min. Max. –7— ™rš›-œ Ÿ›4 kA )™›4™kA 20 ¢¡r— r£›- Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¡r¤ r£›-) Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¢–7¤ ™r›Ÿ›4)kA )›4 kA 20 \¦" ›4  Ÿ›-kA œrš›-£A 20 §" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¨" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢" ™r)›^ Ÿœ›-kA ›^kA 20 \¦$ ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 $ r£›-) Ÿ›-)kA šrš›4 A 20 )›^ Ÿ™›-kA )r ›4šA 20 \¦ ›Ÿ›-kA ™(š›4A 20 § (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¨ (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢ £rš›-  Ÿ›QkA ›-škA 20 \? ™r ›-) Ÿœ›-škA ›^kA 20 œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20 \ r›-š Ÿ ›QkA ™›-kA 20 § ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 ¢¨ ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 ¢"` £r ›- (š›4kA ›-œkA 20 ¨\"` )›^ Ÿ™›-kA )r ›4šA 20 "` r›- Ÿ›- kA ™r £›4A 20 \¦" r›^ Ÿ›- kA ™r ›4 A 20 ¢" r)›-š Ÿ ›-kA œrš£›QA 20 ¢" r)›-™ Ÿ ›-)kA œrœ›4)A 20 ¢§ ›4™ ›-)kA r›4 A 20 ¨ ›4™ ›-)kA r›4 A 20

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133 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototoQ^^QQQ^^^^^^^^^^^^QQQPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–4:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationsFPL-A-02(ashesFPL0208andFPL0210),FPL-B-02(ashesFPL0213,FPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220andFPL0221)andFPL-C-02(ashFPL0226).AllashestophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7.

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134TableB–6:InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0213,FPL0218,FPL0219,FPL0220,andFPl0221,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7(seealsoTable B–7 ). Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^‘’ TAO/B 4.43us R3A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 33 72.45kA/V L6Ch2Y18Ch1 b^“‘’ TAY/R 4.43us R6A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 9 4.57kA/V L6Ch3Y18Ch2Y7Ch14 b^“”• TBY/R 4.43us R4A 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 9 4.55kA/V L6Ch4Y18Ch4Y18Ch16 b^”• TBG/Br 4.43us 7 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 33 72.05kA/V L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opq P1AY/R 2.24us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A L13Ch1Y18Ch12 b^tpq P1AO/B 2.24us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L12Ch4Y18Ch11 b^upq P1AG/Br 2.24us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L13Ch2Y18Ch13 b^vq P1BO/B 2.10us 11 1.0 Shunt#3 rfhjmklme 9 5.45kA/V L11Ch2Y18Ch5 b^opw P2G/Br 2.57us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L13Ch3Y18Ch14 b^vw P2O/B 2.57us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifhyjklme 9 4.55kA/V L11Ch3Y18Ch6 bpz P3AO/B 2.17us R7A 1.0 6801-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA/V L13Ch4Y18Ch15 bdop{ P6BY/R 2.15us R2B 1.0 6801-3 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA/V L14Ch1Y7Ch15 b^tp{ P6BG/Br 2.15us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA/V L14Ch2Y7Ch1 b^up{ P6BO/B 2.15us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L14Ch3Y7Ch2 b^v{ P6CO/B 3.73us 12 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsssklme 19 14.32kA/V L11Ch4Y18Ch7 b^o{ P6AY/R 2.54us R3C 1.0 6801-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA/V L14Ch4Y7Ch3 b^t{ P6AG/Br 2.54us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch1Y7Ch4 b^u{ P6AO/B 2.54us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 34 1.00kA/V L15Ch2Y7Ch5 bp{ P6CY/R 3.73us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA/V L15Ch3Y7Ch6 b^o} P7O/B 3.79us R6C 1.0 6801-4 hfsrmklms 47 17.91kA/V L15Ch4Y7Ch7 b^t} P7Y/R 3.79us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 53 8.93kA/V L16Ch1Y7Ch9 b^u} P7G/Br 3.79us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 47 4.48kA/V L16Ch2Y7Ch10 SubscriptsT,I,H,andLstandfor“tower”,“interceptingconductor”,“high”,and“low”,respectively.’Currentdownthetower;notshowninFigure B–4 .•Currentinjectedintotheline.

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135Table B–6 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^opq~ 220-07 1.17us R5B 1.0 6805-5 hfsrmklms 40 8.00kA L14Ch1Y18Ch10 bpq~ 220-03 1.12us R7B 1.0 6805-6 hfsrmklms 36 5.05kA L14Ch3 b^vq~ 220-02 1.14us R4A 1.0 Shunt#2 rfmmmklme 17 14.16kA L11Ch4Y18Ch6 bdopq 500-08 2.49us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA L14Ch2 b^vq 500-09 2.51us R5A 1.0 Shunt#5 ifsrmklme 6 3.19kA L12Ch1Y18Ch7 b^vq€ 510-04 2.51us R6A 1.0 Shunt#4 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA L12Ch2Y18Ch8

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136TableB–7:InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-B-02(seealsoTable B–6 ). ID Sensitivity,Amperesperquantizationlevel ScopeRange SamplingRate,MHz Min. Max. –7— ) r›-£ ()›4 kA (›4)kA 20 ¢¡r— r£›- Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¡r¤ r£›-) Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¢–7¤ ) r›-™ ()›4)kA ›4škA 20 \¦" ›4  Ÿ›-kA œrš›-£A 20 §" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¨" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢" ™r)›^ Ÿœ›-kA ›^kA 20 \¦$ ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 $ r£›-) Ÿ›-)kA šrš›4 A 20 )›^ Ÿ™›-kA )r ›4šA 20 \¦ œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 § ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 ¨ (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢ £rš›-  Ÿ›QkA ›-škA 20 \? ™r ›-) Ÿœ›-škA ›^kA 20 œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20 \ r›-š Ÿ ›QkA ™›-kA 20 §  r ›-£ (›4 kA ›-£kA 20 ¢¨ r£›Ÿ›-™kA £rš ›4 A 20 ¢"` £r ›- (š›4kA ›-œkA 20 ¨\"` œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 "`  r›(›4kA ›-kA 20 \¦" r›^ Ÿ›- kA ™r ›4 A 20 ¢" r)›-š Ÿ ›-kA œrš£›QA 20 ¢" r)›-™ Ÿ ›-)kA œrœ›4)A 20 ¢§ ›4™ ›-)kA r›4 A 20 ¨ ›4™ ›-)kA r›4 A 20

PAGE 156

137TableB–8:InstrumentationsummaryforashFPL0226,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7(seealsoTable B–9 ). Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^‘’ TAO/B 4.43us R3A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 29 45.72kA L6Ch2Y18Ch1 b^“‘’ TAY/B 4.43us R6A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 9 4.57kA L6Ch3Y18Ch2Y7Ch14 b^“”• TBY/R 4.43us R4A 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 9 4.55kA L6Ch4Y18Ch4Y18Ch16 b^”• TBG/Br 4.43us 7 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 29 45.46kA L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opq P1AY/R 2.24us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A L13Ch1Y18Ch12 b^tpq P1AO/B 2.24us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L12Ch4Y18Ch11 b^upq P1AG/Br 2.24us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L13Ch2Y18Ch13 b^vq P1BO/B 2.10us 11 1.0 Shunt#3 rfhjmklme 9 5.45kA L11Ch2Y18Ch5 b^opw P2G/Br 2.57us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA L13Ch3Y18Ch14 b^vw P2O/B 2.57us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifhyjklme 9 4.55kA L11Ch3Y18Ch6 bpz P3AO/B 2.17us R7A 1.0 6801-1 hfsrmklms 29 2.25kA L13Ch4Y18Ch15 bdop{ P6BY/R 2.15us R2B 1.0 6801-3 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L14Ch1Y7Ch15 b^tp{ P6BG/Br 2.15us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L14Ch2Y7Ch1 b^up{ P6BO/B 2.15us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 50 6.32kA L14Ch3Y7Ch2 b^v{ P6CO/B 3.73us 12 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsssklme 19 14.32kA L11Ch4Y18Ch7 b^o{ P6AY/R 2.54us R3C 1.0 6801-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA L14Ch4Y7Ch3 b^t{ P6AG/Br 2.54us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L15Ch1Y7Ch4 b^u{ P6AO/B 2.54us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L15Ch2Y7Ch5 bp{ P6CY/R 3.73us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 53 8.93kA L15Ch3Y7Ch6 b^o} P7O/B 3.79us R6C 1.0 6801-4 hfsrmklms 47 17.91kA L15Ch4Y7Ch7 b^t} P7Y/R 3.79us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 53 8.93kA L16Ch1Y7Ch9 b^u} P7G/Br 3.79us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 47 4.48kA L16Ch2Y7Ch10 SubscriptsT,I,H,andLstandfor“tower”,“interceptingconductor”,“high”,and“low”,respectively.’Currentdownthetower;notshowninFigure B–4 .•Currentinjectedintotheline.

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138Table B–8 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–4 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^vq~ P10O/B 3.08us 18 1.0 Shunt#2 rfhjmklme 17 13.69kA L12Ch1Y18Ch8 b^opq~ P10Y/R 3.08us R5B 1.0 6801-5 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L16Ch3Y7Ch11 bpq~ P10G/Br 3.08us R7B 1.0 6801-6 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L16Ch4Y7Ch12 bdopq P14Y/R 2.12us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 39 1.78kA L6Ch1Y7Ch13 b^vq P14O/B 2.12us 14 1.0 Shunt#5 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA L12Ch2Y18Ch9 b^vq€ P15O/B 1.98us 13 1.0 Shunt#4 rfhemklme 6 3.88kA L12Ch3Y18Ch10

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139TableB–9:InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-C-02(seealsoTable B–8 ). ID Sensitivity,Amperesperquantizationlevel ScopeRange SamplingRate,MHz Min. Max. –7— £r ›-œ Ÿš›^kA )›4kA 20 ¢¡r— r£›- Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¡r¤ r£›-) Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¢–7¤ £r)›^ Ÿš›^kA ™›4kA 20 \¦" ›4  Ÿ›-kA œrš›-£A 20 §" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¨" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢" ™r)›^ Ÿœ›-kA ›^kA 20 \¦$ ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 $ r£›-) Ÿ›-)kA šrš›4 A 20 )›^ Ÿ™›-kA )r ›4šA 20 \¦ œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 § œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20 ¨ ™rš›-  Ÿ£›-škA ›-™kA 20 ¢ £rš›-  Ÿ›QkA ›-škA 20 \? ™r ›-) Ÿœ›-škA ›^kA 20  r ›-£ (›4 kA ›-£kA 20 \ r›-š Ÿ ›QkA ™›-kA 20 §  r ›-£ (›4 kA ›-£kA 20 ¢¨ r£›Ÿ›-™kA £rš ›4 A 20 ¢"` £r ›- (š›4kA ›-œkA 20 ¨\"` œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 "` œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 \¦" r›^ Ÿ›- kA ™r ›4 A 20 ¢" r)›-š Ÿ ›-kA œrš£›QA 20 ¢" r)›-™ Ÿ ›-)kA œrœ›4)A 20 ¢§ œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20 ¨ œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20

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140TableB–10:InstrumentationsummaryforashesFPL0228,FPL0229,andFPL0230,striketophaseaoftheverticalcongurationdistributionlinemid-pointbetweenpoles8and7(seealsoTable B–11 ). Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–5 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^‘’ TAY/R 4.43us R6A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 29 45.72kA L6Ch2Y18Ch1 b^“‘’ TAO/B 4.43us R3A 1.0 Shunt#9 ifhirklme 9 4.57kA L6Ch3Y18Ch2Y7Ch14 b^“”• TBY/R 4.43us R4A 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 9 4.55kA L6Ch4Y18Ch4Y18Ch16 b^”• TBG/Br 4.43us 7 1.0 Shunt#8 ifsmmklme 29 45.46kA L11Ch1Y18Ch3 b^opq P1AY/R 2.24us R1C 1.0 110A-6 rfmmmklms 26 399.05A L13Ch1Y18Ch12 b^tpq P1AO/B 2.24us R8B 1.0 110A-1 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L12Ch4Y18Ch11 b^upq P1AG/Br 2.24us 3 1.0 110A-7 rfmmmklms 23 282.51A L13Ch2Y18Ch13 b^vq P1BO/B 2.10us 11 1.0 Shunt#3 rfhjmklme 9 5.45kA L11Ch2Y18Ch5 b^opw P2Br/G 2.77us R1B 1.0 110A-4 rfmmmklms 40 2.00kA L13Ch3Y18Ch14 b^vw P2B/O 2.77us R2A 1.0 Shunt#6 ifhyjklme 9 4.55kA L11Ch3Y18Ch6 bpz P3AO/B 2.17us R7A 1.0 6801-1 hfsrmklms 34 4.01kA L13Ch4Y18Ch15 bdop{ P6BY/R 2.96us R2B 1.0 6801-3 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L14Ch1Y7Ch15 b^tp{ P6BG/Br 2.96us R3B 1.0 110A-3 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L14Ch2Y7Ch1 b^up{ P6BO/B 2.96us R4B 1.0 110A-2 rfmmmklms 50 6.32kA L14Ch3Y7Ch2 b^v{ P6CO/B 3.73us 12 1.0 Shunt#7 ifsssklme 19 14.32kA L11Ch4Y18Ch7 b^o{ P6AY/R 3.62us R3C 1.0 6801-2 hfsrmklms 37 5.66kA L14Ch4Y7Ch3 b^t{ P6AG/Br 3.62us R4C 1.0 5179-3 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L15Ch1Y7Ch4 b^u{ P6AO/B 3.62us R5C 1.0 5179-2 rfmmmklms 43 2.83kA L15Ch2Y7Ch5 bp{ P6CY/R 3.73us R8A 1.0 5179-6 rfmmmklms 53 8.93kA L15Ch3Y7Ch6 b^o} P7O/B 3.79us R6C 1.0 6801-4 hfsrmklms 47 17.91kA L15Ch4Y7Ch7 b^t} P7Y/R 3.79us R7C 1.0 5179-5 rfmmmklms 53 8.93kA L16Ch1Y7Ch9 b^u} P7G/Br 3.79us R8C 1.0 5179-4 rfmmmklms 47 4.48kA L16Ch2Y7Ch10 SubscriptsT,I,H,andLstandfor“tower”,“interceptingconductor”,“high”,and“low”,respectively.’Currentdownthetower;notshowninFigure B–5 .•Currentinjectedintotheline.

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141Table B–10 –continued. Location Fiber Isobe Device Ratio Att. Conversion Scope Fig. B–5 ID Delay Number Sett. [dB] factor b^vq~ P10O/B 3.08us 18 1.0 Shunt#2 rfhjmklme 17 13.69kA L12Ch1Y18Ch8 b^opq~ P10Y/R 3.08us R5B 1.0 6801-5 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L16Ch3Y7Ch11 bpq~ P10G/Br 3.08us R7B 1.0 6801-6 hfsrmklms 43 11.30kA L16Ch4Y7Ch12 bdopq P14Y/R 2.12us R6B 1.0 110A-5 rfmmmklms 39 1.78kA L6Ch1Y7Ch13 b^vq P14O/B 2.12us 14 1.0 Shunt#5 rfmmmklme 6 3.99kA L12Ch2Y18Ch9 b^vq€ P15O/B 1.98us 13 1.0 Shunt#4 rfhemklme 6 3.88kA L12Ch3Y18Ch10

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142 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototo^^QQQ^^^^^^^^QQPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–5:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationFPL-D-02(ashesFPL0228andFPL0229).AllashestophaseAoftheverticallineatmid-spanbetweenpoles8and7.

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143TableB–11:InstrumentationsettingsfortestcongurationFPL-D-02(seealsoTa-ble B–10 ). ID Sensitivity,Amperesperquantizationlevel ScopeRange SamplingRate,MHz Min. Max. –7— £r ›-œ Ÿš›^kA )›4kA 20 ¢¡r— r£›- Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¢¡r¤ r£›-) Ÿ›-škA ›-)kA 20 ¢–7¤ £r)›^ Ÿš›^kA ™›4kA 20 \¦" ›4  Ÿ›-kA œrš›-£A 20 §" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¨" (›4£ Ÿ›-)kA  r›- A 20 ¢" ™r)›^ Ÿœ›-kA ›^kA 20 \¦$ ›-  Ÿ›-£kA )r›4A 20 $ r£›-) Ÿ›-)kA šrš›4 A 20 r ›^ Ÿ ›-kA £r(›4šA 20 \¦ œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 § œ›-œ Ÿ)›-kA  r ›4A 20 ¨ ™rš›-  Ÿ£›-škA ›-™kA 20 ¢ £rš›-  Ÿ›QkA ›-škA 20 \? ™r ›-) Ÿœ›-škA ›^kA 20  r ›-£ (›4 kA ›-£kA 20 \ r›-š Ÿ ›QkA ™›-kA 20 ¢§  r ›-£ (›4 kA ›-£kA 20 ¢¨ r£›Ÿ›-™kA £rš ›4 A 20 ¢"` £r ›- (š›4kA ›-œkA 20 ¨\"` œr›- ( ›4£kA ›-™kA 20 "` œr›- Ÿš›-kA š›-kA 20 \¦" r›^ Ÿ›- kA ™r ›4 A 20 ¢" r)›-š Ÿ ›-kA œrš£›QA 20 " r)›-™ Ÿ ›-)kA œrœ›4)A 20 ¢§ œ›-œ Ÿ™›-)kA ›^kA 20 ¢¨ œ›-œ Ÿ™›-)kA ›^kA 20

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144 PSfragreplacements PhaseAPhaseBPhaseCNeutraltotototototototoQ^^QQQ^^^^^^^^^^^^QQQPole1Pole2Pole3Pole4Pole5Pole6Pole7Pole8Pole9Pole10Pole11Pole12Pole13Pole14Pole15FigureB–6:MeasurementlocationsfortestcongurationsFPL-E-02(ashFPL0236;mobilelauncheratnorthoftheverticalline)andFPL-F-02(ashesFPL0240,FPL0241,FPL0244,FPL0245,FPL0241;mobilelauncheratnorthoftheverticalline).

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APPENDIXCLECROYCURRENTRECORDSFORTHE2001EXPERIMENTS C.1 TimeWindowof100s C.1.1 FlashFPL0107145

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146 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–1:FlashFPL0107,stroke1.

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147 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–2:FlashFPL0107,stroke2.

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148 C.1.2 FlashFPL0108

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149 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -24 kA -12 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–3:FlashFPL0108,stroke1.

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150 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -25 kA -12.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–4:FlashFPL0108,stroke2.

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151 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -27 kA -13.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–5:FlashFPL0108,stroke3.

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152 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–6:FlashFPL0108,stroke4.

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153 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–7:FlashFPL0108,stroke5.

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154 C.1.3 FlashFPL0110

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155 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–8:FlashFPL0110,stroke1.

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156 C.1.4 FlashFPL0112

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157 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -31 kA -15.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–9:FlashFPL0112,stroke1.

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158 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–10:FlashFPL0112,stroke2.

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159 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–11:FlashFPL0112,stroke3.

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160 15 13 3 1 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–12:FlashFPL0112,stroke4.

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162 C.2 TimeWindowof500s C.2.1 FlashFPL0107

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164 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–15:FlashFPL0107,stroke2.

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165 C.2.2 FlashFPL0108

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166 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -24 kA -12 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -12 kA -6 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–16:FlashFPL0108,stroke1.

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167 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -25 kA -12.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–17:FlashFPL0108,stroke2.

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168 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -27 kA -13.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–18:FlashFPL0108,stroke3.

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169 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -18 kA -9 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–19:FlashFPL0108,stroke4.

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170 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107862 FigureC–20:FlashFPL0108,stroke5.

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171 C.2.3 FlashFPL0110

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172 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–21:FlashFPL0110,stroke1.

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173 C.2.4 FlashFPL0112

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175 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -23 kA -11.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–23:FlashFPL0112,stroke2.

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176 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -19 kA -9.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–24:FlashFPL0112,stroke3.

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178 15 13 3 1 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 250 500 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 14107628 FigureC–26:FlashFPL0112,stroke5.

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APPENDIXDLECROYCURRENTRECORDSFORTHE2002EXPERIMENTS D.1 TimeWindowof100s D.1.1 FlashFPL0208179

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180 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -14 kA -7 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -16 kA -8 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–1:FlashFPL0208,stroke1.

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181 D.1.2 FlashFPL0210

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182 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -10 kA -5 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–2:FlashFPL0210,stroke1.

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183 D.1.3 FlashFPL0213

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184 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -3 kA -1.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–3:FlashFPL0213,stroke1.

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185 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -5 kA -2.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -7 kA -3.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -11 kA -5.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–4:FlashFPL0213,stroke2.

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186 D.1.4 FlashFPL0218

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187 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -4 kA -2 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -9 kA -4.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -15 kA -7.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–5:FlashFPL0218,stroke1.

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188 D.1.5 FlashFPL0219

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189 15 14 13 6 3 2 1 10 78 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -6 kA -3 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -1 kA -0.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -8 kA -4 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -13 kA -6.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -2 kA -1 0 Student Version of MATLAB 0 50 100 s -17 kA -8.5 0 Student Version of MATLAB FigureD–6:FlashFPL0219,stroke1.

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BIOGRAPHICALSKETCHAngelG.Matareceivedhisbachelor'sdegreefromtheUniversidadSimonBolvar(USB),Venezuela,in2000.In1999hegotinvolvedwiththeInternationalCenterforLightningResearchandTesting(ICLRT)andtheUniversityofFloridaLightningResearchLaboratory,where,since2001hehasheldagraduateresearchassistantship.Mr.MatahasdirectlyparticipatedontriggeredlightningexperimentsconductedattheICLRTduringthe1999,2000,and2001summers.Mr.Mataisinvolvedintheareaoflightningprotectionandcomputermodeling.Heisanauthororco-authoroftwotechnicalreports.277


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0001141/00001

Material Information

Title: Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines 2001 and 2002 experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Mata, Angel G. ( Dissertant )
Rakov, Vladimir A. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Electrical and Computer Engineering Thesis, M.S.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Electrical and Computer Engineering
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Triggered lightning experiments were conducted at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, to study both direct and nearby triggered lightning strikes to a 812-m standard three-phase plus neutral overhead test distribution line built by a major Florida utility company. This thesis concerns direct strike experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002. Current measurements on the test distribution line are used to analyse the distribution of peak currents and charge transfer through the four arresters and the six connections to ground on the line. Incident current waveform parameters for recorded return strokes and the initial stage are presented, as are overall current waveforms for all the recorded events. Alternative Transient Program (ATP) modeling is used in an attempt to reproduce the observed line currents. Video and still pictures of lightning channels are used to help identify the occurence of flashovers on the test distribution line.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2003.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages--contains xix 277 p.
General Note: Title from title page of document.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0001141:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0001141/00001

Material Information

Title: Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines 2001 and 2002 experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Mata, Angel G. ( Dissertant )
Rakov, Vladimir A. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Electrical and Computer Engineering Thesis, M.S.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Electrical and Computer Engineering
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Triggered lightning experiments were conducted at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, to study both direct and nearby triggered lightning strikes to a 812-m standard three-phase plus neutral overhead test distribution line built by a major Florida utility company. This thesis concerns direct strike experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002. Current measurements on the test distribution line are used to analyse the distribution of peak currents and charge transfer through the four arresters and the six connections to ground on the line. Incident current waveform parameters for recorded return strokes and the initial stage are presented, as are overall current waveforms for all the recorded events. Alternative Transient Program (ATP) modeling is used in an attempt to reproduce the observed line currents. Video and still pictures of lightning channels are used to help identify the occurence of flashovers on the test distribution line.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2003.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages--contains xix 277 p.
General Note: Title from title page of document.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0001141:00001


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INTERACTION OF LIGHTNING WITH POWER
DISTRIBUTION LINES: 2001 AND 2002 EXPERIMENTS
AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR LIGHTNING
RESEARCH AND TESTING (ICLRT)














By

ANGEL G. MATA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Angel G. Mata
































I dedicate this work to my parents, Angel T. and Teresa, to my brother Carlos T., to my

sister Teresita, and to my nephews Angel Alejandro, Carlos Miguel and Andres Eduardo.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First of all thanks go to God for all the things I have had.

Thanks go to my parents, whose unconditional support and help have been vital during

my whole life, especially during the realization of this work.

Special thanks go to Dr. VA. Rakov and Dr. M.A. Uman. Their guidance and knowl-

edge have been fundamental for this work; without their help this document would have

not been possible.

Thanks go to Dr. D.M. Jordan for his helpful comments and for providing software

for data analysis.

Special thanks go to Dr. C.T. Mata for introducing me to the Lightning Laboratory,

leading me to work with LATEX and Linux, and giving me unconditional support with the

data analysis system he developed. He has been always available to answer questions

regarding previous FPL experiments at Camp Blanding.

Thanks go to all the hard working people at the ICLRT at Camp Blanding involved

in these experiments, among whom I should mention Keith Rambo, Michael Stapleton,

Alonso Guarisma, Rob Olsen, Jason Jerauld, Jens Schoene, Matt Riley, Andrew Owens,

Venkateswara Kodali, Oliver Pankiewicz, Thomas Rambo and Cliff Jordan. Also thanks

go to George Schnetzer's technical help.

Thanks go to all the staff in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department that

have helped me in one way or another since my arrival at the Lightning Laboratory.

Last but not least, thanks go to my family and friends for all the help, support and

attention that I have received from them.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ............................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ...................................... ......................... viii

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................. x

ABSTRACT ................... ................... ............... .. ........ xix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................... ..................... 1

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................... 2

2.1 Lightning Phenomenology ........................................... 2
2.1.1 Natural Lightning .......................................... 2
2.1.1.1 Downward negative lightning .......................... 4
2.1.1.2 Upward negative lightning ............................. 7
2.1.2 Artificially-Initiated (Triggered) Lightning .................... 8
2.2 Lightning's Interaction with Power Lines ........................... 11
2.2.1 1999 Experim ents ............................................ 16
2.2.2 2000 Experim ents ............................................ 17

3 EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES .......... ............................. 19

3.1 Rocket Launchers .................................................... 19
3.1.1 Tow er Launcher .............................................. 21
3.1.2 M obile Launcher ............................................. 22
3.2 Test Distribution Line ....................... ......................... 23
3.2.1 FPL-A-01 (Direct Strike at Pole 8) ............................ 24
3.2.2 FPL-B-01 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8) ............... 26
3.2.3 FPL-C-01 (Strike to Ground 20 m from the Line) ............... 27
3.2.4 FPL-A-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8) ............... 27
3.2.5 FPL-B-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8) ............... 29
3.2.6 FPL-C-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8) ............... 29
3.2.7 FPL-D-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8) ............... 30
3.2.8 FPL-E-02 (Strike to Ground 100 m from the Line) .............. 30
3.2.9 FPL-F-02 (Strike to Ground 30 m from the Line) ............... 30
3.3 G rounding ...................................... ..................... 31
3.4 A rresters ...................................... ...................... 31









3.5 Instrum entation ...................................................... 33
3.5.1 Sensors ...................................... ................. 33
3.5.2 Data Recording Equipment ............ ................. 35

4 OVERVIEW OF TESTS .................................................... 39

4.1 2001 Experim ents.................................................... 39
4.2 2002 Experim ents.................................................... 43

5 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS (DIRECT STRIKES) ............. 52

5.1 Characterization of Measured Current ......... .......... ...... 57
5.1.1 Parameters of Return-Stroke Current Waveforms ............... 61
5.1.2 Initial Stage Current .......................................... 64
5.1.2.1 Precursor current pulses ................................ 66
5.1.2.2 Initial current variation .... .......................... 70
5.2 Selected Flashes .................................................... 73
5.3 Current Waveforms (FPL0226, FPL0228, and FPL0229) ............... 84
5.4 System D am age ..................................................... 84
5.5 ATP Modeling ............. .................... ......... 90
5.5.1 Model 1 ........ ................................ 91
5.5.2 Model 2 ............. ........... ....... ......... 91
5.5.3 Results ........... .............................. 91

6 SUMMARY .......... ......... ....................... ........ 100

7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.................... 102

R E FE R E N C E S ............................................ ........ 104

APPENDIX

A MEASURING STATIONS ON POWER DISTRIBUTION LINES (DRAW-
IN G S) ............................................ ......... 109

B INSTRUMENTATION SETTINGS ..................................... 120

C LECROY CURRENT RECORDS FOR THE 2001 EXPERIMENTS .......... 145

C.1 Tim e W indow of 100 ps .............................................. 145
C.1.1 Flash FPL0107 ......................................... 145
C.1.2 FlashFPL0108 .......................................... 148
C.1.3 Flash FPL0110 ............ ............................ .. 154
C.1.4 Flash FPL0112 .......................................... 156
C.2 Time W indow of 500 ps .............................................. 162
C.2.1 Flash FPL0107 .......................................... 162
C.2.2 Flash FPL0108 .......................................... 165
C.2.3 Flash FPL0110 ............ ............................ .. 171
C.2.4 FlashFPL0112 .......................................... 173










D LECROY CURRENT RECORDS FOR THE 2002 EXPERIMENTS .......... 179

D .1 Time W indow of 100 ps ............................................. 179
D.1.1 Flash FPL0208 .......................................... 179
D.1.2 Flash FPL0210 .......................................... 181
D.1.3 Flash FPL0213 .......................................... 183
D.1.4 Flash FPL0218 .......................................... 186
D.1.5 Flash FPL0219 .......................................... 188
D.1.6 Flash FPL0220 .......................................... 191
D.1.7 Flash FPL0221 .......................................... 198
D.1.8 Flash FPL0226 ...................................... ... 204
D.1.9 Flash FPL0228 ...................................... ... 211
D.1.10Flash FPL0229 ............. ........................ 218
D.2 Time W indow of 500 ps ................ ................. .......... 228
D.2.1 Flash FPL0208 ...................................... ... 228
D.2.2 Flash FPL0210 ...................................... ... 230
D.2.3 Flash FPL0213 ...................................... ... 232
D.2.4 Flash FPL0218 ...................................... ... 235
D.2.5 Flash FPL0219 ...................................... ... 237
D.2.6 Flash FPL0220 ...................................... ... 240
D.2.7 Flash FPL0221 .......................................... 247
D.2.8 Flash FPL0226 ...................................... ... 253
D.2.9 Flash FPL0228 ...................................... ... 260
D .2.10Flash FPL0229 ..................................... ......... 267

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............ .. ......................... 277















LIST OF TABLES
Table page

2-1 Summary of triggers and return strokes per configuration for summers 1999
and 2000........................................ ....... 17

3-1 Vertical line configuration by year. ....................................... 26

3-2 Measured grounding resistances (in Q) for the vertical-configuration line. ... 32

3-3 V-I characteristic of the Cooper Power Systems UltraSIL Housed VariSTAR
Heavy Duty 18 kV arrester. .......................................... 32

3-4 V-I characteristic of the Ohio Brass PDV 100 18 kV MOV arrester........ 32

3-5 Parameters for the Pearson Electronics, Inc. Current Transformers (CTs). ... 33

3-6 Parameters for the T&M Research Products, Inc. Current Viewing Resistors. 34

3-7 Camera locations and objects in their fields of view for the summer of 2001
experiments .......................................... 37

3-8 Camera locations and objects in their fields of view for the summer of 2002
experiments .......................................... 38

4-1 Summary of launches for the 2001 and 2002 experiments ................... 39

4-2 Summary of the launches and strikes to the vertically-configured test distri-
bution line during the 2001 experiments. ........... .................. 40

4-3 Summary of the launches and strikes to the vertically-configured test distri-
bution line during the months of June and September of 2002............. 49

4-4 Summary of the recorded return strokes during the 2002 experiments for all
the triggered flashes ................ ................... ............. 51

5-1 Summary of strokes whose currents were directly injected into the vertically-
configured test distribution line during summer 2001 .......... ....... 53

5-2 Summary of strokes intended to be directly injected into the vertically-
configured test distribution line during summer 2002 ................ 54

5-3 Labeling schemes and correspondence between Yokogawa and LeCroy recorded
events for the direct-strike tests during the 2002 experiments. ........... 55









5-4 Parameters of return-stroke current waveforms for flashes triggered at the
ICLRT during summer 2001 ....................................... 62

5-5 Parameters of return-stroke current waveforms for flashes triggered at the
ICLRT during summer 2002 ....................................... 63

5-6 Initial stage parameters of flashes triggered at the ICLRT during summer
2002 ........................................... .. . ... 65

5-7 Occurrence of precursor pulses for flashes triggered at the ICLRT during the
2001 and 2002 experiments. ..................................... 68

5-8 Occurrence of ICV current signature (see Figure 5-8) for flashes triggered
at ICLRT during the 2001 and 2002 experiments. ...................... 71

B-1 Instrumentation summary for flashes FPL0101, FPL0102, FPL0105, FPL0107,
and FP10108, strike to phase A of the vertical configuration distribution
line at pole 8. ............................................ .......... 121

B-2 Instrumentation summary for flashes FPL0110, FPL0111, and FP10112,
strike to phase A of the vertical configuration distribution line between
poles 8 and 7.......... ..................................... 124

B-3 Instrumentation summary for flash FPLO 115, strike to ground 15 m from the
vertical configuration distribution line. .......... ... ......... .. 127

B-4 Instrumentation summary for flashes FPL0205, FPL0206, FPL0208, and
FP10210, strike to phase A of the vertical configuration distribution line
mid-point between poles 8 and 7 ...................................... 130

B-5 Instrumentation settings for test configuration FPL-A-02 ................... 132

B-6 Instrumentation summary for flashes FPL0213, FPL0218, FPL0219, FPL0220,
and FP10221, strike to phase A of the vertical configuration distribution
line mid-point between poles 8 and 7 ................. ............. 134

B-7 Instrumentation settings for test configuration FPL-B-02 ................... 136

B-8 Instrumentation summary for flash FPL0226, strike to phase A of the verti-
cal configuration distribution line mid-point between poles 8 and 7 ...... 137

B-9 Instrumentation settings for test configuration FPL-C-02 ................... 139

B-10Instrumentation summary for flashes FPL0228, FPL0229, and FPL0230,
strike to phase A of the vertical configuration distribution line mid-point
between poles 8 and 7 ........................................ 140

B-11 Instrumentation settings for test configuration FPL-D-02 ................... 143















LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page

2-1 General distribution of charge in a cumulonimbus thundercloudd) as ob-
served in England. Arrows indicate air current flow. .................... 3

2-2 Schematic of the basic charge structure in the convective region of a thun-
derstorm ...................................... ....................... 4

2-3 The four categories of cloud-to-ground lightning depending on leader prop-
agation direction and polarity of charge transferred to ground. .......... 5

2-4 Streak-camera photograph of a 12-stroke flash. Time advances from left to
right. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology photograph. ..... 7

2-5 Photographs of lightning triggered at the International Center for Lightning
Research and Testing (ICLRT), at Camp Blanding, Florida, in Summer
of2002. ............................................ ....... 9

2-6 Sequence of events involved in the formation of the first return stroke in
classical (grounded-wire) triggered lightning. ...................... .. 10

2-7 Sequence of events involved in the initial stage of altitude (ungrounded-
wire) triggered lightning. ........................................ 11

2-8 Okushishiku test transmission line tower. ............... .............. 13

2-9 FPL-ICLRT test distribution lines ............. ........... .... 16

3-1 Overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing
(ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, Summers 2001 and 2002........... 20

3-2 Tower launcher configuration during the summer 2001 experiments. ....... 22

3-3 Tower launcher configuration for test configuration FPL-A-02.............. 22

3-4 Tower launcher configuration for test configurations FPL-B-02, FPL-C-02,
and FPL-D-02. Laucher current measurement box not seen in this picture. 23

3-5 Mobile launcher for test configuration FPL-E-02 ....................... 24

3-6 Vertical framing configuration, Summer 2001 .......................... 25

3-7 Vertical framing configuration, Summer 2002 .............. .......... 28









3-8 Identifiers for the grounding resistance measuring locations for the multiple
rods scheme............. .................................... 31

5-1 Low-level incident current of flash FPL0228 recorded using Yokogawa os-
cilloscope ........................................... 58

5-2 Return stroke 1 in flash FPL0226 (LeCroy data) showing multiple M-
components .......................................... 59

5-3 Flash FPL0226, stroke 1. ......... ................................ 60

5-4 Example of a return stroke waveform displayed as: a) raw data and, b)
filtered data with a two-point averaging anti-causal zero-phase filter. ...... 62

5-5 Initial stage as seen in the low-level tower current record of event FPL0218. 64

5-6 Illustration of precursor pulses corresponding to flash FPL0218 ........... 67

5-7 Illustration of precursor pulses categories ............................ 69

5-8 Initial current variation signature corresponding to the low-level incident
current records of event FPL0112 ................................... 71

5-9 Irregular initial current variation signature corresponding to the low-level
incident current records of event FPL0220 ............................. 73

5-10 Flash FPL0226, stroke 1, a) phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge
distribution, and b) percentage of total phase A arrester and terminating
resistor charge. Lightning strike point is between poles 7 and 8. ......... 75

5-11 Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0226 ................ 75

5-12 Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0226 ................ 76

5-13 Flash FPL0228, stroke 4, a) phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge
distribution, and b) percentage of total phase A arrester and terminating
resistor charge. Lightning strike point is between poles 7 and 8. ......... 77

5-14 Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 4 of flash FPL0228 ................ 77

5-15 Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 4 of flash FPL0228 ................ 78

5-16 Flash FPL0229, stroke 1, distribution of charge transferred ................ 79

5-17 Flash FPL0229, stroke 1, percentage of total charge transferred ............ 79









5-18 Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0229 ................ 80

5-19 Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0229 ................ 80

5-20 Flash FPL0229, stroke 2, distribution of charge transferred ................ 81

5-21 Flash FPL0229, stroke 2, percentage of total charge transferred ............ 82

5-22 Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 2 of flash FPL0229 ............... 82

5-23 Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 2 of flash FPL0229 ............... 83

5-24 Flash FPL0226, stroke 1. ......... ................................. 85

5-25 Flash FPL0228, stroke 4. .......................................... 86

5-26 Flash FPL0229, stroke 1. ......... ................................. 87

5-27 Flash FPL0229, stroke 2. .......................................... 88

5-28 Overview of models 1 and 2 compared to a representation of the vertical
test line. ................... ................... ........................ 92

5-29 M odel 1 schematic. ................... ................................... 93

5-30 M odel 2 schematic. ...................................................... 93

5-31 Short-Circuit, Incident and Pole 6 Ground currents obtained with model 1
when 100, 200, 500 and 800 Q lightning-channel characteristic impedance
value are used, presented on two time scales, 10 and 50 ps .............. 95

5-32 Short-Circuit, Incident and Pole 6 Ground currents obtained with Model 1
when 1, 2, 5 and 8 k2 lightning-channel characteristic impedance value
are used, presented on two time scales, 10 and 50 pss. .................. 96

5-33 Short-Circuit, Incident and Pole 6 Ground currents obtained with Model 2
when 100, 200, 500 and 800 Q lightning-channel characteristic impedance
value are used, presented on two time scales, 10 and 50 ps .............. 97

5-34 Short-Circuit, Incident and Pole 6 Ground currents obtained with Model 2
when 1, 2, 5 and 8 k2 lightning-channel characteristic impedance value
are used, presented on two time scales, 10 and 50 pss. .................. 98

5-35 Flash FPL0108, RS 5: measured and model-predicted (model 1) waveforms
displayed on a 10 ps time scale ........................................ 99









A-1 Conductor's layout and clearance distances of the distribution line with ver-
tical phase conductor arrangement. ................................. 109

A-2 Diagram of connections at Pole 15 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 110

A-3 Diagram of connections at Pole 14 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. .......................................... 111

A-4 Diagram of connections at Pole 10 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 112

A-5 Diagram of connections at Pole 7 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 113

A-6 Diagram of connections at Pole 7 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, for test configuration FPL-D-02, summer 2002 ................... 114

A-7 Diagram of connections at Pole 6 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 115

A-8 Diagram of connections at Pole 3 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 116

A-9 Diagram of connections at Pole 2 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 117

A-1ODiagram of connections at Pole 1 of the vertical configuration distribution
line, summer 2001. ........ ............................... 118

A- 11Multiple grounding scheme, during part of summer 2001 and summer 2002,
for poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15. Dotted lines represent connecting leads
and horizontal distances between rods. .............. ............ 119

B-1 Measurement locations for test configuration FPL-A-01 (flashes FPL0101,
FPL0102, FPL0105, FPL0107, and FP10108). Strike to phase A of the
vertical line at pole 8 .......... ................................... 123

B-2 Measurement locations for test configuration FPL-B-01 (flashes FPL0110,
FPL0111, and FP10112). Strike to phase A of the vertical line at mid-
span between poles 8 and 7. .............. ......... ............ 126

B-3 Measurement locations for test configuration FPL-C-01 (flash FPL0115).
Strike to ground at 15 m from the vertical configuration distribution line.. 129

B-4 Measurement locations for test configurations FPL-A-02 (flashes FPL0208
and FPL0210), FPL-B-02 (flashes FPL0213, FPL0218, FPL0219, FPL0220
and FPL0221) and FPL-C-02 (flash FPL0226). All flashes to phase A of
the vertical line at mid-span between poles 8 and 7 ...................... 133









B-5 Measurement locations for test configuration FPL-D-02 (flashes FPL0228
and FPL0229). All flashes to phase A of the vertical line at mid-span
between poles 8 and 7. ......................................... 142

B-6 Measurement locations for test configurations FPL-E-02 (flash FPL0236;
mobile launcher at 100 m north of the vertical line) and FPL-F-02
(flashes FPL0240, FPL0241, FPL0244, FPL0245, FPL0241; mobile
launcher at 30 m north of the vertical line) ............................. 144

C-1 Flash FPL0107, stroke 1. .......................................... 146

C-2 Flash FPL0107, stroke 2............ .............. .......... 147

C-3 Flash FPL0108, stroke 1. .......................................... 149

C-4 Flash FPL0108, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 150

C-5 Flash FPL0108, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 151

C-6 Flash FPL0108, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 152

C-7 Flash FPL0108, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 153

C-8 Flash FPL0110, stroke 1. .......................................... 155

C-9 Flash FPL0112, stroke 1. .......................................... 157

C-10Flash FPL0112, stroke 2 ............... ............. ........... 158

C-11Flash FPL0112, stroke 3 ............... ............. ........... 159

C-12Flash FPL0112, stroke 4 ............... ............. ........... 160

C-13Flash FPL0112, stroke 5 ............... ............. ........... 161

C-14Flash FPL0107, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 163

C-15Flash FPL0107, stroke 2............ .............. .......... 164

C-16Flash FPL0108, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 166

C-17Flash FPL0108, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 167

C-18Flash FPL0108, stroke 3. ................................................ 168

C-19Flash FPL0108, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 169

C-20Flash FPL0108, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 170

C-21Flash FPL0110, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 172

C-22Flash FPL0112, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 174


xiv









C-23Flash FPL0112, stroke 2. ........... .................. .......... 175

C-24Flash FPL0112, stroke 3 ............... ............. ........... 176

C-25Flash FPL0112, stroke 4 ............... ............. ........... 177

C-26Flash FPL0112, stroke 5 ............... ............. ........... 178

D-1 Flash FPL0208, stroke 1. .......................................... 180

D-2 Flash FPL0210, stroke 1. .......................................... 182

D-3 Flash FPL0213, stroke 1. .......................................... 184

D-4 Flash FPL0213, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 185

D-5 Flash FPL0218, stroke 1. ......................................... 187

D-6 Flash FPL0219, stroke 1. .......................................... 189

D-7 Flash FPL0219, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 190

D-8 Flash FPL0220, stroke 1. .......................................... 192

D-9 Flash FPL0220, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 193

D-10Flash FPL0220, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 194

D-11Flash FPL0220, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 195

D-12Flash FPL0220, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 196

D-13Flash FPL0220, stroke 6 ............. ... ............................. 197

D-14Flash FPL0221, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 199

D-15Flash FPL0221, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 200

D-16Flash FPL0221, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 201

D-17Flash FPL0221, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 202

D-18Flash FPL0221, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 203

D-19Flash FPL0226, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 205

D-20Flash FPL0226, stroke 2. ............ ......... .......... 206

D-21Flash FPL0226, stroke 3. ............ ......... .......... 207

D-22Flash FPL0226, stroke 4. ............ ......... .......... 208

D-23Flash FPL0226, stroke 5. ............ ......... .......... 209









D-24Flash FPL0226, stroke 6 ................. ...................... 210

D-25Flash FPL0228, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 212

D-26Flash FPL0228, stroke 2. ................... ..................... 213

D-27Flash FPL0228, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 214

D-28Flash FPL0228, stroke 4. ................... ..................... 215

D-29Flash FPL0228, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 216

D-30Flash FPL0228, stroke 6. ................... ..................... 217

D-31Flash FPL0229, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 219

D-32Flash FPL0229, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 220

D-33Flash FPL0229, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 221

D-34Flash FPL0229, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 222

D-35Flash FPL0229, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 223

D-36Flash FPL0229, stroke 6 ............. ... ............................. 224

D-37Flash FPL0229, stroke 7 ............. ... ............................. 225

D-38Flash FPL0229, stroke 8 ............. ... ............................. 226

D-39Flash FPL0229, stroke 9 ............. ... ............................. 227

D-40Flash FPL0208, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 229

D-41Flash FPL0210, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 231

D-42Flash FPL0213, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 233

D-43Flash FPL0213, stroke 2 ................... .................... 234

D-44Flash FPL0218, stroke 1 ................... .................... 236

D-45Flash FPL0219, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 238

D-46Flash FPL0219, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 239

D-47Flash FPL0220, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 241

D-48Flash FPL0220, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 242

D-49Flash FPL0220, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 243

D-50Flash FPL0220, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 244










D-51Flash FPL0220, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 245

D-52Flash FPL0220, stroke 6 ............. ... ............................. 246

D-53Flash FPL0221, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 248

D-54Flash FPL0221, stroke 2 ............. ... ............................. 249

D-55Flash FPL0221, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 250

D-56Flash FPL0221, stroke 4 ............. ... ............................. 251

D-57Flash FPL0221, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 252

D-58Flash FPL0226, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 254

D-59Flash FPL0226, stroke 2 ................. ...................... 255

D-60Flash FPL0226, stroke 3 ................. ...................... 256

D-61Flash FPL0226, stroke 4 ................. ...................... 257

D-62Flash FPL0226, stroke 5 ................. ...................... 258

D-63Flash FPL0226, stroke 6 ................. ...................... 259

D-64Flash FPL0228, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 261

D-65Flash FPL0228, stroke 2. ................... ..................... 262

D-66Flash FPL0228, stroke 3 ............. ... ............................. 263

D-67Flash FPL0228, stroke 4. ................... ..................... 264

D-68Flash FPL0228, stroke 5 ............. ... ............................. 265

D-69Flash FPL0228, stroke 6. ................... ..................... 266

D-70Flash FPL0229, stroke 1 ............. ... ............................. 268

D-71Flash FPL0229, stroke 2. ....... ................... . 269

D-72Flash FPL0229, stroke 3. ....... ................... . 270

D-73Flash FPL0229, stroke 4. ....... ................... . 271

D-74Flash FPL0229, stroke 5. ....... ................... . 272

D-75Flash FPL0229, stroke 6. ....... ................... . 273

D-76Flash FPL0229, stroke 7. ....... ................... . 274

D-77Flash FPL0229, stroke 8. ............ ............................. 275


xvii









D-78Flash FPL0229, stroke 9 ............. ... ............................. 276


xviii















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

INTERACTION OF LIGHTNING WITH POWER
DISTRIBUTION LINES: 2001 AND 2002 EXPERIMENTS
AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR LIGHTNING
RESEARCH AND TESTING (ICLRT)

By

Angel G. Mata

August 2003

Chair: Vladimir A. Rakov
Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering

Triggered lightning experiments were conducted at the International Center for Light-

ning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, to study both direct and

nearby triggered lightning strikes to a 812-m standard three-phase plus neutral overhead

test distribution line built by a major Florida utility company.

This thesis concerns direct strike experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002. Current

measurements on the test distribution line are used to analyse the distribution of peak cur-

rents and charge transfer through the four arresters and the six connections to ground on

the line. Incident current waveform parameters for recorded return strokes and the initial

stage are presented, as are overall current waveforms for all the recorded events. Alterna-

tive Transient Program (ATP) modeling is used in an attempt to reproduce the observed

line currents. Video and still pictures of lightning channels are used to help identify the

occurence of flashovers on the test distribution line.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

From 1999 to 2002, two different 3-phase distribution line configurations, horizontal

and vertical, standard to Florida Power and Light, have been tested at the International

Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. During

each of the first three years, triggered lightning current was directly injected into one phase

conductor of the line. The horizontally-configured line was the only line tested during sum-

mer 1999 (see Mata et al. [1999a, 1999b]). During summer 2000, both the horizontally-

and the vertically-configured lines were modified and tested (see Mata et al. [2000b]). The

modifications involved increasing the length of the lines and the number of arrester stations

in order to better approximate real-life lines. During 2001 and 2002, only the vertically-

configured line was tested (see Mata et al. [2001, 2002]). In 2001, its grounding was mod-

ified in order to equalize the dc grounding resistances at different poles of the line. Tests

were performed for both direct and nearby strikes. Modifications for the 2002 experiments

include (1) the use of two arresters in parallel on the struck phase and (2) the diversion of

the initial continuous current (ICC) preceding the first return stroke of the triggered flashes

away from the line to a separate path to ground.

Chapter 2 gives the pertinent literature review on lightning phenomenology and also

provides salient information from the 1999 and 2000 experiments at the ICLRT. In Chap-

ter 3, the ICLRT and experimental setup for the tests presented in this thesis, are described.

In Chapter 4, salient results from the 2001 and 2002 experiments are reviewed. Detailed

analysis of data acquired during 2001 and 2002 is presented in Chapter 5. A summary

of tests and recommendations for future experiments are given in Chapters 6 and 7, re-

spectively. Measuring stations drawings, detailed instrumentation settings, and recorded

current waveforms are presented in the Appendices.















CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The literature reviewed in this chapter primarily concerns two subjects: lightning

phenomenology (Section 2.1), including a brief review of the processes involved in both

natural lightning and lightning artificially-initiated (triggered) using the rocket-and-wire

technique, lightning's interaction i/ ih power systems (Section 2.2), including a review

of previous (before 1999) experiments concerned with lightning's interaction with power

systems and salient information from the 1999 and 2000 experiments performed at Camp

Blanding.

2.1 Lightning Phenomenology

2.1.1 Natural Lightning

Lightning is a natural electrical discharge that is most often produced by clouds termed

cumulonimbi or thunderclouds. The distribution of electrical charge in such a cloud was

presented first by Simpson and Scrase [1937] and is illustrated in Figure 2-1. A more

recently observed distribution of electrical charge in thunderclouds is shown in Figure 2-2.

A charged cloud can be viewed as a vertical electrical dipole whose negative-charge center

is located near an altitude where the ambient air temperature is about -10 to -25 O C, which

is from about 6 to 8 km or so for summer thunderstorms in Florida (Krehbiel et al. [1983]).

The positive-charge center is situated above the negative charge region in the upper part

of the cloud and can extend up to 12 to 15 km in altitude in Florida. This primary charge

structure is often supplemented by a second, smaller region of positive charge located in

the lower part of the cloud beneath the negative charge center.

Less than half of the lightning flashes produced during the active stage of a thun-

derstorm actually strike ground, and this fraction is even less during the final stages of a











10 + 10
+ ++ 8
+ 2C+, + +
S+ ++ + + +

+ +
8 + ^ -8


0 -1 200 C +
S6 0 C 6

S+ /+ + + +
4 4



+++ POSITIVE NEGATIVE -
+++ RAIN __RAIN

Figure 2-1: General distribution of charge in a cumulonimbus thundercloudd) as observed
in England. Arrows indicate air current flow. Adapted from Simpson and Scrase [1937].

storm. The majority of lightning are intracloud discharges. However, it is the minority,

cloud-to-ground lightning, that is of more practical concern for ground-based structures.

Cloud-to-ground lightning is initiated by an extending plasma channel called a leader,

which originates from a charge source inside the cloud or from a structure on earth. In the

former case, the leader initially develops inside the cloud and propagates toward earth; and

in the latter case, the leader is elicited from a grounded object and propagates toward cloud.

There are four categories of cloud-to-ground lightning, illustrated in Figure 2-3, de-

pending on the polarity of charge transferred to ground and direction of propagation of the

initial leader: T downward negative lightning, @ upward negative lightning, downward

positive lightning, and upward positive lightning. Types T and @ result in the lowering

of negative charge to Earth; types and result in the lowering of positive charge to Earth.

Category T is the most common form, accounting for over 90 % of all cloud-to-ground

lightning worldwide. Category @ is characteristic of tall structures and moderate-height

structures on mountain tops. Negative rocket-triggered lightning discussed in Section 2.1.2

is similar to category @ lightning. Only categories ) and @, that is, negative cloud-to-

ground flashes will be considered in this thesis.




























Figure 2-2: Schematic of the basic charge structure in the convective region of a thunder-
storm. Adapted from Stolzenburg et al. [1998].

2.1.1.1 Downward negative lightning

Negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes begin with the in-cloud initial breakdown

followed by stepped leader. The leader steps are discrete advancements in the length of

the leader, that have been observed with high-speed photographic cameras. Steps have

been reported to be from as short as 3 m in length (Berger and Vogelsanger [1966]) to as

long as 200m reported by Schonland [1956] (typical step length is 50m), and the time

interval between steps can range from 5 (Krider and Radda [1975]) to 50 ps (Kitagawa

[1957]). It is generally observed that the longer intervals correspond to longer steps, with

the longer steps (for a downward-moving leader) usually occurring at higher altitudes and

shorter steps occurring at lower altitudes. Electric and magnetic field pulses corresponding

to individual steps have been observed, prior to the return-stroke field pulse. As the stepped

leader advances, branches usually develop, and this can sometimes bias the interstep inter-

val measurements measured from field pulse rates. The average propagation speed of the

stepped leader is about 2 x 105 m s1, and the total leader duration is typically about 35 ms

(Uman [2001]; Rakov et al. [1994]).















-J I -J
+ + + + + + + + + + + +

Ground Plane





+ +


+ + + + + + +
Ground Plane

Figure 2-3: The four categories of cloud-to-ground lightning depending on leader prop-
agation direction and polarity of charge transferred to ground. Adapted from Berger and
Vogelsanger [1966].


The stepped leader portion of the lightning discharge ends when the leader attaches

to earth or to a grounded object. Attachment process may involve an upward connect-

ing leader developing from the ground or grounded object in response to the descending

stepped leader. Upward connecting leaders are usually of the order of tens of meters in

length and are oppositely charged with respect to the descending leader. After the junction

between the stepped leader and the upward connecting leader, a return stroke ensues which

effectively neutralizes the negative charges in the leader channel via a potential discontinu-

ity wave propagating from earth toward the cloud at about 108 m s-1 (Uman [2001]).

After a no current interval, following the first return stroke, subsequent leaders may

originate in the cloud and progress downward along the remnants of the first stroke chan-

nel. Typically, there are 3 to 5 leader/return-stroke sequences in a lightning flash, and the

geometric mean interstroke interval is 60 ms (Rakov et al. [1994]). Subsequent downward

leaders usually do not exhibit stepping like the first leader (such leaders are referred to as









dart leaders). Sometimes dart leaders transform to stepped leaders in the bottom portion of

the channel (dart-stepped leaders) or deflect from the previously formed channel and create

new ground strike points (Rakov et al. [1994]). The propagation speed of dart leaders, in

contrast to stepped leaders, is about 107 m s-1 (Uman [2001]). Upward connecting leaders,

if any, from grounded objects in response to dart leaders are apparently short and difficult

to detect (Wang et al. [1999b]).

Return strokes are responsible for the luminosity (see the streak camera picture in Fig-

ure 2-4) and the loud thunder associated with lightning. The median peak current of the

first return stroke in natural lightning is about 30 kA, with less than 1 % of all first return

stroke currents exceeding 200 kA. The median risetime of the first-stroke current pulse,

measured from 2 kA to peak, is 5.5 ps; and the median width of the pulse, measured from

2 kA to half-peak value, is 75 ps. The median peak current for subsequent return strokes in

natural lightning is about 12 kA. The risetime of the current pulse for subsequent strokes,

measured from 2 kA to peak, is 1.1 /us although this value is probably overestimate due to

the time resolution (about 0.2 ps) of the measurement system of Berger et al. [1975]; and

the median width of the pulse, measured from 2 kA to half-peak value, is 32 /s. Tower

studies (Eriksson [1978]) other than those of Berger et al. [1975] and triggered-lightning

studies (Fisher et al. [1993]; Leteinturier et al. [1991]) have shown subsequent-stroke cur-

rent risetimes of 300 to 600 ns and typical values of maximum rate of rise of current of the

order of 100 As-1.

Approximately 25 % of all interstrokes intervals contain a so-called long continuing

current (Rakov and Uman [1990]). Long continuing current is defined as current of du-

ration longer than 40 ms with magnitude of tens to hundreds of amperes that can flow in

the lightning channel (for up to hundreds of milliseconds) after the return-stroke current

peak. Current pulses, called M component pulses, may be superimposed on the continuing

current (Thottappillil et al. [1995]). M component current pulses differ from return stroke






























Figure 2-4: Streak-camera photograph of a 12-stroke flash. Time advances from left to
right. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology photograph. Adapted from Uman
[2001].

pulses in their waveshape characteristics. According to Thottappillil et al. [1995], the ge-

ometric mean current peak for MA components is 117A; the geometric mean 10-90%

risetime is 422 ps; the geometric mean half-peak width is 816 ps; the geometric mean time

interval between MA components is 4.9 ms; and the preceding continuing current has a ge-

ometric mean value of 177 A (return strokes occur only after no-current intervals).1 Some

M component have current peaks in the kiloamperes range.

2.1.1.2 Upward negative lightning

Upward negative lightning is initiated by an upward positive leader from the grounded

object. The leader stage ends when the leader enters a negative charge source within the

thundercloud. Unlike the case of a downward negative leader attaching to earth, there



1 The 10-90% risetime is defined as the time on the wave front between 10% of the
peak value and 90 % of the peak value, and the half-peak width is the time between 50 %
of the peak value on the wave front and 50 % of the peak value on the wave tail.









is no return stroke. Instead, an initial continuous current (ICC) flows between the cloud

and the earth for some tens to some hundreds of milliseconds. After a no-current interval

following the ICC, downward-moving negative dart leaders may (although not necessarily)

start inside the cloud and traverse the same path as the ICC, resulting in an upward return

stroke upon attachment to earth. The dart leaders and return strokes in this type of flash are

similar to subsequent strokes in downward negative lightning described in Section 2.1.1.1.

Nearly all lightning strikes to very tall structures (hundreds of meters in height) are initiated

by upward positive leaders (Eriksson [1978]).

2.1.2 Artificially-Initiated (Triggered) Lightning

Lightning can be artificially initiated from an overhead thundercloud by using a small

rocket equipped with a spool of metallic wire. Two still photographs of rocket-triggered

lightning are shown in Figure 2-5. The presence of charge inside the cloud is inferred from

the vertical electric field measured at ground. In experiments at the International Center

for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, usually when the

field is in the range of 5 kVm-1 to 9 kVm-1 at ground, a rocket is launched toward the cloud.

The rocket ascends with a speed of about 200 m s-1 and is trailed by the unspooling wire.

In the "classical" triggering technique, illustrated in Figure 2-6, the triggering wire,

a copper filament reinforced for strength by a kevlar sheath, that is about 500 m to 700 m

long, is electrically connected to the grounded rocket-launching unit. As the rocket ascends

to a height of about 200 m to 300 m, electric field enhancement at the tip of the rocket re-

sults in an upward-moving positive leader (the polarity stated is for the typical conditions

when the main negative-charge center is below the main positive-charge center). The up-

ward positive leader is followed by an initial continuous current (ICC). The triggering wire

is destroyed during the upward positive leader stage. The upward positive leader and ICC

constitute the initial stage of a classical triggered lightning. After a no-current interval

following the ICC, negative downward-moving dart leaders may originate in the cloud.

The dart-leader/return-stroke sequences usually follow the previously formed channel and




























Figure 2-5: Photographs of lightning triggered at the International Center for Lightning
Research and Testing (ICLRT), at Camp Blanding, Florida, in Summer of 2002.

are similar (Fisher et al. [1993]) to subsequent strokes in natural lightning. Dart leaders,

though, do not always occur, in which case the flashes are composed of the initial stage

only.

The processes involved in classical triggered-lightning are similar to those described

for natural upward negative lightning discharges initiated from tall structures, the only dif-

ference being that, in the triggered-lightning case, the "tall structure" is erected in a few

seconds and quickly (in several milliseconds) replaced by a plasma channel. In contrast,

the difference between classical rocket-triggered lightning and natural lightning that is ini-

tiated by a negative downward-moving stepped leader is significant. The initial downward

stepped-leader and first return stroke are not present in classical triggered lightning, the

first return stroke being on average larger than subsequent return strokes.

A triggering technique developed to yield a downward-moving stepped leader is the

altitude or ungrounded-wire triggering technique which is illustrated in Figure 2-7. In this

case, the triggering wire is separated from ground by an insulating cable. One design used

by Laroche et al. [1991] has some hundreds of meters of copper wire (triggering wire)










Leader/Return
Initial Stage Stroke Sequence




Natural
Channel 107 m s-1


~10 m s-1

+


+Copper Wire-Trace
2x 102 -1 M ire Channel I 10 m s-1

300m



1 2s Hundreds of ms Tens of ms


) Ascending Rocket
( Upward Positive Leader
) Initial Continuous Current
No-Current Interval
( Downward Negative Leader
Upward Return Stroke

Figure 2-6: Sequence of events involved in the formation of the first return stroke in clas-
sical (grounded-wire) triggered lightning. Adapted from Rakov et al. [1998].


attached to the rocket followed by 400 m of insulation with an additional 50-m copper wire

section (intercepting wire) attached to the rocket-launching unit. An upward positive leader

is elicited from the upper end of the triggering wire when the rocket is at an altitude of

several hundred meters, and some time later a downward negative stepped leader is initiated

from the lower-end of the elevated triggering wire. The downward stepped leader does

not always attach to the grounded 50-m section of copper wire. Upon attachment (which

involves an upward connecting leader) of the downward leader to ground, an upward return

stroke ensues. The return stroke is relatively short-lived because, at a propagation speed

100-1000 times faster than that of the upward leader, it soon catches up to the leader tip










Initial Stage


(105 106) m
105msI
o510 -mlS-1




++105 s-1 m +

Triggering
Wire 1l.2 kmn
150 1
1--0 I/Kevlar
Cable
Z 10 ms1
400 / rn 1ms-1\
400 n Intercepting
-2x102ms f 50i Wire (10 108)m


S -3s' 6ms Ims (10-100) ps

( Ascending Rocket
( Upward Positive Leader
( Bidirectional Leader and Upward Connecting Leader
) Upward Return Stroke
) Upward Positive Leader


Figure 2-7: Sequence of events involved in the initial stage of altitude (ungrounded-wire)
triggered lightning. Adapted from Rakov et al. [1998].


and intensifies this leader. Thus, the return stroke shown in Figure 2-7 serves to establish a

low impedance path between the upward leader tip and ground. The processes that follow

in altitude triggered lightning are similar to those (events 3 to 6) in classical triggered

lightning (Figure 2-6).

2.2 Lightning's Interaction with Power Lines

Lightning is a major cause of power distribution system failures in regions of appre-

ciable thunderstorm activity. Several research efforts have been undertaken in the past to

determine the responses of distribution systems to direct and nearby lightning strikes.

In 1978, a project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) to study the

responses to lightning of power distribution systems in the Tampa Bay area of Florida









(Schneider and Stillwell [1979]; Master et al. [1984, 1986]). A research group from Gen-

eral Electric recorded waveforms of arrester discharge currents for two natural lightning

strikes to a 7.62-kV, single-phase, overhead distribution line at unknown distances (al-

though probably very close) from the arresters (Schneider and Stillwell [1979]). One event

was a single-stroke flash that lowered negative charge to ground. The arrester discharge

current had a peak amplitude of 15 kA, a rise-time of about 2 ps, and decayed to half of the

peak value in about 36 ps. The other event was a three-stroke flash that lowered positive

charge to ground. The peak amplitudes of the arrester discharge current were 42 kA, 32 kA,

and 40 kA for the three strokes, respectively, with rise-times of 5.6 ps for the first event and

about 1 ps for the second and third events. The time to half value of each event was about

60 ps, 9 ps, and 5 ps, respectively (Schneider and Stillwell [1979]). In a separate part of the

DoE study, a research group from the University of Florida measured voltages on an unen-

ergized, 460-m overhead distribution line, simulating a standard 7.62-kV, single-phase line,

with both ends open-circuited (Master et al. [1984, 1986]). The majority of the lightning

activity during the experiment was between 4 km and 12 km away (Master et al. [1984]).

In South Africa, an 11-kV, three-phase, overhead distribution line (with no shield

wire) was constructed as part of a joint project between the Electricity Supply Commis-

sion (Johannesburg, South Africa) and the National Electrical Engineering Research In-

stitute (Pretoria, South Africa), to study the interaction between lightning and overhead

lines (Eriksson et al. [1982]). The line was 9.9 km long, with the western end of the line

grounded to a buried counterpoise and the eastern end open-circuited. Arrester discharge

currents from each phase were measured at the east end of the line. Voltages on each phase

conductor were measured near the midpoint of the line, as well as on one phase at the east

end. The measured arrester discharge currents were from natural lightning striking ground

near the line. The largest arrester current recorded had a peak value of about 1 kA. Voltage

waveforms were obtained at the midpoint of the line for a larger data set than the current

waveforms, including 281 cases in which the peak value exceeded 12 kV The majority of










the voltages were unipolar with a positive polarity and were due to nearby lightning low-

ering negative charge to ground. A total of 12 of the 281 events were from direct strikes

to the line. The maximum voltage recorded during two years of the project was 300 kV

(Eriksson et al. [1982]).

Shielding Wire

Lightning rod











Circuit 1 Circuit 2






Figure 2-8: Okushishiku test transmission line tower. Adapted from Matsumoto et al.
[1996].


In Japan, the shielding wire of a double-circuit, 275-kV, "Okushishiku" test transmis-

sion line, was subject to rocket-triggered and natural lightning, from 1987 to 1996 (Mat-

sumoto et al. [1996], Motoyama et al. [1998], Kobayashi et al. [1998]). The test transmis-

sion line was 2.15 km long, having a total of seven transmission towers, double insulator

strings with arcing horn gaps, three gapless 154-kV MOV arresters, a single shielding wire,

and 500 Q termination resistors. Arresters were connected on each phase of one of the cir-

cuits of the transmission line, at the suspension steel tower being struck from 1987 to 1993,

and they were removed in 1994. 500 Q termination resistors (182 m from the strike point)

were connected at one end of the transmission line. At the other end, the phase conductors

were connected directly to the metallic crossarm, which was grounded. From 1993 to 1996,









the tower was struck 10 times, eight with triggered lightning, and two with natural lightning

(Motoyama et al. [1998]). The lightning channel peak current measured for the two natural

strikes were 132 kA and 159 kA, in 1993 and 1994, respectively. Lightning channel cur-

rents, shielding wire currents, tower bottom currents, arrester currents, and insulator strings

voltages were measured simultaneously. The maximum recorded peak voltage across the

insulator strings that were not protected by MOV arresters in 1993 was 935 kV, and the

maximum arrester peak current and voltage measured were 3 kA and 293 kV, respectively

(Matsumoto et al. [1996]). In 1994, a back flashover was observed on the line, and a max-

imum peak of approximately 2.5 MV was measured across the string insulator where back

flashover took place (Motoyama et al. [1998]). Since the authors claimed that "The in-

crease of the voltages just before the flashover ... might be due to the malfunction of the

measuring device ", referring to the spike seen with the resistive voltage divider used, this

spike might well have been due to the effect of magnetic coupling to the measuring loop,

as observed in measuring the voltage across an arrester in Mata et al.'s experiments (Mata

et al. [2000a]).

In 1985 and 1986, the University of Florida was funded by the U.S. Department of

Energy, under a contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, to instrument an unener-

gized, 448-m long, overhead distribution line on a triggered-lightning research facility at

the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida (Georgiadis et al. [1992]; Rubinstein et al.

[1994]). The line consisted of three conductors, only one of which was terminated at each

end in the line's characteristic impedance of about 600 Q. Voltages were measured at each

end of the terminated line. Georgiadis et al. [1992] describe and model the voltages in-

duced on the line from distant natural lightning. Additionally, lightning was artificially

initiated, using the rocket-and-wire technique, and the lightning current was directed to

ground 20 m from the eastern end of the line. Voltages induced on the line were obtained

for three lightning flashes, containing eleven strokes, lowering negative charge to ground,

as described by Rubinstein et al. [1994]. The voltage waveforms were grouped into two









categories, oscillatory and impulsive, both with almost an equal number of occurrences.

For both cases, the waveforms were initially bipolar, with the positive crest being about

40 % of the amplitude of the negative crest following it. The oscillatory waveforms aver-

aged negative crests of 47 kV (standard deviation of 9 kV) at the east end of the line and

72 kV (standard deviation of 20 kV) at the west end followed by damped oscillations at

both ends with average periods of 3.3 ps (standard deviation of 0.3 ps). These periods are

consistent with reflections on the line for a wave with a propagation speed slightly less than

the speed of light. The impulsive waveforms averaged negative crests of 354 kV (standard

deviation of 44 kV) at the east end of the line and 870 kV (standard deviation of 102 kV)

at the west end. Modeling of the data has been presented by Rubinstein et al. [1994] and

Rachidi et al. [1997].

From 1993 to 1997, a series of studies were conducted by the University of Florida at

the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding,

Florida funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Over these five years, the

responses of a single phase unenergized test power distribution system to direct and nearby

lightning (triggered and natural) were studied (Fernandez [1997]; Fernandez et al. [1997a,

1997b, 1998]; Mata et al. [1998]). During the 1995-1996 experiments, the first simultane-

ously measured arrester discharge current and voltage waveforms during very close, direct

lightning strikes to an unenergized power distribution system were obtained (Fernandez

et al. [1997b]). Two EPRI final reports summarizing the experiments from 1993-1997

including a discussion of damage to underground cables, tests on a residential service en-

trance, and tests on an overhead distribution line are presented by Fernandez et al. [1998]

and Mata et al. [1998].

In summer 1999 two standard distribution test lines (see Figure 2-9) were build by

Florida Power and Light, according to their standards (FPL [1996]), at the ICLRT at Camp










Blanding, Florida. Figure 2-9 shows the sketches of a typical crossarm with 2T con-

ductor horizontal-configuration line (a) and typical vertical with 568 conductor vertical-

configuration line (b). The lines were first built with lenghts of approximately 245 and

365 m respectively. In summer 2000, both lines were extended to their actual lenght of

approximately 856 and 812 m respectively. These lines were built in ajoint effort with the

University of Florida to analyze the lines' interaction with both direct and nearby lightning

strikes. This study is currently in progress (it is in the Phase 5, the fifth year), and these

experiments have been reported by Mata et al. [1999b, 2000b] and Mata et al. [2001, 2002].

The 2001 and 2002 experiments are the subject of study in this thesis. Salient information

from the previous experiments is discussed below.


Phase A


Phase A Phase B Phase C Phase B


Phase C



Neutral Neutral


(a) (b)


Figure 2-9: FPL-ICLRT test distribution lines, a) Horizontally-, and b) vertically-
configured.


Table 2-1 provides a summary of the 1999 and 2000 triggered lightning flashes con-

taining at least one return stroke, that is, flashes without return strokes (wirebums) are not

included in this table.

2.2.1 1999 Experiments

During the 1999 experiments, the 245-m long horizontal-configuration distribution

line was subjected to a total of seven flashes, each with two or more return strokes. One







17

Table 2-1: Summary of triggers and return strokes per configuration for summers 1999 and
2000.

Configuration Year Total Total Phase Largest RS
Line Triggersa RS Struck peak current [kA]
3 9 C 15
1999
Horizontal 4 17 B 15
8 34 C 56
2000
Vertical 2 2b A
Only flashes containing return strokes are included here.
b The triggering circuit failed. Data for these flashes needs to be recovered from magnetic
tape records, which needs to be repaired.


of these flashes was triggered with a failed arrester on the line, and flashovers were ob-

served (see Mata et al. [1999b, Section 4.3] and Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.2.3]). One

arrester failed during the ICC of one flash (see Mata et al. [1999b, Section 4.2] and Mata

et al. [2000b, Section 6.2.2]). Termination resistors failed during the ICC of one flash and

also flashovers were observed, perhaps caused by a triggering wire left by a previous un-

successful launch (see Mata et al. [1999b, Section 4.1] and Mata et al. [2000b, Section

6.2.1]). Voltage dividers at the middle of the line failed during one flash and flashovers

were observed on the line close to the injection point (see Mata et al. [1999b, Section 4.4]

and Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.2.4]). One flash was triggered with the failed voltage

dividers at the middle of the line and flashovers were observed at various points on the

line (see Mata et al. [1999b, Section 4.5] and Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.2.5]). There

were two flashes with no visually observed flashover and no failed arrester found (see Mata

et al. [1999b, Section 4.6, 4.7] and Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.2.6]).

2.2.2 2000 Experiments

During the 2000 experiments, the 856-m long horizontal-configuration distribution

line was subjected to a total of ten flashes, eight of which contained return strokes. One

of these flashes was triggered with a failed arrester on the line (see Mata et al. [2000b,

Section 6.2]). Two arresters failed after the first stroke of two flashes (one of them with a

triggering wire involved, see Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.1] and others without triggering







18

wire involved, see Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.7]), three arresters failed during the ICC

of the three different flashes (see Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.3, 6.6 and 6.9]), and two

flashes did not destroy any arresters (one of them with triggering wire involved, see Mata

et al. [2000b, Section 6.4], and the other without triggering wire but visible arcing on the

line, see Mata et al. [2000b, Section 6.5]).















CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES

The International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) is an outdoor

facility occupying about 1 km2 at the Camp Blanding, Florida Army National Guard Base,

located approximately midway between Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida. The facility

is used for triggering (artificially initiating) lightning from natural overhead thunderclouds

using the rocket-and-wire technique (e.g., Uman [2001]; Rakov et al. [1998]) see Fig-

ure 2-6. An overview of the ICLRT is shown in Figure 3-1.

Two distribution line sections were built by FPL in summer 1999: a typical crossarm

with 2T conductor, referred to here as the horizontal configuration and a typical vertical

with 568 conductor, referred to here as the modified vertical configuration. These distribu-

tion line sections were built according to FPL's standards (FPL [1996]). In summer 2000,

both lines were extended in length resulting in approximately 856 m for the horizontal con-

figuration and approximately 812 m for the vertical configuration. For the summer 2002

and 2001 experiments, during which only the vertical framing configuration was tested,

both lines were the same as in 2000, but the grounding scheme for the vertical framing con-

figuration was different from that in 1999 (Mata et al. [1999b]), 2000 (Mata et al. [2000b])

and part of 2001 (Mata et al. [2001]), as described in Section 3.3.

3.1 Rocket Launchers

A rocket launcher is employed to initiate (trigger) lightning using the rocket-and-wire

technique. During the 2001 experiments, one rocket launcher unit was used: the Tower

Launcher (see Section 3.1.1) intended to inject lightning current directly into the line (di-

rect strikes) and close to the line (nearby strikes). During the 2002 experiments, two rocket

launcher units were used: the Tower Launcher (see Section 3.1.1) and the Mobile Launcher

(see Section 3.1.2) intended to inject lightning current to ground near the line (to produce















.5



'C^'
lir1
S









i~ ll- i'











\ I
] ^ N





,' s
oo
0







- 0J/ I-
o .5
CC



ON

o
-



D ||

E5
ON
.5
N
.5


cn -t:
.1 2






IB




I;!
*Li -5 -,







10
:" s








I






I Q
4.-







1__
44
.--4__ __
.4
4.^


oni
02~


4.f
4.D
4%d
0
4.5


4.7


x


S













C)j
U

CFi





E v
cn
C)J










Ctj
C)
A-S
00.-'
C


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-c10
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CE






(nb3

00 s


0 .
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I

i









lightning induced effects' ). Rockets used in all the tests carried spools intended for classi-

cal triggering, using a kevlar-coated copper wire of approximately 1 km length and 0.2 mm

in diameter. Both rocket launcher units were operated remotely from the Launch Control

trailer via fiber optic links and pneumatic hoses. The fiber optics and pneumatics are used

to select the rocket to be launched and to actuate ignition of the rocket's motor, respectively.

3.1.1 Tower Launcher

The tower launcher is mounted on an 11 m tower located about 20 m north of the

overhead vertical line (near its midpoint), and it has a maximum capacity of 12 rockets.

For the summer 2002 experiments, the tower launcher differed from previous years'

experiments in that three modifications (see Sections 3.2.4, 3.2.5, and 3.2.6) were made in

order to provide a separate path to ground (other than via the line) for the initial continuous

current (ICC) preceding the first return stroke in a triggered flash.

The triggered-lightning current was measured at the launcher with one (2001) or two

(2002) 1.25 mQ T&M Research Products, Inc. shunts, model R-5600-8 having a bandwidth

of 12 MHz (see Section 3.5.1).

One shunt was inserted between the launcher (2001 and 2002 experiments) and a ver-

tical conductor connecting the launcher to the grounding at the tower base. The other shunt

(only during the 2002 experiments) was inserted in a conductor connecting a horizontally-

oriented "U" shape structure (intercepting conductor) installed approximately 2.5 m above

the tower launcher to the line (see Figures 3-3 and 3-4). In this way, the line was "isolated"

from the initial stage of the rocket-triggered-lightning, including the so called Initial Con-

tinuous Current (ICC), which primarily followed a path down the tower to ground. The line

would then be exposed only to those return strokes (and their following continuing current,

if any) whose descending leaders attached to the intercepting conductor.



1 Discussion of lightning induced effects (Mata et al. [2002]) is not included in this
document.




























Figure 3-2: Tower launcher configuration during the summer 2001 experiments.


Figure 3-3: Tower launcher configuration for test configuration FPL-A-02.

3.1.2 Mobile Launcher

The mobile launcher was mounted on a bucket-truck (see Figure 3-5) and grounded

with four and eight ten-foot ground rods for the 30 and 100 imnduced effects tests, respec-

tively. The ground rods were arranged in a semi circle around the launcher and connected


















...... ... ...... ..' .' :.....' _-
.. ... ... .. ...


Figure 3-4: Tower launcher configuration for test configurations FPL-B-02, FPL-C-02, and
FPL-D-02. Laucher current measurement box not seen in this picture.


with a metal strap. The channel base current was measured with a 1.25 mQ T&M Research

Products, Inc. shunt, model R-5600-8 having a bandwidth of 12MHz (see Section 3.5.1).

Isobe fiber optic links with a 15 MHz bandwidth were employed. The mobile launcher was

used during the 2002 experiments. It was positioned 100 or 30 m north of pole 7 for flashes

FPL0231-FPL0236 or FPL0237-FPL0246, respectively. Its main purpose was to produce

nearby lightning strikes to ground. For this purpose, during the 2001 experiments (flash

FPL0115), the tower launcher grounded at the tower base (about 20 m from the line) and

without any metallic connection to any of the power lines was used.

3.2 Test Distribution Line

The distribution line section tested during 2001 and 2002 was the typical modified

vertical ii ili 568 conductor (Mata et al. [1999b, 2000b] and Mata et al. [2001, 2002])

with a total length of approximately 812 m, containing fifteen wooden poles and 4 arrester



























Figure 3-5: Mobile launcher for test configuration FPL-E-02.

stations (see Figures 3-6 and 3-7). Phase conductors were 568, (which are concentric-lay-

stranded aluminum conductors, aluminum-alloy reinforced) 587.2 MCM, nineteen-strand

conductors (fifteen wires type 1350-H19 and four wires type 6201-TB1, with the diameter

of each wire being 0.45 cm) with an equivalent diameter of 2.23 cm (0.88 in), and a dc-200

resistance of 0.099 Q/km (0.16 Q/mi). The neutral conductor was AWG 3/0, seven-strand

conductor with an equivalent diameter of 1.18 cm (0.46 in), and a dc-20' resistance of

0.34 Q/km (0.54 O/mi).

The distribution line section tested during 2002 was the same as the one tested during

2001 and 2000. For a summary of the differences between this line and the one tested

during previous years see Table 3-1.

3.2.1 FPL-A-01 (Direct Strike at Pole 8)

Test configuration FPL-A-01 was used for triggered flashes FPL0101 (flash without

return strokes), FPL0102 (flash without return strokes), FPL0105 (flash without return

strokes), FPL0107 and FPL0108. A total of 30 measurement instruments were installed

on the distribution line and one instrument was installed on the launcher for recording in-

cident current (see Table B-1 for instrumentation summary). The launcher used was the






















-i S

o o

s a 0
o0
4 -e


0a

0






N -~ -

o(


Cr) C
u) s)~
rn rn r -C
9/ a 0
o0~ 0 -


4Cl








-~~ OC





,gI,






CC)C
-~3


(' () UM (t









Table 3-1: Vertical line configuration by year.

Summer Total Wooden Arrester Grounding
tested length [m] poles stations points
1999, 365 7 2c 4d
2000 812 15 4c 8f
2001 812 15 4c 8.f,g
2002 812 15 4c 6h
a The grounding scheme for the vertical framing configuration was modified
during 2001, see Section 3.3.
b During this year the vertical line section was not tested.
c Poles 6 and 10.
d Poles 5, 6, 10 and 11.
e Poles 2, 6, 10 and 14.
-f Poles 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14 and 15.
9 Neutral-to-ground connections at Poles 5 and 11 were removed on 7/31/02.
h Poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14 and 15.


tower launcher (see Section 3.1.1), and the downlead from the tower launcher was con-

nected to the phase A conductor at pole 8. All arresters used were Ohio Brass 18-kV MOV

except for three arresters at pole 14 and two (phases B and C) arresters at pole 2 which

were Cooper Power System 18-kV arresters (see Section 3.4 for details on arresters used).

Ground connections were at the arrester stations (Poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and at the termi-

nation poles (1 and 15). Connections to ground were present at poles 5 and 11 that were

not intended to be there and, when discovered on 7/31/01, they were removed prior to test-

ing configurations FPL-B-01 and FPL-C-01. Flux-compensated voltage dividers (see Mata

[2000]) were installed on the line (phases A, B and C at pole 6 and phase A at pole 2)

to measure arrester voltages. The circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in Fig-

ure B-1.

3.2.2 FPL-B-01 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8)

Test configuration FPL-B-01 was used for triggered flashes FPL0110, FPL0111 (flash

without return strokes) and FPL0112. A total of 26 measurement instruments were installed

on the distribution line, and one instrument was installed on the launcher for recording

incident current (see Table B-2 for instrumentation summary). The launcher used was









the tower launcher (see Section 3.1.1), and the downlead from the tower launcher was

connected to the phase A conductor at the mid point between poles 8 and 7. All arresters

used were Cooper Power System 18-kV (see Section 3.4 for details on arresters used). The

flux-compensated voltage dividers (see Mata [2000]) were removed from the line (phases

A, B and C at pole 6 and phase A at pole 2), so that no arrester voltage measurements

were made with this configuration. Ground connections were at the arrester stations (Poles

2, 6, 10, and 14) and at the termination poles (1 and 15). The circuit diagram for this

configuration is shown in Figure B-2.

3.2.3 FPL-C-01 (Strike to Ground 20 m from the Line)

Test configuration FPL-C-01 was used for triggered flash FPL0115 (flash without re-

turn strokes). A total of 26 measurement instruments were installed on the distribution

line and one instrument was installed on the launcher for recording incident current (see

Table B-3 for instrumentation summary). The launcher used was the tower launcher (see

Section 3.1.1), grounded at the tower base and without any metallic connection between

the launcher and the line. All arresters used were Cooper Power System 18-kV (see Sec-

tion 3.4 for details on arresters used). The flux-compensated voltage dividers (see Mata

[2000]) were removed from the line (phases A, B and C at pole 6 and phase A at pole 2),

so that no arrester voltage measurements were made with this configuration. Ground con-

nections were at the arrester stations (Poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and at the termination poles

(1 and 15). The circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in Figure B-3.

3.2.4 FPL-A-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8)

Test configuration FPL-A-02 was used for triggered flashes FPL-0205 (altitude trig-

gered flash), FPL0206 (flash without return strokes), FPL0208, and FPL0210. A total of 24

instruments were installed on the distribution line and 2 instruments were installed on the

launcher for recording incident current (see Table B-4 for instrumentation summary and

Table B-5 for ranges and sensitivity values corresponding to the LeCroy oscilloscopes).

The launcher used was the tower launcher (see Section 3.1.1) and the downlead from the





















-i o
o o o 0 o

















Cl\
cI'



~o





00 0



o0














a\ 0

-~ I,
~0 C-


( N M









intercepting conductor (see Section 3.1.1) was connected to the instrumentation box for the

lightning current injected to the line, placed on the tower, and from there to the phase A

conductor, mid-span between poles 8 and 7. All arresters used were Cooper Power System

18-kV arresters (see Section 3.4 for details on arresters used). Ground connections were at

the arrester stations (Poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and at the termination poles (1 and 15). The

circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in Figure B-4.

3.2.5 FPL-B-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8)

Test configuration FPL-B-02 was used for triggered flashes FPL02132 FPL0218,

FPL02193 FPL0220, and FPL0221 and was the same as FPL-A-02 except that the down-

lead from the intercepting conductor was connected to the instrumentation box for the

lightning current injected to the line, placed on an auxiliary structure build between the

tower launcher and the horizontal line, and from there to the phase A conductor, mid-span

between poles 8 and 7 (see Figure 3-4). Measurement ranges were modified (see Table B-6

for instrumentation summary and Table B-7 for ranges and sensitivity values correspond-

ing to the LeCroy oscilloscopes). The circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in

Figure B-4.

3.2.6 FPL-C-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8)

Test configuration FPL-C-02 was used for triggered flash FPL0226 and was the same

as FPL-B-02 except that there was a thin copper wire connected from the bottom of the

tower launcher directly to ground acting as a "fuse" for the initial stage of each triggered

flash. Measurement ranges were modified (see Table B-8 for instrumentation summary and



2 Strike to ground 20 m from the line and down the tower, because none of the de-
scending leaders of this flash attached to the tower launcher's intercepting conductor (see
Section 3.1.1).

3 The first return stroke (only recorded by the Yokogawa oscilloscopes) was down the
tower to ground 20 m from the line.









Table B-9 for ranges and sensitivity values corresponding to the LeCroy oscilloscopes).

The circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in Figure B-4.

3.2.7 FPL-D-02 (Direct Strike between Poles 7 and 8)

Test configuration FPL-D-02 was used for triggered flashes FPL0228, FPL0229, and

FPL0230 (flash without return strokes) and was the same as FPL-C-02, except that all ar-

resters used were Ohio Brass 18-kV MOV arresters (see Section 3.4 for details on arresters

used). Also, the instrumentation configuration at pole 7 possibly involved in facilitating

flashovers between phases A and B was improved (see Figures A-5 and A-6). Measure-

ment ranges were modified (see Table B-10 for instrumentation summary and Table B-11

for ranges and sensitivity values corresponding to the LeCroy oscilloscopes). The circuit

diagram for this configuration is shown in Figure B-5.

3.2.8 FPL-E-02 (Strike to Ground 100 m from the Line)

Test configuration FPL-E-02 was used for triggered flash FPL0236. A total of 24 in-

struments were installed on the distribution line and 2 instruments were installed on the

launcher for recording incident current. The launcher used was the mobile launcher (see

Section 3.1.2) placed 100 m north of pole 7 (of the vertical line), with a metal strap con-

nected from the bottom of the launcher directly to ground (see Section 3.1.2), so that the

complete flash would be directly injected to ground. All arresters used were Ohio Brass

18-kV MOV arresters (see Section 3.4 for details on arresters used). Ground connections

were at the arrester stations (Poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and at the termination poles (1 and 15).

The circuit diagram for this configuration is shown in Figure B-6.

3.2.9 FPL-F-02 (Strike to Ground 30m from the Line)

Test configuration FPL-F-02 was used for triggered flashes FPL0240 (flash without

return strokes), FPL0241 (flash without return strokes), FPL0244 (flash without return

strokes), FPL0245, and FPL0241 (flash without return strokes), and was the same as FPL-

E-02, except that the mobile launcher was placed 30 m north of pole 7. The circuit diagram

for this configuration is shown in Figure B-6.










3.3 Grounding

The grounding resistances for the vertical-configuration line were modified during

June 2001 (see Mata et al. [2001]) in an effort to equalize the dc grounding resistances

of all the grounded poles. This modification involved adding new grounding rod sections

nearby each grounded pole. Figure 3-8 shows a generalization of the multiple rod sections

added to each pole, where a particular rod section will be referred to as Rn, with n ranging

from 1 (pole closest grounding rod section) to the maximum number of rod sections of any

particular pole. Figure A-11 shows a more specific view of the new rod scheme of each

pole. Since these new rod sections were not following any particular path, their location

will be referred to in Table 3-2 based on phases B and C insulators facing south. No further

changes were made to the grounding scheme of the distribution lines.

SPhase A
Phase B

Phase C


Neutral

S

-:s
Shunt

R

Rodi Rodn






Figure 3-8: Identifiers for the grounding resistance measuring locations for the multiple
rods scheme.


3.4 Arresters

For the 2001 and 2002 experiments, arresters manufactured by Cooper Power Systems

(the same type as the ones used in the 2000 experiments) and Ohio Brass (the same type as

the ones used in the 1999 and 2000 experiments) were used.







32

Table 3-2: Measured grounding resistances (in Q) for the vertical-configuration line, see
Figures 3-8 and A-11.

Measurement Pole Number
Date
Location 1 2 6 10 14 15
S 24 20 18 17.8 28 24
7/31/01 R1 28 24 27 19 22 23


The Cooper Power Systems arresters were used for test configurations FPL-A-01 (Sec-

tion 3.2.1), FPL-B-01 (Section 3.2.2), FPL-C-01 (Section 3.2.3), FPL-A-02 (Section 3.2.4),

FPL-B-02 (Section 3.2.5), and FPL-C-02 (Section 3.2.6); and the Ohio Brass arresters were

used for test configurations FPL-A-01 (Section 3.2.1), FPL-D-02 (Section 3.2.7), FPL-E-

02 (Section 3.2.8), and FPL-F-02 (Section 3.2.9).

The Cooper Power Systems arresters are the UltraSIL Housed VariSTAR Heavy Duty

with a rated voltage of 18 kV. The manufacturer specified V-I characteristic, in response

to an 8/20 pis wave, is given in Table 3-3.

The Ohio Brass arresters are the PDV-100 with rated voltage of 18 kV. The manufac-

turer specified V-I characteristic, in response to an 8/20 ps wave, is given in Table 3-4.

Table 3-3: V-I characteristic of the Cooper cc of t
ow s UTrI Hus VAn- Table 3-4: V-I characteristic of the Ohio
Power Systems UltraSIL Housed VariS-
Brass PDV 100 18 kV MOV arrester.
TAR Heavy Duty 18 kV arrester.
I onlta re',n1 I Cuirronft r-A]


Voltage [kV] Current [kA]
48.5 1.5
51.6 3
53.9 5
58.8 10
65.0 20
73.2 40


49 1.5
52 3
55 5
60 10
70 20
82 40


Arresters were installed at Poles 2, 6, 10 and 14 of the line.

Phase A arresters were replaced after each storm-day when the line was struck by

triggered lightning flashes. In 2002, two new arresters of the same type (Cooper Power









Systems or Ohio Brass) were installed in parallel on the struck phase (A) at each arrester

station.

3.5 Instrumentation

The instrumentation used during the 2001 and 2002 experiments was similar to that

employed during the 1999 and 2000 experiments.

Each measurement was remotely recorded in the Launch Control trailer (see Fig-

ure 3-1) via a pair ofNicolet Isobe 3000 receiver-transmitter and a connecting fiber optic

cable. All the Nicolet Isobe 3000 receivers were housed in the Launch Control trailer,

and all the Nicolet Isobe 3000 transmitters were battery operated and mounted in shielded

containers at the sensor location.

These transmitters were also controlled remotely from the Launch Control trailer by a

wireless communication system (2002 experiments) or by a different communication fiber

optic system (2001 experiments) allowing the remote turning on and off, signal calibration,

and setting of attenuation levels for each transmitter. The equipment housed in the Launch

Control trailer was powered by an independent power generator, and the oscilloscopes,

computers, and fiber optic receivers also have UPS backup.

3.5.1 Sensors

Current Transformers (CTs): CTs used during the 2001 and 2002 experiments were

manufactured by Pearson Electronics, Inc. Three different models were used in the experi-

ment: 110A, 3525 and a clamp-on version (3025C) of the 3025 Pearson coil (see Table 3-5

for a summary of the parameters of these CTs). A total of 18 CTs were used in these ex-

Table 3-5: Parameters for the Pearson Electronics, Inc. Current Transformers (CTs).

Current Output Peak I-t Product Rise Time Frequency
Transformer [V/A] Current [kA] [C] [ns] Response
110A 0.1 10 0.5 20 1 Hz-20 MHz
3025Ca 0.025 20 3.0 100 7 Hz-5 MHz
3525 0.1 10 0.5 25 5 Hz-15 MHz
a These are a clamp-on version of the 3025 model, with a wider bandwidth.
b These are custom built devices; the regular 3525 CT has a maximum peak current of 5 kA.









periments, and they were labeled 110A-n, 5179-n (corresponding to the 3525) and 6801-n

(corresponding to the 3025C) where n=l,...,7.

It is suspected that the CTs used for measuring struck phase and arrester currents

(model 3025C) are inadequate to detect the full duration of the continuing current due

to its inadequate lower frequency response (7 Hz). Currently used CTs (models 3025C

and 3525) were individually tested at the beginning of the 2003 summer and decay times

to an input step function was measured, also cleaning and publishing of the core faces of

these clap-on CTs was performed. The biggest and smallest decay time, corresponding

to the CTs model 3025C, were found to be 79ms and 39ms before cleaning, and 65ms

and 39 ms after cleaning, respectively. For one unit it was not possible to obtain this result

before cleaning it. The biggest and smallest decay time, corresponding to the CTs model

3525, were found to be 61 ms and 24ms before polishing, and 129ms and 41 ms after

polishing, respectively.

Current viewing resistors (CVRs or Shunts): CVRs used during the 2001 and 2002

experiments were low-inductance resistances manufactured by T&M Research Products,

Inc. models R-7000-10 and R-5600-8 (see Table 3-6 for a summary of the parameters of

these CVRs). A total of eight shunts were used in these experiments, and they were labeled

as Shunt#n (where n = 2,..., 9). Shunts 2 through 4 are model R-7000-10, and shunts 5

through 9 are model R-5600-8. These shunts were used to measure currents to ground and

the lightning incident current. Shunts model R-5600-8 were installed on the launchers.

Table 3-6: Parameters for the T&M Research Products, Inc. Current Viewing Resistors.

Energy Power Rise Output Frequency
Model V/A [Q] Rating Rating Time Impedance Response
[J] [W] [ns] [Q] [MHz]
R-5600-8 0.00125 5200 13 0.00125 0-12
R-7000-10 0.001 7000 225 45 0.001 0-9


A 50 Q termination was used on all the CTs and Shunts, reducing the sensor output

by a factor of 2.









3.5.2 Data Recording Equipment

During the 2001 experiment, one Yokogawa DL716 (with 16 12-bit channels labeled

Y18) and seven LeCroy Waverunner LT344L (each with 4 8-bit channels labeled Ln, where

n = 11,..., 17) digitizing oscilloscopes were used, providing 44 digital channels for the

experiment.

During the 2002 experiment, two Yokogawa DL716 (each with 16 12-bit channels

labeled Yn, where n was either 7 or 18), six LeCroy Waverunner LT344L (each with 4

8-bit channels labeled Ln, where n = 11,..., 16), and one LeCroy 9354 (with 4 8-bit

channels labeled L6) digitizing oscilloscopes were used, providing 60 digital channels for

the experiment.

* The Yokogawa DL716 digitizing oscilloscopes have an input bandwidth of 5 MHz for

each of the 16 12-bit channels. All Yokogawa channels were set to sample at a 1 MHz

rate with a continuous record of 4 seconds and a pre-trigger time of 1 second (for all

test configurations of the 2002 experiments) and 200 ms (for all test configurations of the

2001 experiments). The maximum data storage per channel was 16 Mword, and each

channel was set to store 4 Mword.

* The LeCroy Waverunner LT344L digitizing oscilloscopes have a bandwidth of 500 MHz

and four segmentable 8-bit channels. The maximum data storage for each channel is

1,000,000 points. All LeCroy LT344L channels were set to sample at a 20 MHz rate with

a pre-trigger time of 500 ps, each channel being set to record a maximum of five segments

with a data storage of 200,000 points (10 ms) per segment (for test configurations FPL-

A-01, FPL-B-01, FPL-C-01, FPL-A-02, FPL-B-02, and FPL-C-02) or ten segments with

a data storage of 100,000 points (5 ms) per segment (for test configurations FPL-D-02,

FPL-E-02, and FPL-F-02).

* The LeCroy 9354 digitizing oscilloscope has an input bandwidth of 500 MHz and four

segmentable 8-bit channels with a digitization rate of up to 2 GHz. The maximum data

storage for each channel is 500,000 points. All LeCroy 9354 channels were set to sample









at a 20 MHz rate with a pre-trigger time of 500 ps for all test configurations of the 2002

experiments. Each channel was set to record a maximum of five segments with a data

storage of 100,000 points (5 ms) per segment.

* Video and photographic equipment used in the 2001 and 2002 experiments was the

same as that used during the 2000 experiments. All video cameras were standard NTSC

camcorders and consisted of three Sony DV, three Panasonic SVHS, and three Sony Hi8

Hi-Fi that were manually started at the beginning of the storm with either two hour tapes

(Panasonic SVHS and Sony Hi8) or ninety minutes tapes (Sony DV). All still cameras

were Nikon 35-mm SLRs (four) that were remotely triggered at the time of rocket launch

with shutters open for about 5 seconds. Additionally, for the 2002 experiments, records

from a personal JVC DV video camera and a Pentax 35-mm still camera are available for

some events. During the 2001 experiments video records were labeled based on the media

type (see Table 3-7), while during the 2002 experiments video records were labeled based

on the following ids: CB (Camera Box), LC (Launch Control), SAN (Stand Alone North),

SAS (Stand Alone South), and ST (South of Tower), as can be seen in Table 3-8. For more

information regarding the video and still cameras locations and the objects in their field

of view see Tables 3-7 and 3-8 for the 2001 and 2002 experiments, respectively.


























Table 3-7: Camera locations and objects in their fields of view for the summer of 2001
experiments (configurations FPL-A-01 and FPL-B-01, Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2).


Camera Location Objects in the Field of View
S-VHS-la Launch Trailer Tower Launcher
S-VHS-2a Simulated House Current injection point
S-VHS-3a Tower Launcher Current injection point
DV-lb,* Tower Launcher Pole 6, Vertical Configuration
DV-2b Tower Launcher West view of distribution line
DV-3b,* Tower Launcher East view of distribution line
Hi-8-1c Tower Launcher Pole 10, Vertical Configuration
Still 1V Tower Launcher Current injection point
Still 2e Launch Trailer Tower Launcher close-up
* These Cameras were misplaced for configuration FPL-B-01
a Panasonic SVHS c Sony Hi8
b Sony Digital Video Camera e Nikon 35-mm SLR





















Table 3-8: Camera locations and objects in their fields of view for the summer of
2002 experiments (configurations FPL-A-02, FPL-B-02, FPL-C-02 and FPL-D-02 Sec-
tions 3.2.4, 3.2.5, 3.2.6 and 3.2.7).

Camera Location Objects in the Field of View
LCa Launch Trailer Tower Launcher
CB 1 Tower Launcher West view of distribution line
CB2b Tower Launcher Current injection point

STb Field North toward Tower
South of Tower
OFFICEc Main Office Building Tower wide view
SASd Tower Launcher East view of distribution line
SANd Tower Launcher East view of distribution line
CB31 Tower Launcher East view of distribution line
Still 1V Launcher Trailer Tower Launcher
Still 2e Tower Launcher Current injection point
Still 3e Tower Launcher East view of distribution line

Still 4 Field North toward Tower
South of Tower
Still 5-f Main Office Building Tower wide view


a Panasonic SVHS
b Sony Digital Video Camera
c JVC Digital Video Camera


d Sony Hi8
" Nikon 35-mm SLR
f Pentax 35-mm SLR















CHAPTER 4
OVERVIEW OF TESTS

All tests during 2001 and 2002 were performed on the UF/FPL distribution line having

a modified vertical configuration. Lightning current was intended to be directly injected

into either the phase A (top phase) conductor (direct strikes test) or ground (nearby strikes

test).

Table 4-1: Summary of launches for the 2001 and 2002 experiments.

Rockets Triggered Flashes
Year Test
Launched Classical Altitude Wireburna
Direct 12 4 4
2001
Nearby 3 1
Total 15 4 5
Direct 30 10 1 2
2002
Nearby 17 3 3
Total 47 13 1 5
a Flash containing the initial stage only (no return strokes).
6 During these tests some current flowed to ground through the tower (resulting in
neaby strikes).


4.1 2001 Experiments

During the period from July 26 to September 5 of 2001, there were a total of 15 rockets

fired (see Table 4-1) from the tower launcher, yielding a total of 9 flashes (probability of

triggering of 60 %) including

* 4 (44.4 %) Classical triggered lightning flashes containing at least one return stroke (a

total of 14) and

* 5 (55.6 %) Classical triggered lightning flashes containing no return strokes (wireburns).

In all tests, lightning current was injected into the phase A conductor except for

FPL0115 which was a triggered lightning strike to ground 20 m from the line (down the

tower launcher).









Table 4-2: Summary of the launches and strikes to the vertically-configured test distribu-
tion line during the 2001 experiments.


e Number Maximum
Date Flash ID Result of RS RS current Configuration
UT recorded peak [kA]b


Flash
21:26:42 FPL0101 sh- N/A
without RS
7/26/01 Flash
21:32:45 FPL0102 h N/A
without RS
21:35:00 FPL0103 No trigger
20:51:00 FPL0104 No trigger
Flash FPL-A-01
21:01:45 FPL0105 ash N/A F A
without RS
21:43:02 FPL0106 No trigger
7/27/01 Flash
21:50:58 FPL0107 Fsh 2 12.0
with RS
Flash
21:58:06 FPL0108 s 5 23.9
with RS
22:56:00 FPL0109 No trigger
Flash
23:45:09 FPL0110 s 1 9.9
with RS
8/18/01 Flash FPL-B-01
23:50:46 FPL0111
without RS
Flash
23:56:00 FPL0112 Fsh 6" 28.1
with RS
22:43:00 FPL0113 No trigger
9/5/01 22:45:00 FPLO114 No trigger FPL-C-0
9/5/01 FPL-C-01
Flash
22:56:00 FPL0115 .as 3.5
without RS
a By LeCroy and Yokowaga oscilloscopes.
b Values from LeCroy oscilloscope raw data.
Recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope, the Lecroys recorded only 5.


All flashes containing return strokes had multiple return strokes except for FPL0110

which was a single-stroke flash.

For the two test configurations using the tower launcher (see Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

any portion of the lightning flash current such as the ICC, return strokes, and CC was









completely injected into the power line (assuming there were no flashovers on the tower),

this being a representative case of a direct lightning strike to the line.

A summary of launches and strikes is given in Table 4-2, where specified are the

configuration for each flash, the maximum number of strokes recorded on both types of

oscilloscopes (see Section 3.5.2), and the peak current value of the largest return stroke of

each flash.

A brief description for each storm day during which lightning flashes were triggered

is given below.

* 7/26/01: flashes FPL0101 and FPL0102 (both flashes without return strokes), there were

no obvious arcs or damaged arresters on the line. There are neither current nor voltage

records for these events.

* 7/27/01: flashes FPL0105 (flash without return strokes), FPL0107 and FPL0108. Mea-

surements IN3, IA6, JB6, Ic6, and IAN14 were lost for the day, also measurements VAB6,

VAN6, and VCNG are not available (recording devices were disconnected). Unintended

connections to ground at poles 5 and 11 were present. From video records: 1) it is as-

sumed that the phase A arrester at Pole 2 was damaged by the initial continuous current

of flash FPL0105 (which was a flash without return strokes), 2) it is assumed that phase

A arrester at pole 6 failed, presumably during the second return stroke of event FPL0107,

but from current records it seems that this arrester failed prior to the occurance of any re-

turn stroke of event FPL0107. Based on visual observations made during this day events,

arcs might have occurred close to the striking point (phase A conductor at pole 8). Visual

inspection made close to the strike point next day of these events revealed multiple burn-

marks on the phase A and B conductors and on the base of the phase B insulator. The

strike point was moved mid-span between poles 7 and 8 for the next test configuration

(see Section 3.2.2).









* 8/18/01: flashes FPL0110, FPL0111 (flash without return strokes) and FPL0112. Mea-

surements IG2, IN3, ICG, and IAN14 were lost for the day. From video records, it is as-

sumed that the phase A arrester at pole 10 failed, presumably during the initial continuous

current of event FPL0110, the failure of the phase A arrester at pole 14 was associated

with the initial continuous current of flash FPLO11 (flash without return strokes), and

phase A arrester at pole 2 failed, presumably during the initial continuous current of flash

FPL0112. Thus, after flash FPL0112 all phase A arresters except the one on pole 6 were

found failed, even though, from current records, it seems that the arrester current instru-

mentation at pole 6 did not record any considerable current for all the events.

* 9/05/01: flash FPL0115 (flash without return strokes) whose current was injected into

the ground for studying induced effects. Measurements IN3, IA6, IC6, and IAN14 were

lost for the day.

In summary, during the 2001 experiments the vertical-configuration line was subjected

to a total of one nearby flash and 8 flashes whose currents were directly injected into the

line, 4 of which contained multiple return strokes (a total of 14 return strokes). One of

these flashes (FPL0110) was the only single stroke flash of the season. Three of four

flashes containing return strokes were triggered with at least one failed arrester already on

the line (see Section 4.1). One arrester failed presumably during the ICC (FPL0110) for

the only flash that had no previously failed arresters on the line. One flash with return

strokes (FPL0112) was triggered when the line contained two failed arresters (phase A at

pole 10, failure associated with flash FPL0110, and phase A at pole 14, failure associated

with flash FPL0111), resulting in the failure of a third arrester (phase A at pole 2). During

summer 2001, no evidence of trailing wires on the line were found after any event and

possible flashovers (probably between phase A and phase B conductors at Pole 8) were

observed during two flashes (FPL0107 and FPL0108). Out of the eight direct triggered

flashes to the modified vertical configuration, only flashes FPL0101 and FPL0102 (both

flashes without return strokes) showed no evidence of failed arresters (though no initial









stage current records are avaibale for these events). Flash FPL0115 (flash without return

strokes) was the only nearby triggered lightning flash (whose current was injected into

ground 15 meters to the north of pole 8 of the vertical-configuration line) in an attempt to

measure induced voltages and currents on the line.

4.2 2002 Experiments

During the period from June 07 to September 13 of 2002, there were a total of 47

rockets fired (see Table 4-1) from the tower and the mobile launcher, yielding a total of 19

flashes (probability of triggering of 40.4 %), including

* 13 (68.4 %) Classical triggered lightning flashes containing at least one return stroke (a

total of 77 return strokes1 ),

* 5 (26.3 %) Classical triggered lightning flashes containing no return strokes (wireburns)

and

* 1 (5.3 %) Altitude triggered lightning flash that terminated on Instrument Station 1 (see

Figure 3-1), containing four return strokes.



Direct strikes

From 06/07/02 to 08/02/02 there were a total of 30 rockets launched which

resulted in 13 flashes (9 flashes containing multiple return strokes, one single-

stroke flash, 2 flashes without return strokes, and one altitude triggered flash).

All direct triggered lightning flashes were intended to be injected into the phase

A conductor of the modified vertical configuration, mid-span between poles 8

and 7.



1 These return strokes involve all the ones recorded by the Yokogawa oscilloscopes, the
LeCroy Waverunner LT344L oscilloscopes stored a total of 40 segments of which 38 were
return strokes and 2 were M-components.









The only modification made to the test line in 2002 compared to the end of

2001 was installing two arresters instead of one on the struck phase conductor

(phase A).

The initial continuous current was essentially blocked from reaching the line

for all direct strikes by a new modification to the tower launching facility.

Nearby strikes

From 08/15/02 to 09/13/02 there were a total of 17 rockets launched which

resulted in 6 flashes; one single-stroke flash triggered 100 meters north of the

vertical line, 2 flashes containing multiple return strokes and 3 flashes with-

out return strokes triggered 30 meters north of the vertical line. Also, during

the direct strikes test, there was one flash to ground down the launch tower

20 m from the line containing multiple return strokes and one additional return

stroke from one flash to the line which went to ground at the launch tower at

20m.

For different test configurations using the tower launcher (see Sections 3.2.4, 3.2.5,

3.2.6, and 3.2.7) any portion of the lightning flash current such as ICC, return strokes, and

CC could be 1) completely injected into the power line; 2) completely injected into ground

through the tower launcher grounding system, where no lightning current was injected

into the line, only induced effects from lightning within 20 m being observed and 3) a

combination of 1) and 2), which resulted in current splitting between the line and the tower

launcher ground, this being a representative case of lightning simultaneously striking a line

and another object nearby, for example, a tree.

A summary of launches and strikes is given in Table 4-3, where specified are the

configuration for each flash, the maximum number of strokes recorded on any of the types

of oscilloscopes (see Section 3.5.2), and the peak current value of the largest return stroke

of each flash.









A summary of the 2002 strikes is given in Table 4-4 where return strokes are organized

by the two types of oscilloscopes which recorded them and also by the three previously

mentioned possible current injection scenarios. Further, the strike location is specified.

A brief description for each storm day during which lightning flashes were triggered

is given below.

* 07/09/02: flashes FPL0205 (Altitude Trigger), FPL0206 (flash without return strokes),

FPL0208, and FPL0210. The first tower launcher test configuration (see Section 3.2.4)

was prone to flashover on the tower. From video records and still pictures arcs were seen

to occur at the tower for the two triggered flashes recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscopes

(FPL0208 and FPL0210). From video records of flash FPL0210, some arcing is seen

on the horizontally-configured line at the beginning of the event, which might have been

caused by trailing wire left by the previous unsuccessful launch and apparent arcing from

phase B to phase C, later in the event. These apparent arcs could possibly be raindrop

reflection.

* 07/19/02: flash FPL0213. From current waveforms, it appears that no current was di-

rectly injected into the line for this event since both LeCroy and Yokogawa records show

only current in the tower launcher, and some induced current in the line. From video

records it seems that all return strokes were attached to the launcher, and none seem to

attach to the intercepting conductor. No arcs are seen on the lines.

* 07/20/02: flashes FPL0218, FPL0219, FPL0220, and FPL0221. Measurement IG15 was

lost for this storm day and IN3 was unreliable. From still pictures, it appears that there

was some arcing on the tower. There was considerable current in phase B (closest phase

to phase A, the struck one) which might have been caused by an instrumentation device

facilitating flashovers from phase A to phase B.

From video records:

FPL0218: No arcs seen. For this event, the lightning current appears to split between

the line and the launcher.









FPL0219: There is some visible arcing at Pole 7 corresponding to the first return stroke,

and there is no other visual evidence of arcs on the line.

FPL0220: There is a definite light source near poles 1-3. Although weather obscures

the exact location, it is assumed that there was an arc at pole 2 (arrester failure) dur-

ing the first return stroke. After this, several arcs are seen at Pole 7 from phase A to

presumably phase B for the following five return strokes.

FPL0221: No arcs visible, but some cameras were obscured by rocket exhaust. For

this event the majority of return stroke currents appear to split between the line and the

launcher.

* 07/25/02: flash FPL0226. Measurement IG15 was lost for this storm day, and IN3

was unreliable. There was considerable current in phase B (closest phase to phase A,

the struck one) which might have been caused by an instrumentation device facilitating

flashovers from phase A to phase B. From video records, it appears that a trailing wire

(left by a previous unsuccessful launch) helped divert to ground the first return stroke

current injected into the line. The second return stroke caused sustained light emission

near Pole 10 (presumably associated with Phase A arrester failure) and again two strokes

later. Both of these appear to continue longer than the strokes which cause them. The last

two return strokes initiated arcs on Pole 6, near the Phase B mounting point (presumably

associated with Phase A arrester failure). There was also light emission near Pole 1 or 2

coincident with the last return stroke (presumably associated with Phase A arrester failure

at Pole 2).

* 08/02/02: flashes FPL0228 and FPL0229. There was some problem with IG14 measure-

ment for flash FPL0228, and IN3 was unreliable for both flashes. From video records:

* FPL0228: Arcs are clearly visible from phase A to phase B at Poles 7 and 8, which

most likely correspond to the first return stroke. After that, an arc from phase A to phase

B at Pole 7 repeatedly occurred during the following return strokes. During the final









return stroke, there is some luminous activity near Pole 1 or 2, which might correspond

to phase A arrester failure at Pole 2.

FPL0229: There is a repeatedly occurring arc from phase A to phase B on Pole 7, and

also, later in the event, an apparent arc, most likely from phase B to phase C, can be

seen on Pole 8.

In summary, during the direct strike tests of the 2002 experiments, there were a total

of 13 triggered flashes (10 classical with return strokes, 1 altitude and 2 classical without

return strokes) from 30 attempts, resulting in 64 return strokes2 from which 39 were di-

rectly injected into the power line, 17 resulted in the current splitting between the tower

launcher and the line, and 8 resulted in nearby return strokes.3

During the nearby strike tests of the 2002 experiments, there were a total of 6 trig-

gered flashes (3 classical with return strokes and 3 classical without return strokes) from

17 attempts, resulting in 13 return strokes.4

Although during the 2002 experiments two arresters in parallel were used on the struck

phase at each arrester station, for the direct strikes, arresters were found failed on three

storm days (7/20/02, 7/25/02, and 8/02/02) of a total of five during which return stroke

currents of triggered lightning flashes were intended to be injected into the line. It should

be noted that in one of the storm days (7/19/02), no arresters were found failed on the

line, but all return strokes were injected into the ground (20 m north from the line near the

middle) through the tower launcher. For flashes FPL0208 to FPL0226 an instrumentation



2 Recorded by the Yokogawas, the LeCroys recording 37 return strokes and 2 M-
components.

3 Four of these strokes were down the launch tower 20 m north of the line, and the re-
maining four strokes were injected into Instrument Station 1, due to an unintended altitude
trigger, see Figure 3-1.

4 The Yokogawas recorded 12 return strokes none of them recorded by the LeCroys and
the LeCroys recorded only 1 return stroke not recorded by the Yokogawas.







48

device (at pole 7) might possibly have helped drain some current from phase A (struck

phase) to phase B (closest phase to the struck one), most likely via a flashover. During the

three storm days that arresters were found failed on the line, the only single arrester station

failure was found after storm day 08/02/02, where phase A arrester at pole 2 was found

failed. For the remaining two storm days in which failed arrester were found on the line,

multiple arrester stations failures were found, these being phase A arrester at poles 2, 6,

10, and 14 for storm day 7/20/02, and phase A arrester at poles 2, 6, and 10 for storm day

07/25/02. The arrester failures during 2002 can not be attributed to initial stage currents,

since these currents were effectively diverted away from the line.

















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CHAPTER 5
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS (DIRECT STRIKES)

In this chapter, parameters of the 2001 and 2002 return strokes and of the 2002 initial

stage currents are presented, additionally, the distribution of charge among the different

arresters and grounded poles is calculated for selected events from 2002, and correspond-

ing current waveforms are presented. Finally a simple ATP model of a single-phase line

with two arresters is analyzed and the results related to the observed features of incident

lightning currents are presented.

A summary of return strokes recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscopes is shown in Ta-

bles 5-1 and 5-2 where maximum peak current,1 universal time and time from the pre-

vious event (if not the first recorded event) are shown. Two particular events presented in

Table 5-2, labeled RS6 of flashes FPL0226 and FPL0229, are apparently M-components

that were recorded in individual LeCroy segments.

A different numbering (labeling) scheme of recorded events resulted during the 2002

experiments due to the different capabilities of the oscilloscopes used, where not all the

events recorded by the Yokogawas2 were recorded by the LeCroys.3 During the 2001



1 These peak current values corresponds to raw data, that is, no filtering of the data has
been done to populate these tables (5-1 and 5-2).
2 These oscilloscopes were set to record a total of four continuous seconds; one second
of pre-trigger time and three seconds after trigger.

3 These oscilloscopes (the Waverunners LT344L) were set to record five or ten segments
(10 or 5 ms, respectively) after trigger.









Table 5-1: Summary of strokes whose currents were directly
vertically-configured test distribution line during summer 2001.


injected into the


Dateh RSa Time [UT] Peak Currentb
Date Flash ID
order RS previous RS [kA]
1 21:50:58.132272 12.0
FPL0107
2 21:50:58.607249 0.474977 11.1
1 21:58:06.759791 21.5
7/27/01 2 21:58:06.925620 0.165829 22.1
FPL0108 3 21:58:07.324398 0.398382 23.9
4 21:58:07.433775 0.109772 16.2
5 21:58:07.557507 0.123732 17.1
FPL0110 1 23:45:09.511217 9.9
1 23:56:00.302483 28.1
2 23:56:00.365636 0.06364 20.1
8/18/01
FPL0112 3 23:56:00.458852 0.093216 17.1
4 23:56:00.636574 0.177657 15.9
5 23:56:00.715497 0.078986 6.0
Labeling of the events corresponding to the data acquired by the LeCroy oscilloscopes.
b These values corresponds to raw data, no data diltering is involved.


experiments this limitation did not occur, since only one flash4 had more return strokes

than could be recorded in the five (10 ms) segments of the LeCroys.

Because of the different tower configurations used for the 2002 experiments (see Sec-

tion 3.1.1), where the lightning incident current, in some cases, divided between the tower

launcher and the test line, Table 5-3 shows two recorded event labeling schemes. the first

one, used with the Yokogawa oscilloscopes, is more complete, but, since most of the anal-

ysis and waveforms presented in this document correspond to the LeCroy oscilloscopes

records, the labeling scheme used in this document corresponds to the LeCroy labeling

scheme. This table shows the correspondence of events recorded by both LeCroy and

Yokogawa oscilloscopes, and also the incident current path for any recorded event.


4 Flash FPL0112, with a total of six return strokes.









Table 5-2: Summary of strokes intended to be directly injected into the vertically-
configured test distribution line during summer 2002.

Dah ID RS [ Time [UT] Peak Currentb
Date Flash ID
order RS previous RS [kA]
FPL0208 1 16:35:05.072628 14.8
7/9/02
FPL0210 1 16:43:14.688480 10.5
1 21:58:05.813167 6.1
7/19/02 FPL0213
2 21:58:06.041278 0.228111 8.8
FPL0218 1 20:19:18.546040 13.2
1 20:26:32:545161 14.6
FPL0219
2 20:26:32:.718503 0.173340 22.7
1 20:39:58.172685 11.0
2 20:39:58.360231 0.187545 19.1
3 20:39:58.426260 0.066029 17.7
FPL0220
4 20:39:58.552635 0.126376 14.6
7/20/02
5 20:39:58.558800 0.006165 7.4
6 20:39:58.580432 0.021631 18.6
1 20:51:42.721567 10.4
2 20:51:42.758266 0.036700 11.8
FPL0221 3 20:51:42.800572 0.042306 12.7
4 20:51:42.824356 0.022701 8.6
5 20:51:42.931172 0.106816 23.0
1 21:41:10.012786 26.9
2 21:41:10.071219 0.058433 10.1
3 21:41:10.244688 0.173469 6.2
7/25/02 FPL0226
4 21:41:10.249526 0.004838 9.3
5 21:41:10.405462 0.155933 26.3
6 21:41:10.416592 0.011130 6.7
1 00:20:15.797340 21.2
2 00:20:15.829588 0.032248 14.0
3 00:20:15.861836 0.084856 9.2
FPL0228
4 00:20:15.911926 0.050087 25.1
5 00:20:16.258172 0.346247 33.9
6 00:20:16.428915 0.171739 21.4
1 00:55:23.706576 13.5
8/02/02 2 00:55:23.709528 0.002952 9.5
3 00:55:23.748288 0.038760 20.6
4 00:55:23.777737 0.029449 13.2
FPL0229 5 00:55:23.789713 0.011976 7.0
6 00:55:23.794730 0.005017 6.7
7 00:55:23.811019 0.016289 9.8
8 00:55:23.854113 0.043094 8.1
9 00:55:23.935826 0.081711 27.4
O Labeling of the events corresponding to the data acquired by the LeCroy oscilloscopes.
b These values corresponds to raw data, no data diltering is involved.




































































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5.1 Characterization of Measured Current

Figure 5-1 shows the low-level incident current of flash FPL0228 recorded using

Yokogawa oscilloscopes displayed on a relative time scale, since the "zero" time corre-

sponds to the trigger time and the system triggered during the Initial Current Variation

(ICV). These records are intentionally clipped at 1.5 kA, so that low-level current details

can be observed in this figure. Since this flash was triggered with the "intercepting con-

ductor" installed above the tower launcher (see Section 3.1.1) there are two records shown:

a) the top figure corresponds to the launcher or tower current that was drained to ground,

and b) the bottom figure corresponds to the intercepting conductor ("ring") current or the

current that was injected into the test line.

The tower current apparently shows only the Initial Stage (IS) of the flash, since the

rocket's copper wire is physically connected to the metalic part of the tower launcher,

which is connected to ground. This copper wire is destroyed by the current corresponding

to the Upward Positive Leader (UPL) and replaced by a plasma channel. The following

initial continuous current (ICC) lowers charge of the order of tens of coulombs from the

cloud charge region to ground. After the cessation of the ICC, dart leader-return stroke

sequences follow (as can be seen on Figure 5-1 b). These sequences usually, follow the

same path (the previously formed channel) as the ICC, although descending dart leaders are

likely to terminate on the "intercepting conductor", since it is located above the launcher.

Thus, it is likely that the current into the line contains only return strokes current pulses

(and any CC that might follow return strokes) as is clearly seen on Figure 5-1 b. On the

other hand, the tower current might have some return stroke current (Figure 5-1 a), since

it is possible that flashovers between both structures (launcher and intercepting conductor)

occur, or that induced currents might appear in the structure not subjected to direct current

injection. In Figure 5-1 one can identify several processes characteristic of both natural

upward and triggered lightning. One of these is the IS (see Section 5.1.2) preceded by
















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precursor pulses (see Section 5.1.2.1). The IS includes the ICC and usually exhibits the

ICV (see Section 5.1.2.2).

After the IS, six return strokes follow (the same as or very similar to subsequent

strokes in natural lightning Uman [2001], Rakov [2001]). Only one of these return strokes

(return stroke 3) is not followed by CC. M-components after RS1 are not resolved in this

figure, but they can be seen on Figure 5-2. Larger M-components after return stroke 4,

during a considerably longer period (a few hundred milliseconds) of continuing current

(CC), are seen in Figure 5-1. Figure 5-2 shows high (top) and low (bottom) level incident

current injected into the line. Dashed lines indicate the "severe" saturation level (which

corresponds to the limit of the scope) and dotted lines indicate the "light" saturation level

(which corresponds to the 100 % range of the ISOBE). Note on Figure 5-2 a (high-level

current) only two M-components are resolved, labeled Ml and M2 (note that the mag-

nitude of this second M-component is approximately 1/3 of the peak value of the return

stroke. On Figure 5-2 b (low-level current) four M-components are resolved. Part of the

return stroke and the fourth labeled M-component (corresponding to the one labeled 2 on

Figure 5-2 a) are saturated.

IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21 41 7 322 EDT ILR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21 41 7 044 EDT
30 7
30--------------------------- --------------------------------
S RS1 6 RS1 M4


S" 4- Ml
55

1^ \ i^-M2 M3

M1

0 0
a) b)
-5 -
1 0 1 2 3 4 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Time, ms Time, ms


Figure 5-2:
Return stroke 1 in flash FPL0226 (LeCroy data) showing multiple M-components, a) high
and, b) low-level current injected into the line.















V V







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For father illustration of M-components (Rakov et al. [2001]) see Figure 5-3, which

shows waveforms (LeCroy records) corresponding to return stroke 1 of flash FPL0226 on

a 5 ms time scale.

Figure 5-3 shows an overview of the M-component distribution among the different

measuring locations on the line. The high-level incident current injected into the line (cen-

ter top), arrester currents (top row), phase A and B line currents at poles 7 and 6 (middle

figures of rows two and three), phase A and B termination resistor currents (righmost fig-

ures in rows two and three), neutral currents (fourth row), and ground currents (bottom

row). For this event, there are no records available of current to ground at pole 15. As

can be seen on the arrester current figures, it appears that the M-component current is

shared between the arresters closest to the striking point. The grounded poles closest to the

strike point drain some of this current to ground, although the contribution of the current

to ground at pole 2 is obviously greater than those closer to the striking point. A similar

representation of this event but on a 100 ps time scale, can be seen in Figure 5-24.

5.1.1 Parameters of Return-Stroke Current Waveforms

For the calculation of the incident current parameters presented in this section, a two-

point averaging anti-causal zero-phase filter (MATLAB [1996]) was used to filter the raw

data in order to reduce the noise of the current waveform and to facilitate the process of

parameters calculation; an illustration of the difference in the data between using this filter

and not using it is shown in Figure 5-4.

Based on the Incident Current recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscopes during the

2001 and 2002 experiments, return strokes statistical parameters are shown in Tables 5-4

and 5-5.

It is worth noting the difference between the 2001 and the 2002 Incident Currents. For

the former, there was a fixed metal strap attached from the tower launcher to the line during

all the tests. For the latter, different tower configurations (see Section 3.1.1) were used, in

which a metal strap was connected to the line from an "u" shaped intercepting conductor










IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21 41 7 322 EDT


Time, 0
) a) -5
10 20 30 40 -10
us


b)
10 20 30 40
us


Figure 5-4: Example of a return stroke waveform displayed as: a) raw data and, b) filtered
data with a two-point averaging anti-causal zero-phase filter.

Table 5-4: Parameters of return-stroke current waveforms for flashes triggered at the
ICLRT during summer 2001 (a time window of 1 ms was used to calculate the charge).


Peak 10-90%-rise 50%-decay max(dl/dt) Charge
Flash ID RS
[kA] [P/s] [[Ps] [kA/ps] [C]
FPL0107 1 11.70 0.90 29.45 41.90 1.36
2 10.72 1.30 24.45 19.45 1.25
FPL0108 1 21.05 1.30 41.80 38.91 1.89
2 21.65 1.40 32.35 56.86 2.25
3 23.67 1.45 18.20 31.43 7.30
4 15.89 0.95 27.65 46.39 2.16
5 16.64 1.30 25.60 46.39 1.43
FPL0110 1 9.73 1.55 24.00 10.48 0.72
FPL0112 1 28.19 1.45 57.70 65.84 4.27
2 19.89 1.35 33.35 46.39 2.38
3 16.90 1.45 34.60 38.91 1.67
4 15.70 1.65 15.50 49.38 2.70
5 5.97 1.90 16.90 10.48 0.54
Mean (13) 16.75 1.38 29.35 38.68 2.30
Geo. Mean (13) 15.54 1.36 27.54 33.92 1.85
Std. Dev. (13) 6.19 0.26 11.37 16.80 1.78
Median (13) 16.64 1.40 27.65 41.90 1.89
Minimum (13) 5.97 0.90 15.50 10.48 0.54
Maximum (13) 28.19 1.90 57.70 65.84 7.30
Numbers in parentheses are sample sizes.


installed above the tower launcher, and the launcher was either directly connected to ground


or was not.


Time,


-5
10
b)


IHR, Flash FPL0226, Stroke 1, July 25, 2002, 21 41 7 322 EDT









Table 5-5: Parameters of return-stroke current waveforms for flashes triggered at the
ICLRT during summer 2002 (a time window of 1 ms was used to calculate the charge).

Peak 10-90%-rise 50%-decay max(dl/dt) Charge
Flash ID RS
[kA] [Ps] [PLs] [kA/ps] [C]
FPL0219 2 22.43 1.55 8.85 36.02 2.16
FPL0220 2 18.71 1.50 17.00 40.53 1.07
3 17.47 1.25 7.85 24.77 1.34
4 14.10 1.45 5.55 40.53 0.76
5 7.01 1.90 14.05 18.01 0.37
6 18.38 1.55 14.40 38.27 1.00
FPL0221 2 11.55 0.55 14.90 33.77 0.67
3 12.33 0.45 26.55 27.02 0.76
FPL0226 1 27.98 2.50 33.05 31.10 3.82
2 10.43 1.50 10.50 10.37 0.56
3 6.36 1.55 6.40 10.37 0.52
4 9.39 1.40 12.55 19.25 0.35
5 27.31 1.20 13.65 37.03 1.89
FPL0228 2 13.90 1.30 17.50 24.15 0.89
3 9.14 1.40 6.50 17.05 0.44
4 25.05 1.50 18.90 46.88 2.35
5 33.72 1.30 30.75 56.82 3.12
6 21.43 1.15 9.75 26.99 2.19
FPL0229 2 9.39 2.00 27.65 8.52 0.57
3 20.61 1.50 24.55 36.93 1.33
4 12.94 1.45 17.60 21.31 0.74
5 6.76 6.80 38.80 8.52 0.99
7 9.74 1.45 12.20 11.36 1.15
8 7.90 2.05 20.90 8.52 0.52
9 27.14 1.50 31.60 61.08 1.93
Mean (25) 16.05 1.67 17.68 27.81 1.26
Geo. Mean (25) 14.28 1.47 15.39 23.64 1.01
Std. Dev. (25) 7.85 1.15 9.30 14.96 0.90
Median (25) 13.90 1.50 14.90 26.99 0.99
Minimum (25) 6.36 0.45 5.55 8.52 0.35
Maximum (25) 33.72 6.80 38.80 61.08 3.82
Numbers in parentheses are sample sizes.


All the return strokes recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscopes were analyzed in order to

complete Table 5-4. For the purpose of populating Table 5-5 only selected return strokes,

the ones completely injected into the power line and recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscopes,







were analyzed. This selection was based on the incident current path as presented on
Table 5-3.
5.1.2 Initial Stage Current
The IS current is characteristic of rocket-triggered lightning and natural lightning ini-
tiated from tall structures (Uman [2001], Miki et al. [2002]). One feature of the IS ob-
served in rocket-triggered lightning current record is the ICV (see Wang et al. [1999a],
Section 5.1.2.2, Figure 5-8) which is not present in natural lightning initiated from tall
structures since it is associated with the destruction of the triggering wire and its replace-
ment by a plasma channel (Rakov et al. [2003]).
ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20:18:45 EDT
2 .5 1 I I I I I I I I


0 100 200 300 40(
Time, ms


0 500 600 700 800


Figure 5-5: Initial stage as seen in the low-level tower current record of event FPL0218
(Yokogawa data).

The IS could have impulsive components superimposed on the initial continuous cur-
rent (typical ICC pulses are seen in Figure 5-1, and unusually numerous ICC pulses in


U


-0.5
-100


I I I I I I I I


Al


V4


,UI









Figure 5-5). Processes giving rise to ICC pulses resemble the M processes observed dur-

ing the continuing current that often follow return strokes in both natural and triggered

lightning (Wang et al. [1999a], Rakov et al. [2001]).

Table 5-6: Initial stage parameters of flashes triggered at the ICLRT during summer 2002
(charge has been calculated over the specified duration of the event).

Current [A]
Flash ID Charge [C] Duration [ms] Current [A]
Average Maximum
FPL0213 71.89 561.45 128.05 243.42
FPL0218 185.26 742.90 249.37 2398.03
FPL0219 130.13 626.52 207.70 1694.31
FPL0220 35.75 393.77 90.80 911.01
FPL0221 11.34 250.53 45.27 130.70
FPL0226 134.24 781.85 171.70 547.59
FPL0228 36.64 489.25 74.89 685.38
FPL0229 15.15 276.92 54.69 1854.86
Mean (8) 77.55 515.40 127.81 1058.17
Geo. Mean (8) 51.86 478.12 108.48 731.50
Std. Dev. (8) 64.71 199.90 75.04 826.35
Median (8) 54.27 525.35 109.42 798.20
Minimum (8) 11.34 250.53 45.27 130.70
Maximum (8) 185.26 781.85 249.37 2398.03
a Found as the IS charge divided by the IS duration.
Numbers in parentheses are sample sizes.


According to Wang et al. [1999a], who used 37 channel-base current records obtained

at Fort McClellan (1994), Alabama and at Camp Blanding, Florida (1996 and 1997), the IS

of rocket triggered lightning effectively lowers to ground a GM charge of 27 C, over the GM

duration of 279 ms and has a GM average current of 96 A. Using 8 current records, obtained

during the 2002 experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida, it was found that a GM charge of

52 C was effectively lowered to ground over the GM duration of 478 ms, resulting on a GM

average current of 108 A, as can be seen in Table 5-6. This table presents IS parameters

calculated based on the Yokogawa data (obtained during the 2002 experiments). Yokogawa

data from the 2001 experiments and from events FPL0206 (flash without return strokes),

FPL0208 and FPL0210 are not included since no DC-coupled incident current records are

available.









All data related to the initial stage were obtained from Yokogawa records, which were

first used in the 2001 experiments (see Section 3.5.2), during which, a pre-trigger time of

200 ms was used. This pre-trigger time was insufficient for the purpose of recording the

complete IS currents, so for the 2002 experiments it was increased to 1 s. For both years,

the Yokogawa oscilloscopes were set to store a continuous 4 s record length sampling at

1 MHz.

5.1.2.1 Precursor current pulses

Precursor pulses are a series of pulses (or groups of pulses) with initial amplitudes of

tens of amperes (Lalande et al. [1998]) which occur prior to the onset of the IS, and they

are apparently associated with unsuccessful attempts of the inception of an upward positive

leader (e.g., Rakov [1999]).

Precursor pulses can be seen in Figure 5-6 b). The "zero" time on Figure 5-6 a)

correspond to the time the system triggered, and current records are intentionally clipped

at 400 A. The remaining portion of the IS can be seen on Figure 5-5. Figure 5-6 c) shows

a burst of pulses prior to the onset of the upward positive leader. Both, Figures 5-6 b) and

c) are shown on a time window of 450 ps.

During the 2001 experiments, out of a total of five events recorded during the di-

rect strike tests (see Table 4-2), two of them (FPL0111, flash without return strokes, and

FPL0112) show few precursor pulses, while for the remaining three recorded events, it is

not possible to obtain this information since the system triggered on the first return stroke,

with the pre-trigger time (200 ms) being not enough to obtain the complete IS of those

particular events. As to the previously mentioned events, FPLO11 shows numerous pro-

nounced precursor pulses, while FPL0112 shows just a few pulses.
















03

02-

01-
01




-0 1 I-
05 ..06 07 0
Tin




ILTy, Flash FPL0218, 07/20/02, 20 18 45 EDT
007

006
005

004 -

0 03
002

S001


-001

-002 b)
-003
05197 05197 05198 05198 05199 05199 052 052 05201 05201
Time, s


ILTy, Flash FPLO218, 07/20/02, 20 18 45 EDT


08778 08778 08779 08779 0878 0878 0878 08781 08781
Time, s


Figure 5-6: Illustration of precursor pulses corresponding to flash FPL0218 (obtained
from low-level incident current records, Yokogawa data).



During the 2002 experiments, of a total of eleven5 events recorded during the direct


strike tests, one event (flash FPL0220) shows no evidence at all of precursos pulses and


event FPL0213 shows many pulses essentially without quiet intervals. Of the nine remain-


ing events, five show numerous and pronounced precursor pulses, and only a few of these


pulses can be seen in the remaining four.





5 Neither FPL0205 nor FPL0230 events are included here because no incident current

records are available. The former event was an altitude trigger with all return strokes
terminating on the instrument station 1, and there are no records for the latter event.


0







68

Precursor pulses observed during the 2001 and 2002 experiments have amplitudes6

ranging from 20 to 90 A, showing in several cases bipolar behavior whenever these pulses

exceeded 10 A.

For a summary of precursor pulses occurrence during these experiments, see Ta-

ble 5-7, where precursor pulses observed in Yokogawa records are grouped in three cat-

egories. In one flash, FPL0220, no precursor pulses were detected. Events FPL0107,

FPL0108, and FPL0110 are not included since no (or incomplete) IS records are avail-

able because the system triggered on first return stroke and the Yokogawa pre-trigger time

(during 2001) was 200 ms.

Table 5-7: Occurrence of precursor pulses for flashes triggered at the ICLRT during the
2001 and 2002 experiments.

Precursor Pulses
Numerous Not Continuous Not
Pronounced Many Pulse Activity Present
(5) (6) (1) (1)
FPL0208 FPLO111 FPL0213 FPL0220
FPL0210 FPL0112
FPL0221 FPL0206
FPL0226 FPL0218
FPL0228 FPL0219
FPL0229
Numbers in parenthesis are total number of flashes in each category.


Figure 5-7 illustrates the four different categories found in Table 5-7, where the cur-

rent records are clipped at 400 A and time scales of 1 and 1.2 s are used. Of the flashes

showed on this figure, only for flash FPL0213 the system did not trigger on the ICV, but

the pre-trigger time of 1 s was sufficient to completely record the IS; this event also shows

continuous pulse activity (there are no intervals between the pulses), which makes it im-

possible to define individual pulses or groups of pulses.


6 The noise level of the low-level tower current record is 10 A.











ILTy, Flash FPL0226, 07/25/02, 21 41 08 EDT
400

300-

200-

100-


a)
-100
0 02 04 06 08 1
Time, s
ILTy, Flash FPL0219, 07/20/02, 20 25 58 EDT


ILTy, Flash FPL0213, 07/19/02, 21 56 06 EDT


01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
Time, s
ILTy, Flash FPL0220, 07/20/02, 20 39 25 EDT


06
Time, s


Figure 5-7: Illustration of precursor pulses categories (see Table 5-7) as: a) Numerous
Pronounced, b) Not Many, c) Continuous Pulse Activity, and d) Not Present.


200

100


-f----------------------l-u-----------


'il*s*v~~









For the remaining flashes of this figure, the system triggered during the ICV, which

makes the IS appear incomplete. Flashes categorized under "Not Many" (precursor pulses)

showed less than 6 identified individual pulses or groups of pulses.

It is also important to comment here on the occurrence of a burst of pulses (see Fig-

ure 5-6 c) just prior to the onset of the upward positive leader (UPL), identified by a

gradually increasing steady current. These pulses are very similar to the precursor pulses

in their waveshape and amplitude but are separated by a few tens of microseconds and they

have been attributed to leader steps (Rakov [1999]). These bursts of pulses are observed

in every event (during the 2001 and 2002 experiments) in which complete IS records are

available, and their magnitudes range from 20 to 100 A.

5.1.2.2 Initial current variation

The term "Initial Current Variation" has been used to identify a current signature (see

Figure 5-8) regularly seen at the beginning of the IS of rocket triggered lightning (Wang

et al. [1999a] and Rakov et al. [2003]).

It comprises a steady current increase followed by an abrupt current decrease or "cut-

off", probably associated with the disintegration of the Kevlar-coated copper triggering

wire (Rakov et al. [2003]) and a subsequent abrupt current increase, associated with the

current re-establishment (Rakov et al. [2003]).

According to Wang et al. [1999a], the ICV duration does not exceed 10 ms, the GM

time between the onset of the ICV and the abrupt decrease in current is 8.6 ms, the GM

current level just prior to the current decrease is 312 A (see Figure 5-8, label A), with the

current typically dropping to zero or to around 100 A, (see Figure 5-8, label B), and a

following pulse with a typical peak of about 1 kA (see Figure 5-8, label C).

For a summary of ICV current signature during these experiments, see Table 5-8,

where ICV is identified in Yokogawa data. Events FPL0107, FPL0108, and FPL0110 are

not included since no (or incomplete) IS records are available because the system triggered

on first return stroke and the Yokogawa pre-trigger time (during 2001) was 200 ms.









Table 5-8: Occurrence of ICV current signature (see Figure 5-8) for flashes triggered at
ICLRT during the 2001 and 2002 experiments.


" As described in Figure 5-8.
b Questionable zero current interval (see Figure 5-9).
Numbers in parenthesis are total number of flashes
in each category.


ILy, Flash FPL0112, 08/18/01, 23:56:05 EDT


3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4
Time, ms


4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5


Figure 5-8: Initial current variation signature corresponding to the low-level incident cur-
rent records of event FPL0112 (obtained from Yokogawa data).


During the 2001 experiments, for both events (FPL0111 and FPL0112) for which

complete IS were recorded (see Table 5-8), an ICV signature (see Figure 5-8) can be seen.


ICV
Not Identified
(8)


Identified"
(5)


FPL0 111 FPLO2O6


FPL0111
FPL0112
FPL0210
FPL0220b
FPL0228b


FPL0206
FPL0208
FPL0213
FPL0218
FPL0219
FPL0221
FPL0226
FPL0229









For the ICV of event FPL0112 seen in Figure 5-8, time is relative to the burst of

pulses (attributed to leader steps) having an approximate maximum amplitude of 40 A. The

maximum value of current just prior to the abrupt decrease is 570 A, occurring 3.9 ms after

the onset of the ICV, whereafter the current drops to 100 A and the following pulse has a

peak of 2.7 kA.

For event FPL0111, the maximum value of current just prior to the abrupt decrease is

680 A, occurring 3.93 ms after the onset of the ICV, whereafter the current drops to 240 A

and the following pulse has a peak of 2.1 kA.

During the 2002 experiments, the previously discussed ICV current signature (see

Figure 5-8) can be seen only in three events (see Table 5-8).

For event FPL0210, the maximum value of current just prior to the abrupt decrease

is 395 A, occurring 6.06 ms after the onset of the ICV, whereafter the current drops to 80 A

and the following pulse has a peak of 789 A.

For event FPL0220, the maximum value of current just prior to the abrupt decrease

is 160 A, occurring 61.5 ms after the onset of the ICV, whereafter the current drops to es-

sentially zero, and the following pulse has a peak of 910 A. This ICV signature shows a

peculiar behavior (see Figure 5-9, where, as on Figure 5-8 time is relative to the burst of

pulses), since the current drops to zero and stays at nearly zero for about 2.75 ms (which

is a considerably longer time than the few hundred microseconds reported by Rakov et al.

[2003]). It is possible that this prolonged zero-current interval might involve some kind of

instrumentation malfunction.

For event FPL0228, the maximum value of current just prior to the abrupt decrease is

110 A, occurring 9.2 ms after the onset of the ICV, whereafter the current drops to nearly

zero, and the following pulse has a peak of 680 A. Similarly to the previous event's

(FPL0220) ICV signature, this event shows a zero-current interval, but it lasts only for

about 0.5 ms.










ILTy, Flash FPL0220, 07/20/02, 20:39:25 EDT


65
Time, ms


Figure 5-9: Irregular initial current variation signature corresponding to the low-level in-
cident current records of event FPL0220 (obtained from Yokogawa data).


5.2 Selected Flashes

Current waveforms for four return strokes from different flashes are presented in Sec-

tion 5.3, where data from the LeCroy oscilloscopes are shown on a 100 us time scale. In

Appendices C and D, data for all the return strokes recorded on the LeCroy oscilloscopes

during the 2001 and 2002 experiments are presented on 100 ps (C.1 and D.1) and 500 ps

(C.2 and D.2) time scales, respectively.

For the same four selected flashes currents to ground and arrester currents are ploted

and added algebraicallyy) in order to visually compare the total current to ground (com-

posed of six components measured at Poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and the total current

through the arresters (composed of four components measured at Poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) to

the measured incident current injected into the line for the first 40 /s.









Based on the lightning incident charge, the distribution of charges (among phase A

arresters and pole 1 termination resistor7 and among the ground connections) are shown for

the four strokes of the selected flashes calculated at four different instants of time (100 ps,

500 ps, 1 ms and 2 ms) from the beginning of the return stroke. Also, the total charge

(in percent of the lightning incident charge) transferred to ground and the total arrester and

termination resistors charge are shown. Note that for the calculation of total arrester charge,

assuming symmetry of the system, pole 15 termination resistor charge has been assumed

to be the same as the pole 1 termination resistor charge.

1. Flash FPL0226, return stroke 1, peak current value of 26.9 kA (see Figure 5-24) and

the incident charge transfer have not ended after 5 ms (this is the segment memory

length for the LeCroy oscilloscopes). Triggered on the fifth attempt during 7/25/02,

being preceded only by unsuccessful launches, so it is possible that there were trail-

ing wires over the line. All the lightning current went to the power line. Current to

ground at pole 15 is not available. It is assumed that all arresters were healthy, at least

for this return stroke. An instrumentation problem may have facilitated flashovers on

Pole 7. This return stroke is followed by M components, which can be seen on the

line at all locations. From the calculated phase A arresters and pole 1 termination

resistor charge distribution (Figure 5-10 a) it can be seen that there is a symmetrical

distribution of the charge transfer through arresters, relative to the strike point (note

that the strike point is closer to pole 6 than to pole 10).

2. Flash FPL0228, return stroke 4, peak current value of 25.1 kA (see Figure 5-25) and

the incident charge transfer have not ended after 5 ms (this is the segment memory

length for the LeCroy oscilloscopes). Triggered on the first attempt during 8/02/02.

All the lightning current went to the power line. Since this flash was the first attempt,

there could be no trailing wire over the lines. Arcs are seen for the initial return


7 Termination resistor at pole 15 was not instrumented.














Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distribution
60
S100 us a)
50 500 us

40 2ms

130

O 2-

10


15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number

Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Charge


80

70-

60

50

40


01


ob


Time [ms]


Figure 5-10: Flash FPL0226, stroke 1, a) phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge

distribution, and b) percentage of total phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge.

Lightning strike point is between poles 7 and 8.


FPL0226 RS1


IAN14


IAN2


IAN10




IAN6


Total IAN


IHR
IAN2
IAN6
IAN10
IAN14
Total IAN

10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time, us


Figure 5-11: Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current

injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0226.


-5



< -10 -



-15-



-20



-25



-30











FPL0226, RS1


0 _IG IG1415
IG1
-5 IG2
IG10
-10

-15
SIG6 IHR
-20

-25

-30 HR
IG1
-35- Total IG6
IG6
IG10
-40 G14
IG15
Total IG
-45
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time, us


Figure 5-12: Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0226.



strokes, and phase A Pole 2 arresters are assumed to fail towards the end of this

flash. This return stroke is followed by some continuing current (CC). Because of

an instrumentation problem (most likely an Isobe malfunction) ground current at

pole 14 was lost for this flash, so the distribution of charge transferred to ground and

percentage of the total charge transferred to ground are not shown for this stroke. The

phase A arrester and termination resistor charge distribution (Figure 5-13 a) shows

a similar behavior as for the previous selected flash, also the total percentage charge

for arresters and termination resistors (Figure 5-13 b) progressively decreases with

time.

3. Flash FPL0229, return stroke 1, peak current value of 13.5 kA (see Figure 5-26) and

the incident charge transfer apparently ends after 1.5 ms (incident current sensitivity

is 284.1 Amperes per quantization level, see Table B-11). Triggered on the second

attempt during 8/02/02, being preceded by flash FPL0228 which presumably caused

phase A arrester failure at Pole 2. The lightning current is divided between the tower














Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distribution
60
100 us a)
50 500 us







10


15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number

Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Charge


80

70-

60

50

40


01


ob


Time [ms]


Figure 5-13: Flash FPL0228, stroke 4, a) phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge

distribution, and b) percentage of total phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge.

Lightning strike point is between poles 7 and 8.


FPL0228, RS4




0- IAN14

IAN2

-5 -


IAN6
-10 Total IAN


SHR
-15 IAN2
IAN6


-20



-25


IAN10
IAN14
Total IAN


-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time, us


Figure 5-14: Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current

injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 4 of flash FPL0228.












FPL0228, RS4
5

0 IG1 IG14
S IG15
IG2
-5-
IG10
-10 IG6

-15 IHR IHR
IG1
IG2
I 20 IG6
IG 10
IG14
25- IG15
Total IG

-30
Total IG
-35

-40

-45
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time, us


Figure 5-15: Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15) and current
injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 4 of flash FPL0228.



launcher and the power line. No trailing wire was over the lines. This return stroke is

one of three (out of a total of nine) showing no evidence of current in phase B. Even


though, it is assumed that the previous event (flash FPL0228) left Pole 2 phase A

arresters damaged, some charge transfer was detected at pole 2 (Figure 5-16 a). The


overall behavior of the arrester charge distribution is similar to that for the previously


discussed strokes. A different distribution of charge transfer to ground (Figure 5-17

b), where most charge flows to ground at pole 2, which dc grounding resistance is not


the lowest value on the line. Note that the dc grounding resistance values of the strike


point closest grounded locations (poles 6 and 10), are 18 and 17.8 Q respectively,

these values are lower than that corresponding to pole 2 (20 Q).

4. Flash FPL0229, return stroke 2, peak current value of 9.5 kA (see Figure 5-27) and

the incident charge transfer apparently ends after 500 ps (incident current sensitivity


is 284.1 Amperes per quantization level, see Table B-11). It was triggered on the


second attempt during 8/02/02, being preceded by flash FPL0228 which presumably













Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distribution
60 1 ,
100 us a)
50 M 500 us
S1 ms
40 2ms

230-
620-

10

15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number

Charge transfer to ground distribution
60
1 100 us b)
50 500 us
M 1 ms
40 2 ms

230-

O 20 -

10

15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number


Figure 5-16: Flash FPL0229, stroke 1, distribution of charge transferred a) through phase

A arresters and terminating resistors, and b) to ground at different poles. Lightning strike

point is between poles 7 and 8.


Total arrester and termination resistor charge, in percent of the Incident Charge
110
a)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
01 05 1 2
Time [ms]

Total charge transferred to ground, in percent of the Incident Charge
110
b)
100


290


80


70
01 05 1 2
Time [ms]


Figure 5-17: Flash FPL0229, stroke 1, percentage of total charge transferred a) through

phase A arresters and terminating resistors, and b) to ground at different poles. Lightning

strike point is between poles 7 and 8.













FPL0229, RS1


IAN14


IAN2
IAN10




IAN6
IHR
IAN2
IAN6
IAN10
t a I N IA N 1 4
total IAN Tota IAN
Total IAN


0 5 10 15 20
Time, us


25 30 35 40


Figure 5-18: Sum of phase A arrester currents, IAN, (poles 2, 6, 10, and 14) and current

injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0229.


FPL0229, RS1
2


IG1


--------""
IG15
IG2


IHR
IG1
IG2
IG6
IG10
IG14
IG15
Total IG


0 5 10 15 20
Time. us


25 30 35 40


Figure 5-19: Sum of currents to ground, IG, (poles 1, 2, 6, 10,

injected into the line, IHR, for stroke 1 of flash FPL0229.


14, and 15) and current


left Pole 2 phase A arrester failed. All the lightning current went to the power line.


No trailing wire was over the line. This return stroke is the second of three (out of








81


a total of nine) showing no evidence of current in phase B. Note the small charge

value shown (Figure 5-20 a) for phase A arresters at poles 2 and 14, compared to

poles 6 and 10, and also compared to the same poles (2 and 14) corresponding to

the previously discussed strokes. The distribution of the charge transferred to ground

(Figure 5-20 b) shows a similar behavior as for the previous stroke.

Phase A arrester and terminating resistor charge distribution
60
1 100 us a)
50 500 us
2 ms
40 2 ms
30-

10-
0

15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number
Charge transfer to ground distribution

50 500 us
S1 ms
40 2 ms
230-
S20


15 14 10 6 2 1
Pole number


Figure 5-20: Flash FPL0229, stroke 2, distribution of charge transferred a) through phase
A arresters and terminating resistors, and b) to ground at different poles. Lightning strike
point is between poles 7 and 8.



It worth noting the difference between the total percentage charge for arresters and

termination resistors (Figures 5-10 b, 5-13 b, 5-17 a, and 5-21 a) which progres-

sively decreases with time,8 and that for grounds (Figures 5-17 b and 5-21 b).

In the latter case, the charge injected into the system (lightning charge) equals the

charge transferred to ground within a 10% error. An peculiar characteristic is seen





8 This is likely due to the insufficient lower frequency response of the CTs, see Sec-
tion 3.5.1.