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Comparisons of Cosmetic Advertisements: Strategies for Cultural Adaptations in Women's Magazines in Taiwan


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COMPARISONS OF COSMETIC ADVERTISEMENTS: STRATEGIES FOR CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN WOMENS MAGAZINES IN TAIWAN By YU-RONG PU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Yu-Rong Pu

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have kindly helped make this thesis possible. My father, Hong-Yong Pu, generously supported me to study in the U.S. My mom, Sho-Lan Chiu, cultivated me to become what I am today. Without their endless love, my dream will never be a reality. My beloved brother, Kenji, helped me a lot with dealing with trivial things so I could concentrate on my thesis. My life-long friends, Chin-Wen Lin, Anita Liu, Michael Tsi, and Julia Wu, stimulated and inspired me to finish this thesis. I had wonderful time with my friends at UF, Yang-Ling Chou, Ean Chien, George Wang, Wen Ren, and Yi-Po Chou, who kindly helped me a lot through my study. Kang-Uei Dai, a very special person to me, had unwavering faith in me and was always there for me. If it were not for these people, I could never make this thesis possible. I am so blessed to have all of them in my life, and the many others who helped me along the way. I also want to attribute special thanks to my committee members, Dr. Robyn Goodman and Linda Conway Correll, who generously gave me feedback and helped me to develop my coding sheet, and especially my chair, Dr. Marilyn Roberts. Dr. Roberts was incredibly tolerant with my poor English and helped me enormously for the editing. She was not only a knowledgeable mentor but also a considerate and encouraging coach and teacher. Without her intelligence and support, this thesis could not have been finished. I thank all of those named here from the bottom of my heart, and many more I will never forget. I would like to dedicate this thesis to all of them. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................iii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Background...................................................................................................................1 Women in Taiwan.........................................................................................................2 Women Magazine in Taiwan........................................................................................3 Beauty Industry in Taiwan............................................................................................4 International Trends...............................................................................................5 Japanese Style........................................................................................................5 The Ideal of Pale Skin...............................................................................................6 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................7 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................9 Background of International Advertising.....................................................................9 Standardization......................................................................................................9 Localization.........................................................................................................10 Mixed Approach..................................................................................................11 Advertising and Culture......................................................................................12 Nature of Product........................................................................................................14 Product Category.................................................................................................14 Product Involvement........................................................................................15 Product Positioning.............................................................................................16 Advertising Strategy...................................................................................................18 Simons Creative Strategy System......................................................................18 Advertising Information Level............................................................................20 Advertising and Fashion.............................................................................................22 Why Fashion?......................................................................................................22 Advertising in Beauty Industry...........................................................................24 Advertising Practice in Taiwan..................................................................................25 iv

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3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................28 Content Analysis.........................................................................................................28 Unit of Analysis..........................................................................................................30 Sampling Design.........................................................................................................31 Coding Categories and Variables...............................................................................31 Research Hypotheses..................................................................................................34 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................38 Descriptions of the Sample.........................................................................................38 Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong....................................................................42 Nong-Nong vs. Elle Taiwan.......................................................................................45 Personal Care vs. Cosmetics.......................................................................................48 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................54 Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong....................................................................54 Elle Taiwan vs. Nong-Nong.......................................................................................55 Personal Care Product Ads vs. Cosmetic Ads.....................................................56 Whitening Effects................................................................................................57 Eastern Trends vs. Western Trends.....................................................................57 Promotional Devices...........................................................................................58 Implications for International Advertisers..................................................................58 Limitations..................................................................................................................59 Suggestions for Future Research................................................................................59 APPENDIX A TABLES OF RESULTS.............................................................................................61 B CODING SHEET.......................................................................................................65 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................79 v

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication COMPARISONS OF COSMETIC ADVERTISEMENTS: STRATEGIES FOR CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN WOMENS MAGAZINES IN TAIWAN By Yu-Rong Pu August, 2003 Chairman: Marilyn Roberts Major Department: Journalism and Communications The study examined whether cultural adapted strategies were used in womens magazine advertising in Taiwan. The special beauty idea of pale skin is extremely popular among female consumers in Taiwan. Many beauty editorials in womens magazines teach women how to obtain and preserve a porcelain-like skin. The most promising product line of skin care is the whitening product. The widespread whitening concept is overwhelming in Taiwans beauty industry, and it has been emulated by western brands in recent years. A quantitative content analysis was applied to compare cosmetic product ads in Elle U.S., Elle Taiwan, and a local womens magazine, Nong-Nong from October, 2001 to August, 2002. Variables coded in the study include advertisement size; product origin; brand name; advertising layout; visual size; product trial/promotional device; copy size; product benefits and attributes in the ad; origin of model; degree of models whiteness; vi

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presence of product; arrangement of model and product; language; and language adaptations for headline. Product category, whether it was a personal care product or cosmetics with or without whitening effects, and advertisement category, whether it was a promotional, editorial, or pure product ad, were also examined. Resnik and Sterns information classification was used for coding copy information. The wording of whitening effects was examined as to whether the effects were directly featured or not. This study also employed Simons creative strategy system to determine the differences in advertising appeals. The findings of this study showed that there were differences in advertising strategies among the three magazines. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong employed more implicit appeals and contained greater information levels of than did Elle U.S.. In addition, most ads with dark-skinned models appeared in Elle U.S., while Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong had a much higher percentage of light-skinned models in ads. Promotional devices were also widely used in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. Instead of being totally localized, advertising strategies in Elle Taiwan revealed a mixed approach. Product category was the key to determine whether or to what extent the ads were adapted to local cultures. More standardized approaches were used in cosmetic ads, while personal care product ads showed a higher degree of adaptation. In addition, ads of products with whitening effects were more adapted than ads of product without whitening effects. Due to the favorable attitude toward Japanese brands, Nong-Nong contained more Japanese product ads than did Elle Taiwan. In contrast, more western product ads appeared in Elle Taiwan, as its readers appeared to be less enthusiastic about Japanese styles and more interested in western trends. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Despite its small geographic size and population, Taiwan has become an important player in world economy over the past 40 years. With more than 20 million people, Taiwan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The island continues to expand its economic power at about five percent per year even after Asian financial crisis. Per capita GNP was 14,188 USD and the economic growth rate was almost six percent in 2000 (Advertising Magazine, December 2001, p. 115). Taiwan shares most Chinese traditional values with other East-Asia nations and has emerged as one of the most prosperous countries in the world. The U.S Department of Commerce (1995) classified Taiwan as a big emerging market because of its remarkable market potential for American business to invest. Due to liberalization and tariff cuts in the late 1980s, local consumers gained access to a wider selection of international labels at a more affordable price (Hwang, 2002). Consumers in Taiwan demonstrate a purchasing power in high-end brand-name products comparable with people in other countries (Kao, 2002). The increase of total import value of apparel from US$250 million in 1990 to US$843 million in 2000 attract international brands and designers attention to this small island (Hwang, 2002). Over sixty international fashion brand names are already established in this island, and still dozens of others are preparing to enter this highly competitive market (Kao, 2002). The approval of Taiwan's WTO accession in 2001, earned after 12 years of strenuous efforts, marks a 1

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2 milestone in Taiwan's economic and trade development. Meanwhile, Taiwan has encountered the trend of localization, which peaked in 1999. However, the island still welcomes imported products, as well as exterior cultures. Many young people favor Japanese and Korean products, but are influenced by Hollywood movies and HBO. By the late 1990s, Taiwan has evolved into a modern advertising industry. Advertising spending per capita of USD $152 in Taiwan ranked it 22nd in the world in 1996 (International Journal of Advertising, 1998). From 1987 to 1996, Taiwan ranked 20 th in world with ad spending growth of 153%, comparing Hong Kongs 22nd and Japans 36 th (International Journal of Advertising, 1998). With advertising expenditures of $2.5 billion in 1998, Taiwan ranked fourth in Asia in overall ad expenditures (Business World, 1999). Advertising expenses in Taiwan last year were 47.7 billion NT dollars, a twenty-percent growth compared to year 1999 (Advertising Magazine, 2001). Women in Taiwan Due to higher education and more financial independence, women in Taiwan have become more powerful. Female consumers embrace a new definition of womans role from western culture, which blended well with traditional Chinese values (Tai & Tam, 1997). With economic growth and increased exposure to the west, Taiwanese womens tastes become more sophisticated and are moving towards the high-end of the market (Tai & Tam, 1997, p. 290). The most successful products in Taiwan are foreign in image and local in usage (Tai &Tam, 1997, p.290). Young females in Taiwan are very fashion sensitive and willing to pay for entertainment or products that make them more beautiful (Bei, 2002). They change brands of daily products frequently to maintain the sense of life novelty (Bei, 2002). These young consumers like to follow the latest international trends and are willing to

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3 spend more money on brand-name products (Bei, 2002). The motivations of their purchases are not always based on function but more on the prestigious image of imported foreign brands in some product categories, such as clothing and accessories (Tai & Tam, 1997). However, this attitude doesnt contradict with the fact that they are experienced and knowledgeable consumers. Young females read newspapers and magazines habitually, exercise to keep fit, value life quality, and are vigorous in social activities (Bei, 2002). Women Magazine in Taiwan Womens magazines in Taiwan act as a commercial medium that delivers advertising messages to the target audiences who are urban middle-and-upper-class women, well-educated, have above average salary, and have superior consumption ability (Shaw, 1997). Those female target audiences rely heavily on womens magazines for fashion information and advice on styles and buying decisions. Nowadays, dozens of fashion publications battle in a highly competitive market in Taiwan. Readers can choose from various magazines on shelves every month: local magazines, Taiwanese editions of Japanese or international fashion periodicals. International women magazines launched in Taiwan in the late 80s and early 90s (Cosmopolitan was first introduced in 1989; Harpers Bazaar was founded in 1991; Elle Taiwan was founded in 1991; Marie Claire was founded in 1993). In the early stage, transnational corporations relied much on these Taiwanese editions of international womens magazines to reach female consumers in Taiwan (Shaw, 1997). On the other hand, international advertisers have also been the main financial source for these magazines since they were founded (Shaw, 1997).

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4 Noticeably, international women magazines share much of the advertising revenues earned in Taiwan; only Nong-Nong, a domestic magazine, can compete with them (Shaw, 1997). Women magazines in Taiwan generate their revenues heavily on advertising, and in turn, magazine editorials help advertisers promote their products by giving frequent recommendations (Shaw, 1997). These editorials are a very persuasive form of advertising because readers tend to trust editors knowledge and objectivity. Beauty Industry in Taiwan Due to increasing living standards and national incomes in Taiwan, consumers are spending more than before on cosmetics products (Chou, 1998). Because Asians have the most transparent and softest skin type, which leads blemishes and sun damages to be more apparent than Caucasian skin, the main reason for skin care purchases in Taiwan is the desire to avoid skin damage from the sun, pollutants, and aging (Geiger, 2002). In this growing and lucrative market, U.S. brands lead the high-end market sector with a 37 percent share, followed by Japanese products with 36.5 percent and European products with 20.4 percent in 1996 (Chou, 1998). When it comes to product category, personal-care products occupy the highest percentage (about 50%), within which whitening products take the lead; cosmetics has only one-fifth of the total sale percentage (China Girls, 2002). Consumers in Taiwan tend to favor Japanese brands. According to the Taipei Cosmetics Industry Associations report, the Japanese brand Shiseido, which has traditionally targeted Asian women aged 35 and over and is recently trying to lower its target groups age, is expected to be the fastest growing line among imported brands. Taiwanese consumers are very curious and like to try new things. Compared with western markets, they have lower brand loyalty and are easily attracted by advertisement (China

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5 Girls, 2002). Therefore, cosmetics companies have to promote products frequently and hold beauty seminars for only members in order to gain continuous support (China Girls, April 2002). International Trends The spread of international fashion is facilitated by a sophisticated distribution network, and the widespread accessibility to international media such as films, cable TV, magazines, and Internet. Fashion magazines, especially those Taiwanese editions of international fashion periodicals such as Elle, Vogue and Marie Claire, convey fashion ideas of global brands to Taiwan women. Before international fashion periodicals were introduced to Taiwan, female consumers only knew big brand names and would stick to them. Nowadays, brand culture is established and Taiwanese women become more sophisticated and have their own opinions toward fashion. Female consumers seek information about style and how to mix and match and are also sensitive about keeping pace with international trends. Japanese Style Taiwan has been traditionally under Japans influence, which might be the result of its Japanese colonization for fifty years until 1945. In the mid 50s, three Taiwanese businessmen imported makeup materials from Japan, further processed them into products, and sold them in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Years later, their company became the well-known brand, Shiseido, and officially integrated into the Japanese headquarter in the 80s that gave it a more international outlook (Bazaar Taiwan, April 2002). Shiseido has deep local roots and helped to shape Taiwanese womens lifestyle and beauty concepts long before international brands entered Taiwan market. Shiseido

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6 teaches women in Taiwan how to use make up and skin care. Shiseido is well-known for quality products and packaging. It normally develops ads in Tokyo and works with local agencies to translate and tailor the basic message for different markets (Herskovitz, 1997). Shiseido was the first brand to use famous local movie stars as spokespersons for products in the mid 80s. The strategy was a triumph in Taiwan. Ever since then, the company has continuously had stars whom local consumers are familiar with as one important part of their advertising strategy. Shiseido has historically devoted itself to localization and has built a very successful beauty empire in Taiwan long before the first international prestigious brand, Christine Dior, set up its branch in Taipei in 1974. The easy access to Japanese magazines, TV programs, and pop music, due to geographic proximity of these two countries, further lead the island to be highly influenced by Japanese style. The younger generation has a particularly affinity with Japanese culture. The Ideal of Pale Skin There is an old Chinese saying: A fair skin overshadows nine ugly qualities (Yi bai zhe jou chou). In ancient China, a porcelain-like complexion was a symbol of refinement, indicating that a person did not belong to the peasant classes who toiled under the sun (Johanson, 1998). The embrace of pale skin equals to beauty is very popular throughout most East Asia. Because Asians are more prone to hyperpigmentation, where a small amount of sun exposure will produce unfavorable brown spots, women in Asia carry umbrellas, wear gloves that cover the whole arms when driving or riding a bike or motorcycle, as well as wear hats and scarves to prevent skin from getting tanned and to keep a fair skin. While a growing awareness that it is practical to protect the skin in this way to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, the

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7 main purpose of these long practiced protective tools is for the prevention of the skin from appearing tan. The idea of whitening does not mean imply bleaching. Unlike Michael Jacksons attempt, whitening is about preventing tanning, and bringing sun-damaged skin back to its normal skin color. Numerous skin products with whitening effects promise to cover all skin flaws, control pigmentation, have ingredients that reflect light or produce a chemical change in skin, or turn yellow and dark skin to white (Johanson, 1998). The most promising line of skin care is the whitening product which was first introduced by Shiseido in 1993. These products focus on lightening complexion of womens skin. The whitening concept has become extremely popular among female consumers in Taiwan and was later emulated by international brands (Chou, 1998). For sunscreen products, the underlying theme is that UV protection yields skin lightening due to the protective role in skin darkening or tanning by UV radiation. The efficacy is claimed and expressed as SPF, indicating how long consumers can be exposed to the sun without getting as tanned as not applying the product. Beauty editorials in womens magazines elaborate on how to obtain, preserve and enhance fair and smooth skin. In the summer season, many beauty editorials describe how the suns radiation will darken and roughen the skin, providing information of how skin can survive the burning heat. They are always followed by cosmetics advertisements that stress their protections of preserving a fair skin so that costumers can turn the threatening sunshine into joyful bathing. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to discuss how cultural differences influence advertising messages for cosmetic products in Taiwan, especially the unique beauty idea of pale skin. By comparing advertisements of three product categorypersonal care,

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8 whitening product, and cosmeticsin the western magazine, Elle U.S, and in local magazines, Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong, the study is expected to find out how international marketers adapt to the local beauty culture in Taiwan into their advertising messages, and to what extend international marketers employ adaptation strategy. Significance of the Study Rising national income along with changes in consumption pattern, the cosmetics and toiletries market in Taiwan grew 8.6% to $1.8bn in 2000, showing a strong growth potential (A Mixed, 2001). Besides its impressive purchasing power, many multinational companies regard Taiwan as a laboratory where they assess whether their products could be successful in China. The approval of Taiwan's WTO accession will make this small island a much more competitive market, which increases the importance of effectively conveying product information to target audiences. In addition, as the skin care and make up market continues to expand, an increasing demand for high-quality imported products provides great opportunities for global brands. However, few research studies have discussed about the influence of cultural differences on advertising appeals of female products in Taiwan. Despite many research studies on cross-national differences of advertising messages, few studies compare the differences of advertising appeals between western and Asian countries other than Japan (Chang, 1991). Although there are studies that have examined the eastern beauty idea of pale skin, rarely has the implication of this idea been applied to advertising practice. By combining the understanding of the beauty idea of pale skin in Taiwan with different advertising strategies employed by three magazines, this study can provide insights to international marketers on how to make their advertising more effective to Taiwanese female consumers.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Background of International Advertising As the world is becoming one big marketplace, how to develop an effective strategy for delivering advertising messages to consumers of various cultures is more and more important to global advertisers. International marketers are usually faced with the problem of whether or not and to what extent, should their advertising strategy adapt cultural factors in different countries. With the increasing attention given to international marketing, the choice between standardization and adaptation has been widely discussed. The debate between support for standardization versus localization mainly deals with the issue of whether consumers in different cultures are alike in their preferences and decision tendencies. Standardization A standardized approach is suggested due to the assimilation and homogenization of consumer motives and purchasing behavior across national borders (Levitt, 1983). It is founded on the premise that human wants and needs have a number of similarities despite of cultural differences. People identify less with nations and more with groups, professions, and subcultures (Vardar, 1992). Standardization focuses on the regularity in consumer demand and develops global advertising campaigns, diminishing the need for adaptation to local conditions (Harich & Zandpour, 2000). Levitt (1983) believed that the convergence of technological advancements and telecommunication systems would lead 9

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10 to the globalization of markets that would greatly demand standardized advertising across countries. It has also been widely acknowledged that standardization of advertising strategy would allow marketers to build global brand awareness through repetition and maintain a consistent brand image, a desirable asset where the product appeals to a universal need (Levitt, 1983). Therefore, many international brands tend to develop their brand identities and formulate advertising strategy at their corporate headquarters and apply them to local markets (Chen, 2002). According to Schoolers (1971) study, females usually value foreign products higher than males. This favorable attitude is further enhanced when the products fall into fashion industry, such as cosmetics (Wall, 1986). Localization The standardization approach is mostly criticized by its insufficient ability to account for the specific characteristics in each market and its target audiences (Buzzell, 1968). Empirical studies provide strong evidence suggesting the necessity of adapting international advertising to local markets (Chang, 1991). Ricks et al. (1974) considered that most international advertising blunders came from ignorance of different culture and local lifestyle. In addition, political factors, legal restraints, economic difference, infrastructure and industrial development in each market might cause standardized advertising campaign to be unsuccessful (Britt, 1974; Unwinn, 1974; De Mooij, 1994). International advertisers should notice the local cultural diversity among markets and recognize the benefits of localization. Standardized advertising strategies are only appropriate for some brands/product categories or specific conditions, as suggested by Harris (1984). Product attributes are rated differently from one country to another, (Green, Cunningham & Cunningham, 1975) and localized advertising themes are viewed

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11 sometimes more favorable by consumers (Hornik, 1980). As cultural uniqueness is emphasized, localization allows international marketers to create messages particularly tailored to local markets. To be effective, advertising has to reflect the needs, wants, values, traditions, language and economic variables (Harich & Zandpour, 2000). Mixed Approach Because few markets are exactly alike, researchers proposed a mixed approachpartly standardized and partly localized (Peebles, Ryans & Vernon, 1977). International marketers should learn about the consumers and their backgrounds, define the market segments as precisely as possible, and scrutinize motivational factors in detail before launching an advertising campaign (Leo, 1964; Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Boddewyn, 1986). Adaptation is necessary in order to ensure that consumers needs and wants are satisfied effectively so that sales are maximized. Peebles, Ryans, and Vernon (1977) advocated prototype standardization where the same campaign would be applied in multiple markets with the only differences of appropriate translation and idiomatic changes. Norton B. Leo (1964) called for a need to consider the degree to which advertisements can be standardized. The degree of standardization depends on the product or service being advertised, conditions in each market, and the strategic intent of the advertisers. Other factors should be considered when determining the level of standardization (Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Boddewyn, 1986) including: Industrial conditions such as level of competition, product life cycle; Economic factors necessary degree of standardization; Homogeneity of markets; Marketing institutions such as advertising media, legal restrictions; and

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12 Cultural and behavioral factors and their influences on the foreign markets perception of the product. Even though consumers may have the same needs and wants among different markets, the needs and wants still need to be addressed according to different communication patterns that will have a strong influence on the effectiveness of marketing communications (Wang, Jaw, Pinkletion & Morton, 1997, p. 51). For example, Tais (1997) study showed that among 87 multinationals advertisements in China, Taiwan, Singapore, and Honk Kong, 31 percent of the advertisements are the same as those in their home markets, while 68 percent applied a different strategy. Kirpalani et al. (1988) also suggested that environmental factors should be put into consideration when deciding advertising tactics such as layout and media selection. Therefore, either standardized or localized strategies are only one of several possible strategies, depending on situation in each market. In short, international advertising strategy is considered situation-specific. Todays question that global marketers should ask is in what situation and to what extent should multinational advertising be standardized? (Duncan & Ramaprasad, 1995, p.57). Advertising and Culture The relationship between advertising messages and cultural values of a society has been acknowledged by researchers (Cho, 1993). Many studies showed that culture affects the perception and practices of advertising, and therefore advertising reflects cultural values in which it exists. (Unwin, 1974; Holbrook, 1987; Mueller, 1987; Frith and Frith, 1990). Culture can be defined as a set of fundamental ideas, practices and experiences of a group of people that are symbolically transmitted generation to generation through a learning process (Chen & Starosta, 1998, p. 23).

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13 Advertising is a significant tool that functions as imparting product information to consumers. However, how people interpret advertisements is determined by culture codes. Research shows that different cultures seem to stress different advertising appeals, which are carried in the illustration and headlines of the ad and are supported by the ad copy (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Domzal and Kernan (1992) said in their work that products serve as markers; they have consensual what-implies-what meanings, which we learn from a variety of sources, not the least of which is advertising (p.9). When consumers encounter an advertisement, their reaction depends on the meaning they assign to it, and in turn depends on characteristics of both the advertisement and the individual consumer (Grier & Brumbaugh, 1999). The characteristics of individuals are greatly shaped by their cultures, and cultural differences are one of the most influential factors opposing standardized advertising. Proponents of localization pronounced that cultural influences on consumer decision-making could be understood in terms of an underlying metaphor that cultural knowledge is a lens that colors peoples perception of objects and messages in the environment. (Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000, p.164). However, much of consumer research on culture shows inconsistent findings concerning about the content of marketing communications. Some research suggests that advertising appeals have asymmetric effects across cultures; while other research implies that some persuasion approaches yield similar attitudinal results in different cultures. One explanation is that only when cultural based norms were salient, cultural differences in attitude emerged (Aaker, 2000). Mueller (1989) concluded her study that advertisements of each country exhibit some degree of sensitivity to the cultural uniqueness of the

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14 particular consuming market. Cultural sensitivity is portrayed through the varying usage of these same appeals (p.130). Another explanation is offered by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). ELM suggests that when people are highly motivated to process an advertisement, they tend to form attitudes based on attentive consideration of the attributes of the product that is advertised. On the other hand, when people are not motivated to process an advertisement, they would use simple decision rules or heuristics as a shortcut to assess the product without extensive cognitive effort (Leach & Liu, 1998). Based on ELM, Leach and Lius research (1998) showed that when advertising messages are consistent with cultural norms, consumers will automatically process them through a peripheral route. Briley et al. (2000) also emphasized on the dynamic role of cultural knowledge, saying that culture is influential when individuals need to provide reasons for their judgment or decision (p. 160). In other words, they recommended that cultural knowledge is a tool which exerts its influence on individual perceptions only when it is brought into use. Therefore, in some product categories, consumers may have similar needs and wants among different markets, indicating that there should not be systematic differences in decision-making. (Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000). Nature of Product Studies show that international advertising strategies vary with the nature of product. Three product aspects are important when considering advertising approaches, they are: product category, product involvement and product positioning. Product Category The importance of product category has been emphasized recently due to the insufficient explanation of cultural influence on international advertising. Product

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15 categories shown independently affect creative strategy, information content, form and format of advertising messages (Chen & Starosta, 1998, p. 37). Product category is important because it constitutes the core around which brand positioning is effected; a brand whose meaning violates the limits of this core might not be regarded as plausible by consumers (Domzal & Kernan, 1992, p. 56). Developed by Newell and Simon (1972), consumer means-end chains theory (MECs) establishes the relationship between product attributes, the benefits of product use, and consumers values: product attributes yield particular benefits upon consumption, which contribute to value satisfaction (Hofstede, Steenkamp & Wedel, 1999). The key idea of MECs is that product attributes are means for consumers to obtain desired ends, namely, values, through the benefits yield by those attributes (Hofstede, Steenkamp & Wedel, 1999). Therefore, products that are not culture-bounded are more appropriate to employ the standardization strategy (Quelch & Hoff, 1986; Domzal & Kernan, 1993). Product Involvement Product involvement can be defined as commitment to a position or concern with a specific stand on an issue (Rothschild, 1987, p. 28). It basically concerns about whether the brand is important to consumers purchasing decisions. A low-involved consumer represents a passive audience to advertising: they would not actively search information but rather randomly learn it. They only seek some acceptable satisfaction and buy products based on a few attributes and least likely to cause them a problem (Rothschild, 1987). Their attitude toward the product is formed after using it. Low involvement may also indicate that consumers learn more slowly and forget more quickly. As a result, advertising messages should be shorter, have less information, and

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16 repeated more frequently (Rothschild, 1987). Examples for low-involvement products in fashion industry are clothing, cosmetics, and accessories. For high-involvement products, consumers tend to seek and process information. They look for maximized product satisfaction, and therefore, they would compare brands to see which provide the most benefits related to needs, and their purchase is based on multi-attribute comparison of brands (Rothschild, 1987). Products most likely to draw high levels of involvement are usually durable goods, high cost, complex, related to consumers central value, or have dissimilar brand choice alternatives (Rothschild, 1987). Because consumers are concerned about the decision, they form an attitude toward the brand as well as the product before they make a purchase. As a result, advertising is the key tool in building awareness for high-involvement products. Advertisements for high-involvement products require providing more factual and detail information to consumers. For example, adaptation strategy may be necessary for skin-care products in Taiwan because it would allow consumers easily understand the attributes that products carry. It is important for western brands to establish their distinctions from local and Japanese products that Taiwan consumers have been used to and familiar with. In addition, advertising messages for high-involvement products are delivered primarily through print media because it allows consumers to digest the information at a self-controlled pace (Rothschild, 1987). Product Positioning Positioning can be defined as the product design to fit a given place in the target consumers mind. It separates a brand from its competitors by associating the brand with a specific set of consumer needs, which are ranked high on the consumers priority list. If a product is positioned the same in other markets as at home country, standardization

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17 would be feasible (Jain, 1989). With the widespread power of mass media, fashion trends are considered universal, with some adjustments that are culturally important or unique. Therefore, some products are suggested to employ standardized advertising strategy, such as cosmetics, while in other product categories, international advertisers might need to create their own characteristics and differentiate their products from local ones. Mueller (1996) proposed that there are several products suitable for standardized advertising strategy, including: Products that can be promoted via image campaign: These products have strong visual effects which enable standardized advertisement break through country boundaries. Cosmetics are one of these products. Products for consumers who are essentially similar: Target audiences among different markets have similar characteristics. (pp. 23-24). Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (1999) proposed a new concept of global consumer culture positioning (GCCP), which is defined as a strategy that identifies the brand as a symbol of a given global culture (p.77), such as modernity and cosmopolitanism. GCCP associates a brand with globally shared and consumptionrelated symbols that signal membership in global consumer segments (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999, p.79). They suggested that advertising applying GCCP will be more effective if it communicates in a subtle, indirect, and abstract fashion due to the rapid change of global consumer culture and the linkages between the brands and the imagined membership in a global consumer segment (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999, p.79). Alden, Steenkamp and Batras (1999) study shows that a soft-sell approach is more suitable for GCCP than a hard-sell approach. Soft-sell ads use more visual imagery and are more subtle and ambiguous. Hard-sell approaches are relatively more informative and focus on tangible product attributes. Furthermore, soft-sell ads are more image-oriented.

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18 They are usually more abstract than informational hard-sell ads, and the messages tend to be more implicit (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999). In addition, GCCP is more appropriate for products that symbolize modernity rather than tradition, and for products consumed in similar patterns, instead of for those consumed in locally idiosyncratic ways (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999). Advertising Strategy Past research on cross-cultural advertising has generally looked at dissimilarity in advertising styles and varying levels of informativeness across markets. Different cultures may require different advertising creative strategies and levels of informativeness. By analyzing and identifying these two elements of advertising messages, international marketers can develop appropriate and effective advertising approaches in different countries. Creative strategy can be defined as the means selected to achieve desired audience effect over the term of the campaign (Frazer, 1983, p.36). Creative strategy is considered to be the policy or directing principle guiding the general nature and character of advertising messages (Frazer, 1983; Zandpour et al., 1992). It may differ across markets and their effects may be different because of cultural disparity. Simons Creative Strategy System Various product/brand require different approaches to activate audiences purchase through advertising exposure (Simon, 1971). After studying the works of well-known copywriters, Simon (1971, p.169) introduced a classification system, which consists ten creative strategies, called activation methods. This scheme is based on the assumption that various product-brand characteristics demand different methods of activating the

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19 consumer to buy through advertising exposure (Simon, 1971, p.170). Simon describes how creative strategy directs advertising creation: The product-brand characteristics dictate the activation method that the ad should use, and the activation method, in turn, dictates what the copy and headline should aim to say, what the illustration should show, and the proportions of the ad that should be devoted to copy and illustration. (p. 193) Simons creative strategies include the following: (1) Information : Presentation of plain facts, without explanation or argument, only news about the product concerned. (2) Argument : Providing facts and excuses (reason why) for purchasing the advertised product or service that consumers may have already been interested in; copy is especially significant. (3) Command : Non-verbal reminders influence consumers favorite; may be strengthened by authoritative figures. (4) Imitation : Providing testimonials by a celebrity, by hidden camera participant(s), or by individual(s) unknown but consumers can readily identify with or they respect due to specified characteristic(s). This strategy employs the communication source as the reason(s) for purchasing the product. (5) Obligation : Offering free gifts or information, or a moving sentiment; some attempt to make consumers feel appreciative. (6) Habit-starting : Offering a sample or decreasing price to initiate a regular practice or routine; product usually featured. (7) Repeated Assertion : Hard-sell repetition of one basic piece of information: often a generality unsupported by factual proof. (8) Brand Familiarization : Exercising a friendly, conversational feel; few or no selling facts but suggestion of loyalty to and trustworthiness of the brand; keeping brand name exposed to the public. (9) Symbolic Association : Providing subtle presentations linking the product to any positive symbol, such as a place, event, or person; sales pitches are usually implicit and minimal, and copy is usually minimal and products are generally not featured. (10) Motivation with Psychological Appeals : Explicit statement of how consumers will benefit from products; using emotional appeals to self-interest in creating desires not formerly readily obvious; a framework of especially for you when interpreting facts (pp. 174-183).

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20 Advertising Information Level In modern society, consumers look for information about products in advertisements to make better purchasing decisions. The higher information level an ad carries, the less uncertainty viewers will have toward the advertised product (Abernethy & Franke, 1996). Many studies use a scheme of measuring advertising information developed by Resnik and Stern. Resnik and Stern (1977) introduced the fourteen information cues that represent factors identified as information cues which could potentially be used in intelligent decision making (p. 51). They asserted that an advertisement can be considered as informative when it contains at least one of the fourteen criteria. The fourteen information criteria are: (1) Price : How much does the product cost? (2) Quality : What are the products characteristics that differentiate it from competing products based on evaluations of workmanship, engineering, durability, excellence of materials, structural superiority, attention to detail, or special services? (3) Performance : What is the use of product and how well does it do what it is designed to do in comparison to alternative purchases? (4) Components : What is the product composed of? What ingredients does it contain? (5) Special Packaging or Shape : What special package or shape is the product available in which makes it more appealing than alternatives? (6) Safety Features : What are the products safety features compared to competing products? (7) Availability : Where can the product be acquired? When will the product be able to purchase? (8) Special Offers : What limited-time non-priced deals are available with a particular purchase? (9) Taste : Is evidence presented that the taste of a particular product is perceived as superior in taste by a sample of potential consumers?

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21 (10) Guarantees and Warrantees : What post-purchase assurances accompany the product? (11) New Ideas : Is a totally new concept introduced? Are its advantages presented? (12) Independent Research : Are results of identified research presented? (13) Company research : Are results provided by a company through comparing presented? (14) Nutrition : Are specific data given comparing the nutritional content of a particular product, or is a direct specific comparison made with other products? The level of information content can be influenced by the product that is advertised, the medium carrying the ad, and the country where the ad is placed (Abernethy & Franke, 1996). Many studies apply Resnik-Sterns information classification to examine the information level of international advertisements in different countries. Generally speaking, research has shown that with magazine advertisements, more information is provided in advertisements in Asia countries than in the U.S., based on Resnik-Sterns information system (Chang, 1991). Rice and Lu (1988) used this system to conduct a content analysis of 472 Chinese consumer magazine advertisements and found a large amount of information was contained in those ads. Furthermore, 100 percent of the Chinese advertisements could be seen as informative according to Resnik and Sterns definition. Chang (1991) also found that in Taiwanese TV commercials, performance information is more likely to be employed for personal care-cosmetics-drugs products. Zandpour and his colleagues (1992) conducted a study using Simons creative strategy and Resnik-Stern information cues to exam similarities and differences between U.S., French, and Taiwanese TV commercials. They found that U.S. commercials usually address specific consumer personal needs and problem and frequently employ celebrities, credible sources, and users of products to convey specific product benefits (Zandpour et

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22 al, 1992). U. S. commercials provide explicit conclusions, supported by data-based arguments, why consumers should choose the advertised product, and products are constantly displayed aggressively in the ad (Zandpour et al., 1992). On the other hand, Taiwanese TV commercials tend to utilize more subtle appeals through symbols and metaphors (Zandpour et al., 1992). They are more abstract and generally do not address specific consumer personal needs (Zandpour et al., 1992). An ideal that can be reached through the product usage is often promised, though is seldom linked to the product attributes (Zandpour et al., 1992). Unlike U. S. ads, commercials in Taiwan tend to provide fewer reasons or explicit conclusions (Zandpour et al., 1992). If there is information contained in the ad, it is often presented as straight and unrelated facts (Zandpour et al., 1992). Another frequent strategy in Taiwan is immediate rewards in the form of free offers and special deals through hard-sell approaches (Zandpour et al., 1992). Advertising and Fashion Why Fashion? Fashion mirrors lifestyles. It can be defined as the model style of a particular group at a particular timethe style which is considered appropriate or desirable (Lauer, 1981). Fashion develops in all contexts as the result of the assertion of self-identity and social comparison. It reflects not only individuals but also social values and believes. Long before clothing fashion existed in the form of tattoos, paintings, or intentional scars (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). People use visual media to indicate themselves and others whether they think they belong with another individual or group, or whether they consider themselves anothers equal or superior (Cannon, 1998, p. 26). Need represents a longing for, or lacking of, something that people do not have (Rogers & Gamans, 1983, p. 46). Needs may spring from physical or psychological

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23 reasons, whether consciously or unconsciously. When awakened by internal or external factors, needs then turn into wants. It is especially true that people desire more than they actually need in fashion products and the whole process of wanting is a continuing process (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). Peoples motivations for fashion may come from emotional need, their hunger for praise, the desire of being fashionable or attractive, the longing of being unique or acceptance by peer groups, or they simply tend to become tired of sensations that are experienced constantly (Nystrom, 1928; Frings, 2001). Collins (1977) presented the Juliet Principle drawn from Shakespeare's line spoken by Juliet to Romeo, Whats in a name? That which we call a rose by another name would smell as sweet. This principle suggests that the verbal form rose does not matter; its what we have come to associate with that verbal form that determines the meaning of the name (McDonald & Roberts, 1990, p.11). This can perfectly explain the phenomena in fashion industry; only the verbal form here is replaced by brand name. A brand name does not simply signal a products utilitarian attributes, it can also have a particular meaning, which makes the product personally meaningful and intrinsically relevant for the consumer (Ligas, 1999, p. 611). According to Bocock (1993), all consumption is always the consumption of symbolic signs. Fashion provides models and materials for individuals to construct their identity. It offers choice of clothes, makeup, style, and image through which people can build their characteristics (Kellner, 1994). Individuals use fashion to express their personalities, define their status, create an identity for themselves, or to role-play certain situations in life (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). For instance, one may want to give others an impression that she is stylish and can keep up with the trend by putting on the

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24 cosmetics of this season. In addition, people purchases are not always based on actual personal needs or product attributes, but the implied meaning behind the brand name of their purchases. A brand name does not simply signal a products utilitarian attributes, it can also have a particular meaning, which makes the product personally meaningful and intrinsically relevant for the consumer (Ligas, 1999, p. 610). For example, carrying a branded product may imply the buyers tastes or her social and financial status. The implied meaning behind the branded product can come from marketing environment such as advertising, social environment such as how other people interpret the meaning of the product, and individual environmenthow the consumer wishes to present himself or to be perceived by others (Ligas, 1999). Advertising in Beauty Industry The beauty industry considers the target segment as the main determining factor in applying advertising strategy in different markets. Therefore, as beauty brands meet the trend of self-expression and can create similar perception towards the brand, a standardized approach is more likely to be applied (Tai, 1997). For instance, Anna Sui, the New York based cosmetics company, targets the same group internationally young, trendy, and self-expressive consumers. The visual images in its ads attract consumers in Tokyo, Taipei, and New York, with the only modification of language translation, or even without it. Domzal and Kernan (1993) also believe that some beauty products are qualified for global advertising. By global advertising, they referred to international advertisements that are addressed to multinational audiences and it implies a uniformity, not necessarily an exact replication (Domzal & Kernan, 1993, p. 18).

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25 Therefore, global advertisements are not absolutely standardized ones, and local language might be adopted in many cases (Domzal & Kernan, 1993, p. 18). It is very common that celebrities or famous models endorse beauty products. It is because marketers acknowledge that many purchasing decisions of beauty goods are made based on consumers identity or projective image to the celebrity or model in the advertisements. As Bocock (1993) stated, people try to become the being they desire to be by consuming the items they imagine will help create and sustain their ideas of themselves, their image, and their identity (p. 23). In addition, Tai (1997) pointed out that the major benefits of a standardized advertising strategy in Asia markets include the creation of a stronger international identity through consistent positioning and image across markets over time and cost reduction through economies of scale in advertising production, sharing of experience and effective use of advertising budget (p. 53). Few media possess the power to influence fashion trends more than magazines. For cosmetics marketing, magazines play a crucial role to the advertising mix. As consumers become more aware of the latest fashion styles through magazines, the more desire they want to catch up with it (Frings, 2001). Consumers also seek for beauty information and advice for their styling and buying decisions from fashion magazines. Fashion magazines provide readers the bridge that links the real and the fantastic. By looking at the photographic images in advertisements, readers can gain the pleasure of re-creating the body and the pleasure of masquerade (Rabine, 1994). Advertising Practice in Taiwan Tais (1997) research showed that most multinational firms apply an adaptation strategy by using the same positioning and main theme as in home country, while using different creative executions in Taiwan market. Many Taiwanese advertising studies

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26 showed that traditional values have not been reflected as much as expected and the link between traditional culture and advertising content is not that obvious (Shao, Raymond & Taylor, 1999). The frequent use of the hard-sell approach that focuses on special product attributes and information on product availability in Taiwanese commercials is also less consistent with traditional culture (Zandpour et al., 1992). Based on the concept of Simons creative strategies, Chang (1991) suggests that the most informative commercials tend to be for personal care cosmetics drugs products. In addition, this product category was most likely to utilize information and imitation strategies, and brand-familiarization and symbolic association were less likely to be applied (Chang, 1991; Cho, 1993). Cho (1993) pointed out that cultures with higher levels of uncertainty avoidance and little tolerance for ambiguity, such as Taiwan, were more likely to employ the argument strategy, which provides explicit information. Wang et al. (1997) found that more western appeals, such as individualism, youth, modernity, or independency, than eastern appeals, such as traditional approaches, soft-sell or group consensus appeals, were used in Taiwanese magazine advertisements. The high frequency of western appeals and themes in Taiwan may result from an adoration of western brands, its history of acceptance of foreign cultures, the impact of global advertising agencies, and the training background of Taiwanese advertising industry personnel (Shao et al., 1999, p.66). The employment of English language and foreign models in advertisements is very common in Taiwan (Neelankavil et al ., 1995). Shis (2000) research on 1263 advertisements in Taiwan magazines (577), newspaper (544), and TV (142) found out that English language appeared most frequently in product and company names.

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27 Clothing, cosmetics and accessories were three of the top ten product categories that employed English in the advertisements. Approximately 92% advertisements that carried English language were used with Chinese. Shi (2000) pointed out that English mixing in advertisements in Taiwan serves as an attention gather, symbolizing internationalism, fashion, quality guarantee, and highly developed industrial innovations. (p. 5). This chapter has reviewed research most relevant to the comparing cosmetic advertising practices in Taiwan by pointing out how culture, product nature, and the special beauty idea of pale skin may affect international advertising strategies. Based upon previous research, the next chapter will now discuss the methodological approach and present the operational definitions used in the study.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content Analysis The methodology for this study is designed to explore the advertising appeals in Taiwan. In order to find out whether the project hypotheses are supported, a research method of content analysis will be used. Content analysis originated in the 1950s as a quantitative approach to make valid inferences from media text through a set of procedures (Riffe et al., 1998), which facilitates the production of core constructs from textual data through a systematic method of reduction and analysis and is increasingly undertaken through computerized software (Priest et al., 2002). Holsti (1968) defined content analysis as a technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics of messages" (p14). It is a method for determining the values, themes, role prescriptions, norms of behavior, and other elements of a culture from collecting and analyzing messages in communication process (Engel, Kollat & Blackwell, 1968). Content analysis is widely used by exploratory studies because it is particularly helpful to researchers for finding answers to the question where the method is applied (Priest et al., 2002). Quantitative content analysis is the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationship involving those values using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and 28

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29 consumption (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20). To have objectivity, the research has to be designed to obtain the same results from the same documents when carrying out by other people (Holsti, 1968). A consistently applied criterion of selection allows a systematic analysis to include and exclude of content or categories so that we can avoid the possibility that only materials supporting the researchers hypotheses are examined (Holsti, 1968). Another important element of content analysis is generality. Generality means that findings must have theoretical relevance so that the study results are of scientific values (Haggarty, 1996). When categorizing content, researchers have to make sure that the categories represent the elements of their theories (Holsti, 1968). Analyzed text will be coded into established categories to support the generation of ideas (Priest et al., 2002). Each time when a similar piece of text or idea unit attributed to a particular category appears, it will be counted. Categories have to be exhaustive so that every item relevant to the study will be grouped (Holsti, 1968). In addition, they have to be mutually exclusive, so that each item will only be counted once within a category set (Holsti, 1968). Quantitative content analysis has been criticized for some drawbacks. Kerlinger (1973) suggests that most content analysis is used simply to determine the relative emphasis or frequency of various communication phenomena and not infer to theoretical concepts (p. 525). It is criticized for stressing too much on comparative frequency of different symbols appearance so that sometimes even the presence of a single particularly important symbol may bring significant impact to a message (Riffe et al., 1998). Holsti (1969) also pointed out that quantification leads to trivialization, and problems may be selected due to their quantifiability and therefore become more

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30 significant than reality. Kracauer (1953) argued that quantifying text may lose meaning through radical reduction. As the purpose of this study is to exam advertising messages, content analysis serves as a propitiate approach which allows the quantitative observation of advertising contents of print commercials in magazines to be analyzed systematically and reliably so that we can make generalizations from them in relation to the categories in this study. A second male coder whose native language is also Mandarin will code 10% of the samples to establish intercoder reliability. The coder will attend a training cession, and sample ads will be provided to assist in using the instrument. The level of acceptance (R) will use Hostis (1963) formula: R= 2(C 1,2 ) / C 1 +C 2 Where C 1,2 = number of category assignments both coders agree on C 1 +C 2 = total category assignments made by both coders Unit of Analysis The units of analysis for this study were advertisements chosen from three magazinesElle U.S., Elle Taiwan, and a local women fashion magazine Nong-Nong, from July 2001 to August 2002. Each advertisement of a one-third page in magazines or more, which included personal care products (moisturizer, facial cream, facial mask, toner, essence, lotion, and sun-care products) and cosmetics (lipsticks, foundation, mascara, and eye shadow) was analyzed. The reason Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were selected because they were in the top ten effective advertising magazines in Taiwan in 2000, according to Advertising Magazine (2001). The international-oriented images and styles of Elle Taiwan attract western advertisers more than local magazines (Kao, 2002), while the local-oriented

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31 magazine, Nong-Nong, with a strong female readership, attracts both western and local as well as Japanese advertisers. In addition, Nong-Nong is the only women magazine that can compete in readership with other international magazines. Its readership is urban working females ages from twenty to thirty-five. Unlike Elle Taiwan, which is more imagery and visual oriented, Nong-Nong is more Japanese style oriented, namely more content of useful daily beauty information that teach readers how to make-up and dress stylishly. Sampling Design An even number was randomly chosen, and the months of October 2001, December 2001, February 2002, April 2002, June 2002, and August 2002, were selected. Approximately 350-450 of ads will be derived from these magazines. The ads will represent both personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. Fifteen ads will be randomly chosen in each magazine per month. If there are less than fifteen ads in a single magazine, all ads qualified to research categories will be selected. The number of seven was randomly picked and will be where the first sampling ad starts. Coding Categories and Variables There will be 22 variables categorized in this study. The origin of the ad (magazine and month) and its size (one-third page, half page, one page, double page spread, more than two pages, or other) will be coded. Product origin (Taiwan, Japan, U.S.A, France, other European countries, or other) and brand name will also be coded. Products in the ads will be categorized into personal care with or without whitening effects, cosmetics with or without whitening effects, and other. Ads will be categorized into editorial, pure product, or promotional ad (with samples, coupons or declaration of beauty seminar or special offers, such as discounted price, special packages for a limited time).

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32 The advertisement layout will be categorized into visual only, copy only, or visual and copy. Those ads that only have brand name, product line, and/or small headline will be coded as visual-only ads. The visual size will be coded depending on its percentage in the ad (25%, 33%, 50%, 66%, 75%, or 100%). The copy size will be examined in two ways: whether it is headline only, headline with paragraph(s) (one paragraph, two paragraphs, or more than two paragraphs), or other; how much percentage the copy size is in the ad (headline and/or brand name only, less than 25%, 25%~33%, 34%~50%, 51%~66%, 67%~75%, or more than 75%). Product promotional/ trial device in the ad will be recorded when it carries coupon, entry level form (ex: contest, seminar), sample, announcement of activities (ex: make-up shows), or there are special offers in the ad, such as discounted price, special packages for a limited time, or non-priced deal with a particular purchase; otherwise, ads will be coded as no trial/ promotional device. The origin (eastern, western, both, or cant code) of models in ads will be coded. The researcher went to a department store and consulted with a Shisedo sales personnel about what foundation shade would be considered as medium skin tone in Taiwan. The degree of models whiteness will be determined by comparing models complexions with the foundation shade and will be coded as light, medium, dark, or not applicable if the model is presented as black-and-white or only body part presented in the ad. Product presence and the arrangement of products and models (model dominated, product dominated, or equal presence) in the ad will also be coded. This study will apply some of Resnik-Sterns information cues (1977) to examine copy information: price, quality, performance, components, special packaging or shape, safety features of products, availability, special offers, results of independent research,

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33 company research. Taste, guarantees and warranty, new idea, and nutrition will be excluded from this study because personal care products and cosmetics are not related to the information classification. Copy information for ads which feature their products as specially tailored for Asian women will be coded as quality. Copy information for ads which claim their products are mild and/or not stimulating (suitable for sensitive skins), 100% natural ingredients, no fragrance, or no antiseptic will be coded as safety features. Ads that carry information of future beauty seminar will be also coded as special offers. Each ad may be coded more than once if applicable to the categories. Ads will be examined whether they carry information of product attributes, product benefits, or both; or there is no product attribute and product benefit in the ad (visual-only ads or not visual-only ads). Whitening effects features in ads will be coded as with whitening effect (mei-bai), or pale (bai) wording, with sun block or UV features only, with whitening effect or pale wording and sun block or UV features, using wording other than whitening effect or pale wording and sun block/UV features, product without whitening effects, or other. Presence of language in the ad will be categorized as Chinese, Japanese, English, French, Chinese and English, Chinese and Japanese, Chinese and French, or other. Ads that have brand name and product components in foreign language and copy is presented in Chinese will be coded as Chinese. Language adaptation for headline will be examined whether there is Chinese translation or it is a Chinese-only eastern product ad, an eastern product ad but with English and Chinese translation, or a Chinese-only western product ad. For this category, even the brand name is presented as foreign language and without translation will not be considered as without Chinese translation.

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34 Advertising creative strategy will be scrutinized based on Simons (1971) creative strategy. Ads may have multiple categories if applicable to the classification: information, argument, command, imitation, obligation, habit-starting, repeated assertion, brand familiarization, symbolic association, and motivation with psychological appeals. For editorial ads that have models to demonstrate how to use cosmetics or take care of ones skin with a specific brand product line will be coded as imitation. For those only have visual layouts will be coded as visual only. Research Hypotheses Based on previous studies (Rice & Lu, 1988; Chang, 1991) that used Resnik-Sterns (1977) information classification to determine the information level of advertisements, this study proposes the following hypothesis: H1: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information content than copy for ads in Elle U.S.. H2: Elle U.S. will contain less editorial advertisements than Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. The study assumes that magazines issued in Taiwan will be more adapted to local culture and reflect the special beauty idea of pale skin. Hence, the study proposes that: H3: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will carry more promotional devices than ads in Elle U.S.. H4: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more eastern models than ads in Elle U.S.. H5: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more light-skinned models than ads in Elle U.S..

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35 H6: Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more advertisements of product with whitening effects than Elle U.S.. Though previous research suggests that more western appeals than eastern appeals were used in Taiwan magazine advertisements (Wang et al., 1997; Shao et al., 1999), the study would like to modify it and propose that this phenomenon is more applicable to Taiwan editions of international periodicals than local Taiwanese magazines and that local Taiwanese magazines will be more adapted than Taiwan editions of international periodicals. Therefore, the study will explore with the following hypotheses: H7: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will contain a greater number of eastern models than ads in Elle Taiwan. H8: Nong-Nong will have a higher percentage of local and Japanese product advertisements than Elle Taiwan will have. H9: Elle Taiwan will have a higher percentage of western product advertisements than Nong-Nong will have. H10: Advertisements of products with whitening effects in Nong-Nong will use more wording of whitening effects (mei-bai) or pale (bai) than ads in Elle Taiwan. H11: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will have a greater number of language adaptations than advertisements in Elle Taiwan. H12: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information than ads in Elle Taiwan. Because of the differences in product category (Harris, 1984; Quelch & Hoff, 1986; Domzal & Kernan, 1993; Chen & Starosta, 1998), product involvement (Rothschild,

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36 1987), and product positioning (Jain, 1989; Mueller, 1996), the level of standardization varies (Leo, 1964; Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Peebles, Ryans, and Vernon, 1977; Boddewyn, 1986) in order to reflect cultural uniqueness in the local market (Harich & Zandpour, 2000). In other words, as cosmetic products can create similar perception towards the brand and are consistent with cultural norms, a standardized approach is more likely to be applied (Domzal & Kernan, 1993; Tai, 1997; Leach & Liu, 1998; Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000). Previous research also pointed out that ads of personal care-cosmetics-drugs products in Taiwan tend to be more informative (Chang, 1991) and frequently use argument strategy (Cho, 1993). Therefore, the study proposes that: H13: Personal care product ads will have a greater number of language adaptations than cosmetic ads will have. H14: Cosmetic ads will use more western models than ads of personal care products will use. Based on Alden, Steenkamp and Batras (1999) concept of global consumer culture positioning, the study proposes that: H15: Personal care product ads will contain a greater number of product attributes than cosmetic ads. H16: Personal care product ads will contain a greater level of information than cosmetic ads. H17: Advertisements of products with whitening effects will contain a greater level of information than ads of products without whitening effects. H18: Cosmetic ads will use less argument strategy than personal care product ads.

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37 H19 Cosmetic ads will use more visual imagery than personal care product ads. H20: Cosmetic ads will have a greater level of implicitness than personal care product ads.

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Descriptions of the Sample There were a total number of 403 ads from Elle U.S., 162 from Elle Taiwan, and 174 from Nong-Nong. A hundred and ninety-six ads were pulled out from fall and winter issues, and 208 ads came from spring and summer. Fifty-four percent of the ads were personal care and 46% of them were cosmetics (see Table 4-1). Products with whitening effects appeared in 22% of all the ads. Within each product category, 38% of personal care product ads and 5% cosmetic ads had whitening effects. Ads that featured whitening effects mainly came from April, June, and August issues (76%). More than 55% of ads in Elle U.S. and about 40% of ads in Elle Taiwan were one-page. More than 50% of ads in Nong-Nong were double-page spread or had an advertisement size of more than two pages. However, there was no significant difference found between magazines advertising placement size. Ten percent of the sample was coded by second coder to determine intercoder reliability. The intercoder reliability was found to be 81.8% using Holstis formula (1963), which satisfied the degree of acceptance. Ads in Elle U.S. were mainly one page (56%), while more ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were two pages or more (see Table 4-2). The promotional ads with entry forms appeared in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were usually half-page ads. Ads that were greater than two pages were usually editorial ads. 38

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39 Table 4-1 Product Categoriesby Magazines 0 38 42 80 .0% 47.5% 52.5% 100.0% 27 48 58 133 20.3% 36.1% 43.6% 100.0% 0 4 5 9 .0% 44.4% 55.6% 100.0% 39 65 67 171 22.8% 38.0% 39.2% 100.0% 67 163 174 404 16.6% 40.3% 43.1% 100.0% Count % within Product Count % within Product Count % within Product Count % within Product Count % within Product Personal care withwhitening effect Personal care w/owhitening effect Cosmetics withwhitening effect Cosmetics w/owhitening effect Total Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong MAGAZINE Total 2 =24.4, df =6, p<.05 Table 4-2 Advertisement Size by Magazines 12 37 18 67 17.9% 55.2% 26.9% 100.0% 28 63 72 163 17.2% 38.7% 44.2% 100.0% 28 53 93 174 16.1% 30.5% 53.4% 100.0% 68 153 183 404 16.8% 37.9% 45.3% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Less than1 page 1 page 2 pagesor above ADVERTISEMENT SIZE Total 2 =16.08, df =4, p<.05 Ads in all magazines usually displayed product attributes with explicit product benefits (see Table 4-3). Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong carried more product-benefit-only ads than Elle U.S.. Most product-attribute-only ads appeared in Elle U.S.. Table 4-3 Product Attributes and Benefits by Magazines 5 53 6 64 7.8% 82.8% 9.4% 100.0% 1 130 23 154 .6% 84.4% 14.9% 100.0% 1 155 13 169 .6% 91.7% 7.7% 100.0% 7 338 42 387 1.8% 87.3% 10.9% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Attributes only Attributes & benefits Benefits only ATTRIBUTE & BENEFIT IN AD Total 2 =21.36, df =6, p<.05

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40 Most ads had product presence (98%). Elle U.S. and Nong-Nong had more model-dominant ads than Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-4). However, no significant association was found between magazine type and arrangement of model and product in ads. Table 4-4 Arrangement of Model and Product by Magazines 35 21 56 62.5% 37.5% 100% 66 70 136 48.5% 51.5% 100% 85 69 154 55.2% 44.8% 100% 186 160 346 53.8% 46.2% 100% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Model dominant Product dominant ARRANGEMENT Total 2 =4.096, df =2, p
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41 Table 4-5 Promotional Device Type by Magazines 63 0 1 2 0 0 66 95.5% .0% 1.5% 3.0% .0% .0% 100% 128 5 8 2 4 13 160 80.0% 3.1% 5.0% 1.3% 2.5% 8.1% 100% 128 5 11 2 6 16 168 76.2% 3.0% 6.5% 1.2% 3.6% 9.5% 100% 319 10 20 6 10 29 394 81.0% 2.5% 5.1% 1.5% 2.5% 7.4% 100% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total None Coupon Entryform Sample Activity Specialoffer DEVICE Total 2 =16.20, df =10, p
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42 Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong H1: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information content than copy for ads in Elle U.S.. The finding shows a significant difference in the number of ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong regarding the level of information than did Elle U.S.. Most ads in Elle U.S. were headline only or headline with one paragraph (see Table 4-6). About half the ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained a headline with two paragraphs or more. Most ads in Elle U.S. had copy size between 25-50%, and less than 15% of the ads had copy size more than 50%. On the contrary, there were more ads with copy size of more than 50% of the layout in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong (see Table 4-7). In addition, ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong carried more information cues than Elle U.S. (see Table 4-8). Elle U.S. contained more ads with one to two information cues than did Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. In addition, more than half the ads with four information cues or more appeared in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. H1 is supported. Table 4-6Advertising Copy Size by Magazines -1 41 19 60 68.3% 31.7% 100.0% 82 75 158 51.9% 47.5% 100.0% 82 92 174 47.1% 52.9% 100.0% 205 186 392 52.3% 47.4% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Headline only orwith one paragraph Headline with 2paragraphs or above COPY SIZE Total 2 =9.56, df =4, p<.05

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43 Table 4-7 Advertising Copy Size by Magazines 2 19 39 9 67 28.4% 58.2% 13.4% 100.0% 39 78 46 163 23.9% 47.9% 28.2% 100.0% 34 71 69 174 19.5% 40.8% 39.7% 100.0% 92 188 124 404 22.8% 46.5% 30.7% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Less than 25% 25%~50% More than 50% copy Size Total 2 =21.96, df =6, p<.05 Table 4-8 Number of Information Cues by Magazines 50 14 3 67 74.6% 20.9% 4.5% 100.0% 83 39 41 163 50.9% 23.9% 25.2% 100.0% 83 48 43 174 47.7% 27.6% 24.7% 100.0% 216 101 87 404 53.5% 25.0% 21.5% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total 1-2 3 4 or above INFORMATION CUES Total 2 =18.74, df =4, p<.05 H2: Elle U.S. will contain less editorial ads than Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. As Table 4-9 shows, Elle U.S. contained less editorial ads, and ads in Elle U.S. were mostly pure product ads. In contrast, advertising strategies in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were more diverse; 17% ads in Elle Taiwan and 23% in Nong-Nong were editorial ads. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong also contained more promotional ads than Elle U.S.. H2 is therefore supported. H3: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will carry more promotional devices than ads in Elle U.S.. As Table 4-10 shows, 22% of ads in Elle Taiwan and 26% of ads in Nong-Nong had promotional devices, compared to 7.5% in Elle U.S.. Therefore, H3 is supported.

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44 Table 4-9 Advertisement Categories by Magazines 0 66 1 67 .0% 98.5% 1.5% 100% 27 108 28 163 16.6% 66.3% 17.2% 100% 40 94 40 174 23.0% 54.0% 23.0% 100% 67 268 69 404 16.6% 66.3% 17.1% 100% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Editorial Pure product Promotional AD CATEGORY Total 2 =42.93, df =4, p<.05 Table 4-10 Promotional Devices by Magazines 62 5 67 92.5% 7.5% 100.0% 127 36 163 77.9% 22.1% 100.0% 128 45 173 74.0% 26.0% 100.0% 317 86 403 78.7% 21.3% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total None With promotion PROMOTIONAL DEVICE Total 2 =9.99, df =2, p<.05 H4: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more eastern models than ads in Elle U.S.. The findings suggest a significant association between magazine type and models shown in ads. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more eastern models than did Elle U.S. (see Table 4-11). H4 is supported by the finding. Table 4-11 Models by Magazines 47 0 47 100.0% .0% 100.0% 46 44 90 51.1% 48.9% 100.0% 40 72 112 35.7% 64.3% 100.0% 133 116 249 53.4% 46.6% 100.0% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Western Eastern MODEL (If shown in ads) Total 2 =54.54, df =2, p<.05

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45 H5: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more light-skinned models than ads in Elle U.S.. As H5 asserted, the finding revealed a significant association between magazine type and the degrees of models skin whiteness. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more light-skinned models in ads than did Elle U.S. (see Table 4-12). Most models in Nong-Nong and Elle Taiwan were displayed in a light skin tone; no matter whether the model was western or eastern looking. On the contrary, Elle U.S. had the highest percentage of medium and dark-skinned models in ads among the three magazines. Table 4-12 Degree of Models Whiteness by Magazines 17 18 9 23 67 25.4% 26.9% 13.4% 34.3% 100% 76 7 4 29 116 65.5% 6.0% 3.4% 25.0% 100% 102 5 4 8 119 85.7% 4.2% 3.4% 6.7% 100% 195 30 17 60 302 64.6% 9.9% 5.6% 19.9% 100% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Light Medium Dark Mixture ofcomplexions Degree of Model's Whiteness Total 2 =77.38, df =6, p<.0.5 H6: Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more product with whitening effects advertisements than Elle U.S.. About 30% of the ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were product with whitening effects ads (see Table 4-1). No product with whitening effects ad appeared in Elle U.S.. Therefore, H6 is supported. Nong-Nong vs. Elle Taiwan H7: Ads in Nong-Nong will contain a greater number of eastern models than ads in Elle Taiwan.

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46 As Table 4-11 shows above, most models in Elle Taiwan were western, while more than 60% of models in Nong-Nong were eastern. Therefore, H7 is supported. H8: Elle Taiwan will have a higher percentage of western product ads than Nong-Nong will have. H9: Nong-Nong will have a higher percentage of local and Japanese product ads than Elle Taiwan will have. As H8 and H9 asserted, there was a significant difference between products origins in these two magazines. Elle Taiwan carried the most European product ads, while most Asian product ads came from Nong-Nong (see Table 4-13). Furthermore, Elle Taiwan had more western product ads that were not major brands than did Nong-Nong (see Table 4-14). Concluded from the above findings, H8 and H9 are supported. Table 4-13 Product Originby Magazines 3 45 19 67 4.5% 67.2% 28.4% 100% 52 40 71 163 31.9% 24.5% 43.6% 100% 78 38 58 174 44.8% 21.8% 33.3% 100% 133 123 148 404 32.9% 30.4% 36.6% 100% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Asian country USA European country ORIGIN Total 2 =6.07, df =2, p<.05 Table 4-14 Brands by Magazines 27 37 3 0 67 40.3% 55.2% 4.5% .0% 100.0% 24 70 52 17 163 14.7% 42.9% 31.9% 10.4% 100.0% 31 57 76 10 174 17.8% 32.8% 43.7% 5.7% 100.0% 63 187 153 1 404 15.6% 46.3% 37.9% .2% 100.0% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Major USbrand Major Europeanbrand Major Asianbrand Other westernbrand BRAND Total 2 =8.19, df =3, p<.05 H10: Ads of products with whitening effects in Nong-Nong will use more wording of whitening effects (mei-bai) or pale (bai) than ads in Elle Taiwan.

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47 Descriptive percentages seem to support H10Nong-Nong contained more ads of products with whitening effects that used wordings of whitening effects (mei-bai) or pale (bai) than did Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-15). However, no statistical difference was found. Therefore, H10 is not supported. Table 4-15 Wording of Whitening Effects by Magazines 1 29 19 48 60.4% 39.6% 100.0% 34 18 52 65.4% 34.6% 100.0% 63 37 100 63.0% 37.0% 100.0% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total With whitening(mai-bai) only Other whiteningwording WORDING OF WHITENING EFFECT Total (2 =0.096, df =1, p
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48 37 3 20 101 161 23.0% 1.9% 12.4% 62.7% 100.0% 89 0 22 64 174 51.1% .0% 12.6% 36.8% 100.0% 126 3 42 165 335 37.6% 9.0% 12.5% 49.5% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Chineseonly Englishonly Chinese withother language Chinese &English LANGUAGE Total 2 =32.91, df =3, p<.05 Table 4-17 Language Adaptation for Headlines by Magazines 3 77 9 50 27 163 47.2% 5.5% 30.7% 16.6% 100.0% 54 3 67 50 174 31.0% 1.7% 38.5% 28.7% 100.0% 131 12 117 77 337 38.9% 3.6% 34.7% 22.8% 100.0% Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Count % within Magazine Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total Western Productwith ChineseTranslation Westernproduct (NoTranslation) Easternproduct WesternProduct(Chinese only) LANGUAGE ADAPTATIONS FOR HEADLINES Total 2 =16.94, df =3, p<.05 H12: Ads in Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information than ads in Elle Taiwan. As H12 projected, there was also a significant difference in the number of ads between the information levels in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. Not only did ads in Nong-Nong have greater copy size than ads in Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-6 and Table 4-7), but also ads in Nong-Nong had more information cues than ads in Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-8). Fifty-two percent of the ads in Nong-Nong contained three information cues or more, compared with 49% in Elle Taiwan. H12 is also supported. Personal Care vs. Cosmetics H13: Ads of personal care products will have a greater number of language adaptations than ads for cosmetics will have. 3 Table 4-17 did not include Elle U.S. because there were no ads containing Chinese.

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49 As H13 asserted, there was a significant difference between language adaptations in personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. The finding shows more Chinese-only personal care product ads than cosmetic ads (see Table 4-18). More cosmetic ads were presented in an English-only text. In addition, western personal care products ads contained more Chinese-only ads than western cosmetic ads. In contrast, western cosmetic ads had more ads with no Chinese translation for headlines than personal care product ads did (see Table 4-19). H13 is supported. Table 4-18 Language by Product Categories 78 27 22 87 214 36.4% 12.6% 10.3% 40.7% 100.0% 44 41 19 73 177 24.9% 23.2% 10.7% 41.2% 100.0% 122 68 41 160 391 31.2% 17.4% 10.5% 40.9% 100.0% Count % within Product Count % within Product Count % within Product Personal care Cosmetics Total Chineseonly Englishonly Chinese withother language Chinese andEnglish LANGUAGE Total 2 =8.995, df =3, p<.05 Table 4-19 Language Adaptation for Headlines by Product Categories 64 33 66 51 214 29.9% 15.4% 30.8% 23.8% 100% 63 45 46 25 179 35.2% 25.1% 25.7% 14.0% 100% 127 78 112 76 393 32.3% 19.8% 28.5% 19.3% 100% Count % within Product Count % within Product Count % within Product Personal care Cosmetics Total Western productwith ChineseTranslation Westernproduct (Notranslation) Easternproduct Westernproduct(Chinese only) LANGUAGE ADAPTATIONS FOR HEADLINES Total 2 =10.19, df =3, p<.05 H14: Cosmetic ads will use more western models than personal care product ads will use. As H14 asserted, there was a significant association between product categories and models shown in ads. A higher percentage of western models appeared in cosmetic ads than appeared in personal care product ads (see Table 4-20). In addition, more

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50 cosmetic ads appeared to contain models than personal care product ads. H14 is therefore supported. Table 4-20 Models by Product Categories 63 56 88 207 30.4% 27.1% 42.5% 100.0% 69 57 44 170 40.6% 33.5% 25.9% 100.0% 132 113 132 377 35.0% 30.0% 35.0% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care Cosmetics Total Westernmodels Easternmodels No modelshown MODEL Total 2 =12.94, df =2, p<.05 H15: Personal care product ads will contain a greater number of product attributes than cosmetic ads. Table 4-21 shows a significant association between product attributes in personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. These ads carried a greater number of product attributes than cosmetic ads. Most personal care product ads contained information of product attributes and benefits (96%), while most of benefit-only ads came from cosmetics. Therefore, H15 is supported. Table 4-21 Product Attributes and Benefits by Product Categories 0 204 8 212 .0% 96.2% 3.8% 100.0% 7 126 33 166 4.2% 75.9% 19.9% 100.0% 7 330 41 378 1.9% 87.3% 10.8% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care Cosmetics Total Attributes only Attributes & benefits Benefits only ATTRIBUTES & BENEFIT IN ADS Total 2 =35.61, df =2, p<.05 H16: Personal care product ads will contain a greater level of information than cosmetic ads. As H16 stated, there was a significant difference between information levels in personal care product ads and cosmetics ads. More ads containing a headline with two

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51 paragraphs appeared in personal care product ads than in cosmetic ads (see Table 4-22). In addition, more personal care product ads had copy size more than 50% of the advertising layout (see Table 4-23). Furthermore, personal care product ads contained more information cues than did cosmetic ads (see Table 4-24). H16 is also supported. Table 4-22 Copy Size by Product Categories 1 90 121 211 42.7% 57.3% 100.0% 110 60 171 64.3% 35.1% 100.0% 200 181 382 52.4% 47.4% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care Cosmetics Total Headline only orwith one paragraph Headline with 2paragraphs or above COPY SIZE Total 2 =22.18, df =1, p<.05 Table 4-23 Copy Size by Product Categories 2 12 41 28 81 14.8% 50.6% 34.6% 100.0% 19 66 48 133 14.3% 49.6% 36.1% 100.0% 3 3 3 9 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% 100.0% 57 72 41 170 33.5% 42.4% 24.1% 100.0% 91 182 120 393 23.2% 46.3% 30.5% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care withwhitening effect Personal care w/owhitening effect Cosmetics withwhitening effect Cosmetics w/owhitening effecy Total Less than 25% 25%~50% More than 50% COPY SIZE Total 2 =20.89, df =6, p<.05 H17: Ads of products with whitening effects will contain a greater level of information than ads of products without whitening effects. As Table 4-24 shows, ads of products with whitening effects contained more information cues than ads of products without whitening effects. However, only cosmetics with whitening effects ads contained more copy size than cosmetics without

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52 whitening effects ads (see Table 4-23). No similar pattern appeared in personal care product ads. Therefore, H17 is partially supported by these findings. Table 4-24 Number of Information Cues by Product Categories 24 23 33 80 30.0% 28.8% 41.3% 100.0% 60 36 37 133 45.1% 27.1% 27.8% 100.0% 5 3 1 9 55.6% 33.3% 11.1% 100.0% 123 36 12 171 71.9% 21.1% 7.0% 100.0% 212 98 83 393 53.9% 24.9% 21.1% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care withwhitening effect Personal care w/owhitening effect Cosmetics withwhitening effect Cosmetics w/owhitening effect Total 1-2 3 4 or above INFORMATION CUES Total 2 =21.64, df =6, p<.05 H18: Cosmetic ads will use less argument strategy than personal care product ads. As Appendix A-3 shows (p. 66), personal care product ads used more argument appeals than cosmetic ads did. In addition, cosmetic ads used more implicit strategies of motivation with psychological appeals, symbolic association, and imitation than personal care ads. The descriptive percentages appear to support H18. However, no statistical test of association could be determined due to the number of empty cells counts of less than five. Therefore, H18 is only partially supported. H19: Cosmetic ads will use more visual imagery than personal care product ads. As Table 4-25 and Table 4-26 show, personal care product ads had less visual imagery than cosmetic ads. Not only did most visual-only ads appear in cosmetic ads, but also cosmetic ads had greater visual size in the advertising layout. In addition, only products without whitening effects ads had visual-only layout. Though descriptive percentages seem to support H19, no statistical difference was found between the

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53 advertising visual size and personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. Therefore, H19 is partially supported. Table 4-25 Advertising Layouts by Product Categories 1 212 214 .5% 99.1% 100.0% 10 169 179 5.6% 94.4% 100.0% 11 381 393 2.8% 96.9% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care Cosmetics Total Visual only Visual & copy LAYOUT Total 2 =10.58, df =3, p<.05 Table 4-26 Advertising Visual Size by Product Categories 9 23 48 80 11.3% 28.8% 60.0% 100.0% 26 42 65 133 19.5% 31.6% 48.9% 100.0% 1 3 5 9 11.1% 33.3% 55.6% 100.0% 16 54 101 171 9.4% 31.6% 59.1% 100.0% 52 122 219 393 13.2% 31.0% 55.7% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Personal care withwhitening effect Personal care w/owhitening effect Cosmetics withwhitening effect Cosmetics w/owhitening effect Total 50% or less 51%-75% More than 75% VISUAL SIZE Total 2 =6.28, df =6, p< n.s H20: Cosmetic ads will have a greater level of implicitness than personal care product ads. Although there were more benefit-only layouts in cosmetic ads than in personal care product ads, as H15 suggested, no statistical test of association could be determined between the advertising appeals and personal care product ads and cosmetic ads (H18). There were also no statistical difference found between the advertising visual size and personal care product ads and cosmetic ads (H19). Therefore, H20 is only partially supported.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION As Briley, Morris, and Simonson (2000) pointed out, culture exerts its influence only when some aspect of the decision task requires that decision makers draw knowledge structure that differ cross-culturally. In other words, although there are many differences between western versus Chinese cultures, consumers decision making would be affected only when they need to provide rationale for their purchase. The cultural similarity of countries indicates that local consumers may accept certain standardized approaches as long as the advertised products are not culturally salient. Therefore, some cosmetic product advertising appeals in Taiwan are similar, even the same as those in their home markets. Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong As a high-context culture, Taiwan society emphasizes non-verbal expression and physical settings (Stove, 1974). Consequently, advertising messages in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong are usually conveyed either in the physical context or internalized in the model/ celebrity while less information is conducted explicitly in the ads. There were more hard-sell appeals used in Elle U.S., while Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong employed more soft-sell strategies, such as motivation with psychological appeal and symbolic association, which was particularly true in cosmetic ads. On the other hand, previous research also suggests that ads in Taiwans magazines contain greater levels of information than ads in American magazines. Wang (1997) and 54

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55 his colleagues found that hard-sell strategy is more prevalent than soft-sell one for high-involvement products in Taiwan. In order to reduce risk, consumers tend to seek for more information before purchasing a high-involvement product. The same pattern was also found in this study. Not only did Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contain more copy text in the ads, but they also carried more information cues than Elle U.S. did. In addition, Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong tended to use editorial ads to deliver more product information as consumers in Taiwan rely heavily on women magazines for the latest and useful fashion and beauty ideas. As previous research (Zandpour et al., 1992) suggests, ads in Taiwan frequently employed immediate rewards in the form of free offers and special deals through hard-sell approaches. It is because Taiwanese consumers are prone to products that have promotions and are relatively less brand loyal. The findings also show that ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more promotional devices than ads in Elle U.S. in order to draw consumers attention. Regarding models in the ads, ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more eastern models than ads in Elle U.S. in order to reflect local values. Owing to the embrace of pale is beautiful in Taiwan, this study also reveals advertising approaches in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong that emphasize the whitening effects, which were rarely found in Elle U.S.. Most models of dark complexion were coded from Elle U.S., while Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong had a much higher percentage of containing light-skinned models in the ads. In addition, there were no whitening effect product ads in Elle U.S.. Elle Taiwan vs. Nong-Nong As an international fashion magazine, Elle Taiwan is a mixture of western and Taiwanese cultures. Instead of being purely standardized or localized, the findings of this

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56 study revealed the mixed approach that Elle Taiwan employed. In general, most ads in Nong-Nong were Chinese-only or with Chinese translation, while most ads in Elle Taiwan were Chinese with another language, and some of them were without Chinese translation. Personal Care Product Ads vs. Cosmetic Ads As Muller (1996) pointed out, cosmetics are one of the products that can be promoted through imagery messages which allows standardized ads employed in different countries. Considered as low-involvement products and less cultural-bound, advertising strategies for cosmetics were less adapted than personal care products in Elle Taiwan. In addition, cosmetics are more fashion-oriented, and perhaps purchases are merely based on brand names instead of product performance. Because most cosmetics are consistent with local beauty norms, they can be positioned the same in other markets as at home country. The product nature also allows cosmetic ads to use more visual imagery than do personal care product ads. These phenomena are also reflected in ads in Elle Taiwan more cosmetic ads were standardized than personal care product ads, and there were less language adaptations, lower information levels, fewer eastern models, as well as different advertising appeals used in cosmetic ads. On the other hand, although personal care product ads in Elle Taiwan were more adapted than cosmetic ads, those ads were still different from ads in Nong-Nong. The findings showed that there were more personal care product ads that used global strategies (Domzal & Kernan, 1993) in Elle Taiwan, while the same products in Nong-Nong carried more information cues or used different advertising appeals. Nong-Nong positions itself as a magazine that contains more useful daily beauty information than more imagery and visual oriented, like Elle Taiwan.

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57 Whitening Effects Acknowledging the local pale skin concept, more than half of models in Elle Taiwan were light-skinned. However, there were still some medium-to-dark-skinned models in the ads because Elle Taiwan had western product ads that were standardized. On the contrary, Nong-Nong carried more local and Japanese product ads, and consequently, most models in Nong-Nong were light-skinned. Elle Taiwan also carried ads of personal care products with whitening effects. However, the ways the ads featured the products functions were different from those in Nong-Nong. Most ads of cosmetics with whitening effects in Nong-Nong used wordings that directly pointed out whitening effects, while more ads in Elle-Taiwan used a more implicit approach to deliver the message. One possible explanation for this might be that readers of Elle Taiwan are less sensitive to the whitening features than readers of Nong-Nong, who favor Japanese styles more than western trends. Eastern Trends vs. Western Trends Although almost one-third of ads in Elle Taiwan were Asian products, Elle Taiwan had a higher percentage of containing western cosmetic product ads than Nong-Nong did. In other words, Nong-Nong had more local and Japanese product ads as a result that Japanese brands are favorable to consumers in Taiwan, while ads in Elle Taiwan targeted consumers who are more into major global brands and are not as enthusiastic about Japanese trends as other consumers are. As a result, ads in Nong-Nong had a higher tendency of displaying eastern-looking models than in Elle Taiwan. Furthermore, there were more ads of non-major European brands in Nong-Nong, as there are many retail stores or beauty salons in Taiwan where local consumers also purchase beauty products carrying those product lines.

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58 Promotional Devices An interesting finding was no matter in Elle Taiwan or in Nong-Nong, ads of American products were more adapted than European products, as there were more promotional and editorial ads of American brands, while most European product ads were pure ads. In addition, less American brands in Elle Taiwan were pure product ads than in Nong-Nong. One explanation for this is that American advertisers were aware that consumers in Taiwan were less familiar with western brands than Asian brands, so it was necessary to tell consumers more about their products in an editorial form or carry promotional devices in the ads to promote product trial and purchase. On the contrary, because most readership of Nong-Nong come from consumers who are more interested in Asian styles, western product ads were more like introductions of products to the market, instead of delivering more in-depth descriptions as Asian brands did in their ads. Implications for International Advertisers When creating ads of cosmetic products in Taiwan, the first thing international marketers should consider is the nature of product. As the study showed, a standardized approach is suitable for cosmetics without whitening effects, owing to the universal desire so that no specific needs to be addressed in different markets. However, for cosmetics with whitening effects, typically foundations, a mixed or a more adapted approach is suggested in order to meet the needs and wants derived from the special beauty ideas of pale skin. Being a more uncertainty-avoidant culture, consumers in Taiwan tend to seek more information when evaluating products, particularly when they are more involved in the purchase. Therefore, personal care product ads need to be more aware of the culture norms and thus, require more adaptation than cosmetics ads. Using direct and explicit

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59 text to emphasize the whitening effects is strongly recommend for personal care product ads because such wordings like whitening (mei-bai) or pale (bai) are eye-catching and can attract consumers attention and interest to process the advertising messages. Owing to severe competition in Taiwans beauty industry, western marketers should come up with distinctive advertising messages that differentiate their products from their competitors. However, unless consumers identify with the benefits and attributes the product carries, they would rather purchase eastern products that they are more accustomed to and have more confidence in. Therefore, when more culture meanings inherited in the products, more adaptation, or at least mixed approach is recommended. Limitations The major drawback of this study was the lack representativeness of ads from Elle U.S.. Perhaps the economic recession after September 11 in 2001 may have resulted in fewer cosmetic product ads being placed in Elle U.S.. However, other fashion magazines in U.S. appeared to carry more cosmetic product ads than in Elle U.S.. This may have hindered this study to code more completely the advertising patterns in the U.S.. Additionally, how the copy size is calculated may lead to different results. Another limitation of this study is how the creative strategy defined may vary as different researchers using the same system to verify which advertising appeals are employed in the ad. Suggestions for Future Research It is necessary that future study compare other magazines, such as Vogue and Marie Claire, which carry more cosmetics and personal care product ads in both U.S. and Taiwan and see if the results are similar to this study. In addition, future study should also

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60 take magazines readership into consideration, as different age groups and target audiences may lead to different advertising strategies. Furthermore, owing to different characteristics of print media, broadcast media, what was found in magazines may not necessary true for television. Therefore, it is also beneficial to compare TV commercials of cosmetic products in Taiwan and U.S. in order to determine better advertising strategies for both media. This study should also be replicated with a larger sample size, particularly personal care products with whitening effects, to identify variables not reviewed in this study. More specifically, there should be a special section that compares products with UV and sun block functions with products with whitening effects to determine how ads for products of anti-radiate from sunshine can tailor themselves for the local beauty culture while still featuring its core product attributes.

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APPENDIX A TABLES OF RESULTS

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Table A-1 Information Cues by Magazines 14 22 17 53 20.9% 13.5% 9.8% 13.1% 2 4 4 10 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.5% 1 3 2 6 1.5% 1.8% 1.1% 1.5% 5 2 7 3.1% 1.1% 1.7% 3 6 9 1.8% 3.4% 2.2% 7 13 20 4.3% 7.5% 5.0% 5 6 11 3.1% 3.4% 2.7% 1 5 6 .6% 2.9% 1.5% 4 11 15 2.5% 6.3% 3.8% 8 2 5 15 11.9% 1.2% 2.9% 3.7% 5 14 11 30 7.5% 8.6% 6.3% 7.4% 2 3 3 8 3.0% 1.8% 1.8% 2.0% 5 4 9 3.1% 2.3% 2.2% 5 3 8 3.1% 1.7% 2.0% 1 5 5 11 1.5% 3.0% 2.9% 2.7% 7 7 10.5% 1.7% 11 17 26 54 16.4% 10.4% 15.0% 13.2% 3 5 3 11 4.5% 3.1% 1.7% 2.7% 4 9 6 19 6.0% 5.5% 3.5% 4.7% 5 4 9 3.1% 2.3% 2.2% 4 5 9 2.5% 2.9% 2.2% 7 17 7 31 10.4% 10.4% 4.0% 7.6% 1 9 10 .6% 5.1% 2.5% 65 157 168 390 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE 3 7 11 1-2-3-4-7 1-2-3-8 1-3 1-3-4-7 1-3-4-8 1-3-4-5-7-8 2-3 2-3-4 2-3-4-10 2-3-4-6 2-3-4-7 1-2-3-4 2-7 3-4 3-4-10 3-4-7 3-4-7-8 3-5 3-7 3-8 Total Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong MAGAZINE Total Note: 1Price, 2Quality, 3Performance, 4Components or contents, 5Special packaging or shape, 6Safety features, 7Availability, 8Special offers, 9Results of independent research, 10Company sponsored research, 11Visual only 62

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63 Table A-2 Advertising Appeals by Magazines 2 4 0 6 3.0% 2.5% .0% 1.5% 3 13 9 25 4.5% 8.0% 5.2% 6.2% 36 70 62 168 53.7% 43.0% 35.6% 41.6% 11 17 13 41 16.4% 10.4% 7.5% 10.1% 1 0 3 4 1.5% .0% 1.7% 1.0% 1 9 37 47 1.5% 5.5% 21.3% 11.9% 0 0 8 8 .0% .0% 4.6% 2.0% 0 11 18 29 .0% 6.8% 10.4% 7.1% 0 4 5 9 .0% 2.5% 2.9% 2.2% 7 19 18 44 4.5% 11.6% 10.3% 10.9% 61 147 173 381 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE Count % within MAGAZINE 1 10 2 2-4 3 4 4-7 7 8 9 Total Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong MAGAZINE Total Note: 1Information, 2Argument, 3Command, 4Imitation, 7Repeated assertion, 8Brand familiarization, 9Symbolic association, 10Motivation with psychological appeals

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64 Table A-3 Advertising Appeals by Product Categories 3 2 5 1.4% 1.1% 1.3% 5 20 25 2.3% 11.1% 6.4% 0 5 5 .0% 2.8% 1.3% 125 36 161 58.7% 20.0% 50.0% 18 24 42 8.5% 13.3% 10.7% 5 2 7 2.3% 1.1% 1.8% 17 24 41 7.9% 13.4% 10.6% 2 6 8 .9% 3.3% 2.0% 12 12 24 5.6% 6.7% 6.1% 1 8 9 .5% 4.4% 2.3% 7 27 34 3.3% 15.0% 8.7% 213 180 393 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT Count % within PRODUCT 1 10 1-4 2 2-4 3 4 4-7 7 8 9 Total Personal care Cosmetics PRODUCT Total Note: 1Information, 2Argument, 3Command, 4Imitation, 7Repeated assertion, 8Brand familiarization, 9Symbolic association, 10Motivation with psychological appeals

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APPENDIX B CODING SHEET

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Coding Sheet Case ID #___________ V1 Magazine <1> US Elle <2> Elle Taiwan <3> Nong-Nong V2 Month <1> October, 2001 <2> December, 2001 <3> February, 2002 <4> April, 2002 <5> June, 2002 <6> August, 2002 V3 Size <1> One-third page <2> Half page <3> One page <4> Double page spread <5>More than two pages <6> Other __________ V4 Product Category <1> Personal Care with whitening effects <2> Personal Care without whitening effects <3> Cosmetics with whitening effects <4> Cosmetics without whitening effects <5> Other _____________ V5 Product origin <1> Taiwan <2> Japan <3> USA <4> France <5> Other European country <6> Other V6 Brand name <1> Major U.S. brand <2> Major European brand <3> Major Asian brand <4> Other western brand <5> Other eastern brand V7 Advertisement category <1> Editorial ad <2> Pure product ad <3> Promotional ad V8 Advertising layout <1> Visual only <2> Copy only <3> Visual and copy V9 Advertising visual size <1> 25% <2> 33% <3> 50% <4> 66% <5> 100% 66

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67 V10 Product trial/promotional device <1> None <2> Coupon <3> Entry form <4> Sample <5> Special event <6> Special offer <7> Other _________________ V11a Advertising copy size <1> Headline only <2> Headline with one paragraph <3> Headline with two paragraphs <4> Headline with more than two paragraphs <5> Other _____________________ V11b Advertising copy size <1> Headline and/or brand name only <2> Less than 25% <3> 25%~33% <4> 34%~50% <5> 51%~66% <6> 67%~75% <7> More than 75% V12 Copy information <1> Price <2> Quality <3> Performance <4> Components <5> Special packaging or shape <6> Safety features of products <7> Availability <8> Special offers <9> Results of independent research <10> Company research <11> Visual Only <12> Not applicable V13 Explicit product benefits in the ad <1> Information of product attributes only (without explicit benefits) <2> Information of product attributes with explicit benefits <3> Product benefits only without product attributes <4> No product attributes and product benefits (visual-only ad) <5> No product attributes and product benefits (non visual-only ad) V14 Origin of model in the ad <1> Western-looking <2> Eastern-looking <3> Both <4> Cant code <5> None V15 Degree of models whiteness <1> Light <2> Medium <3> Dark <4> Mixtures of complexion if more than one models <5> Not applicable

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68 V16 Presence of Product <1> Shown <2> Not shown V17 Arrangement of model and product <1> Model dominant <2> Product dominant <3> Equal presence <4> Cant code V18 Presence of language in the ad <1>Chinese <2> Japanese <3> English <4> French <5> Chinese and Japanese <6> Chinese and English <7> Chinese and French <8> Chinese, Japanese, and another language V19 Language adaptation for headline <1> With Chinese translation <2> Without Chinese translation <3> Eastern product (Chinese only) <4> Eastern product (with English and translation) <5> Western product (Chinese only) V20 Whitening effects feature <1> With whitening effect (mei-bai), or pale (bai) wording <2> With sun block or UV features only <3> With whitening effect or pale wording and sun block or UV features <4> Using wording other than whitening effect or pale wording and sun block/UV features <5> Product without whitening effects <6> Other ______________________________ V21 Creative Strategy <1> Information <2> Argument <3> Command <4> Imitation <5> Obligation <6> Habit-starting <7> Repeated assertion <8> Brand familiarization <9> Symbolic association <10> Motivation with psychological appeals <11> Not applicable

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yu-Rong Pu is a current graduate student at the University of Florida and will graduate in August 2003. She comes from Taipei, the capital city of Taiwan. She has a younger brother and has a blessed life with her family. Yu-Rong graduated from Taipei First Girls High and earned her bachelors degree in international relations from National Taiwan University, one of the most outstanding universities in Taiwan. Yu-Rong has been active in extra-curricul ar activities and frequently held positions in organizations. She was particularly interested in drama and fashion and created a very successful stage play with her classmates within only two weeks for the graduation performance. Studying abroad is always her dream, so she came to the United States right after her graduation. She earned double master's majors in both advertising and international business while she studied in UF. She is expecting to publish her thesis in the near future. She is a creative, humorous, self-disciplined, and well-organized person. She likes new things and challenges; she learns experience from failures and feels triumphant when solving the problem. She likes traveling a lot, and big cities are always her favorite destinations. Therefore, working in a transnational corporation in big cities is her current goal for the near future. Being a part of the entertainment or fashion industry is her lifelong dream. It would not be a bad idea for Yu-Rong to deliver her knowledge of marketing and advertising in universities years later. 79


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Title: Comparisons of Cosmetic Advertisements: Strategies for Cultural Adaptations in Women's Magazines in Taiwan
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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COMPARISONS OF COSMETIC ADVERTISEMENTS:
STRATEGIES FOR CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN WOMEN'S MAGAZINES
IN TAIWAN
















By

YU-RONG PU


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Yu-Rong Pu















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many people have kindly helped make this thesis possible. My father, Hong-

Yong Pu, generously supported me to study in the U.S. My mom, Sho-Lan Chiu,

cultivated me to become what I am today. Without their endless love, my dream will

never be a reality. My beloved brother, Kenji, helped me a lot with dealing with trivial

things so I could concentrate on my thesis. My life-long friends, Chin-Wen Lin, Anita

Liu, Michael Tsi, and Julia Wu, stimulated and inspired me to finish this thesis. I had

wonderful time with my friends at UF, Yang-Ling Chou, Ean Chien, George Wang, Wen

Ren, and Yi-Po Chou, who kindly helped me a lot through my study. Kang-Uei Dai, a

very special person to me, had unwavering faith in me and was always there for me. If it

were not for these people, I could never make this thesis possible. I am so blessed to have

all of them in my life, and the many others who helped me along the way.

I also want to attribute special thanks to my committee members, Dr. Robyn

Goodman and Linda Conway Correll, who generously gave me feedback and helped me

to develop my coding sheet, and especially my chair, Dr. Marilyn Roberts. Dr. Roberts

was incredibly "tolerant" with my poor English and helped me enormously for the

editing. She was not only a knowledgeable mentor but also a considerate and encouraging

coach and teacher. Without her intelligence and support, this thesis could not have been

finished.

I thank all of those named here from the bottom of my heart, and many more I

will never forget. I would like to dedicate this thesis to all of them.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ......... .. .............................................................. .............. iii

ABSTRACT ............... ................... ......... .............. vi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

B a c k g ro u n d ................................................................. .................................... 1
Women in Taiwan.................... ..................................
W om en M magazine in Taiw an......................................................... ............... 3
B eauty Industry in Taiw an......................................... .................................. 4
International Trends............... ... ............................. .... 5
Jap an ese Sty le .................................................. 5
The Ideal of "Pale Skin" .................................... .................. .. ........ ..
Purpose of the Study ............... ................ .................................7.
Significance of the Study .................................................... .. ........ .... 8

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W .................................................................. .....................9

Background of International Advertising .................................... ..................... 9
Stan dardization .................................................................................. .. 9
L ocalization ............................................................................................... 10
M ixed A approach .................. ............................. .......... .............. 11
A advertising and C culture ............................................... ............ ............... 12
N ature of P rodu ct......... ...................................................................... ........ .. .... 14
Product Category .................. ............................ ........ .................. 14
Product "Involvem ent" ........................................................ ............... 15
P product P ositioning ......................... .. .................... .. ...... .......... 16
A advertising Strategy .................. .......................................... .. ............ 18
Simon's Creative Strategy System ........................................ ...............18
A advertising Inform ation Level ........................................ ........................ 20
A advertising and Fashion .............................................................................22
W hy F ash ion ? ................................................... .....................................2 2
A advertising in B eauty Industry ........................................ ....................... 24
A advertising Practice in Taiw an ............................................................................ 25










3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 28

C o n ten t A n aly sis ................................................................................................... 2 8
U n it o f A n aly sis ................................................................................................. 3 0
S am pling D esig n .................................................................................. 3 1
Coding Categories and V ariables ....................................................... 31
Research H ypotheses .............................................................................34

4 F IN D IN G S ................................................................................ 3 8

D descriptions of the Sam ple .................................................................. 38
Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong............................... ... .........42
N ong-N ong v s. E lle T aiw an ................................................................................. 45
P personal C are v s. C osm etics................................................................................. 48

5 D IS C U S S IO N ....................................................................................................... 5 4

Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong............................... ... .........54
Elle Taiwan vs. Nong-Nong ...............................................55
Personal Care Product Ads vs. Cosmetic Ads ....................................................56
W hitening E effects ............................................. ................... ............... ..57
Eastern Trends vs. Western Trends ............................................................ 57
Prom optional D devices ............................................... .............................. 58
Implications for International Advertisers ......................................................... 58
Lim stations ........................................................... ................. ............... 59
Suggestions for Future R research .......................................................................... 59

APPENDIX

A T A B L E S O F R E SU L T S ........................................................................ ...............61

B C O D IN G SH E E T ........................................................................................... 65

L IST O F R EFE R EN C E S ................................................ .................. .........................69

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................79
















v















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

COMPARISONS OF COSMETIC ADVERTISEMENTS:
STRATEGIES FOR CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS
IN WOMEN'S MAGAZINES IN TAIWAN

By

Yu-Rong Pu

August, 2003

Chairman: Marilyn Roberts
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

The study examined whether cultural adapted strategies were used in women's

magazine advertising in Taiwan. The special beauty idea of "pale skin" is extremely

popular among female consumers in Taiwan. Many beauty editorials in women's

magazines teach women how to obtain and preserve a porcelain-like skin. The most

promising product line of skin care is the whitening product. The widespread "whitening"

concept is overwhelming in Taiwan's beauty industry, and it has been emulated by

western brands in recent years.

A quantitative content analysis was applied to compare cosmetic product ads in Elle

U.S., Elle Taiwan, and a local women's magazine, Nong-Nong from October, 2001 to

August, 2002. Variables coded in the study include advertisement size; product origin;

brand name; advertising layout; visual size; product trial/promotional device; copy size;

product benefits and attributes in the ad; origin of model; degree of model's "whiteness";









presence of product; arrangement of model and product; language; and language

adaptations for headline. Product category, whether it was a personal care product or

cosmetics with or without whitening effects, and advertisement category, whether it was

a promotional, editorial, or pure product ad, were also examined. Resnik and Stern's

information classification was used for coding copy information. The wording of

"whitening effects" was examined as to whether the effects were directly featured or not.

This study also employed Simon's creative strategy system to determine the differences

in advertising appeals.

The findings of this study showed that there were differences in advertising

strategies among the three magazines. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong employed more

implicit appeals and contained greater information levels of than did Elle U.S.. In

addition, most ads with dark-skinned models appeared in Elle U.S., while Elle Taiwan

and Nong-Nong had a much higher percentage of light-skinned models in ads.

Promotional devices were also widely used in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. Instead of

being totally localized, advertising strategies in Elle Taiwan revealed a mixed approach.

Product category was the key to determine ii heiher or to what extent the ads were

adapted to local cultures. More standardized approaches were used in cosmetic ads, while

personal care product ads showed a higher degree of adaptation. In addition, ads of

products with whitening effects were more adapted than ads of product without whitening

effects. Due to the favorable attitude toward Japanese brands, Nong-Nong contained more

Japanese product ads than did Elle Taiwan. In contrast, more western product ads

appeared in Elle Taiwan, as its readers appeared to be less enthusiastic about Japanese

styles and more interested in western trends.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background

Despite its small geographic size and population, Taiwan has become an important

player in world economy over the past 40 years. With more than 20 million people,

Taiwan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The island continues

to expand its economic power at about five percent per year even after Asian financial

crisis. Per capital GNP was 14,188 USD and the economic growth rate was almost six

percent in 2000 (Advertising Magazine, December 2001, p. 115). Taiwan shares most

Chinese traditional values with other East-Asia nations and has emerged as one of the

most prosperous countries in the world. The U.S Department of Commerce (1995)

classified Taiwan as a "big emerging market" because of its remarkable market potential

for American business to invest.

Due to liberalization and tariff cuts in the late 1980s, local consumers gained access

to a wider selection of international labels at a more affordable price (Hwang, 2002).

Consumers in Taiwan demonstrate a purchasing power in high-end brand-name products

comparable with people in other countries (Kao, 2002). The increase of total import value

of apparel from US$250 million in 1990 to US$843 million in 2000 attract international

brands and designers attention to this small island (Hwang, 2002). Over sixty

international fashion brand names are already established in this island, and still dozens

of others are preparing to enter this highly competitive market (Kao, 2002). The approval

of Taiwan's WTO accession in 2001, earned after 12 years of strenuous efforts, marks a









milestone in Taiwan's economic and trade development. Meanwhile, Taiwan has

encountered the trend of localization, which peaked in 1999. However, the island still

welcomes imported products, as well as exterior cultures. Many young people favor

Japanese and Korean products, but are influenced by Hollywood movies and HBO.

By the late 1990s, Taiwan has evolved into a modern advertising industry.

Advertising spending per capital of USD $152 in Taiwan ranked it 22nd in the world in

1996 (International Journal of Advertising, 1998). From 1987 to 1996, Taiwan ranked

20th in world with ad spending growth of 153%, comparing Hong Kong's 22nd and

Japan's 36th (International Journal of Advertising, 1998). With advertising expenditures

of $2.5 billion in 1998, Taiwan ranked fourth in Asia in overall ad expenditures (Business

World, 1999). Advertising expenses in Taiwan last year were 47.7 billion NT dollars, a

twenty-percent growth compared to year 1999 (Advertising Magazine, 2001).

Women in Taiwan

Due to higher education and more financial independence, women in Taiwan have

become more powerful. Female consumers embrace a new definition of woman's role

from western culture, which blended well with traditional Chinese values (Tai & Tam,

1997). With economic growth and increased exposure to the west, "Taiwanese women's

tastes become more sophisticated and are moving towards the high-end of the market"

(Tai & Tam, 1997, p. 290). The most successful products in Taiwan are "foreign in image

and local in usage" (Tai &Tam, 1997, p.290).

Young females in Taiwan are very fashion sensitive and willing to pay for

entertainment or products that make them more beautiful (Bei, 2002). They change

brands of daily products frequently to maintain the sense of "life novelty" (Bei, 2002).

These young consumers like to follow the latest international trends and are willing to









spend more money on brand-name products (Bei, 2002). The motivations of their

purchases are not always based on function "but more on the prestigious image of

imported foreign brands" in some product categories, such as clothing and accessories

(Tai & Tam, 1997). However, this attitude doesn't contradict with the fact that they are

experienced and knowledgeable consumers. Young females read newspapers and

magazines habitually, exercise to keep fit, value life quality, and are vigorous in social

activities (Bei, 2002).

Women Magazine in Taiwan

Women's magazines in Taiwan act as a commercial medium that delivers

advertising messages to the target audiences who are urban middle-and-upper-class

women, well-educated, have above average salary, and have superior consumption ability

(Shaw, 1997). Those female target audiences rely heavily on women's magazines for

fashion information and advice on styles and buying decisions.

Nowadays, dozens of fashion publications battle in a highly competitive market in

Taiwan. Readers can choose from various magazines on shelves every month: local

magazines, Taiwanese editions of Japanese or international fashion periodicals.

International women magazines launched in Taiwan in the late 80's and early 90's

(Cosmopolitan was first introduced in 1989; Harper's Bazaar was founded in 1991; Elle

Taiwan was founded in 1991; Marie Claire was founded in 1993). In the early stage,

transnational corporations relied much on these Taiwanese editions of international

women's magazines to reach female consumers in Taiwan (Shaw, 1997). On the other

hand, international advertisers have also been the main financial source for these

magazines since they were founded (Shaw, 1997).









Noticeably, international women magazines share much of the advertising revenues

earned in Taiwan; only Nong-Nong, a domestic magazine, can compete with them (Shaw,

1997). Women magazines in Taiwan generate their revenues heavily on advertising, and

in turn, magazine editorials help advertisers promote their products by giving frequent

recommendations (Shaw, 1997). These editorials are a very persuasive form of

advertising because readers tend to trust editors' knowledge and objectivity.

Beauty Industry in Taiwan

Due to increasing living standards and national incomes in Taiwan, consumers are

spending more than before on cosmetics products (Chou, 1998). Because Asians have the

most transparent and softest skin type, which leads blemishes and sun damages to be

more apparent than Caucasian skin, the main reason for skin care purchases in Taiwan is

the desire to avoid skin damage from the sun, pollutants, and aging (Geiger, 2002). In this

growing and lucrative market, U.S. brands lead the high-end market sector with a 37

percent share, followed by Japanese products with 36.5 percent and European products

with 20.4 percent in 1996 (Chou, 1998). When it comes to product category, personal-

care products occupy the highest percentage (about 50%), within which whitening

products take the lead; cosmetics has only one-fifth of the total sale percentage (China

Girls, 2002).

Consumers in Taiwan tend to favor Japanese brands. According to the Taipei

Cosmetics Industry Association's report, the Japanese brand ./n1%,/1,, which has

traditionally targeted Asian women aged 35 and over and is recently trying to lower its

target group's age, is expected to be the fastest growing line among imported brands.

Taiwanese consumers are very curious and like to try new things. Compared with western

markets, they have lower brand loyalty and are easily attracted by advertisement (China









Girls, 2002). Therefore, cosmetics companies have to promote products frequently and

hold beauty seminars for only members in order to gain continuous support (China Girls,

April 2002).

International Trends

The spread of international fashion is facilitated by a sophisticated distribution

network, and the widespread accessibility to international media such as films, cable TV,

magazines, and Internet. Fashion magazines, especially those Taiwanese editions of

international fashion periodicals such as Elle, Vogue and Marie Claire, convey fashion

ideas of global brands to Taiwan women. Before international fashion periodicals were

introduced to Taiwan, female consumers only knew big brand names and would stick to

them. Nowadays, brand culture is established and Taiwanese women become more

sophisticated and have their own opinions toward fashion. Female consumers seek

information about style and how to mix and match and are also sensitive about keeping

pace with international trends.

Japanese Style

Taiwan has been traditionally under Japan's influence, which might be the result of

its Japanese colonization for fifty years until 1945. In the mid 50's, three Taiwanese

businessmen imported makeup materials from Japan, further processed them into

products, and sold them in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Years later, their company

became the well-known brand, ,/neh//',, and officially integrated into the Japanese

headquarter in the 80's that gave it a more international outlook (Bazaar Taiwan, April

2002).

Shiseido has deep local roots and helped to shape Taiwanese women's lifestyle and

beauty concepts long before international brands entered Taiwan market. ,\/ne\i,/









teaches women in Taiwan how to use make up and skin care. .,///\,/i,/ is well-known for

quality products and packaging. It normally develops ads in Tokyo and works with local

agencies to translate and tailor the basic message for different markets (Herskovitz,

1997). .\/nlii,,e, was the first brand to use famous local movie stars as spokespersons for

products in the mid 80's. The strategy was a triumph in Taiwan. Ever since then, the

company has continuously had stars whom local consumers are familiar with as one

important part of their advertising strategy. .\s//iit/i has historically devoted itself to

localization and has built a very successful "beauty empire" in Taiwan long before the

first international prestigious brand, Christine Dior, set up its branch in Taipei in 1974.

The easy access to Japanese magazines, TV programs, and pop music, due to geographic

proximity of these two countries, further lead the island to be highly influenced by

Japanese style. The younger generation has a particularly affinity with Japanese culture.

The Ideal of "Pale Skin"

There is an old Chinese saying: "A fair skin overshadows nine ugly qualities" (Yi

bai zhe jou chou). In ancient China, a porcelain-like complexion was "a symbol of

refinement, indicating that a person did not belong to the peasant classes who toiled

under the sun" (Johanson, 1998). The embrace of "pale skin equals to beauty" is very

popular throughout most East Asia. Because Asians are more prone to

hyperpigmentation, where a small amount of sun exposure will produce unfavorable

brown spots, women in Asia carry umbrellas, wear gloves that cover the whole arms

when driving or riding a bike or motorcycle, as well as wear hats and scarves to prevent

skin from getting tanned and to keep a fair skin. While a growing awareness that it is

practical to protect the skin in this way to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, the









main purpose of these long practiced protective tools is for the prevention of the skin

from appearing tan.

The idea of "whitening" does not mean imply "bleaching." Unlike Michael

Jackson's attempt, whitening is about preventing tanning, and bringing sun-damaged skin

back to its normal skin color. Numerous skin products with whitening effects promise to

cover all skin flaws, control pigmentation, have ingredients that reflect light or produce a

chemical change in skin, or turn "yellow" and "dark" skin to white (Johanson, 1998). The

most promising line of skin care is the whitening product which was first introduced by

,'\//\.'//, in 1993. These products focus on lightening complexion of women's skin. The

"whitening" concept has become extremely popular among female consumers in Taiwan

and was later emulated by international brands (Chou, 1998). For sunscreen products, the

underlying theme is that UV protection yields skin lightening due to the protective role in

skin darkening or tanning by UV radiation. The efficacy is claimed and expressed as SPF,

indicating how long consumers can be exposed to the sun without getting as tanned as not

applying the product. Beauty editorials in women's magazines elaborate on how to

obtain, preserve and enhance fair and smooth skin. In the summer season, many beauty

editorials describe how the sun's radiation will darken and roughen the skin, providing

information of how skin can survive the burning heat. They are always followed by

cosmetics advertisements that stress their protections of preserving a fair skin so that

costumers can turn the threatening sunshine into joyful bathing.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to discuss how cultural differences influence

advertising messages for cosmetic products in Taiwan, especially the unique beauty idea

of pale skin. By comparing advertisements of three product category-personal care,









whitening product, and cosmetics-in the western magazine, Elle U.S, and in local

magazines, Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong, the study is expected to find out how

international marketers adapt to the local beauty culture in Taiwan into their advertising

messages, and to what extend international marketers employ adaptation strategy.

Significance of the Study

Rising national income along with changes in consumption pattern, the cosmetics

and toiletries market in Taiwan grew 8.6% to $1.8bn in 2000, showing a strong growth

potential (A Mixed, 2001). Besides its impressive purchasing power, many multinational

companies regard Taiwan as a "laboratory" where they assess whether their products

could be successful in China. The approval of Taiwan's WTO accession will make this

small island a much more competitive market, which increases the importance of

effectively conveying product information to target audiences. In addition, as the skin

care and make up market continues to expand, an increasing demand for high-quality

imported products provides great opportunities for global brands.

However, few research studies have discussed about the influence of cultural

differences on advertising appeals of female products in Taiwan. Despite many research

studies on cross-national differences of advertising messages, few studies compare the

differences of advertising appeals between western and Asian countries other than Japan

(Chang, 1991). Although there are studies that have examined the eastern beauty idea of

pale skin, rarely has the implication of this idea been applied to advertising practice.

By combining the understanding of the beauty idea of pale skin in Taiwan with

different advertising strategies employed by three magazines, this study can provide

insights to international marketers on how to make their advertising more effective to

Taiwanese female consumers.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Background of International Advertising

As the world is becoming one big marketplace, how to develop an effective

strategy for delivering advertising messages to consumers of various cultures is more and

more important to global advertisers. International marketers are usually faced with the

problem of whether or not and to what extent, should their advertising strategy adapt

cultural factors in different countries. With the increasing attention given to international

marketing, the choice between standardization and adaptation has been widely discussed.

The debate between support for standardization versus localization mainly deals with the

issue of whether consumers in different cultures are alike in their preferences and

decision tendencies.

Standardization

A standardized approach is suggested due to the assimilation and homogenization

of consumer motives and purchasing behavior across national borders (Levitt, 1983). It is

founded on the premise that human wants and needs have a number of similarities despite

of cultural differences. "People identify less with nations and more with groups,

professions, and subcultures" (Vardar, 1992). Standardization focuses on the regularity in

consumer demand and develops global advertising campaigns, diminishing the need for

adaptation to local conditions (Harich & Zandpour, 2000). Levitt (1983) believed that the

convergence of technological advancements and telecommunication systems would lead









to the globalization of markets that would greatly demand standardized advertising across

countries.

It has also been widely acknowledged that standardization of advertising strategy

would allow marketers to build global brand awareness through repetition and maintain a

consistent brand image, a desirable asset where the product appeals to a universal need

(Levitt, 1983). Therefore, many international brands tend to develop their brand identities

and formulate advertising strategy at their corporate headquarters and apply them to local

markets (Chen, 2002). According to Schooler's (1971) study, females usually value

foreign products higher than males. This favorable attitude is further enhanced when the

products fall into fashion industry, such as cosmetics (Wall, 1986).

Localization

The standardization approach is mostly criticized by its insufficient ability to

account for the specific characteristics in each market and its target audiences (Buzzell,

1968). Empirical studies provide strong evidence suggesting the necessity of adapting

international advertising to local markets (Chang, 1991). Ricks et al. (1974) considered

that most international advertising blunders came from ignorance of different culture and

local lifestyle. In addition, political factors, legal restraints, economic difference,

infrastructure and industrial development in each market might cause standardized

advertising campaign to be unsuccessful (Britt, 1974; Unwinn, 1974; De Mooij, 1994).

International advertisers should notice the local cultural diversity among markets

and recognize the benefits of localization. Standardized advertising strategies are only

appropriate for some brands/product categories or specific conditions, as suggested by

Harris (1984). Product attributes are rated differently from one country to another,

(Green, Cunningham & Cunningham, 1975) and localized advertising themes are viewed









sometimes more favorable by consumers (Hornik, 1980). As cultural uniqueness is

emphasized, localization allows international marketers to create messages particularly

tailored to local markets. To be effective, advertising has to reflect the needs, wants,

values, traditions, language and economic variables (Harich & Zandpour, 2000).

Mixed Approach

Because few markets are exactly alike, researchers proposed a "mixed" approach-

partly standardized and partly localized (Peebles, Ryans & Vernon, 1977). International

marketers should learn about the consumers and their backgrounds, define the market

segments as precisely as possible, and scrutinize motivational factors in detail before

launching an advertising campaign (Leo, 1964; Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Boddewyn,

1986). Adaptation is necessary in order to ensure that consumers' needs and wants are

satisfied effectively so that sales are maximized.

Peebles, Ryans, and Vernon (1977) advocated "prototype standardization" where

the same campaign would be applied in multiple markets with the only differences of

appropriate translation and idiomatic changes. Norton B. Leo (1964) called for a need to

consider the degree to which advertisements can be standardized. The degree of

standardization depends on the product or service being advertised, conditions in each

market, and the strategic intent of the advertisers. Other factors should be considered

when determining the level of standardization (Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Boddewyn,

1986) including:

*. Industrial conditions such as level of competition, product life cycle;

o. Economic factors necessary degree of standardization;

** Homogeneity of markets;

*. Marketing institutions such as advertising media, legal restrictions; and









o* Cultural and behavioral factors and their influences on the foreign market's
perception of the product.

Even though consumers may have the same needs and wants among different

markets, the needs and wants still need to be addressed according to "different

communication patterns that will have a strong influence on the effectiveness of

marketing communications" (Wang, Jaw, Pinkletion & Morton, 1997, p. 51). For

example, Tai's (1997) study showed that among 87 multinationals advertisements in

China, Taiwan, Singapore, and Honk Kong, 31 percent of the advertisements are the

same as those in their home markets, while 68 percent applied a different strategy.

Kirpalani et al. (1988) also suggested that environmental factors should be put into

consideration when deciding advertising tactics such as layout and media selection.

Therefore, either standardized or localized strategies are only one of several possible

strategies, depending on situation in each market.

In short, international advertising strategy is considered situation-specific. Today's

question that global marketers should ask is "in what situation and to what extent should

multinational advertising be standardized?" (Duncan & Ramaprasad, 1995, p.57).

Advertising and Culture

The relationship between advertising messages and cultural values of a society has

been acknowledged by researchers (Cho, 1993). Many studies showed that culture affects

the perception and practices of advertising, and therefore advertising reflects cultural

values in which it exists. (Unwin, 1974; Holbrook, 1987; Mueller, 1987; Frith and Frith,

1990). Culture can be defined as a set of fundamental ideas, practices and experiences of

a group of people that are "symbolically transmitted generation to generation through a

learning process" (Chen & Starosta, 1998, p. 23).









Advertising is a significant tool that functions as imparting product information to

consumers. However, how people interpret advertisements is determined by culture

codes. Research shows that different cultures seem to stress different advertising appeals,

which are carried in the illustration and headlines of the ad and are supported by the ad

copy (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Domzal and Keman (1992) said in their work that "products

serve as markers; they have consensual what-implies-what meanings, which we learn

from a variety of sources, not the least of which is advertising" (p.9). When consumers

encounter an advertisement, their reaction "depends on the meaning they assign to it, and

in turn depends on characteristics of both the advertisement and the individual consumer"

(Grier & Brumbaugh, 1999). The characteristics of individuals are greatly shaped by their

cultures, and cultural differences are one of the most influential factors opposing

standardized advertising. Proponents of localization pronounced that cultural influences

on consumer decision-making could be understood in terms of an underlying metaphor

that "cultural knowledge is a lens that colors people's perception of objects and messages

in the environment." (Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000, p.164).

However, much of consumer research on culture shows inconsistent findings

concerning about the content of marketing communications. Some research suggests that

advertising appeals have asymmetric effects across cultures; while other research implies

that some persuasion approaches yield similar attitudinal results in different cultures. One

explanation is that only when cultural based norms were salient, cultural differences in

attitude emerged (Aaker, 2000). Mueller (1989) concluded her study that "advertisements

of each country exhibit some degree of sensitivity to the cultural uniqueness of the









particular consuming market. Cultural sensitivity is portrayed through the varying usage

of these same appeals" (p.130).

Another explanation is offered by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty &

Cacioppo, 1986). ELM suggests that when people are highly motivated to process an

advertisement, they tend to form attitudes based on attentive consideration of the

attributes of the product that is advertised. On the other hand, when people are not

motivated to process an advertisement, they would use simple decision rules or heuristics

as a shortcut to assess the product "without extensive cognitive effort" (Leach & Liu,

1998). Based on ELM, Leach and Liu's research (1998) showed that when advertising

messages are consistent with cultural norms, consumers will automatically process them

through a peripheral route. Briley et al. (2000) also emphasized on the "dynamic" role of

cultural knowledge, saying that culture is influential when "individuals need to provide

reasons for their judgment or decision" (p. 160). In other words, they recommended that

cultural knowledge is a "tool" which exerts its influence on individual perceptions only

when it is brought into use. Therefore, in some product categories, consumers may have

similar needs and wants among different markets, indicating that there should not be

"systematic differences" in decision-making. (Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000).

Nature of Product

Studies show that international advertising strategies vary with the nature of

product. Three product aspects are important when considering advertising approaches,

they are: product category, product involvement and product positioning.

Product Category

The importance of product category has been emphasized recently due to the

insufficient explanation of cultural influence on international advertising. Product









categories "shown independently affect creative strategy, information content, form and

format of advertising messages" (Chen & Starosta, 1998, p. 37). Product category is

important because it "constitutes the core around which brand positioning is effected; a

brand whose meaning violates the limits of this core might not be regarded as plausible

by consumers" (Domzal & Kernan, 1992, p. 56).

Developed by Newell and Simon (1972), "consumer means-end chains" theory

(MECs) establishes the relationship between product attributes, the benefits of product

use, and consumers' values: "product attributes yield particular benefits upon

consumption, which contribute to value satisfaction" (Hofstede, Steenkamp & Wedel,

1999). The key idea of MECs is that "product attributes are means for consumers to

obtain desired ends, namely, values, through the benefits yield by those attributes"

(Hofstede, Steenkamp & Wedel, 1999). Therefore, products that are not culture-bounded

are more appropriate to employ the standardization strategy (Quelch & Hoff, 1986;

Domzal & Kernan, 1993).

Product "Involvement"

Product involvement can be defined as "commitment to a position or concern with

a specific stand on an issue" (Rothschild, 1987, p. 28). It basically concerns about

whether the "brand" is important to consumers' purchasing decisions. A low-involved

consumer represents a passive audience to advertising: they would not actively search

information but rather randomly learn it. They only seek "some acceptable satisfaction"

and buy products based on a few attributes and least likely to cause them a problem

(Rothschild, 1987). Their attitude toward the product is formed after using it. Low

involvement may also indicate that consumers learn more slowly and forget more

quickly. As a result, advertising messages should be shorter, have less information, and









repeated more frequently (Rothschild, 1987). Examples for low-involvement products in

fashion industry are clothing, cosmetics, and accessories.

For high-involvement products, consumers tend to seek and process information.

They look for maximized product satisfaction, and therefore, they would "compare

brands to see which provide the most benefits related to needs," and their purchase is

based on "multi-attribute comparison of brands" (Rothschild, 1987). Products most likely

to draw high levels of involvement are usually durable goods, high cost, complex,

"related to consumer's central value," or "have dissimilar brand choice alternatives"

(Rothschild, 1987). Because consumers are concerned about the decision, they form an

attitude toward the brand as well as the product before they make a purchase. As a result,

advertising is the key tool in building awareness for high-involvement products.

Advertisements for high-involvement products require providing more factual and

detail information to consumers. For example, adaptation strategy may be necessary for

skin-care products in Taiwan because it would allow consumers easily understand the

attributes that products carry. It is important for western brands to establish their

distinctions from local and Japanese products that Taiwan consumers have been used to

and familiar with. In addition, advertising messages for high-involvement products are

delivered primarily through print media because it allows consumers to digest the

information at a self-controlled pace (Rothschild, 1987).

Product Positioning

"Positioning" can be defined as the product design to fit a given place in the target

consumer's mind. It separates a brand from its competitors by associating the brand with

a specific set of consumer needs, which are ranked high on the consumer's priority list. If

a product is positioned the same in other markets as at home country, standardization









would be feasible (Jain, 1989). With the widespread power of mass media, fashion trends

are considered universal, with some adjustments that are culturally important or unique.

Therefore, some products are suggested to employ standardized advertising strategy, such

as cosmetics, while in other product categories, international advertisers might need to

create their own characteristics and differentiate their products from local ones. Mueller

(1996) proposed that there are several products suitable for standardized advertising

strategy, including:

** Products that can be promoted via image campaign:
These products have strong visual effects which enable standardized advertisement
break through country boundaries. Cosmetics are one of these products.

** Products for consumers who are essentially similar:
Target audiences among different markets have similar characteristics. (pp. 23-24).

Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (1999) proposed a new concept of "global consumer

culture positioning" (GCCP), which is defined as a strategy that "identifies the brand as a

symbol of a given global culture" (p.77), such as modernity and cosmopolitanism. GCCP

associates a brand with "globally shared and consumption- related symbols that signal

membership in global consumer segments" (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999, p.79).

They suggested that advertising applying GCCP will be more effective if it

"communicates in a subtle, indirect, and abstract fashion" due to the rapid change of

global consumer culture and the "linkages between the brands and the imagined

membership in a global consumer segment" (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999, p.79).

Alden, Steenkamp and Batra's (1999) study shows that a soft-sell approach is more

suitable for GCCP than a hard-sell approach. Soft-sell ads use more visual imagery and

are more subtle and ambiguous. Hard-sell approaches are relatively more informative and

focus on tangible product attributes. Furthermore, soft-sell ads are more image-oriented.









They are usually more abstract than informational hard-sell ads, and the messages tend to

be more implicit (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999). In addition, GCCP is more

appropriate for products that symbolize modernity rather than tradition, and for products

consumed in similar patterns, instead of for those consumed in locally idiosyncratic ways

(Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 1999).

Advertising Strategy

Past research on cross-cultural advertising has generally looked at dissimilarity in

advertising styles and varying levels of informativeness across markets. Different

cultures may require different advertising creative strategies and levels of

informativeness. By analyzing and identifying these two elements of advertising

messages, international marketers can develop appropriate and effective advertising

approaches in different countries.

Creative strategy can be defined as "the means selected to achieve desired audience

effect over the term of the campaign" (Frazer, 1983, p.36). Creative strategy is

considered to be the policy or directing principle guiding the general nature and character

of advertising messages (Frazer, 1983; Zandpour et al., 1992). It may differ across

markets and their effects may be different because of cultural disparity.

Simon's Creative Strategy System

Various product/brand require different approaches to activate audiences' purchase

through advertising exposure (Simon, 1971). After studying the works of well-known

copywriters, Simon (1971, p.169) introduced a classification system, which consists ten

creative strategies, called "activation methods." This scheme is based on the assumption

that "various product-brand characteristics demand different methods of activating the









consumer to buy" through advertising exposure (Simon, 1971, p.170). Simon describes

how creative strategy directs advertising creation:

The product-brand characteristics dictate the activation method that the ad should
use, and the activation method, in turn, dictates what the copy and headline should
aim to say, what the illustration should show, and the proportions of the ad that
should be devoted to copy and illustration. (p. 193)

Simon's creative strategies include the following:

(1) Information: Presentation of plain facts, without explanation or argument, only
"news about" the product concerned.

(2) Argument: Providing facts and "excuses" (reason why) for purchasing the
advertised product or service that consumers may have already been interested in;
copy is especially significant.

(3) Command: "Non-verbal" reminders influence consumer's favorite; may be
strengthened by authoritative figures.

(4) Imitation: Providing testimonials by a celebrity, by "hidden camera" participantss,
or by individuals) unknown but consumers can readily identify with or they
respect due to specified characteristicss. This strategy employs the communication
source as the reasons) for purchasing the product.

(5) Obligation: Offering free gifts or information, or a moving sentiment; some attempt
to make consumers feel appreciative.

(6) Habit-starting: Offering a sample or decreasing price to initiate a "regular practice
or routine;" product usually "featured."

(7) Repeated Assertion: Hard-sell repetition of one basic piece of information: often a
"generality" unsupported by factual proof.

(8) Brand Familiarization: Exercising a friendly, conversational feel; few or no "selling
facts" but suggestion of "loyalty" to and "trustworthiness" of the brand; keeping
brand name exposed to the public.

(9) Symbolic Association: Providing subtle presentations linking the product to any
positive symbol, such as a place, event, or person; sales pitches are usually implicit
and minimal, and copy is usually minimal and products are generally not
"featured."

(10) Motivation with Psychological Appeals: Explicit statement of how consumers will
benefit from products; using emotional appeals to self-interest in creating desires
not formerly readily obvious; a framework of "especially for you" when
interpreting facts (pp. 174-183).









Advertising Information Level

In modern society, consumers look for information about products in

advertisements to make better purchasing decisions. The higher information level an ad

carries, the less uncertainty viewers will have toward the advertised product (Abernethy

& Franke, 1996). Many studies use a scheme of measuring advertising information

developed by Resnik and Stem. Resnik and Stern (1977) introduced the fourteen

information cues that represent factors "identified as information cues which could

potentially be used in intelligent decision making" (p. 51). They asserted that an

advertisement can be considered as informative when it contains at least one of the

fourteen criteria.

The fourteen information criteria are:

(1) Price: How much does the product cost?

(2) Quality: What are the product's characteristics that differentiate it from competing
products based on evaluations of workmanship, engineering, durability, excellence
of materials, structural superiority, attention to detail, or special services?

(3) Performance: What is the use of product and how well does it do what it is
designed to do in comparison to alternative purchases?

(4) Components: What is the product composed of? What ingredients does it contain?

(5) Special Packaging or Shape: What special package or shape is the product available
in which makes it more appealing than alternatives?

(6) Safety Features: What are the product's safety features compared to competing
products?

(7) Availability: Where can the product be acquired? When will the product be able to
purchase?

(8) Special Offers: What limited-time non-priced deals are available with a particular
purchase?

(9) Taste: Is evidence presented that the taste of a particular product is perceived as
superior in taste by a sample of potential consumers?









(10) Guarantees and Warrantees: What post-purchase assurances accompany the
product?

(11) New Ideas: Is a totally new concept introduced? Are its advantages presented?

(12) Independent Research: Are results of identified research presented?

(13) Company research: Are results provided by a company through comparing
presented?

(14) Nutrition: Are specific data given comparing the nutritional content of a particular
product, or is a direct specific comparison made with other products?

The level of information content can be influenced by the product that is advertised,

the medium carrying the ad, and the country where the ad is placed (Abernethy & Franke,

1996). Many studies apply Resnik-Stern's information classification to examine the

information level of international advertisements in different countries. Generally

speaking, research has shown that with magazine advertisements, more information is

provided in advertisements in Asia countries than in the U.S., based on Resnik-Stern's

information system (Chang, 1991). Rice and Lu (1988) used this system to conduct a

content analysis of 472 Chinese consumer magazine advertisements and found a large

amount of information was contained in those ads. Furthermore, 100 percent of the

Chinese advertisements could be seen as informative according to Resnik and Stem's

definition. Chang (1991) also found that in Taiwanese TV commercials, performance

information is more likely to be employed for personal care-cosmetics-drugs products.

Zandpour and his colleagues (1992) conducted a study using Simon's creative

strategy and Resnik-Stern information cues to exam similarities and differences between

U.S., French, and Taiwanese TV commercials. They found that U.S. commercials usually

address specific consumer personal needs and problem and frequently employ celebrities,

credible sources, and users of products to convey specific product benefits (Zandpour et









al, 1992). U. S. commercials provide explicit conclusions, supported by data-based

arguments, why consumers should choose the advertised product, and products are

constantly displayed aggressively in the ad (Zandpour et al., 1992). On the other hand,

Taiwanese TV commercials tend to utilize more subtle appeals through symbols and

metaphors (Zandpour et al., 1992). They are more abstract and generally do not address

specific consumer personal needs (Zandpour et al., 1992). An ideal that can be reached

through the product usage is often promised, though is seldom linked to the product

attributes (Zandpour et al., 1992). Unlike U. S. ads, commercials in Taiwan tend to

provide fewer reasons or explicit conclusions (Zandpour et al., 1992). If there is

information contained in the ad, it is often presented as straight and unrelated facts

(Zandpour et al., 1992). Another frequent strategy in Taiwan is immediate rewards in the

form of free offers and special deals through hard-sell approaches (Zandpour et al., 1992).

Advertising and Fashion

Why Fashion?

Fashion mirrors lifestyles. It can be defined as "the model style of a particular

group at a particular time...the style which is considered appropriate or desirable"

(Lauer, 1981). Fashion develops in all contexts as the result of the assertion of self-

identity and social comparison. It reflects not only individuals but also social values and

believes. Long before clothing fashion existed in the form of tattoos, paintings, or

intentional scars (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). People use visual media to "indicate

themselves and others whether they think they belong with another individual or group,

or whether they consider themselves another's equal or superior" (Cannon, 1998, p. 26).

Need represents "a longing for, or lacking of, something that people do not have"

(Rogers & Gamans, 1983, p. 46). Needs may spring from physical or psychological









reasons, whether consciously or unconsciously. When awakened by internal or external

factors, needs then turn into wants. It is especially true that people desire more than they

actually need in fashion products and the whole process of "wanting" is a continuing

process (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). People's motivations for fashion may come from

emotional need, their hunger for praise, the desire of being fashionable or attractive, the

longing of being unique or acceptance by peer groups, or they simply tend to become

tired of sensations that are experienced constantly (Nystrom, 1928; Frings, 2001).

Collins (1977) presented the "Juliet Principle" drawn from Shakespeare's line

spoken by Juliet to Romeo, "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by another

name would smell as sweet." This principle suggests that "the verbal form "rose" does

not matter; it's what we have come to associate with that verbal form that determines the

meaning of the name" (McDonald & Roberts, 1990, p. 11). This can perfectly explain the

phenomena in fashion industry; only the "verbal form" here is replaced by "brand name".

A brand name does not simply signal a product's "utilitarian attributes", it can also have a

particular meaning, which "makes the product personally meaningful and intrinsically

relevant for the consumer" (Ligas, 1999, p. 611).

According to Bocock (1993), "all consumption is always the consumption of

symbolic signs." Fashion provides models and materials for individuals to construct their

identity. It offers choice of clothes, makeup, style, and image through which people can

build their characteristics (Kellner, 1994). Individuals use fashion to express their

personalities, define their status, create an identity for themselves, or to "role-play certain

situations in life" (Rogers & Gamans, 1983). For instance, one may want to give others

an impression that she is stylish and can keep up with the trend by putting on the









cosmetics of this season. In addition, people purchases are not always based on actual

personal needs or product attributes, but the implied meaning behind the brand name of

their purchases. A brand name does not simply signal a product's "utilitarian attributes",

it can also have a particular meaning, which "makes the product personally meaningful

and intrinsically relevant for the consumer" (Ligas, 1999, p. 610). For example, carrying

a branded product may imply the buyer's tastes or her social and financial status. The

implied meaning behind the branded product can come from marketing environment such

as advertising, social environment such as how other people interpret the meaning of the

product, and individual environment-how the consumer wishes to present himself or to

be perceived by others (Ligas, 1999).

Advertising in Beauty Industry

The beauty industry considers the target segment as the main determining factor in

applying advertising strategy in different markets. Therefore, as beauty brands meet the

trend of self-expression and can create similar perception towards the brand, a

standardized approach is more likely to be applied (Tai, 1997). For instance, Anna Sui,

the New York based cosmetics company, targets the same group internationally- young,

trendy, and self-expressive consumers. The visual images in its ads attract consumers in

Tokyo, Taipei, and New York, with the only modification of language translation, or

even without it.

Domzal and Kernan (1993) also believe that some beauty products are qualified for

"global" advertising. By "global" advertising, they referred to international

advertisements that "are addressed to multinational audiences" and it implies "a

uniformity, not necessarily an exact replication" (Domzal & Kernan, 1993, p. 18).









Therefore, global advertisements are not "absolutely standardized ones", and local

language might be adopted in many cases (Domzal & Kernan, 1993, p. 18).

It is very common that celebrities or famous models endorse beauty products. It is

because marketers acknowledge that many purchasing decisions of beauty goods are

made based on consumers' identity or projective image to the celebrity or model in the

advertisements. As Bocock (1993) stated, "people try to become the being they desire to

be by consuming the items they imagine will help create and sustain their ideas of

themselves, their image, and their identity" (p. 23). In addition, Tai (1997) pointed out

that the major benefits of a standardized advertising strategy in Asia markets include "the

creation of a stronger international identity through consistent positioning and image

across markets over time and cost reduction through economies of scale in advertising

production, sharing of experience and effective use of advertising budget" (p. 53).

Few media possess the power to influence fashion trends more than magazines.

For cosmetics marketing, magazines play a crucial role to the advertising mix. As

consumers become more aware of the latest fashion styles through magazines, the more

desire they want to catch up with it (Frings, 2001). Consumers also seek for beauty

information and advice for their styling and buying decisions from fashion magazines.

Fashion magazines provide readers the bridge that links the "real" and the "fantastic." By

looking at the photographic images in advertisements, readers can gain the pleasure of

"re-creating the body and the pleasure of masquerade" (Rabine, 1994).

Advertising Practice in Taiwan

Tai's (1997) research showed that most multinational firms apply an adaptation

strategy by using the same positioning and main theme as in home country, while using

different creative executions in Taiwan market. Many Taiwanese advertising studies









showed that "traditional values have not been reflected as much as expected" and "the

link between traditional culture and advertising content is not that obvious" (Shao,

Raymond & Taylor, 1999). The frequent use of the "hard-sell" approach that focuses on

special product attributes and information on product availability in Taiwanese

commercials is also less consistent with traditional culture (Zandpour et al., 1992).

Based on the concept of "Simon's creative strategies", Chang (1991) suggests that

the most informative commercials tend to be for personal care cosmetics drugs products.

In addition, this product category was most likely to utilize information and imitation

strategies, and brand-familiarization and symbolic association were less likely to be

applied (Chang, 1991; Cho, 1993). Cho (1993) pointed out that cultures with higher

levels of uncertainty avoidance and little tolerance for ambiguity, such as Taiwan, were

more likely to employ the argument strategy, which provides explicit information. Wang

et al. (1997) found that more western appeals, such as individualism, youth, modernity, or

independency, than eastern appeals, such as traditional approaches, "soft-sell" or group

consensus appeals, were used in Taiwanese magazine advertisements. The high

frequency of western appeals and themes in Taiwan may result from an adoration of

western brands, "its history of acceptance of foreign cultures, the impact of global

advertising agencies, and the training background of Taiwanese advertising industry

personnel" (Shao et al., 1999, p.66).

The employment of English language and foreign models in advertisements is very

common in Taiwan (Neelankavil et al., 1995). Shi's (2000) research on 1263

advertisements in Taiwan magazines (577), newspaper (544), and TV (142) found out

that English language appeared most frequently in product and company names.









Clothing, cosmetics and accessories were three of the top ten product categories that

employed English in the advertisements. Approximately 92% advertisements that carried

English language were used with Chinese. Shi (2000) pointed out that "English mixing in

advertisements in Taiwan serves as an attention gather, symbolizing internationalism,

fashion, quality guarantee, and highly developed industrial innovations." (p. 5).

This chapter has reviewed research most relevant to the comparing cosmetic

advertising practices in Taiwan by pointing out how culture, product nature, and the

special beauty idea of pale skin may affect international advertising strategies. Based

upon previous research, the next chapter will now discuss the methodological approach

and present the operational definitions used in the study.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Content Analysis

The methodology for this study is designed to explore the advertising appeals in

Taiwan. In order to find out whether the project hypotheses are supported, a research

method of content analysis will be used.

Content analysis originated in the 1950s as a quantitative approach to make valid

inferences from media text through a set of procedures (Riffe et al., 1998), which

facilitates the production of core constructs from textual data through a systematic

method of reduction and analysis and is increasingly undertaken through computerized

software (Priest et al., 2002). Holsti (1968) defined content analysis as a technique for

"making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics

of messages" (pl4). It is a method for "determining the values, themes, role prescriptions,

norms of behavior, and other elements of a culture" from collecting and analyzing

messages in communication process (Engel, Kollat & Blackwell, 1968). Content analysis

is widely used by exploratory studies because it is particularly helpful to researchers for

finding answers to the question where the method is applied (Priest et al., 2002).

Quantitative content analysis is the "systematic and replicable examination of

symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid

measurement rules, and the analysis of relationship involving those values using

statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its

meaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and









consumption" (Riffe et al., 1998, p. 20). To have objectivity, the research has to be

designed to obtain the same results from the same documents when carrying out by other

people (Holsti, 1968). A consistently applied criterion of selection allows a systematic

analysis to include and exclude of content or categories so that we can avoid the

possibility that only materials supporting the researchers' hypotheses are examined

(Holsti, 1968). Another important element of content analysis is generality. Generality

means that findings must have theoretical relevance so that the study results are of

scientific values (Haggarty, 1996).

When categorizing content, researchers have to make sure that the categories

represent the elements of their theories (Holsti, 1968). Analyzed text will be coded into

established categories to support the generation of ideas (Priest et al., 2002). Each time

when a similar piece of text or idea unit attributed to a particular category appears, it will

be counted. Categories have to be exhaustive so that every item relevant to the study will

be grouped (Holsti, 1968). In addition, they have to be mutually exclusive, so that each

item will only be counted once within a category set (Holsti, 1968).

Quantitative content analysis has been criticized for some drawbacks. Kerlinger

(1973) suggests that most content analysis is used simply to "determine the relative

emphasis or frequency of various communication phenomena" and not infer to theoretical

concepts (p. 525). It is criticized for stressing too much on comparative frequency of

different symbols' appearance so that sometimes even the presence of a single

particularly important symbol may bring significant impact to a message (Riffe et al.,

1998). Holsti (1969) also pointed out that quantification leads to trivialization, and

problems may be selected due to their quantifiability and therefore become more









significant than reality. Kracauer (1953) argued that quantifying text may lose meaning

through radical reduction.

As the purpose of this study is to exam advertising messages, content analysis

serves as a propitiate approach which allows the quantitative observation of advertising

contents of print commercials in magazines to be analyzed systematically and reliably so

that we can make generalizations from them in relation to the categories in this study. A

second male coder whose native language is also Mandarin will code 10% of the samples

to establish intercoder reliability. The coder will attend a training cession, and sample ads

will be provided to assist in using the instrument. The level of acceptance (R) will use

Hosti's (1963) formula:

R= 2(C1,2) / C1+C2

Where C1,2= number of category assignments both coders agree on

Ci+C2= total category assignments made by both coders

Unit of Analysis

The units of analysis for this study were advertisements chosen from three

magazines-Elle U.S., Elle Taiwan, and a local women fashion magazine Nong-Nong,

from July 2001 to August 2002. Each advertisement of a one-third page in magazines or

more, which included personal care products (moisturizer, facial cream, facial mask,

toner, essence, lotion, and sun-care products) and cosmetics (lipsticks, foundation,

mascara, and eye shadow) was analyzed.

The reason Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were selected because they were in the top

ten effective advertising magazines in Taiwan in 2000, according to Advertising

Magazine (2001). The international-oriented images and styles of Elle Taiwan attract

western advertisers more than local magazines (Kao, 2002), while the local-oriented









magazine, Nong-Nong, with a strong female readership, attracts both western and local as

well as Japanese advertisers. In addition, Nong-Nong is the only women magazine that

can compete in readership with other international magazines. Its readership is urban

working females ages from twenty to thirty-five. Unlike Elle Taiwan, which is more

imagery and visual oriented, Nong-Nong is more Japanese style oriented, namely more

content of useful daily beauty information that teach readers how to make-up and dress

stylishly.

Sampling Design

An even number was randomly chosen, and the months of October 2001,

December 2001, February 2002, April 2002, June 2002, and August 2002, were selected.

Approximately 350-450 of ads will be derived from these magazines. The ads will

represent both personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. Fifteen ads will be randomly

chosen in each magazine per month. If there are less than fifteen ads in a single

magazine, all ads qualified to research categories will be selected. The number of seven

was randomly picked and will be where the first sampling ad starts.

Coding Categories and Variables

There will be 22 variables categorized in this study. The origin of the ad (magazine

and month) and its size (one-third page, half page, one page, double page spread, more

than two pages, or other) will be coded. Product origin (Taiwan, Japan, U.S.A, France,

other European countries, or other) and brand name will also be coded. Products in the

ads will be categorized into personal care with or without whitening effects, cosmetics

with or without whitening effects, and other. Ads will be categorized into editorial, pure

product, or promotional ad (with samples, coupons or declaration of beauty seminar or

special offers, such as discounted price, special packages for a limited time).









The advertisement layout will be categorized into visual only, copy only, or visual

and copy. Those ads that only have brand name, product line, and/or small headline will

be coded as visual-only ads. The visual size will be coded depending on its percentage in

the ad (25%, 33%, 50%, 66%, 75%, or 100%). The copy size will be examined in two

ways: whether it is headline only, headline with paragraph(s) (one paragraph, two

paragraphs, or more than two paragraphs), or other; how much percentage the copy size

is in the ad (headline and/or brand name only, less than 25%, 25%-33%, 34%-50%,

51%-66%, 67%-75%, or more than 75%). Product promotional/ trial device in the ad

will be recorded when it carries coupon, entry level form (ex: contest, seminar), sample,

announcement of activities (ex: make-up shows), or there are special offers in the ad,

such as discounted price, special packages for a limited time, or non-priced deal with a

particular purchase; otherwise, ads will be coded as no trial/ promotional device.

The origin (eastern, western, both, or can't code) of models in ads will be coded.

The researcher went to a department store and consulted with a .h/ne/J,, sales personnel

about what foundation shade would be considered as medium skin tone in Taiwan. The

degree of models' "whiteness" will be determined by comparing models' complexions

with the foundation shade and will be coded as light, medium, dark, or not applicable if

the model is presented as black-and-white or only body part presented in the ad. Product

presence and the arrangement of products and models (model dominated, product

dominated, or equal presence) in the ad will also be coded.

This study will apply some of Resnik-Stern's information cues (1977) to examine

copy information: price, quality, performance, components, special packaging or shape,

safety features of products, availability, special offers, results of independent research,









company research. Taste, guarantees and warranty, new idea, and nutrition will be

excluded from this study because personal care products and cosmetics are not related to

the information classification. Copy information for ads which feature their products as

specially tailored for Asian women will be coded as "quality." Copy information for ads

which claim their products are mild and/or not stimulating (suitable for sensitive skins),

100% natural ingredients, no fragrance, or no antiseptic will be coded as "safety

features." Ads that carry information of future beauty seminar will be also coded as

"special offers." Each ad may be coded more than once if applicable to the categories.

Ads will be examined whether they carry information of product attributes, product

benefits, or both; or there is no product attribute and product benefit in the ad (visual-only

ads or not visual-only ads). Whitening effects features in ads will be coded as with

"whitening effect" (mei-bai), or "pale" (bai) wording, with sun block or UV features

only, with "whitening effect" or "pale" wording and sun block or UV features, using

wording other than "whitening effect" or "pale" wording and sun block/UV features,

product without whitening effects, or other.

Presence of language in the ad will be categorized as Chinese, Japanese, English,

French, Chinese and English, Chinese and Japanese, Chinese and French, or other. Ads

that have brand name and product components in foreign language and copy is presented

in Chinese will be coded as "Chinese." Language adaptation for headline will be

examined whether there is Chinese translation or it is a Chinese-only eastern product ad,

an eastern product ad but with English and Chinese translation, or a Chinese-only western

product ad. For this category, even the brand name is presented as foreign language and

without translation will not be considered as "without Chinese translation."









Advertising creative strategy will be scrutinized based on Simon's (1971) creative

strategy. Ads may have multiple categories if applicable to the classification:

information, argument, command, imitation, obligation, habit-starting, repeated assertion,

brand familiarization, symbolic association, and motivation with psychological appeals.

For editorial ads that have models to demonstrate how to use cosmetics or take care of

one's skin with a specific brand product line will be coded as "imitation." For those only

have visual layouts will be coded as "visual only."

Research Hypotheses

Based on previous studies (Rice & Lu, 1988; Chang, 1991) that used Resnik-

Stern's (1977) information classification to determine the information level of

advertisements, this study proposes the following hypothesis:

HI: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of

information content than copy for ads in Elle U.S..

H2: Elle U.S. will contain less editorial advertisements than Elle Taiwan and

Nong-Nong.

The study assumes that magazines issued in Taiwan will be more adapted to local

culture and reflect the special beauty idea of pale skin. Hence, the study proposes that:

H3: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will carry more promotional

devices than ads in Elle U.S..

H4: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more eastern

models than ads in Elle U.S..

H5: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more light-skinned

models than ads in Elle U.S..









H6: Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more advertisements of product with

whitening effects than Elle U.S..

Though previous research suggests that more western appeals than eastern appeals

were used in Taiwan magazine advertisements (Wang et al., 1997; Shao et al., 1999), the

study would like to modify it and propose that this phenomenon is more applicable to

Taiwan editions of international periodicals than local Taiwanese magazines and that

local Taiwanese magazines will be more adapted than Taiwan editions of international

periodicals. Therefore, the study will explore with the following hypotheses:

H7: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will contain a greater number of eastern models

than ads in Elle Taiwan.

H8: Nong-Nong will have a higher percentage of local and Japanese product

advertisements than Elle Taiwan will have.

H9: Elle Taiwan will have a higher percentage of western product advertisements

than Nong-Nong will have.

H10: Advertisements of products with whitening effects in Nong-Nong will use

more wording of "whitening effects" (mei-bai) or "pale" (bai) than ads in Elle

Taiwan.

H11: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will have a greater number of language

adaptations than advertisements in Elle Taiwan.

H12: Advertisements in Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information than

ads in Elle Taiwan.

Because of the differences in product category (Harris, 1984; Quelch & Hoff, 1986;

Domzal & Kernan, 1993; Chen & Starosta, 1998), product involvement (Rothschild,









1987), and product positioning (Jain, 1989; Mueller, 1996), the level of standardization

varies (Leo, 1964; Buzzell, 1968; Miracle, 1968; Peebles, Ryans, and Vernon, 1977;

Boddewyn, 1986) in order to reflect cultural uniqueness in the local market (Harich &

Zandpour, 2000). In other words, as cosmetic products can create similar perception

towards the brand and are consistent with cultural norms, a standardized approach is

more likely to be applied (Domzal & Kernan, 1993; Tai, 1997; Leach & Liu, 1998;

Briley, Morris & Simonson, 2000). Previous research also pointed out that ads of

personal care-cosmetics-drugs products in Taiwan tend to be more informative (Chang,

1991) and frequently use argument strategy (Cho, 1993). Therefore, the study proposes

that:

H13: Personal care product ads will have a greater number of language adaptations

than cosmetic ads will have.

H14: Cosmetic ads will use more western models than ads of personal care products

will use.

Based on Alden, Steenkamp and Batra's (1999) concept of "global consumer culture

positioning", the study proposes that:

H15: Personal care product ads will contain a greater number of product attributes

than cosmetic ads.

H16: Personal care product ads will contain a greater level of information than

cosmetic ads.

H17: Advertisements of products with whitening effects will contain a greater level

of information than ads of products without whitening effects.

H18: Cosmetic ads will use less argument strategy than personal care product ads.






37


H19 Cosmetic ads will use more visual imagery than personal care product ads.


H20: Cosmetic ads will have a greater level of implicitness than personal care

product ads.














CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

Descriptions of the Sample

There were a total number of 403 ads-67 from Elle U.S., 162 from Elle Taiwan,

and 174 from Nong-Nong. A hundred and ninety-six ads were pulled out from fall and

winter issues, and 208 ads came from spring and summer. Fifty-four percent of the ads

were personal care and 46% of them were cosmetics (see Table 4-1). Products with

whitening effects appeared in 22% of all the ads. Within each product category, 38% of

personal care product ads and 5% cosmetic ads had whitening effects. Ads that featured

whitening effects mainly came from April, June, and August issues (76%). More than

55% of ads in Elle U.S. and about 40% of ads in Elle Taiwan were one-page. More than

50% of ads in Nong-Nong were double-page spread or had an advertisement size of more

than two pages. However, there was no significant difference found between magazines'

advertising placement size. Ten percent of the sample was coded by second coder to

determine intercoder reliability. The intercoder reliability was found to be 81.8% using

Holsti's formula (1963), which satisfied the degree of acceptance.

Ads in Elle U.S. were mainly one page (56%), while more ads in Elle Taiwan and

Nong-Nong were two pages or more (see Table 4-2). The promotional ads with entry

forms appeared in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were usually half-page ads. Ads that were

greater than two pages were usually editorial ads.











Table 4-1 Product Categories by Magazines

MAGAZINE_
Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total
Personal care with Count 0 38 42 80
whitening effect % within Product .0% 47.5% 52.5% 100.0%
Personal care w/o Count 27 48 58 133
whitening effect % within Product
20.3% 36.1% 43.6% 100.0%

Cosmetics with Count 0 4 5 9
whitening effect % within Product .0% 44.4% 55.6% 100.0%
Cosmetics w/o Count 39 65 67 171
whitening effect % within Product 22.8% 38.0% 39.2% 100.0%
Total Count 67 163 174 404
% within Product 16.6% 40.3% 43.1% 100.0%

X2 =24.4, df =6, p<.05


Table 4-2 Advertisement Size by Magazines

ADVERTISEMENT SIZE
Less than 2 pages
1 page 1 page or above Total
Elle US Count 12 37 18 67
% within Magazine 17.9% 55.2% 26.9% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 28 63 72 163
% within Magazine 17.2% 38.7% 44.2% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 28 53 93 174
% within Magazine 16.1% 30.5% 53.4% 100.0%
Total Count 68 153 183 404
% within Magazine 16.8% 37.9% 45.3% 100.0%

X2=16.08, df=4, p<.05

Ads in all magazines usually displayed product attributes with explicit product


benefits (see Table 4-3). Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong carried more product-benefit-only


ads than Elle U.S.. Most product-attribute-only ads appeared in Elle U.S..


Table 4-3 Product Attributes and Benefits by Magazines

ATTRIBUTE & BENEFIT IN AD
Attributes only Attributes & benefits Benefits only Total
Elle US Count 5 53 6 64
% within Magazine 7.8% 82.8% 9.4% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 1 130 23 154
% within Magazine .6% 84.4% 14.9% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 1 155 13 169
% within Magazine .6% 91.7% 7.7% 100.0%
Total Count 7 338 42 387
% within Magazine 1.8% 87.3% 10.9% 100.0%

X2=21.36,df=6,p<.05










Most ads had product presence (98%). Elle U.S. and Nong-Nong had more model-

dominant ads than Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-4). However, no significant association was

found between magazine type and arrangement of model and product in ads.

Table 4-4 Arrangement of Model and Product by Magazines
ARRANGEMENT
Model dominant Product dominant Total
Elle US Count 35 21 56
% within Magazine 62.5% 37.5% 100%
Elle Taiwan Count 66 70 136
% within Magazine 48.5% 51.5% 100%
Nong-Nong Count 85 69 154
% within Magazine 55.2% 44.8% 100%
Total Count 186 160 346
% within Magazine 53.8% 46.2% 100%

2 =4.096, df =2, p
Based on Resnik and Stem's information classification (1977), the finding shows

that "product performance" was the most frequently used information cue in all three

magazines, followed by "product components or contents", "availability", and "quality"

(see Appendix A-i, p. 64). Only one ad in Elle U.S. mentioned "price", compared with

about 20% in Elle Taiwan and 30% in Nong-Nong. In addition, only one ad in Elle U.S.

mentioned "special packaging or shape" or "special offers", while more than 10% of ads

in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong carried these information cues. No statistical test of

association was run due to the number of empty cells counts of less than five.

Most ads in Elle U.S. contained no promotional devices (see Table 4-5). The

descriptive percentages show that special offers were the most frequently used

promotional devices in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong, followed by entry forms. However,

no statistical test of association between magazine and promotional device types was

found due to the high number of empty cells that counts of less than five.










Table 4-5 Promotional Device Type by Magazines
DEVICE
Entry Special
None Coupon form Sample Activity offer Total
Elle US Count 63 0 1 2 0 0 66
% within Magazine 95.5% .0% 1.5% 3.0% .0% .0% 100%
Elle Taiwan Count 128 5 8 2 4 13 160
% within Magazine 80.0% 3.1% 5.0% 1.3% 2.5% 8.1% 100%
Nong-Nong Count 128 5 11 2 6 16 168
% within Magazine 76.2% 3.0% 6.5% 1.2% 3.6% 9.5% 100%
Total Count 319 10 20 6 10 29 394
% within Magazine 81.0% 2.5% 5.1% 1.5% 2.5% 7.4% 100%

X2 =16.20, df =10, p
Based on Simon's creative strategy system (1971), this study shows that most ads

in all three magazines used only one creative appeal. Descriptive percentages in

Appendix A-2 (p. 65) show that "argument" (a strategy providing facts and reasons for

purchasing the product) was the most common appeal among the three magazines,

followed by "imitation" (testimonial by celebrities or by individuals unknown but

consumers can readily identify with due to specified characteristics), and "symbolic

association" (subtle presentations linking the product to positive symbols). Most

"symbolic association" ads appeared in Nong-Nong and Elle Taiwan. Like the other two

magazines, most ads in Nong-Nong employed the "argument" strategy. However, Nong-

Nong had more pure "imitation" appeals in ads. Elle Taiwan and Elle U.S. had more

"argument and imitation" appeals. In addition, Elle Taiwan appeared to contain more

"motivation with psychological appeal" and "symbolic association" strategies than the

other two magazines. Elle U.S. had a larger percentage of "information" and "argument

and imitation" appeal ads than did Nong-Nong and Elle Taiwan. Again, no statistical test

of association would be performed due to the high number of empty cells that counts of

less than five.










Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong

HI: Advertisements in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of
information content than copy for ads in Elle U.S..

The finding shows a significant difference in the number of ads in Elle Taiwan and

Nong-Nong regarding the level of information than did Elle U.S.. Most ads in Elle U.S.

were headline only or headline with one paragraph (see Table 4-6). About half the ads in

Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained a headline with two paragraphs or more. Most ads

inElle U.S. had copy size between 25-50%, and less than 15% of the ads had copy size

more than 50%.

On the contrary, there were more ads with copy size of more than 50% of the

layout in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong (see Table 4-7). In addition, ads in Elle Taiwan

and Nong-Nong carried more information cues than Elle U.S. (see Table 4-8). Elle U.S.

contained more ads with one to two information cues than did Elle Taiwan and Nong-

Nong. In addition, more than half the ads with four information cues or more appeared in

Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. HI is supported.

Table 4-6 Advertising Copy Size by Magazines -1
COPY SIZE
Headline only or Headline with 2
with one paragraph paragraphs or above Total
Elle US Count 41 19 60
% within Magazine 68.3% 31.7% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 82 75 158
% within Magazine 51.9% 47.5% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 82 92 174
% within Magazine 47.1% 52.9% 100.0%
Total Count 205 186 392
% within Magazine 52.3% 47.4% 100.0%

X2=9.56, df =4, p<.05










Table 4-7 Advertising Copy Size by Magazines 2

copy Size

Less than 25% 25%~50% More than 50% Total
Elle US Count 19 39 9 67
% within Magazine 28.4% 58.2% 13.4% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 39 78 46 163
% within Magazine 23.9% 47.9% 28.2% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 34 71 69 174
% within Magazine 19.5% 40.8% 39.7% 100.0%
Total Count 92 188 124 404
% within Magazine 22.8% 46.5% 30.7% 100.0%

X2=21.96, df=6, p<.05

Table 4-8 Number of Information Cues by Magazines

INFORMATION CUES
1-2 3 4 or above Total
Elle US Count 50 14 3 67
% within Magazine 74.6% 20.9% 4.5% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 83 39 41 163
% within Magazine 50.9% 23.9% 25.2% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 83 48 43 174
% within Magazine 47.7% 27.6% 24.7% 100.0%
Total Count 216 101 87 404
% within Magazine 53.5% 25.0% 21.5% 100.0%

X2=18.74, df=4, p<.05

H2: Elle U.S. will contain less editorial ads than Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong.

As Table 4-9 shows, Elle U.S. contained less editorial ads, and ads in Elle U.S.

were mostly pure product ads. In contrast, advertising strategies in Elle Taiwan and

Nong-Nong were more diverse; 17% ads in Elle Taiwan and 23% in Nong-Nong were

editorial ads. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong also contained more promotional ads than Elle

U.S.. H2 is therefore supported.



H3: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will carry more promotional
devices than ads in Elle U.S..

As Table 4-10 shows, 22% of ads in Elle Taiwan and 26% of ads in Nong-Nong

had promotional devices, compared to 7.5% in Elle U.S.. Therefore, H3 is supported.











Table 4-9 Advertisement Categories by Magazines

AD CATEGORY

Editorial Pure product Promotional Total
Elle US Count 0 66 1 67
% within Magazine .0% 98.5% 1.5% 100%
Elle Taiwan Count 27 108 28 163
% within Magazine 16.6% 66.3% 17.2% 100%
Nong-Nong Count 40 94 40 174
% within Magazine 23.0% 54.0% 23.0% 100%
Total Count 67 268 69 404
% within Magazine 16.6% 66.3% 17.1% 100%

2 =42.93, df =4, p<.05


Table 4-10


Promotional Devices by Magazines


PROMOTIONAL DEVICE
None With promotion Total
Elle US Count 62 5 67
% within Magazine 92.5% 7.5% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 127 36 163
% within Magazine 77.9% 22.1% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 128 45 173
% within Magazine 74.0% 26.0% 100.0%
Total Count 317 86 403
% within Magazine 78.7% 21.3% 100.0%

X2=9.99, df=2, p<.05

H4: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more eastern models than ads
in Elle U.S..


The findings suggest a significant association between magazine type and models


shown in ads. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more eastern models than did Elle


U.S. (see Table 4-11). H4 is supported by the finding.


Table 4-11 Models by Magazines

MODEL (If shown in ads)
Western Eastern Total
Elle US Count 47 0 47
% within MAGAZINE 100.0% .0% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 46 44 90
% within MAGAZINE 51.1% 48.9% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 40 72 112
% within MAGAZINE 35.7% 64.3% 100.0%
Total Count 133 116 249
% within MAGAZINE 53.4% 46.6% 100.0%

2 =54.54, df =2, p<.05










H5: Ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more light-skinned models than
ads in Elle U.S..

As H5 asserted, the finding revealed a significant association between magazine

type and the degrees of models' skin whiteness. Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained

more light-skinned models in ads than did Elle U.S. (see Table 4-12). Most models in

Nong-Nong and Elle Taiwan were displayed in a light skin tone; no matter whether the

model was western or eastern looking. On the contrary, Elle U.S. had the highest

percentage of medium and dark-skinned models in ads among the three magazines.


Table 4-12 Degree of Models' Whiteness by Magazines

Degree of Model's Whiteness
Mixture of
Light Medium Dark complexions Total
Elle US Count 17 18 9 23 67
% within MAGAZINE 25.4% 26.9% 13.4% 34.3% 100%
Elle Taiwan Count 76 7 4 29 116
% within MAGAZINE 65.5% 6.0% 3.4% 25.0% 100%
Nong-Nong Count 102 5 4 8 119
% within MAGAZINE 85.7% 4.2% 3.4% 6.7% 100%
Total Count 195 30 17 60 302
% within MAGAZINE 64.6% 9.9% 5.6% 19.9% 100%

X2=77.38, df =6, p<.0.5

H6: Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong will contain more product i/th whitening effects
advertisements than Elle U.S..

About 30% of the ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong were product with whitening

effects ads (see Table 4-1). No product with whitening effects ad appeared in Elle U.S..

Therefore, H6 is supported.

Nong-Nong vs. Elle Taiwan

H7: Ads in Nong-Nong will contain a greater number of eastern models than ads in
Elle Taiwan.











As Table 4-11 shows above, most models in Elle Taiwan were western, while more


than 60% of models in Nong-Nong were eastern. Therefore, H7 is supported.


H8: Elle Taiwan will have a higher percentage of western product ads than Nong-
Nong will have.


H9: Nong-Nong will have a higher percentage of local and Japanese product ads
than Elle Taiwan will have.


As H8 and H9 asserted, there was a significant difference between products' origins


in these two magazines. Elle Taiwan carried the most European product ads, while most


Asian product ads came from Nong-Nong (see Table 4-13). Furthermore, Elle Taiwan


had more western product ads that were not major brands than did Nong-Nong (see Table


4-14). Concluded from the above findings, H8 and H9 are supported.


Table 4-13 Product Origin by Magazines
ORIGIN

Asian country USA European country Total
ElleUS Count 3 45 19 67
% within MAGAZINE 4.5% 67.2% 28.4% 100%
Elle Taiwan Count 52 40 71 163
% within MAGAZINE 31.9% 24.5% 43.6% 100%
Nong-Nong Count 78 38 58 174
% within MAGAZINE 44.8% 21.8% 33.3% 100%
Total Count 133 123 148 404
% within MAGAZINE 32.9% 30.4% 36.6% 100%

X2=6.07, df=2, p<.05

Table 4-14 Brands by Magazines
BRAND
Major US Major European Major Asian Other western
brand brand brand brand Total
Elle US Count 27 37 3 0 67
% within MAGAZINE 40.3% 55.2% 4.5% .0% 100.0%
Elle Taiwan Count 24 70 52 17 163
% within MAGAZINE 14.7% 42.9% 31.9% 10.4% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 31 57 76 10 174
% within MAGAZINE 17.8% 32.8% 43.7% 5.7% 100.0%
Total Count 63 187 153 1 404
% within MAGAZINE 15.6% 46.3% 37.9% .2% 100.0%

X2=8.19,df=3,p<.05

H10: Ads ofproducts n ith whitening effects in Nong-Nong will use more wording of
"whitening effects" (mei-bai) or "pale" (bai) than ads in Elle Taiwan.










Descriptive percentages seem to support H1O-Nong-Nong contained more ads of

products with whitening effects that used wordings of "whitening effects" (mei-bai) or

"pale" (bai) than did Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-15). However, no statistical difference was

found. Therefore, H10 is not supported.

Table 4-15 Wording of Whitening Effects by Magazines1
WORDING OF WHITENING EFFECT
With whitening Other whitening
(mai-bai) only wording Total
Elle Taiwan Count 29 19 48
% within MAGAZINE 60.4% 39.6% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 34 18 52
% within MAGAZINE 65.4% 34.6% 100.0%
Total Count 63 37 100
% within MAGAZINE 63.0% 37.0% 100.0%

(2 =0.096, df=l, p
H11: Ads in Nong-Nong will have a greater number of language adaptations than
ads in Elle Taiwan.

As Table 4-16 shows, there was also a significant difference between language

adaptations in these two magazines. Most ads in Elle Taiwan were in both Chinese and

English (63%) or in Chinese only (23%). More than 50% of ads in Nong-Nong were

Chinese-only, followed by Chinese-and-English. In addition, Nong-Nong had more

Chinese-only ads than Elle Taiwan did. No matter whether it was a western-product ad or

an eastern-product ad. On the other hand, most ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong had

Chinese translation for the headline (see Table 4-17). However, Elle Taiwan had more

western product ads that had no Chinese translation for the headline than did Nong-Nong.

H11 is therefore supported by the above findings.

Table 4-16 Language in Ads by MagazinesO


1 Table 4-15 did not include Elle U.S. because there were no ads of products with whitening effects.

2 Table 4-16 did not include Elle U.S. because there were no ads containing Chinese.











LANGUAGE
Chinese English Chinese with Chinese &
only only other language English Total
Elle Taiwan Count 37 3 20 101 161
% within Magazine 23.0% 1.9% 12.4% 62.7% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 89 0 22 64 174
% within Magazine 51.1% .0% 12.6% 36.8% 100.0%
Total Count 126 3 42 165 335
% within Magazine 37.6% 9.0% 12.5% 49.5% 100.0%

X2=32.91, df=3, p<.05

Table 4-17 Language Adaptation for Headlines by Magazines3

LANGUAGE ADAPTATIONS FOR HEADLINES
Western Product Western Western
with Chinese product (No Eastern Product
Translation Translation) product (Chinese only) Total
Elle Taiwan Count 77 9 50 27 163
% within Magazine 47.2% 5.5% 30.7% 16.6% 100.0%
Nong-Nong Count 54 3 67 50 174
% within Magazine 31.0% 1.7% 38.5% 28.7% 100.0%
Total Count 131 12 117 77 337
% within Magazine 38.9% 3.6% 34.7% 22.8% 100.0%

X2=16.94, df=3,p<.05

H12: Ads in Nong-Nong will contain a greater level of information than ads in Elle
Taiwan.

As H12 projected, there was also a significant difference in the number of ads

between the information levels in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong. Not only did ads in

Nong-Nong have greater copy size than ads in Elle Taiwan (see Table 4-6 and Table 4-7),

but also ads in Nong-Nong had more information cues than ads in Elle Taiwan (see Table

4-8). Fifty-two percent of the ads in Nong-Nong contained three information cues or

more, compared with 49% in Elle Taiwan. H12 is also supported.

Personal Care vs. Cosmetics

H13: Ads ofpersonal care products will have a greater number of language
adaptations than ads for cosmetics will have.


3 Table 4-17 did not include Elle U.S. because there were no ads containing Chinese.










As H13 asserted, there was a significant difference between language adaptations in

personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. The finding shows more Chinese-only

personal care product ads than cosmetic ads (see Table 4-18). More cosmetic ads were

presented in an English-only text. In addition, western personal care products ads

contained more Chinese-only ads than western cosmetic ads. In contrast, western

cosmetic ads had more ads with no Chinese translation for headlines than personal care

product ads did (see Table 4-19). H13 is supported.

Table 4-18 Language by Product Categories

LANGUAGE
Chinese English Chinese with Chinese and
only only other language English Total
Personal care Count 78 27 22 87 214
% within Product 36.4% 12.6% 10.3% 40.7% 100.0%
Cosmetics Count 44 41 19 73 177
% within Product 24.9% 23.2% 10.7% 41.2% 100.0%
Total Count 122 68 41 160 391
% within Product 31.2% 17.4% 10.5% 40.9% 100.0%

X2=8.995, df=3, p<.05

Table 4-19 Language Adaptation for Headlines by Product Categories
LANGUAGE ADAPTATIONS FOR HEADLINES
Western product Western Western
with Chinese product (No Eastern product
Translation translation) product (Chinese only) Total
Personal care Count 64 33 66 51 214
% within Product 29.9% 15.4% 30.8% 23.8% 100%
Cosmetics Count 63 45 46 25 179
% within Product 35.2% 25.1% 25.7% 14.0% 100%
Total Count 127 78 112 76 393
% within Product 32.3% 19.8% 28.5% 19.3% 100%

X2=10.19, df=3,p<.05

H14: Cosmetic ads will use more western models than personal care product ads
will use.

As H14 asserted, there was a significant association between product categories

and models shown in ads. A higher percentage of western models appeared in cosmetic

ads than appeared in personal care product ads (see Table 4-20). In addition, more










cosmetic ads appeared to contain models than personal care product ads. H14 is

therefore supported.

Table 4-20 Models by Product Categories

MODEL
Western Eastern No model
models models shown Total
Personal care Count 63 56 88 207
% within PRODUCT 30.4% 27.1% 42.5% 100.0%
Cosmetics Count 69 57 44 170
% within PRODUCT 40.6% 33.5% 25.9% 100.0%
Total Count 132 113 132 377
% within PRODUCT 35.0% 30.0% 35.0% 100.0%

X2=12.94, df=2, p<.05

H15: Personal care product ads will contain a greater number ofproduct attributes
than cosmetic ads.


Table 4-21 shows a significant association between product attributes in personal

care product ads and cosmetic ads. These ads carried a greater number of product

attributes than cosmetic ads. Most personal care product ads contained information of

product attributes and benefits (96%), while most of benefit-only ads came from

cosmetics. Therefore, H15 is supported.

Table 4-21 Product Attributes and Benefits by Product Categories

ATTRIBUTES & BENEFIT IN ADS
Attributes only Attributes & benefits Benefits only Total
Personal care Count 0 204 8 212
% within PRODUCT .0% 96.2% 3.8% 100.0%
Cosmetics Count 7 126 33 166
% within PRODUCT 4.2% 75.9% 19.9% 100.0%
Total Count 7 330 41 378
% within PRODUCT 1.9% 87.3% 10.8% 100.0%

X2=35.61,df=2,p<.05

H16: Personal care product ads will contain a greater level of information than
cosmetic ads.

As H16 stated, there was a significant difference between information levels in

personal care product ads and cosmetics ads. More ads containing a headline with two










paragraphs appeared in personal care product ads than in cosmetic ads (see Table 4-22).

In addition, more personal care product ads had copy size more than 50% of the

advertising layout (see Table 4-23). Furthermore, personal care product ads contained

more information cues than did cosmetic ads (see Table 4-24). H16 is also supported.

Table 4-22 Copy Size by Product Categories 1

COPY SIZE
Headline only or Headline with 2
with one paragraph paragraphs or above Total
Personal care Count 90 121 211
% within PRODUCT 42.7% 57.3% 100.0%
Cosmetics Count 110 60 171
% within PRODUCT 64.3% 35.1% 100.0%
Total Count 200 181 382
% within PRODUCT 52.4% 47.4% 100.0%

X2=22.18, df=l,p<.05

Table 4-23 Copy Size by Product Categories 2

COPY SIZE

Less than 25% 25%~50% More than 50% Total
Personal care with Count 12 41 28 81
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 14.8% 50.6% 34.6% 100.0%
Personal care w/o Count 19 66 48 133
whitening effect % within PRODUCT
14.3% 49.6% 36.1% 100.0%
Cosmetics with Count 3 3 3 9
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% 100.0%
Cosmetics w/o Count 57 72 41 170
whitening effecy % within PRODUCT 33.5% 42.4% 24.1% 100.0%
Total Count 91 182 120 393
% within PRODUCT 23.2% 46.3% 30.5% 100.0%

X2=20.89, df=6, p<.05

HI 7: Ads ofproducts i/ ith whitening effects will contain a greater level of
information than ads ofproducts i iithIt whitening effects.

As Table 4-24 shows, ads of products with whitening effects contained more

information cues than ads of products without whitening effects. However, only

cosmetics with whitening effects ads contained more copy size than cosmetics without










whitening effects ads (see Table 4-23). No similar pattern appeared in personal care

product ads. Therefore, H1 7 is partially supported by these findings.

Table 4-24 Number of Information Cues by Product Categories
INFORMATION CUES
1-2 3 4 or above Total
Personal care with Count 24 23 33 80
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 30.0% 28.8% 41.3% 100.0%
Personal care w/o Count 60 36 37 133
whitening effect % within PRODUCT
45.1% 27.1% 27.8% 100.0%
Cosmetics with Count 5 3 1 9
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 55.6% 33.3% 11.1% 100.0%
Cosmetics w/o Count 123 36 12 171
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 71.9% 21.1% 7.0% 100.0%
Total Count 212 98 83 393
% within PRODUCT 53.9% 24.9% 21.1% 100.0%

X2 =21.64, df =6, p<.05

H18: Cosmetic ads will use less argument strategy than personal care product ads.

As Appendix A-3 shows (p. 66), personal care product ads used more "argument"

appeals than cosmetic ads did. In addition, cosmetic ads used more implicit strategies of

"motivation with psychological appeals", "symbolic association", and "imitation" than

personal care ads. The descriptive percentages appear to support H18. However, no

statistical test of association could be determined due to the number of empty cells counts

of less than five. Therefore, H18 is only partially supported.

H19: Cosmetic ads will use more visual imagery than personal care product ads.

As Table 4-25 and Table 4-26 show, personal care product ads had less visual

imagery than cosmetic ads. Not only did most visual-only ads appear in cosmetic ads, but

also cosmetic ads had greater visual size in the advertising layout. In addition, only

products without whitening effects ads had visual-only layout. Though descriptive

percentages seem to support H19, no statistical difference was found between the










advertising visual size and personal care product ads and cosmetic ads. Therefore, H19 is

partially supported.

Table 4-25 Advertising Layouts by Product Categories

LAYOUT
Visual only Visual & copy Total
Personal care Count 1 212 214
% within PRODUCT .5% 99.1% 100.0%
Cosmetics Count 10 169 179
% within PRODUCT 5.6% 94.4% 100.0%
Total Count 11 381 393
% within PRODUCT 2.8% 96.9% 100.0%

2 =10.58, df =3, p<.05

Table 4-26 Advertising Visual Size by Product Categories
VISUAL SIZE
50% or less 51%-75% More than 75% Total
Personal care with Count 9 23 48 80
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 11.3% 28.8% 60.0% 100.0%
Personal care w/o Count 26 42 65 133
whitening effect % within PRODUCT
19.5% 31.6% 48.9% 100.0%
Cosmetics with Count 1 3 5 9
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 11.1% 33.3% 55.6% 100.0%
Cosmetics w/o Count 16 54 101 171
whitening effect % within PRODUCT 9.4% 31.6% 59.1% 100.0%
Total Count 52 122 219 393
% within PRODUCT 13.2% 31.0% 55.7% 100.0%

2 =6.28, df =6, p

H20: Cosmetic ads will have a greater level of implicitness than personal care
product ads.

Although there were more benefit-only layouts in cosmetic ads than in personal care

product ads, as H15 suggested, no statistical test of association could be determined

between the advertising appeals and personal care product ads and cosmetic ads (H18).

There were also no statistical difference found between the advertising visual size and

personal care product ads and cosmetic ads (H19). Therefore, H20 is only partially

supported.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION


As Briley, Morris, and Simonson (2000) pointed out, culture exerts its influence

only when "some aspect of the decision task requires that decision makers draw

knowledge structure that differ cross-culturally." In other words, although there are many

differences between western versus Chinese cultures, consumers' decision making would

be affected only when they need to provide rationale for their purchase. The cultural

similarity of countries indicates that local consumers may accept certain standardized

approaches as long as the advertised products are not culturally salient. Therefore, some

cosmetic product advertising appeals in Taiwan are similar, even the same as those in

their home markets.

Elle U.S. vs. Elle Taiwan & Nong-Nong

As a high-context culture, Taiwan society emphasizes non-verbal expression and

physical settings (Stove, 1974). Consequently, advertising messages in Elle Taiwan and

Nong-Nong are usually conveyed either in the physical context or internalized in the

model/ celebrity while less information is conducted explicitly in the ads. There were

more hard-sell appeals used in Elle U.S., while Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong employed

more soft-sell strategies, such as "motivation with psychological appeal" and "symbolic

association", which was particularly true in cosmetic ads.

On the other hand, previous research also suggests that ads in Taiwan's magazines

contain greater levels of information than ads in American magazines. Wang (1997) and









his colleagues found that hard-sell strategy is more prevalent than soft-sell one for high-

involvement products in Taiwan. In order to reduce risk, consumers tend to seek for more

information before purchasing a high-involvement product. The same pattern was also

found in this study. Not only did Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contain more copy text in

the ads, but they also carried more information cues than Elle U.S. did. In addition, Elle

Taiwan and Nong-Nong tended to use editorial ads to deliver more product information

as consumers in Taiwan rely heavily on women magazines for the latest and useful

fashion and beauty ideas.

As previous research (Zandpour et al., 1992) suggests, ads in Taiwan frequently

employed immediate rewards in the form of free offers and special deals through hard-

sell approaches. It is because Taiwanese consumers are prone to products that have

promotions and are relatively less brand loyal. The findings also show that ads in Elle

Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more promotional devices than ads in Elle U.S. in

order to draw consumer's attention.

Regarding models in the ads, ads in Elle Taiwan and Nong-Nong contained more

eastern models than ads in Elle U.S. in order to reflect local values. Owing to the embrace

of "pale is beautiful" in Taiwan, this study also reveals advertising approaches in Elle

Taiwan and Nong-Nong that emphasize the "whitening effects", which were rarely found

in Elle U.S.. Most models of dark complexion were coded from Elle U.S., while Elle

Taiwan and Nong-Nong had a much higher percentage of containing light-skinned

models in the ads. In addition, there were no whitening effect product ads in Elle U.S..

Elle Taiwan vs. Nong-Nong

As an international fashion magazine, Elle Taiwan is a mixture of western and

Taiwanese cultures. Instead of being purely standardized or localized, the findings of this









study revealed the mixed approach that Elle Taiwan employed. In general, most ads in

Nong-Nong were Chinese-only or with Chinese translation, while most ads in Elle

Taiwan were Chinese with another language, and some of them were without Chinese

translation.

Personal Care Product Ads vs. Cosmetic Ads

As Muller (1996) pointed out, cosmetics are one of the products that can be

promoted through imagery messages which allows standardized ads employed in

different countries. Considered as low-involvement products and less cultural-bound,

advertising strategies for cosmetics were less adapted than personal care products in Elle

Taiwan. In addition, cosmetics are more fashion-oriented, and perhaps purchases are

merely based on brand names instead of product performance. Because most cosmetics

are consistent with local beauty norms, they can be positioned the same in other markets

as at home country. The product nature also allows cosmetic ads to use more visual

imagery than do personal care product ads. These phenomena are also reflected in ads in

Elle Taiwan- more cosmetic ads were standardized than personal care product ads, and

there were less language adaptations, lower information levels, fewer eastern models, as

well as different advertising appeals used in cosmetic ads.

On the other hand, although personal care product ads in Elle Taiwan were more

adapted than cosmetic ads, those ads were still different from ads in Nong-Nong. The

findings showed that there were more personal care product ads that used "global"

strategies (Domzal & Kernan, 1993) in Elle Taiwan, while the same products in Nong-

Nong carried more information cues or used different advertising appeals. Nong-Nong

positions itself as a magazine that contains more useful daily beauty information than

more imagery and visual oriented, like Elle Taiwan.









Whitening Effects

Acknowledging the local "pale skin" concept, more than half of models in Elle

Taiwan were light-skinned. However, there were still some medium-to-dark-skinned

models in the ads because Elle Taiwan had western product ads that were standardized.

On the contrary, Nong-Nong carried more local and Japanese product ads, and

consequently, most models in Nong-Nong were light-skinned.

Elle Taiwan also carried ads of personal care products with whitening effects.

However, the ways the ads featured the product's functions were different from those in

Nong-Nong. Most ads of cosmetics with whitening effects in Nong-Nong used wordings

that directly pointed out whitening effects, while more ads in Elle-Taiwan used a more

implicit approach to deliver the message. One possible explanation for this might be that

readers of Elle Taiwan are less sensitive to the whitening features than readers of Nong-

Nong, who favor Japanese styles more than western trends.

Eastern Trends vs. Western Trends

Although almost one-third of ads in Elle Taiwan were Asian products, Elle Taiwan

had a higher percentage of containing western cosmetic product ads than Nong-Nong did.

In other words, Nong-Nong had more local and Japanese product ads as a result that

Japanese brands are favorable to consumers in Taiwan, while ads in Elle Taiwan targeted

consumers who are more into major global brands and are not as enthusiastic about

Japanese trends as other consumers are. As a result, ads in Nong-Nong had a higher

tendency of displaying eastern-looking models than in Elle Taiwan. Furthermore, there

were more ads of non-maj or European brands in Nong-Nong, as there are many retail

stores or beauty salons in Taiwan where local consumers also purchase beauty products

carrying those product lines.









Promotional Devices

An interesting finding was no matter in Elle Taiwan or in Nong-Nong, ads of

American products were more adapted than European products, as there were more

promotional and editorial ads of American brands, while most European product ads

were pure ads. In addition, less American brands in Elle Taiwan were pure product ads

than in Nong-Nong. One explanation for this is that American advertisers were aware that

consumers in Taiwan were less familiar with western brands than Asian brands, so it was

necessary to tell consumers more about their products in an editorial form or carry

promotional devices in the ads to promote product trial and purchase. On the contrary,

because most readership of Nong-Nong come from consumers who are more interested in

Asian styles, western product ads were more like introductions of products to the market,

instead of delivering more in-depth descriptions as Asian brands did in their ads.

Implications for International Advertisers

When creating ads of cosmetic products in Taiwan, the first thing international

marketers should consider is the nature of product. As the study showed, a standardized

approach is suitable for cosmetics without whitening effects, owing to the "universal"

desire so that no specific needs to be addressed in different markets. However, for

cosmetics with whitening effects, typically foundations, a mixed or a more adapted

approach is suggested in order to meet the needs and wants derived from the special

beauty ideas of pale skin.

Being a more uncertainty-avoidant culture, consumers in Taiwan tend to seek more

information when evaluating products, particularly when they are more involved in the

purchase. Therefore, personal care product ads need to be more aware of the culture

norms and thus, require more adaptation than cosmetics ads. Using direct and explicit









text to emphasize the whitening effects is strongly recommend for personal care product

ads because such wordings like whitening (mei-bai) or pale (bai) are eye-catching and

can attract consumers' attention and interest to process the advertising messages.

Owing to severe competition in Taiwan's beauty industry, western marketers

should come up with distinctive advertising messages that differentiate their products

from their competitors. However, unless consumers identify with the benefits and

attributes the product carries, they would rather purchase eastern products that they are

more accustomed to and have more confidence in. Therefore, when more culture

meanings inherited in the products, more adaptation, or at least mixed approach is

recommended.

Limitations

The major drawback of this study was the lack representativeness of ads from Elle

U.S.. Perhaps the economic recession after September 11 in 2001 may have resulted in

fewer cosmetic product ads being placed in Elle U.S.. However, other fashion magazines

in U.S. appeared to carry more cosmetic product ads than in Elle U.S.. This may have

hindered this study to code more completely the advertising patterns in the U.S..

Additionally, how the copy size is calculated may lead to different results. Another

limitation of this study is how the creative strategy defined may vary as different

researchers using the same system to verify which advertising appeals are employed in

the ad.

Suggestions for Future Research

It is necessary that future study compare other magazines, such as Vogue and Marie

Claire, which carry more cosmetics and personal care product ads in both U.S. and

Taiwan and see if the results are similar to this study. In addition, future study should also









take magazines' readership into consideration, as different age groups and target

audiences may lead to different advertising strategies. Furthermore, owing to different

characteristics of print media, broadcast media, what was found in magazines may not

necessary true for television. Therefore, it is also beneficial to compare TV commercials

of cosmetic products in Taiwan and U.S. in order to determine better advertising

strategies for both media. This study should also be replicated with a larger sample size,

particularly personal care products with whitening effects, to identify variables not

reviewed in this study. More specifically, there should be a special section that compares

products with UV and sun block functions with products with whitening effects to

determine how ads for products of anti-radiate from sunshine can tailor themselves for

the local beauty culture while still featuring its core product attributes.















APPENDIX A
TABLES OF RESULTS













Table A-i Information Cues by Magazines

MAGAZINE
Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total


Count
% within MAGAZINE


14
20.9%


22
13.5%


53
13.1%


7 Count 2 4 4 10
% within MAGAZINE 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.5%
11 Count 1 3 2 6
% within MAGAZINE 1.5% 1.8% 1.1% 1.5%
1-2-3-4-7 Count 5 2 7
% within MAGAZINE 3.1% 1.1% 1.7%
1-2-3-8 Count 3 6 9
% within MAGAZINE 1.8% 3.4% 2.2%
1-3 Count 7 13 20
% within MAGAZINE 4.3% 7.5% 5.0%
1-3-4-7 Count 5 6 11
% within MAGAZINE 3.1% 3.4% 2.7%
1-3-4-8 Count 1 5 6
% within MAGAZINE .6% 2.9% 1.5%
1-3-4-5-7-8 Count 4 11 15
% within MAGAZINE 2.5% 6.3% 3.8%
2-3 Count 8 2 5 15
% within MAGAZINE 11.9% 1.2% 2.9% 3.7%
2-3-4 Count 5 14 11 30
% within MAGAZINE 7.5% 8.6% 6.3% 7.4%
2-3-4-10 Count 2 3 3 8
% within MAGAZINE 3.0% 1.8% 1.8% 2.0%
2-3-4-6 Count 5 4 9
% within MAGAZINE 3.1% 2.3% 2.2%
2-3-4-7 Count 5 3 8
% within MAGAZINE 3.1% 1.7% 2.0%
1-2-3-4 Count 1 5 5 11
% within MAGAZINE 1.5% 3.0% 2.9% 2.7%
2-7 Count 7 7
% within MAGAZINE 10.5% 1.7%
3-4 Count 11 17 26 54
% within MAGAZINE 16.4% 10.4% 15.0% 13.2%
3-4-10 Count 3 5 3 11
% within MAGAZINE 4.5% 3.1% 1.7% 2.7%
3-4-7 Count 4 9 6 19
% within MAGAZINE 6.0% 5.5% 3.5% 4.7%
3-4-7-8 Count 5 4 9
% within MAGAZINE 3.1% 2.3% 2.2%
3-5 Count 4 5 9
% within MAGAZINE 2.5% 2.9% 2.2%
3-7 Count 7 17 7 31
% within MAGAZINE 110.4% 0.4% 4.0% 7.6%


Count
% within MAGAZINE


9
5.1%


Total Count 65 157 168 390
% within MAGAZINE 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%



Note: 1-Price, 2-Quality, 3-Performance, 4-Components or contents,
5-Special packaging or shape, 6-Safety features, 7-Availability,
8-Special offers, 9-Results of independent research,
10-Company sponsored research, 11-Visual only










Table A-2 Advertising Appeals by Magazines

MAGAZINE
Elle US Elle Taiwan Nong-Nong Total
1 Count 2 4 0 6
% within MAGAZINE 3.0% 2.5% .0% 1.5%
10 Count 3 13 9 25
% within MAGAZINE 4.5% 8.0% 5.2% 6.2%
2 Count 36 70 62 168
% within MAGAZINE 53.7% 43.0% 35.6% 41.6%
2-4 Count 11 17 13 41
% within MAGAZINE 16.4% 10.4% 7.5% 10.1%
3 Count 1 0 3 4
% within MAGAZINE 1.5% .0% 1.7% 1.0%
4 Count 1 9 37 47
% within MAGAZINE 1.5% 5.5% 21.3% 11.9%
4-7 Count 0 0 8 8
% within MAGAZINE .0% .0% 4.6% 2.0%
7 Count 0 11 18 29
% within MAGAZINE .0% 6.8% 10.4% 7.1%
8 Count 0 4 5 9
% within MAGAZINE .0% 2.5% 2.9% 2.2%
9 Count 7 19 18 44
% within MAGAZINE 4.5% 11.6% 10.3% 10.9%
Total Count 61 147 173 381
% within MAGAZINE 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%


Note: 1-
7-


-Information, 2-Argument, 3-Command, 4-Imitation,
-Repeated assertion, 8-Brand familiarization,


9-Symbolic association, 10-Motivation with psychological appeals









Table A-3 Advertising Appeals by Product Categories

PRODUCT
Personal care Cosmetics Total


1 Count
% within PRODUCT


3
1.4%


2
1.1%


5
1.3%


10 Count 5 20 25
% within PRODUCT 2.3% 11.1% 6.4%
1-4 Count 0 5 5
% within PRODUCT .0% 2.8% 1.3%
2 Count 125 36 161
% within PRODUCT 58.7% 20.0% 50.0%
2-4 Count 18 24 42
% within PRODUCT 8.5% 13.3% 10.7%
3 Count 5 2 7
% within PRODUCT 2.3% 1.1% 1.8%
4 Count 17 24 41
% within PRODUCT 7.9% 13.4% 10.6%
4-7 Count 2 6 8
% within PRODUCT .9% 3.3% 2.0%
7 Count 12 12 24
% within PRODUCT 5.6% 6.7% 6.1%
8 Count 1 8 9
% within PRODUCT .5% 4.4% 2.3%


9 Count
% within PRODUCT


7
3.3%


27
15.0%


34
8.7%


Total Count 213 180 393
% within PRODUCT 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%


Note: 1-
7-
9-


-Information, 2-Argument, 3-Command, 4-Imitation,
-Repeated assertion, 8-Brand familiarization,
-Symbolic association, 10-Motivation with psychological appeals















APPENDIX B
CODING SHEET











Coding Sheet
Case ID #


V1 Magazine
<1> US Elle
V2 Month
<1> October, 2001
<4> April, 2002


<2> Elle Taiwan


<2> December, 2001
<5> June, 2002


V3 Size
<1> One-third page <2> Half
<4> Double page spread <5>More
V4 Product Category
<1> Personal Care with whitening effects
<2> Personal Care without whitening effects
<3> Cosmetics with whitening effects
<4> Cosmetics without whitening effects
<5> Other
V5 Product origin
<1> Taiwan <2> Japan
<4> France <5> Othei
V6 Brand name
<1> Major U.S. brand <2> Majoi
<3> Major Asian brand <4> Othel
<5> Other eastern brand
V7 Advertisement category
<1> Editorial ad <2> Pure pro

V8 Advertising layout

<1> Visual only <2> Copy
V9 Advertising visual size
<1> 25% <2> 33%
<4> 66% <5> 100%


page
than two pages














r European country


r European brand
r western brand


duct ad


<3> Nong-Nong


<3> February, 2002
<6> August, 2002


<3> One page
<6> Other












<3> USA
<6> Other


<3> Promotional ad


<3> Visual and copy


only


<3> 50%










V10 Product trial/promotional device
<1>None <2> Coupon <3>
<4> Sample <5> Special event <6>
<7> Other
Vila Advertising copy size
<1> Headline only
<2> Headline with one paragraph
<3> Headline with two paragraphs
<4> Headline with more than two paragraphs
<5> Other
V1 lb Advertising copy size
<1> Headline and/or brand name only <2> Less tha
<3> 25%-33% <4> 34%-5(
<5> 51%-66% <6> 67%-75
<7> More than 75%
V12 Copy information
<1> Price <2> Quality
<3> Performance <4> Compoi
<5> Special packaging or shape <6> Safety f
<7> Availability <8> Special
<9> Results of independent research <10> Comp,
<11> Visual Only <12> Not ap
V13 Explicit product benefits in the ad
<1> Information of product attributes only (without explicit benefits)
<2> Information of product attributes with explicit benefits
<3> Product benefits only without product attributes
<4> No product attributes and product benefits (visual-only ad)
<5> No product attributes and product benefits (non visual-only ad)
V14 Origin of model in the ad
<1> Western-looking <2> Eastern-looking
<4> Can't code <5> None
V15 Degree of model's "whiteness"
<1> Light <2> Medium <3>
<4> Mixtures of complexion if more than one models <5>


Entry form
Special offer


in 25%
0%
)%






tents
features of products
offers
ny research
plicable












<3> Both




Dark
Not applicable










V16 Presence of Product
<1> Shown <2> Not shown
V17 Arrangement of model and product
<1> Model dominant <2> Product dominant
<3> Equal presence <4> Can't code
V18 Presence of language in the ad
<1>Chinese <2> Japanese
<3> English <4> French
<5> Chinese and Japanese <6> Chinese and English
<7> Chinese and French <8> Chinese, Japanese, and another language
V19 Language adaptation for headline
<1> With Chinese translation
<2> Without Chinese translation
<3> Eastern product (Chinese only)
<4> Eastern product (with English and translation)
<5> Western product (Chinese only)
V20 Whitening effects feature
<1> With "whitening effect" (mei-bai), or "pale" (bai) wording
<2> With sun block or UV features only
<3> With "whitening effect" or "pale" wording and sun block or UV features
<4> Using wording other than "whitening effect" or "pale" wording and sun block/UV
features
<5> Product without whitening effects
<6> Other
V21 Creative Strategy
<1> Information <2> Argument
<3> Command <4> Imitation
<5> Obligation <6> Habit-starting
<7> Repeated assertion <8> Brand familiarization
<9> Symbolic association
<10> Motivation with psychological appeals
<11> Not applicable















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Yu-Rong Pu is a current graduate student at the University of Florida and will graduate

in August 2003. She comes from Taipei, the capital city of Taiwan. She has a younger

brother and has a blessed life with her family.

Yu-Rong graduated from Taipei First Girl's High and earned her bachelor's degree

in international relations from National Taiwan University, one of the most outstanding

universities in Taiwan. Yu-Rong has been active in extra-curricular activities and

frequently held positions in organizations. She was particularly interested in drama and

fashion and created a very successful stage play with her classmates within only two

weeks for the graduation performance. Studying abroad is always her dream, so she came

to the United States right after her graduation. She earned double master's majors in both

advertising and international business while she studied in UF. She is expecting to

publish her thesis in the near future.

She is a creative, humorous, self-disciplined, and well-organized person. She likes

new things and challenges; she learns experience from failures and feels triumphant

when solving the problem. She likes traveling a lot, and big cities are always her favorite

destinations. Therefore, working in a transnational corporation in big cities is her current

goal for the near future. Being a part of the entertainment or fashion industry is her life-

long dream. It would not be a bad idea for Yu-Rong to deliver her knowledge of

marketing and advertising in universities years later.