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The Extent to Which American Children's Folk Songs Are Taught by General Music Teachers Throughout the United States


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THE EXTENT TO WHIC H AMERICAN CHILDRENS FOLK SONGS ARE TAUGHT BY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES By MARILYN J. WARD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Marilyn J. Ward

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank God for His help in this endeavor. I believe that He was responsible for the good response rate and provided direction, assistance, and wisdom along the way. I would also like to thank my mother, Dr. Iva Maybelle Hollingshead, who funded and personally delivered, retrieved, and processed the information from the majority of elder study instruments. Not only did my mother physically and financially assist in this project, she has also been a constant source of inspiration and encouragement throughout my life. I owe a great debt of gratitude to both my mother and father, who are some of the most wonderful people I have ever known. Sincere appreciation is expressed to the members of my supervisory committee for their insight, wisdom, and wonderful suggestions for improvement through the many stages of this research study: Dr. Russell Robinson (chairman, music education); Dr. Charles Hoffer (music education); Dr. Budd Udell (theory/composition); and Dr. David Young (directing/theatre). Many thanks are extended to Brad Ward, my husband, who has ever so graciously funded this project, in its enormity. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................xi ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xiii CHAPTERS 1 THE PROBLEM...........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................1 The Essential Basis of Music Education...............................................................1 Responsibility of Nations and Schools..................................................................3 National Songs of Heritage Are Valuable and Important.....................................3 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................3 Basic Difficulty.............................................................................................................4 The National Standards.........................................................................................4 Why Teach Our Children Songs of the American Childrens Folk Heritage?......4 Why Use Song in the Teaching of History and Culture?......................................5 Background of the Problem..........................................................................................6 Educational Trends................................................................................................7 National Issues.......................................................................................................7 Social Concerns.....................................................................................................7 Delineation of the Research Problem...........................................................................8 Importance of the Study................................................................................................9 Clarification of Terminology......................................................................................10 Assumptions...............................................................................................................14 Scope and Delimitations of the Study........................................................................15 Outline of the Remainder of the Dissertation.............................................................17 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE..................................................................18 Historical Background................................................................................................19 Historical Overview of Childrens Folk Songs in America................................19 1649-1776.....................................................................................................19 1865-1873.....................................................................................................19 1939-1960.....................................................................................................20 iv

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Historical Overview of American Folk Songs in Elementary Music Textbooks.........................................................................................................20 1850-1880.....................................................................................................21 1870 to early 1900s.....................................................................................21 1936-1943.....................................................................................................24 1944-1951.....................................................................................................25 1955-1962.....................................................................................................27 1970-1976.....................................................................................................30 1977-1985.....................................................................................................30 American Childrens Folk Songs................................................................................31 Outside the Classroom.........................................................................................31 Collections...........................................................................................................32 General Music Textbook Series..........................................................................35 Related research on American folk songs in general music textbooks........42 Summary......................................................................................................43 In the classroom...........................................................................................43 The Value of Songs of Heritage.................................................................................49 The Importance of Songs and Singing in American History and Culture..................54 Related Research on American Folk Songs................................................................57 Summary of Literature Reviewed...............................................................................61 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................62 Description of Research Methodology.......................................................................62 Research Design.........................................................................................................64 Research Assimilated Into the Study...................................................................64 Initial Song Lists Considered But Not Used.......................................................65 Song Lists Which Were Used..............................................................................66 Methodology of Song List Creation and Elder Study................................................71 Song List Creation by Elderly.............................................................................73 Pilot Study...........................................................................................................77 Elementary Music Specialists Abridge Song List...............................................77 Creation of General Music Teacher Research Instrument..................................80 Instrumentation.............................................................................................80 Selection of subjects.....................................................................................80 Data Collection...........................................................................................................89 Summary.....................................................................................................................90 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................91 Introduction to the Statistical Analysis of This Study................................................91 Normal Linear Model..........................................................................................91 The Scale.............................................................................................................92 Definition of scale values.............................................................................92 Application to results...................................................................................93 Asymmetrical nature of scale degrees..........................................................94 v

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Aggregate Findings Statistical Analysis Detailing the Extent to Which Songs of the American Childrens Folk Heritage Are Taught in Schools in the United States..........................................................................................................96 Observed Significance Levels: P-Values...........................................................98 Root Mean Square for Error..............................................................................100 R-Square............................................................................................................100 F value...............................................................................................................103 Significance Testing..........................................................................................104 F Statistics and P-Values...................................................................................104 Mean Square......................................................................................................105 Type III Sum of Squares....................................................................................106 Degrees of Freedom..........................................................................................107 Discrepancy Analysis of Result Reliability..............................................................108 Variance.............................................................................................................109 Mode..................................................................................................................110 Skew..................................................................................................................110 Mean..................................................................................................................111 Median...............................................................................................................111 Range.................................................................................................................112 Standard Deviation............................................................................................113 Outliers..............................................................................................................114 The Boxplot.......................................................................................................115 Interquartile Range............................................................................................116 Compendium of Findings in Regard to Song Totals and Songs by Category..........118 Analysis of Results by Gender..........................................................................118 Analysis of Results by Age...............................................................................120 Analysis of Results by School Type..................................................................121 Analysis of Results by Music Series Textbook Used........................................123 Analysis of Results by School Level.................................................................125 Analysis of Results by Years in the Profession.................................................127 Analysis of Results by School Setting...............................................................128 Analysis of Results by Ethnicity.......................................................................130 Analysis of Results by State..............................................................................131 Aggregate ranking by state.........................................................................132 Childrens song ranking by state................................................................134 Folk song ranking by state.........................................................................136 Patriotic song ranking by state...................................................................139 Compendium of Findings by Isolated Song Type....................................................142 The Extent to Which Childrens Songs of the American Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms Throughout the United States............142 The Extent to Which Folk Songs of the American Childrens Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms In the United States...........................145 The Extent to Which Patriotic Songs of the American Childrens Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms in the United States...................148 Summary...................................................................................................................150 vi

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5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................153 Summary...................................................................................................................153 Conclusions...............................................................................................................154 Generalizations to the Population......................................................................154 Discussion..........................................................................................................155 Provide lists of songs to be memorized......................................................155 Increase awareness and improve resources................................................156 Establish a core repertoire rich in American childrens folk songs...........156 Increase the teaching of American folk songs............................................158 Increase the teaching of American childrens songs..................................158 Increase the teaching of American patriotic songs.....................................159 Increase the influence of veteran teachers..................................................160 Recommendations From This Study........................................................................160 Recommendations For Further Research..................................................................161 APPENDICES A THE SONGS EVERY AMERICAN SHOULD KNOW, FROM MENC: THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR MUSIC EDUCATIONS GET AMERICA SINGING AGAIN! VOLUMES I AND II........................................................163 B FIFTY SONGS EVERY CHILD SHOULD KNOW...............................................166 C ELDER STUDY MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS...........................................168 D PILOT STUDY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT.........................................................................................................185 E ELEMENTARY MUSIC SPECIALIST SONG ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT.198 F GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT........................................204 G STATES WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE FINAL PHASE OF THE STUDY..213 H DISTRIBUTION OF T TABLE...............................................................................214 I F CRITICAL VALUES TABLE FOR PROBABILITIES P = 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.01, AND 0.001.......................................................................................................216 J MUSIC SERIES TEXTBOOKS AND AMERICAN CHILDRENS AND FOLK SONG COLLECTIONS USED IN THIS RESEARCH STUDY.................225 Elementary Music Textbooks...................................................................................225 American Childrens and Folk Song Collections.....................................................232 vii

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K RECOMMENDED AMERICAN CHILDRENS FOLK SONG LIST...................238 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................242 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................268 viii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 American and Western European folksongs in school music series: percentages of the total number of songs found in series published during six time periods......30 2 Foy song list.............................................................................................................67 3 Willis song list..........................................................................................................68 4 Willis source books.................................................................................................70 5 States represented by elder study.............................................................................74 6 Sample characteristics: exact number of contributing teachers by state.................89 7 Global results of the study........................................................................................96 8 Type III sum of squares indicating aggregate demographic significance..............102 9 Univariate discrepanciesmoments......................................................................108 10 Univariate discrepanciesbasic statistical measures............................................110 11 Univariate discrepanciesquantiles......................................................................114 12 Boxplot of univariate discrepancies.......................................................................115 13 Univariate discrepanciesextreme observations..................................................117 14 Genderweighted average of responses...............................................................119 15 Ageweighted average of responses....................................................................120 16 School typeweighted average of responses........................................................122 17 Music series textbook usedweighted average of responses...............................123 18 School levelweighted average of responses.......................................................125 19 Years the teacher has taught general musicweighted average of responses.......127 ix

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20 School settingweighted average of responses....................................................128 21 Ethnicity of teacherweighted average of responses...........................................130 22 Stateweighted average of responses...................................................................133 23 Weighted average of total song responses by state................................................135 24 Weighted average of childrens song responses by state.......................................137 25 Weighted average of folk song responses by state.................................................138 26 Weighted average of patriotic song responses by state..........................................140 27 Childrens song base values...................................................................................142 28 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching childrens songs.......................................................................................145 29 Folk song base values.............................................................................................145 30 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching folk songs.................................................................................................147 31 Patriotic song base values......................................................................................148 32 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching patriotic songs..........................................................................................150 x

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Gender of subjects in elder study.............................................................................75 2 Participating university elementary specialists years of experience.......................78 3 Specialist assessment response rate..........................................................................79 4 Sample characteristics: males to females................................................................82 5 Sample characteristics: age.....................................................................................82 6 Sample characteristics: racial ethnicity...................................................................83 7 Sample characteristics: school settingprivate/public...........................................84 8 U.S. Department of Education national ratio of public to private schools...............84 9 Sample characteristics: music series textbook used................................................85 10 Sample characteristics: school settinglevel..........................................................86 11 Sample characteristics: years taught.......................................................................87 12 Sample characteristics: school settingenvironment.............................................88 13 Distribution of public schools by community type for the 2000-2001 school year...........................................................................................................................88 14 Asymmetrical scale of survey distance....................................................................94 15 Global results of the study: the extent to which students in the United States may be expected to know songs of the American childrens folk heritage..............95 16 The 68-95-99.7 rule for normal distributions...........................................................97 17 SAS program code which created statistical analysis for study...............................99 18 Skew of discrepancies............................................................................................109 19 Model bell curve distribution.................................................................................113 xi

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20 Histogram of overall response discrepancies.........................................................118 21 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by gender of teacher.................119 22 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by age of teacher.......................121 23 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school type...........................122 24 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by music series textbook used..124 25 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school level..........................126 26 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by years the teacher has taught general music..........................................................................................................128 27 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school setting.......................129 28 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by ethnicity of teacher..............131 29 Map of total scores by state....................................................................................135 30 Map of childrens song scores by state..................................................................137 31 Map of folk song scores by state............................................................................138 32 Map of patriotic song scores by state.....................................................................140 33 Childrens song base values...................................................................................143 34 Folk song base values.............................................................................................146 35 Patriotic song base values......................................................................................149 xii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EXTENT TO WHICH AMERICAN CHILDRENS FOLK SONGS ARE TAUGHT BY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES By Marilyn J. Ward May 2003 Chair: Russell L. Robinson Major Department: Music The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which American childrens folk songs were taught by general music teachers throughout the United States at the beginning of the 21st century. The research design included three phases. The first phase involved the creation of a song list which represented the American heritage. Music textbooks and songbooks from the 1700s to 1950 were used to create an initial list of over 500 songs. Then a study of 223 people over age 62, representing 44 states, was conducted to add to/subtract from the initial list, creating a list of 250+ songs which were taught to children in America between 50 and 100 years ago. The second phase involved narrowing the list. Thirty top college and university elementary music specialists ranked each song according to its merits as representative of the American childrens folk heritage. From that ranking, a list of 100 representative songs was created. The third phase involved a stratified, random sample of 4,000 general music teachers, 80 from every state in the nation. The teachers were asked the extent to which their students xiii

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could sing each of the 100 songs by memory, based on their teaching of the song in question. Results revealed that few American childrens folk songs were being taught by general music teachers across the nation. Most students could not be expected to sing songs such as Mary Had A Little Lamb, Old MacDonald Had A Farm, Bingo, Home On the Range, and The Star-Spangled Banner from memory. Simple linear regression discrepancy analysis revealed that the results of the study were reliable. A probabilistic model was used to account for random error, yielding results suited to inferential statements. Statistical significance was achieved at the <.0001 level. Specific demographic characteristics of the teachersgender, age, whether he/she taught at a private/public school, music series textbook used, grade level taught, years in the profession, state, and whether he/she taught at a rural/urban/suburban schoolwere highly significant. Information from the 30 elementary music specialists and 233 people over 62 was combined to create a recommended song list. xiv

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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem Educators and decision-makers need to know the extent to which American childrens songs are being taught in music classrooms across the nation. This information is of substantial value to those seeking to ensure that Americas youth are receiving a well-rounded and complete education. The songs in question hold unique value to American children (Seeger, 1948), as well as the American culture. The research question is thisto what extent are the songs of the American childrens folk heritage being taught by general music teachers throughout the United States in the beginning of the twenty-first century? If the core repertoire of American childrens folk songs is not adequately taught across the nation to the extent that practically all students can sing practically all of the songs by memory, Ruth Crawford Seeger believes it would negatively impact the population by limiting students ability to learn and identify with their own history, culture, and heritage (Seeger, 2001). The Essential Basis of Music Education According to Charles Seeger, former music librarian for the Library of Congress, the one essential basis of music education in a country is the folk music of that country (Seeger, 1942, p. 11). This point dappui is echoed in the music education philosophy of Zoltn Kodly, and by noted musicologists, educators, and composers such as Bla Bartk, Charles Seeger, John Lomax, Ruth Crawford Seeger, Harold Spivacke, Woody 1

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2 Guthrie, Ella Jenkins, and William Newell. As the essential foundation of music education, it also provides a good starting point, as research by Carolyn Willis reveals. American music education should begin with its folk music. American folk music is the most natural and logical place to begin music instruction (Willis, 1985, p.2). The Organization of American Kodly Educators agrees with the preeminent value of American childrens folk songs, as well. Singing is foundational to Kodly instruction, and it has occupied an important position throughout the history of formal music education in the United States. Importance of song in America. From the beginning of our nation, song has played an integral role in Americans lives. It was an important part of work, play, worship, good times, bad times, and everything in between. Today, songs continue to occupy an important position and music is heard in practically every setting where one may find people. But today, the songs are not being sung, they are played on radios and stereo systems. With the advancements of music technology, the quality of the sound of music has greatly increased and become available to everyone, any time, day or night. Music and songs have become ubiquitous and available in amazingly high fidelity. New technology has also produced popular music, enabling the entire nation to both hear and see a song not long after it is first conceived. This has impelled interest in newly composed songs. Songs of heritage replaced in the repertory of American children. Songs newly written and covers of popular songs are performed to the exclusion of songs which have national and cultural value. The United States stays on the cutting edge of whats

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3 happening in music, but this trend increases the likelihood of people becoming alienated from their American childrens song heritage. Responsibility of Nations and Schools Scholars John and Alan Lomax, Charles and Ruth Crawford Seeger, Zoltn Kodly, Carl Orff, Bla Bartk, Lowell Mason, and many others agree that it is a nations responsibility and the responsibility of schools to teach the next generation of Americans the childrens folk songs of their heritage (Lomax & Lomax, 1941, p. viii). This research study was designed to determine the extent to which general music teachers in America are doing that very thing. National Songs of Heritage Are Valuable and Important From the beginning of life, mothers sang to their babies, soothing and educating them in regard to life and meaning (Rosellini, 1998). Early research in the field has led to conclusions that children love, need, and use the songs of their heritage to help them understand the world and the complex interrelationships that may seem to defy logic and comprehension (Carpenter & Clark, 1907). Ruth Crawford Seegers research led to her conclusions that songs help children learn about and remember important events, empathize with the plight of others, step into anothers shoes, and experience the perspectives, hardships, and joys of their grandparents and ancestors. Through knowing the childrens folk songs of ones musical heritage, one may more richly experience what it means to fully be who and where he is, and to identify with who and where his ancestors were (Seeger, 1948). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught in general music classes in the United States.

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4 Basic Difficulty The foundation of the problem is built upon the need to comply with the national standards, as well as the answer to two questions. The first question, Why teach our children songs of their American folk heritage? addresses the value of American folk songs to children. The second question, Why use songs in the teaching of history and culture? addresses the impact of song and music, and its influence in history, culture, and education. The National Standards The National Standards for Arts Education (Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, 1994) asserts that music educators are expected to teach students to understand music in relation to history and culture. If American students do not understand their own music in relation to their own history and culture (Siebenaler, 1999) and have been overheard saying that they have no culture of their own (M. Ward, personal communication, November 15, 2000), then the national standards are not being met and a void exists in American student education. Musicologists such as Seeger believe that American childrens folk music is a national treasure which holds keys to understanding Americas people, their values, their history, and their culture. Americas history, culture, and people are identified with and understood through its music (Lomax & Lomax, 1941). Why Teach Our Children Songs of the American Childrens Folk Heritage? Ruth Crawford Seeger (1948) strongly contends that American childrens folk songs are a vital part of work, play, sleep, fun, ridicule, love, death (p. 21) and an important part of the development and education of American children. She states it belongs to our childrenit is an integral part of their cultural heritage (p. 21). It is not

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5 just childrens musicit is family music (p.24). It is a bearer of history and custom (p. 21). It is not finished or crystallizedit invites improvisation and creative aliveness (p. 23). With such statements, Seeger points to the integral role childrens folk music occupies in the making of America not only in the lives, values, and events that molded the people who created and fashioned the nation in which they now live, but even in the lives, values, character, and traits which their parents had and have passed on to them. Seeger saw it as a right that our children havethe right to know and experience their own heritage as it was once transmitted in song. Why Use Song in the Teaching of History and Culture? First, the value of using song to teach history and culture is already recognized and included as an integral part of multicultural education. The 1994 National Standards for Arts Education lists Understanding music in relation to history and culture as Standard Nine. Teachers have been teaching relationships between history, culture, and song in relation to other cultures for years. Historically. Songs transmitting history and culture, important events and values have been sung throughout recorded history (Kaemmer, 1993). Philosophically. Barrett, McCoy, and Veblen (1997) state, music is a symbolic means of expression woven through the strands of human experience we label as history (p.138). Educationally. Eisner (1991) asserts that music is a curricular component necessary for understanding the study of history and culture. Eisner believes that music and song do more than simply enhance the curriculum. He stressed that it provides a way to make a persons experiences more dramatic, clear, and meaningful, having the end effect of broadening that persons understanding. Music can broaden understanding by

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6 enabling the learner to experience historyidentifying with and feeling a part of it, making it more memorable and meaningful than reading detached and isolated stories of events from another time. Songs can make experiences with history more dramatic, clear, and meaningful by whisking students away to another time and place. Melodies, rhythms, and accompaniment patterns, as well as the complexity of the music, size of ensemble, and topics of text are often indicative of characteristics of the time period, enabling students to become enveloped in both the music and the ambience of the period. Interrelationally. Music and song can empower people to discover how much they have in common with others, uniquely equipping them to connect with different ages and epochs in history. Hudson (1962) believes that connections occur more easily because a person interacts with music and song on a cultural and emotional level, which is deeper, more intimate, more personal, and more expressive. Langer (1953) asserts that interaction with music can heighten a persons perceptive abilities and free his capacity to respond with feeling and emotion. The value in heightened perceptive abilities and increased emotional response lies not only in the aesthetic experience but also in the opportunity to step into anothers shoes, to see history and culture from the perspective of one who was there. Heightened perception can enable a person to more richly comprehend the beliefs, values, and traditions of his ancestors (Hudson, 1962). Background of the Problem A dissertation by Willis (1985) raises the question, What American folk songs are being taught in the schools? (p. 4) as well as Are American children learning and enjoying their rightful cultural heritage of American folk music? (p. 4).

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7 Educational Trends The following are educational trends which have been identified by recent research. These trends contribute to the problem addressed by this study. 1. According to Siebenaler (1999), students no longer know the songs of their national heritage. His report on student song preference indicates a decline in familiarity and preference for songs of the American heritage in third to fifth grade students. 2. Recent research by Amchin (1997) reveals that adult students were not able to recognize traditional American childrens songs, and that people in our culture are not singing as often as they used to. 3. Students familiarity with United States history facts has declined. This was described in detail in the 1994 National Assessment of Education Progress, United States History Group Assessment Report (Goodman, 1998). 4. Beatty (1996) found that students displayed a disturbing lack of knowledge and understanding of their nations history and culture. 5. In addition, Wilson, Litle, and Wilson (1993) state that students knowledge base of American social studies facts was well below desirable levels and indicated that improvements were necessary. National Issues According to the National Standards for Arts Education: What Every Young American Should Know and Be Able to Do in the Arts (Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, 1994), the teaching of song, history, and culture is an expected and necessary part of a quality education. Standard Nine states specifically that music educators should teach music in relation to history and culture. Crabtree and Nash (1994) detail a broad spectrum of information in United States history and culture which must be taught in order to comply with the national standards. Their work centers on the American experience and contains multiple references to incorporating song. Social Concerns Specific social concerns which contribute to the problem addressed by this research study are listed below.

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8 1. College students do not recognize songs of their common American heritage (Amchin, 1997). 2. College students say they have no heritage (M. Ward, personal communication, November 15, 2000). 3. American society is being inculcated to regard its heritage with contempt and look favorably upon cultures and political philosophies that are oppressive, restrictive, even openly harmful to their own people (Marciano, 1997). Delineation of the Research Problem The songs children once learned from their mothers, which they, in turn, had learned from their mothers, and they from theirs as a form of cultural transmission may not be counted upon today, as it once was (Amchin, 1997). The ability of music to link mankind to its past, working through cultural and personal memory (Weaver and Toub, 1998) only works when it is transmitted. Singing in our present society has declined to the point that people have become passive observers in regard to musical experience (Dodd, 2001). That fact contributes to the marked change in the repertoire of younger generations, as noted by Siebenaler (1999). Second, students will know the songs that their general music teachers have taught them. The song repertoire students gain from other sources is unstable and no assurance can be given as to the quality, quantity, or any other factor of songs learned from popular culture or other sources. Rosellini (1998) presented a view of this in a film portrait of three generations in a family, focusing on the cultural transmission of song as a primary method of values, oral history, culture, and heritage of the family. Finally, a students ability to sing each particular song from memory may be directly linked to time spent by the teacher in teaching that song (allowing for the fact that some students will know songs they have not been taught by that particular teacher, and others will not be able to sing a particular song from memory even after significant time has been spent by the classroom teacher toward that end).

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9 Importance of the Study Information is lacking regarding which American childrens folk songs are being taught in the general music classroom and the extent to which they are being taught. If general music teachers are not teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage, then a gap exists in music education across our nation. If such a gap does exist and it is within our ability to identify and fix it, then we would be remiss if we did not do so. Americas childrens folk songs are a national treasure which holds keys to understanding Americas people, their values, their history, and their culture (Seeger, 2001). As a result, the information provided through this study is critical toward informed decision-making which will lead to the fulfillment of the national standards and the complete education of American students. If these songs of the American childrens folk heritage heighten perception and enable a person to more richly comprehend the beliefs, values, and traditions of his ancestors (Eisner, 1991), then the study of American history would scarcely be as meaningful without them. Prickett and Bridges (2000) researched college students knowledge of twenty-five standard childrens folk songs. Their results revealed that the students do not have a shared repertoire, and over half of the subjects could not identify a number of the songs which experts believe should be in the common repertory of all Americans. Pricketts and Bridges results gained depth when considered alongside that of McGuire. McGuire (2000) found that experts appear to support the teaching of standard childrens folk songs a great deal more than the collections of new songs created by people who are trying to change the songs common to American children. Experts in the field support a common repertoire of childrens folk songs. Additional research by Eve

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10 Harwood reveals that college students are not the only ones who do not know these songs. Harwood (1987) appraised the breadth of the memorized song repertoire of Champaign, Illinois, school children. Harwood had each child sing every single song he/she knew by memory. She concluded that American children no longer share a common song heritage. Her study contributed to both the need for the present study and the methodological format. It was determined that the ambiguities which surround knowing a song were not scientifically-verifiable but that the more concrete ability to sing a song by memory was both more valuable and meaningful. For this reason, the present study had general music teachers assess the extent to which their students could sing each of the childrens songs by memory. Concurring results from multiple studies added weight to the need for the present study. Centrolineal conclusions regarding knowing and having memorized a song add weight to the research methodology. Clarification of Terminology Extent taughtthe degree to which the songs in question are being taught by the general music teacher being assessed. This was measured by the number of students whom the music teacher could expect to be able to sing each particular song from memory. Degree was measured in levels. The teacher was asked to recall the amount of time he or she had personally spent teaching each song. If he had spent a good deal of time teaching the song and he taught it every year to all of the classes in that grade, and he would expect his students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, he could reasonably assume that practically all of his students, as they progressed through school, would know it by memory. That song would be rated Practically All. If the music teacher had spent a fair amount of time teaching a song, and he taught it every year to

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11 most of the classes in that grade, but he had not reviewed it enough for all of the students to be expected to know it by heart, but the teacher would expect most of his students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, and he reasonably assumed that most of his students, as they progressed through school would know it by memory, the song would be rated Most. If the music teacher had spent some time teaching a song and/or had not taught it consistently every year to all of his students, but had taught it well enough that some of his students would know it by memory, the song would be rated Some. If the music teacher had spent a little time teaching a song and would expect a few students to be able to sing it from memory, the song would be rated Few. If the teacher had not taught the song, or not taught it within four years, the song would be rated Practically None. Americandealing with citizens of the United States of America. The investigation of songs taught to people over 62 included only people who had grown up in the United States of America. It explored which songs they had learned as children in the United States. Songs learned in other countries were not solicited. The elementary music specialists appraisal of childrens songs was geared toward what they believed should be taught in schools in the United States. The assessment of general music teachers was sent to teachers in each of the fifty states in the United States of America. Teachers from other countries did not participate in the study. Childrens songssongs taught to school age children. The song list was focused toward elementary age students. The list created by the Elder Study and the University Elementary Music Specialist Song Assessment was not exclusively designed for

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12 elementary students. It represents songs appropriate for a multivariate range of school age children, many of which being most appropriate for elementary age students. Folka people, tribe, or nation (Neufeldt, 1997, p. 523). Nettl (1976) points to the difficulties of defining folk music attributing it to the fact that scholars cannot agree upon a definition. Simply deciding who the folk are has been beyond their reach. Nettl does state that all folklore must be very old, and that scholars have often rejected folk material as not genuine because it apparently lacked sufficient age (Nettl, 1976, p. 21). For this reason, music textbooks and song books published after 1950 were not considered. This also contributed to the need for input from elderly Americans. Downes and Siegmeister (1940) acknowledge some scholarly definitions as being too confining for practical use, stating They designate a folk-song as a melody of anonymous authorship orally passed from person to person and adopted by a community or nation. But this turns out to be a definition too narrow for practical use. There are many folk-songs of identified authorship which have been welcomed just as warmly as those of unknown origin (p. 12). They resolve issues of authorship and legitimacy, No nation in the world can point to an unadulterated musical ancestry, any more than it can point to a blood stream exclusively its own (p. 12). But all national music is an amalgam of racial strands and historical processes consequent upon wars, migrations, trade, and other forms of interpenetration. And the richer and more characteristic the folk strains of a people, the more varied and colorful the music is likely to be (Downes and Siegmeister, 1940, p. 12). Pointing out influences of Byzantine chant, characteristics of the Tartars, the Orient, and the Occident in Russian folk music, Moorish arabesque in Spanish folk

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13 music, the Latin, Gregorian chant, and Jewish characteristics found in German music, they establish that these instances, which could be multiplied in the folk music of every people on earth, are sufficient answer to those who insist that a nations music must be of ancestral origin and indigenous to the soil, and who demand references and pedigrees before they will acknowledge a folk-songs title to citizenship (Downes and Siegmeister, 1940, p. 13). For this reason, childrens songs with origins outside the United States were included in the song lists and the study. They were required in order to create an accurate representation of childrens songs of the American heritage. Heritagerefers to the process of having been passed down from generation to generation, songs one would learn from ones grandmother, songs which she had learned from her grandmother, etc. It has its roots in the concept of birthright, which has frequently been used to encompass national things passed down, such as a heritage of freedom in America. It was for this reason that input and information was required from people over 62 in this present study. This research was constructed upon a foundation of songs which truly represent the American heritage. Previous research created song lists through surveys of teacher preference, expert preference, and researcher predilection, as well as what different leaders and committees think should be taught. Although many of these are very valuable, this present study is based upon songs which are actually a part of the American childrens folk legacy, tradition, ancestry, birthright, and inheritance. This point is an important feature which distinguishes this study from other studies.

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14 Seeger (1950) also used the term inheritance in her research with traditional American childrens songs, and defined it as a song handed down over the years (p. 10). Seegers definition was used in the design of this research study. For this reason, songbooks from the 1700s to 1950 were consulted. Songs created and taught in America after 1950 are too recent to have been passed down for generations. Their place in the American childrens folk heritage will be determined after a few generations. Ruth Crawford Seegers research on American childrens folk songs has led her to a number of insights and practical observations regarding American childrens songs and the term inheritance. Seeger observed that America represents an amazingly diverse population. The people of the United States have brought their songs with them from all over the world. Some of those songs have been in America long enough, and have been popular enough to be enveloped into what is considered the American heritage. This definition is broader than definitions which would limit this study to songs created by Americans, in America. Seegers definition was created to envelop the cultural plurality that is so thoroughly a part of what makes up the population of the United States, yet limiting enough to make it truly representative of the American childrens folk song heritage (Seeger, 1950, pp. 8-15). The above information contributed to the formulation of the foundational methodology upon which the study was built, contributing to the 1950 cutoff of songbooks, the need for the elder study, and inclusion of childrens songs from other countries in the list. Assumptions It is assumed that teachers perceptions of the extent to which their students have memorized the songs in question are accurate. Additionally, this study did not attempt to contact non-respondents and force them to answer questions. It is acknowledged that

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15 there is a high probability that the non-respondents are not interested in songs of the American childrens folk heritage. It is also assumed that the non-respondents are not teaching a large percentage of the songs. Because this is an assumption, and not fact, the research results were not adjusted down to provide for negative responses by non-respondents. Because the study was anonymous, contacting non-respondents was impossible. Scope and Delimitations of the Study This study was not designed to test the extent of students actual memorization of the songs in question. It relied upon the word of the general music teacher. Actual testing of students across the nation may have yielded a more accurate picture of the extent to which these one hundred representative American childrens folk songs have been taught to students across the nation. Such a study was, however, not feasible. This study did not attempt to record actual behavior of general music teachers (the extent to which they teach each of the songs of the American childrens folk heritage). Rather, a more practical method of self-reporting was utilized. It is acknowledged that teacher perceptions may not be completely accurate. A teacher may think he/she is teaching a song to a greater extent (regarding memorization) than is actually the case; but because memorization of songs for concerts is such an important and publicly visible part of the music teachers job, it is acknowledged that music teachers are quite adept at gauging the extent to which their students can sing particular songs by memory. The scope involved a stratified random cluster sample of eighty general music teachers in each of the fifty states in the nation. The study was limited to the fifty states, and did not include territories or possessions held by the United States. The research sample was limited to the 95,523 members of the MENC: The National Association for

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16 Music Education. Attempts were made to gain mailing and/or e-mail addresses for a true random sample of general music teachers in the nation, but privacy issues made that an impossible task. Every general music teacher in the United States was not eligible for the study, as no comprehensive listing with contact information was available. To keep the scope of this study within reasonable breadth, the number of songs selected to represent the American childrens folk heritage was limited to one hundred. To define the scope of the project, only songs dating before 1950 were eligible for inclusion. This delimitation resulted from the definition of heritage used in the study. The focus was limited to songs of the American childrens folk heritage. It did not extend to include all or even a representative sample of American folk songs or even all or a representative sample of the songs which children know and can sing. Countless thousands of American folk songs have been created and indeed, are being composed even now. This study is not intended to provide a comprehensive list of American folk songs, as their number is too great. Simply defining what constitutes an American folk song could consume a dissertation. This study is not intended to provide the complete song repertoire of children. It is understood that all children do not have the same song repertory and that they learn songs from a variety of disparate sources. Anonymity, lack of any funding, as well as a large sample contributed to the low response rate. Anonymity was necessary for insuring honesty of the subjects and their willingness to participate in the study. A large sample was necessary in order to perform valid descriptive research (as opposed to experimental research).

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17 Outline of the Remainder of the Dissertation A review of related literature will follow. It begins with a historical background and precedents to the research, including present purposes to be served by the review of the literature. Preference and placement was awarded to the most current research. The third chapter contains the methodology and procedures of the research, beginning with a description of the approach, followed by the specifics of the research design. Independent and classificatory variables precede pilot studies as they apply to the blueprint and development of instruments. Information on the selection of subjects, instrumentation, procedures, data collection, and data processing complete the methodology chapter. The fourth chapter contains the findings of the study, and the analysis and evaluation of the data. Factual information is presented and separate headings distinguish it from interpretation and discussion. Clear and distinct differentiation was made to enable the reader to achieve a clear perspective and come to his or her own conclusions regarding interpretation in the fourth chapter. The fifth and final chapter contains the summary, conclusions, and recommendations.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Charles Seegers truism the one essential basis of music education in a country is the folk music of that country (Seeger, 1942, p. 11) concurs with that of Zoltn Kodly, whose music education philosophy and program, held in high esteem and copied world-wide entails exclusive study and performance of ones nations childrens folk songs through the fourth grade (in formal school education). Kodly affirmed of each nations childrens folk songs that they are as much a necessity as aira necessity because they can unite, and indeed the one sure means of establishing unity in human affairs (Landis & Carder, 1972, p.7). Both Seegers and Kodlys positions align with Ruth Crawford Seegers contention, It (songs of the American childrens folk heritage) belongs to our childrenit is an integral part of their cultural heritage (Seeger, 1948, p. 21). The truths of the above, voiced by music education and folk music specialists, add depth to the concerns of Harold Spivacke, chief librarian in the music division of the Library of Congress. In our efforts to interest American children in music, we have been withholding from them the very songs which grew out of the soil on which they live. If we are to educate American children to regard music as something natural rather than foreign and strange, it seems only reasonable that we should start with those forms of music which are closest to them [speaking of American childrens folk songs] (Spivacke, 1940, p.127). The ability of our childrens folk songs to enable Americans to regard music as natural instead of foreign or strange, extends even beyond itself. Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) point out that America is a pluralistic, cohesive society, a 18

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19 motley collection of peoples who have come from every corner of the world, each group with distinctive features which combine together to create a whole and unique, unified populace. Immigrants and nationalities in our country gain and benefit from coexisting together, creating a culture and heritage of their own. What has been created is a unique, collective American culture. This collective culture, which may be referred to as the American heritage, does not imply disrespect for other cultures, as Garrido (2000, p.9) suggests. Historical Background Historical Overview of Childrens Folk Songs in America 1649-1776 The earliest records of life in the American colonies reveal a strong heritage of song and religion. Hildebrand (1992) studied music and song in colonial America (1649-1776). He found that music education was not limited to, or even focused toward, the young. Colonial Americans in every element of society, class, and occupation were involved in learning and experiencing music. Childrens folk songs were a central part of both being young and of growing up. The role of folk songs was a vital one, permeating through the culture of the town and its people. 1865-1873 In Music in Our Young Folks, 1865-1873 Yontz (1998) provides evidence that middle and upper-class American families sang childrens folk songs together regularly in the nineteenth century. Her research reveals a particular liking for songs about nature and being outdoors. Yontz study shows that in addition to childrens folk songs with outdoor themes, articles about nature abound in a multitude of childrens magazines in the nineteenth century.

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20 1939-1960 Hill (1997) in The Texas School of the Air: An Educational Radio Endeavor provides an historical account of the use of radio broadcasting to transmit childrens folk songs and other curricular material statewide from 1939 to 1960. Hills work delves into the history of educational radio and provides information on the impact of the programming, such as improved language arts skills, heightened school performance, and increased state-wide knowledge of childrens folk songs. Hills study reveals that improved family life and social interaction resulted from the radio initiative. Common customs and activities were promoted through social science projects and music. As early as 1939, the radio was used to transmit American childrens folk songs for educational purposes in our nation. Historical Overview of American Folk Songs in Elementary Music Textbooks Childrens folk songs have been present in elementary music textbooks throughout American history. This literature review traces the changes that have taken place in the song content of American elementary music textbooks, focusing on songs of the American childrens folk heritage. The earliest elementary music series textbooks were found to contain predominantly British childrens folk songs which is to be expected since early America was an English colony. American folk music composition would take time. Immigrants had come from Britain, and had brought with them their repertory of songs. Clearly, singing has always been vital to the people in our nation. Among the earlier examples is a study of American public school music in 1850 (Chrisman, 1985). Music education was among the basics taught in some of the first schools.

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21 1850-1880 Chrisman (1985) studied the influences of songs in the curricular decisions of public schools between 1850 and 1880 and concluded that it was songs which were the driving force behind the inclusion of music education into the curriculum as a serious course of study. Her analysis of the childrens songs used reveal the importance and abundance of folk and religious melodies. Following Chrismans study is Birges (1928) treatise on the earliest music education in the nation. Birge places more emphasis on childrens folk songs than does Chrisman. Birges study provides a great deal more information and factual data regarding the childrens folk songs used and the societal value of childrens folk songs. 1870 to early 1900s Birges (1928) History of Public School Music in the United States details the use of childrens folk songs in American public school music throughout our nations beginnings. Birge relates that childrens folk songs have been present in elementary school music series textbooks from before Luther Whiting Masons 1870 National Music Course. According to Birge, a childs most natural songs are childrens folk songs, It is natural and inevitable, therefore, that the school song books which the children have been using these ninety years that music has been a school subject, should have contained so many folk songs (Birge, 1928, p.119). Also studying these earliest music texts is Britton (1961). Noting the dearth of American folk songs in relation to European folk songs, Britton sheds even more light upon the state of some of Americas earliest music education. Britton (1961) reports that few American folk songs were incorporated in early elementary music texts. Britton points out that the American folk songs which were

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22 chosen consisted of Stephen Fosters most popular songs, and a few other parlor or patriotic airs, reflecting an urban, upper-class slant (Britton, 1961, pp. 214-218). Instead, authors of the earliest school music textbooks incorporated the songs and ideas of English, German, French, and Swiss music educators, philosophers, and teachers, as pointed out by Tellstrom and Trinka (Tellstrom, 1971, pp. 18-127; Trinka, 1987, p. 25). This may be seen in the profusion of folk songs from these countries which appear in elementary music textbooks from this early period of American history, and either represent the nationalities of our forefathers or nationalities they highly respected (Birge, 1928, p. 120; Trinka, 1987). Hesser (1934) identified the Hollis Dann Music Course and the Foresman Music Course to be the most extensively used elementary music textbooks in late 1800s and early 1900s America. He studied the content of grades one, four, and five, of these music textbooks, analyzing the folk songs included. Hessers objective was to categorize the folk songs by type and frequency. From the three grades selected for study, Hesser counted 459 total songs in the Hollis Dann Music Course Of the total number of songs, 15% were folksongs (70). Sixty-nine of the seventy childrens folk songs were of German, French, or English descent. Only one American folk song was includedSwing Low, Sweet Chariot, an African American spiritual. This was the sole American folk representative in the Hollis Dann Music Course The Foresman Music Course contained fewer songs than the Hollis Dann It had only 369 total songs, but of those, 45% (167) were folk songs (over twice the amount in the Hollis Dann series). Of the folk songs, 2% (9) were American childrens folk songs. The vast majority were of English and European descent (Hesser, 1934, pp.53-67; Trinka,

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23 1987). This fits with historical information regarding the colonists. Early Americans continued to hold strong ties to England up to and even after the Boston tea party (Purse, 1998). Harold Spivacke, chief of the Library of Congress Music Division, in charge of the Archive of American Folk Song, considered the aftermath of World War I, the distancing of America from countries on the European continent, to have played a major role in arousing new interest in American folk music, folk art, and folklore (Spivacke, 1940, p.123). The nation turned its attention to American folk music after World War I. Considerable time had passed since the nations establishment. For years, researchers including William Newell (1903), John Lomax (1910; 1919), Cecil Sharp (1917), and Joanna Colcord (1924) had been studying, collecting, and notating American folk songs. This provided ample material for a national focus on American folk songs (Lomax, 1910, 1919; Newell, 1903; Sharp, 1917; Colcord, 1924; Trinka, 1987). Research by Hesser (1934) reveals that Spivackes and Trinkas assertions were both astute and accurate. Hessers research confirms that publishers of elementary music textbooks increased the numbers of American childrens folk songs included in their textbooks for ten years following the end of World War I. In 1928, Carl Engel, then chief of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, established the Archive of American Folk Song with the intent of creating a secure and comprehensive American Folk Song collection. Engel anticipated that the depository would be the best reference, and only national one, for the study of American folk songs. In 1933, John Lomax, curator for the Archive of American Folk Song, instituted a systematic recording project, which sought to document each of the folk songs on acetate

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24 and aluminum discs. In 1940, a grant from the Carnegie Corporation enabled the Library of Congress to duplicate those recordings onto more durable phonograph records. By this time, there were more than 15,000 folksongs in the Archive (Spivacke, 1940, pp. 125-126). 1936-1943 Specifically regarding American childrens folk songs, Diaz work is of great value. In An Analysis of the Elementary School Music Series Published in the United States from 1926 to 1976 Diaz (1980) analyzed and described five music series textbooks. The specific music textbooks she studied were Exploring Music The Magic of Music Growing with Music Making Music Your Own and Discovering Music Together. Diaz focuses on song content as one of her five main areas of concern. Overall results of her study revealed that for the fifty-year timespan which her research encompassed, the song repertory of American elementary music textbooks shifted from one dominated by the series authors and Western European folk songs to include more American childrens folk songs. Six levels existed within each of the five music series published. Five thousand one hundred and twenty-six songs made up the song repertoire of the six levels of the five textbook series (thirty books, total). Of the books published between 1936 and 1943, just over two percent (2.3% = 121) of the 5,126 songs were American folk songs. Just over twenty one percent (21.4% = 1,099 ) of the 5,126 songs were Western European folk songs (Diaz, 1980, p.127). Trinka (1987) made the point that the wealth of American folk songs newly available through the Archive of American Folk Song in the Library of Congress was not

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25 utilized by music textbook publishers to the extent that it could have been. She pointed out that the increase in the number of American folk songs included in elementary music textbooks had not grown in proportion to the increase in what was now available. The decade following World War I and the timespan 1936-1943 should have shown a significant increase in the volume of American childrens folk songs found in elementary music textbooks, much more than analysis revealed (Trinka, 1987, p. 27). 1944-1951 Diaz (1980) study of the elementary music textbooks published between 1944 and 1951 showed a 5.6% increase in American childrens folk songs. Between 1936 and 1943, 2.3% (121) of the songs were American childrens folk songs. Between 1944 and 1951, the number rose to 7.9% (258). During this period, the total number of songs appearing in these three elementary music textbooks was 3,262 (Diaz, 1980, pp. 95-137). Spivacke (1940) may have played a role in the increase in publisher use of American childrens folk songs between the late 1930s and the early 1940s. Harold Spivacke was a keynote speaker at the Music Teachers National Association Conference of 1940. The focus of his presentation was the inequity in song content of American school music textbooks, in particular the imbalance between the amount of Western European folk songs and American folk songs included in the texts. Spivacke (1940) said, In our efforts to interest American children in music, we have been withholding from them the very songs which grew out of the soil on which they live. If we are to educate American children to regard music as something natural rather than foreign and strange, it seems only reasonable that we should start with those forms of music which are closest to them... The American folk song is certainly one of them (Spivacke, 1940, p.127). Trinka (1987) points out that Spivacke took this opportunity, as well as used his

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26 position and career to advance the cause of American childrens folk music, and American folk music. He exhorted those in MTNA (Music Teachers National Association) to make American childrens folk songs a foundation upon which American childrens music education is built (Trinka, 1987, p. 28). In addition to Spivacke, Pitts (1950) held that World War II changed the song content of school music texts. Lilla Bell Pitts was the current President of the Music Educators National Conference, 1986 inductee into the MENC Hall of Fame, and author of Music Integration in the Junior High School Gerald Blanchard, her biographer, considered her to be the most influential music educator in America. From Pitts aerie she perceived that one of the ramifications of World War II, was the change in song content of music textbooks between 1942 and 1944. She stated, One of the most fruitful and promising ideas of the early part of this decade centered about the exploration, evaluation, and utilization in the schools of our indigenous musical resources. Pitts noted that the outcome of this interest and exploration had been an increasingly intelligent usage and appreciation of American folk music (Pitts, 1950, p. 36). In addition to Pitts, the Music Educators National Conference was involved through the addition of a new committee, the Committee on Folk Music in the United States, created in 1942. Trinka (1987) relates that theirs was a five-point program, created to: increase the amount of folk music published in America; promote family participation in and creation of American folk music; review published American folk songs to create a comprehensive survey of available works; plan, organize, and present a session on folk song at the Music Educators National Conference 1944 Convention (Trinka, 1987, p.28).

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27 The Music Educators National Conference Committee on Folk Music in the United States (1944) promoted phonograph recordings as the best way to learn, teach, and transmit American folk songs. They spearheaded an initiative of music teachers nation-wide to find and record their local folk musicians. This committee also tried to get more and better recordings of American folk songs into the music classrooms of the nations schools (Music Educators National Conference Committee on Folk Music in the United States, 1944, pp. 24-25). Diaz (1980) believed that it was the confluence of the forces of Harold Spivacke, Lilla Bell Pitts, and the MENC Committee on Folk Music in the United States which instigated the influx of American childrens folk songs in the repertoire of elementary music textbooks between 1944 and 1951. Both Diaz (1980) and Trinka (1987) point out that just prior to this period, publishers had already begun to decrease the number of Western European folk songs included in the repertoire of their elementary music textbooks. Between 1936 and 1943, the number of Western European folk songs decreased from 21.4% to 16.8% (Diaz, 1980, p. 137; Trinka, 1987, p. 29-30). 1955-1962 But between 1955 and 1962, a dramatic increase transpired in the incorporation of American childrens folk songs in our nations elementary music textbooks. Diaz (1980) analyzed the five elementary music textbooks published in this period, and examined the four thousand four hundred and thirty-two (4,432) songs which comprised their total repertory. She found that American childrens folk songs comprised 18.3% (812) of the total, and Western European folk songs comprised 23% (1,020) of the total (Diaz, 1980, p.220).

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28 This reveals a 10.4% increase in the amount of American childrens folk songs published in elementary music series textbooks between 1944 and 1962. Research by Diaz (1980) revealed the increase in American childrens folk songsfrom 7.9% (found in music texts published between 1944 and 1951) to 18.3% (found in music texts published between 1955 and 1962). She also discovered an increase in Western European folk songsfrom 16.8% (in music texts published between 1944 and 1951) to 23% (in music texts published between 1955 and 1962) (Diaz, 1980, p.220). The Report of the Yale Seminar on Music Education (Palisca, 1964) leveled some of the most serious criticism advanced against the song repertoire in school music textbooks. Both the Report by Palisca (1964), and Trinkas (1987) analysis of it point out serious flaws and problems with the song repertory of elementary music textbooks (Palisca, 1964; Trinka, 1987, pp. 20-21). The Report speaks of the elementary song repertoire as constricted in scope containing tasteless products to such an extent that authentic work is rare of appalling quality corrupted A whole range of songbook arrangements, weak derivative semi-popular childrens pieces, and a variety of educational recordings containing music of similar value and type are to be strongly condemned as pseudo-musicSongs are chosen and graded more on the basis of limited technical skills of classroom teachers than the needs of children or the ultimate goals of improved hearing and listening skillsmore attention is often paid to the subject matter of the text, both in the choice and arrangement of material, than to the place of a song as music in the educational scheme. The texts are banal, and lacking in regional inflection (Palisca, 1964, p.11; Trinka, 1987, p.20-21).

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29 Palisca points out that the Yale Seminar Report recommended a complete overhaul of the song repertory in school music textbooks (Palisca, 1964, p.12). Soon after, in 1964, the Yale Seminar Report directed a great deal of criticism and condemnation toward the song and music content chosen by publishers of school music textbooks. They recommended a comprehensive repertory and recording overhaul, which included adding more American childrens folk songs to the textbook repertoire (Palisca, 1964, pp. 12-15). Both Diaz (1980) and Trinka (1987) note a lack of increase in American folk songs found in elementary music textbooks during the years immediately following the publication of the Yale Seminar Report. Charles Hoffer sheds light on this seeming imbroglio. As an author of a number of music textbooks, he divulges that the creation of a new music textbook, from the commencement of its writing to marketing, takes approximately two years, with each text enjoying a lifespan of between four and nine or more years. It's hard to say, because sometimes an idea is bouncing around in one's head well before writing commences he shares. Hoffer also notes that the length and complexity of a text influence its production time-table. The lifespan of a textbook may range from four years to nine or more, depending on a number of factors, which include the intended audience (Charles Hoffer, personal communication, November 23, 2002). Diaz study found an actual decrease in American childrens folk songs used in music textbooks between 1955 and 1962 (in the decade immediately preceding the Yale Seminar). And just as interestingly, from a total 3,386 song repertoire, encompassing the five music series she studied, the amount of American childrens folk songs decreased

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30 from 18.3% to 13.9% in the years immediately following the release of the Report by the Yale Seminar (Diaz, 1980, p.316). 1970-1976 Allowing for a reasonable interval of time to generate changes in the textbooks, the American childrens folk song content rose to 16.7% in the period between 1970 and 1976, with the number of Western European folk songs decreasing from 26.7% to 19.4% during that time period (Diaz, 1980, p.468). 1977-1985 Trinkas (1987) research aimed at ascertaining the change in American folk song content in elementary school music textbooks published after Diaz study. To this end, Trinka analyzed and studied the songs in four school music series textbooks published Table 1. American and Western European folksongs in school music series: percentages of the total number of songs found in series published during six time periods 1936-43 1944-51 1955-62 1963-69 1970-76 1977-85a American folk songs 2.3% 7.9% 18.3% 13.9% 16.7% 27.3% Western European folk songs 21.4% 16.8% 23.0% 26.7% 19.4% 11.6% aFigures for the years 1977-1985 were derived from this researchers [Trinkas] tabulations. All other figures are drawn from the study conducted by Margaret Chase Diaz, An Analysis of the Elementary School Music Series [Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1980] Source: Trinka, J.L. (1987). The performance style of American folksongs on school music series and non-school music series recordings: a comparative analysis of selected factors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 1694, p.32. between 1977 and 1985. She found that 27.3% (655) of the total 2,395 songs were American childrens folk songs. She notes that this level is the highest amount of American folk songs ever included in the textbooks. Trinka also documented that her

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31 results revealed that music textbooks published between 1977 and 1985 represented the only period in American history where the number of American folk songs (27.3% = 655) was greater than the number of Western European folk songs (11.6% = 280) found in American elementary music textbooks (Trinka, 1987, pp. 28-32). Trinka (1987) summarized her results and presented them with Diaz (1980) results in Table 1. American Childrens Folk Songs Outside the Classroom The most recent research regarding American childrens songs from a source other than the elementary classroom comes from Kenneth McGuire at Syracuse University. McGuire (1999) studied the songs used in eighty-eight episodes of Barney and Friends and found that childrens songs of the American heritage were the most frequently used category of song. This research was immensely valuable as it points to a major alternative setting in which many preschool children are afforded the opportunity to learn the childrens songs of their heritage. Results indicated that 35% (260) of the songs were childrens songs of the American heritage, with the categories of Childrens Song and Songs of the American Heritage being separately significant as well as of combined significance in frequency of performance. His results also indicated that the content of the show was predominantly filled with music, as opposed to periods of speaking and non-musical activity (92% of the show was comprised of music). In addition to the study by McGuire, Rosellini (1998) presented a film portrait of three generations in a family, focusing on the cultural transmission of song as primary method of values, oral history, culture, and heritage of the family. The songs children used to learn from their mothers, which they, in turn learned from their mothers, and they from theirs as a form of cultural transmission may not be counted upon today, as it once

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32 was. Research shows that music links mankind to its past, working through cultural and personal memory (Weaver & Toub, 1998). Singing in our present society has declined to the point that people have become passive observers in regard to musical experience. That fact contributes to the marked change in repertoire of younger generations. Collections This section will begin with studies which contributed to the basic song list. Among those are Foy (1988) and Willis (1985). Foys work resulted in the creation of a list of 228 childrens folk songs which she believed all American school children and adults should know. Willis list was created with the same purpose. In Recommended British-American Folk Songs for use in Elementary School Music, Willis (1985) creates a list of one hundred and twenty-nine British-American childrens folk songs which are recommended for study and memorization by all American children. Willis list of songs was created with the express purpose of creating a repertory of childrens songs for elementary music curricula and as a foundational song repertoire for Americans throughout the nation. The list consists of thirty-one American childrens folk songs, fifteen ballads, six seasonal songs, seventeen childrens singing games and nonsense songs, thirty-eight spirituals, nine cowboy songs, seven railroad songs, and six sea shanties (pp.54-58). Willis also includes a table categorizing the strengths and weaknesses of the song collections of sixteen authors of song books for use by children and teachers (pp.69-70). In order of strength, they are: Nick, Swanson, Seigmeister, Barlow, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver Burdett Centennial Dallin, and Boni Favorite American The strongest authors for American childrens folk songs were: Swanson, Seigmeister, Barlow, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver Burdett Centennial Dallin, Boni Favorite American Boni Folk Songs Lomax, Sandburg,

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33 and Sharp. The strongest authors for childrens singing games and nonsense songs were: Nick, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver Burdett Centennial Dallin, and Seeger (pp.69-70). Willis also created a table presenting fourteen folk songs for young children only (pre-kindergarten through second grade). Among those are: Hey! Betty Martin; Clap Your Hands; Byem Bye; Skin and Bones; Eency Weency Spider; Noahs Ark; Bingo; Old MacDonald; London Bridge; Three Blind Mice; Little Ducks; Farmer in the Dell; Looby Loo; and If Youre Happy (p.84). Willis continued with thirty-six folk songs geared specifically for children in grades five through eight (Willis, 1985, p.86). Additional collections of American childrens and folk songs were used in the creation of the initial childrens folk song list. The following are a sample of the ones used, which provided information regarding the repertoire of songs of the American childrens folk heritage. An important contributor, Seeger (1948) strongly contended that American childrens songs are a vital part of work, play, sleep, fun, ridicule, love, death (p. 21) and an important part of the development and education of American children. She states it belongs to our childrenit is an integral part of their cultural heritage (p. 21). It is not just childrens musicit is family music (p.24). It is a bearer of history and custom (p. 21). It is not finished or crystallizedit invites improvisation and creative aliveness (p. 23). With such statements, Seeger points to the fact that this music has played an integral part in the making of America, in the lives, values, and events that molded not only the people who created and fashioned the nation in which they now live, but even in the lives, values, character, and traits which their parents had, and have

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34 passed on to them. Seeger saw these songs as a right that our children havethe right to know and experience their own heritage .as it was once transmitted in song. Pratts (1921) Music of the Pilgrims: a description of the Psalm-book brought to Plymouth in 1620 was an ingenious find, and one that provides foundational material for American song, from which American folk songs and American childrens folk songs were forged. Rix (1907), Director of Music in New York City Public Schools, created a song book of over 170 songs for use in the school system. These songs were performed in New York City Public Schools for several decades. They include many religious, patriotic, and American childrens folk songs, such as: All Through the Night; A Mighty Fortress is our God; Battle Hymn of the Republic; Columbia, Gem of the Ocean; Dixie; Hail Columbia; Hark! the Herald Angels Sing; My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair; My Old Kentucky Home; Silent Night; and Swanee River. Richardson (1927) compiled American childrens folk songs as well as a number of miscellaneous songs derived from mountain people. It ranges from the well-known Frog Went A-Courtin and Shortnin Bread to the likes of The Drunkards Dream and They Gotta Quit Kickin My Dawg Aroun. Niles (1934) collected and arranged American folk songs which represent Hill-Folk. His collection is of twelve popular folk songs, most of which are very well known across the nation, and include such favorites as: Down in the Valley and I Wonder As I Wander. Niles (1936) Hill-Folk collection continues, although with less works than his first collection. This collection is comprised of ballads and tragic legends from Georgia,

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35 Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia, and includes: Barbara Allen, A Paper of Pins, and Black Is the Color of My True Loves Hair. Barry (1939) worked with George Herzog in a project through the Works Progress Administration of the National Service Bureau to create a collection of American Folk Songs which included a good deal of Child ballads and childrens songs. Among them are: Barbara Allen, and The Frog and the Mouse. A significant number of states were represented by more than a few of their native folk songs. Glazers (1961) American childrens folk songs create an anthology which well represents the American heritage. It has since been reprinted more than twelve times, indicating its continued popularity. It includes titles such as: Blow the Man Down; The Blue-Tail Fly; Cindy; Cotton-Eyed Joe; Down in the Valley; Frog Went A-Courtin; Go Tell Aunt Rhody; The Hammer Song; I Ride Old Paint; The Leather-Winged Bat; Old Smokey; Skip to My Lou; and many others. General Music Textbook Series The most recent research regarding the study of childrens folk songs in elementary music textbooks, though focused on Korean childrens folk songs, reinforced the presence of quality American childrens folk songs as well. Kim (2001) analyzed American elementary general music textbooks, focusing on the genre of the music chosen and characteristics of the music. Interested in the studys applicability to Korean textbooks and schools, Kim found the American textbooks to contain a number of quality American childrens folk songs as well as Korean childrens folk songs. Among her recommendations Kim stresses the need for further information regarding the origin of songs and melodies made available in American general music series.

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36 Prior to Kims study, recent Canadian research in elementary music textbooks reveals strong ties to both the American and English childrens folk song heritage. Ruebsaat (1999) examined the role of childrens folk song in British Columbia music curricula and school music textbooks between the periods of 1919 and 1995. The importance of singing and songs has been stressed throughout the history of music education in British Columbia, and central in its focus. In 1971, the repertoire shifted from being primarily based on British childrens folk songs to American traditional childrens folk songs. The emphasis upon the importance of teaching childrens folk songs has remained constant and continues through today. Values in British Columbia reveal strong associations with Britain and America. Growing ties between their childrens folk song heritage and that of the American childrens folk song heritage speak of the importance and relationships forged through ones nations childrens folk songs. A concurrent study analyzed the content of American elementary general music textbooks for their ability to meet the needs of the music teachers who use them. In 1999, Culton analyzed a number of American elementary general music textbooks. Cultons research interest lay in determining the extent to which the music textbooks met teachers needs. Culton sought to determine what topics of instructional concern were held by Iowa music teachers, and the extent to which the textbooks met each need. She examined seventeen issues representing their most pressing needs (as determined by a survey). She found that the music series texts spent less than one percent of their content addressing or meeting those needs. In her analysis of the data, Culton disclosed that three of her seventeen topics received no coverage in the textbooks. The total percentage of coverage overall (regarding the issues most vital to Iowa elementary music educators)

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37 was between four and twelve percent. Culton found a weak relationship (r = .126) between what teachers believe to be necessary and what is being provided in music series textbooks (Culton, 1999). Childrens songs, and indeed, no aspect of song content had a place in her study. Prior to Cultons study, related research on elementary music textbooks was performed by McClellan. In Music Teachers Opinions Regarding the Use and Effectiveness of Elementary Music Series Books in Missouri Public Schools McClellan (1996) examines recent textbook criticism, and the curricular move to abandon textbooks and adopt tenets of mastery learning and teaching strategies focused on individual student learning styles. Textbook inaccuracies, biases, and accusations of restricted learning opportunities head the list of criticisms in regards to textbooks. Among her results, McClellan reports that the majority of elementary music teachers who used series texts, indicated a desire to continue doing so. The teachers reported that over sixty percent of their lessons were from the textbooks, and ninety percent indicated that elimination of the books would cause an increase in lesson preparation time. Her results indicate that elementary music series textbooks are desirable to elementary music teachers primarily because they make lesson preparation less time-consuming. Two research studies led directly to the need for this current investigation. The main study which led to the need for this research was performed by Eve Harwood in 1987. Results by Harwood indicate that American children no longer share a common childrens folk song heritage. With important implications for and close relationship to the focus and goals of this research, Eve Harwood analyzed and examined American childrens entire memorized song repertoire.

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38 Harwood (1987) studied the memorized song repertoire of school children in Champaign, Illinois in order to examine the role of singing in a childs life. The children in her study sang the entire repertoire of songs they knew to the researcher. The average student knew ninety songs. American childrens folk songs composed the bulk of the repertory. Trailing in prominence were commercial songs and Christmas/Hanukah songs. The students reported that they learned songs primarily from their school music teachers, the radio and electronic media, and from other children. They reported a preference to learning songs by repeatedly listening to songs on the radio or cd/cassette tapes. Harwood concluded that todays school children do not share a common American childrens song heritage. Contemporary to Harwoods work was that of Trinka. Trinka (1987) studied the American childrens folk songs found in elementary music series textbooks. Understanding that the textbooks are most often the sole source of music and curriculum for teachers (Dominy, 1958, p.13), Trinkas study analyzes their American childrens folk song content. In The Performance Style of American Folksongs on School Music Series and Non-School Music Series Recordings: A Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors Trinka (1987) studied American childrens folk songs, performing a comparative analysis of the childrens folk songs in school music series textbooks and their accompanying recordings. Trinka examined songs from: The Music Book by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston (1981); Silver Burdett Music by Silver Burdett Company (1981); Silver Burdett Music: Centennial Edition by Silver Burdett Company (1985); and The Spectrum of Music With Related Arts by Macmillan (1983). She was able to identify both similarities

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39 and discrepancies in the interpretation of the folk song recordings. Appendix A (Trinka, 1987, p. 402) was a valuable data collection instrument for identifying the American folk songs in the school music series textbooks she was reviewing. Trinka identified American folk songs according to the following criteria: a. American folksong, traditional folksong, traditional, folk tune, early American song b. Afro-American folksong, Black American folksong c. Play party, play song, play party game d. Singing game, old singing game, traditional singing game, game song, old game song, folk game, game chant, rope-jumping song, traditional nonsense song e. Sub-types such as cowboy, sea chantey, ballad, work song, pioneer, frontier, railroad, mining, lumberjack f. Any combination of (a) or (b) above with types listed in c-e above (e.g., Afro-American play party song, American singing game, American folk game) g. Geographic region of the United Statesand/or statetogether with types listed in c-e above (e.g., Virginia game song, Oklahoma play party song, Southern folksong, New England sea chantey) h. SpiritualWhite, Black American, Afro-American i. Shaker hymn j. English, British, or British Isles folksongwhere the song was known by this researcher as a folksong sung in the United States (e.g., Sally Go Round the Sun, Santy Maloney) k. Songs attributed to such folksong singer/songwriters as Woody Guthrie, Bessie Jones, Leadbelly, Oscar Brand, and Ella Jenkins, which exist in variant forms in the United States (e.g., Oscar Brands When I First Came to This Land, Woody Guthries This Land is Your Land, Riding in My Car) Source: Trinka, J.L. (1987). The performance style of American folksongs on school music series and non-school music series recordings: a comparative analysis of

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40 selected factors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 1694, pp. 96-97. Trinkas results revealed that the Silver Burdett Music series contained more American childrens folksongs than the other series, and that the kindergarten textbooks contained more American childrens folk songs than any of the other grade levels. After an extensive overall examination of the school music series texts and recordings of American childrens folk songs, Trinka concluded that the American childrens folk songs included in school music series textbooks, as well as the accompanying recordings, are false and fake (p.390). She acknowledges poor representation of authentic performance style and interpretation. Trinka contends that music educators must address this problem (Trinka, 1987, pp. 397-400). The previous two studies laid the foundation for this present research. Their work and conclusions helped create the need for and focus of the present investigation. Additional critical analysis exists in the research of Zinar. Twelve years earlier, Zinar (1975) studied American general music textbooks published between 1939 and 1969. She reported that the majority of the textbooks contained stereotyping, tokenism, and misrepresentation and concluded that the folk music was often inadequately depicted (pp. 33-39). Nye and Nye (1977) rebut with examples which demonstrate that the music of most cultures is altered and influenced by music from other cultures, and almost always altered and changed when other cultures attempt to recreate it or teach it in their own environment. Nye (1975) proposes that through childrens folk songs young people learn who they are. She believes this to be a prerequisite to valuing oneself, and self-value to be a

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41 precursor to appreciating and valuing others. Nye suggests that children come to know themselves through the songs of their nation childrens folk music heritage. She believes its dynamics reach into the family, the school, town, nation, and ultimately encompass the way children grow to see relationships with others in the world. Nye finds the value of childrens folk songs to include many aspects of a childs socialization. Nye shows that through American childrens folk songs, our children find acceptance and self-worth, and are able to build positive sentiments toward others (Nye, 1975, pp. 6-7). With all of their failings, music series textbooks still chart the course and establish the destiny in regards to quality, curriculum, and repertoire in our classrooms. Trinka (1987) points out that throughout the past century, textbooks have dominated the quality and curriculum in education (Trinka, 1987, p. 18). Research by Talmadge and Eash (1979) indicate that not only do textbooks dominate curriculum, but that in a majority of classrooms, the textbook is the only curriculum used. The philosophy of education, the curriculum, and the instructional practices in a school district emanate from them [music series textbooks] (Talmadge & Eash, 1979, p. 164). Dominy (1958) found that music series textbooks directed and charted what happened in elementary music education throughout our nation. Elementary music textbooks provided the solitary source of material for the teacher, as well as the structure of the music education provided. Dominy believed that the music textbook determined the destiny of music education (Dominy, 1958, p.13). Bennett Reimer relates a degree of agreement, The modern textbook series, by the nature of the conditions which determine their existence, are probably the most vivid

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42 exemplifications of all that a field has become and is likely to be in the period of some two decades they span (Reimer, 1982, p.6). Related research on American folk songs in general music textbooks Hesser (1934) studied the folk songs in six music textbooks. His results revealed that of the total repertoire of 828 songs, 28.6% (237) were folk songs, and 1.2% (10) were American childrens folk songs. European folk songs comprised the vast majority of the folk songs. Knudson (1946) studied the folk songs found in school music textbooks published between 1914 and 1945. Her results revealed a total of 1,198 folk songs, and showed an increase in the number of American childrens folk songs between 1936 and 1945. Among her recommendations, Knudson appeals for more research to uncover folk songs which may be incorporated in school music textbooks. James (1976) researched the extent to which African-American folk songs were integrated into elementary music textbooks published between 1864 and 1970. James reviewed ninety-eight different school music textbook series and almost five hundred (499) elementary music textbooks. She found African-American folk songs in music textbooks throughout the twentieth century, with a dramatic increase in the number of African-American folk songs and music occurring around 1950. Moore (1977) analyzed the contents of American folk songs in elementary general music textbooks. Four elementary music textbook series published by the American Book Company and the Silver Burdett Company were used. Publications between 1928-1955 and 1965-1975 were considered, with all of the texts in grades one through six being studied. Moores study focused on African-American and Native American folk songs. Her results revealed that African-American and Native American folk songs

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43 represented a small ratio of the overall song repertoire of the series. She found an increase in the number of American childrens folk songs in the period 1965-1976. Among her recommendations Moore suggested that teachers invest time examining the American childrens folk song repertoire included in their respective music textbooks (Moore, 1977). Curry (1982) evaluated African-American folk songs in elementary music textbooks and concluded that they are not adequately represented. Kavanaugh (1982) analyzed seven hundred and twenty randomly selected songs from elementary music series textbooks published between circa 1945 and 1975. She concluded that a great deal of diversity existed in the goals of the objectives for singing. Evidently accomplishment of some of the stated goals for singing were not manifest in the lessons and songs related to them. Summary Elementary school music textbooks are the principal source of song repertoire and curriculum in elementary music classrooms. Criticism directed against the music textbooks underscore the value of the amount of American childrens folk songs, as well as the quality of those songs. In the classroom Research on the contents of elementary school music textbooks is much more prolific than research specifically on the American childrens folk songs found in those textbooks. Baird (2001) studied the role of music and singing in childrens lives. He found that singing and childrens folk songs were vital to a childs inner development of attitudes of social justice. His research revealed that in American pre-schools and elementary schools, the amount of time spent singing childrens songs is shrinking. He

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44 found that there has been a significant decline in the amount of singing children do in school today, when compared to previous decades. The findings indicated that consumerism as well as the general impact of the media has contributed to the decline of singing in schools. He also noted that movements to narrow school curriculum and high stakes tests which do not include music also contribute to the problem. The recommendations include increased use of childrens songs in the classroom to accomplish many purposes, among them was the goal of developing a law-abiding citizenry. Prickett and Bridges (2000) researched college students knowledge of twenty-five standard childrens folk songs. Their results revealed that the students do not have a shared repertoire and over half of the subjects could not identify a number of the songs which experts believe should be in the common repertory of all Americans. Their study contributed to the need for the present study. Regarding the value of increasing singing in schools, a treatise by Fetzer (1994) on the significance of childrens songs in elementary schools, found that schools which taught the childrens songs in question experienced a significant growth in confidence, competence, enthusiasm and involvement in reading. Providing a foundation for Fetzers study as well as providing both foundation and methods for this present study, Foy (1988) examined the 1913 Music Supervisors National Conference initiative, studying the history of the Community Song Movement, and determining its relevance to current society. Foys results provided a standardized list of two hundred twenty-seven songs which her study determined to be the most suitable for American school children. As a part of her study, she surveyed 1,308 music

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45 educators who ranked each song in regards to its importance in the curriculum in order to create the list. National interest in the Hungarian music education curriculum created by Zoltn Kodly provided foundational philosophy for Fetzers, Foys and this present study. Choksy (1981) notes that the Kodly philosophy of music education is built upon the foundational principle that indigenous folk songs are each childs mother-tongue (Choksy, 1981, p.11). According to Kodly, early music education should not only be built upon the folk songs of the nation, but it should consist of nothing else for at least the first four years of formal music education (Landis & Carder, 1972). Adapting the music education philosophy and methods of Zoltn Kodly to American childrens folk music was the subject of Schades (1976) research. Schade analyzed American childrens folk songs seeking to find adequate material for adapting the music education philosophy of Kodly to the American childrens folk song heritage. Schade studied and analyzed American childrens folk songs, defining their salient characteristics and determining the most logical sequence for teaching them. His research revealed chromaticism to be extremely rare in American childrens folk songs. He found intervals of seconds and thirds to be quite common, lending to the singability of the songs. Schades results revealed that the rhythm of childrens folk songs had been derived from the words, and their performance was most commonly unaccompanied (pp.99-106). Among his recommendations, Schade directs that as many American childrens folk songs as possible be taught in the elementary music classroom, ideally consuming the song repertoire of the elementary years of school (Schade, 1976, p.181).

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46 Buescher (1993) studied college and university community music programs for preschool children, finding no common curricular approach or song repertory could be identified, making it ripe for the incorporation of Kodly principles. Understanding the importance of each childs mother-tongue and attesting to the fact that a persons childrens song repertoire is of vital significance is visible in the research of Stafford. Stafford (1987) studied the importance of singing in elementary school music classes with reference to music teachers currently in the field, elementary music education majors, and college elementary music education professors. He found a teachers ability to demonstrate acquaintance with the appropriate song repertoire to be one of the top three competencies teachers must have in order to excel in the elementary music classroom. Even earlier research with the Kodly method was conducted by Nelson (1981). Nelsons work is built upon the value and immense benefits resulting from the integration of American childrens folk songs and the Kodly method of Music Education. Her research attempts to infuse African-American folk songs with the Kodly method, hoping that the cultural values and benefits would transfer. Results of her study revealed Black American folk songs to be too melodically and rhythmically complex for use and study by very young children (over 72% of the songs included complex rhythms). In her conclusions and recommendations, Nelson reported that the Kodly method would not accommodate Black American folk music, recommending that a new method be created which would accommodate the childrens folk songs of Black Americans, but reaffirming the vital nature of childrens folk songs to our nations youth.

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47 Hill (1974) states that childrens folk songs are one of the most foundational sources of material suitable for education. Hill finds childrens folk songs to express the soul of a society, and exceptionally fitted for promoting understanding and appreciation for ones culture (p. 6). Hill saw our nations childrens folk songs as providing the framework and necessary support system upon which everything else could be solidly placed. Curry (1982) agreed, and states that childrens folk songs provide a candid view of society which by its nature contributes to that persons understanding and sympathetic response toward the culture. These qualities work together to give children acceptable and supportive reasons to respect their customs and culture (p.18). Curry finds childrens folk songs to be vital to the music education and general education of our nation. Regarding the all-encompassing nature of childrens folk songs, Nettl (1964) finds them to be universal. He suggests that the study of the role of songs and singing in a culture to be the most vital duty of musicologists and music educators (p.224). He considers it not only worthy of their time and energy but their obligation to society as well. In addition to childrens folk songs innate value and the compelling need for their study, Blyler (1957) researched childrens folk song preference. Blyler studied the songs that over nine thousand American children both liked and disliked to sing. She researched the repertoire of two popular song textbooks: New Music Horizons and The American Singer Blyler discussed the proposition that children are automatically and irresistibly attracted to American childrens folk music. Her data revealed that song preference changed by age and maturity, and could be distinctly categorized by grade.

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48 Primary age children predominantly chose lullabies, songs about birds and animals, and those including imaginary situations and creatures. Fourth grade students preferred patriotic songs, cowboy songs, and nonsense songs. Fifth grade students appreciated texts with more subtle humor than the fourth grade material and enjoyed service songs in addition to patriotic and cowboy songs. Religious songs and topics of love, land, and romance were favorites of sixth graders. Religious songs were among the favorites of every grade, as was jazz. Overall, Blylers research reveals that children prefer songs which are musically expressive, with interesting melodies, more dynamic variation, and varied harmonic progressions. More than twenty years later, McCachern (1980) studied childrens song preferences, isolating musical and textual elements of significance. McCachern found that the American childrens folk songs which are widely preferred across the nation could not have been assigned such value simply from song origin, form, tempo, length, range, meter, or key. That while second grade students preferred transportation songs, as well as work and religious songs, and that all students preferred songs in English, no significant preferential trends outweighed others as the underlying factors for songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Summary. American childrens folk songs have had a place in our nations schools throughout our history. Children are automatically and irresistibly attracted to them. They are the framework and support system upon which a child may more solidly secure his/her inner development of attitudes of social justice, respect for customs and culture, confidence, and competence. Even though less time is devoted to singing, studies continue to point to the value of our childrens folk songs.

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49 The Value of Songs of Heritage The most recent research regarding songs of the American heritage, and a study which was used in the development of this current research methodology and design was Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs That Most People Know and Should Know by Kenneth McGuire (2000). Previous research focused on identifying songs which accurately represent the folk heritage of specific geographical regions of America. McGuire (2000) sought to catalog folk songs common to several of those regions. Additionally, McGuires aim was to research what it means to know a song. He examined the epistemology of various characterizations seeking to determine a more concrete concept. McGuire found that experts appear to support the teaching of standard childrens folk songs a great deal more than the collections of new songs created by people who are trying to change the songs common to American children. McGuires (2000) results revealed that 38% of the songs included in Get America Singing Again, MENC: The National Association for Music Educations list of songs every American should know, were not found in previous studies or historical community songbooks, leading McGuire to question their inclusion in a national list. The most recent research on the importance of songs of heritage was performed by Ling-Yu Lee. In a new study, Lee (2002) created a program that fostered pre-school childrens knowledge of cultures, using a curriculum based on music. She used Chinese and English songs and studied the childrens social and cultural awareness throughout the study. Ling-Yu Lee found that the music was able to foster a greater cultural awareness, create cultural identities in the students, as well as improved language abilities. The

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50 results of her research revealed that music and song played an important part in linking both parents and children with culture. Linking people to their culture and heritage was also a finding of a study done by Dexter. Dexter (2001) studied the impact of songs and singing upon the culture and identities of Black Pentecostals in Chicago. She found that moving to the urban environment altered many peoples culture and sense of identity. Worship was the primary occasion for the singing, but the choice of songs differed greatly between denominations and impacted the culture of the group, drawing them together and creating a unique cultural group identity. The impact of their songs turned out to have tremendous effect upon their culture and their ability to maintain a sense of heritage. In addition to linking people to their culture and enabling them to maintain a sense of heritage, a contemporary study by Dimitrievski shows that the contributions of folk songs to society are almost too numerous and invaluable to delineate. Dimitrievski (2001) researched the importance of Macedonian folk songs. Her results revealed that folk songs are used to provide an informal education to the masses and are of such benefit that their value is priceless. Dimitrievskis results showed significance in the use of folk songs in Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania to impart cultural and historical events, facts, and information. Her findings revealed the central role which folk songs occupy in teaching culture, language, identity, and history to Macedonian people. More importantly, Dimitrievskis study shows that songs have been transmitting culture and heritage, history, language, and identity for many generations, and that it continues to work today.

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51 In addition to Dimitrievskis research, Sparling found that the same, even more magnified results occurred in cultures with high rates of illiteracy. Sparling (2000) studied the Gaelic folk songs of Puirt-a-beul, Nova Scotia. Her ethnographic study revealed that folk songs occupy an even more vital role in conveying knowledge, history, culture, identity, and values in somewhat illiterate cultures. Here the Scottish Gaelic heritage is preserved and lives are much more reliant upon folk song than in more literate communities. The role of the folk songs becomes more vital and valuable, as it provides a memorable format for conveying facts and information of great importance to the people and community. Concurrent with Sparlings research, and providing another avenue with which to reach the same conclusions, is the work of Estell. Like Sparling, Estell (2000) studied the value of the folk songs of a fairly illiterate society. But Estells study differed by centuries in time. Estell (2000) studied the role of songs and war in ancient Greece. Passages in the Iliad by Homer explore his familiarity with songs of war in classical Greece. Examination shows that particular folk songs on war themes and recounting victories (and defeats) were common, and were used as mental and emotional preparation for war, and were combined with dance and artistic voicing. These songs were an integral part of general life, as well as in ceremonies, including ceremonies of initiation. The folk songs were used by the common man as a memory aid and a way of preserving and passing on important events, information, knowledge of attitudes and culture, and societal history. Estell uncovers songs of war in the writings of many poets, including: Sparta, Tyrtaeus, Alcman, Lesbos, Alcaeus, and Sappho.

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52 When combined with the previous studies, Estells research shows that folk songs are being and have been used both across the worlds disparate cultures, societies, and nations, as well as throughout the course of human history; and that these folk songs have been and are providing a vital link between the past and the present, imparting multivariate benefits to mankind. Understanding of the vital nature of folk songs is well-known to Estonians. Research by Pierson (1998) reveals that a small country nestled between Russia, Finland, and Latvia has made a national tradition of honoring and transmitting its folk songs. Pierson (1998) studied the importance of folk songs to the heritage and culture in Estonia. He found that folk songs occupy a crucial role in Estonians identity, traditions, customs, and values. Piersons objective was to gain understanding into the significance of the songs. Through interviewing twenty-four subjects, he learned that specific songs sustained, comforted, encouraged, inspired, motivated, and strengthened the nation during periods of oppression and suffering. Interestingly, the goal of the Estonian folk song movement was to reinforce their heritage and distance the people from their Communist oppressors. Wilcox (1998) researched the folk songs of the Estonians Communist oppressors and found that they contained a wealth of culture, traditions, and values of their own. Wilcox (1998) analyzed and examined the significance and merit of Russian folk songs, discovering a rich musical heritage upon which Russian culture and character are built. Tracing the history of Russian sacred music to 988 A.D., Wilcox highlights folk songs including childrens and young adults ritual songs, detailing their value and worth to the Russian way of life.

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53 Research on the value of folk songs continues with a historical study by Sloan into Tudor England. Sloan (1996) studied the use of songs and singing and its effects upon social order in sixteenth century England. Sloans study revealed that political reformers were able to use songs to change the political and social atmosphere and culture of England. Under the absolute monarchies of Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I, between two and four million people (there were two million people in England in 1520, and four million in 1600) experienced dramatic life, political, and social/cultural changes through the awesome power of song. According to Sloans research, certain songs were sung with the intent of purging specific people of self-interest. Other songs were used to teach people to desire good for others through the delight which resulted from performance of the song. Sloan is able to show that the intended results were not always achieved, but nevertheless, the value of song to the lives of millions of people in sixteenth century England was unmistakable, and monumental. Sloans work echoes that of George Puttenham, whose treatise The Arte of Poesie (Puttenham, 1589) present an integration of values and poetry, which together create stirring songs that shape the culture and values of the people in Tudor, England. In America, research along these lines has come to similar conclusions. A study of childrens folk songs which took place in the United States (Sorensen, 1991), but which was concerned only with recent immigrants from Asia and the Pacific Islands found, in agreement with Sloans conclusions, the value of the folk songs to be both unmistakable and monumental. In Asian-Pacific Islander Perceptions of Childhoods Musical Heritage, Sorensen (1991) transcribed 230 childrens folk songs of Asian and Pacific Island immigrants and refugees in Utah. She compiled the childrens folk songs and

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54 indicated the necessity of their role in preserving the musical heritage of the people. Valuable insight was gleaned by Sorensen in determining the immense amount of information transmitted through the childrens folk songs. Sorensens conclusions echo and add emphasis to those of an earlier study. Aduonum (1980) also found that childrens folk songs transmit an immense amount of vital information, considered in Africa as a necessary foundation for formal education. Aduonums (1980) research details the importance of childrens folk songs as a major component in the training of children in Africa (p.vii). In the African culture, childrens folk songs perform a vital role in each childs upbringing. The childrens folk song reveals African societal expectations, as well as the function and reason for specific events. Mastery and acquaintance with African childrens folk songs are considered basic knowledge, and a prerequisite to formal education (entering school). Aduonums research reveals that the nature and value of specific African childrens folk songs in Ghana, mmoguo, better develop each childs understanding of the cultural values of his people, and their society at large. Specifically, the childrens folk songs teach children everything from why the sky is far above our heads, to why they should obey parents and authority figures. The Importance of Songs and Singing in American History and Culture Deakins (1999) treatise on Appalachian music was a study of one hundred and fifty Appalachian melodies. Deakin studied the importance of the songs and singing in transmitting the history, as well as the cultural and musical heritage of the Appalachian people to the community at large, but more specifically to Appalachian school children and adults. Deakin noted the critical value of the songs as a vehicle for transmitting history, culture, and musical heritage.

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55 Soto (1995) analyzed teaching strategies and elementary music education in Laredo, Texas. His research noted the importance and vital nature of childrens folk songs, and his recommendations included programming bi-cultural childrens folk song material into the classroom curricula. It was noted that the songs increased students understanding of the cultures aesthetic values and were connected to the way the people of the highly Hispanic culture both think and act. Sotos research highlights the contribution and merit of childrens folk songs to the community. While Soto studied the contribution of childrens folk songs to the cultures aesthetic values, Ashmore (1995) studied American contributions to childrens voice training. Ashmore concluded that childrens songs were necessary for fostering a childs enjoyment of singing and developing a worthwhile repertoire. She considered a worthwhile repertoire to contain many childrens folk songs. At the same time, Greene (1995) studied how songs can be used to help people create a sense of identity. In connection with Sotos results, which revealed a connection between songs and a cultures aesthetic values, and Ashmores results, which point to the necessity of a good repertoire of songs, Greene showed how song could be used to create identity. Greene analyzed the effect of song upon black womens sense of identity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Greene found that Aretha Franklins songs provided strength, values, identity, culture, and an ability to mold the self, creating new avenues for socially accepted behavior among black women in America in the late 1960s and 1970s. Creating a foundation for Ashmores study, Schoning (1993) studied the role of singing in music education and created connections between that and childrens voice training. Schoning found that insufficient singing experiences and unstructured singing

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56 has led to low ability in American students singing skills. She calls for increased attention to childrens folk song repertoire, as well as improved teaching methods, and higher standards for the quality of singing taking place across America. She echoes the indispensable nature of singing and the value of a good childrens folk song repertoire. Research by Hildebrand reinforces the requisite nature of singing and childrens folk songs heralded by Schoning, Soto, and Deakin. Hildebrand (1992) studied music and song in colonial America (1649-1776). He found that music education was not limited to, or even focused toward the young. Colonial Americans in most every element of society, class, and occupation were involved in learning and experiencing music. The role American folk songs played was a vital one, permeating through the culture of the town and its people. Childrens folk songs were a vital part of childhood. Singing folk songs was an integral part of early Americans lives. MENC: The National Association for Music Education has also played an important role in promoting singing folk songs, childrens folk songs, and quality music in the general music classroom of schools throughout our nation. Studying MENC work toward that end, Sanders (1990) researched the role radio played in achieving the educational goals of promoting quality music education across the nation. This MENC initiative targeted rural schools and broadcast two types of music: elementary classroom music, mainly consisting of American childrens folk songs; and classical music. The radio program reached children across the nation and championed the merit of both classical music and songs of the American childrens folk heritage. By helping spread songs of the American childrens folk heritage, MENC has championed the cause of

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57 these songs and contributed their support and recognition of the importance of songs of the American childrens folk heritage to the students and people of our nation. Prior to MENCs initiative, Van Den Honert (1985) studied the importance of folk songs in the New England states. Van Den Honert chose that area of America as a focus because he considered the New England region to contain a cultural make-up which nurtures the creation and cultivation of American folk songs (p.iii). Van Den Honerts study revealed the complex and vital, continuing, integral nature of folk songs to people in the New England region. Van Den Honerts study was able to generalize his research to show that the value and importance of folk songs applied to people of every region of our nation. Related Research on American Folk Songs Preparation for this undertaking included an investigation into American folk song. There was no single, concise collection or history of American folk songs. Rather, information was amassed from a number of sources, including previous scholarly research. Seeger (2001) points out the evolution of thinking which has taken place in America in regards to its own cultural heritage. Contemporary thought had once held that there was no American cultural heritage, no American folk songs, only the heritage of the ancestry from which Americans came. She shows how this premise has been completely debunked, yet hints of it still persist. Ruth Crawford Seeger was instrumental in bringing national attention to American childrens folk songs and shining light on the American childrens folk song heritage.

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58 Vangsness (1997) performed an in-depth analysis of the term American folk song. Among his conclusions and final remarks was the insight that folk songs have had and continue to have sweeping influence and impact upon our nation. This sweeping influence and impact was evidenced in rural American working-class folk songs (Fox, 1995). Foxs research led to numerous significant observations and conclusions regarding American folk songs. He studied song usage in American rural working-class culture and found song to be a nexus in the culture and sociability of rural, working-class people in Texas and Illinois. He concluded that folk songs were emblematic of the rich inner qualities of the people. Fox reports that in rural, working-class American culture, songs impact the socialization of children, speech, ideas of self, gender relations, memory, perceptions of feeling and empathy, as well as humor. Songs reflect and reproduce class-specific values concerning the nature of the person and the community, the centrality of musical and aesthetic practices to sociality, and the cultivation of a sense of sacred and communal feeling (p. vi). Songs are necessary agents which help people construct a sense of community and identity in free societies. Fox found that songs occupied a position of great importance and value in American life, culture, and society. Analyzing specific American folk songs led ONeill to some different, yet complementary conclusions. ONeill (1993) studied American folk songs, analyzing and classifying them by harmonic progressions. He discovered a significant degree of cohesion, which he exposed at a structural level. This cohesion extended beyond the harmony to include a cohesive effect on Americans, including performance and

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59 performers. ONeill concluded that a symbiotic relationship existed between the elements of American folk songs and the American people. ONeills research was a focused analysis. Cohens (1971) work is even more focused as it is limited to a specific folk song composer. Cohen (1971) studied American folk song through the works of Woody Guthrie. This treatise provides information regarding: the state of the nation, values of the stock market before and after the crash, prices for common necessities, information on unemployment, and the human suffering and misery experienced during different periods in our nations history. The effect of these factors upon American folk song was found to be significant in Cohens research. He believed that the aforementioned events and conditions influenced American folk songs through the writers and the texts which they created. Connecting the results of Cohens American folk song research to that of the other contributors would lead to the conclusion that a symbiotic relationship exists between life events, the song writer, the performer, and the audience, which is an expansion of Cohens conclusions. It would be natural to observe that this symbiotic relationship is in a constant state of flux or evolution, which was the focus and point of Scotts (1967) research. Scott (1967) provided a framework for the evolution of American folk song in The Ballad of America. The book was divided into sections arranged by historical era: the colonial period, the revolution, early in our nation, Jacksonian America, Civil War, between the Civil War and WWI, between WWI and WWII, beyond the second world war. Historical background was provided for the songs.

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60 Scott was able to utilize foundational work provided by Bruno Nettls (1965) Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents Nettls treatise was valuable toward refining terms, categorizing, and differentiating between folk and primitive songs. Even earlier research by Bluestein contributed to the critical framework upon which Nettl and Scott built. Bluesteins (1960) research entitled The Background and Sources of an American Folksong Tradition proved to be of great value for providing a critical approach to understanding and analyzing the American folk song. Only a year before, Wilgus (1959) had published his treatise, Anglo-American Folksong Scholarship Since 1898 An invaluable source for this current study, the work by Wilgus (1959) is very informative and fairly comprehensive. The bibliography proved to be an extraordinary tool in locating resources, and the text was insightful and thorough. Wilgus work was foundational to research in songs of the American childrens folk heritage, but even more foundational was that of Ruth Crawford Seeger. Seeger (1948) created American Folk Songs for Children in which hundreds of American childrens folk songs may be found. She recorded and transcribed countless American childrens folk songs over the course of many years, making early research into American childrens folk songs her lifes work. The songs she was able to collect and transcribe extended across the nation. In American Folk Songs for Children, Seeger expounds upon the value and vital nature of our national childrens folk songs, stating It belongs to our childrenit is an integral part of their cultural heritage (p. 21). It is within the singing capacity of practically everyoneeven small childrenyet it is good music (p.24). It is not just childrens musicit is family music (p. 24). We have said that this music belongs to our children. Perhaps it is even more important to say that

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61 it belongs to them as adults (p. 24). Songs like these are sung by all ages. They are family stuff (p. 24). All of these songs have been a part of the making of America (p.21). Ruth Crawford Seeger contends that our children have a right to be brought up with these songs, that to deprive them of that is to deprive them of their heritage and inheritance. Prior to Seegers work, specifically focused on American childrens folk songs, the main contributions to accessibility of research in the field of American folk song has been made by John and Alan Lomax. Lomax and Lomax (1941), compilers and collectors of folk songs, have invested their careers in the study of American folk song. Our Singing Country: A Second Volume of American Ballads and Folk Songs is a monumental work which represents religious songs, social songs, work songs, outlaw songs, hollers and blues, and African American songs. Alan Lomax was in charge of the Archive of American Folk Song as a librarian in the Library of Congress and John Lomax was the honorary consultant and curator of the Archive of American Folk Song in the Library of Congress during the time of this publication. This accounts for the comprehensive nature of the contents of Our Singing Country. Summary of Literature Reviewed The absolute essential nature of American childrens folk songs to American children both today and throughout our history was established by experts and researchers. The degree of the presence of those songs in general music series textbooks has been recorded, evaluated, and petitioned. It is universally accepted that children need to know the songs of their nations childrens folk heritage.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Description of Research Methodology This is a quantitative study with a descriptive design which establishes associations between specific childrens songs of the American heritage and the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching them. It consisted of three phases. The first phase involved selecting the song list which would be foundational to the study. Music textbooks and song books from the 1700s to 1950 were used to create an initial song list. Two hundred twenty-three people over the age of 62 who had grown up in America and represented 44 states were consulted to transform that list into one which truly consisted of songs of the American childrens folk heritage. They selected only the songs they had learned as children in America, indicating which songs from the list they had learned, as well as naming songs not found in the initial list. The elder study resulted in the creation of a list of songs which represent the American childrens folk heritage. The resulting 250+ song list created by the elder study was used to create a pilot study. Participants in the pilot study requested that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The supervisory chair to the doctoral committee agreed that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The second phase was an empirical study which involved condensing the list created by the elder study (250+ songs) into a representative one hundred songs. Thirty elementary music specialists at the top ranked universities in the nation (according to the U.S. News and World Report, 2002 College Rankings) rated the songs. They ranked 62

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63 them according to their suitability for placement in a representative list of songs of the American childrens folk heritage. The third phase consisted of a national song assessment which was used to achieve the purpose of this study, determining the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught by general music teachers throughout the United States. Four thousand general music teachers, eighty in each of the fifty states, were asked to assess the extent to which their students could sing each of the one hundred songs of the American childrens folk heritage from memory. Three factors point to the use of this methodology for the purposes of this study. 1. Early research in most every scientific field is quantitative and descriptive. 2. Descriptive research is able to facilitate prediction. It is ideal for this current research study, and will enable conclusions and recommendations in the field because past behavior is a good predictor of future behavior. 3. Descriptive research is able to facilitate explanation, because once one knows what happens, specific research may be directed to why it happens. It is understood, through study of scientifically valid research methods, that an accurate estimate of the relationship between variables in a descriptive study requires a sample of hundreds or even thousands of subjects (as opposed to that of an experimental study) in order to be valid. It is also understood that in order to guarantee that the estimate of the relationship between the variables in question contains a high degree of reliability (is less likely to be biased), the participation rate needs to be high, and the sample selection must be done with care (Phelps, Ferrara & Goolsby, 1993).

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64 Research Design Research Assimilated Into the Study Rationale for memorization requirement. The most recent research regarding songs of the American heritage, and a study which was used in the development of this current research methodology and design was Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs That Most People Know and Should Know by Kenneth McGuire (2000). Previous research had focused on identifying songs which accurately represent the folk heritage of specific geographical regions of America. McGuire (2000) sought to catalog folk songs common to several of those regions. Additionally, McGuires aim was to research what it means to know a song. He examined the epistemology of various definitions seeking to determine a more concrete characterization of what it means to know a song. His work was utilized in order to create a clarified measurement instrument able to gauge the extent to which general music teachers could measure the degree to which their students knew the specific childrens folk songs in the study. He concluded that memorization was the most concrete and uniformly measurable method by which diverse populations could precisely discuss the extent of a group or persons knowledge of particular songs. For this reason, this study examined each song by the extent to which the students in question could sing it from memory. In addition, Trinka (1987) studied the American childrens folk songs found in school music series textbooks. Trinkas research was built upon the foundational understanding that the contents of textbooks determined the music curriculum of the nations classrooms. Her research led to the demographic request for the name of the music textbook series used by each general music teacher who participated in the study.

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65 Through Trinkas insight, an analysis of variance was run which compared the extent to which students could sing each of the American childrens folk songs in the study by memory to the music textbook series used by the teacher. Initial Song Lists Considered But Not Used 1. The 88 Songs Every American Should Know, put out by MENC in Get America Singing Again (Seeger, 1996; Seeger, 2000) was not used. This current research study was not able to use the MENC list because it did not meet parameters of the current study. It was created by a committee who chose according to consensus of preference, and it included songs outside the American childrens folk heritage parameters ( http://www.menc.org/information/prek12/again.html accessed March 21, 2003). Research by McGuire (2000) revealed that 38% of the songs included in Get America Singing Again were not found in previous studies or historical community songbooks, factors, which McGuire concluded, made their inclusion in a national list suspect and questionable. The 88 Songs Every American Should Know may be found in Appendix A. 2. Fifty Songs Every Child Should Know by Lisa Kleinman was not used. This song list is endorsed by Disney and published on their website as the official list of songs every child should know. Although it is quite good, it was not created through scientifically valid research methods (Kleinman, http://familyfun.go.com/entertain/music/feature/dony108songs/dony108songs2.html accessed March 21, 2003). The Fifty Songs Every Child Should Know may be found in Appendix B.

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66 Song Lists Which Were Used Two dissertations, which each created song lists for American children contributed to the initial list. Initial song lists were created as a composite in order to provide the best possible and most scientifically valid design. Foy (1988) created a song list of seventy-four songs which she determined should be taught to children before they reach sixth grade. All seventy-four of the songs were included in the preliminary list for this study. Foys list appears in Table 2. The initial song list for this research study may be found in Appendix C. The Foy list was not used exclusively because Foy chose her songs based on a survey of teacher preference. While teacher preference is important and significant, this studys target was songs of the American childrens folk heritage, not the preferred songs of American music teachers. Foys list was good, but not appropriate for exclusive use in this study. Willis (1980) created a song list of 129 British-American folk songs which she determined that all American children should know. The songs chosen by Willis were not solely of British origin, as her title implied. Rather, the list is replete with American childrens folk songs. In light of information regarding early American childrens folk songs, this song list was suitable to the present study (research and historical accounts reveal an early American preponderance for English folk songssee Review of the Literature). Willis song list was included in the initial song list of this research study. Willis song list is presented in Table 3.

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67 Table 2. Foy song list Abide With Me All Through the Night America America, The Beautiful Are You Sleeping? Auld Lang Syne Battle Hymn of the Republic Bear Went Over the Mountain Billy Boy Blow The Man Down Blue-Tail Fly Caissons Go Rolling Along Camptown Races Clap Your Hands Come Ye Thankful People Deck the Hall Dixie Do Re Mi Down in the Valley Erie Canal First Noel, The For Hes A Jolly Good Fellow Frre Jacques Go, Tell it on the Mountain God Bless America Good King Wenceslas Good Night, Ladies Greensleeves Hark! The Herald Angels Sing Here We Come AWassailing Home on the Range I Whistle A Happy Tune Ive Been Working on the Railroad Jingle Bells Joy to the World Lil Liza Jane Marching to Praetoria Marine Hymn Michael, Row the Boat Ashore Mister Frog Went A Courtin My Bonnie O Come All Ye Faithful Oh Come, Little Children Oh What a Beautiful Morning Oh! Susanna Old Joe Clark On Top of Old Smokey Over the River Polly Wolly Doodle Red River Valley Rock-a-by Baby Row Your Boat Scotlands Burning Shell Be Coming Round the Mountain Shenandoah Shoo Fly Shortnin Bread Silent Night Skip to my Lou Sourwood Mountain Star-Spangled Banner Swing Low, Sweet Chariot Take Me Out to the Ballgame Taps This is My Country This Land is Your Land This Train Three Blind Mice Twelve Days of Christmas We Gather Together We Three Kings We Wish You a Merry Christmas When Johnny Comes Marching Home White Christmas Yankee Doodle Source: Foy, P.S. (1988). The creation of a standardized body of song suitable for American school children: a history of the community song movement and suggested entries for a contemporary songlist. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 00213, pp. 108-126.

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68 Table 3. Willis song list Deep River Lord Lovel American Folk Songs Didnt My Lord Deliver Lord Randal Bingo Daniel Lord Thomas Black is the Color Every Time I Feel the Riddle Song Blue-Tail Fly Spirit The Three Ravens Clap Your Hands Get On Board Young Beichan Clementine Go Down, Moses Darling Corey Greenfields Seasonal Songs Down in the Valley Hes Got the Whole Christ Was Born Erie Canal World in His Hands Cherry-Tree Carol Every Night How Firm a Foundation Go Tell it On the Foggy Dew Jacobs Ladder Mountain Frankie and Johnnie Joshua Fit de Battle Joseph Dearest Hush Little Baby Let Us Break Bread Mary Had A Baby Im Sad and Im Lonely Little David Rise Up Shepherd Johnny Has Gone Little Wheel Little Ducks Lonesome Valley Singing Games and Nonsense Songs Little Liza Jane Mary Wore Three Links Lonesome Road Michael, Row the A Hot Time Old Colony Times Boat Ashore Eency Weency Spider Old Dan Tucker My Lord, What a Farmer in the Dell Old Joe Clark Morning Frog Went A-Courting Old MacDonald Noahs Ark Hey! Betty Martin On Top of Old Smokey Nobody Knows the If Youre Happy Paper of Pins Trouble Ive Seen London Bridge Pick a Bale of Cotton Oh! What a Beautiful Looby Loo Polly Wolly Doodle City Love Somebody Pretty Saro One More River Old Brass Wagon Springfield Mountain Rock-A My Soul Old Gray Goose Skin and Bones Roll, Jordan, Roll Paw Paw Patch When Johnny Comes Shaker Hymn Pop! Goes the Weasel Marching Home Sit Down, Sister Shoo Fly Willie the Weeper Sometimes I Feel Like Skip to My Lou Yankee Doodle A Motherless Child This Old Man Steal Away Three Blind Mice Ballads Swing Low, Sweet Barbara Allen Chariot Spirituals Billy Boy Wayfaring Stranger All Gods Chillun Coasts of High Barbary Where You There? All Night, All Day Edward When the Saints Go Amazing Grace The Golden Vanity Marching In Balm in Gilead Gypsie Laddie Wondrous Love Bound for the Promised Henry Martyn Land House Carpenter Bye m Bye Lady Isabel

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69 Cowboy Songs Git Along, Little Doggies Goodbye, Old Paint Home on the Range Jesse James Old Chisholm Trail Ole Texas Red River Valley Streets of Laredo Sweet Betsy from Pike Railroad Songs Ive Been Working on the Railroad John Henry New River Train Paddy Works Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain Take This Hammer Worried Mans Blues Table 3. Continued Shanties Blow the Man Down Drunken Sailor Go Way from My Window Lowlands Rio Grande Shenandoah Source: Willis, C.J. (1985). Recommended British-American folk songs for use in elementary school music. (Masters thesis, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, 1985). Masters Abstracts International, 24 0093, pp. 54-58.

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70 Table 4. Willis source books Author Title Bronson The Singing Tradition of Child Ballads Barlow Foundations of Music Boni Fireside Book of Folk Songs Boni Favorite American Songs Dallin Heritage Songster Johnston Folk Songs North America Sings Lomax Folk Songs of North America Macmillan Spectrum of Music Nick Materials for Music Fundamentals Sandburg The American Songbag Silver Burdett Music Silver Burdett Centennial Songbook Seeger American Folk Songs for Children Sharp English Folk Songs From Southern Appalachians Siegmeister Harmony and Melody Swanson Music Fundamentals Source: Willis, C.J. (1985). Recommended British-American folk songs for use in elementary school music. (Masters thesis, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, 1985). Masters Abstracts International, 24 0093, p. 59).

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71 Willis song list was taken from sixteen books. The books were reviewed for their usefulness to this study, and many were used in this research. Her source books are listed in Table 4. The source books for this study are located in Appendix J and in the bibliography. Nevertheless, the Willis list was not used exclusively because her research emphasis was on British-American songs. While many of her songs have no British connection at all, and are wholly American (e.g., Goodbye, Old Paint, and Streets of Laredo, etc.), and the songbooks she chose her songs from consist of a number of high quality American sources (e.g., Lomax Folk Songs of North America 1960; and Seeger American Folk Songs for Children 1948) --sources which this research study also employed, her focus was different. While Willis song list was valuable and significant, this studys target was songs of the American childrens folk heritage, not songs of British-American heritage. Truly, the American heritage includes a predominantly British colonial origin, but differences do exist. Willis list was good, but not appropriate for exclusive use in this study. Methodology of Song List Creation and Elder Study Song lists from the dissertations by Willis and Foy were combined. The songs from those lists may be found in Tables 1 and 2. General music textbooks published in the United States between the 1700s and 1950 were acquired. The list of music series textbooks and childrens and folk song collections which contributed to the initial song list may be found in Appendix J. Songs appearing in at least three of the books were added to the initial song list. The initial song list is located in Appendix C. It is presented in two parts, because of the length of the list.

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72 Philosophical foundation for elder and music specialist contributions to the study. Seeger (1991) states, History is the subjective understanding of the past from the perspective of the present (p. 23). Even with the tremendous gains of studying history and culture through music, students must keep in mind that their contemporary life will influence their judgments upon the events, values, culture, and music of the past. Great care was used in dealing with the songs chosen to represent the American heritage, in the wording of the survey instruments, and in refining the list for the survey of general music teachers across the nation. The precautions taken were deemed necessary in order to avoid researcher bias, or other misrepresentation of the songs representative of the American heritage, worldviews of a different historical period, different societal expectations and cultural boundaries that differ from present ones. Barrett, McCoy and Veblen (1997) warn that far too frequently in our present society and culture, writers and leaders superimpose their contemporary thoughts, values, and current politically vogue perspectives upon the lives, events, and traditions of the past, something historians refer to as present-mindedness (Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997, p. 139). They continue with caution against such value judgments. In light of this caution and insight, value judgments and song censorship was not conducted by the researcher in this study. Song texts which may be an affront to people of this present generation, may not have been offensive at all in a different setting, culture, and society. Words which may disparage a persons gender or ethnicity in our present societal climate did not necessarily insult people from a different time or place, and not because they were less enlightened than we (Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997).

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73 Philosophical foundation for song list methodology. The reason that this researcher did not simply choose songs which had been found in at least three different school songbooks from the pre-1950 period, and then randomly select songs from that list for inclusion in the general music teacher survey was to overcome publisher bias. A survey of elderly people who grew up in America was necessary to derive a truer collection of songs. The most familiar songs from times past, or books, textbooks, and writings, reveal only a piece of the puzzle. Sometimes a group of works attains a privileged status as the canon of repertoire, music that reflects the beliefs, values, and identities of the historians, musicologists, publishers, educators, or editors who have traditionally held the power to select knowledge and sanction it as the correct version, interpretation, or an official topic for study (Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997, p. 148). Publishers, historians, and writers select and choose songs that fit their purposes, needs, values, and predispositions. Songs may also be unintentionally mislaid or forgotten. This research study utilized great caution in choosing songs, fully acquainted with the fact that what was excluded was just as important as what was included. For these reasons, the elder study was deemed necessary as well as contacting elementary music specialists, and enabling them to narrow the song list. In this way, the choice of examples was selected and refined with great of care so as to identify, represent, refine, study, and report upon our American childrens song heritage with the most accuracy and validity possible. Song List Creation by Elderly Selection of subjects. In order to determine which songs were truly songs of the American childrens folk heritage, assistance from Americans over the age of 62 was solicited. A stratified and random sample of Americans over the age of 62 was necessary

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74 in this research in order to verify and authenticate the song list. For this study, it is important that the songs chosen truly represent the American childrens folk heritage. People who had grown up in the United States were eligible for the study. No particular group comprised the representative sample. A wide range of ages, 62-98, was represented. Two hundred twenty-three elderly people participated. Forty-four of the fifty states were represented. Between four and six people from each of these states provided input as to the songs they were taught as children in the United States. Table 5 lists the states that were included. Table 5. States represented by elder study Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming The researcher delivered the elder study to people over 62 in her state and area, but the vast majority of work was done by Dr. Maybelle Hollingshead and her assistants. A tally of participants from each state in the nation was created as people over 62 were selected for the study. This list enabled the researcher to gain information and input regarding the songs taught from people who grew up in a majority of states in the nation,

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75 and refrain from overand under-representation of any of the states available. A tally of men to women was kept as people became available to assist in the study, and it enabled the researcher to maintain appropriate proportions between research subjects and that of the nations actual make-up. (51% women, 49% menin accordance with 2001 census information by the U.S. Census Bureau: http://eire.census.gov/popest/archives/national/nation3.php accessed March 21, 2003). Figure 1 shows the actual numbers and proportions of participants in the elder study. 51% 49% women 114 men 109 Figure 1. Gender of subjects in elder study No other information was requested from the people over 62 who participated in helping create an accurate song list representative of the American childrens folk heritage. Both time and monetary restraints prohibited the researcher or her assistants from traveling to and/or mailing assessment instruments to people over 62 in the remaining six states. The goal of the investigation into songs taught to children in America from 50 to 100 years ago was to create a song list which appropriately represented the American childrens folk heritage. The input gained from the 223 elderly people who contributed to the creation of the list was deemed enough to accomplish the purpose of verifying and authenticating songs which truly represent the American childrens folk heritage.

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76 Distribution of measurement instruments Dr. Hollingshead and her assistants personally delivered and distributed the elder study to the homes and meeting places of both friends and strangers, people over 62, a nd waited while they completed the study. Because of the length of the study, particip ants and assistants were paid by Dr. Hollingshead for their time and effort. Directions Subjects were asked to check the boxes of songs they had learned as children in America. Conditions of aging fre quently worked in favor of this research. The ability of the participants to remember songs and events of their childhood with great precision, items stored in their long-te rm memory, commonly provided excellent conditions for the elder contributions. Space and direction at the end of the survey enabled subjects to add to the list and in clude additional songs they had learned as children growing up in the United States. Analysis of results The investigation into song s taught to elderly people as children in the United States was performed. Data were collected, results were tallied, and a shortened, verified, and more accurate li st was created. The instruments used to conduct the investigatio n into songs taught children in America from 50 to 100 years ago may be found in Appendix C. The results were compiled by Thomas and Maybelle Hollingshead. Songs which were written in were added to the list, a nd songs which were not selected by a minimum of 25 people were deleted from the list. Th e shortened list created by the elder study is presented in Appendix E. After the university elementary music specialist study was completed, narrowing the list further, the final song list (Appendix F), was compared to the elder study data one

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77 last time. Datum from each song chosen by the university elementa ry music specialists was analyzed in regard to the number of part icipants in the elder study who had recalled learning the song as a child in the United States. Songs that held high scores (40 or more participants had selected the song) were pl aced in the recommended song list for this study. The recommended song list is presented in Appendix K. Pilot Study An assessment instrument for general music classroom teachers was created, and a pilot study was sent to four subjects. The pilot study is located in Appendix D. The subjects were consulted with regard to perf ecting the research measurement instrument. None of the participants completed the study. Feedback was provided by all of the subjects. The need for a further abbrevia ted list was the overwhelming and unanimous request. The removal of certain demographi c questions, as well as the shortening of introductions and instructions were also suggested. Elementary Music Specialists Abridge Song List The list of songs which resulted from the contributions of subjects over 62 was placed on a measurement instrument (for coll ege music education specialists). Thirty college and university elementary music educat ion specialists were c onsulted in order to narrow the list into a more manageable size. The initial list consisted of 500+ songs. The participants in the elder study (Appendix C) shortened it to approximately 250 songs. Participants in the pilot study (Appendix D) reported that the song list was too long, and requested that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The elementary specia lists were sought to narrow the list to accommodate the request made by the participants in the pilot study. One hundred songs were to be placed on the final general music teacher assessment.

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78 U.S. News and World Report 2002 College Rankings was used in order to determine which schools and which elementary music specialists to select. The category, National UniversitiesDoctoral, was chosen as the ranking most appropriate for the selection. Beginning at the top of the list and working down from number one of the top 100 colleges in the nation, the researcher contacted each of the colleges/universities. Many of the schools did not have a music education program. Of those with a music education program, a number of the programs had no faculty member who specialized in elementary music education. The first thirty college/university professors with a specific specialty in elementary music education were selected for the study. 21+ yrs20%11-15 yrs36%16-20 yrs8%6 -10 yrs28%0-5 yrs8% 0-5 yrs 6 -10 yrs 11-15 yrs 16-20 yrs 21+ yrs Figure 2. Participating university elementary specialists years of experience Each of the professors was sent an Elementary Music Specialist Song Assessment. The Specialist Assessment Instrument is presented in Appendix E. The Specialist Assessment requested the subjects relate the amount of years they have taught elementary/general music education at the college/university level. The profile of respondents is shown in Figure 2. The profile indicates that the elementary music specialists had a broad range of years of experience. The majority of them had been in the college/university system for between six and fifteen years. Of the 30 Assessments sent out, 25 were returned, creating

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79 an 83% response rate, which is a satisfactory rate of return for the Music Specialist Assessment. Figure 3 shows the proportion of the respondents to non-respondents in the elementary specialist study. returned 83%not returned17% returned 25 not returned 5 Figure 3. Specialist assessment response rate Elementary music specialists were asked to rank childrens folk songs according to importance of each ones inclusion as a part of a representative list of songs of the American Childrens Folk Heritage. Four responses were available for each song. The professors were asked to rank the songs by checking 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or blank (indicating the professor felt the song to not be important for inclusion). Additional instructions informed the professors that there was no limit to the amount of songs which could be placed in each category: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or blank. The elementary specialists were instructed to rate each song according to its own merits. Space and direction at the end of the assessment instrument enabled the elementary specialists to add to the list and include additional songs they deemed important for inclusion. Responses from the elementary music specialists song assessment were tallied and results were used to create a list of 100 songs which represented the American childrens folk song heritage. This final list was not intended to be a comprehensive song list of the American childrens folk heritage. Information from the pilot study revealed that if the study contained a more

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80 comprehensive childrens song list, study participants would be less likely to assist in the research. This final and representative list of 100 songs was used in the creation of the final measurement instrument for general music teachers. Creation of General Music Te acher Research Instrument Instrumentation The following surveys contributed to the creation of the general music teacher measurement instrument: UF Graduate St udent Survey created by Mark Brechtel (M. Brechtel, personal communication, 2001); S ong Survey from The Creation of a Standardized Body of Song Suitable for American School Children, created by Patricia Foy (Foy, 1980, pp. 87-95). The format and questions were then reviewed by professors on the doctoral committee involved. The fi nal general music teacher assessment instrument is presented in Appendix F. Selection of subjects Population General music teachers in the Unite d States were the target population of the study. Efforts were made to contact the state arts c oordinator/state music coordinator of several states in order to obtain e-mail or addresses of 80 truly randomsample general music teachers from each state. The state arts coordinators were not at liberty to provide such information. Priv acy protection, which has become much more prevalent in recent years, prohi bited them from granting access to that information. This situation quelled the current investigations ability to conduct a truly random-sample study of the population. Sample Selecting an available repres entative sample was of paramount importance to this study. Realization th at ones own experience may not be, and

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81 probably was not representative, created the need for exercising great care in the selection of the sample of general music teachers. A stratified random sample of the 95,523 members of MENC: The National Association for Music Education was determined to be the best course of action. MENC had the largest national database of general music teachers that was accessible. It is the main professional organization for elementary and general music teachers. It is the largest non-profit organization wh ich is dedicated to the advancement of music education at both local and national levels. From the 95,523 nationwide music teacher database at MENC, the researcher purchased a stratified random sample wh ich was generated by computer programmer Chris Mirakian at MKTG Se rvices www.mktgservices.com The program which created the stratified random sample narrowed out all but the general music teachers, which it divided by st ate, and then chose a random sample of 80 general music teachers from each of the 50 states in the United States. Extras were provided to account for discrepancies (e.g., someone had moved, retired, or changed professions). When a measurement instrument was returned, or when the researcher was contacted by phone or e-mail regarding a pa rticipants inapplicab ility (e.g., no longer teaching), one of the extra surveys was sent out. In this last and culminating segment of the study 4,000 total assessment instruments were sent to general music teachers. Ei ghty measurement instruments were sent to teachers in each state in the nation. The list of states which participated in the study is presented in Appendix G.

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82 Characteristics of the sample. The characteristics of the sample of general music teachers who participated in the final study is as follows. Figure 4 reveals that the respondents were predominantly female, with males comprising only 15% of the sample. females 85%males 15% males 270 females 1,522 Figure 4. Sample characteristics: males to females Figure 5 shows the proportion of research participants by age, revealing that the subjects were primarily older, veteran teachers, with the largest percentage of teachers being 50 or more years old. Fewer young teachers than veteran teachers participated in 2%6%8%6%21%18%39% age 20-25 age 26-29 age 30-35 age 36-39 age 40-45 age 46-49 age 50+ Figure 5. Sample characteristics: age the study. Because the teachers were chosen by random, stratified sample from the MENC: National Association of Music Education database, it is unknown whether or not

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83 the ratio of veteran teachers to young teachers presented in Figure 5 is an accurate picture of the national ratio, or MENC membership, or if younger teachers chose not to participate in the study more frequently than did those who had been in the profession longer. Figure 5 shows the ratio and proportion of the age groups of the general music teachers who participated in the study. Figure 6 shows the proportions of respondents by ethnicity. It reveals that the teacher population participating in the study was overwhelmingly white/Caucasian. Contribution from general music teachers of other races was minimal. Due to the sampling procedures, it is unknown if this ratio represents accurate ethnicity percentages of general music teachers across the nation, or if it represents accurate ethnicity percentages of the membership of MENC: the National Association for Music Education, or if general music teachers of other ethnicities simply chose not to participate in the study more frequently than did Caucasian teachers. 1%94%1%1%3% Asian/Pacific Islande r Black/AfricanAmerican Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) NativeAmerican/Alaskan White/Caucasian Figure 6. Sample characteristics: racial ethnicity

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84 Figure 7 shows the proportion of respondents from public and private schools. Private school contributions were valuable and consisted of ten percent of the whole. 10%90% privateschools publicschools Figure 7. Sample characteristics: school settingprivate/public 29%71% privateschools publicschools Figure 8. U.S. Department of Education national ratio of public to private schools Source: National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Digest of education statistics, 2001 ( http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/digest2001/ ). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Accessed March 21, 2003. According to the National Center for Education Statistics ( http://nces.ed.gov/edstats/ ), there are 85,393 public schools in the United States, and 34,438 private schools. These numbers are not representative of only schools with general music teachers, but of the entire K-12 educational system. Taking into consideration that the two pie charts in

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85 Figures 7 and 8 do not represent the same populations, a broad comparison may be made between the ratio of the number of K-12 public and private schools in the nation, and the ratio of the number of public and private schools who participated in the study. Figures 7 and 8, respectively, show the comparison between the school settings of the study participants, and the national ratio of public to private schools. By proportion, fewer private schools participated in the study than exist, but it is not known whether or not private and public schools employ general music teachers equally as often. There are significantly more public schools than private schools. Significantly more public school teachers participated in the study than did private school teachers, although private school teachers are well represented, by approximately 400 teachers. 38%12%25%6%19% Silver Burdett--Music Connection Macmillan--Music& You Macmillan--Sharethe Music World of Music Other or none Figure 9. Sample characteristics: music series textbook used Figure 9 shows the breakdown of music series textbooks used proportionally by participants in the study. Silver Burdetts Music Connection was the most commonly used textbook by survey subjects. The second most frequently used textbook series was Macmillans Share the Music The other category enabled teachers to write in the name of a textbook not listed, or designate that they did not use any music series textbook

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86 at all. In the other category, Silver Burdetts Centennial Edition was the most common write-in selection, with none being the next most common choice. Six hundred eighty-one teachers who participated in the study used Silver Burdetts Music Connection One hundred eight used World of Music Approximately one hundred ninety-seven used Silver Burdetts Centennial Edition and approximately one hundred forty-three used no music series textbook at all. Figure 10 shows the level at which the music teachers teach. The vast majority of respondents were elementary music teachers, as shown in the proportions depicted. The songs in the survey included a category specifically aimed at elementary age children, although folk songs from a variety of age ranges were included. Figure 10 presents a graphic depiction of the ratio of study participants. This ratio will become even more significant in chapter 4, where the results of elementary teacher responses are compared unfavorably to those of the smallest ratio of participants, those teaching high school or higher. 7%1%92% Elem. or lower Middle High School orhigher Figure 10. Sample characteristics: school settinglevel The percent of high school or higher teachers who participated in this research is quite small in comparison to the whole. Eighteen general music teachers from high school settings or beyond contributed to the study. High school music teachers who did not teach general music were ineligible for the study. It is possible that this ratio could be

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87 remotely accurate to national averages, as general music is fairly uncommon in high school music programs. Practically half of the participants had taught for sixteen or more years, as shown in Figure 11. Teachers who had taught between 0-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years were fairly evenly concentrated in participation. It is unknown if these ratios are accurate to national ratios, or if they are accurate to MENC membership, or if they reflect that teachers who have been in the profession for sixteen or more years are more willing to participate in research studies of this kind. 15%20%18%47% 0-5 yrs 6-10 yrs 11-15 yrs 16+ yrs Figure 11. Sample characteristics: years taught Rural and suburban schools dominate the responses. Figure 12 shows the ratio for participation between rural, urban, and suburban school teachers. Responses from teachers from urban schools were practically half as common as responses from teachers from suburban and rural schools. Both suburban and rural schools are exactly equally represented. Information from the United States Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics reveals the national ratio between rural, urban, and suburban schools for the 2000-2001 school year. It shows that the ratio of current survey participants are quite proportional to the number of schools in the community structure of

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88 our nation. Figure 12 shows the characteristics of the sample population of participants in this research study. Figure 13 shows the distribution of public schools by community type for the 2000-2001 school year, as reported by the United States Department of Education in the Digest of Education Statistics (2001). 39%22%39% ruralschools suburbanschools urbanschools Figure 12. Sample characteristics: school settingenvironment 34%25%41% ruralschools suburbanschools urbanschools Figure 13. Distribution of public schools by community type for the 2000-2001 school year Source: National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Digest of education statistics, 2001 ( http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/digest2001/ accessed March 21, 2003). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Table 6 shows the exact participation rate of the general music teachers in each state. Eighty general music teachers in each state were invited to participate in the study. Each was sent a letter of introduction, information regarding the study, and a general music teacher song assessment instrument. From the eighty assessment instruments sent

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89 to teachers in each state, Table 6 shows the exact participation rate. Several states showed a marked increase in their participation rate in the study over that of other states. The highest participation rate was by Texas, where three-fourths of the general music teachers invited, chose to participate in the study. The second highest participation rate was from teachers in South Dakota. The lowest participation rate was by Louisiana, where only 19% of the invited general music teachers chose to participate in the study. Table 6. Sample characteristics: exact number of contributing teachers by state Alabama 19 Alaska 36 Arizona 58 Arkansas 46 California 24 Colorado 38 Connecticut 24 Delaware 19 Florida 48 Georgia 22 Hawaii 34 Idaho 38 Illinois 42 Indiana 41 Iowa 44 Kansas 24 Kentucky 22 Louisiana 15 Maine 36 Maryland 34 Massachusetts 28 Michigan 47 Minnesota 46 Mississippi 36 Missouri 38 Montana 44 Nebraska 48 Nevada 30 New Hampshire 28 New Jersey 32 New Mexico 29 New York 30 North Carolina 36 North Dakota 48 Ohio 36 Oklahoma 26 Oregon 38 Pennsylvania 32 Rhode Island 26 South Carolina 44 South Dakota 59 Tennessee 28 Texas 60 Utah 30 Vermont 32 Virginia 34 Washington 38 West Virginia 22 Wisconsin 49 Wyoming 54 Data Collection One thousand seven hundred and ninety-two general music teachers participated in this research study. Raw datum was entered into an Excel spreadsheet. All information was converted into a numeric format. Statistical analyses were run with the SAS program by Yongsung Joo, Coordinator of Statistical Research at the University of Florida.

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90 Summary Multiple quality research studies led to th e formulation of the topic, and provided foundational material, rationale, and methodology for this stu dy. Previous research was combined with songs common to three or more music textbooks and songbooks published between the 1700s and 1950. This song list was verifie d, authenticated, and made to be more accurate through the input of 233 people over 62 who grew up across America (participants encompassed 44 of the 50 United States). Their input was used to create a song list which accura tely and authentically repres ents the American childrens folk song heritage. This list was presented to 30 Elementary Music Sp ecialists at the top 30 universities in the nation with a music e ducation program and an elementary music specialist on staff. The specialists narrowed the list into a repres entative list of 100 songs. The final list was sent to 4,000 general music teachers acr oss the nation (80 in each of the 50 states). The general music teachers ranked each song according to the extent to which their students could be expected to sing it by memory. The study ascertained the extent to which a strati fied random sample of 1,792 general music teachers, representing all 50 states in the nation, are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught in classrooms across the United States. Results indicate that few students may be expected to know few of the songs by memory. Few students can be expected to know childrens songs. Very few, bordering on practically no students can be expected to know American folk songs. Some students can be expected to know patriotic songs. Introduction to the Statistical Analysis of This Study This study was composed of two different analyses. First, an analysis of variance was conducted to determine the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are being taught in general music classrooms in the United States. The model was simple linear regression analysis. Second, a discrepancy analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the study results. Normal Linear Model Establishing normal distribution. In order to determine the best statistical analysis model for this study, one which would enable valid inferences to be made regarding the population based on the information gleaned from the sample, it was important to determine whether or not the sample data came from a normal population. In order to do this, the observations in the data were ordered from smallest to largest and then plotted against the expected z-scores of observations calculated under the 91

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92 assumption that the data came from a normal distribution. A linear trend resulted, indicating that the data were normally distributed. Probabilistic model. Expecting unexplained variation in responses, a probabilistic model was used to account for random error. This model included both a deterministic component and a random error component and yielded more realistic results which were better suited to inferential statements. The normal linear model, y = 0 + 1 x + where: y = the explanative variable (demographic variable, song category); x = the extent to which general music teachers are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage; E(y) = the deterministic component, which is 0 + 1 x ; Epsilon () = the random error component; Beta zero (0) = the y-intercept of the line created in the normal linear model (the point where the line intercepts the y-axis); and Beta one (1) = the slope of the line, the amount of increase or decrease in the deterministic component of y for every 1-unit increase in x (in this model, E(y) increased by 1 as x increased, exposing a straight-line relationship). Simple linear regression analysis was the best method of analysis for this normal linear model. The Scale The scale used in this study has degrees which are asymmetrical. After they are defined, their connection to accurate interpretation of the results of the study will be discussed. Terminology associated with the scale and scale degrees will be clarified. Definition of scale values The average of the total of all song scores for all participants in the study was 1.742. The scale used to interpret and graph the data received from the teachers was: Practically All = 4, Most = 3, Some = 2, Few = 1, Practically None = 0. This information enables accurate interpretation of the tables in this chapter of the study. Numerical

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93 values beginning . indicate that the teachers responded that they have not taught this song, or not taught it within four years. Numerical values beginning with . indicate that the teachers responded that they have spent a little time teaching the song and would expect a few students to be able to sing it from memory. Values beginning with . indicate that the teachers responded that they have spent some time teaching a song, and/or have not taught it consistently every year to all of the students but they have taught it well enough that some of their students will know it by memory (Appendix F, p. 214). No score higher than two may be found in the analysis of results. Application to results The comprehensive analysis of the responses from general music teachers across the nation regarding every song in each of the categories (childrens songs, folk songs, and patriotic songs) revealed, technically, that a high Few is the answer to the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage. A Few students, on the high side of few (1.742), but not enough to be considered Some students (2), across the nation are able to sing a Few of the songs by memory. The results were interpreted in this way (Practically All, Most, Some, Few, Practically None) because that was the terminology used with the general music teachers in their assessment of their students memorization of the songs in question. Discontinuation of practically. From this point forward, Practically will be dropped from the discussion of the numerical values beginning with .. The term Practically None was used properly in the general music teacher song assessment, in order to avoid absolute terminology in the Likert assessment scale. For a teacher to be given an answer choice using an absolute, that there was no possibility that even one

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94 child in his/her school could sing a particular song from memory, or that every single student in his school, without exception, could sing a particular song from memory, would have been ill-advised as absolute statements are unsuitable for Likert assessment scales. Teachers were directed to select Practically None if they had not taught the song, or not taught it within four years. The definition of the term, both then and now, indicated None. Practically All is a valid term, not intended to indicate literally all in the general music teacher song assessment or discussion of results, but it was not a value which appeared in any of the results of the analysis. Asymmetrical nature of scale degrees It is acknowledged that there is unequal distance between the scale degrees used in this study. The data analysis created results which were highly precise involving numerical values that extended six places beyond the decimal (to the right), but results which were difficult to plot on a graph. The distance between Practically All, Most, Some, Few, and None is unequal, and may be more accurately charted along a line like Figure 14 than to the symmetrical scales which will be used in the charts and graphs that follow. The graphs in Figures 15, 18, 21-28, and 33-35 employ scales of equal distance because the computer program used to create the visual interpretation of the data could not accommodate scales of disproportionate distance. For this reason, the highly precise numerical values of the data analysis are provided in Tables 7-10, 14-23, and 27-32 along with the graphs of Figures 15, 18, 21-28, and 33-35. 0 None 1 Few 2 Some3 Most 4 Practically All Figure 14. Asymmetrical scale of survey distance

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95 The scale in Figure 14, which more accurately depicts the distances between Practically All, Most, Some, Few, and None is nevertheless imprecise. It is acknowledged that while the data analysis and the results of the study are highly precise, the ability of the charts and graphs to perfectly display this information is imprecise. Out of necessity, simplified and equidistant scales will be used in the graphical interpretation of the data. Careful examination of Figure 14 will assist the reader in interpreting the results presented. Mental application of the distances found in Figure 14 to subsequent figures will enhance the readers understanding and interpretation of the data as they are presented graphically in Figures 15, 18, 21-28, and 33-35. 00.511.522.533.541.02.03.04.05.0NoneFe w SomeMostPracticallyAll1Few2Some3Most 4 Practically AllNone Extent Teachers Have Tau g ht Son g sExtent StudentsCan SingSongsFromMemory Figure 15. Global results of the study: the extent to which students in the United States may be expected to know songs of the American childrens folk heritage

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96 Aggregate Findings Statistical Analysis Detailing the Extent to Which Songs of the American Childrens Folk Heritage Are Taught in Schools in the United States Figure 15 is a bell curve showing the current mean level of student knowledge of American childrens folk songs and the standard deviation indicating where children across the nation fall in regard to how many may be expected to know these songs by memory. Table 7 provides the mean of the song responses, 1.742, revealing the measure of the center of all responses provided by the participants in the study. It is shown in Figure 15. Table 7. Global results of the study R-Square Root MSE Total Mean F Value Pr > F 0.219106 0.638925 1.742088 6.68 <.0001 The Root Mean Square for Error (MSE) measures the spread of the responses, and lists the spread at 0.639. The Root MSE measures the spread by analyzing how far the observed responses lie from their mean (Table 7). Figure 15 is a graphic depiction of both the center of the overall responses to the childrens song study and the spread of the responses from their mean, as found in Table 7. Figure 15 displays some common properties to all of the other bell-shaped curves provided in this chapter. Moore and McCabe (2003) specify the -95-99.7 Rule which applies here and permits a more insightful interpretation of Figure 15 as well as the other bell-shaped curves to be presented in this analysis. Moore and McCabe (2003) point out that the normal curves (symmetric, bell-shaped, and unimodal) which are located in Figure 15 and Figures 33 through 35 have a normal distribution with the mean and the standard deviation In all of these figures,

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97 approximately 68% of the responses in the song assessment have fallen within the range of the standard deviation. Approximately 95% of the responses in the song assessment have fallen within the range of 2 of the center (). Approximately 99.7% of the responses in the song assessment have fallen within the range of 3 of the center (p.70). This tendency contributes to the ability of this sample toward statistical inferences. Figure 16, graphically depicts the 68-95-99.7 rule which applies to Figure 15 and, when both are examined together, reveals how few students nationwide can be expected to know American childrens folk songs. Figure 16. The 68-95-99.7 rule for normal distributions Source: Moore, D.S., & McCabe, G.P. (2003). Introduction to the practice of statistics (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, p.70. Table 7 displays the data from which Figure 15 was derived. The total mean, or average of each song from every subject (general music teacher who responded nationwide) was 1.742. The responses deviated from the mean by 0.639 on each side of the average score. This indicates that, overall, few students may be expected to know few American childrens folk songs by memory. A small percentage of respondents (general music teachers) indicated that Some of their students can be expected to know Some of the songs by memory. Likewise a

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98 small percentage of respondents indicated that very few of their students could be expected to know very few of the songs by memory. The graphic depiction of this information in Figure 15 shows a strong cluster without much deviation which encompasses from Few to Some. Figure 15 shows that the responses indicate a strong majority of the extent to which songs were taught by teachers overall is Few with the greater part of responses moving to the high side of few. The general cluster of responses, although quite low, does not encompass None. Nor do the responses encompass a wide degree of variation (the standard deviation on each side of the mean is relatively small). This denotes that responses across the nation were fairly consistent. So while only Few students know the songs in question, it is a common experience, and an issue pertinent to everyone. It is experienced rather uniformly across the nation and in all regions, areas, and school types. The SAS program code which was the basis for the data analysis is recorded in Figure 17. It reveals the specific commands which were used to examine the data in this study. The data from the study were analyzed with a general linear models procedure. Proc glm is an analysis of variance to test if the mean is the same for one variable as for another. Observed Significance Levels: P-Values The first step in a test of significance is to try to find evidence against ones main proposition. The significance level for this specific statistical test was the probability (assuming that there will be a difference in the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught by general music teachers across the nation) of observing a value of the test statistic that was at least as contradictory to the reverse of

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99 the statement in parentheses above and supportive of an alternate hypothesis as what was computed from the sample data. The p-value explicates the observed significance level revealing that our results were, indeed, significant. The p-value of our statistical model, <.0001, details the exact SAS Code PROC IMPORT OUT = WORK.music DATAFILE= c: \Yongsung\Consulting\music\survey results4.csv DBMS=CSV REPLACE; GETNAMES=YES; DATAROW=2; RUN; Proc sort; by Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; run; proc univariate plot; var check_t; run; proc glm; class Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; model checka checkb checkc check_t= Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; lsmeans Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; run; proc glm; class Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; model chil_sum folk_sum patr_sum tota_sum = Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; lsmeans Gender Age Race pp_school book emh_grade yrs rsu state; run; Figure 17. SAS program code which created statistical analysis for study extent to which our data disagrees with our unstated null hypothesis (There will be no difference in the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught by general music teachers across the nation). The p-value provides the observer with the information necessary for him/her to determine on his own whether or not to

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100 reject the null hypothesis. Statistical significance is achieved at the 0.10, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 levels. Appendix I contains the F critical values for probabilities p = 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.01, and 0.001. Regardless of the level of ones requirements for significance, Table 7 reveals that this studys results were highly significant. The p-value is a measure of disagreement which shows the observed significance level, <.0001. This information can be used throughout the data analysis to confirm the high levels of significance found in this research. Appendix I is a reference provided to confirm the significance levels of research results with the f-values. This study was descriptive in nature, intended only to provide a description of the state of the nation in regard to the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are being taught. For this reason, many specific hypotheses and null hypotheses were not as appropriate as with experimental research. Root Mean Square for Error Root MSE refers to the Root Mean Square for Error. It measured the variability experienced by the sample in the study. Table 7 reports that according to the global results of the study, the Root MSE, which is the standard deviation, was 0.639. This indicates that the responses lie primarily between 2.38 and 1.10, between Some and a very low score of Few (almost bordering on None). It reveals the range between which the majority (almost 70%) of the responses fell. Except for extremes, between Some and a very low score of Few students may be expected to know a few songs of the American childrens folk heritage by memory. R-Square The R-Square, which is the prediction ability of the model created from the demographic data in the study, is .22. In our model, the coefficient of determination is

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101 defined as R2 = The coefficient of determination performs the same function as the squared multiple correlation R2 in a multiple regression. The result in Table 7 reveals that the fit part of the model, the differences among the means of the groups in the study accounts for 21.9% of the total variation in the data. SSRSST In evaluating the R-Square, indicates very poor prediction ability and indicates extremely good prediction ability, giving our results poor prediction capability in regard to the demographic data information. This is not a problem for the present study and does not negatively impact its results. With this specific study, analysis of variance was the best method of data analysis. Here, the goal of the inquiry was to discover the extent to which students across the nation could be expected to know particular songs of the American childrens folk heritage by memory. Demographic data was collected to enable the researcher to determine whether or not responses had been obtained from a good cross-section of the nation. Responses were sought and received from every state in the nation, from both private and public schools, from rural, urban, and suburban schools, from teachers of differing age categories, race and experience categories, who taught at differing levels in the educational system, etc. Analysis of the demographic data revealed which, if any, demographic variable had a significant effect on the response. Prediction ability was not sought in order to determine if knowing exactly and only this demographic data could enable one to predict responses to the songs in question. The demographic questions were not compiled with that in mind and so it is not impugning or invalidating if that demographic data may not be valuable for its predictive value, which is quite difficult to determine scientifically anyway.

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102 Regardless of a specific teachers demographic data, the global results of the study indicate that 99.7% of the general music teachers in the United States are likely to be teaching between none and some of the songs of the American childrens folk heritage. This percentage is derived from immixture between Table 7 and Figure 15. Educationally and practically, in Table 8, most every demographic factor studied was shown to be significant. The far right column (Pr > F) displays the p-value. If the p-value < then the demographic information listed in the source is significant in regard Table 8. Type III sum of squares indicating aggregate demographic significance Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F Gender 1 10.31570735 10.31570735 25.27 <.0001 Age 6 8.97639140 1.49606523 3.66 0.0013 Race 4 4.42144681 1.10536170 2.71 0.0289 Private/Public school 1 6.13174106 6.13174106 15.02 0.0001 Music Series Textbook 4 5.97985357 1.49496339 3.66 0.0056 Grade Taught 2 14.67453706 7.33726853 17.97 <.0001 Years Teaching 3 21.78821717 7.26273906 17.79 <.0001 Rural/Suburban/ Urban School 2 7.78989412 3.89494706 9.54 <.0001 State 49 55.30857238 1.12874638 2.77 <.0001 to the extent to which general music teachers teach songs of the American childrens folk heritage. In this study = 0.05, the effect of all of the demographic data was significant, with race being the least significant. All of the demographic factors are significant according to the p-values listed in Table 8. The most significant factors being gender, private/public school, grade taught, years teaching, rural/suburban/urban school, and state. This means that significant differences existed within those categories. Table 8 does not indicate what the differences are, just that they exist. Each demographic

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103 characteristic is examined in detail in Tables 14 through 22. These tables are able to shed light on the specific differences that exist in each demographic category listed in Table 8. F value The F values of Tables 7 and 8, when considered with the degrees of freedom (DF), and the Distribution of T table in Appendix H reveal the statistical significance of the variable in question. The data reveals that gender, grade taught, years teaching, whether the teacher teaches at a rural, urban, or suburban school, as well as the state, are all significant well beyond the .05 level. Also of significance, but less significant, are the factors of private or public school, age, and textbook used. Race is less significant than the other demographic variables in aggregate demographic significance, yet it is significant to the 0.10 and 0.05 levels. Like the p-value, the F-value enables the observer to determine the significance of the source, or variable. The F statistic in this study has an F distribution that is based on the degrees of freedom for the numerator and the degrees of freedom for the denominator. The degrees of freedom in the F distribution are the ones associated with the mean squares in the numerator and denominator of the F statistic. In this study, the degrees of freedom for the numerator are DFG = I-1 and the degrees of freedom for the denominator are DFE = N-1. When factors like private/public school are not significant in the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching childrens songs, as in Table 28, the F statistic has the F(I-1, N-1) distribution. In Table 8, where gender, grade taught, years teaching, whether the teacher teaches at a rural, urban, or suburban school, as well as the state are significant factors in the question of the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage, the F statistic tends to be large.

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104 Significance Testing Support for the status quo (e.g., gender [etc.] has no effect on the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage) would have been accepted unless the data provided convincing evidence that it was false. In the overall significance of teaching all childrens folk songs, nationwide, the data did provide convincing evidence that the statement in parentheses above is false. Additionally, in order for the above demographic factors to have been determined to be truly significant, the proposition (e.g., gender [etc.] does have an effect on the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage) would have been accepted only if the data provided convincing evidence that it is true. In the overall significance of teaching all songs of the American childrens folk heritage, nationwide, the data did provide convincing evidence that the statement in parentheses above is true. This is shown in the p-values listed in Tables 7, 8, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 32. F Statistics and P-Values The p-value of the F test in the data analyzed for this study represents the probability that an arbitrary variable which has F(I-1, N-1) distribution is greater than or equal to the calculated value of the F statistic. The table of F critical values, located in Appendix H, can be used to confirm the p-values listed in the tables throughout this analysis. Appendix I contains the F critical values for probabilities p = 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.01, and 0.001. The F statistic and its p-value are used to choose between the status quo ( ___ does not have an effect upon the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught by general music teachers throughout the United States) and the proposition ( ___ does effect the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk

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105 heritage are taught by general music teachers throughout the United States). This information and appendices H and I can be used to interpret the results of this data analysis and confirm the significance of the points discussed herein. In these tables, the F statistic instructs that the overall results of the study are highly significant (Table 7), that according to the aggregate responses from all teachers in regards to all of the songs, gender, grade taught, years teaching, rural/suburban/urban school, and state are highly significant factors (Table 8). Demographic factors are highly significant in the extent to which childrens songs are taught across the nation (Table 27). Gender, age, grade taught, years teaching, state, and whether a teacher teaches in a rural, suburban, or urban school are all highly significant factors in the extent to which childrens songs are taught (Table 28). Demographic factors are highly significant in the extent to which folk songs are taught across the nation (Table 29). Age, private/public school, music series textbook, years teaching, and state are all highly significant factors in the extent to which folk songs are taught (Table 30). Demographic factors are highly significant in the extent to which patriotic songs are taught across the nation (Table 31). Gender, years teaching, and state are all highly significant factors in the extent to which patriotic songs are taught across the nation (Table 32). These observations may all be made with confidence by examining the F statistic in the tables listed above with the table of F critical values located in Appendix H and the F critical values in regards to differing significance levels in Appendix I. Mean Square The mean square for error is s2. It is an estimate of 2 The units of the estimated variance are squared units of the dependent variable (gender, age, race, private/public

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106 school, music series textbook, grade taught, years teaching, rural/suburban/urban school, and state). Meaningful examination of s2 is difficult, but easier when the standard deviation s is used, as s provides a more purposeful measure of variability. A valuable interpretation of the estimated standard deviation s is that the interval 2s will provide a rough approximation to the accuracy with which the analysis will predict future values of the demographics for given values of the extent to which teachers are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage. A graphic illustration of this is shown in Table 8. The Mean Square indicates that the features gender, grade taught, years teaching, rural/suburban/urban school, and state contain prediction value regarding the extent to which members of that demographic group may be expected to teach songs of the American childrens folk heritage, and statistical inferences reserved for Chapter 5, may be made with reasonable accuracy. Type III Sum of Squares Type III SS in Table 8 refers to Type III Sum of Squares, the preferred type used for balanced data analysis, and best choice (over Type I) for analysis of this particular research data. Our Type III Sum of Squares analysis began with a full model (analyzing all of the results of data collected). It then considered the model without one of the explanative variables (demographic categories or song categories). A comparison was made between the two models which yielded a numerical score indicating the amount of difference the explanative variables presence/omission created. Many factors must be considered when evaluating the Type III Sum of Squares in Tables 8, 28, 30, and 32, but for the most part, the higher the number, the more significant the explanative variable was to the results of the study. The results of the comparison of the two models in the

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107 Type III Sum of Squares analysis were used to calculate the significance level of the explanative variable. The resulting p-value detailed the significance of the explanative variable to the study. Type III Sum of Squares also checked for collinearity, for collusion between the two explanative variables. In the comparison between the full model and the model without a variable, such as age, additional analysis was run to determine if another variables presence (such as folk songs) or absence significantly changed the p-values in the model being created. Collinear relationships reveal a strong connection between differing explanative variables, and were reported in the analysis. Degrees of Freedom Degrees of Freedom (DF) were the number of variables in consideration, minus one. It technically indicated the number of options available between which subjects chose. The degrees of freedom in Table 8 are invariable numbers which will remain static throughout the study. The degree of freedom in gender was between male and female. The six degrees of freedom in age were: 20-25, 26-29, 30-35, 36-39, 40-45, 46-49, 50+. The four degrees of freedom in race were: Asian/Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o), Native American/Alaskan, and White/Caucasian. The four degrees of freedom in music series textbook were: Silver Burdetts Music Connection Macmillans Music & You Macmillans Share the Music McGraw-Hills World of Music and other/none. The two degrees of freedom in grade taught were: elementary or below, middle school, and high school or higher. The three degrees of freedom in years teaching were: 0-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16+. The forty-nine degrees of freedom in state were between each of the fifty United States.

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108 Discrepancy Analysis of Result Reliability In order to make valid statistical inferences, as will be made in chapter 5, four things are necessary. First, the target population (general music teachers in the United States) must be described. Second, a specific purpose must be detailed (the extent to which they are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage). Third, the sample must be described and obtained (Chapter 3). Fourth, the data must provide significant results (significance levels are reported in both p-values and F values throughout). These variables precede statistical inference, which is an estimation and/or generalization containing predictive value, about the population based on information obtained from the participants in the study. The validity of the inferences made depends on the reliability of the results. Table 9. Univariate discrepanciesmoments The responses of the participants in the study were analyzed for their reliability. Table 9 shows that the responses from all 1,792 participants in the study were analyzed for discrepancies. Four songs were listed in two different places in the general music teachers song assessment. The data from Table 9, Figure 18, and the histogram of Figure 20 shows that overwhelmingly, participants in the study were consistent in their The UNIVARIATE Procedure Variable: check_t (discrepancies) Moments N 1792 Sum Weights 1792 Mean 1.03459821 Sum Observations 1854 Std Deviation 1.28988136 Variance 1.66379392 Skewness 1.69210929 Kurtosis 3.91088628 Uncorrected SS 4898 Corrected SS 2979.85491 Coeff Variation 124.674617 Std Error Mean 0.03047058

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109 1.02.03.04.05.01234 6587 answers. Table 9 details specifics in regards to the discrepancies found in the analysis. It shows the average in the test for discrepancies was 1.03. Figure 18. Skew of discrepancies Figure 18 reveals that the distribution of discrepancies is skewed to the 3. The Uncorrected Sum of the Skew was much larger than the Corrected Sum of the Skew. Table 10 details the basic statistical measures in the test for discrepancies. Substantive information may be gleaned from the measures of central tendency, the mean, median, and mode. Variance The variance, as found in Table 10, is the average of the squares of the deviations of the duplicate observations from their mean, or the standard deviation, squared. At 1.66, it condenses all of the information regarding variability into a single numerical value. It is an average which reflects the distance of individual discrepancies from the mean, showing how they deviate, or depart from everyone elses discrepancies. Inquiries regarding four of the songs in the general music teacher song assessment were made in two different places on the assessment instrument. This duplication enabled the researcher to analyze the consistency with which the subjects (general music teachers) provided their data.

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110 Mode Table 10 enumerates the mode, revealing that the most commonly occurring discrepancy was zero, indicating that among the most common participants there was not a single discrepancy in their answers regarding the dual assessment of the four songs in question. Not only that a number of participants had no discrepancies, but that the participant with no discrepancies was the most commonly recurring kind of participant in the study is important. The mode shows the location where the information regarding the data tends to concentrate. Table 10. Univariate discrepanciesbasic statistical measures Measures of Location Measures of Variability Mean 1.034598 Std Deviation 1.28988 Median 1.000000 Variance 1.66379 Mode 0.000000 Range 8.00000 Interquartile Range 2.00000 Skew Figure 18 illustrates the skew of the discrepancies made by participants in the study. If all of the participants answers had been lined up by order of least discrepancies to most, the participant in the exact middle (Median) had one discrepancy, as shown in Table 10. The fact that the mean, at 1.03, was larger than the median caused the discrepancies to be skewed to the right, and the average discrepancy score to be located to the right of the middle discrepancy score, as is detailed in Table 10 and displayed graphically in Figure 18. The modal class pinpointed the region where the discrepancies were most concentratedat no discrepancy at all. In this way, the mode measured the central tendency of the discrepancies. Comparison between the mean and the median

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111 indicated the skewness of our model, the propensity of the distribution of responses toward the three, but provided no indication of clustering at the mean (as a normal distribution would have). Mean Information regarding the central tendency of the discrepancy measurements, how and where they cluster, may be found in Figure 18 and Table 10. This graphic illustration is valuable in that the discrepancies do not cluster at the mean. The mean is the average, and represents what may be considered the typical response discrepancy in this study. Thus, a typical general music teacher in the study who made a discrepancy, typically made only one discrepancy throughout the study (e.g., he may have indicated that Practically None of his students could sing God of Our Fathers from memory at one point, and at a different time, indicated that Few of his students could sing it from memory). Given the information provided in Figure 20, one may visualize the reliability with which the participants in the study respondedvery reliably. When considered in conjunction with the mean scores listed in Tables 7, 9, 14-22, 27, 29, and 31, the mean of the discrepancy analysis played an important role in determining the reliability of the results of the study which enabled the researcher to make valid inferences about the population based on the sample information gathered in the study. Median The median was also important to the discrepancy analysis. In a large data set such as this one, the median had great value. Table 11 is a relative frequency histogram that characterizes the data, showing half of the area above the median and half below. In this test for discrepancies the median is recognized as a better measure of central tendency

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112 than the mean. The median is less sensitive than the mean to outliers (participants who responded inconsistently) and extremely large or small measures of discrepancy. The median, as reported in this test of discrepancies, kept the presence of a few very inconsistent participants from skewing the results of the study. The presence of a few extremely inconsistent participants affected the mean more than the median. In this circumstance the median provided a more accurate picture of the typical participants discrepancies. The mean exceeded the vast majority of the sample measurements of discrepancy made by the general music teachers who participated in the study. Measures of central tendency provided only a partial description of the reliability of this quantitative data analysis. The description was incomplete without a measure of the variability, or spread, of the discrepancies. Knowledge of the participants answer variability along with its center helped solidify the profile of the discrepancies, as well as their extreme values. Range The range, 8, was nothing more than the largest measurement, 9, minus the smallest measurement, 1, in the discrepancies found in the study. The range was simple to compute and easy to understand, but it was a bit insensitive in its ability to measure data variation in this study because the overall study was quite large (1,792 participants). In statistical analysis the range is considered insensitive with large samples. The results of two sample populations could easily have the same range and be vastly different in respect to the variation in the data. The discrepancies, as well as the general data in this study were not greatly spread out or highly variable. The teachers responses throughout were found to be clustered around the mean and did not exhibit much variability. This is evident in the recurrent

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113 small standard deviations found in the bell-shaped curves of Figures 15, 33, 34, and 35. Figure 19 illustrates common bell curve distribution. Figure 19. Model bell curve distribution Source: McClave, J.T., & Sincich, T. (2000). Statistics (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall. Reprinted with permission. One may notice that there is a visible narrowness in the bell curves occurring in the analysis of the results provided in this study, showing a more clustered response by the general music teachers, both in the extent to which their students may be expected to sing a particular song by memory and in the consistency and reliability with which they answered specific questions. As one may see, when a comparison is made between the width of the bell curve found in Figure 36 and those found in Figures 15, and 33 through 35, conclusions regarding the variability of the sample are more clearly visible. The variability of the sample in this study, while it does fluctuate throughout the differing analyses, suggests a high level of consistency in regards to the cluster of the teachers answers. Standard Deviation The larger the standard deviation, the more excessively the discrepancies will vary from each other. The smaller the standard deviation, the less variation found in the discrepancies in the data. Figure 16, the rule for normal distributions, provides the standard by which one may interpret the standard deviation, 1.29 (Table 10), in a practical way in order to use it to make inferences regarding the discrepancies found in the analysis of the data. Figure 16 shows that 95% of all responses will fall within two standard deviations of the mean, even in a skewed sample. This information is consistent

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114 with Russian mathematician P.L. Chebyshevs Rule for interpreting the standard deviation, as well as the Empirical Rule for interpreting the standard deviation (McClave and Sincich, 2000, pp.56-57). When considered with Figure 18, the results of this study are shown to be reliable. Outliers Table 11. Univariate discrepanciesquantiles Quantile Estimate 100% Max 8 99% 6 95% 3 90% 3 75% QU 2 50% Median 1 25% QL 0 10% 0 5% 0 1% 0 0% Min 0 Table 11 reveals that the majority of the participants in the study were very consistent in their answers to the extent to which their students could sing each particular song by memory. The outliers, at 99% and 100%, represent participants who were very inconsistent in their responses. Their responses were given less weight in the analysis of results in the study. In the analysis it was important to identify inconsistent or unusual data. A few participants answers to the song assessment contained a high level of inconsistency. These participants were outliers. The SAS program analysis detected several outliers. Tables 11 and 12 show the outliers as those containing six, seven, and eight discrepancies. Table 11 records the outliers as those above the ninety-fifth percentile.

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115 Table 11 also records this in the strikeout seen at the ninety-ninth and one hundredth percentile. The Estimate column in Table 11 estimates the number of discrepancies recorded by participants in that percentile of participants in the study. It corresponds to the information in Figure 20, which also includes the number of discrepancies found in each participants song assessment. The Boxplot Table 12. Boxplot of univariate discrepancies Percent of Discrepancies to Discrepancies Study Population Boxplot 6 8 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 5 1 4 3 3 7 2 16 1 27 0 45 The boxplot of Table 12 is based on the quartiles of the data. The quartiles were the values in percents that partitioned the data regarding the discrepancies into four groups, each containing 25% of the participants. The lower quartile, QL in Table 11, is the 25th percentile and indicates that this quartile of the participants had no discrepancies in any of the information they provided.

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116 The middle quartile, M, is the median, at the 50th percentile. The median participant in the study had one discrepancy among the information he/she provided. The upper quartile, QU, is the 75th percentile. The estimated number of discrepancies found in the 75th quartile was two. Participants in this quartile were estimated to have between two and one discrepancy among all of the answers they provided. The boxplot of Table 12 was based on the interquartile range, the distance between the upper and lower quartiles. It is interesting to note that there are no lower whiskers on the boxplot in Table 12. The upper whiskers are quite long, leaving the discrepancy levels 6, 7, and 8 as remote outliers, confirming that the data is positively skewed. Interquartile Range The interquartile range is the range between 75% and 25% on Table 11. It indicated that the vast majority of participants in the study deviated by between two and zero, but by no more than two (i.e., a participant may have indicated Practically None the first time he was asked about When Johnny Comes Marching Home and Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain, and the next time, he answered Few to one or each). This indicates remarkable consistency with the majority of participants in the study. Fifty percent of the participants were only off by one degree on one song. Just under half of the participants in the study were not inconsistent in their responses at all, as illustrated in Table 11 and the boxplot of Table 12. The boxplot of Table 12 records the actual number of discrepancies found in the responses of each of the participants in the study. It is worth noting that selecting Practically None on two songs the first time they appear, and then recording Few the second time they appear constitutes a discrepancy of as does recording Some on one song the first time it appears, and then recording Practically All the second time it appears.

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117 Table 13 shows the extreme observations in regards to discrepancies. The number of the song assessment, determined by the order in which it was typed into the spreadsheet, is the observation number. The value column specifies how many discrepancies were found on that particular participants assessment. Four participants in the study showed a discrepancy as high as 8. The highest extreme discrepancies were Table 13. Univariate discrepanciesextreme observations Extreme Observations Lowest Highest Value Obs Value Obs 0 1788 7 1716 0 1787 8 1015 0 1786 8 1016 0 1785 8 1279 0 1778 8 1280 identified as outliers. In the data analysis, less weight was given to their responses than that of the other participants. Table 12 shows that twenty-two participants out of 1,792 were outliers. Less weight was given to their responses in the data analysis than responses from other participants. The histogram in Figure 20 is significant in that it shows that the participants in the study were very consistent in their responses. The length of the columns is represented by the number of teachers whose surveys contained the number of discrepancies listed along the left-hand side of the graph. There were sixteen possible discrepancies. Of the 1,792 study participants, none had more than eight discrepancies, and the largest amount of study participants had no discrepancies on their song assessments at all. Four general music teachers registered eight discrepancies, six teachers registered seven discrepancies, and twelve teachers registered six discrepancies. These were outliers. The number of

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118 1 = 812476290126561012640000000002004006008001000012345678910111213141516 Total Number of Discrepancies N umber of Study Participants Figure 20. Histogram of overall response discrepancies surveys which had each number of discrepancies is shown in Figure 20. Compendium of Findings in Regard to Song Totals and Songs by Category Analysis of Results by Gender Examination of responses grouped by gender in Table 14 discloses that women surpass men in the teaching of every category of American childrens folk songs.

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119 Table 14. Genderweighted average of responses Gende r Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Su m LS Mean LS Mean LS Mea n LS Mea n Male 1.56500373 1.24717583 2.21866628 1.48157914 Female 1.90311912 1.38038268 2.51979749 1.70627565 According to both Table 14 and Figure 21, the smallest difference exists in the teaching of folk songs and the greatest difference exists in the teaching of childrens songs. Both men and women teach American folk songs the least and patriotic songs the most of the three categories. 1.571.252.221.481.91.382.521.7100.511.522.53Children'sSongsFolk SongsPatriotic SongsTotal Male FemaleNoneFewSomeMost Figure 21. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by gender of teacher Both sexes report that some of their students may be expected to know some patriotic songs by memory, but few students will know childrens songs, American folk songs, or in total any songs of the American childrens folk heritage by memory. Figure 21 displays graphically the data provided in Table 14. Both sexes exhibit the same tendency to teach some patriotic songs, few childrens songs, and even fewer folk songs.

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120 Analysis of Results by Age Examination of responses grouped by age reveals a continuation of the tendency to teach some patriotic songs, few childrens songs, and considerably fewer folk songs, as may be seen in Figure 22. The data in Table 15 reveals that the youngest teachers teach patriotic songs to a greater extent, the oldest teachers teach folk songs to a greater extent, and both the youngest and oldest teachers lead the other age groups in the teaching of childrens songs. Table 15. Ageweighted average of responses Age Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN 20-25 1.90106552 1.31549129 2.53935288 1.67375408 26-29 1.46851370 1.31896129 2.43086120 1.51442559 30-35 1.74674704 1.31159304 2.31725788 1.59045322 36-39 1.79783339 1.32619621 2.28235507 1.61085729 40-45 1.64537741 1.17506544 2.23285083 1.47250350 46-49 1.77086525 1.34827862 2.39102490 1.62756785 50+ 1.80802767 1.40086890 2.39092043 1.66793024 Teachers in their thirties teach fewer patriotic songs than either older or younger teachers. Across the board teachers are fairly consistent in the extent to which they teach childrens songs, with one distinct anomaly. Teachers between the ages 26-29 teach significantly fewer childrens songs than does every other age category. Similarly, although the average is low, teachers of all age categories are consistent in the extent to which they teach folk songs, except for teachers age 40-45. The 40-45 age bracket records a marked drop in the extent to which they teach folk songs. Figure 22 reveals that according to the collective results, the fewest songs are taught by teachers age 40-45 whose responses regarding folk songs indicate that overall

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121 they are closer to None than Few. This means, more specifically that Very, very Few of their students may be expected to know very, very few American folk songs by memory. Teachers age 40-45 hold the lowest scores for teaching folk songs, patriotic 3 So No 2.5 4 2.4 3 2.3 2 2.2 8 2.2 3 2.3 9 2.3 9 1. 4 1.3 2 1.3 2 1.311.3 3 1.1 8 1.3 5 1.811.7 8 1.6 5 1. 8 1.7 5 1. 9 1.4 7 1.6 7 1.6 3 1.4 7 1.611.5 9 1.511.6 7 00.511.522.520-2526-2930-3536-3940-4546-4950+ Folk Songs Children's Songs Patriotic Songs TotalneFewmeMost Figure 22. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by age of teacher songs, and maintain the lowest overall score. By contrast, the youngest teachers, age 20-25, teach the most American childrens folk songs (and to a greater extent) with their responses regarding both patriotic songs and childrens songs leading all of the other age categories, giving them the highest overall scores. Analysis of Results by School Type Table 16 provides results in the comparison between private and public schools. The trend to teach some patriotic songs, few childrens songs, and even fewer folk songs

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122 Table 16. School typeweighted average of responses School Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum Type LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean Private 1.78165674 1.47095405 2.45112615 1.70409016 Public 1.68646611 1.15660446 2.28733762 1.48376464 continues in this comparison. Private schools significantly outperform public schools in the overall teaching of songs of the American childrens folk heritage, as shown in Table 16. The extent of their teaching of American folk songs gives them a significant lead, even though they surpass the public schools in the extent to which they teach every category of song. No 1.691.162.291.481.781.472.451.700.511.522.53Children'sSongsFolk SongsPatriotic SongsTotal Public PrivateneFewSomeMost Figure 23. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school type The level of the public school teaching of American folk songs borders a score of None indicating that between no and practically no public school students may be expected to know any songs of their American folk heritage by memory. Figure 23 is a

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123 graphic representation of Table 16, indicating how public schools perform in comparison to private schools in regard to the extent to which they teach American childrens folk songs. The teacher in the private sector outperformed the teacher in the public school in every category, as is visible in Figure 23. Analysis of Results by Music Series Textbook Used The vast majority (80%) of teachers in this study, in both private and public schools, use music series textbooks. Figure 9 of chapter three shows the percentage of teachers who use each of the major textbooks discussed. Table 17 provides a breakdown Table 17. Music series textbook usedweighted average of responses Music Series Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum Textbook Used LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN Silver BurdettMusic Connection 1.71140678 1.33822205 2.41037588 1.60456671 MacmillanMusic & You 1.69437710 1.28021961 2.30129291 1.55392936 McGraw-HillShare the Music 1.77783031 1.31472174 2.41506654 1.61531776 Silver BurdettWorld of Music 1.85325149 1.45550718 2.45880302 1.72105090 Other or None 1.63344146 1.18022568 2.26062106 1.47477226 of the extent to which teachers who use each specific textbook series teach songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Table 17 shows that teachers who use any of the major music series textbooks listed teach more songs of the American childrens folk heritage than those who do not use one of these major textbooks or use no textbook at all. Silver Burdetts World of Music leads the other textbooks in their overall score as well as in every single category. This does not necessarily indicate that Silver Burdetts World of Music contains more songs of the American childrens folk heritage, but

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124 specifically that general music teachers who use Silver Burdetts World of Music are teaching more childrens, folk, and patriotic songs of the American heritage to a greater extent than those using other textbooks or no textbook. The lowest scores both total and in every category are registered by teachers who do not use one of these major textbooks 1.1 8 1.4 6 1.3 1 1.2 8 1.3 4 1.7 1 1.6 9 1.7 8 1.8 5 1.6 3 2.4 1 2. 3 2.4 2 2.4 6 2.2 6 1. 6 1.5 5 1.6 2 1.7 2 1.4 7 00.511.522.53Silver BurdettMusic ConnectionMacmillan Music& YouMcGraw-HillShare the MusicSilver BurdettWorld of MusicOther or None Folk Songs Children's Songs Patriotic Songs TotalNoneFewSomeMost Figure 24. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by music series textbook used or use no textbook at all. Teachers who do not use a textbook, or one of the above textbooks, teach markedly less folk songs than those who use one of the listed major textbooks. Teachers who use an other or none textbook are lower overall. They are lower in every category, but still competitive regarding childrens songs. Figure 24 displays the numerical values of Table 17 in a bar graph. Its visible format shows how teachers using each of the textbooks compare to each other. Folk songs are taught to a greater extent by teachers who use Silver Burdetts World of Music,

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125 with Silver Burdetts Music Connection containing the next highest score. Silver Burdetts World of Music is used by teachers who teach the most childrens songs (and to a greater extent), with McGraw-Hills Share the Music being the next highest choice. Silver Burdetts World of Music is used by teachers who teach the most patriotic songs (and to a greater extent), with McGraw-Hills Share the Music and Silver Burdetts Music Connection all maintaining a lead over the other textbooks. Macmillans Music & You trails behind the other textbooks in every category. This does not necessarily indicate that it contains less American childrens folk songs, but that teachers who use Music & You teach less American childrens folk songs (and to a less extent) than those who use the other textbooks listed above. Childrens songs are taught with relative consistency across each of the textbook variables. This is interesting when compared to the variation found in the childrens song category of Figure 22, which explores the variables in relation to the age of the teacher. Analysis of Results by School Level Table 18. School levelweighted average of responses School Level Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean Elementary and Preschool 2.03329900 1.28245316 2.37421814 1.67966773 Middle School 1.06648767 1.22956237 2.23780715 1.30535309 High School and above 2.10239761 1.42932223 2.49567036 1.79676136 Performance in each of the song categories is somewhat consistent with the textbook comparison. Much more variation is visible when school level is examined. General music teachers who teach high school or beyond lead the group in the teaching of American childrens folk songs with a score of 1.797, as Table 18 evinces. They are

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126 followed by Elementary and Preschool teachers at 1.68. The mean scores of both the elementary and high school teachers round up to Some. The mean of the middle school teachers rounds down to None. Middle School general music teachers 3 2 0 1.071.232.241.312.031.282.371.682.11.432.51.80.511.52.5Children'sSongsFolk SongsPatriotic SongsTotal Middle School Elementary and Preschool High School and aboveNoneFewSomeMost Figure 25. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school level are teaching very, very few American childrens folk songs (and to a lesser extent than others). Their scores for the extent to which they teach childrens songs were extremely low, as could be expected, in consideration of the content. Their consistently lower scores in folk songs and patriotic songs were also the lowest scores. Interestingly, the high school and above teachers surpassed the elementary and preschool teachers in the extent to which they teach childrens songs. This appears as quite an interesting phenomenon. Figure 25 is a graphic representation of Table 18, elucidating how the different levels of public school compare in regard to the extent to which they teach American childrens folk songs. High school and above clearly outperform both middle and

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127 elementary school in every category. Middle school evinces the worst achievement in every category. Analysis of Results by Years in the Profession The anomalies found in the analysis of school level disappear and a trend emerges when the data is analyzed according to the years each teacher has taught general music, as shown in Table 19. The longer a teacher teaches, the more songs of the American childrens folk heritage he/she teaches. This is apparent in the data of Table 19 and visually illustrated in Figure 26. This trend is not linked to the teachers age, as may be seen in a comparison between Figure 26 and Figure 22which contains the results of the age analysis. Table 19. Years the teacher has taught general musicweighted average of responses Years Teaching Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum General Music LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean 0-5 1.53868585 1.16489951 2.13066016 1.41756167 6-10 1.71161932 1.24716684 2.32728589 1.54549710 11-15 1.73054469 1.34539698 2.39458089 1.61280217 16+ 1.95539584 1.49765369 2.62440060 1.79984865 Figure 26 is a graphic representation of Table 19, indicating how teachers who have been in the career for differing lengths of time compare with each other. Those who have been in the career longer, teach every category of the songs of the American childrens folk heritage to a greater extent than teachers who have been in the career less time. Teachers just beginning their careers as music teachers hold the worst scores in every category. Likewise, teachers who have taught 16+ years outperform all other teachers, in every category. Additionally, scores across all age groups continue to

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128 increase with time in the field, and at no point and in no category do they decrease or break this trend. Mo So No 1.351.51.251.161.961.711.711.542.392.622.332.131.611.551.81.4200.511.522.530-56-1011-1516+ Folk Songs Children's Songs Patriotic Songs TotalneFewmest Figure 26. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by years the teacher has taught general music Analysis of Results by School Setting As veteran teachers outperform new teachers and high school teachers outperform middle school teachers, so urban schools outperform suburban schools. The weighted mean responses of the teachers in the study were analyzed according to the school setting Table 20. School settingweighted average of responses School Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum Setting LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN rural 1.76991700 1.33514008 2.37172688 1.61780869 suburban 1.57836430 1.24284779 2.30324685 1.49483103 urban 1.85390298 1.36334989 2.43272193 1.66914247

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129 and the results are provided in Table 20. Urban schools teach more songs of the American childrens folk heritage (and to a greater extent) than do either rural or suburban schools, as Table 20 discloses. They are closely followed, in every area, by rural schools, which are not so closely followed by suburban schools. Suburban schools lag behind in every category with childrens songs and folk songs contributing the greatest gaps in their repertoire. 1.772.371.492.31.241.581.621.341.672.431.361.8500.511.522.53Children'sSongsFolk SongsPatriotic SongsTotal suburban rural urbanMost Some Few N one Figure 27. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school setting Figure 27 is a graphic representation of Table 20, showing how the different school settings perform in comparison to each other in the extent to which they teach songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Suburban schools record the worst achievement in every category, and urban schools record the highest achievement in every category. The higher patriotic song scores and low folk song scores are clearly evident here and consistent with the other demographic analyses.

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130 Analysis of Results by Ethnicity Analysis by school setting provides results which are quite consistent across the categories. Interesting inconsistencies emerge when the teachers ethnicities are examined. Results of the ethnicity comparison are provided in Table 21. Table 21. Ethnicity of teacherweighted average of responses Ethnicity Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean LS Mean Asian/Pacific Islander 1.48998847 0.94242174 2.12512694 1.28233324 Black/African American 1.91670062 1.56693257 2.27515164 1.77791383 Hispanic/Latina(o)/ Chicana(o) 2.11506973 1.55043418 2.84327590 1.91056129 N ative American/Alaskan 1.42760050 1.11012917 2.26982712 1.36894185 White/Caucasian 1.72094781 1.39897861 2.33277783 1.62988678 Overall, Hispanic teachers teach more American childrens folk songs (and to a greater extent) than teachers of other ethnicities, maintaining a significant lead over all other ethnicities in their total score. Surpassed only by Black/African American teachers in the extent to which they teach folk songs, Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) teachers lead all ethnicities in every other category. The second highest total score was held by Black/African American teachers. Both the Hispanic and African American teachers maintained a significant lead over other ethnicities in the extent to which they teach childrens songs. All of the ethnic groups were fairly even in the extent to which they teach patriotic songs, except for the Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) teachers, who rose significantly above all other ethnicities in this area.

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131 2.132.272.331.551.41.570.941.112.121.721.921.491.432.842.281.911.631.781.281.3700.511.522.53Asian/PacificIslanderNative American/AlaskanBlack/AfricanAmericanWhite/ CaucasianHispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) Folk Songs Children's Songs Patriotic Songs TotalNoneFewSomeMost Figure 28. Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by ethnicity of teacher Table 21 and Figure 28 elucidate the lowest weighted average score seen to this point in the analysis of the data. General music teachers of Asian/Pacific Islander descent teach an average of No American folk songs to their students. The results of the data analysis reveal that students of Asian/Pacific Islander music teachers cannot be expected to know American folk songs. Figure 28 shows Asian/Pacific Islander and Native American/Alaskan teachers teaching by far the least American folk songs. Analysis of Results by State Information regarding the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught in each different state in the United States provides some compelling discoveries. Table 22 records both the aggregate scores and the scores of each state by category. Comparisons can be made between different states and within one state among different categories. The total column on the right provides a precise indication of the extent to which teachers in a particular state are teaching songs of the American

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132 childrens folk heritage. A score of . indicates that a Few students may be expected to be able to sing few of the songs from memory. In evaluation of the patriotic song category, a score of . indicates that Some students may be expected to be able to sing some of the songs from memory. Quick perusal of Table 22 provides an abundance of substantive information. A quick glance down the childrens song column points out that Kansas, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and West Virginia are well ahead of the other states in the teaching of childrens songs. A quick glance down the folk song column exposes that Georgia, Kentucky, and New York are states where American folk songs are not being taught. In the patriotic column, it was interesting to note that not one state in the nation registered a . (Most) for patriotic songs. Aggregate ranking by state Table 23 translates the total score column of Table 22 into a rank-ordered list. It clearly establishes how states compare to each other, overall, in the extent to which their general music teachers are teaching American childrens folk songs. Examination of overall results by state shows that Nebraska leads the nation in the extent to which their general music teachers teach American childrens folk songs. Nebraska is closely followed by South Dakota. West Virginia, Kansas, Oklahoma, and North Carolina trail behind, as may also be seen from a visual inspection of Table 22. Kentucky scored worst in the nation, closely followed by New York. Trailing behind them, in order, are Georgia, Hawaii, and Utah. General music teachers in these states teach an average of no American childrens folk songs, including patriotic songs. Their scores were well below that of the music teachers in all of the other states in the nation. Table 23 shows how the general music teachers in each state compare to each

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133 Table 22. Stateweighted average of responses State Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN Alabama 1.87140074 1.49922070 2.46303450 1.75110541 Alaska 1.61765220 1.32335339 2.29753116 1.55013565 Arizona 1.53037333 1.16658865 2.44884220 1.45703031 Arkansas 1.77653311 1.52452858 2.39603323 1.72360806 California 1.17819351 1.08967478 2.19406108 1.26341378 Colorado 1.96701226 1.46274475 2.67670881 1.79206734 Connecticut 1.76346571 1.25615576 2.42240670 1.57906617 Delaware 1.91936941 1.26002347 2.15857707 1.60100169 Florida 1.83555961 1.35286509 2.61277716 1.68082942 Georgia 1.31906101 0.97213527 2.14123370 1.24214031 Hawaii 1.28359175 1.14597960 1.76315246 1.27314022 Idaho 1.90054438 1.48163968 2.61206570 1.77107383 Illinois 1.77600943 1.39926722 2.36862938 1.65345618 Indiana 1.72039548 1.46558776 2.47763392 1.68382566 Iowa 1.82987085 1.24662407 2.29474508 1.58122402 Kansas 2.03722996 1.65517738 2.37531810 1.87872435 Kentucky 1.47330449 0.84018183 1.70659648 1.16807629 Louisiana 1.75177461 1.18386419 2.21037659 1.51047404 Maine 1.98270911 1.30255127 2.39001937 1.67521759 Maryland 1.93820329 1.48947732 2.59200247 1.78540464 Massachusetts 1.66878681 1.36160158 2.48568127 1.61228089 Michigan 1.84145490 1.37350256 2.40376028 1.66665077 Minnesota 1.51627191 1.42315277 2.29040922 1.56757517 Mississippi 1.67947191 1.24522883 2.28171779 1.52769158 Missouri 1.89564802 1.20812041 2.15307923 1.56478238 Montana 1.99981097 1.50816203 2.39210312 1.79030291 N ebrask a 2.22183196 1.63866898 2.63356303 1.96656461 N evada 1.71676867 1.42293753 2.57509122 1.67219218 N ew Hampshire 1.28875615 1.23898101 2.67795250 1.44301021 N ew Jersey 1.80997123 1.33021214 2.36133982 1.62750038 N ew Mexico 1.58770403 1.02192129 2.06916125 1.35049478 N ew Yor k 1.25264398 0.89242100 2.11124930 1.17338848 N orth Carolina 2.09036922 1.46627003 2.55243435 1.81970239 N orth Dakota 1.56355959 1.22777823 1.28721694 1.47973239 Ohio 1.54713811 1.31455798 2.34311673 1.52743790 Oklahoma 2.00353693 1.60321777 2.55652812 1.86329888

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134 Table 22. Continued State Childrens Sum Folk Sum Patriotic Sum Total Sum LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN LS MEAN Oregon 1.79987897 1.41056123 2.26539689 1.65409449 Pennsylvania 1.88177530 1.32318750 2.57353971 1.67569395 Rhode Island 1.95246556 1.36490057 2.59282940 1.72437824 South Carolina 1.61475137 1.24139100 2.38933818 1.51793506 South Dakota 2.03360628 1.60696970 2.76841508 1.90326530 Tennessee 1.75848396 1.19279040 2.24709119 1.52225727 Texas 1.59916595 1.09031966 2.08802951 1.39310860 Utah 1.39285084 1.00699810 1.90418555 1.25493394 Vermont 1.50421176 1.13901587 2.37593045 1.42404740 Virginia 1.93584047 1.33447002 2.60326129 1.70389764 Washington 1.54825639 1.12911713 2.38949111 1.43555433 West Virginia 2.10509121 1.57244839 2.68605811 1.89833587 Wisconsin 1.69841677 1.45679716 2.38329716 1.65945343 Wyoming 1.72229787 1.42592110 2.41858127 1.65579347 others total score. Figure 29 is a United States geographical map that shows each states total score, as divided into five categories. Each of the categories represents approximate groups of ten, enabling quick identification of states by their ranking in either the top ten, the bottom ten, or those grouped in higher and lower categories. Figure 29 reveals that no clear geographical pattern exists, for either the teaching of American childrens folk songs, or the lack of it. States in the heartland of America scored well, except for Texas, New Mexico, and Utah. States along the eastern seaboard scored well, except for Georgia and New York. Figure 29 graphically displays both the best and worst states clearly and distinctly. Childrens song ranking by state Table 24 reveals that Nebraska leads the nation in teaching childrens songs. It is followed by West Virginia, North Carolina, Kansas, South Dakota, and Oklahoma, in that

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135 HAWAIIALASKA Total Scores 1.771 to 1.967 (10) 1.667 to 1.771 (9) 1.568 to 1.667 (10) 1.443 to 1.568 (11) 1.168 to 1.443 (10) Figure 29. Map of total scores by state Table 23. Weighted average of total song responses by state States Rank-Ordered by Total Score 1. Nebraska 26. Massachusetts 2. South Dakota 27. Delaware 3. West Virginia 28. Iowa 4. Kansas 29. Connecticut 5. Oklahoma 30. Minnesota 6. North Carolina 31. Missouri 7. Colorado 32. Alaska 8. Montana 33. Mississippi 9. Maryland 34. Ohio 10. Idaho 35. Tennessee 11. Alabama 36. South Carolina 12. Rhode Island 37. Louisiana 13. Arkansas 38. North Dakota 14. Virginia 39. Arizona 15. Indiana 40. New Hampshire 16. Florida 41. Washington 17. Pennsylvania 42. Vermont 18. Maine 43. Texas 19. Nevada 44. New Mexico 20. Michigan 45. Hawaii 21. Wisconsin 46. California 22. Wyoming 47. Utah 23. Oregon 48. Georgia 24. Illinois 49. New York 25. New Jersey 50. Kentucky

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136 order. Nebraska also leads the nation in the aggregate ranking of all American childrens folk songs. Not only is Nebraska first overall, but they place first in the nation in the teaching of childrens songs as well. The greatest changes in ranking from the aggregate standings to the childrens song ranking was made by Missouri which moved up 16 places, from 35th in the nation overall to 15th in the nation regarding the teaching of childrens songs. Other notable changes appear in the movements of Delaware and Indiana. Delaware rose 14 places, from 27th in the nation overall to 13th in the childrens song ranking. Indiana fell 14 places from 15th in the nation to 29th in the childrens song ranking. Minnesota fell 12 places, from 30th in the nation to 42nd. Nevada fell 11 places, from 19th to 30th. Maine and Louisiana both rose 10 places in the ranking, Maine moving up from 18th to 8th, placing them in the top ten, and Louisiana moving up from 37th to 27th. Wisconsin and Arkansas both fell 10 places in rank. Arkansas falling from 13th to 23rd and Wisconsin falling from 21st to 31st. California is worst in the nation for teaching childrens songs, followed by New York. Figure 30 shows that at the center of America (Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Colorado) scores are higher than those at the Pacific coast or in the Great Lakes areas (except for Michigan). Folk song ranking by state Table 25 provides a rank-ordering of the states by the extent to which they teach American folk songs. It shows that Kansas has moved up four places and now leads the nation in the teaching of American folk songs, followed by Nebraska, who falls out of the lead. Kentucky and New York, in that order, are the worst states in the nation in regards to teaching American folk songs. New York maintains its ranking as 49th in the nation

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137 Figure 30. Map of childrens song scores by state ALASKAHAWAII Children's Song Scores 1.95 to 2.23 (10) 1.83 to 1.95 (9) 1.72 to 1.83 (10) 1.55 to 1.72 (9) 1.17 to 1.55 (12) Table 24. Weighted average of childrens song responses by state States Rank-Ordered by Childrens Song Mean 1. Nebraska 26. Tennessee 2. West Virginia 27. Louisiana 3. North Carolina 28. Wyoming 4. Kansas 29. Indiana 5. South Dakota 30. Nevada 6. Oklahoma 31. Wisconsin 7. Montana 32. Mississippi 8. Maine 33. Massachusetts 9. Colorado 34. Alaska 10. Rhode Island 35. South Carolina 11. Maryland 36. Texas 12. Virginia 37. New Mexico 13. Delaware 38. North Dakota 14. Idaho 39. Washington 15. Missouri 40. Ohio 16. Pennsylvania 41. Arizona 17. Alabama 42. Minnesota 18. Michigan 43. Vermont 19. Florida 44. Kentucky 20. Iowa 45. Utah 21. New Jersey 46. Georgia 22. Oregon 47. New Hampshire 23. Arkansas 48. Hawaii 24. Illinois 49. New York 25. Connecticut 50. California

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138 ALASKAHAWAII Folk Song Scores 1.482 to 1.656 (9) 1.374 to 1.482 (10) 1.26 to 1.374 (11) 1.167 to 1.26 (9) 0.84 to 1.167 (11) Figure 31. Map of folk song scores by state Table 25. Weighted average of folk song responses by state States Rank-Ordered by Folk Song Mean 1. Kansas 26. Alaska 2. Nebraska 27. Pennsylvania 3. South Dakota 28. Ohio 4. Oklahoma 29. Maine 5. West Virginia 30. Delaware 6. Arkansas 31. Connecticut 7. Montana 32. Iowa 8. Alabama 33. Mississippi 9. Maryland 34. South Carolina 10. Idaho 35. New Hampshire 11. North Carolina 36. North Dakota 12. Indiana 37. Missouri 13. Colorado 38. Tennessee 14. Wisconsin 39. Louisiana 15. Wyoming 40. Arizona 16. Minnesota 41. Hawaii 17. Nevada 42. Vermont 18. Oregon 43. Washington 19. Illinois 44. Texas 20. Michigan 45. California 21. Rhode Island 46. New Mexico 22. Massachusetts 47. Utah 23. Florida 48. Georgia 24. Virginia 49. New York 25. New Jersey 50. Kentucky

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139 for the overall teaching of American childrens folk songs, childrens songs, only to be worsted by Kentucky, the worst in the nation. The largest changes in ranking from the childrens song ranking to the folk song ranking were made by Minnesota who moved up 26 places from their childrens song ranking and 14 places in their aggregate ranking, Missouri who fell 22 places from their childrens song ranking, and Maine who fell 21 places. Other notable changes appear in the movements of Arkansas, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Ohio. Arkansas rose 17 places from their childrens song ranking of 23 to 6, placing them in the top ten. Indiana and Wisconsin rose 17 places from their childrens song scores of 29 to 12 and 31 to 14, respectively. Ohio rose 16 points from their aggregate score, from 34 to 28. Figure 31 reveals that states along the southwest border of the United States (with Utah, Georgia, Kentucky, and New York) form a line where folk songs are not taught. Patriotic song ranking by state Table 26 shows the patriotic song ranking by state. In regard to the teaching of patriotic songs, South Dakota catapults over Nebraska and Kansas and takes the lead nationwide. A very high average of Some, bordering on Most of South Dakotas students may be expected to know patriotic songs by memory. South Dakota is followed by West Virginia, New Hampshire, and Colorado. North Dakota falls 12 places to become the worst state in the nation for teaching patriotic songs. Descending from rankings no lower than 38th on any previous classification, North Dakota falls to the very bottom of the nation, registering as the worst state in the U.S. for teaching patriotic songs. It is quite interesting to note that out of 50 states, the two Dakotas here rank as both the best and the worst in the nation.

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140 Figure 32. Map of patriotic song scores by state ALASKAHAWAII Patriotic Song Scores 2.59 to 2.77 (10) 2.42 to 2.59 (9) 2.37 to 2.42 (10) 2.19 to 2.37 (11) 1.28 to 2.19 (10) Table 26. Weighted average of patriotic song responses by state States Rank-Ordered by Patriotic Song Mean 1. South Dakota 26. South Carolina 2. West Virginia 27. Wisconsin 3. New Hampshire 28. Vermont 4. Colorado 29. Kansas 5. Nebraska 30. Illinois 6. Florida 31. New Jersey 7. Idaho 32. Ohio 8. Virginia 33. Alaska 9. Rhode Island 34. Iowa 10. Maryland 35. Minnesota 11. Nevada 36. Mississippi 12. Pennsylvania 37. Oregon 13. Oklahoma 38. Tennessee 14. North Carolina 39. Louisiana 15. Massachusetts 40. California 16. Indiana 41. Delaware 17. Alabama 42. Missouri 18. Arizona 43. Georgia 19. Connecticut 44. New York 20. Wyoming 45. Texas 21. Michigan 46. New Mexico 22. Arkansas 47. Utah 23. Montana 48. Hawaii 24. Maine 49. Kentucky 25. Washington 50. North Dakota

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141 No change in state ranking in this entire study can compare with the movement by New Hampshire in the patriotic song ranking. At one point, 47th in the nation (for teaching folk songs), New Hampshire leapt from the bottom of the rankings to 3rd place in the teaching of patriotic songs. Other significant moves were made by Kansas, who fell from 4th and 1st place to 29th, a fall of 25 and 28 levels, and Arizona who leapt up 22 states moving from 39th, 40th, and 41st (scores for the previous rankings) to 18th in the nation for patriotic songs. New Hampshire, Florida, Virginia, and Rhode Island all rank in the top ten for the first time. Massachusetts rose 13 places from their overall position of 26th to 15th. Montana fell from its previous position in the top ten (which it had maintained consistently in every previous ranking) to 23rd in the nation. Washington rose 16 places from their aggregate rankingfrom 41st overall, 39th in childrens songs, and 43rd in folk songs to 25th in regard to patriotic songs. Oregon fell 19 places, from 23rd overall and 18th in childrens songs to 37th in patriotic songs. Delaware dropped a striking 28 places, from 13th in the nation regarding childrens songs to 41st in the nation for patriotic songs. Vermont moved up 14 places, from 42nd in the nation overall, 43rd in childrens songs, and 42nd in folk songs to 28th in the teaching of patriotic songs. Oklahoma fell from the top ten for the first time in these rankings, from 5th in the nation overall, 6th in teaching childrens songs, and 4th in teaching folk songs, to 13th in teaching patriotic songs. Aside from the southern block of Texas and New Mexico, there is no geographical pattern in the extent to which patriotic songs are taught in different states. The top ten, the bottom ten, and the various other sections of the ranking are geographically sprinkled across the nation, as shown in Figure 32.

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142 Compendium of Findings by Isolated Song Type The Extent to Which Childrens Songs of the American Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms Throughout the United States The childrens songs in the study were isolated and analyzed separately from the total. Previous analyses have been concerned with childrens song scores in relation to demographic variables. The following analysis examines the aggregate scores for songs in the childrens song category. In the childrens song category, the overall average was a very low Some. Some children in the United States will know some of the childrens songs of their American heritage by memory. This includes Mary Had A Little Lamb, Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, Old MacDonald, Bingo, etc. Table 27 shows the mean childrens song score. The p-value indicates that the results are significant. Table 27. Childrens song base values Childrens Songs Total Mean Root MSE F Value Pr > F 2.090984 0.791995 8.35 <.0001 Like the p-value, the F-value reveals the significance of the childrens songs in regards to the study. The table of F critical values, located in Appendix H, may be used to confirm the p-value listed in Table 27, and denotes that the childrens song category is significant. The F statistic and its p-value are used to discriminate between the status quo (no relationship exists between the extent to which childrens songs are taught across the nation, and the demographic variables of the teachers) and the proposition (a relationship does exist between the extent to which childrens songs are taught across the nation, and the demographic variables of the teachers). The F and p-values of Table 15 confirm that the results of the childrens song analysis are significant.

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143 The standard deviation, or Root MSE, indicates that teachers responses across the nation encompass the range of 2.883 to 1.299, with an average score of 2.091. This means that between Some (which could be rounded to Most) and a Few students in the nation may be expected to know between some to a few childrens songs by memory. General music teachers across the nation are teaching between Some and a Few childrens songs to the extent that Some and/or a Few children could sing those songs from memory. The bell-shaped normal curve of Figure 33 is a graphic representation of the overall study results in regards to childrens songs. It shows both the average of the responses and the standard deviation, revealing where the answers to the aggregate childrens song responses cluster. Since childrens songs are generally learned in elementary school, the weighted mean of childrens songs taught in elementary school are shown to the side. 00.511.522.533.51.02.03.04.05.0NoneFewSomeMost1Few2Some3MostElementary onlyNone 2.03Extent Teachers Have Taught SongsExtent Students Can Sing Songs From Memory .792.09 Figure 33. Childrens song base values

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144 This comparison, although quite close in number, may provide a more accurate representation of the extent to which people may be expected to know the childrens songs of their American heritage, since it factors out the low scores of middle school teachers and the exceptionally high scores of high school and college teachers. Factoring these scores out may be most prudent. It is not expected that songs such as Mary Had a Little Lamb be taught in middle school or high school, and general music courses are not required in many middle schools or high schools. Since all students may be expected to attend elementary school and the teaching of childrens songs is in the traditional domain of the elementary and preschool years, isolating the elementary score for teaching childrens songs here provides valuable information. Figure 33 shows the isolated elementary general music teachers score for childrens songs as well as the overall childrens song score. The aggregate childrens song score shows that Some students may be expected to know some songs from memory. The blue bar which isolates the elementary general music teachers least square mean shows that a slightly lower score of Some elementary students may be expected to know some childrens songs from memory. The relative consistency of these two figures is apparent in Figure 33. Summary. In the analysis of the childrens songs as an isolated category, the most significant demographics were gender, grade taught, years teaching, rural/suburban/urban school, and state, as indicated in Table 28. Of less significance, but still significant was the age of the teacher. The distinction between private and public school proved to be insignificant in regards to the extent to which general music teachers teach childrens songs, as did the music series textbook used by the general music teacher and the race of the teacher.

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145 Table 28. Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching childrens songs Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F Gender 1 23.35803254 23.35803254 37.24 <.0001 Age 6 13.15733434 2.19288906 3.50 0.0019 Race 4 5.84227291 1.46056823 2.33 0.0542 Private/Public school 1 1.14457064 1.14457064 1.82 0.1769 Music Series Textbook 4 5.32641451 1.33160363 2.12 0.0756 Grade Taught 2 95.23350965 47.61675483 75.91 <.0001 Years Teaching 3 25.15969227 8.38656409 13.37 <.0001 Rural/Suburban/ Urban School 2 19.29067821 9.64533911 15.38 <.0001 State 49 85.40076123 1.74287268 2.78 <.0001 The Extent to Which Folk Songs of the American Childrens Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms In the United States The folk songs in the study were isolated and analyzed separately from the total. The following analysis examines the aggregate scores for songs in the folk song category. Table 29. Folk song base values Folk Songs Total Mean Root MSE F Value Pr > F 1.347725 0.648248 5.25 <.0001 A low Few students may be expected to know a few folk songs, according to the average of folk song scores in the data gleaned from general music teachers across the nation. The total mean score as well as the standard deviation, and significance level are found in Table 29. The results of the analysis of folk songs as a separate category are significant, as shown in the p-value. The total mean is lower for folk songs than any other category. This means that very few children in the United States will know very few of the folk songs of their American heritage by memory. These songs include Erie

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146 Canal, Ive Been Workin On the Railroad, Over the River and Through the Woods, Home on the Range, etc. The folk song category, when compared to the childrens songs and patriotic song categories, received the lowest scores across the nation in the study. This trend was consistent across all demographics, revealing that general music teachers neglect the study of folk songs even more than either childrens songs or patriotic songs. The standard deviation for folk songs was lower than that of either childrens or patriotic songs, showing that teacher responses were more consistent with each other and showed a smaller range of variation. Both the average and the standard deviation are shown in Figure 34. 00.511.522.533.51.02.03.04.05.0NoneFewSomeMost1Few2Some3Most 4 Practically AllNone 1. 35.65Extent Teachers Have Taught SongsExtent Students Can Sing Songs From Memory Figure 34. Folk song base values The standard deviation, or Root MSE, indicates that teachers responses across the nation encompassed the range of 1.996 to 0.699 with an average score of 1.348. This

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147 means that between a Few and No students in the nation can be expected to know any folk songs by memory. General music teachers across the nation are teaching between a Few and No folk songs. In the category of folk songs, the most significant demographics included private and public schools, years a teacher has been teaching, and the state in which the teacher teaches, as shown in Table 30. Of a little less significance but still very significant was the age of the teacher. The textbook used, gender of the teacher, whether the school was set in a rural, suburban, or urban environment, as well as the race of the teacher, were all significant factors in the teaching of folk songs. Grade taught was of no significance at all in regards to the data analysis of folk song responses. The F-value and p-value of private/public schools suggests a closer look may be in order. Private schools teach an average score of 1.47 (rounds to Some) folk songs. Public schools teach an average of 1.16 (rounds to None) folk songs. Table 30. Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching folk songs Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F Gender 1 3.62542989 3.62542989 8.63 0.0034 Age 6 10.92927305 1.82154551 4.33 0.0002 Race 4 5.02014272 1.25503568 2.99 0.0180 Private/Public school 1 12.48188061 12.48188061 29.70 <.0001 Music Series Textbook 4 7.36026007 1.84006502 4.38 0.0016 Grade Taught 2 0.71002759 0.35501380 0.84 0.4298 Years Teaching 3 17.74799507 5.91599836 14.08 <.0001 Rural/Suburban/ Urban School 2 3.93869337 1.96934669 4.69 0.0093 State 49 54.18870689 1.10589198 2.63 <.0001

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148 The F-value and p-value of years teaching, though not as strong as that of private/public school, propounds information of interest. As they mature in their careers, the analysis of the data showed that general music teachers steadily increased in the amount and extent to which they teach folk songs. Beginning teachers teach an average of 1.16 folk songs (rounds to None). Teachers who have taught for 16+ years teach an average of 1.5 folk songs (rounds to Some). The growth in proportion to years a teacher has taught may be seen in Figure 26. The Extent to Which Patriotic Songs of the American Childrens Heritage Are Taught in General Music Classrooms in the United States Table 31 reveals the total mean, standard deviation, and significance levels of the patriotic songs in the study. The p-value indicates that the results were significant. In the patriotic song category, the overall average was a strong Some. Some children in the United States will know some of the patriotic songs of their American heritage by memory. This includes The Star-Spangled Banner, This Land Is Your Land, Yankee Doodle, etc. Table 31 records the total mean, standard deviation, and significance levels for the patriotic songs in the study. Table 31. Patriotic song base values Patriotic Songs Total Mean Root MSE F Value Pr > F 2.437375 0.753389 5.07 <.0001 The standard deviation, or Root MSE, indicated that teachers responses across the nation encompassed the range of 3.191 to 1.684, with an average score of 2.437. This means that between Most (it can only barely be considered most) and a Few students in the nation can be expected to know between most and/or a few patriotic songs by memory. Approximately 95% of the responses in the patriotic song category fall within

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149 the range of two standard deviations from the center. Figure 16 verifies the 68-95-99.7 Rule for Normal Distributions which is accepted in statistical analysis. This promulgates that across the nation, 95% of students may be expected to know between a strong Most and a low Few patriotic songs by memory. In particular, The Star-Spangled Banner rated a strong Most across the nation. The highest scores were recorded by America (3.61), The Star-Spangled Banner (3.59), and America, The Beautiful (3.57). A bell curve showing the current mean level of student knowledge of patriotic songs and the standard deviation indicating where children across the nation fall in regard to how many may be expected to know these songs by memory is depicted in Figure 35. 00.511.522.533.51.02.03.04.05.0NoneFewSomeMost1Few2Some3Most 4Practically AllNone .752.44Extent Teachers Have Taught SongsExtent Students Can Sing Songs From Memory Figure 35. Patriotic song base values In the category of patriotic songs, the most significant demographics were gender, years the teacher has been teaching, and the state in which the teacher teaches, as shown in Table 32. Also of significance was age, whether the teacher taught at a private or

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150 public school, the music series textbook he/she used, grade taught, and whether he taught at a rural, suburban, or urban school. The race of the teacher was of no significance. Table 32. Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to teaching patriotic songs Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F Gender 1 18.52754609 18.52754609 32.64 <.0001 Age 6 8.43482798 1.40580466 2.48 0.0218 Race 4 4.95896029 1.23974007 2.18 0.0685 Private/ Public school 1 3.38860703 3.38860703 5.97 0.0147 Music Series Textbook 4 6.81291847 1.70322962 3.00 0.0176 Grade Taught 2 2.23421081 1.11710541 1.97 0.1400 Years Teaching 3 34.08801176 11.36267059 20.02 <.0001 Rural/Suburban/ Urban School 2 3.80790237 1.90395118 3.35 0.0352 State 49 70.57803927 1.44036815 2.54 <.0001 Summary The extent to which general music teachers were teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage in the early 21st century was Few. Few teachers were teaching few songs to the extent that their students could sing them from memory. Patriotic songs were taught to a greater extent than childrens or folk songs. Folk songs were taught to a lesser extent than any other category in the study. In regards to the demographic data, gender, the grade level at which the teacher taught, age, whether he or she taught at a private or public school, the music series textbook he used, the years the teacher had been teaching, whether he taught at a rural, urban, or suburban school, and the state the teacher resided in all significantly affected the extent to which he taught songs of the American childrens folk heritage.

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151 Notable discoveries included that the longer a general music teacher has been in the profession, the greater the extent to which he/she taught songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Results revealed that Hispanic teachers taught more American childrens folk songs than any other ethnicity, showing a significant lead in the extent to which they taught patriotic songs, in particular. Asian/Pacific Islander teachers showed a significant deficiency in the extent to which they taught American folk songs. Private school teachers taught markedly more American folk songs than did public school teachers. Teachers between the ages of 26 and 29 taught markedly fewer childrens songs than did teachers of other ages, and teachers between the ages of 40 and 45 taught markedly fewer folk songs. Significant leaders in the extent to which American childrens folk songs are taught were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, West Virginia, Kansas, Oklahoma, North Carolina, Colorado, Montana, Maryland, and Idaho (the top ten overall, ranked in that order). Significant deficiencies in the teaching of American childrens folk songs were found in Kentucky, New York, Georgia, Utah, California, Hawaii, and New Mexico. California was the least child-song-friendly state, registering the lowest scores in the nation for teaching childrens songs. North Dakota was the least patriotic state, registering the lowest scores in the nation for teaching patriotic songs. Nebraska ranked as the most child-friendly state, registering the highest scores in the nation for teaching childrens songs; and South Dakota was the most patriotic state, registering the highest scores for teaching patriotic songs. Kansas taught the most folk songs; and Nebraska ranked first overall in the extent to which they teach songs of the American childrens folk heritage. The discrepancy analysis determined that the results were reliable and the

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152 simple linear regression analysis determined that the results were significant to the <.0001 level.

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which general music teachers across the nation are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage. The methodology of the study involved three phases. The first phase consisted of selecting the song list which would be foundational to the study. One hundred and sixty-seven music textbooks and songbooks from the 1700s to 1950 were used to create an initial song list. Songs appearing in at least three of the books were placed in the initial list. The song lists created from the research studies of Willis (1985) and Foy (1988) were added to the list. The initial list included 500+ songs. Next, 223 people over the age of 62 who had grown up in America and represented 44 states were consulted to transform that list into one which truly consisted of songs of the American childrens folk heritage. They took the initial list and indicated which songs they had learned as children in America (they were also allowed to add songs to the list). The resulting 250+ song list created by the elder study was used to create a pilot study. Participants in the pilot study requested that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The supervisory chair to the doctoral committee agreed that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The second phase was an empirical study which involved condensing the list created by the elder study (250+ songs) into a representative 100 songs. Thirty elementary music specialists at the top ranked universities in the nation (according to the U.S. News and World Report, 2002 College Rankings) rated the songs. They ranked 153

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154 them according to their suitability for placement in a representative list of songs of the American childrens folk heritage. The third phase consisted of a national song assessment which was used to achieve the purpose of this study, determining the extent to which songs of the American childrens folk heritage are taught by general music teachers throughout the United States. Four thousand general music teachers, eighty in each of the fifty states, were asked to assess the extent to which their students could sing each of the 100 songs of the American childrens folk heritage from memory. After the study was completed, the results of the final song list created by the elementary music specialists were compared to the elder study data one last time. Datum from each song chosen by the university elementary music specialists was analyzed in regard to the number of participants in the elder study who had recalled learning the song as a child in the United States. A recommended song list was created from songs which had been selected by 50 or more elder study participants and those most highly ranked by university elementary music specialists. Conclusions Generalizations to the Population 1. Overall, few students in the nation can sing few songs of the American childrens folk heritage by memory. This reveals that at the beginning of the 21st century, most general music teachers in the United States do not teach their students hardly any of the songs that represent the American childrens folk heritage. General music teachers have introduced some of the songs to their students, but they have spent little time teaching these songs, so little that their students would not be able to memorize the songs, with many of the songs not being taught at all. 2. Some students, but not a majority of the students in the nation can sing patriotic songs including the national anthem by memory. This reveals that general music teachers may have introduced a number of patriotic songs to their classes, but that they have not spent enough time teaching the songs to enable a majority of their students to know any particular song by memory. This includes the national anthem. Results indicate that the vast majority of children in America have not

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155 been taught the national anthem and other patriotic songs to the extent that they could sing them by memory. 3. Very few students in the nation, and in some states no or practically no students can sing American folk songs (e.g., Home on the Range, Ive Been Workin on the Railroad, and Over the River and Through the Woods) by memory. This exposes that a majority of general music teachers are not teaching American folk songs, or have not taught them within four years. A small number of general music teachers have spent some time teaching some folk songs and/or have not taught them consistently every year to all of the students in a particular grade, but have taught particular songs well enough that Some or a Few students will know a few songs by memory. In a number of states, results indicate that general music teachers are not teaching American folk songs at all. 4. Few students in the nation can sing American childrens songs (e.g., Mary Had A Little Lamb, Old MacDonald, and Bingo) by memory. This divulges that general music teachers have introduced some childrens songs, others have spent a little time teaching childrens songs, but all would agree that they have spent so little time teaching the songs that few, if any, of their students would be able to sing them from memory. Discussion Discussion of the results and conclusions which may be drawn from the analysis, along with practical suggestions for the implementation of findings are presented here. The results of the study indicate that there is much room for improvement in the extent to which general music teachers are teaching songs of the American childrens folk heritage. No state or region scored well enough to refrain from taking action. Provide lists of songs to be memorized General music teachers need lists of songs to be memorized. Music teachers can work with classroom teachers to accomplish the goal of teaching these songs. Parents and day care facilities also need lists. In the same way that students are given required summer reading lists, music teachers could assign a list of songs to be memorized over the summer. Information regarding compact disks, cassettes, Internet recordings, and library recordings of songs could be made available to students and their parents for summer memorization. Different music classes could each record a few songs, and

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156 music teachers could sell the compact discs to facilitate summer memorization and make money for their programs. This could serve to benefit music programs and increase community support of both the programs and the song content. Taking action by employing the ideas presented above could have tremendous results across the nation. Increase awareness and improve resources General music teachers are professionals who are responsible for a multitude of professional decisions regarding every aspect of the music education their students receive. It is acknowledged that theirs is not an easy job. Making them aware of the current national standings of their states and demographic characteristics could serve to provide insight, encourage, and challenge teachers as to areas where they need to improve, and areas where they are strong. Making quality resources which are rich in American childrens folk songs, available and convenient to teachers, would be of great value. Quality resources would include sheet music with chord changes for harmony instruments in series textbooks, quality recordings of the songs, overhead transparencies with ostinato accompaniments for multiple age ranges, and information in teachers (and possibly students) editions regarding meanings, context, and any pertinent issues or life struggles of the people who sang a particular American childrens folk song. Establish a core repertoire rich in American childrens folk songs Making general music teachers aware of the importance of teaching American childrens folk songs to the extent that practically all of their students can sing the songs from memory is critical. This concept is not new to this present study, but was also found in the research of Foy. Music educators completing the Song Survey were asked whether or not they believed a list of core songs would be helpful to them in planning a curriculum. Almost all agreed that such a list would be helpful (Foy, 1988, p. 48).

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157 Encouraging teachers to choose a core repertoire rich in American childrens folk songs and teach that repertoire, working toward memorization, is critical. To this end, veteran teachers can assist teachers newer to the profession in determining when and how to develop a song repertoire for the coming year or for the different grades they teach. Teachers of the same district could meet together and collectively determine a repertoire of works their students should know by memory. This list of songs to be memorized could be placed in the Elementary/Middle/High School Music Teachers Handbook, on the chart which lists core concepts for each grade to master regarding rhythm, sightsinging, harmony, form, instruments, vocabulary, etc. Administrators should be encouraged to not create all-encompassing lists which include contemporary music and leave no room for a teachers individual preferences and choices, but should be limited to standards in the American childrens, folk, and patriotic repertory. Other particularly wonderful songs could be sent to the teachers yearly as preferred picks for this year by the music supervisor or selected by the music teachers. Keeping preferred picks separate from those required is important. Teachers will not confine themselves to the required list. They must be free to acquire and use contemporary music to best meet the needs of their students and build cutting-edge and engaging music programs. Including such songs in a list required for memorization would result in a list that would be too large and oppressive. Alternately, having no list of American childrens folk songs required for memorization in the curriculum guide and Teachers Handbook leaves teachers at a loss when it comes to deciding which songs they should place in their core repertory and the extent to which their students need to know a song.

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158 Increase the teaching of American folk songs The analysis indicated that the teaching of American folk songs was particularly low across the nation. A great deal of improvement is warranted. Because music classes are frequently required only in elementary school, it falls to the elementary music teacher to insure that students learn all of these songspatriotic songs, childrens songs, and folk songs of the American heritage. This may appear to be a tremendous burden, but it is of paramount importance. The currently visible loss of American identity as seen in high school and college students across the nation may be due to the loss of their cultural heritage as Americans. This can be fixed. It is important that teachers take action and increase the extent of their teaching of American folk songs. If a generation of teachers rises up who do not know the songs of their American heritage, they will not teach them to their students. Our nation could lose its own heritage very quickly. Increase the teaching of American childrens songs The analysis indicated that there is room for improvement in the teaching of American childrens songs in elementary and general music classrooms across the nation. As was shown in chapter two, children learn a great deal from these songs, benefiting in a multitude of ways from knowing them. Leaders, teachers, and administrators in preschools and elementary schools need to invest time to make sure the task is accomplished. Preschool curriculum. Preschools across the nation are an untapped resource. Even though they traditionally have had no formal music curriculum, creating and promoting a national preschool music curriculum would be of tremendous value. Learning colors, shapes, the alphabet, along with a strong repertoire of American

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159 childrens songs should be some of the outcomes of attending daycare. Preschools should use the list of childrens songs herein for a place to begin. In the elementary setting, music teachers could take the lead, encouraging classroom teachers in the elementary school to incorporate these songs into their school day. Making classroom teachers aware that students are no longer learning the childrens songs of their own heritage and providing them, as well as directors of after-school programs, with a list of the songs, sheet music, and recordings may very well be all that is necessary. It would be of monumental value to the nations cultural heritage in the long run. Increase the teaching of American patriotic songs The analysis also indicated that there is room for improvement in the teaching of American patriotic songs in general music classrooms across the nation. The national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner, could be taught to a greater extent across the nation. It should not be infeasible that practically all students should be able to sing the first verse from memory. Because elementary music classes are frequently the only music classes required of all students, elementary general music teachers must teach patriotic songs to the extent that their students can sing them from memory. Elementary music teachers must become consciously aware of the extent to which theyre teaching both songs and concepts in their classes. This is of vital importance to efforts to raise the level of student achievement in many areas of music. Constant and consistent review is necessary in order to raise student knowledge and achievement on a large scale (as opposed to raising the achievement levels of some of the students) across the nation in music.

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160 Increase the influence of veteran teachers The analysis indicated (Figure 26) that time in the profession may translate into either enhanced ability to make value judgments regarding song repertory and/or a greater commitment to memorization of the songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Veteran teachers are of increasing value in regards to the increasing level American childrens folk song repertoire they teach and the extent to which they teach it in the general music classroom. Creating and instituting mentoring programs should be considered. In addition, veteran teachers should be encouraged to lead music in-service sessions regarding song repertoryhow to choose, what to choose, what is of value, and teaching for memorization. Recommendations From This Study The results from the elder study and the college and university elementary music specialists song assessment recommendations were conjoined to create a list of American childrens folk songs which truly represent the American heritage, and offer a place to begin in the move to increase the extent to which American childrens folk songs are being taught across the nation. This list is presented in Appendix K. It will provide a place to begin, a standard. In order to create the list, the 100 songs the college and university elementary music specialists rated as most representative of the American childrens folk heritage were used as foundational material. From that list, the scores from the study of songs taught to children in America between 50 and 100 years ago (elder study) were consulted. Songs which less than 50 people selected (not selecting a song indicated that the study participant had not been taught that particular song, as a child growing up in the United States) were removed from the list, and a shorter, more representative list is presented in Appendix K.

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161 Recommendations For Further Research Recommendations for further research are discussed below. 1. An action research study aimed at answering the question, What could be done to improve the situation, causing general music teachers in the United States to teach more songs of the American childrens folk heritage to a greater extent? appears to be the next logical step from this research study. Gifted general music teachers or researchers could seek to develop a new approach or solve this problem, providing direct application to the general music teacher. 2. A descriptive study regarding which music series textbooks currently contain the most childrens, folk, and patriotic songs of the American childrens folk heritage would be of tremendous value. Compelling questions include: Which textbook series contains the most songs of the American childrens folk heritage overall? Which textbook series contains the most different songs (frequently series authors will print the same song in a number of different books in their series)? Specifically what songs do they contain? A categorized list would be greatly helpful. Knowing the totals for different categories might enable textbook publishers to determine the best improvements to be scheduled for the next publishing date of their series. What additional teaching aids do they contain? This would include sheet music with chord changes for harmony instruments in series textbooks, quality recordings of the songs, as well as overhead transparencies with ostinato accompaniments for multiple age ranges, and information in the teachers (and possibly the students) editions regarding meanings, context, and any pertinent issues or life struggles of the people who sang the particular song. 3. A study of the song repertoire choices of general music teachers of various cultural backgrounds would be beneficial. This could include categorization of their song selections by type and genre, and investigation into the extent to which they teach each type of song. A study regarding the beliefs and values which influence the extent to which they do or do not teach American childrens folk songs, both the amount and extent of the songs they teach would also be estimable. This study would be more feasible with an accessible sample of teachers. 4. A study investigating why general music teachers teach so few songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Song results of this present study were low in every area. This gives rise to a number of questions. What are general music teachers teaching? Are they currently teaching songs to the point of memorization or just going over songs a few times before moving to different songs?

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162 Do children sing much in music class anymore? What are children singing? Where did they learn the songs they have memorized (radio, home, television, school)? Investigating the extent to which variations in the extent to which students know songs of the American childrens folk heritage correspond to variations in other factors, such as teacher values, time constraints, and tiring of repetition would be of tremendous value. 5. Longitudinal studies designed to answer the question, Is America losing its childrens song heritage (is this a continuing trendwhen did it start, how fast is it moving [what is the rate of decline from one generation to the next])? would be of great value, both to the profession and the nation. Sociological or anthropological study of Americas connection with its ancestors and history, and whether or not Americans are losing that connection would be of consequence to music education and other fields, as well. 6. A study providing curricular direction and materials for teachers would be valuable. The study could create a curriculum, try an innovative curriculum, or supplement music series textbook songs and materials. Direction regarding how to teach particular songs, background and song study information, as well as overhead transparencies, Orff accompaniments, recordings, and other aids could be developed.

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APPENDIX A THE SONGS EVERY AMERICAN SHOULD KNOW, FROM MENC: THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR MUSIC EDUCATIONS GET AMERICA SINGING AGAIN! VOLUMES I AND II Source: Songs for home, school, and classroom (located at http://www.menc.org/information/prek12/again.html#list ). Accessed March 21, 2003. Reprinted with permission from the publisher. Volume 1 1. Amazing Grace 17. Home on the Range 2. America (My Country, 'Tis of Thee) 18. I've Been Working on the Railroad 19. If I Had a Hammer (The Hammer Song) 3. America the Beautiful 4. Battle Hymn of the Republic 20. Let There Be Peace on Earth 5. Blue Skies 21. Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing 6. Danny Boy (Londonderry Air) 22. Michael (Row the Boat Ashore) 7. De Colores 23. Dona Nobis Pachem 8. Do-Re-Mi 24. Music Alone Shall Live 9. Down by the Riverside 25. My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean 10. Frre Jacques 26. Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin' 11. Give my Regards to Broadway 27. Oh! Susanna 12. God Bless America 28. Over My Head 13. God Bless the U.S.A. 29. Puff the Magic Dragon 14. Green, Green Grass of Home 30. Rock-A-My Soul 15. Havah Nagilah 31. Sakura 16. He's Got the Whole World in His Hands 32. Shalom Chaverim 163

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164 33. She'll Be Comin' 'Round the Mountain 54. Follow the Drinkin' Gourd (traditional) 34. Shenandoah 55. Getting to Know You (Rodgers and Hammerstein) 35. Simple Gifts 56. Guantanamera (Pete Seeger & Jose Marti) 36. Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child 57. I Love the Mountains (traditional) 37. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot 58. I've Got Rhythm (George Gershwin) 38. This Land is Your Land 39. The Star Spangled Banner 59. Irene Goodnight (Huddie Ledbetter) 40. Take Me Out to the Ball Game 60. It's a Small World (Shermans) 41. This Little Light of Mine 61. Jamaica Farewell (Irving Burgie) 42. Yesterday 62. Kum Ba Yah (traditional) 43. Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Dah 63. Let It Be (Lennon & McCartney) 64. Let Me Call You Sweetheart (traditional) Volume 2 44. All Through the Night (traditional) 65. Make New Friends (traditional) 45. Auld Lang Syne (traditional) 66. Midnight Special (Huddie Ledbetter) 46. Both Sides Now (Joni Mitchell) 67. My Favorite Things (Rodgers and Hammerstein) 47. Camptown Races (Stephen Foster) 48. Clementine (traditional) 68. Old MacDonald Had a Farm (traditional) 49. Down In the Valley (traditional) 69. Over the Rainbow (Harold Arlen) 50. Edelweiss (Rodgers and Hammerstein) 70. Peace Like a River (traditional) 51. Erie Canal (traditional) 71. Precious Lord (Thomas Dorsey) 52. Ev'ry Time I Feel the Spirit (traditional) 72. Red River Valley (traditional) 73. Rock Around the Clock (Max Freedman & Jimmy DeKnight) 53. Five Hundred Miles (Hedy West)

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165 74. Side By Side (Harry Woods) 82. When the Saints Go Marching In (traditional) 75. Take Me Home, Country Roads (John Denver/Bill Danoff/Taffy Danoff) 83. Where Have All the Flowers Gone (Pete Seeger) 76. To Every Season (Turn! Turn! Turn!) (Pete Seeger) 84. Yankee Doodle (traditional) 85. You Are My Sunshine (Davis/Mitchell) 77. Try to Remember (Harvey Schmidt & Tom Jones) 86. You Are the Sunshine of My Life (Stevie Wonder) 78. The Water Is Wide (traditional) 79. We Shall Overcome (Horton, Seeger, Carawan) 87. You're a Grand Old Flag (George M. Cohan) 80. What a Wonderful World (Theile Weiss) 88. You've Got a Friend (Carole King) 81. When Johnny Comes Marching Home (Patrick Gilmore)

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APPENDIX B FIFTY SONGS EVERY CHILD SHOULD KNOW List compiled by Lisa Kleinman in Name That Tune (Kleinman, n.d.) and located at http://family.go.com/entertain/music/feature/dony108songs/dony108songs2.html Accessed March 21, 2003. SIMPLEST PRESCHOOL SONGS 1. Aiken Drum 16. Old MacDonald Had a Farm 2. Alouette 17. Pop Goes the Weasel 3. Baa Baa Black Sheep 18. Ring Around the Rosies 4. Bingo 19. Row, Row, Row Your Boat 5. Did You Ever See a Lassie 20. Sing a Song of Sixpence 6. Eency Weency Spider 21. Three Blind Mice 7. Here We Go 'Round the Mulberry Bush 22. A Tisket, a Tasket 23. Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star 8. Hole in the Bucket 24. The Wheels on the Bus 9. The Hokey Pokey 10. If You're Happy and You Know It EARLY SCHOOL YEARS 11. I've Been Working on the Railroad 25. The Ants Go Marching 12. Mary Had a Little Lamb 26. Baby Beluga 13. The Muffin Man 27. The Bear Went Over the Mountain 14. Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow 28. Clementine 15. Oh, Dear, What Can the Matter Be? 29. Down by the Riverside 30. Frre Jacques 166

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167 31. He's Got the Whole World in His Hands 32. Home on the Range 33. If I Had a Hammer 34. Little Bunny Foo Foo 35. London Bridge Is Falling Down 36. Michael, Row the Boat Ashore 37. Mister Frog Went A Courtin' 38. Oh Susanna 39. On Top of Spaghetti 40. Puff the Magic Dragon 41. Rise and Shine 42. She'll Be Comin' Round the Mountain 43. Simple Gifts 44. Skip, Skip, Skip to My Lou 45. Take Me Out to the Ball Game 46. This Land Is Your Land 47. This Little Light of Mine 48. When Johnny Comes Marching Home 49. Yankee Doodle 50. You Are My Sunshine

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APPENDIX C ELDER STUDY MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS This initial list of songs was created by compiling songs found multiple times in the textbooks and songbooks in Appendix J, as well as including the recommended song lists from the dissertations of Foy (1988) and Willis (1985). Cues were added to the titles in order to facilitate recognition of the songs. The song list, initially 510 songs, was divided in half in order to create the elder study. It was determined that one survey containing all of the songs would have been too much to ask people to complete. All 510 songs are presented here. 168

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169 American Childrens Folk Song Survey Childrens Folk Songs Taught in U.S. Schools 40+ Years Ago 1. Age: 62-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91+ 2. The state(s) you grew up in: _______________________________________ Check each song you were taught in school. All The Pretty Little Horses (Hushaby, dont you cry, go to sleep little baby, when you wake, you shall have ) A Fair Flower (far from the noise of dusty street, a stately lily bloomed so sweet) A Hot Time (when you hear them bells go ding-ling-ling, all join round) All Through the Night (sleep my child and peace attend thee) A Mighty Fortress (is our God) Alouette (gentille alouette) A Paper of Pins (cause thats the way my love begins) Amazing Grace (how sweet the sound that saved a wretch like me) A Tisket, A Tasket (a green and yellow basket) America (my country tis of Thee, sweet land of liberty) Abide With Me (fast falls the even-tide) America, the Beautiful (Oh beautiful for spacious skies) Acres of Clams (Ive wandered all over this country, prospecting and digging for gold) Angel Band, The (there was one, there were two, there were three little angels) After the Rain (bright is the sunlight oer the mountain and plain) Angels We Have Heard On High (sweetly singing oer the plains) A-Hunting We Will Go (well catch a fox and put him in a box, and then well let him go) Animal Fair (the birds and the beasts were there, the big baboon, by the light of the moon, was combing his auburn hair) Aint Gonna Rain (it aint gonna rain, it aint gonna rain no more) Annie Laurie (Maxweltons braes are bonnie) All Among the Barley (who would not be blithe, when the free and happy barley is smiling on the scythe) Are You Sleeping? (are you sleeping, brother John) Ash Grove, The (down yonder green valley where stream-lets meander) All Around the Kitchen (cocky doodle doo) All Gods Chillun All Night, All Day (angels watchin over me, my lord)

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170 Au Clair De La Lune (mon ami Pierrot: ma chandelle est morte) Billy Boy (Oh where have you been Billy Boy, Billy Boy) Auld Lang Syne (should auld acquaintance be forgot and never brought to mind) Bingo (there was a farmer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o) Black is the Color (of my true loves hair) Aura Lee (maid of golden hair, sunshine came along with thee, and swallows in the air) Blow the Man Down (Yo, Ho, Blow the man down, give me some time to blow the man down) Autumn Colors (Autumn leaves are many colored, brown, and red, and orange, too) Blue (I had a dog and his name was Blue, bet you five bucks hes a rounder, too) Away in a Manger (no crib for a bed) Baa! Baa! Black Sheep (have you any wool) Blue Tail Fly, The (Jimmy crack corn and I dont care, my masters gone away) Ballad of the Boll Weevil, The (come to try the Texas soil, and he thought hed better stay, just a-lookin for a home) Blue-Bell, The (My shy Blue-Bell) Bluebells of Scotland (oh where and oh where has your highland laddie gone) Balm in Gilead (way down on the peach-blow farm) Boll Weevil Song (A lookin for a home, just a lookin for a home) Barbara Allen (All in the merry month of May when green buds were a-swelling) Bought Me A Cat (and the cat pleased me, I fed my cat under yonder tree) Barbers Cry (lather and shave, shampoo and shear) Bound for the Promised Land (on Jordans stormy banks I stand and cast a wishful eye) Barnyard Song (I had a cat, and the cat pleased me) Battle Hymn of the Republic (glory, glory hallelujah, His truth is marching on) Brave Old Oak, The (then sing to the oak, the brave old oak, who hath stood in his pride so long) Bear Went Over the Mountain, The (to see what he could see) Brown Girl, The (has both houses and lands) Bee, The (as Cupid in a garden strayed, transported with the damask shade, a little bee unseen among the silken weeds his finger stung) Buffalo Gals (wont you come out tonight) Bunker Hill (The American Hero) Burial at Sea, The (O bury me not in the deep, deep sea where the billows shroud shall roll oer me) Believe Me if All Those Endearing Young Charms (which I gaze on so fondly today) Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (these words came low and mournfully) Belinda (wont you be my darling?) Bell Doth Toll, The (its echoes roll, I know the sound full well) But the Lord is Mindful (of His own, He remembers His children) Bile Them Cabbage Down (bake that hoecake brown, brown) Bye, Baby Bunting (daddys gone a-hunting) Billy Barlow (Lets go hunting says)

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171 Byem Bye (stars shinin number, number one, number two, number three) Christian Dost Thou See Them? (on the holy ground, how the hosts of darkness) Caissons Song (over hill over dale, we will hit the dusty trail, as those) Christmas Is Coming (the goose is getting fat) Camptown Races, The (camptown ladies sing this song, doo-dah, doo-dah) Christ Was Born Cielito Lindo (Vienen bajando) Cindy (Get along home, Cindy Cindy, Ill marry you some day) Canoe Song, The (my paddles keen and bright, flashing with silver follow the wild goose flight dip, dip, and swing) Clap Your Hands Clementine (Oh my darling, oh my darling, oh my darling Clementine) Capital Ship, A (for an ocean trip was the Walloping Window Blind) Coasts of High Barbary Cock Robin (who killed cock Robin? I said the sparrow) Captain Jinks (Im captain Jinks of the horse marines, I feed my horse on corn and beans) Colorado Trail (weep all ye little rains, wail winds wail, all along, along, along the) Captain Kidd (take warning now for me, and shun bad company) Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (when born by the red, white, and blue, thy banners make tyranny tremble) Carrousel (ha, ha, ha, happy are we, Anderson and Henderson and Lundstrom and me) Carry Me Back to Old Virginny (theres where the cotton and the corn taters grow) Come Thou Almighty King (Father all glorious, oer all victorious, come and reign over us) Casey Jones (the caller called Casey at a-half past four, kissed his wife at the station door) Come, Ye Thankful People (come, raise the song of harvest home) Comin Through the Rye (if a body meet a body, comin through the rye) Chanticleer (of all the birds from east to west, that tuneful are and dear) Cotton-Eyed Joe (where do you come from, where do you go, where do you come from Cotton-eyed Joe) Cherry-Tree Carol (Joseph was an old man and an old man was he) Chester (let tyrants shake their iron rod and slavery clank her galling chains, well fear them not) Cowboys Life (some say its free from care, rounding up cattle from morning till night in the middle of the prairie so bare) Childs Prayer, A (soft the shadows round me creep) Cradle Song (sleep, baby, sleep) Children Go Where I Send Thee (and how shall I send thee) Crawdad Song (You get a line, and Ill get a pole honey) Childrens Prayer (when at night I go to sleep, fourteen angels watch do keep, two my head are guarding, two my feet are guiding) Cuckoo, The (shes a pretty bird, she sings as she flies) Cumberland Gap (me and my wife, and my wifes pap, we all live down in Cumberland Gap)

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172 Daddy Shot a Bear (shot him through the keyhole, and never touched a hair) Do Re Mi Down By the Riverside (and study war no more) Dance to Your Daddy (my little laddie, dance to your daddy my little man) Down by the Station (early in the morning, see the little engines all in a row) Darling Corey (go dig a hole in the meadow, go dig a hole in the ground) Down in Mobile (Crows wont steal, I have heard folks say, way down yonder in the corn field) Darling Nelly Gray (Oh, my poor Nelly Gray, they have taken you away and Ill never see my darling any more) Down in the Valley (valley so low, hang your head over) Draw A Bucket of Water (for my only daughter) Davy Crockett (king of the wild frontier) Drill, Ye Tarriers, Drill! (for its work all day for sugar in your tay, down behind the railway) Dearest Spot on Earth, The (to me is home, sweet home) Deck the Halls (with boughs of holly) Drink to me only with thine eyes (and I will pledge with mine) Deep River (my home is over Jordan, deep river, Lord, I want to cross over into campground) Drunken Sailor (What shall we do with a) Ducklings, The (all my little ducklings, swimming here and there, heads beneath the water, tails up in the air) Dem Bones (the foot bones connected to the ankle bone) Devil and the Farmer, The (sing right-ful aw-ful ay-ful a-ni-go-lee) Ducks in the Millpond (a-geese in the clover a fell in the mill pond a-wet all over) Did You Ever See A Lassie? (a lassie, a lassie, did you ever see a lassie go this way and that) Early to Bed (and early to rise, makes a man healthy, and wealthy, and wise) Didnt My Lord Deliver Daniel? (and why not every man) Dinah (Someones in the kitchen with Dinah) Eating Goober Peas (Goodness, how delicious) Ding Dong Bell (pussys in the well) Edward (how came that blood on your shirt sleeve) Dixie (Oh, I Wish I Was in the Land of Cotton) Eency, Weency Spider (went up the water spout) Dog Tick (why cant a dog tick dance like a bacco worm?) El-a-noy (then move your family westward, good health you will enjoy) Dollar, Dollar (how you wander, from one hand to the other) Elephant and the Flea, The (boom, boom aint it great to be crazy) Dont Talk About It (bout it, if you do Ill cry, dont talk about it, bout it, if you do Ill die) Elephants, The (One elephant went out to play, on a spiders web one day) Donkey, The (sweetly sings the donkey at the break of day, if you do not feed him, this is what hell say)

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173 Erie Canal, The (Ive got a mule, her name is Sal, 15 miles on the Erie Canal) Frre Jacques Get On Board, Little Children (theres room for many more) E-ri-e, The (we were forty miles from Albany, forget it) Girls and Boys Come Out to Play (the moon doth shine as bright as day) Every Monday Morning (when the bluebirds begin to sing) Git Along, Little Doggies (its your misfortune and none of my own) Every night (when the sun goes in) Every Time I Feel the Spirit (moving in my heart, I will pray) Glendy Burke, The (Ho! For Louisiana! Im bound to leave this town) Fair Charlotte (lived on a mountain side in a wild and lonely spot) Go Down, Moses (way down in Egypt land, tell old Pharaoh, let my people go) Fairest Lord Jesus (ruler of all nature) Go Tell Aunt Rhody (the old gray goose is dead) Farmer in the Dell, The (hi-ho the dairy-o, the farmer in the dell) Go Way from My Window (for the wind is in the west, and the cuckoo in his nest) Farmer, The (the farmer is the man who feeds them all) Farmers Cursed Wife, The (Twice fa-la, fa-lilly fa-lay) Go, Tell it on the Mountain (over the hill and everywhere) Fire Down Below (its fetch a bucket of water boys, its fire down below) God Bless America (land that I love, stand beside her and guide her) First Noel, The (the angel did say, was to certain poor shepherds) God Dont Like It (its a-scandalous and a shame) Flow Gently, Sweet Afton (among thy green braes, flow gently Ill sing thee a song in thy praise) God of Our Fathers (whose almighty hand, leads forth in battle) God Rest Ye, Merry Gentlemen (let nothing you dismay) Foggy Dew Follow the Drinkin Gourd (for the old man is a-waitin for to carry you to freedom) Goin Down the Road Feelin Bad (and I aint gonna be treated this way) For Hes A Jolly Good Fellow (which nobody can deny) Goin to Boston (goodbye girls, Im goin to Boston early in the mornin) For the Beauty of the Earth (for the glory of the skies) Goin to Shout (Heavn, heavn, everybody talking bout heavn) Four Thousand Years Ago (I was born four thousand years ago, nothin ever happened I dont know) Golden Vanity, The (there was a little ship and it sailed on the sea, and it went by the name of) Fox Went Through the Town, Oh! The (the fox went out on a chilly night, prayed for the moon to give him light) Golden Willow Tree, The (there was a little ship in South Amerikee, was known by the name of the) Goober Peas (goodness, how delicious, eating goober peas) Frankie and Johnnie (but he done her wrong)

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174 Good King Wenceslas (looked out on the feast of Stephen) Hes Gone Away (for to stay, a little while) Good Night, Ladies (its time to say good-night) Hes Got the Whole World in His Hands Goodbye, Old Paint (Im a-leaving Cheyenne) Heave Away (Id rather court a yellow gal than work for Henry Clay) Goodnight, Farewell (my own true heart, a thousand times, goodnight) Hebrew Children, The (Where now are the Hebrew children?) Goosie, Goosie Gander (come let us meander) Heel and Toe (forward, backward, see them go) Grandfathers Clock (but it stopped, short, never to go again, when the old man died) Henry Martin (there were three brothers in merry Scotland) Gray Goose, The (Well, last Sunday mornin Lawd, Lawd, Lawd, the preacher went a-huntin) Here Sits A Monkey (in the chair, chair, chair) Here We Come A-Wassailing (among the leaves so green) Great Granddad (when the land was young, barred his door with a wagon tongue) Here We Come Up the Green Grass (on a dusty, dusty day) Green Grow the Lilacs (all sparkling with dew) Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush (so early in the morning) Green Grows the Laurel (all sparkling with dew) Hey, Betty Martin (tip-toe, tip-toe) Hickory Dickory Dock (the mouse ran up the clock) Greenfields (how tedious and tasteless the hours) Hokey Pokey, The (you put your right foot in, you put your right foot out) Greensleeves (alas my love you do me wrong to cast me off discourteously) Holy! Holy! Holy! (Lord God almighty, early in the morning our song shall rise to Thee) Ground Hog (shoulder up your gun and call your dog) Gypsy Laddie Home on the Range (where the deer and the antelope play, where seldom is heard a discouraging word) Hail, Colombia! (happy land, hail ye heroes, heaven-born band) Hammer Song, The (if I had a hammer, Id hammer in the morning, Id hammer in the evening, all over this land) Hop Up, My Ladies (three in a row, dont mind the weather so the wind dont blow) Hop, Old Squirrel (ei-dle-dum dum, hop old squirrel, ei-dle-dum dee) Hark! The Herald Angels Sing (glory to the newborn king) Hope Thou in God (O put thy trust in Him, He is our hope and strength, a present help) Haul Away, Joe (way, haul away, well haul away the bowlin) Hava Nagila (V-nis-m-cha) Hot Cross Buns (one a penny, two a penny) Have a Little Dog (and his name is Don)

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175 Hound Dog Song (every time I come to town the boys keep kickin my dog aroun) If Youre Happy and You Know It (clap your hands) In Aragon (Here then neath the sunsets crimson glow while perfumed winds around us blow) House Carpenter (for I am married to a ship carpenter, and a very fine man is he) In the Orchard (one, two, three, dance with me) Hush Little Baby (dont say a word, papas going to buy you a mockingbird) Indian Echo Song (we glide down the dusky lake, our paddles rise and fall) How Firm A Foundation I Bought Me A Cat (the cat pleased me, I fed my cat under yonder tree, the cat went fiddle-ay-fee) Indian Lullaby (hark! The owl is flitting by, he is watching where you lie) I Couldnt Hear Nobody Pray (in the valley) Intry Mintry (cutry corn, apple seed and apple thorn) I Dream of Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair (born like a vapor on the summer air) Its the Same the Whole World Over (its the poor what gets the blame) Jacobs Ladder (we are climbing Jacobs Ladder) I Know My Love (by his way o walkin and I know my love by his way o talkin and I know my love in a suit of blue) Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair (borne like a vapor on the summer air) I Know Where Im Goin (and I know whos goin with me) Jennie Jenkins (Ill buy me a foldy, roldy, tildy, toldy, seek a double, use a cozy roll to find me) I Must and I Will Get Married (Im in the notion now) Jessie James (poor Jessie, good-bye Jessie, farewell Jessie James) I Need Thee Every Hour (most gracious Lord, no tender voice like Thine) Jest Talkin (go easy, make it easy, go greasy) I Ride Old Paint (I lead old Dan, Im goin to Montana for to throw the hoolian) Jim Along, Josie (hey Jim along, Jim along Josie) Jingle Bells (jingle all the way) I Whistle A Happy Tune (whenever I feel afraid, I hold my head erect) John Browns Body (lies a mouldin in the grave) Im Sad and Im Lonely (my heart it will break) John Hardy (was a brave little man, he carried) Im Satisfied (when I was single I primped and shined, Now Im married and have to walk to walk a line) John Henry (was a little baby, sittin on his mammys knee, said The big bend tunnel on the C&O road gonna be the death of me) Im Worried Now, but I Wont Be Worried Long (it takes a worried man to sing a worried song) Johnny Appleseed (he traveled to Michigan, over the prairie, and planted his apples wherever hed tarry) Ive Been Workin On the Railroad (all the live long day)

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176 Johnny Has Gone For A Soldier (shule, shule, shule agrah, time can only heal my woe) Jump Jim Crow (jump, jump, jump Jim Crow, take a little hop and around you go) Johnny Morgan (played the organ, the father beat the drum) Just Before the Battle, Mother (farewell mother, you may never press me to your heart again) Joseph Dearest Keys to Heaven, The (Ill give you the key to my chest, that you can have money at your request) Joshua Fought the Battle of Jericho (and the walls came tumblin down) Joy to the World (the Lord is come, let earth receive her King) Juba (this and Juba that, Juba killed a yellow cat) If there are any additional songs which you remember learning in a school in the United States, please write them here. If you need extra space, please feel free to use the backs of the pages. __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ Thank you for the investment of your time and effort in completing this survey.

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177 American Childrens Folk Song Survey Childrens Folk Songs Taught in U.S. Schools 40+ Years Ago 1. Age: 62-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91+ 2. The state(s) you grew up in: _______________________________________ Check each song you were taught in school. Kind Words Can Never Die (cherished and blest, God knows how deep they lie lodged in the breast like childhoods simple rhymes said oer a thousand times) Lincoln and Liberty (Hurrah for the choice of the nation, our chieftain so brave and so true) Linden Tree, The (by the doorway oer hangs the flowing stream, Ive dreamed beneath its shadows so many a happy dream) King of the Barbarees, The (Oh will you surrender to the) Kum Ba Yah (my Lord, Kum Ba Yah) Little Bird, Go Through My Window (and buy molasses candy) La Cucaracha (y a no quier-es ca-men-ar) Little Bitty Baby (children go where I send thee, and how shall I send thee) Lady Isabel (there was a lord in London town, he courted a lady gay) Little Black Train, The (a-coming, get all your business right, theres a) Last Rose of Summer (left blooming alone, all her lovely companions are faded and gone) Little David (play on your harp, hal-le-lu hal-le-lu) Lavenders Blue (dilly dilly, lavenders green, when I am king, dilly, dilly, you shall be queen) Little Ducks (six little ducks that I once knew, fat ones, skinny ones, fair ones, too) Leather Winged Bat (Hi, said the little leather winged bat) Little Mohee (As I went a walking all by the seashore, the wind it did whistle the water did roar) Let Us Break Bread (on our knees, when I fall on my knees with my face to the rising sun) Little Pig, A (there was an old woman who had a little pig, oh-o-o-o, it didnt cost much for it wasnt very big) Levee Song (plink, plink, plink, plink, hear the banjos strum) Little Tommy Tinker (got burned with a clinker and he began to cry) Lil Liza Jane (Ive got a gal, and you got none, Lil Liza Jane) Liza Jane (O Eliza, lil Liza Jane, O Eliza, lil Liza Jane) Liberty Song, The (in freedom were born and in freedom well live)

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178 Locks and Bolts (young men and maids pray tell your age, Ill tell you of a sweet one) Mamma, Mamma (well, this trouble Ive been havin mamma, aint gonna have no mo) London Bridges (falling down, my fair lady) Mammas Gone to the Mail Boat (bye-o, baby bye) Londonderry Air (Oh Danny Boy) Marching to Praetoria Lone Star Trail (Ki-yi-yip-pi-yip-pi-yay, yip-pi-ay) March on (libertys host, march on) Marines Hymn, The (From the halls of Montezuma, to the shores of Tripoli) Lonesome Road (look down, look down that lonesome road) Lonesome Valley (you got to walk that Lonesome Valley, you got to go there by yourself) Mary and Martha (just gone along, to ring those charming bells) Mary Dont You Weep (dont mourn) Long White Robe, A (Yes, I really do believe, I shall wear a long white robe up yonder) Mary Had A Baby (O Lord, Oh my Lord, the people keep a-coming and the train done gone) Long, Long Ago (tell me the tales that to me were so dear, long, long ago) Mary Had a Little Lamb (its fleece was white as snow) Looby Loo (here we go looby loo, here we go looby light) Mary Wore Three Links (of chain, every link bearin Jesus name) Lord is Mindful, The (He remembers His children) Massas in the Old Cold Ground (down in the cornfield hear that mournful sound) Lord Lovel Lord Randall (make my bed soon, for Im sick to my heart, and I fain would lie down) Meet Me By the Moonlight (I am going to leave tomorrow to sail the ocean blue) Lord Thomas (Come father, come father come riddle to me, come riddle it all in one) Men of Harlech, The (in the hollow, do you hear like rushing billow) Merry Golden Tree, The (there was a little ship that sailed out on the sea) Love Somebody (yes, I do, but I wont tell who) Michael Row the Boat Ashore (hallelujah) Lowlands (oh my mother she wrote to me my dollar and a half a day, she wrote to me to come back from sea) Miller of the Dee, The (There was a jolly miller once lived on the river Dee, he laughed and sang from morn to night, no lark so blithe as he) Lucy Locket (lost her pocket, Kitty Fisher found it) Lullaby (mother watches always near thee) Mister Frog Went Courtin (and he did ride, sword and pistol by his side) Lullaby and Goodnight (with roses bedight, with lilies bested is babys wee bed) Mister Rabbit (your tails mighty white, Yes, bless God, been getting out-a sight) Make New Friends (but keep the old, one is silver) Monkeys Wedding, The (the monkey married the baboons sister,

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179 smacked his lips and then he kissed her) Nelly Bly (Heigh, Nelly! Ho, Nelly! Listen, love, to me) Moon, The (good evening, shining, silver moon) Never Said a Mumblin Word (he just hung down his head and he cried) More We Get Together, The (the happier well be) New River Train (Im ridin on that new river train, same old train that brought me here gonna carry me back again) Morning Hymn (Father, we thank Thee for the night and for the pleasant morning light) Muffin Man, The (oh do you know the muffin man) Nightherding Song, The (oh, slow up, doggies, quit roving around) My Bark Canoe (In the still night, the long hours through, I guide my bark canoe) Noahs Ark Noble Duke of York, The (he had ten thousand men, he marched them up to the top of the hill, then marched them down again) My Big Black Dog (whoever took my big, black dog I wish theyd bring him back) Nobody Knows the Trouble Ive Seen (nobody knows but Jesus) My Bonnie (Lies Over the Ocean) My Brother, I Wish You Well (I trust I shall be mentioned in the promised land) Now Thank We All Our God (with hearts and hands and voices) Now the Day is Over (night is drawing nigh, shadows of the evening steal across the sky) My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free (the little birds that fly with careless ease fro tree to tree) O Come All Ye Faithful (joyful and triumphant) My God I Thank Thee (who hast made the earth so bright) O Hush thee, My Baby (thy sire was a knight, thy mother a lady both gentle and bright) My Grandmother (lived on yonder green, as fine a lady as ever was seen) O, Ill Tell Mother (when I get home) My Hearts In the Highlands (my heart is not here, my hearts in the highlands a-chasing the deer) Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow (do you or I or anyone know how oats, peas, beans, and barley grow) My Horses Aint Hungry (They wont eat your hay) Oh Come, All Ye Faithful (joyful and triumphant) My Lord, What a Morning (when the stars begin to fall) Oh Come, Little Children (oh come, one and all) My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair (with bands of rosy hue, tie up my sleeves with ribands rare, and lace my bodice blue) Oh Freedom (and before Id be a slave, Id be buried in my grave) Oh Little Town of Bethlehem (how still we see thee lie) My Old Kentucky Home (weep no more my lady, oh weep no more today, we will sing one song for the old Kentucky home) Oh, Dear, What Can the Matter Be? (Johnnys so long at the fair) Oh, Ill Tell Mother (Solomon Grundy, born on Monday) Nearer My God To Thee

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180 Oh, Susanna! (oh dont you cry for me) Old Kentucky Home (weep no more my lady, oh weep no more today, we will sing one song for the old Kentucky home) Oh What a Beautiful Morning (oh what a beautiful day) Old MacDonald (had a farm, e-i-e-i-o) Oh, Where has My Little Dog Gone? (oh where, oh where can he be) Old Oaken Bucket (how dear to my heart are the scenes from my childhood) Ol Texas (Im gonna leave ol Texas now, theyve got no use for the long-horned cow) Old Paint (good-bye old Paint, Im a-leavin Cheyenne) Old Abe Lincoln (came out of the wilderness, down in Illinois) Old Woman and the Pig (there was an old woman, and she had a little pig) Old Aunt Jemima (oh, I-o) Old Black Joe (gone are the days when my heart was young and gay) Old Zip Coon (is a very learned scholar, and he plays upon the banjo) Old Blue (I had a dog and his name was Blue, and I betcha five dollars hes a good dog too) Ole Texas (Im going to leave ole Texas now, theyve got no use for the longhorn cow) Old Brass Wagon (circle to the left, old brass wagon) On Top of Old Smokey (all covered with snow) Old Chisholm Trail (well come along boys and listen to my tale, let me tell you bout my troubles on the) One More River to Cross (old Noah built himself an ark, theres one more river to cross) Old Colony Times (when we were under the king, three roguish chaps fell into mishaps) One, Two, Three, Four, Five (once I caught a fish alive) Old Dan Tucker (Oh, git out the way, Old Dan Tucker, youre too late to git some supper) Onward Christian Soldiers (marching as to war) Oranges and Lemons (the bells of Saint Clements, I owe you five farthings) Old Dog Tray (s ever faithful, grief cannot drive him away) Old Elm Tree, The (earth holds not a treasure so dear to me, as the moss-grown scene neath the old elm-tree) Over in the Meadow (green and wide, blooming in the sunlight) Over the River and Through the Woods (to grandmothers house we go) Old Folks at Home (Way down upon the Swannee River, far, far away) Old Gray Goose (smiling at the gander) Pat Works on the Railway (fil-le-me-oo-re-oo-re-ay, to work upon the railway) Old Gray Mare, The (she aint what she used to be) Paw Paw Patch (way down yonder in the ) Old Joe Clarke (round and round I say, hell follow me for ten thousand miles to hear my fiddle play) Peas Porridge Hot (peas porridge cold) Old John the Rabbit (had a mighty bad habit of going through my garden) Peter Grey (blow, ye winds of morning, blow ye winds heigh-o)

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181 Pick a Bale of Cotton (a-pick a bale, a-pick a bale, a-pick a bale of cotton, a-pick a bale, a-pick a bale, a-pick a bale a day) Rise Up Shepherd (theres a star in the east on Christmas morn) Rock Island Line, The (I say the Rock Island Line is a mighty good road) Piri-miri-dictum Domini (I had 3 cousins over the sea, three or four presents sent they me, the first was a bird without a bone) Rock-A My Soul (in the bosom of Abraham) Rock-a-by Baby (in the treetops, when the wind blows the cradle will rock) Polly Wolly Doodle (oh I went down south for to see my Sal, singin polly wolly doodle all the day) Roll On, Columbia (roll on, your power is turning our darkness to dawn) Poor Howard (Poor old Howards dead and gone) Poor Wayfaring Stranger (a travelin through this world of woe) Roll, Jordan, Roll (I want to go to heaven) Pop, Goes the Weasel! (all around the cobblers bench the monkey chased the weasel) Row, Row, Row Your Boat (gently down the sea) Run Children Run (that child ran, that child flew, that child lost his Sunday shoe) Pretty Polly (Oh, yonder way she stands) Pretty Saro (I bid you adieu) Sailing, Sailing (over the bounding main, for many a stormy wind shall blow ere Jack comes home again) Questions (gay wind straying, light around me playing) Ram of Darby, The (Oh, fare-a-raddy daddy) Sally Go Round the Sun (Sally go round the moon) Red River Valley (From this valley they say you are goin) Sandman, The (theres magic in the moonbeam that kissed the flowers goodnight) Red, White, and Blue, The (when borne by the red, white, and blue, thy banners make tyranny tremble) Sarasponda (Sarasponda, ret-set-set) Scarborough Fair (are you going to Scarborough Fair, parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme) Reuben and Rachel (Reuben I have long been thinking what a good world this might be) Scotlands Burning (look up) Riddle Song (I gave my love a cherry that had no stone) See-Saw (Margery Daw) Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain (when she comes) Ride a Cock Horse (to Banbury Cross, to see a fine lady upon a white horse) Shenandoah (oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, away, you rolling river) Rig-a-jig-jig (and away we go) Shoo Fly (dont bother me, shoo-fly dont bother me, shoo-fly dont bother me for I belong to somebody) Ring Around the Rosies (pocket full of posies) Ring, Ring the Banjo (I like that good old song) Shortnin-Bread (mammys little baby loves shortnin shortnin) Rio Grande (Oh say, have you been to the Rio Grande, Away, Rio)

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182 Silent Night (holy night, all is calm, all is bright) Sweet and Low (wind of the western sea, low, low, breathe and blow) Simple Gifts (tis the gift to be simple, tis the gift to be free) Sweet Betsy From Pike (Oh dont you remember Sweet Betsy from Pike, she crossed the wide prairies with her husband Ike) Sing a Song of Sixpence (a pocket full of rye, four and twenty black birds baked in a pie) Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (comin for to carry me home) Sing Together (merrily, merrily sing) Take Me Out to the Ballgame (buy me some peanuts and crackerjack, I dont care if I ever get back) Sing Your Way Home (at the close of the day, sing your way home drive the shadows away) Take This Hammer (huh! Carry it to the captain, huh!) Sit Down, Sister Sixteen Tons (some people say a man is made out of mud) Taps There Was An Old Fish (and his name was whale) Skin and Bones (oo-oo-oo-oo) Skip to My Lou (my darling. flys in the buttermilk, shoo fly shoo) There Was An Old Woman (and she had a little pig, didnt cost much cause it wasnt very big) Soldier Wont You Marry Me? (with your musket, fife, and drum) Theres A Hole in the Bucket (dear Liza, dear Liza) Soldiers Farewell, The (dear ones must I now leave thee? One farewell kiss I give thee, and then whateer befalls me) Theres a Little Wheel a Turnin (in my heart) This is My Country (land of my birth) Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child (a long way from home) This Is My Fathers World (and to my listening ears) Sourwood Mountain (hey diddle dum, diddle dum day) This Land is Your Land (this land is my land) Sow Got the Measles, The (and she died in the spring) This Little Light of Mine (Im gonna let it shine) Springfield Mountain (on Springfield mountain there did dwell a comely youth, I knew him well) This Old Man (he played one, he played knick-knack on my drum) Star-Spangled Banner, The (Oh say can you see, by the dawns early light) This Train (is bound for glory) Three Blind Mice (see how they run) Steal Away (home, Ive not got long to stay here) Three Ravens, The (sat upon a tree, derry derry derry down, they were as black as night could be) Streets of Laredo (As I walked out in the streets of LaredoI spied a young cowboy wrapped up in white linen) Tom Bolyn (was Scotchman born, his shoes wore out and his stockings were torn) Susie, Little Susie (now what is the news?) Toodala (mighty pretty motion, too-da-la too-da-la) Swanee River (Way down upon the) Train Is A-Comin, The (oh, yes,)

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183 Trot, Pony, Trot (trot to grandmas gateway) What Shall We Do With a Drunken Sailor (early in the morning) Turkey in the Straw (turkey in the hay, roll em up and twist em up) Wheels on the Bus, The (go round and round) Twelve Days of Christmas, The (on the first day of Christmas my true love gave to me) When I Was A Young Maid (ha, ha, this-a-way, ha, ha, that-a-way) When Johnny Comes Marching Home (again, hurrah, hurrah, well give him a hearty welcome then, hurrah, hurrah) Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (how I wonder what you are) Uncle Reuben (rabbit running through the grass, foxes close behind, trees and weeds and cockleburs is all the foxes find) When the Saints Go Marching In (oh how I want to be in that number) When You and I Were Young, Maggie (I wandered today to the hill, Maggie) Up on the Housetop (reindeer pause) Wabash Cannon Ball (listen to the jingle, the rumble and the roar, as she glides along the woodlands, through hills and by the shore) White Christmas (Im dreaming of a) Who Built the Ark? (Noah, Noah) Willie the Weeper (was a chimney sweeper) Wade in the Water (children) Walk Along, John (come on, boys, and hush your talking, all join hands and lets go walking) Wind Blew East, The (wind blew west) Wind Blew Up, The Wind Blew Down (it brought some drops of rain) Waltzing Matilda (there once was a swag man camped upon a billabong) Winky Blinky (Niddy Nod, father is fishing off Cape Cod) Water is Wide, The (I cannot get over) Wondrous Love (what wondrous love is this, o my soul, o my soul) Wayfaring Stranger (Im just a poor wayfaring stranger, travelin through this world of woe) Worried Man, A (it takes a worried man to sing a worried song, Im worried now, but I wont be worried long) We Are Good Musicians (we practice every day) We Gather Together (to ask the Lords blessing) Yankee Doodle (keep it up, yankee doodle dandy, mind the music and the step) We Three Kings (of Orient are, bearing gifts) Yankee Doodle Boy (Im a yankee doodle dandy, a yankee doodle do or die, a real live nephew of my uncle Sam) We Wish You A Merry Christmas (and a happy New Year) Weevily Wheat (Rise you up in the morning, all together early) You are my Sunshine (my only sunshine, you make me happy when skies are gray) Were You There? (when they crucified my Lord) Young Beichan What Child is This? (who laid to rest on Marys lap is sleeping) You Turn for Sugar an Tea (I turn for candy)

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184 Youre A Grand Old Flag (youre a high-flying flag, and forever in peace may you wave) Zum Gali Gali (he-cha-lutz le-man a-vo-dah, a-vo-dah le-man) If there are any additional songs which you remember learning in a school in the United States, please write them here. If you need extra space, please feel free to use the backs of the pages. __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ __________________________________ _____________________________________ Thank you for the investment of your time and effort in completing this survey.

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APPENDIX D PILOT STUDY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

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American Childrens Folk Song Survey Introduction WELCOME TO THE SURVEY Welcome. First, we would like to introduce the survey and its purpose, and provide some guidance as to how to complete it. Please review this page before beginning the survey. If you are not currently an elementary general music teacher, please do not answer any of the questions on the actual survey Feel free, however, to look over the survey and pass it along to an elementary classroom teacher whom you know or have access to. Thanks! THE PURPOSE Too frequently, decisions regarding education and classroom instruction are made by people who are not teaching. Teachers, especially music teachers, invest so much time in their jobs that practically no time is left for joining policy-making committees, and many do not have access to the committees which have the most significant impact. Your input is being sought here in order to determine the extent to which American childrens folk songs, songs which represent the American heritage are being taught across the nation. Every state will be represented, and you will be representing your state. WHAT YOU WILL BE ASKED TO DO (THIS IS THE CULMINATION OF 2 OTHER SURVEYS) You will be asked to answer survey questions in relation to your experiences and expertise regarding American childrens folk songs. People over 62 were surveyed regarding the songs they were taught in American schools 50 to 100 years ago. This helped define songs that were truly songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Experts in the field of Elementary Music were surveyed and ranked the songs according to which they believed to be most valuable in representing the American childrens folk song heritage. And now you, who represent the most important group of all, General music teachers, you will be asked the degree to which you teach specific childrens folk songs and provide insight on the song content you teach. Each group will also be asked to provide some demographic information, though all demographic data will be recorded separately from survey answers, and no link will be possible. 186

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187 CONFIDENTIALITY Please refer to the Anonymous vs. Confidential section for more information. The information you provide will be anonymous. Your responses to the survey will be sorted and grouped separately from your demographic information. Even the demographic information will contain no identifying questionsthe project administrator and everyone else will have no way of knowing who you are. Return envelopes will be placed collectively together, filled and returned when the survey is finished. Those taking the electronic survey, who wish to be sent E-mail notification of survey results and/or placed in the group of teachers who will share ideas, songs, and lesson plans will be placed on the appropriate lists. A computer database will compile the survey results as they are received. Paper surveys will be shredded. E-mail addresses will be discarded unless the specific boxes are checked to cause them to be placed on the Send Results or Join the Group list. Please refer to the Anonymous vs. Confidential section for a more thorough discussion of our policy. Whom to contact if you have questions about the SURVEY Marilyn Ward, marilyn@neflin.org (---) -----Or your can write: Marilyn Ward, ------------------------------------------. Please return your survey to the above address. Thank you. INFORMATION ABOUT WHO IS CONDUCTING THE SURVEY For information about the author and direction behind the survey, please visit: http://www.neflin.org/marilyn/folksongsurvey/ You may also contact me at: marilyn@neflin.org (---) -----This survey is copyrighted.

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American Childrens Folk Song Survey Section A: Childrens Folk Songs Based on your teaching alone (we realize that some students will know these songs even if you havent personally taught them in class) Recall the amount of time you have personally spent teaching a particular song. If you have spent a good deal of time teaching a song and you teach it every year to all the classes in that grade, and you would expect your students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, you may reasonably assume that Practically All of your students, as they progress through school, will know it by memorychoose Practically All. If you have spent a fair amount of time teaching a song, and you teach it every year to most of the classes in that grade, but you have not reviewed it enough for all of the students to be expected to know it by heart, but you would expect Most of your students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, and you may reasonably assume that Most of your students, as they progress through school will know it by memorychoose Most. If you have spent some time teaching a song, and/or you have not taught it consistently every year to all of the students, but you have taught it well enough that Some of your students will know it by memorychoose Some. If you have spent a little time teaching a song and you would expect a Few students to be able to sing it from memorychoose Few. If you have not taught this song, or not taught it within four yearschoose Practically None. Check the appropriate box. 188

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189 Practically Practically All MostSome Few None A Mighty Fortress A Paper of Pins A Tisket, A Tasket A-Hunting We Will Go Aint Gonna Rain All Around the Kitchen All Night, All Day All The Pretty Little Horses All Through the Night Alouette Amazing Grace America America, the Beautiful Angels We Have Heard On High Animal Fair Annie Laurie Are You Sleeping? Auld Lang Syne Aura Lee Away in a Manger Baa! Baa! Black Sheep Ballad of the Boll Weevil, The Barbara Allen Barnyard Song Battle Hymn of the Republic Bear Went Over the Mountain, The Belinda Billy Barlow Billy Boy Bingo Black is the Color Blow the Man Down Blue Blue Tail Fly, The Boll Weevil Song Bought Me A Cat Bound for the Promised Land Buffalo Gals Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie But the Lord is Mindful

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190 Bye, Baby Bunting Caissons Song Camptown Races, The Captain Jinks Childs Prayer, A Children Go Where I Send Thee Childrens Prayer Christmas Is Coming Cindy Clementine Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean Come Thou Almighty King Comin Through the Rye Cotton-Eyed Joe Crawdad Song Dance to Your Daddy Davy Crockett Dearest Spot on Earth, The Deck the Halls Dem Bones Did You Ever See A Lassie? Dinah Ding Dong Bell Dixie Dollar, Dollar Down By the Riverside Down by the Station Down in the Valley Draw A Bucket of Water Drill, Ye Tarriers, Drill! Drunken Sailor Ducklings, The Ducks in the Millpond Eating Goober Peas Practically Practically All MostSome Few None

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191 Eency, Weency Spider Elephants, The Erie Canal, The Every Time I Feel the Spirit Fairest Lord Jesus Farmer in the Dell, The Farmer, The First Noel, The Follow the Drinkin Gourd For Hes A Jolly Good Fellow For the Beauty of the Earth Get On Board, Little Children Git Along, Little Doggies Go Down, Moses Go Tell Aunt Rhody Go, Tell it on the Mountain God Bless America God of Our Fathers God Rest Ye, Merry Gentlemen Goober Peas Good King Wenceslas Good Night, Ladies Goodbye, Old Paint Goosie, Goosie Gander Grandfathers Clock Green Grow the Lilacs Hail, Colombia! Hammer Song, The Hark! The Herald Angels Sing Practically Practically All Most Some Few None

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192 Hes Gone Away Hes Got the Whole World in His Hands Here We Come A-Wassailing Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush Hey, Betty Martin Hickory Dickory Dock Hokey Pokey, The Holy! Holy! Holy! Home on the Range Hop Up, My Ladies Hot Cross Buns Hush Little Baby I Bought Me A Cat I Couldnt Hear Nobody Pray I Ride Old Paint Ive Been Workin On the Railroad If Youre Happy and You Know It Intry Mintry Jacobs Ladder Jim Along, Josie Jingle Bells Johnny Appleseed Johnny Has Gone For A Soldier Joshua Fought the Battle of Jericho Joy to the World Jump Jim Crow Kum Ba Yah Lavenders Blue Lil Liza Jane Little Bitty Baby Little Ducks Little Tommy Tinker Liza Jane London Bridges Londonderry Air Lone Star Trail Looby Loo Love Somebody Lucy Locket Lullaby Lullaby and Goodnight Practically Practically All MostSome Few None

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193 Make New Friends Mamma, Mamma Marines Hymn, The Mary Dont You Weep Mary Had A Baby Mary Had a Little Lamb Michael Row the Boat Ashore Mister Frog Went Courtin Mister Rabbit More We Get Together, The Morning Hymn Muffin Man, The My Big Black Dog My Bonnie My God I Thank Thee My Grandmother My Horses Aint Hungry My Lord, What a Morning My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair My Old Kentucky Home Nearer My God To Thee Noble Duke of York, The Now Thank We All Our God O Come All Ye Faithful O, Ill Tell Mother Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow Oh Come, All Ye Faithful Oh Little Town of Bethlehem Oh, Dear, What Can the Matter Be? Oh, Susanna! Oh, Where has My Little Dog Gone? Ol Texas Old Blue Old Chisholm Trail Old Dan Tucker Old Folks at Home Old John the Rabbit Old MacDonald Old Paint Ole Texas On Top of Old Smokey Practically Practically All MostSome Few None

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194 One More River to Cross One, Two, Three, Four, Five Onward Christian Soldiers Oranges and Lemons Over the River and Through the Woods Pat Works on the Railway Peas Porridge Hot Polly Wolly Doodle Poor Wayfaring Stranger Pop, Goes the Weasel! Red River Valley Reuben and Rachel Riddle Song Ride a Cock Horse Rig-a-jig-jig Ring Around the Rosies Rio Grande Rise Up Shepherd Rock-A My Soul Rock-a-by Baby Roll On, Columbia Row, Row, Row Your Boat Run Children Run Sailing, Sailing Sally Go Round the Sun Scarborough Fair See-Saw Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain Shenandoah Shoo Fly Shortnin Bread Silent Night Simple Gifts Sing a Song of Sixpence Sixteen Tons Skip to My Lou Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child Sourwood Mountain Sow Got the Measles, The Star-Spangled Banner, The Practically Practically All MostSome Few None

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195 Susie, Little Susie Swanee River Sweet Betsy From Pike Swing Low, Sweet Chariot Take Me Out to the Ballgame There Was An Old Woman Theres A Hole in the Bucket Theres a Little Wheel a Turnin This is My Country This Is My Fathers World This Land is Your Land This Little Light of Mine This Old Man This Train Three Blind Mice Train Is A-Comin, The Trot, Pony, Trot Turkey in the Straw Twelve Days of Christmas, The Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Up on the Housetop Wade in the Water Water is Wide, The We Gather Together We Three Kings We Wish You A Merry Christmas Were You There? What Child is This? What Shall We Do With a Drunken Sailor? Wheels on the Bus, The When Johnny Comes Marching Home When the Saints Go Marching In Yankee Doodle Yankee Doodle Boy You are my Sunshine Youre A Grand Old Flag Practically Practically All MostSome Few None

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American Childrens Folk Song Survey Section C: Demographics In this section, we ask you to provide us with demographic information. This information will be vital in order to prove that our survey is valid and represents every state in the nation, as well as a good cross-section of schools, years of experience, etc. Please note the extra "comments" area at the bottom of the page it is for feedback on this survey. 1. Gender: Male Female 2. Age: 20-25 26-29 30-35 36-39 40-45 46-49 50+ 3. Race/Ethnicity:Asian/Pacific Islander Black/African American Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) Native American/Alaskan White/Caucasian Other _____________________________ 4. I am a: private school teacher public school teacher 5. The textbook series I use: Silver BurdettMusic Connection MacmillanMusic & You MacmillanShare the Music World of Music other ________________________________________________________________ 6. Years teaching elementary music: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26+ 7. Years teaching elementary music at this school: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26+ 8. Your school: rural suburban urban 9. Your city / county: _______________________/___________________________ 10. Your state: ______________________________________________ 11. Your highest degree acquired: (select one) High School Bachelors--music ed. Masters--music ed. Doctorate-diploma music ed. Bachelorsmusic, Mastersmusic, Doctorate not education. not education. music, not ed. Bachelorsother Mastersother Doctorate other 196

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197 12. Please enter your program ________________________________________________ (e.g. Early Childhood Education) 13. Your teaching load: on average, you teach __ periods: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ___ In a __ -period school day: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ____ 14. On average, your school day periods are ___ minutes long: 1415-20 21-30 31-45 46-55 56-60 61+ 15. On average, how often do you see your classroom students: Inconsistently: (If you see them inconsistently, please select one of the following) were on a wheel: --after their wheel for music, I will go ____________ (how long) before I see them again. While on the wheel, I will see them for _______ minutes ________ days a week for _______ weeks. were not on a rotational system. Our system: ______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________. Consistently: (if you see them consistently, please select one of the following) --less than once a week: once every 2 weeks or less once every week and a half -this many times every week: 1 2 3 4 5 more: _______ Please feel free to make additional comments regarding any of the above. To help us, please refer to the specific question number with each comment. Thank you for the investment of your time and effort in completing this survey.

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APPENDIX E ELEMENTARY MUSIC SPECIALIST SONG ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT This assessment instrument was used to narrow the song list from 250+ songs to 100 songs. The goal was to select songs which best represented the American childrens folk song heritage. Great care was used in dealing with the songs chosen to represent the American heritage, in the wording of the survey instruments, and in refining the list for the survey of general music teachers across the nation. Some of the importance of the elementary music specialist song assessment instrument grew from the understanding that frequently the choice of songs which were excluded was just as important as the choice of songs to be included in the research. Top elementary music education specialists were consulted in order to select and refine the list with great of care, enabling this study to identify, represent, refine, research, and report upon our American childrens song heritage with the most accuracy and validity possible. 198

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199 American Childrens Folk Song Survey American Childrens Folk Song Heritage You have been identified as an elementary music specialist. 1. Years you have taught elementary/general music education at a college or university: 2. Your college/university: ______________________________________________ Check the box indicating the importance of each songs inclusion as a part of the American Childrens Folk Song heritage, as your 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or blank (not important for inclusion) choice. You will be rating each song according to its merits, as you perceive them. 1st choice is your selection for most valuable, 2nd choice, second most valuable, 3rd choice, third most valuable. Leaving the boxes blank will indicate the song to be anything from a 4th choice to not important for inclusion. There is no limit or set amount of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or blank choices. Rate each one according to its own merits. 1s t 2nd 3rd 1s t 2nd 3rd A Mighty Fortress Barbara Allen A Paper of Pins Barnyard Song A Tisket, A Tasket Battle Hymn of the Republic A-Hunting We Will Go Bear Went Over the Mountain, Aint Gonna Rain The All Around the Kitchen Belinda All Night, All Day Billy Barlow All The Pretty Little Horses Billy Boy All Through the Night Bingo Alouette Black is the Color Amazing Grace Blow the Man Down America Blue America, the Beautiful Blue Tail Fly, The Angels We Have Heard On High Boll Weevil Song Animal Fair Bought Me A Cat Annie Laurie Bound for the Promised Land Are You Sleeping? Buffalo Gals Auld Lang Syne Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie Aura Lee But the Lord is Mindful Away in a Manger Bye, Baby Bunting Baa! Baa! Black Sheep Caissons Song Ballad of the Boll Weevil, The

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200 Camptown Races, The For Hes A Jolly Good Fellow 1s t 2nd 3rd 1s t 2nd 3rd Captain Jinks For the Beauty of the Earth Childs Prayer, A Get On Board, Little Children Children Go Where I Send Thee Git Along, Little Doggies Childrens Prayer Go Down, Moses Christmas Is Coming Go Tell Aunt Rhody Cindy Go, Tell it on the Mountain Clementine God Bless America Columbia, Gem of the Ocean God of Our Fathers Come Thou Almighty King God Rest Ye, Merry Gentlemen Comin Through the Rye Goober Peas Cotton-Eyed Joe Good King Wenceslas Crawdad Song Good Night, Ladies Dance to Your Daddy Goodbye, Old Paint Davy Crockett Goosie, Goosie Gander Dearest Spot on Earth, The Grandfathers Clock Deck the Halls Green Grow the Lilacs Dem Bones Hail, Colombia! Did You Ever See A Lassie? Hammer Song, The Dinah Hark! The Herald Angels Sing Ding Dong Bell Hes Gone Away Dixie Hes Got the Whole World in His Dollar, Dollar Hands Here We Come A-Wassailing Down By the Riverside Here We Go Round the Mulberry Down by the Station Bush Down in the Valley Hey, Betty Martin Draw A Bucket of Water Hickory Dickory Dock Drill, Ye Tarriers, Drill! Hokey Pokey, The Drunken Sailor Holy! Holy! Holy! Ducklings, The Home on the Range Ducks in the Millpond Hop Up, My Ladies Eating Goober Peas Hot Cross Buns Eency, Weency Spider Hush Little Baby Elephants, The I Bought Me A Cat Erie Canal, The I Couldnt Hear Nobody Pray Every Time I Feel the Spirit I Ride Old Paint Fairest Lord Jesus Ive Been Workin On the Farmer in the Dell, The Railroad Farmer, The If Youre Happy and You Know First Noel, The It Follow the Drinkin Gourd Intry Mintry

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201 Jacobs Ladder My Lord, What a Morning 1s t 2nd 3rd 1s t 2nd 3rd Jim Along, Josie My Mother Bids Me Bind My Jingle Bells Hair My Old Kentucky Home Johnny Appleseed Nearer My God To Thee Johnny Has Gone For A Soldier Noble Duke of York, The Joshua Fought the Battle of Now Thank We All Our God Jericho O Come All Ye Faithful Joy to the World O, Ill Tell Mother Jump Jim Crow Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Kum Ba Yah Grow Lavenders Blue Oh Come, All Ye Faithful Lil Liza Jane Oh Little Town of Bethlehem Little Bitty Baby Oh, Dear, What Can the Matter Little Ducks Be? Little Tommy Tinker Oh, Susanna! Liza Jane Oh, Where Has My Little Dog London Bridges Gone? Londonderry Air Ol Texas Lone Star Trail Old Blue Looby Loo Old Chisholm Trail Love Somebody Old Dan Tucker Lucy Locket Old Folks at Home Lullaby Old John the Rabbit Lullaby and Goodnight Old MacDonald Make New Friends Old Paint Mamma, Mamma Ole Texas Marines Hymn, The On Top of Old Smokey Mary Dont You Weep One More River to Cross Mary Had A Baby One, Two, Three, Four, Five Mary Had a Little Lamb Onward Christian Soldiers Michael Row the Boat Ashore Oranges and Lemons Mister Frog Went A-Courtin Over the River and Through the Mister Rabbit Woods More We Get Together, The Pat Works on the Railway Morning Hymn Peas Porridge Hot Muffin Man, The Polly Wolly Doodle My Big Black Dog Poor Wayfaring Stranger My Bonnie Pop! Goes the Weasel My God I Thank Thee Red River Valley My Grandmother Reuben and Rachel My Horses Aint Hungry

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202 Riddle Song There Was An Old Woman 1s t 2nd 3rd 1s t 2nd 3rd Ride a Cock Horse Theres A Hole in the Bucket Rig-a-jig-jig Theres a Little Wheel a Turnin Ring Around the Rosies This is My Country Rio Grande This Is My Fathers World Rise Up Shepherd This Land is Your Land Rock-A My Soul This Little Light of Mine Rock-a-by Baby This Old Man Roll On, Columbia This Train Row, Row, Row Your Boat Three Blind Mice Run Children Run Train Is A-Comin, The Sailing, Sailing Trot, Pony, Trot Sally Go Round the Sun Turkey in the Straw Scarborough Fair Twelve Days of Christmas, The See-Saw Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Shell Be Comin Round the Up on the Housetop Wade in the Water Mountain Shenandoah Water is Wide, The Shoo Fly We Gather Together Shortnin Bread We Three Kings Silent Night We Wish You A Merry Simple Gifts Christmas Sing a Song of Sixpence Were You There? Sixteen Tons What Child is This? Skip to My Lou What Shall We Do With a Sometimes I Feel Like a Drunken Sailor Wheels on the Bus, The Motherless Child Sourwood Mountain When Johnny Comes Marching Sow Got the Measles, The Home Star-Spangled Banner, The When the Saints Go Marching In Susie, Little Susie Yankee Doodle Swanee River Yankee Doodle Boy Sweet Betsy From Pike You Are My Sunshine Swing Low, Sweet Chariot Youre A Grand Old Flag Take Me Out to the Ballgame

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203 If there are any additional songs which you believe should be added to this list, songs which represent the American childrens folk heritage, please write them here. If you need extra space, please feel free to use the backs of the pages. Also, if you have any comments, please write them below. __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________ Thank you for the investment of your time and effort in completing this survey. 203

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APPENDIX F GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT The general music teacher song assessment has been altered to conform to margin, type-setting, and formatting requirements of the dissertation. The layout of the original song assessment was more compact (margins were smaller). 204

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205 American Childrens Folk Song Survey American Childrens Songs Taught in Todays Classrooms Dear FirstName LastName, Hi! You have been selected from among your peers to represent State in a survey of general music teachers across the nation. We need to know the extent to which certain songs are being taught in school. Your input is priceless, FirstName, and the survey wont take long. I really appreciate your time and assistance. You are the authority. No one knows as well as you what songs are being taught in your school. If you are not a general music teacher, please return the survey, or deliver it to someone who isin your town Every single survey needs to get to a general music teacher so that State, and your area are represented adequately. Please make sure it gets to a local general music teacher who will fill it out and send it in. We cant afford to contact more people, and if the few others dont respond, you may be the only representative of State. Please help. Do it to support Music Education. If you have any questions or comments, ideas or thoughts, please feel free to contact me. If you would like a copy of the results, simply write Please Send Results on the top of your survey and include your e-mail address. Your responses will be anonymous. Every state in the U.S.A. will be represented. Your answers really do matter. Our anonymity policy, as well as more information about this study is at http://www.neflin.org/marilyn/folksongsurvey/ Thank you so much FirstName! I knew that youd be the one to ask. This will tell us what is being taught across the nation, and will be used to improve music ed. I hope all is well, and that State is beautiful this time of year. Its pretty hot here in Florida Take care, and thank you, in advance, for completing and returning your survey. Sincerely yours, Marilyn Ward marilyn@neflin.org http://www.neflin.org/marilyn/folksongsurvey/

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206 American Childrens Folk Song Survey Introduction WELCOME TO THE SURVEY Welcome. First, we would like to introduce the survey and its purpose, and provide some guidance as to how to complete it. If you are not a general music teacher, please do not fill out the survey Please pass it along to a local general music teacher whom you know or have access to. Thanks! THE PURPOSE Your input is being sought here in order to determine the extent to which American childrens folk songs, songs which represent the American heritage are being taught across the nation. Every state will be represented, and you will be representing your state. WHAT YOU WILL BE ASKED TO DO (THIS IS THE CULMINATION OF 2 OTHER SURVEYS) You will be asked to answer survey questions in relation to your experiences and expertise regarding American childrens folk songs. People over 62 were surveyed regarding the songs they were taught as children in America between 50 and 100 years ago. This, along with songs derived from music books of the 1700s to 1950, helped define the songs that were truly songs of the American childrens folk heritage. Experts in the field of Elementary Music were surveyed and ranked the songs according to which they believed to be most representative of the American childrens folk song heritage. And now you will be asked the extent to which your children know specific childrens folk songs. You will also be asked to provide some demographic information in order to make sure the survey is validrepresenting a good cross-section of teachers in a good cross-section of schools all over the nation. ANONYMOUS VS. CONFIDENTIAL Individuals completing this kind of survey are often concerned about what will happen to their responses, especially whether or not some of their answers will ever come back to haunt them. For example, if you trustingly admit that you have not taught certain things or do not value certain songs, you might want to know if this information can ever find its way into someone elses hands, perhaps threatening your relationship, or even your career. This concern is especially relevant in education. In response to this concern, and in order to provide you with the assurance that none of your responses or comments could ever come back to haunt you, this survey is anonymous. Anonymity means that no one not even the survey administrators will know who you are. Your name will never be requested. Other information about your state and school will be detached and sorted separately from your answers to the questionnaire. This will insure complete anonymity. Information about your state and school are important to the study, to enable us to know if we have reached a good cross-section of the nation. The demographic information will be available only in compiled format (eg. 80 urban schools, 75 rural schools responded, etc.). Anonymity differs from confidentiality, which is when someone knows who you are, but promises to keep your

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207 responses private. With the constantly changing demands for public access in education, the best way to protect you is through anonymity and sorting demographic information separately. This is what we have done. With this level of protection and privacy, we rely on your good will and openness as you fill out the survey. Thank you so much. WHOM TO CONTACT WITH QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SURVEY Marilyn Ward, marilyn@neflin.org (---) -----Or your can write: Marilyn Ward, ---------------. Please return your survey to this address. For more information, please visit: http://www.neflin.org/marilyn/folksongsurvey/ This survey is copyrighted.

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208 American Childrens Folk Song Survey Section A: Childrens Songs Based on your teaching alone (we realize that some students will know these songs even if you havent personally taught them in class) Recall the amount of time you have personally spent teaching a particular song. If you have spent a good deal of time teaching a song and you teach it every year to all the classes in that grade, and you would expect your students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, you may reasonably assume that Practically All of your students, as they progress through school, will know it by memorychoose Practically All. If you have spent a fair amount of time teaching a song, and you teach it every year to most of the classes in that grade, but you have not reviewed it enough for all of the students to be expected to know it by heart, but you would expect Most of your students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, and you may reasonably assume that Most of your students, as they progress through school will know it by memorychoose Most. If you have spent some time teaching a song, and/or you have not taught it consistently every year to all of the students, but you have taught it well enough that Some of your students will know it by memorychoose Some. If you have spent a little time teaching a song and you would expect a Few students to be able to sing it from memorychoose Few. If you have not taught this song, or not taught it within four yearschoose Practically None.

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209 Check the appropriate box. Practically Practically All Most Some Few None A Tisket, A Tasket All the Pretty Little Horses Bought Me A Cat (the cat pleased me) Bingo Did You Ever See A Lassie Eency, Weency Spider Farmer in the Dell, The Hickory, Dickory Dock Hokey Pokey, The Hush Little Baby (dont say a word, papas ...) Rockaby Baby (in the treetops, when the wind...) If Youre Happy and You Know It Looby Loo Mary Had A Little Lamb Muffin Man Mulberry Bush Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow Oh! Dear! What Can the Matter Be? Oh, Where Has My Little Dog Gone Old John the Rabbit Old MacDonald Over the River and Through the Woods Polly Wolly Doodle

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210 Practically Practically All Most Some Few None Pop! Goes the Weasel Ring Around the Rosies Row, Row, Row Your Boat Shell be Comin Round the Mountain Take Me Out to the Ballgame Theres a Hole in the Bucket This Little Light of Mine This Old Man Three Blind Mice Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Wheels on the Bus, The Section B: Folk Songs All Night, All Day Amazing Grace Aura Lee Away in a Manger Billy Boy Camptown Races Cindy Clementine Columbia, Gem of the Ocean Cotton-Eyed Joe Crawdad Song Dixie Down by the Riverside Down in the Valley Drill, Ye Terriers, Drill! Erie Canal, The Follow the Drinkin Gourd Frog Went A-Courtin, A Go Down, Moses Go Tell Aunt Rhody Go Tell it on the Mountain God of our Fathers Goober Peas Goodbye, Old Paint Hes Got the Whole World in His Hands Home on the Range I Couldnt Hear Nobody Pray Ive Been Workin On the Railroad Jim Along, Josie Blue Tail Fly, The

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211 Practically Practically All Most Some Few None Joshua Fought the Battle of Jericho Kum Ba Yah Liza Jane Michael Row the Boat Ashore Oh, Susanna Old Chisholm Trail Old Folks At Home (Way down upon the Swanee River, far, far away) Onward Christian Soldiers Over the River and Through the Woods Rock-A-My-Soul Shenandoah Shoo Fly Shortnin Bread Simple Gifts Silent Night Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child Susie, Little Susie Sweet Betsy From Pike Swing Low, Sweet Chariot Water is Wide, The We Gather Together When Johnny Comes Marching Home When the Saints Go Marching In You Are My Sunshine America America, the Beautiful Battle Hymn of the Republic God Bless America God of Our Fathers Marines Hymn (From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli) Star-Spangled Banner, The Caissons Song This Land is Your Land When Johnny Comes Marching Home Yankee Doodle Youre A Grand Old Flag

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212 American Childrens Folk Song Survey Section C: Demographics In this section, we ask you to provide us with demographic information. This information is vital in order to prove that our survey is valid and represents every state in the nation, as well as a good cross-section of schools, years of experience, genders, textbooks, etc. Your survey will be anonymous Please note the extra "comments" area at the bottom of the page it is for feedback on this survey. 1. Gender: Male Female 2. Age: 20-25 26-29 30-35 36-39 40-45 46-49 50+ 3. Race/Ethnicity:Asian/Pacific Islander Black/African American Hispanic/Latina(o)/Chicana(o) Native American/Alaskan White/Caucasian Other _____________________________ 4. I am a: private school teacher public school teacher 5. The textbook series I use: Silver BurdettMusic Connection 6. MacmillanMusic & You MacmillanShare the Music World of Music other _________________________________________________ 7. Grade(s) I teach: ____________________________________________ 8. Years teaching elementary/general music: __________________________________ 9. Your school: rural suburban urban 10. Your city: _______________________________________ 11. Your state: ____________________________________________ Please feel free to make additional comments regarding any questions/answers on the survey. To help us, please refer to the specific question number with each comment. Thank you for the investment of your time and effort in completing this survey.

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APPENDIX G STATES WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE FINAL PHASE OF THE STUDY Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 213

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APPENDIX H DISTRIBUTION OF T TABLE Source: Moore, D.S., & McCabe, G.P. (2003). Introduction to the practice of statistics (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, p. T11. Reprinted with permission from the publisher. 214

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216 APPENDIX I F CRITICAL VALUES TABLE FOR PR OBABILITIES P = 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.01, AND 0.001 Source: Moore, D.S., & McCabe, G.P. (2003). Introduction to the practice of statistics (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, p. T12-T19. Reprinted with permission from the publisher.

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APPENDIX J MUSIC SERIES TEXTBOOKS AND AMERICAN CHILDRENS AND FOLK SONG COLLECTIONS USED IN THIS RESEARCH STUDY Elementary Music Textbooks Allen, C.G. (1868). The song cabinet: a new singing book for the use of schools, academies, seminaries, and singing classes New York: W. Hall. Anthony, H.B. (1844). Public school song book Baltimore: J.W. Bond & Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book one New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book two New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book three New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1945). The American singer, book four New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1946). The American singer, book five New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1947). The American singer, book six New York: American Book Company. Beckwith, M.H., & Beckwith, A.L. (1902). When first, we go to school New York: Educational Publishing Company. Beirly, A. (1907). The song wonder: a very complete, well-graded song book for the use of graded schools, singing classes, musical societies, conventions, etc. giving elementary and practical exercises, songs, glees, anthems, sacred and secular choruses, devotional hymns, etc Chicago: Alfred Beirly. Benjamin, L.A., & Woodbury, I.B. (1853). The New York normal school song book (6th ed.). New York: Lamport, Blakeman, & Law. Berg, R.C., & Burns, C. (1966). Studying music: music for young Americans (2nd ed.). New York: American Book Company. 225

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226 Boesel, A.S. (1944). Singing with Peter and Patsy New York: Oxford University Press. Botsford, F.H. (Ed.). (1937). The universal folk songster for home, school and community New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Boyd, L.W., Smith, H., & Bennett J.C. (1943). Merrily we learn and sing Chicago: Clayton F. Summy Co. Bremner, K.F. (1910). A book of song games and ball games (3rd ed.). New York: A.S. Barnes Company. Bridgman, W.C., & Curtis, L.W. (1947). The American singer, book seven New York: American Book Company. Bridgman, W.C., & Curtis, L.W. (1948). The American singer, book eight New York: American Book Company. Brittan, N., & Sherwood, L.H. (1850). The school song and hymn book New York: A.S. Barnes. Brittan, N., & Sherwood, L.H. (1855). The school song and hymn book designed for general use in schools, academies, and seminaries Cincinnati OH: H.W. Derby. Cundiff, H.M., Dykema, P.W. (1925). School music handbook, a guide for teaching school music, especially adapted to the needs of the grade teacher, applicable to any system or series of music books Boston: C.C. Birchard & Company. Damrosch, W., Gartlan, G., & Gehrkens, K. (1923). Universal school music series (bk. 3). New York: Hinds, Hayden, and Eldredge, Inc. Dann, H. (1912). Hollis Dann music course: manual for teachers New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1914). Hollis Dann music course: first year music New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1915). Hollis Dann music course: second year music New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1915). Hollis Dann music course: third year music New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1916). Hollis Dann music course: fourth year music New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1917). Hollis Dann music course: fifth year music New York: American Book Co.

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227 Davison, A.T., Surette, T.W., & Zanzig, A.D. (Eds.). (1924). A book of songs, with piano accompaniment for unison and part singing for grades IV, V and VI Boston: E.C. Schirmer Music Co. The district school song book, a collection of songs compiled and arranged for the use of scholars in district schools (1846). Buffalo NY: Oliver G. Steele. Emerson, L.O., & Coffman, S.F. (1880). Song bells! a music book for public schools and juvenile singing classes, to which is prefixed a complete and attractive course of elementary instructions, and a great variety of one, two, three, and four part songs Boston: Oliver Ditson. Fitz, A. (1845). The American school song book Boston: W.J. Reynolds & Company with W.B. Fowle. Fitz, A. (1847). The common school song book Boston: Phillips & Sampson. Fitz, A. (1850). The new primary school song book Boston: W.J. Reynolds. Fitz, A. (1855). The American school hymn book Boston: Crosby, Nichols, & Company. Foresman, R. (1904). Outline of study for the modern music series New York: Silver, Burdett & Co. Foresman, R. (1909). A manual for teachers and parents New York: R. Foresman & Company. Foresman, R. (1915). Songs and studies to accompany the Foresman educational school series New York: R. Foresman & Company. Foresman, R. (1919). Songs and studies to accompany the Foresman educational music records New York: Interstate Book and Record. Foresman, R. (1925). First book of songs New York: American Book Company. Foresman, R. (1925). Fourth book of songs New York: American Book Company. Foresman, R. (1925). Third book of songs New York: American Book Company. Foresman, R. (1926). Fifth book of songs New York: American Book Company. Foresman, R. (1927). The Foresman songs and studies: for schools and homes Downers Grove IL: Musical Art Society of America. Foresman, R. (1928). A childs book of songs New York: American Book Company. Foresman, R. (1931). The high road of song New York: American Book Company.

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228 Foresman, R. (1932). Sixth book of songs New York: American Book Company. Fox, T.B. (1853). The school hymn-book: for normal, high, and grammar schools (2nd ed.). Boston: W. Crosby and H.P. Nichols. Friends School (1905). Friends school song book Baltimore: The Friedenwald Company. Fullerton, C.A. (1910). The new song book and music reader Cedar Falls IA: Fullerton and Gray. Giddings, T.P., Earhart, W., Baldwin, R.L., & Newton, E.W. (1924). Intermediate music Boston: Ginn & Company. Gill, M.H. (1864). Texts and hymns New York: A.D.F. Randolph & Company. Hale, S.J. (1834). The school song book : adapted to the scenes of the school room, written for American children and youth Boston: Allen & Ticknor. Hale, S.J. (1841). My little song book Boston: J.B. Dow. Johnson, A.N. (1867). The Allegany academy of music school song book Friendship NY: J. Baxter. La Crosse Public Schools (1906). Sing-a-song-book La Crosse WI: Author. Leavitt, H.S., Kilduff, H.B., & Freeman, W.S. (Eds.). (1952). Adventures in singing Boston: C.C. Birchard & Company. Levermore, C.H. (1895). The academy song-book: for use in schools and colleges Boston: Ginn & Company. Levermore, C.H. (1898). The abridged academy song-book, for use in schools and colleges Boston: Ginn & Company. Lord, A.D. (1847). The school song book Columbus OH: William B. Thrall. Luse, J.D. (1896). The ideal wreath of song Columbus OH: J.D. Luse. Mason, L., & Webb, G.J. (1846). The primary school song book, in 2 parts. the first part consisting of songs suitable for primary or juvenile singing schools; and the second part consisting of an explanation of the inductive or Pestalozzian method of teaching music in such schools Boston: Wilkins, Carter, & Company. Mason, L., & Webb, G.J. (1848). The song-book of the school-room arranged to be sung in one, two, or three parts Boston: Wilkins, Carter, & Company. McConathy, O., Beattie, J.W., & Morgan, R.V. (Ed.). (1936). Music highways and byways New York: Silver Burdett Company.

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229 McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1927). The music hour first book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1928). The music hour second book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1929). The music hour third book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1929). The music hour fourth book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1931). The music hour fifth book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. McConathy, O., Miessner, W.O., Birge, E.B., & Bray, M.E. (1933). Music in rural education New York: Silver Burdett Company. McLaughlin, J., & Gilchrist, W. (1905). The new educational music course, third music reader Boston: Ginn & Co. McLaughlin, J., & Gilchrist, W. (1905). The new educational music course, fourth music reader Boston: Ginn & Co. McLaughlin, J., Veazie, G., & Gilchrist, W. (1903). The new educational music course, first music reader Boston: Ginn & Co. McLaughlin, J.M., & Gilchrist, W.W. (1910). Song reader: a graded course in school music in one book Boston: Ginn & Co. Merriman, W.T. (1847). The Rochester school song book, consisting of a choice selection of social, moral, and patriotic songs; designed for the use of public schools (2nd ed.). Rochester NY: Sage & Brother, E. Shepards Power Press. Moore, J.C., & Wilcox, B.F. (1913). The hill school song book Pottstown PA: Author. National Council of Music (1800). A little song book Cardiff, London: Press Board of the University of Wales for the National Council of Music. Orville Brewer Publishing Company (1879). Brewers collection of national songs and hymns Chicago: Author. Parker, H., McConathy, O., Birge, E., & Miessner, O. (1914). The progressive music series for basal use in primary, intermediate, and grammar grades (bk. 1). Boston: Silver, Burdett and Company.

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230 Parker, H., McConathy, O., Birge, E., & Miessner, O. (1914). The progressive music series for basal use in primary, intermediate, and grammar grades (bk. 2). Boston: Silver, Burdett and Company. Parker, H.W. (1920). The progressive music series for basal use in primary, intermediate, and grammar grades (grades 2 through 8). Boston: Silver, Burdett and Company. Parsons, G.B. (Ed.). (1919). High school song book New York: Silver, Burdett and Company. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1949). Singing all the day Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1949). Singing as we play Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1949). Singing on our way Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1950). Singing and rhyming Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1951). Singing in harmony Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1957). Our singing world Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., & Watters, L. (1957). Singing on our way Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., Watters, L., & Wersen, L. (1957). Singing and rhyming Boston: Ginn & Co. Pitts, L, Glenn, M., Watters, L., & Wersen, L. (1957). Singing in harmony Boston: Ginn & Co. Public school song book (1850). Baltimore: J.W. Bond & Company. The public school song book, a collection of songs compiled and arranged for the use of the scholars in the public schools of the city of Buffalo (1846). Buffalo NY: Oliver G. Steele. Rix, F.R. (Ed.). (1907). The assembly song book: a collection of songs arranged especially for schools New York: A.S. Barnes Company. Scheffer, T.F. (1861). Public school song book Harrisburg PA: Theodore F. Scheffer. Smith, E. (1904). The common school book of vocal music: a one-book course of song and study for use in schools of mixed grades New York: Silver, Burdett & Company. Smith, E. (1908). The Eleanor Smith music course, book four New York: American Book Company.

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231 Smith, E. (1910). The special third book of vocal music New York: Silver, Burdett & Company. A songbook for little children (1818). Newburyport MA: W. & J. Gilman. Steiner, R. (1908). Friends school song book (2nd ed.). Baltimore: The Friedenwald Company. Strouse, C.E. (1946). Music book for the radio classroom Emporia KS: Kansas State Teachers College. Tillinghast, W.H., & Horton, D.P. (1874). The song fountain: a vocal music book for school and family use New York: J.W. Schermerhorn & Company. Weaver, T.B., & Smith, L.R. (1906). Smith and Weaver primary song book Chicago: A Flanagan Company. The western teacher song book: a collection of songs for schools (1902). Milwaukee WI: S.Y. Gillan. Whiting, C.E. (1901). Whitings school song book Boston: D.C. Heath & Company.

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232 American Childrens and Folk Song Collections Allen, W.F., Ware, C.P., & Garrison, L.M. (Eds.). (1867). Slave songs of the United States New York: Oak Publications. Barry, P., Eckstorm, F.H., & Smyth, M.W. (1929). British ballads from Maine New Haven NJ: Yale University Press. Birkenshaw, L. (1974). Music for fun, music for learning New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Boni, M. (Ed.). (1947). Fireside book of folk songs New York: Simon and Schuster. Boni, M.B. (Ed.). (1952). The fireside book of favorite American songs New York: Simon and Schuster. Botsford, F.H. (Ed.). (1922). Botsford collection of folk songs New York: G. Schirmer Inc. Buchanan, A.M. (Arr.). (1938). Folk hymns of America New York: J. Fischer. Burleigh, H.T. (Arr.). (1917). Album of Negro spirituals Melville NY: Belwin Mills Publishing Corp. Carmer, C. (Ed.). (1942). Songs of the rivers of America New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc. Carmer, C. (Coll.). (1942). America sings: stories and songs of our countrys growing New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Chase, R. (1956). American folk tales and songs New York: Dover. Chase, R. (1972). Old songs and singing games New York: Dover. Chase, R. (Ed.). (1938). Songs and singing games Chapel Hill NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Colcord, J.C. (Coll.). (1924). Roll and go: songs of American sailormen Indianapolis IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company. Coleman, S.N., & Bregman, A. (1942). Songs of American folks New York: Books for Libraries Press. Combs, J. (Coll.). (1939). Folksongs from the Kentucky highlands New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Copland, A. (1950). Old American songs New York: Boosey & Hawkes.

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233 Council of the Southern Mountains (1946). Songs of all time Delaware OH: Cooperative Recreation Service. Crawford, R., Lott, R.A., & Oja, C.J. (Eds.). (1990). A celebration of American music Ann Arbor MI: The University of Michigan Press. Dallin, L., & Dallin, L. (1967). Folk songster Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown Company. Davis, R.L. (1980). A history of music in American life: volume II the gilded years, 1865-1920 New York: Robert Kriege Publishing Company. Davis, R.L. (1981). A history of music in American life: volume III the modern era, 1920 present Florida: Robert Krieger Publishing Company. Densmore, F. (1910). Chippewa music Washington, D.C.: Government Print Office. Densmore, F. (1918). Teton Sioux music Washington, D.C.: Government Print Office. Densmore, F. (1922). Northern Ute music Washington, D.C.: Government Print Office. Densmore, F. (1926). The American Indians and their music New York: The Womans Press. Densmore, F. (1929). Papago music Washington, D.C.: Government Print Office. Densmore, F. (1943). Choctaw music Washington, D.C.: Government Print Office. Densmore, F. (1972). Menominee music New York: DaCapo Press. Densmore, F. (1972). Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti and Zuni Pueblos New York: DaCapo Press. Densmore, F. (1972). Pawnee music New York: DaCapo Press. Dett, R.N. (Ed.). (1927). Religious folk-songs of the Negro Hampton VA: Hampton Institute Press. Doerflinger, W.M. (1951). Shantymen and shantyboys: songs of the sailor and the lumberman New York: Macmillan. Downes, O., & Siegmeister, E. (1943). A treasury of American song New York: Alfred A. Knopt. Dydo, S., & Kirshbaum, R. (Arr.). (1984). The Norman Rockwell family songbook New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Engel, C., & Strunk, W.O. (Eds.). (1931). Music from the days of George Washington New York: AMS Press.

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234 Fenner, T.P. (1874). Cabin and plantation songs Hampton VA: Hampton University Press. Fenner, T.P. (1909). Religious folk songs of the Negro Hampton VA: The Institute Press. Fenner, T.P., Rathbun, F.G., & Cleaveland, B. (Arr.). (1901). Cabin and plantation songs New York: G.P. Putnams Sons. Fisher, M.M. (1953). Negro slave songs in the United States New York: Russell and Russell. Forcucci, S.L. (1984). A folk song history of America Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Foster Hall Collection of the University of Pittsburgh (1952). Songs of Stephen Foster Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Gordon, A.A. (Coll.). (1924). Everybody sing Evanston IL: Union Publishing House. Gruenberg, L. (1926). Negro spirituals New York: Universal-Edition A.G. Harris, R., & Evanson, J. (1940). Singing through the ages, contrapuntal songs New York: American Book Company. Harris, R., & Evanson, J. (1940). Singing through the ages, melodic and harmonic songs New York: American Book Company. Haufrecht, H. (Ed.). (1959). Folksing New York: Berkley Publishing Corporation. Helms, K.G. (1982). Hand-me-down songs: traditional music of Union county, North Carolina Monroe NC: Ambassador Press. High, F. (1907). Old, old folk songs Berryville AR: Unknown. Hood, I., & Hood, M.A. (Eds.). (1977). The American treasury of 1004 folk songs (vol. 1). New York: Charles Hansen, Inc. Ives, B. (1956). Sea songs of sailing, whaling, and fishing New York: Ballantine Books. Jackson, G.P. (1937). Spiritual folk-songs of early America New York: J.J. Augustin Publisher. Jackson, G.P. (1945). Down-east spirituals and others New York: J.J. Augustin Publisher. Jackson, G.P. (1953). Down-east spirituals New York: J.J. Augustin Publisher.

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235 Johnson, J.W. (Ed.). (1925). The book of American Negro spirituals New York: The Viking Press. Johnston, R. (1984). Folk songs North America sings Toronto: Caveat Music Publishers. Jordan, P., & Kessler, L. (1941). Songs of yesterday Garden City NJ: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc. Linscott, E.H. (1962). Folk songs of old New England (2nd ed.). New York: The Shoe String Press. Lloyd, N., & Lloyd, R. (Arr.). (1969). The American heritage songbook New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, Inc. Lomax, A. (1960). Best loved American folk songs New York: Grosset & Dunlap. Lomax, A. (Ed.). (1964). The Penguin book of American folk songs Baltimore: Penguin Books Inc. Lomax, J.A., & Lomax, A. (Coll.). (1941). Our singing country: a second volume of American ballads and folk songs New York: The Macmillan Company. Lomax, J.A., & Lomax, A. (Eds.). (1947). Folk song U.S.A New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. Mason, M.H. (Coll.). (1973). Nursery rhymes and country songs: both tunes and words from tradition London: Metzler & Co. McCaskey, J.P. (Comp.). (1916). Treasury of favorite song in three volumes, songs and hymns of the millions of yesterday, today and tomorrow (vol. 1). Lancaster PA: J.P. McCaskey. McCaskey, J.P. (Comp.). (1916). Treasury of favorite song in three volumes, songs and hymns of the millions of yesterday, today and tomorrow (vol. 2). Lancaster PA: J.P. McCaskey. McCaskey, J.P. (Comp.). (1916). Treasury of favorite song in three volumes, songs and hymns of the millions of yesterday, today and tomorrow (vol. 3). Lancaster PA: J.P. McCaskey. Mitchell, D., & Biss, R. (Arr.). (1970). The Gambit book of childrens songs Boston: Gambit, Incorporated. Mott, A. (1911). Our old nursery rhymes Philadelphia: David McKay. Newell, W.W. (1883). Games and songs of American children New York: Dover Publishers.

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236 Niles, J.J. (1934). Schirmers American folk-song series: songs of the hill-folk New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Niles, J.J. (1936). Schirmers American folk-song series: more songs of the hill-folk New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Niles, J.J. (Ed.). (1937). Ballads, carols, and tragic legends from the southern Appalachian mountains New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Nye, R. (1970). Singing with children (2nd ed.). Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publications. Nye, R., Nye, V., Aubin, N., & Kyme, G. (1962). Singing with children Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Nye, V. (1975). Music for young children Dubuque IA: William C. Brown Company. Phillips, B. (1939). Folk music in America New York: Works Progress Administration, Federal Theatre Project National Service Bureau. Randolph, V. (Ed.). (1946). Ozark folksongs (vol. 1). Columbia MO: The State Historical Society of Missouri. Randolph, V. (Ed.). (1948). Ozark folksongs (vol. 2). Columbia MO: The State Historical Society of Missouri. Randolph, V. (Ed.). (1949). Ozark folksongs (vol. 3). Columbia MO: The State Historical Society of Missouri. Randolph, V. (Ed.). (1950). Ozark folksongs (vol. 4). Columbia MO: The State Historical Society of Missouri. Raph, T. (1964). The American song treasury, 100 favorites New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Richardson, E.P. (Ed.). (1927). American mountain songs Greenberg NY: Greenberg Publisher, Inc. Rohrbough, L. (1940). Play party games of pioneer times: set down from original sources in Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Iowa Delaware OH: Cooperative Recreation Service Publications. Sandburg, C. (1927). The American songbag New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. Seeger, R.C. (1948). American folk songs for children in home, school and nursery school Garden City NJ: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

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237 Seeger, R.C. (1950). Animal folk songs for children Garden City NJ: Doubleday & Company, Inc. Spaeth, S.G. (1979). Read em and weep: the songs you forgot to remember New York: Da Capo Press. Spottswood, R.K., & Ulman, R. (Eds.). (1978). Folk music in America XIII: songs of childhood Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Still, W.G., & Goodwin, R.B. (Eds.). (1937). Twelve Negro spirituals (vol. 1). New York: Handy Brothers Music Co., Inc. Still, W.G., & Goodwin, R.B. (Eds.). (1948). Twelve Negro spirituals (vol. 2). New York: Handy Brothers Music Co., Inc. Tillett, B. (Ed.). (1975). Jerry Silvermans folk song encyclopedia New York: Chappell Music Company. Tobitt, J.E. (Coll.). (1941). Sing me your song, o! New York: Janet E. Tobitt. Treasure chest of cowboy songs (1935). New York: Treasure Chest Publications, Inc. Warner, A. (1984). Traditional American folk songs from the Anne & Frank Warner collection Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press. Warner, F.M. (1963). Folk songs and ballads of the eastern seaboard: from a collectors notebook Macon GA: Southern Press, Inc. West, T. (2001). Teaching American history with favorite folk songs New York: Scholastic Professional Books. White, C.C. (1927). Forty Negro spirituals Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Co. Zanzig, A.D. (1941). Singing America song and chorus book Boston: C.C. Birchard & Company.

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APPENDIX K RECOMMENDED AMERICAN CHILDRENS FOLK SONG LIST This list was created through reverse engineering of the Elder Study and University Elementary Music Specialists Song Assessment. The process began with the song list created by the University Elementary Music Specialists Song Assessmentthe 100 songs most representative of the American childrens folk heritage. Next, the scores of each of those songs was obtained from the results of the Elder Study. Any song which a minimum of 50 participants (in the Elder Study) had not chosen was deleted from the list. This created a list of songs most highly recommended by University Elementary Music Specialists as representative of the American childrens folk heritage, and which were most frequently taught to children in America between 50-100 years ago. 1. A Tisket, A Tasket (a green and yellow basket) 2. All Night, All Day (angels watchin over me, my Lord) 3. All The Pretty Little Horses (Hushaby, dont you cry, go to sleep little baby,when you wake, you shall have ) 5. America (my country tis of Thee, sweet land of liberty) 7. Away in a Manger (no crib for a bed) 8. Battle Hymn of the Republic (glory, glory hallelujah, His truth is marching on) 9. Billy Boy (Oh where have you been Billy Boy, Billy Boy) 10. Bingo (there was a farmer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o) 4. Amazing Grace (how sweet the sound that saved a wretch like me) 11. Blue Tail Fly, The (Jimmy crack corn and I dont care, my masters gone away) 12. Caissons Go Rolling Along, The (over hill, over dale, we will hit the dusty trail, as those) 6. America, the Beautiful (Oh beautiful for spacious skies) 238

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239 13. Camptown Races, The (camptown ladies sing this song, doo-dah, doo-dah) 27. Go Tell it on the Mountain (over the hill and everywhere) 14. Cindy (Get along home, Cindy Cindy, Ill marry you some day) 15. Clementine (Oh my darling, oh my darling, oh my darling Clementine) 16. Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (when born by the red, white, and blue, thy banners make tyranny tremble) 17. Crawdad Song (You get a line, and Ill get a pole honey) 18. Did You Ever See A Lassie? (a lassie, a lassie, did you ever see a lassie go this way and that) 19. Dixie (I Wish I Was in the Land of Cotton) 21. Down in the Valley (valley so low, hang your head over) 22. Eency, Weency Spider (went up the water spout) 23. Farmer in the Dell, The (hi-ho the dairy-o, the farmer in the dell) 24. Frog Went Courtin, A (he did ride, with sword and pistol by his side aha, ho-ho) 28. God Bless America (land that I love, stand beside her and guide her) 29. God of our Fathers (whose almighty hand) 30. Goober Peas (goodness, how delicious, eating goober peas) 31. Goodbye, Old Paint (Im a-leaving Cheyenne) 32. Hes Got the Whole World In His Hands 33. Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush (so early in the morning) 35. Hokey Pokey, The (you put your right foot in, you put your right foot out) 36. Home on the Range (where the deer and the antelope play, where seldom is heard a discouraging word) 37. Hush Little Baby (dont say a word, papas going to buy you a mockingbird) 38. Rock-a-by Baby (in the treetops, when the wind blows the cradle will rock) 39. Ive Been Workin On the Railroad (all the live long day) 40. If Youre Happy and You Know It (clap your hands) 34. Hickory Dickory Dock (the mouse ran up the clock) 20. Down By the Riverside (and study war no more) 25. Go Down, Moses (way down in Egypt land, tell old Pharaoh, let my people go) 26. Go Tell Aunt Rhody (the old gray goose is dead) 41. Joshua Fought the Battle of Jericho (and the walls came tumblin down)

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240 42. Kum Ba Yah (my Lord, Kum Ba Yah) 43. Liza Jane (O Eliza, lil Liza Jane, O Eliza, lil Liza Jane) 44. Looby Loo (here we go looby loo, here we go looby light) 45. Marines Hymn (From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli) 46. Mary Had a Little Lamb (its fleece was white as snow) 47. Michael Row the Boat Ashore (hallelujah) 48. Muffin Man, The (oh do you know the muffin man) 49. Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow (do you or I or anyone know how oats, peas, beans, and barley grow) 52. Oh, Where has My Little Dog Gone? (oh where, oh where can he be) 53. Old Chisholm Trail (well come along boys and listen to my tale, let me tell you bout my troubles on the) 54. Old Folks at Home (Way down upon the Swannee River, far, far away) 57. Over the River and Through the Woods (to grandmothers house we go) 58. Polly Wolly Doodle (oh I went down south for to see my Sal, singin polly wolly doodle all the day) 59. Pop, Goes the Weasel! (all around the cobblers bench the monkey chased the weasel) 60. Ring Around the Rosies (pocket full of posies) 61. Rock-A My Soul (in the bosom of Abraham) 63. Shell Be Comin Round the Mountain (when she comes) 64. Shenandoah (oh Shenandoah, I long to see you, away, you rolling river) 62. Row, Row, Row Your Boat (gently down the sea) 50. Oh! Dear! What Can the Matter Be? (Johnnys so long at the fair) 65. Shoo Fly (dont bother me, shoo-fly dont bother me, shoo-fly dont bother me for I belong to somebody) 51. Oh, Susanna! (oh dont you cry for me) 66. Shortnin-Bread (mammys little baby loves shortnin shortnin) 67. Silent Night (holy night, all is calm, all is bright) 68. Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child (a long way from home) 69. Star-Spangled Banner, The (Oh say can you see, by the dawns early light) 55. Old MacDonald (had a farm, e-i-e-i-o) 56. Onward Christian Soldiers (marching as to war) 70. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (comin for to carry me home)

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241 71. Take Me Out to the Ballgame (buy me some peanuts and crackerjack, I dont care if I ever get back) 72. Theres A Hole in the Bucket (dear Liza, dear Liza) 73. This Land is Your Land (this land is my land) 74. This Little Light of Mine (Im gonna let it shine) 75. This Old Man (he played one, he played knick-knack on my drum) 79. Wheels on the Bus, The (go round and round) 80. When Johnny Comes Marching Home (again, hurrah, hurrah, well give him a hearty welcome then, hurrah, hurrah) 76. Three Blind Mice (see how they run) 77. Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (how I wonder what you are) 78. We Gather Together (to ask the Lords blessing) 81. When the Saints Go Marching In (oh how I want to be in that number) 84. Youre A Grand Old Flag (youre a high flying flag) 82. Yankee Doodle (went to town riding on a pony, stuck a feather in his cap) 83. You are my Sunshine (my only sunshine, you make me happy when skies are gray)

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243 Baughman, J.L. (1992). The republic of mass culture: journalism, filmmaking, and broadcasting in America since 1941 Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Bayard, S.P. (1955). Decline and revival of Anglo-American folk music. Midwest Folklore, 63 (1), 1-44. Bayard, S.P. (1982). Dance to the fiddle, march to the fife University Park PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book one New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book two New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1944). The American singer, book three New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1945). The American singer, book four New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1946). The American singer, book five New York: American Book Company. Beattie, J.W., Wolverton, J., Wilson, G.V., & Hinga, H. (1947). The American singer, book six New York: American Book Company. Beatty, A.S. (1996). NAEP 1994 U.S. history report card: findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Beckwith, M.H., & Beckwith, A.L. (1902). When first, we go to school New York: Educational Publishing Company. Beirly, A. (1907). The song wonder: a very complete, well-graded song book for the use of graded schools, singing classes, musical societies, conventions, etc. giving elementary and practical exercises, songs, glees, anthems, sacred and secular choruses, devotional hymns, etc Chicago: Alfred Beirly. Benjamin, L.A., & Woodbury, I.B. (1853). The New York normal school song book (6th ed.). New York: Lamport, Blakeman, & Law. Berg, R.C., & Burns, C. (1966). Studying music: music for young Americans (2nd ed.). New York: American Book Company. Bernardo, P. (1980). The analysis and classification of American folk songs in conjunction with the Kodly concept of music education Unpublished masters thesis, Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.: MD.

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244 Bernhard, N.E. (1993). Electronic democracy: the public as media market. [Review of the books Unsilent revolution: television news and American public left, The republic of mass culture: journalism, filmmaking, and broadcasting in America since 1941, The electronic commonwealth: the impact of new media technologies on democratic politics ]. Reviews in American History, 21 (1), 144-150. Bianculli, D. (2000). Teleliteracy: taking television seriously Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press. Bikel, T. (1960). Folksongs and footnotes New York: The World Publishing Company. Birge, E.B. (1928). History of public school music in the United States New York: Oliver Ditson Company. Birkenshaw, L. (1974). Music for fun, music for learning New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Bluestein, E. (1960). The background and sources of an American folksong tradition Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Blyler, D.M. (1957). The song choices of children in the elementary school. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1957). Dissertation Abstracts International, 18 0606. Boesel, A.S. (1944). Singing with Peter and Patsy New York: Oxford University Press. Boni, M. (Ed.). (1947). Fireside book of folk songs New York: Simon and Schuster. Boni, M.B. (Ed.). (1952). The fireside book of favorite American songs New York: Simon and Schuster. Botkin, B.A. (1937). The American play-party song Lincoln NE: University Studies of the University of Nebraska. Botsford, F.H. (Ed.). (1922). Botsford collection of folk songs New York: G. Schirmer Inc. Botsford, F.H. (Ed.). (1937). The universal folk songster for home, school and community New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. Boyd, L.W., Smith, H., & Bennett J.C. (1943). Merrily we learn and sing Chicago: Clayton F. Summy Co. Brady, M. (1989). Whats worth teaching: selecting, organizing, and integrating knowledge Albany NY: State University of New York Press.

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245 Bremner, K.F. (1910). A book of song games and ball games (3rd ed.). New York: A.S. Barnes Company. Bridgman, W.C., & Curtis, L.W. (1947). The American singer, book seven New York: American Book Company. Bridgman, W.C., & Curtis, L.W. (1948). The American singer, book eight New York: American Book Company. Brittan, N., & Sherwood, L.H. (1850). The school song and hymn book New York: A.S. Barnes. Brittan, N., & Sherwood, L.H. (1855). The school song and hymn book designed for general use in schools, academies, and seminaries Cincinnati OH: H.W. Derby. Bronson, B.H. (1949). Mechanical help in the study of folk song. Journal of American Folklore, 62 (1), 81-86. Brooks, B.M. (1946). Music education in the elementary school New York: American Book Company. Brunnings, F. (1981). Folk song index: a comprehensive guide to the Florence E. Brunnings collection New York: Garland Publications. Buchanan, A.M. (Arr.). (1938). Folk hymns of America New York: J. Fischer. Buechner, A.C. (1962). A workshop on American folk songs for children Boston: Folk Song Society of Greater Boston. Buescher, R.J. (1993). A description of community music programs for preschool children sponsored by selected colleges and universities in the United States. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 2500. Burleigh, H.T. (Arr.). (1917). Album of negro spirituals Melville NY: Belwin Mills Publishing Corp. Byer, S. (1997). Kidsbeat: Larry Longs songwriting project connects children and elders. Sing Out, 42 (2), 122-125. Campbell, P.S. (1998). Songs in their heads: music and its meaning in childrens lives New York: Oxford University Press. Cantwell, R. (1996). When we were good: the folk revival Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Carmer, C. (Coll.). (1942). America sings: stories and songs of our countrys growing New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

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246 Carmer, C. (Ed.). (1942). Songs of the rivers of America New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc. Carpenter, E., & Clark, F.E. (1907). The vitalizing of the child through song (located at University of Minnesota, Minneapolis: Proceedings and addresses of Publisher, p. 856-865). Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States. Chase, R. (1956). American folk tales and songs New York: Dover. Chase, R. (1972). Old songs and singing games New York: Dover. Chase, R. (Ed.). (1938). Songs and singing games Chapel Hill NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Choate, R.A. (1968). Documentary report of the Tanglewood Symposium Washington, D.C.: Music Educators National Conference. Choksy, L. (1981). The Kodly context: creating an environment for musical learning Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chrisman, M.C. (1985). Popular songs of the genteel tradition: their influence on music education in public schools of Louisville, Kentucky, from 1850 to 1880. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 0012. Chroman, E. (Ed.). (1970). Songs that children sing New York: Oak Publications. Clarke, G.E. (1977). Esssays on American music Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Coad, O.S. (1968). Songs America used to sing. Journal of the Rutgers University Library, 31 (June 1968), 33-45. Cohen, E. (1971). Woody Guthrie and the American folk song. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts International, 32 5920. Cohen, N. (1999). The sinking of the Titanic and the floundering of American folksong scholarship. Southern Folklore, 56 (1), 3-33. Colcord, J.C. (Coll.). (1924). Roll and go: songs of American sailormen Indianapolis IN: The Bobbs-Merrill Company. Coleman, S.N., & Bregman, A. (1942). Songs of American folks New York: Books for Libraries Press. Combs, J. (Coll.). (1939). Folksongs from the Kentucky highlands New York: G. Schirmer, Inc.

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247 Consortium of National Arts Education Associations (1994). National standards for arts education: what every young American should know and be able to do in the arts Reston VA: Music Education National Conference. Cooperative Recreation Service (1954). Sweet freedoms song Delaware OH: Author. Copland, A. (1950). Old American songs New York: Boosey & Hawkes. Council of the Southern Mountains (1946). Songs of all time Delaware OH: Cooperative Recreation Service. Crabtree, C.A., & Nash, G.B. (1994). National standards for United States history: exploring the American experience Los Angeles: The Center. Cranford, R.J. (1953). A sample survey of the attitudes of Iowa high school seniors toward journalism and careers in journalism. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 1953). Dissertation Abstracts International, 13 (06) z1179. Crawford, R., Lott, R.A., & Oja, C.J. (Eds.). (1990). A celebration of American music Ann Arbor MI: The University of Michigan Press. Culton, C.L. (1999). The extent to which elementary music education textbooks reflect teachers needs regarding instruction of students with special needs: a content analysis. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 4358. Cundiff, H.M., Dykema, P.W. (1925). School music handbook, a guide for teaching school music, especially adapted to the needs of the grade teacher, applicable to any system or series of music books Boston: C.C. Birchard & Company. Curry, B.A. (1982). An evaluation of African and Afro-American music in selected elementary music textbook series and recommendations for supplemental song materials. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Houston, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 0099. Dallin, L., & Dallin, L. (1967). Folk songster Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown Company. Damrosch, W., Gartlan, G., & Gehrkens, K. (1923). Universal school music series (bk. 3). New York: Hinds, Hayden, and Eldredge, Inc. Dann, H. (1912). Hollis Dann music course: manual for teachers New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1914). Hollis Dann music course: first year music New York: American Book Co. Dann, H. (1915). Hollis Dann music course: second year music New York: American Book Co.

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267 The western teacher song book: a collection of songs for schools (1902). Milwaukee WI: S.Y. Gillan. White, C.C. (1927). Forty negro spirituals Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Co. White, L. (1935). Making the most of singing in the church school New York: D. Appleton-Century Company. Whiting, C.E. (1901). Whitings school song book Boston: D.C. Heath & Company. Wilcox, K.D. (1998). Russian sacred choral and folk music: a multicultural text for high schools and colleges. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 1106. Wilgus, D.K. (1959). Anglo-American folksong scholarship since 1898 New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press. Willis, C.J. (1985). Recommended British-American folk songs for use in elementary school music. (Masters thesis, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, 1985). Masters Abstracts International, 24 0093. Wilson, V.S., Litle, J.A., & Wilson, G.L. (1993). Teaching social studies: handbook of trends, issues, and implications for the future Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Yontz, M.E. (1998). Music in our young folks, 1865-1873. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 0283. Zanzig, A.D. (1941). Singing America song and chorus book Boston: C.C. Birchard & Company.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH She presented sessions on Bartks Use of the Golden Ratio and Improvisation with Jamaican Music at the National MENC Convention in Nashville, Tennessee, in 2002. She was an adjunct professor at Valdosta State University where she observed student teachers, taught a course in choral conducting methods, and a course in graduate elementary music methods. For four years at the University of Florida, she served as a Marilyn Ward received a MM in music education in 1999 under the direction of Dr. Russell Robinson, Dr. Charles Hoffer, and Dr. Camille Smith, and in the piano studio of Dr. Kenneth Sharpe at the University of Florida. She received a MM in choral conducting in 2001 in the conducting studio of Dr. James Morrow at the University of Florida. At the University of Florida, she received the Wilmot Award for Outstanding Achievement in Music Education. She received a Bachelor of Music Education from Oral Roberts University in 1988 and was selected as the Outstanding Student Teacher that year. Her major instrument was voice (studio of Dr. Edward Pierce) and her minor instrument was piano. She taught elementary music for ten years in Lubbock, Texas, and Tampa, Florida. She was music director at a music magnet school and has taught in inner city, rural, and suburban schools. She has worked extensively with emotionally handicapped and severely emotionally-disturbed students, and was Teacher of the Year at Lake Myrtle Elementary in Pasco County in 1993-1994. She has directed the All-County Choirs in Pasco, Hillsborough, and Alachua Counties. 268

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269 graduate assistant, and taught MUE 3210, a course for undergraduate elementary education majors, teaching them to integrate music into their classroom curriculum. She was assistant conductor of the Womens Chorale under Professor Ronald Burrichter, and conducted the University of Florida Orchestra under the direction of Dr. Raymond Chobaz. She has conducted university, high school, junior high, and elementary choirs during her tenure in music education. She has taught guitar, piano, and recorder at the university level, as well as at the elementary level. She has taught Orff and Kodly methods in MUE 3311, Elementary Music Methods, with Dr. Elizabeth Adams at the University of Florida, and MUE 7640, Graduate Elementary Music Methods, at Valdosta State University. She has conducted show choirs, select choirs, mens and womens choirs, recorder consorts, guitar classes, Orff ensembles, and piano classes, as well as given private piano and guitar lessons. She taught music history at the University of Florida choral camp in 2000. For several years she was on the Hillsborough County Elementary Music Council, where she served as Area IV representative and secretary. She has led in-services on Creative Ways to Teach Classical Repertoire and Music Review Games (Hillsborough County), Integrating Music into Classroom Curricula (Duval County), and Strategies to Increase Learning (Pasco County). She is an active member of MENC: The National Association of Music Education, Florida Music Educators Association, Florida College Music Educators Association, the American Musicological Society, the American Choral Directors Association, and the College Music Society. She has a passion for teaching and conducting.


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Title: The Extent to Which American Children's Folk Songs Are Taught by General Music Teachers Throughout the United States
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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THE EXTENT TO WHICH AMERICAN CHILDREN'S FOLK SONGS ARE
TAUGHT BY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS THROUGHOUT
THE UNITED STATES
















By

MARILYN J. WARD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Marilyn J. Ward















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank God for His help in this endeavor. I believe that He was

responsible for the good response rate and provided direction, assistance, and wisdom

along the way. I would also like to thank my mother, Dr. Iva Maybelle Hollingshead,

who funded and personally delivered, retrieved, and processed the information from the

majority of elder study instruments. Not only did my mother physically and financially

assist in this project, she has also been a constant source of inspiration and

encouragement throughout my life. I owe a great debt of gratitude to both my mother

and father, who are some of the most wonderful people I have ever known.

Sincere appreciation is expressed to the members of my supervisory committee for

their insight, wisdom, and wonderful suggestions for improvement through the many

stages of this research study: Dr. Russell Robinson (chairman, music education); Dr.

Charles Hoffer (music education); Dr. Budd Udell (theory/composition); and Dr. David

Young (directing/theatre). Many thanks are extended to Brad Ward, my husband, who

has ever so graciously funded this project, in its enormity.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ......... .... ........ .... .... ...... ........... ..... ..... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ xi

A B S T R A C T .......................................... ..................................................x iii

CHAPTERS

1 THE PROBLEM ................................... .. .. .......... .. .................1.

Statem ent of the Problem ....................................... ..... ... ...... ...............
The Essential Basis of Music Education ...................................................1
Responsibility of N nations and Schools ..............................................................3
National Songs of Heritage Are Valuable and Important ..................................3
P u rp o se o f th e S tu dy ................................................................ ...................... .. .3
Basic Difficulty.................................4.........4
The N national Standards .............. ..... .......... ............................................. 4
Why Teach Our Children Songs of the American Children's Folk Heritage?......4
Why Use Song in the Teaching of History and Culture? ............. ................5
B background of the Problem ........................................................... ............6
Educational Trends ............................................. .... ........... ..... ........ 7
N atio n al Issu es................................................. ................ 7
S o cial C o n c ern s ................................................................................... 7
D elineation of the R research Problem ................................... ..................................... 8
Im portance of the Study ........ ........................... ............................... ...............
C larification of Term inology ............................................ ................. ............... 10
A ssum options ............................................................ ................. 14
Scope and D elim stations of the Study ........................................ ..... ............... 15
Outline of the Remainder of the Dissertation..................... ......... ..... .......... 17

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.......................... ............. .............. 18

H historical B background ........ ...... ...... .... ......... .... .......................... .............. 19
Historical Overview of Children's Folk Songs in America .............................19
1649-1776........................................................................ 19
1 8 6 5 1 8 7 3 ............................................... ................ 1 9
1939-1960................................ ............................... ...... .20









Historical Overview of American Folk Songs in Elementary Music
T ex tb o o k s ...................................... ............................ ................ 2 0
1 8 5 0 1 8 8 0 ............................................... ................ 2 1
1870 to early 1900's ............................................................. ...... .. 2 1
19 3 6 -19 4 3 ........................................... .. ................................. ................... 2 4
1944 -19 5 1 ......... ...... ............................................................ ............ 2 5
19 55-1962 ......... .. .... ................................................................... 2 7
19 7 0 -19 7 6 ......... ...... ......... .. ....................................................... ............ 3 0
19 7 7 -19 8 5 ......... ...... ......... .. ................................................................. 3 0
A m erican Children's Folk Songs................................... .................. 31
O outside the C classroom ...................... ...... ....... ................................31
C o lle c tio n s ............... ... .... .. ............. .. ..............................................3 2
G general M usic T extbook Series ................................................................... 35
Related research on American folk songs in general music textbooks........42
S u m m ary ...............................................................4 3
In th e cla ssro o m ..................................................................................... 4 3
The Value of Songs of H heritage ..................................... ...... ............ ............... 49
The Importance of Songs and Singing in American History and Culture ............... 54
Related Research on American Folk Songs.......................................................... 57
Summary of Literature Reviewed ..................... ............................. .. ............ ....61

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ......................................................................................... 62

D description of Research M methodology .......................................................... ...... 62
Research D design ...................................................... ........................64
Research A ssim ilated Into the Study ......................... ..................................... 64
Initial Song Lists Considered But Not Used ................................................. 65
Song Lists Which Were Used............................. ...............66
Methodology of Song List Creation and Elder Study .................................... 71
Song List Creation by Elderly ........................................... .......... ........73
P ilo t S tu d y ................................................. ....... ........................................ 7 7
Elementary Music Specialists Abridge Song List .............................................77
Creation of General Music Teacher Research Instrument ..................................80
Instrum entation ............................................. ............... ............... 80
Selection of subjects ......... ................. ....... ............... ............... 80
D ata C collection ......... ............................................. ..................................... 89
Summary ................................ ..................... 90

4 R E SU L T S ......................................... ............. ............. ........

Introduction to the Statistical Analysis of This Study ................... ...............91
Normal Linear Model ................ ...................................91
T h e S c ale ............. ............................................ ................... ..9 2
Definition of scale values ............ ............. ...... ........... .. .............. 92
A application to results ................................ .... ................. ............... 93
A sym m etrical nature of scale degrees........................................................94



v









Aggregate Findings -Statistical Analysis Detailing the Extent to Which Songs
of the American Children's Folk Heritage Are Taught in Schools in the
U united States .............. ................... ............................... .......... 96
Observed Significance Levels: P-Values ................................... ............. 98
R oot M ean Square for Error.................................... ......................... ........... 100
R -Square ................................................................................................. ........100
F v a lu e ....................................................................................................1 0 3
Significance Testing .................. .......................... .......................104
F Statistics and P-V alues ........................................................ ............. 104
M ean Square .................................... ............................... ....... 105
Type III Sum of Squares ...................................................... ................... 106
Degrees of Freedom ............................. ....... ... ...... .. ... .. ............. 107
D iscrepancy A analysis of Result R eliability.............................................................108
V ariance ..................................................................... ......... 109
M ode ..................................... .................. ............... ......... 110
Skew ..................................... .................. ............... ......... 110
M ean .................................... ........................................... .......... 111
M edian ............................................................................................... ........ 111
R a n g e ......................................................................................1 1 2
Standard D aviation .................. ............................. ... ... ... .. ........ .. 113
O u tlie r s .....................................................................................................1 1 4
T he B oxplot .......................................................................................... ....... 115
Interquartile R ange ............. .. ... ................................ .. .. ....... ... ............... 16
Compendium of Findings in Regard to Song Totals and Songs by Category ..........118
A analysis of R results by G ender ................................. ...................................... 118
A analysis of R results by A ge .............................................................................. 120
Analysis of Results by School Type................. ....... ............... 121
Analysis of Results by Music Series Textbook Used ............. .... ...............123
Analysis of Results by School Level............................................................125
Analysis of Results by Years in the Profession.............................................. 127
Analysis of Results by School Setting.................................... ............... 128
Analysis of Results by Ethnicity ............. ................................. ...............130
A analysis of R results by State .................................... .......................... .......... 131
A ggregate ranking by state...................................... ........ ............... 132
Children's song ranking by state..... .......... ...................................... 134
Folk song ranking by state ........................................ ...... ............... 136
Patriotic song ranking by state .............. ............................................ 139
Compendium of Findings by Isolated Song Type ............................... ..................142
The Extent to Which Children's Songs of the American Heritage Are
Taught in General Music Classrooms Throughout the United States..........42
The Extent to Which Folk Songs of the American Children's Heritage Are
Taught in General Music Classrooms In the United States...........................145
The Extent to Which Patriotic Songs of the American Children's Heritage
Are Taught in General Music Classrooms in the United States .................148
S u m m a ry ......................................................................... .............. 1 5 0









5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .........................153

S u m m a ry .......................................................................................1 5 3
C onclu sions...............................................................154
Generalizations to the Population ....................................... ............... 154
Discussion ................................... .............. ............. .......... 155
Provide lists of songs to be memorized............................. 155
Increase awareness and improve resources...............................................156
Establish a core repertoire rich in American children's folk songs ..........156
Increase the teaching of American folk songs................. .....................158
Increase the teaching of American children's songs.............................. 158
Increase the teaching of American patriotic songs................ ............... 159
Increase the influence of veteran teachers................. ............. ............... 160
Recomm endations From This Study ............................................. ............... 160
Recommendations For Further Research............................... ......... ... ........... 161

APPENDICES

A THE SONGS EVERY AMERICAN SHOULD KNOW, FROM MENC: THE
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR MUSIC EDUCATION'S "GET AMERICA
SINGING ... AGAIN !" VOLUM ES I AND II ............................. ..................1..63

B FIFTY SONGS EVERY CHILD SHOULD KNOW............................166

C ELDER STUDY MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS.......................... 168

D PILOT STUDY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT
IN STRUM ENT..................................................... ......... .. ............. 185

E ELEMENTARY MUSIC SPECIALIST SONG ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT.198

F GENERAL MUSIC TEACHER SONG ASSESSMENT .......................................204

G STATES WHICH PARTICIPATED IN THE FINAL PHASE OF THE STUDY..213

H D ISTRIBU TION OF T TABLE ........................................................................ 214

I F CRITICAL VALUES TABLE FOR PROBABILITIES P = 0.1, 0.05, 0.025,
0 .0 1, A N D 0 .00 1 .................................................................... 2 16

J MUSIC SERIES TEXTBOOKS AND AMERICAN CHILDREN'S AND
FOLK SONG COLLECTIONS USED IN THIS RESEARCH STUDY................225

Elem entary M usic Textbooks ........................................................ ........... .....225
Am erican Children's and Folk Song Collections....................................................232









K RECOMMENDED AMERICAN CHILDREN'S FOLK SONG LIST..................238

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......... ...... ........... ................. .............................................242

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .................................................................. ....................268
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 American and Western European folksongs in school music series: percentages
of the total number of songs found in series published during six time periods......30

2 F o y so n g list ....................................................... ................ 6 7

3 W illis so n g list................................................... ................ 6 8

4 W illis' source books ............................................................. .. ........ .. ..... 70

5 States represented by elder study ........................................ ......................... 74

6 Sample characteristics: exact number of contributing teachers by state.................89

7 G lobal results of the study.............................................. .............................. 96

8 Type III sum of squares indicating aggregate demographic significance............102

9 U nivariate discrepancies- m om ents ............................. ................................... 108

10 Univariate discrepancies-basic statistical measures .........................................110

11 Univariate discrepancies-quantiles .............................................................114

12 Boxplot of univariate discrepancies ............. ................................ ...............115

13 Univariate discrepancies-extreme observations ................. ..................117

14 Gender-weighted average of responses ........... ............ ...... ............119

15 Age-weighted average of responses .............. ..... ............ .................120

16 School type- weighted average of responses....................................................... 122

17 Music series textbook used-weighted average of responses .............................123

18 School level- weighted average of responses...................................................... 125

19 Years the teacher has taught general music-weighted average of responses.......127









20 School setting- weighted average of responses ...................................................128

21 Ethnicity of teacher-weighted average of responses .................................. 130

22 State-weighted average of responses .......................................................133

23 W eighted average of total song responses by state................................................135

24 Weighted average of children's song responses by state.................. ............137

25 Weighted average of folk song responses by state...............................................138

26 Weighted average of patriotic song responses by state .............. ... ..................140

27 C children's song base values ........................................................................ .... 142

28 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to
teaching children's songs ............................................... ............................ 145

29 F olk song base values............................................................................. ..... .......145

30 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to
teaching folk songs ........................................................ ................. 147

31 Patriotic song base values ............................................. ............................. 148

32 Type III sum of squares indicating demographic significance in regards to
teaching patriotic songs .......................................................... ............... 150
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

1 G ender of subjects in elder study ...................................................... ............ 75

2 Participating university elementary specialists' years of experience....................78

3 Specialist assessment response rate.............................................79

4 Sample characteristics: males to females .............................................. .......... 82

5 Sam ple characteristics: age .................................. .....................................82

6 Sam ple characteristics: racial ethnicity ....................................... ............... 83

7 Sample characteristics: school setting-private/public.............................. 84

8 U.S. Department of Education national ratio of public to private schools...............84

9 Sample characteristics: music series textbook used............................ ............85

10 Sample characteristics: school setting-level ................... .................86

11 Sam ple characteristics: years taught ............................................ ............... 87

12 Sample characteristics: school setting-environment............... ...................88

13 Distribution of public schools by community type for the 2000-2001 school
y e a r ...................................... ..................................................... 8 8

14 Asymm etrical scale of survey distance ........................................ ............... 94

15 Global results of the study: the extent to which students in the United States
may be expected to know songs of the American children's folk heritage .............95

16 The 68-95-99.7 rule for normal distributions......... ............................ 97

17 SAS program code which created statistical analysis for study...............................99

18 Skew of discrepancies ...................................................................................... 109

19 M odel bell curve distribution ..................................................................... ...... 113









20 Histogram of overall response discrepancies .................................................. 118

21 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by gender of teacher ...............19

22 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by age of teacher.......................121

23 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school type...................... 122

24 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by music series textbook used..124

25 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school level..........................126

26 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by years the teacher has taught
g en eral m u sic .................................................................. 12 8

27 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by school setting.......................129

28 Weighted average of the extent songs are taught by ethnicity of teacher ............131

29 M ap of total scores by state .......................................................................... ... 135

30 M ap of children's song scores by state ..................................................................137

31 M ap of folk song scores by state .................................................. ..... .......... 138

32 Map of patriotic song scores by state ....................................... ...............140

33 C children's song base values ........................................................................ .... 143

34 F olk song base values............................................................................. ..... .......146

35 Patriotic song base values ............................................. ............................. 149















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EXTENT TO WHICH AMERICAN CHILDREN'S FOLK SONGS
ARE TAUGHT BY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS THROUGHOUT
THE UNITED STATES
By

Marilyn J. Ward

May 2003

Chair: Russell L. Robinson
Major Department: Music

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which American children's

folk songs were taught by general music teachers throughout the United States at the

beginning of the 21st century. The research design included three phases. The first phase

involved the creation of a song list which represented the American heritage. Music

textbooks and songbooks from the 1700's to 1950 were used to create an initial list of

over 500 songs. Then a study of 223 people over age 62, representing 44 states, was

conducted to add to/subtract from the initial list, creating a list of 250+ songs which were

taught to children in America between 50 and 100 years ago. The second phase involved

narrowing the list. Thirty top college and university elementary music specialists ranked

each song according to its merits as representative of the American children's folk

heritage. From that ranking, a list of 100 representative songs was created. The third

phase involved a stratified, random sample of 4,000 general music teachers, 80 from

every state in the nation. The teachers were asked the extent to which their students









could sing each of the 100 songs by memory, based on their teaching of the song in

question.

Results revealed that few American children's folk songs were being taught by

general music teachers across the nation. Most students could not be expected to sing

songs such as "Mary Had A Little Lamb," "Old MacDonald Had A Farm," "Bingo,"

"Home On the Range," and "The Star-Spangled Banner" from memory.

Simple linear regression discrepancy analysis revealed that the results of the study

were reliable. A probabilistic model was used to account for random error, yielding

results suited to inferential statements. Statistical significance was achieved at the <.0001

level. Specific demographic characteristics of the teachers-gender, age, whether he/she

taught at a private/public school, music series textbook used, grade level taught, years in

the profession, state, and whether he/she taught at a rural/urban/suburban school-were

highly significant. Information from the 30 elementary music specialists and 233 people

over 62 was combined to create a recommended song list.














CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem

Educators and decision-makers need to know the extent to which American

children's songs are being taught in music classrooms across the nation. This

information is of substantial value to those seeking to ensure that America's youth are

receiving a well-rounded and complete education. The songs in question hold unique

value to American children (Seeger, 1948), as well as the American culture. The

research question is this-to what extent are the songs of the American children's folk

heritage being taught by general music teachers throughout the United States in the

beginning of the twenty-first century? If the core repertoire of American children's folk

songs is not adequately taught across the nation to the extent that practically all students

can sing practically all of the songs by memory, Ruth Crawford Seeger believes it would

negatively impact the population by limiting students' ability to learn and identify with

their own history, culture, and heritage (Seeger, 2001).

The Essential Basis of Music Education

According to Charles Seeger, former music librarian for the Library of Congress,

"the one essential basis of music education in a country is the folk music of that country"

(Seeger, 1942, p. 11). This point d'appui is echoed in the music education philosophy of

Zoltan Kodaly, and by noted musicologists, educators, and composers such as Bela

Bart6k, Charles Seeger, John Lomax, Ruth Crawford Seeger, Harold Spivacke, Woody









Guthrie, Ella Jenkins, and William Newell. As the essential foundation of music

education, it also provides a good starting point, as research by Carolyn Willis reveals.

American music education should begin with its folk music. "American folk

music is the most natural and logical place to begin music instruction" (Willis, 1985, p.2).

The Organization of American Kodaly Educators agrees with the preeminent value of

American children's folk songs, as well. Singing is foundational to Kodaly instruction,

and it has occupied an important position throughout the history of formal music

education in the United States.

Importance of song in America. From the beginning of our nation, song has

played an integral role in Americans' lives. It was an important part of work, play,

worship, good times, bad times, and everything in between. Today, songs continue to

occupy an important position and music is heard in practically every setting where one

may find people. But today, the songs are not being sung, they are played on radios and

stereo systems. With the advancements of music technology, the quality of the sound of

music has greatly increased and become available to everyone, any time, day or night.

Music and songs have become ubiquitous and available in amazingly high fidelity. New

technology has also produced popular music, enabling the entire nation to both hear and

see a song not long after it is first conceived. This has impelled interest in newly

composed songs.

Songs of heritage replaced in the repertory of American children. Songs newly

written and covers of popular songs are performed to the exclusion of songs which have

national and cultural value. The United States stays on the cutting edge of what's









happening in music, but this trend increases the likelihood of people becoming alienated

from their American children's song heritage.

Responsibility of Nations and Schools

Scholars John and Alan Lomax, Charles and Ruth Crawford Seeger, Zoltan

Kodaly, Carl Orff, Bela Bart6k, Lowell Mason, and many others agree that it is a nation's

responsibility and the responsibility of schools to teach the next generation of Americans

the children's folk songs of their heritage (Lomax & Lomax, 1941, p. viii). This research

study was designed to determine the extent to which general music teachers in America

are doing that very thing.

National Songs of Heritage Are Valuable and Important

From the beginning of life, mothers sang to their babies, soothing and educating

them in regard to life and meaning (Rosellini, 1998). Early research in the field has led

to conclusions that children love, need, and use the songs of their heritage to help them

understand the world and the complex interrelationships that may seem to defy logic and

comprehension (Carpenter & Clark, 1907). Ruth Crawford Seeger's research led to her

conclusions that songs help children learn about and remember important events,

empathize with the plight of others, step into another's shoes, and experience the

perspectives, hardships, and joys of their grandparents and ancestors. Through knowing

the children's folk songs of one's musical heritage, one may more richly experience what

it means to fully be who and where he is, and to identify with who and where his

ancestors were (Seeger, 1948).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which songs of the American

children's folk heritage are taught in general music classes in the United States.









Basic Difficulty

The foundation of the problem is built upon the need to comply with the national

standards, as well as the answer to two questions. The first question, "Why teach our

children songs of their American folk heritage?" addresses the value of American folk

songs to children. The second question, "Why use songs in the teaching of history and

culture?" addresses the impact of song and music, and its influence in history, culture,

and education.

The National Standards

The National Standards for Arts Education (Consortium of National Arts Education

Associations, 1994) asserts that music educators are expected to teach students to

"understand music in relation to history and culture." If American students do not

understand their own music in relation to their own history and culture (Siebenaler, 1999)

and have been overheard saying that they "have no culture" of their own (M. Ward,

personal communication, November 15, 2000), then the national standards are not being

met and a void exists in American student education. Musicologists such as Seeger

believe that American children's folk music is a national treasure which holds keys to

understanding America's people, their values, their history, and their culture. America's

history, culture, and people are identified with and understood through its music (Lomax

&Lomax, 1941).

Why Teach Our Children Songs of the American Children's Folk Heritage?

Ruth Crawford Seeger (1948) strongly contends that American children's folk

songs are a vital part of "work, play, sleep, fun, ridicule, love, death" (p. 21) and an

important part of the development and education of American children. She states "it

belongs to our children-it is an integral part of their cultural heritage" (p. 21). "It is not









just children's music-it is family music" (p.24). "It is a bearer of history and custom"

(p. 21). "It is not finished or crystallized-it invites improvisation and creative

aliveness" (p. 23). With such statements, Seeger points to the integral role children's folk

music occupies in the making of America not only in the lives, values, and events that

molded the people who created and fashioned the nation in which they now live, but even

in the lives, values, character, and traits which their parents had and have passed on to

them. Seeger saw it as a right that our children have-the right to know and experience

their own heritage ... as it was once transmitted ... in song.

Why Use Song in the Teaching of History and Culture?

First, the value of using song to teach history and culture is already recognized and

included as an integral part of multicultural education. The 1994 National Standards for

Arts Education lists "Understanding music in relation to history and culture" as Standard

Nine. Teachers have been teaching relationships between history, culture, and song in

relation to other cultures for years.

Historically. Songs transmitting history and culture, important events and values

have been sung throughout recorded history (Kaemmer, 1993).

Philosophically. Barrett, McCoy, and Veblen (1997) state, "music is a symbolic

means of expression woven through the strands of human experience we label as history"

(p.138).

Educationally. Eisner (1991) asserts that music is a curricular component

necessary for understanding the study of history and culture. Eisner believes that music

and song do more than simply enhance the curriculum. He stressed that it provides a way

to make a person's experiences more dramatic, clear, and meaningful, having the end

effect of broadening that person's understanding. Music can broaden understanding by









enabling the learner to experience history-identifying with and feeling a part of it,

making it more memorable and meaningful than reading detached and isolated stories of

events from another time. Songs can make experiences with history more dramatic,

clear, and meaningful by whisking students away to another time and place. Melodies,

rhythms, and accompaniment patterns, as well as the complexity of the music, size of

ensemble, and topics of text are often indicative of characteristics of the time period,

enabling students to become enveloped in both the music and the ambience of the period.

Interrelationally. Music and song can empower people to discover how much they

have in common with others, uniquely equipping them to connect with different ages and

epochs in history. Hudson (1962) believes that connections occur more easily because a

person interacts with music and song on a cultural and emotional level, which is deeper,

more intimate, more personal, and more expressive. Langer (1953) asserts that

interaction with music can heighten a person's perceptive abilities and free his capacity to

respond with feeling and emotion. The value in heightened perceptive abilities and

increased emotional response lies not only in the aesthetic experience but also in the

opportunity to step into another's shoes, to see history and culture from the perspective of

one who was there. Heightened perception can enable a person to more richly

comprehend the beliefs, values, and traditions of his ancestors (Hudson, 1962).

Background of the Problem

A dissertation by Willis (1985) raises the question, "What American folk songs are

being taught in the schools?" (p. 4) as well as "Are American children learning and

enjoying their rightful cultural heritage of American folk music?" (p. 4).









Educational Trends

The following are educational trends which have been identified by recent research.

These trends contribute to the problem addressed by this study.

1. According to Siebenaler (1999), students no longer know the songs of their
national heritage. His report on student song preference indicates a decline in
familiarity and preference for songs of the American heritage in third to fifth
grade students.
2. Recent research by Amchin (1997) reveals that adult students were not able to
recognize traditional American children's songs, and that people in our culture
are not singing as often as they used to.
3. Students' familiarity with United States history facts has declined. This was
described in detail in the 1994 National Assessment of Education Progress,
United States History Group Assessment Report (Goodman, 1998).
4. Beatty (1996) found that students displayed a disturbing lack of knowledge and
understanding of their nation's history and culture.
5. In addition, Wilson, Litle, and Wilson (1993) state that students' knowledge base
of American social studies facts was well below desirable levels and indicated
that improvements were necessary.

National Issues

According to the National Standards for Arts Education: What Every Young

American Should Know and Be Able to Do in the Arts (Consortium of National Arts

Education Associations, 1994), the teaching of song, history, and culture is an expected

and necessary part of a quality education. Standard Nine states specifically that music

educators should teach music "in relation to history and culture." Crabtree and Nash

(1994) detail a broad spectrum of information in United States history and culture which

must be taught in order to comply with the national standards. Their work centers on the

American experience and contains multiple references to incorporating song.

Social Concerns

Specific social concerns which contribute to the problem addressed by this research

study are listed below.









1. College students do not recognize songs of their common American heritage
(Amchin, 1997).
2. College students say they have no heritage (M. Ward, personal communication,
November 15, 2000).
3. American society is being inculcated to regard its heritage with contempt and
look favorably upon cultures and political philosophies that are oppressive,
restrictive, even openly harmful to their own people (Marciano, 1997).

Delineation of the Research Problem

The songs children once learned from their mothers, which they, in turn, had

learned from their mothers, and they from theirs as a form of cultural transmission may

not be counted upon today, as it once was (Amchin, 1997). The ability of music to link

"mankind to its past, working through cultural and personal memory" (Weaver and Toub,

1998) only works when it is transmitted. Singing in our present society has declined to

the point that people have become passive observers in regard to musical experience

(Dodd, 2001). That fact contributes to the marked change in the repertoire of younger

generations, as noted by Siebenaler (1999).

Second, students will know the songs that their general music teachers have taught

them. The song repertoire students gain from other sources is unstable and no assurance

can be given as to the quality, quantity, or any other factor of songs learned from popular

culture or other sources. Rosellini (1998) presented a view of this in a film portrait of

three generations in a family, focusing on the cultural transmission of song as a primary

method of values, oral history, culture, and heritage of the family.

Finally, a student's ability to sing each particular song from memory may be

directly linked to time spent by the teacher in teaching that song (allowing for the fact

that some students will know songs they have not been taught by that particular teacher,

and others will not be able to sing a particular song from memory even after significant

time has been spent by the classroom teacher toward that end).









Importance of the Study

Information is lacking regarding which American children's folk songs are being

taught in the general music classroom and the extent to which they are being taught. If

general music teachers are not teaching songs of the American children's folk heritage,

then a gap exists in music education across our nation. If such a gap does exist and it is

within our ability to identify and fix it, then we would be remiss if we did not do so.

America's children's folk songs are a national treasure which holds keys to understanding

America's people, their values, their history, and their culture (Seeger, 2001). As a

result, the information provided through this study is critical toward informed decision-

making which will lead to the fulfillment of the national standards and the complete

education of American students. If these songs of the American children's folk heritage

heighten perception and enable a person to more richly comprehend the beliefs, values,

and traditions of his ancestors (Eisner, 1991), then the study of American history would

scarcely be as meaningful without them.

Prickett and Bridges (2000) researched college students' knowledge of twenty-five

standard children's folk songs. Their results revealed that the students do not have a

shared repertoire, and over half of the subjects could not identify a number of the songs

which experts believe should be in the common repertory of all Americans.

Prickett's and Bridges' results gained depth when considered alongside that of

McGuire. McGuire (2000) found that experts appear to support the teaching of standard

children's folk songs a great deal more than the collections of new songs created by

people who are trying to change the songs common to American children. Experts in the

field support a common repertoire of children's folk songs. Additional research by Eve









Harwood reveals that college students are not the only ones who do not know these

songs.

Harwood (1987) appraised the breadth of the memorized song repertoire of

Champaign, Illinois, school children. Harwood had each child sing every single song

he/she knew by memory. She concluded that American children no longer share a

common song heritage. Her study contributed to both the need for the present study and

the methodological format. It was determined that the ambiguities which surround

"knowing" a song were not scientifically-verifiable but that the more concrete "ability to

sing a song by memory" was both more valuable and meaningful. For this reason, the

present study had general music teachers assess the extent to which their students could

sing each of the children's songs by memory. Concurring results from multiple studies

added weight to the need for the present study. Centrolineal conclusions regarding

"knowing" and "having memorized" a song add weight to the research methodology.

Clarification of Terminology

Extent taught-the degree to which the songs in question are being taught by the

general music teacher being assessed. This was measured by the number of students

whom the music teacher could expect to be able to sing each particular song from

memory. Degree was measured in levels. The teacher was asked to recall the amount of

time he or she had personally spent teaching each song. If he had spent a good deal of

time teaching the song and he taught it every year to all of the classes in that grade, and

he would expect his students to be able to sing it from memory upon request, he could

reasonably assume that practically all of his students, as they progressed through school,

would know it by memory. That song would be rated "Practically All." If the music

teacher had spent a fair amount of time teaching a song, and he taught it every year to









most of the classes in that grade, but he had not reviewed it enough for all of the students

to be expected to know it by heart, but the teacher would expect most of his students to

be able to sing it from memory upon request, and he reasonably assumed that most of his

students, as they progressed through school would know it by memory, the song would

be rated "Most." If the music teacher had spent some time teaching a song and/or had not

taught it consistently every year to all of his students, but had taught it well enough that

some of his students would know it by memory, the song would be rated "Some." If the

music teacher had spent a little time teaching a song and would expect a few students to

be able to sing it from memory, the song would be rated "Few." If the teacher had not

taught the song, or not taught it within four years, the song would be rated "Practically

None."

American-dealing with citizens of the United States of America. The

investigation of songs taught to people over 62 included only people who had grown up

in the United States of America. It explored which songs they had learned as children in

the United States. Songs learned in other countries were not solicited. The elementary

music specialists' appraisal of children's songs was geared toward what they believed

should be taught in schools in the United States. The assessment of general music

teachers was sent to teachers in each of the fifty states in the United States of America.

Teachers from other countries did not participate in the study.

Children's songs-songs taught to school age children. The song list was focused

toward elementary age students. The list created by the Elder Study and the University

Elementary Music Specialist Song Assessment was not exclusively designed for









elementary students. It represents songs appropriate for a multivariate range of school

age children, many of which being most appropriate for elementary age students.

Folk-"a people, tribe, or nation" (Neufeldt, 1997, p. 523). Nettl (1976) points to

the difficulties of defining "folk" music attributing it to the fact that scholars cannot agree

upon a definition. Simply deciding who the "folk" are has been beyond their reach. Nettl

does state that "all folklore must be very old," and that scholars have "often rejected folk

material as not 'genuine' because it apparently lacked sufficient age" (Nettl, 1976, p. 21).

For this reason, music textbooks and song books published after 1950 were not

considered. This also contributed to the need for input from elderly Americans. Downes

and Siegmeister (1940) acknowledge some scholarly definitions as being too confining

for practical use, stating "They designate a folk-song as a melody of anonymous

authorship orally passed from person to person and adopted by a community or nation.

But this turns out to be a definition too narrow for practical use. There are many folk-

songs of identified authorship which have been welcomed just as warmly as those of

unknown origin" (p. 12). They resolve issues of authorship and legitimacy, "No nation in

the world can point to an unadulterated musical ancestry, any more than it can point to a

blood stream exclusively its own" (p. 12).

But all national music is an amalgam of racial strands and historical processes

consequent upon wars, migrations, trade, and other forms of interpenetration. And the

richer and more characteristic the folk strains of a people, the more varied and colorful

the music is likely to be (Downes and Siegmeister, 1940, p. 12).

Pointing out influences of Byzantine chant, characteristics of the Tartars, the

Orient, and the Occident in Russian folk music, Moorish arabesque in Spanish folk









music, the Latin, Gregorian chant, and Jewish characteristics found in German music,

they establish that these instances, which could be multiplied in the folk music of every

people on earth, are sufficient answer to those who insist that a nation's music must be of

ancestral origin and indigenous to the soil, and who demand references and pedigrees

before they will acknowledge a folk-song's title to citizenship (Downes and Siegmeister,

1940, p. 13).

For this reason, children's songs with origins outside the United States were

included in the song lists and the study. They were required in order to create an accurate

representation of children's songs of the American heritage.

Heritage-refers to the process of having been passed down from generation to

generation, songs one would learn from one's grandmother, songs which she had learned

from her grandmother, etc. It has its roots in the concept of birthright, which has

frequently been used to encompass national things passed down, such as a heritage of

freedom in America. It was for this reason that input and information was required from

people over 62 in this present study.

This research was constructed upon a foundation of songs which truly represent the

American heritage. Previous research created song lists through surveys of teacher

preference, expert preference, and researcher predilection, as well as what different

leaders and committees think should be taught. Although many of these are very

valuable, this present study is based upon songs which are actually a part of the American

children's folk legacy, tradition, ancestry, birthright, and inheritance. This point is an

important feature which distinguishes this study from other studies.









Seeger (1950) also used the term "inheritance" in her research with traditional

American children's songs, and defined it as "a song handed down over the years" (p.

10). Seeger's definition was used in the design of this research study. For this reason,

songbooks from the 1700s to 1950 were consulted. Songs created and taught in America

after 1950 are too recent to have been passed down for generations. Their place in the

American children's folk heritage will be determined after a few generations.

Ruth Crawford Seeger's research on American children's folk songs has led her to

a number of insights and practical observations regarding American children's songs and

the term inheritance. Seeger observed that America represents an amazingly diverse

population. The people of the United States have brought their songs with them from all

over the world. Some of those songs have been in America long enough, and have been

popular enough to be enveloped into what is considered the American heritage. This

definition is broader than definitions which would limit this study to songs created by

Americans, in America. Seeger's definition was created to envelop the cultural plurality

that is so thoroughly a part of what makes up the population of the United States, yet

limiting enough to make it truly representative of the American children's folk song

heritage (Seeger, 1950, pp. 8-15). The above information contributed to the formulation

of the foundational methodology upon which the study was built, contributing to the 1950

cutoff of songbooks, the need for the elder study, and inclusion of children's songs from

other countries in the list.

Assumptions

It is assumed that teachers' perceptions of the extent to which their students have

memorized the songs in question are accurate. Additionally, this study did not attempt to

contact non-respondents and force them to answer questions. It is acknowledged that









there is a high probability that the non-respondents are not interested in songs of the

American children's folk heritage. It is also assumed that the non-respondents are not

teaching a large percentage of the songs. Because this is an assumption, and not fact, the

research results were not adjusted down to provide for negative responses by non-

respondents. Because the study was anonymous, contacting non-respondents was

impossible.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study was not designed to test the extent of students' actual memorization of

the songs in question. It relied upon the word of the general music teacher. Actual

testing of students across the nation may have yielded a more accurate picture of the

extent to which these one hundred representative American children's folk songs have

been taught to students across the nation. Such a study was, however, not feasible.

This study did not attempt to record actual behavior of general music teachers (the

extent to which they teach each of the songs of the American children's folk heritage).

Rather, a more practical method of self-reporting was utilized. It is acknowledged that

teacher perceptions may not be completely accurate. A teacher may think he/she is

teaching a song to a greater extent (regarding memorization) than is actually the case; but

because memorization of songs for concerts is such an important and publicly visible part

of the music teacher's job, it is acknowledged that music teachers are quite adept at

gauging the extent to which their students can sing particular songs by memory.

The scope involved a stratified random cluster sample of eighty general music

teachers in each of the fifty states in the nation. The study was limited to the fifty states,

and did not include territories or possessions held by the United States. The research

sample was limited to the 95,523 members of the MENC: The National Association for









Music Education. Attempts were made to gain mailing and/or e-mail addresses for a true

random sample of general music teachers in the nation, but privacy issues made that an

impossible task. Every general music teacher in the United States was not eligible for the

study, as no comprehensive listing with contact information was available.

To keep the scope of this study within reasonable breadth, the number of songs

selected to represent the American children's folk heritage was limited to one hundred.

To define the scope of the project, only songs dating before 1950 were eligible for

inclusion. This delimitation resulted from the definition of heritage used in the study.

The focus was limited to songs of the American children's folk heritage. It did not

extend to include all or even a representative sample of American folk songs or even all

or a representative sample of the songs which children know and can sing. Countless

thousands of American folk songs have been created and indeed, are being composed

even now. This study is not intended to provide a comprehensive list of American folk

songs, as their number is too great. Simply defining what constitutes an American folk

song could consume a dissertation. This study is not intended to provide the complete

song repertoire of children. It is understood that all children do not have the same song

repertory and that they learn songs from a variety of disparate sources.

Anonymity, lack of any funding, as well as a large sample contributed to the low

response rate. Anonymity was necessary for insuring honesty of the subjects and their

willingness to participate in the study. A large sample was necessary in order to perform

valid descriptive research (as opposed to experimental research).









Outline of the Remainder of the Dissertation

A review of related literature will follow. It begins with a historical background

and precedents to the research, including present purposes to be served by the review of

the literature. Preference and placement was awarded to the most current research.

The third chapter contains the methodology and procedures of the research,

beginning with a description of the approach, followed by the specifics of the research

design. Independent and classificatory variables precede pilot studies as they apply to the

blueprint and development of instruments. Information on the selection of subjects,

instrumentation, procedures, data collection, and data processing complete the

methodology chapter.

The fourth chapter contains the findings of the study, and the analysis and

evaluation of the data. Factual information is presented and separate headings distinguish

it from interpretation and discussion. Clear and distinct differentiation was made to

enable the reader to achieve a clear perspective and come to his or her own conclusions

regarding interpretation in the fourth chapter. The fifth and final chapter contains the

summary, conclusions, and recommendations.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Charles Seeger's truism "the one essential basis of music education in a country is

the folk music of that country" (Seeger, 1942, p. 11) concurs with that of Zoltan Kodaly,

whose music education philosophy and program, held in high esteem and copied world-

wide entails exclusive study and performance of one's nation's children's folk songs

through the fourth grade (in formal school education). Kodaly affirmed of each nation's

children's folk songs that they are "as much a necessity as air-a necessity because they

can unite, and indeed the one sure means of establishing unity in human affairs" (Landis

& Carder, 1972, p.7). Both Seeger's and Kodaly's positions align with Ruth Crawford

Seeger's contention, "It (songs of the American children's folk heritage) belongs to our

children-it is an integral part of their cultural heritage" (Seeger, 1948, p. 21).

The truths of the above, voiced by music education and folk music specialists, add

depth to the concerns of Harold Spivacke, chief librarian in the music division of the

Library of Congress. "In our efforts to interest American children in music, we have

been withholding from them the very songs which grew out of the soil on which they

live. If we are to educate American children to regard music as something natural rather

than foreign and strange, it seems only reasonable that we should start with those forms

of music which are closest to them [speaking of American children's folk songs]"

(Spivacke, 1940, p. 127). The ability of our children's folk songs to enable Americans to

regard music as natural instead of foreign or strange, extends even beyond itself. Abeles,

Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) point out that America is a pluralistic, cohesive society, a









motley collection of peoples who have come from every corer of the world, each group

with distinctive features which combine together to create a whole and unique, unified

populace. Immigrants and nationalities in our country gain and benefit from coexisting

together, creating a culture and heritage of their own. What has been created is a unique,

collective American culture. This collective culture, which may be referred to as the

American heritage, does not imply disrespect for other cultures, as Garrido (2000, p.9)

suggests.

Historical Background

Historical Overview of Children's Folk Songs in America

1649-1776

The earliest records of life in the American colonies reveal a strong heritage of

song and religion. Hildebrand (1992) studied music and song in colonial America (1649-

1776). He found that music education was not limited to, or even focused toward, the

young. Colonial Americans in every element of society, class, and occupation were

involved in learning and experiencing music. Children's folk songs were a central part of

both being young and of growing up. The role of folk songs was a vital one, permeating

through the culture of the town and its people.

1865-1873

In Music in "Our Young Folks", 1865-1873 Yontz (1998) provides evidence that

middle and upper-class American families sang children's folk songs together regularly

in the nineteenth century. Her research reveals a particular liking for songs about nature

and being outdoors. Yontz' study shows that in addition to children's folk songs with

outdoor themes, articles about nature abound in a multitude of children's magazines in

the nineteenth century.









1939-1960

Hill (1997) in The Texas School of the Air: An Educational Radio Endeavor

provides an historical account of the use of radio broadcasting to transmit children's folk

songs and other curricular material statewide from 1939 to 1960. Hill's work delves into

the history of educational radio and provides information on the impact of the

programming, such as improved language arts skills, heightened school performance, and

increased state-wide knowledge of children's folk songs. Hill's study reveals that

improved family life and social interaction resulted from the radio initiative. Common

customs and activities were promoted through social science projects and music. As

early as 1939, the radio was used to transmit American children's folk songs for

educational purposes in our nation.

Historical Overview of American Folk Songs in Elementary Music Textbooks

Children's folk songs have been present in elementary music textbooks throughout

American history. This literature review traces the changes that have taken place in the

song content of American elementary music textbooks, focusing on songs of the

American children's folk heritage. The earliest elementary music series textbooks were

found to contain predominantly British children's folk songs which is to be expected

since early America was an English colony. American folk music composition would

take time. Immigrants had come from Britain, and had brought with them their repertory

of songs. Clearly, singing has always been vital to the people in our nation. Among the

earlier examples is a study of American public school music in 1850 (Chrisman, 1985).

Music education was among the basics taught in some of the first schools.









1850-1880

Chrisman (1985) studied the influences of songs in the curricular decisions of

public schools between 1850 and 1880 and concluded that it was songs which were the

driving force behind the inclusion of music education into the curriculum as a serious

course of study. Her analysis of the children's songs used reveal the importance and

abundance of folk and religious melodies. Following Chrisman's study is Birge's (1928)

treatise on the earliest music education in the nation. Birge places more emphasis on

children's folk songs than does Chrisman. Birge's study provides a great deal more

information and factual data regarding the children's folk songs used and the societal

value of children's folk songs.

1870 to early 1900's

Birge's (1928) History of Public School Music in the United States details the use

of children's folk songs in American public school music throughout our nation's

beginnings. Birge relates that children's folk songs have been present in elementary

school music series textbooks from before Luther Whiting Mason's 1870 National Music

Course. According to Birge, a child's most natural songs are children's folk songs, "It is

natural and inevitable, therefore, that the school song books which the children have been

using these ninety years that music has been a school subject, should have contained so

many folk songs" (Birge, 1928, p. 119).

Also studying these earliest music texts is Britton (1961). Noting the dearth of

American folk songs in relation to European folk songs, Britton sheds even more light

upon the state of some of America's earliest music education.

Britton (1961) reports that few American folk songs were incorporated in early

elementary music texts. Britton points out that the American folk songs which were









chosen consisted of Stephen Foster's most popular songs, and a few other parlor or

patriotic airs, reflecting an urban, upper-class slant (Britton, 1961, pp. 214-218).

Instead, authors of the earliest school music textbooks incorporated the songs and

ideas of English, German, French, and Swiss music educators, philosophers, and

teachers, as pointed out by Tellstrom and Trinka (Tellstrom, 1971, pp. 18-127; Trinka,

1987, p. 25). This may be seen in the profusion of folk songs from these countries which

appear in elementary music textbooks from this early period of American history, and

either represent the nationalities of our forefathers or nationalities they highly respected

(Birge, 1928, p. 120; Trinka, 1987).

Hesser (1934) identified the Hollis Dann Music Course and the Foresman Music

Course to be the most extensively used elementary music textbooks in late 1800's and

early 1900's America. He studied the content of grades one, four, and five, of these

music textbooks, analyzing the folk songs included. Hesser's objective was to categorize

the folk songs by type and frequency. From the three grades selected for study, Hesser

counted 459 total songs in the Hollis Dann Music Course. Of the total number of songs,

15% were folksongs (70). Sixty-nine of the seventy children's folk songs were of

German, French, or English descent. Only one American folk song was included-

"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," an African American spiritual. This was the sole

American folk representative in the Hollis Dann Music Course.

The Foresman Music Course contained fewer songs than the Hollis Dann. It had

only 369 total songs, but of those, 45% (167) were folk songs (over twice the amount in

the Hollis Dann series). Of the folk songs, 2% (9) were American children's folk songs.

The vast majority were of English and European descent (Hesser, 1934, pp.53-67; Trinka,









1987). This fits with historical information regarding the colonists. Early Americans

continued to hold strong ties to England up to and even after the Boston tea party (Purse,

1998).

Harold Spivacke, chief of the Library of Congress Music Division, in charge of the

Archive of American Folk Song, considered the aftermath of World War I, the distancing

of America from countries on the European continent, to have played a major role in

arousing new interest in American folk music, folk art, and folklore (Spivacke, 1940,

p.123). The nation turned its attention to American folk music after World War I.

Considerable time had passed since the nation's establishment. For years, researchers

including William Newell (1903), John Lomax (1910; 1919), Cecil Sharp (1917), and

Joanna Colcord (1924) had been studying, collecting, and notating American folk songs.

This provided ample material for a national focus on American folk songs (Lomax, 1910,

1919; Newell, 1903; Sharp, 1917; Colcord, 1924; Trinka, 1987).

Research by Hesser (1934) reveals that Spivacke's and Trinka's assertions were

both astute and accurate. Hesser's research confirms that publishers of elementary music

textbooks increased the numbers of American children's folk songs included in their

textbooks for ten years following the end of World War I.

In 1928, Carl Engel, then chief of the Music Division of the Library of Congress,

established the Archive of American Folk Song with the intent of creating a secure and

comprehensive American Folk Song collection. Engel anticipated that the depository

would be the best reference, and only national one, for the study of American folk songs.

In 1933, John Lomax, curator for the Archive of American Folk Song, instituted a

systematic recording project, which sought to document each of the folk songs on acetate









and aluminum discs. In 1940, a grant from the Carnegie Corporation enabled the Library

of Congress to duplicate those recordings onto more durable phonograph records. By this

time, there were more than 15,000 folksongs in the Archive (Spivacke, 1940, pp. 125-

126).

1936-1943

Specifically regarding American children's folk songs, Diaz' work is of great

value. In An Analysis of the Elementary School Music Series Published in the United

States from 1926 to 1976, Diaz (1980) analyzed and described five music series

textbooks. The specific music textbooks she studied were Exploring Music, The Magic

of Music, Growing with Music, Making Music Your Own, and Discovering Music

Together.

Diaz focuses on song content as one of her five main areas of concern. Overall

results of her study revealed that for the fifty-year timespan which her research

encompassed, the song repertory of American elementary music textbooks shifted from

one dominated by the series' authors and Western European folk songs to include more

American children's folk songs.

Six levels existed within each of the five music series published. Five thousand

one hundred and twenty-six songs made up the song repertoire of the six levels of the five

textbook series (thirty books, total). Of the books published between 1936 and 1943, just

over two percent (2.3% = 121) of the 5,126 songs were American folk songs. Just over

twenty one percent (21.4% = 1,099 ) of the 5,126 songs were Western European folk

songs (Diaz, 1980, p.127).

Trinka (1987) made the point that the wealth of American folk songs newly

available through the Archive of American Folk Song in the Library of Congress was not









utilized by music textbook publishers to the extent that it could have been. She pointed

out that the increase in the number of American folk songs included in elementary music

textbooks had not grown in proportion to the increase in what was now available. The

decade following World War I and the timespan 1936-1943 should have shown a

significant increase in the volume of American children's folk songs found in elementary

music textbooks, much more than analysis revealed (Trinka, 1987, p. 27).

1944-1951

Diaz' (1980) study of the elementary music textbooks published between 1944 and

1951 showed a 5.6% increase in American children's folk songs. Between 1936 and

1943, 2.3% (121) of the songs were American children's folk songs. Between 1944 and

1951, the number rose to 7.9% (258). During this period, the total number of songs

appearing in these three elementary music textbooks was 3,262 (Diaz, 1980, pp. 95-137).

Spivacke (1940) may have played a role in the increase in publisher use of

American children's folk songs between the late 1930's and the early 1940's. Harold

Spivacke was a keynote speaker at the Music Teachers National Association Conference

of 1940. The focus of his presentation was the inequity in song content of American

school music textbooks, in particular the imbalance between the amount of Western

European folk songs and American folk songs included in the texts. Spivacke (1940)

said, "In our efforts to interest American children in music, we have been withholding

from them the very songs which grew out of the soil on which they live. If we are to

educate American children to regard music as something natural rather than foreign and

strange, it seems only reasonable that we should start with those forms of music which

are closest to them... The American folk song is certainly one of them" (Spivacke, 1940,

p.127). Trinka (1987) points out that Spivacke took this opportunity, as well as used his









position and career to advance the cause of American children's folk music, and

American folk music. He exhorted those in MTNA (Music Teachers National

Association) to make American children's folk songs a foundation upon which American

children's music education is built (Trinka, 1987, p. 28).

In addition to Spivacke, Pitts (1950) held that World War II changed the song

content of school music texts. Lilla Bell Pitts was the current President of the Music

Educators National Conference, 1986 inductee into the MENC Hall of Fame, and author

of Music Integration in the Junior High School. Gerald Blanchard, her biographer,

considered her to be the most influential music educator in America. From Pitts' aerie

she perceived that one of the ramifications of World War II, was the change in song

content of music textbooks between 1942 and 1944. She stated, "One of the most fruitful

and promising ideas of the early part of this decade centered about the exploration,

evaluation, and utilization in the schools of our indigenous musical resources." Pitts

noted that the outcome of this interest and exploration had been "an increasingly

intelligent usage and appreciation of American folk music" (Pitts, 1950, p. 36).

In addition to Pitts, the Music Educators National Conference was involved

through the addition of a new committee, the Committee on Folk Music in the United

States, created in 1942. Trinka (1987) relates that theirs was a five-point program,

created to: increase the amount of folk music published in America; promote family

participation in and creation of American folk music; review published American folk

songs to create a comprehensive survey of available works; plan, organize, and present a

session on folk song at the Music Educators National Conference 1944 Convention

(Trinka, 1987, p.28).









The Music Educators National Conference Committee on Folk Music in the United

States (1944) promoted phonograph recordings as the best way to learn, teach, and

transmit American folk songs. They spearheaded an initiative of music teachers nation-

wide to find and record their local folk musicians. This committee also tried to get more

and better recordings of American folk songs into the music classrooms of the nation's

schools (Music Educators National Conference Committee on Folk Music in the United

States, 1944, pp. 24-25).

Diaz (1980) believed that it was the confluence of the forces of Harold Spivacke,

Lilla Bell Pitts, and the MENC Committee on Folk Music in the United States which

instigated the influx of American children's folk songs in the repertoire of elementary

music textbooks between 1944 and 1951. Both Diaz (1980) and Trinka (1987) point out

that just prior to this period, publishers had already begun to decrease the number of

Western European folk songs included in the repertoire of their elementary music

textbooks. Between 1936 and 1943, the number of Western European folk songs

decreased from 21.4% to 16.8% (Diaz, 1980, p. 137; Trinka, 1987, p. 29-30).

1955-1962

But between 1955 and 1962, a dramatic increase transpired in the incorporation of

American children's folk songs in our nation's elementary music textbooks. Diaz (1980)

analyzed the five elementary music textbooks published in this period, and examined the

four thousand four hundred and thirty-two (4,432) songs which comprised their total

repertory. She found that American children's folk songs comprised 18.3% (812) of the

total, and Western European folk songs comprised 23% (1,020) of the total (Diaz, 1980,

p.220).









This reveals a 10.4% increase in the amount of American children's folk songs

published in elementary music series textbooks between 1944 and 1962. Research by

Diaz (1980) revealed the increase in American children's folk songs-from 7.9% (found

in music texts published between 1944 and 1951) to 18.3% (found in music texts

published between 1955 and 1962). She also discovered an increase in Western

European folk songs-from 16.8% (in music texts published between 1944 and 1951) to

23% (in music texts published between 1955 and 1962) (Diaz, 1980, p.220).

The Report of the Yale Seminar on Music Education (Palisca, 1964) leveled some

of the most serious criticism advanced against the song repertoire in school music

textbooks. Both the Report by Palisca (1964), and Trinka's (1987) analysis of it point out

serious flaws and problems with the song repertory of elementary music textbooks

(Palisca, 1964; Trinka, 1987, pp. 20-21). The Report speaks of the elementary song

repertoire as "constricted in scope" containing "tasteless products to such an extent that

authentic work is rare" of "appalling quality" "corrupted" "A whole range of songbook

arrangements, weak derivative semi-popular children's pieces, and a variety of

'educational' recordings containing music of similar value and type are to be strongly

condemned as 'pseudo-music'... Songs are chosen and graded more on the basis of

limited technical skills of classroom teachers than the needs of children or the ultimate

goals of improved hearing and listening skills...more attention is often paid to the subject

matter of the text, both in the choice and arrangement of material, than to the place of a

song as music in the educational scheme. The texts are banal, and lacking in regional

inflection" (Palisca, 1964, p.11; Trinka, 1987, p.20-21).









Palisca points out that the Yale Seminar Report recommended a complete overhaul

of the song repertory in school music textbooks (Palisca, 1964, p.12).

Soon after, in 1964, the Yale Seminar Report directed a great deal of criticism and

condemnation toward the song and music content chosen by publishers of school music

textbooks. They recommended a comprehensive repertory and recording overhaul, which

included adding more American children's folk songs to the textbook repertoire (Palisca,

1964, pp. 12-15). Both Diaz (1980) and Trinka (1987) note a lack of increase in

American folk songs found in elementary music textbooks during the years immediately

following the publication of the Yale Seminar Report.

Charles Hoffer sheds light on this seeming imbroglio. As an author of a number of

music textbooks, he divulges that the creation of a new music textbook, from the

commencement of its writing to marketing, takes approximately two years, with each text

enjoying a lifespan of between four and nine or more years. "It's hard to say, because

sometimes an idea is bouncing around in one's head well before writing commences" he

shares. Hoffer also notes that the length and complexity of a text influence its production

time-table. The lifespan of a textbook may range from four years to nine or more,

depending on a number of factors, which include the intended audience (Charles Hoffer,

personal communication, November 23, 2002).

Diaz' study found an actual decrease in American children's folk songs used in

music textbooks between 1955 and 1962 (in the decade immediately preceding the Yale

Seminar). And just as interestingly, from a total 3,386 song repertoire, encompassing the

five music series she studied, the amount of American children's folk songs decreased









from 18.3% to 13.9% in the years immediately following the release of the Report by the

Yale Seminar (Diaz, 1980, p.316).

1970-1976

Allowing for a reasonable interval of time to generate changes in the textbooks, the

American children's folk song content rose to 16.7% in the period between 1970 and

1976, with the number of Western European folk songs decreasing from 26.7% to 19.4%

during that time period (Diaz, 1980, p.468).

1977-1985

Trinka's (1987) research aimed at ascertaining the change in American folk song

content in elementary school music textbooks published after Diaz' study. To this end,

Trinka analyzed and studied the songs in four school music series textbooks published

Table 1. American and Western European folksongs in school music series: percentages
of the total number of songs found in series published during six time periods

1936-43 1944-51 1955-62 1963-69 1970-76 1977-85a
American
folk songs 2.3% 7.9% 18.3% 13.9% 16.7% 27.3%
Western European
folk songs 21.4% 16.8% 23.0% 26.7% 19.4% 11.6%


aFigures for the years 1977-1985 were derived from this researcher's [Trinka's]
tabulations. All other figures are drawn from the study conducted by Margaret
Chase Diaz, An Analysis of the Elementary School Music Series [Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1980]

Source: Trinka, J.L. (1987). The performance style of American folksongs on school
music series and non-school music series recordings: a comparative analysis of
selected factors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1987).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1694, p.32.

between 1977 and 1985. She found that 27.3% (655) of the total 2,395 songs were

American children's folk songs. She notes that this level is the highest amount of

American folk songs ever included in the textbooks. Trinka also documented that her









results revealed that music textbooks published between 1977 and 1985 represented the

only period in American history where the number of American folk songs (27.3% =

655) was greater than the number of Western European folk songs (11.6% = 280) found

in American elementary music textbooks (Trinka, 1987, pp. 28-32). Trinka (1987)

summarized her results and presented them with Diaz' (1980) results in Table 1.

American Children's Folk Songs

Outside the Classroom

The most recent research regarding American children's songs from a source other

than the elementary classroom comes from Kenneth McGuire at Syracuse University.

McGuire (1999) studied the songs used in eighty-eight episodes of "Barney and Friends"

and found that children's songs of the American heritage were the most frequently used

category of song. This research was immensely valuable as it points to a major

alternative setting in which many preschool children are afforded the opportunity to learn

the children's songs of their heritage. Results indicated that 35% (260) of the songs were

children's songs of the American heritage, with the categories of "Children's Song" and

"Songs of the American Heritage" being separately significant as well as of combined

significance in frequency of performance. His results also indicated that the content of

the show was predominantly filled with music, as opposed to periods of speaking and

non-musical activity (92% of the show was comprised of music).

In addition to the study by McGuire, Rosellini (1998) presented a film portrait of

three generations in a family, focusing on the cultural transmission of song as primary

method of values, oral history, culture, and heritage of the family. The songs children

used to learn from their mothers, which they, in turn learned from their mothers, and they

from theirs as a form of cultural transmission may not be counted upon today, as it once









was. Research shows that "music links mankind to its past, working through cultural and

personal memory" (Weaver & Toub, 1998). Singing in our present society has declined

to the point that people have become passive observers in regard to musical experience.

That fact contributes to the marked change in repertoire of younger generations.

Collections

This section will begin with studies which contributed to the basic song list.

Among those are Foy (1988) and Willis (1985). Foy's work resulted in the creation of a

list of 228 children's folk songs which she believed all American school children and

adults should know. Willis' list was created with the same purpose.

In Recommended British-American Folk Songs for use in Elementary School

Music, Willis (1985) creates a list of one hundred and twenty-nine British-American

children's folk songs which are recommended for study and memorization by all

American children. Willis' list of songs was created with the express purpose of creating

a repertory of children's songs for elementary music curricula and as a foundational song

repertoire for Americans throughout the nation. The list consists of thirty-one American

children's folk songs, fifteen ballads, six seasonal songs, seventeen children's singing

games and nonsense songs, thirty-eight spirituals, nine cowboy songs, seven railroad

songs, and six sea shanties (pp.54-58). Willis also includes a table categorizing the

strengths and weaknesses of the song collections of sixteen authors of song books for use

by children and teachers (pp.69-70). In order of strength, they are: Nick, Swanson,

Seigmeister, Barlow, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver Burdett Centennial,

Dallin, and Boni Favorite American. The strongest authors for American children's folk

songs were: Swanson, Seigmeister, Barlow, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver

Burdett Centennial, Dallin, Boni Favorite American, Boni Folk Songs, Lomax, Sandburg,









and Sharp. The strongest authors for children's singing games and nonsense songs were:

Nick, Macmillan, Silver Burdett, Johnston, Silver Burdett Centennial, Dallin, and Seeger

(pp.69-70). Willis also created a table presenting fourteen folk songs for young children

only (pre-kindergarten through second grade). Among those are: "Hey! Betty Martin;"

"Clap Your Hands;" "Bye'm Bye;" "Skin and Bones;" "Eency Weency Spider;" "Noah's

Ark;" "Bingo;" "Old MacDonald;" "London Bridge;" "Three Blind Mice;" "Little

Ducks;" "Farmer in the Dell;" "Looby Loo;" and "If You're Happy" (p.84). Willis

continued with thirty-six folk songs geared specifically for children in grades five

through eight (Willis, 1985, p.86).

Additional collections of American children's and folk songs were used in the

creation of the initial children's folk song list. The following are a sample of the ones

used, which provided information regarding the repertoire of songs of the American

children's folk heritage.

An important contributor, Seeger (1948) strongly contended that American

children's songs are a vital part of "work, play, sleep, fun, ridicule, love, death" (p. 21)

and an important part of the development and education of American children. She states

"it belongs to our children-it is an integral part of their cultural heritage" (p. 21). "It is

not just children's music-it is family music" (p.24). "It is a bearer of history and

custom" (p. 21). "It is not finished or crystallized-it invites improvisation and creative

aliveness" (p. 23). With such statements, Seeger points to the fact that this music has

played an integral part in the making of America, in the lives, values, and events that

molded not only the people who created and fashioned the nation in which they now live,

but even in the lives, values, character, and traits which their parents had, and have









passed on to them. Seeger saw these songs as a right that our children have-the right to

know and experience their own heritage .... as it was once transmitted ... in song.

Pratt's (1921) Music of the Pilgrims: a description of the Psalm-book brought to

Plymouth in 1620 was an ingenious find, and one that provides foundational material for

American song, from which American folk songs and American children's folk songs

were forged.

Rix (1907), Director of Music in New York City Public Schools, created a song

book of over 170 songs for use in the school system. These songs were performed in

New York City Public Schools for several decades. They include many religious,

patriotic, and American children's folk songs, such as: "All Through the Night;" "A

Mighty Fortress is our God;" "Battle Hymn of the Republic;" "Columbia, Gem of the

Ocean;" "Dixie;" "Hail Columbia;" "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing;" "My Mother Bids

Me Bind My Hair;" "My Old Kentucky Home;" "Silent Night;" and "Swanee River."

Richardson (1927) compiled American children's folk songs as well as a number of

miscellaneous songs derived from mountain people. It ranges from the well-known

"Frog Went A-Courtin'" and "Shortnin' Bread" to the likes of "The Drunkard's Dream"

and "They Gotta Quit Kickin' My Dawg Aroun'."

Niles (1934) collected and arranged American folk songs which represent "Hill-

Folk." His collection is of twelve popular folk songs, most of which are very well known

across the nation, and include such favorites as: "Down in the Valley" and "I Wonder As

I Wander."

Niles' (1936) Hill-Folk collection continues, although with less works than his first

collection. This collection is comprised of ballads and tragic legends from Georgia,









Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia, and includes: "Barbara Allen," "A

Paper of Pins," and "Black Is the Color of My True Love's Hair."

Barry (1939) worked with George Herzog in a project through the Works Progress

Administration of the National Service Bureau to create a collection of American Folk

Songs which included a good deal of Child ballads and children's songs. Among them

are: "Barbara Allen," and "The Frog and the Mouse." A significant number of states

were represented by more than a few of their native folk songs.

Glazer's (1961) American children's folk songs create an anthology which well

represents the American heritage. It has since been reprinted more than twelve times,

indicating its continued popularity. It includes titles such as: "Blow the Man Down;"

"The Blue-Tail Fly;" "Cindy;" "Cotton-Eyed Joe;" "Down in the Valley;" "Frog Went A-

Courtin';" "Go Tell Aunt Rhody;" "The Hammer Song;" "I Ride Old Paint;" "The

Leather-Winged Bat;" "Old Smokey;" "Skip to My Lou;" and many others.

General Music Textbook Series

The most recent research regarding the study of children's folk songs in elementary

music textbooks, though focused on Korean children's folk songs, reinforced the

presence of quality American children's folk songs as well. Kim (2001) analyzed

American elementary general music textbooks, focusing on the genre of the music chosen

and characteristics of the music. Interested in the study's applicability to Korean

textbooks and schools, Kim found the American textbooks to contain a number of quality

American children's folk songs as well as Korean children's folk songs. Among her

recommendations Kim stresses the need for further information regarding the origin of

songs and melodies made available in American general music series.









Prior to Kim's study, recent Canadian research in elementary music textbooks

reveals strong ties to both the American and English children's folk song heritage.

Ruebsaat (1999) examined the role of children's folk song in British Columbia music

curricula and school music textbooks between the periods of 1919 and 1995. The

importance of singing and songs has been stressed throughout the history of music

education in British Columbia, and central in its focus. In 1971, the repertoire shifted

from being primarily based on British children's folk songs to American traditional

children's folk songs. The emphasis upon the importance of teaching children's folk

songs has remained constant and continues through today. Values in British Columbia

reveal strong associations with Britain and America. Growing ties between their

children's folk song heritage and that of the American children's folk song heritage speak

of the importance and relationships forged through one's nation's children's folk songs.

A concurrent study analyzed the content of American elementary general music

textbooks for their ability to meet the needs of the music teachers who use them. In

1999, Culton analyzed a number of American elementary general music textbooks.

Culton's research interest lay in determining the extent to which the music textbooks met

teachers' needs. Culton sought to determine what topics of instructional concern were

held by Iowa music teachers, and the extent to which the textbooks met each need. She

examined seventeen issues representing their most pressing needs (as determined by a

survey). She found that the music series texts spent less than one percent of their content

addressing or meeting those needs. In her analysis of the data, Culton disclosed that three

of her seventeen topics received no coverage in the textbooks. The total percentage of

coverage overall (regarding the issues most vital to Iowa elementary music educators)









was between four and twelve percent. Culton found a weak relationship (r = .126)

between what teachers believe to be necessary and what is being provided in music series

textbooks (Culton, 1999). Children's songs, and indeed, no aspect of song content had a

place in her study.

Prior to Culton's study, related research on elementary music textbooks was

performed by McClellan. In Music Teachers' Opinions Regarding the Use and

Effectiveness of Elementary Music Series Books in Missouri Public Schools, McClellan

(1996) examines recent textbook criticism, and the curricular move to abandon textbooks

and adopt tenets of mastery learning and teaching strategies focused on individual student

learning styles. Textbook inaccuracies, biases, and accusations of restricted learning

opportunities head the list of criticisms in regards to textbooks. Among her results,

McClellan reports that the majority of elementary music teachers who used series texts,

indicated a desire to continue doing so. The teachers reported that over sixty percent of

their lessons were from the textbooks, and ninety percent indicated that elimination of the

books would cause an increase in lesson preparation time. Her results indicate that

elementary music series textbooks are desirable to elementary music teachers primarily

because they make lesson preparation less time-consuming.

Two research studies led directly to the need for this current investigation. The

main study which led to the need for this research was performed by Eve Harwood in

1987. Results by Harwood indicate that American children no longer share a common

children's folk song heritage. With important implications for and close relationship to

the focus and goals of this research, Eve Harwood analyzed and examined American

children's entire memorized song repertoire.









Harwood (1987) studied the memorized song repertoire of school children in

Champaign, Illinois in order to examine the role of singing in a child's life. The children

in her study sang the entire repertoire of songs they knew to the researcher. The average

student knew ninety songs. American children's folk songs composed the bulk of the

repertory. Trailing in prominence were commercial songs and Christmas/Hanukah songs.

The students reported that they learned songs primarily from their school music teachers,

the radio and electronic media, and from other children. They reported a preference to

learning songs by repeatedly listening to songs on the radio or cd/cassette tapes.

Harwood concluded that today's school children do not share a common American

children's song heritage.

Contemporary to Harwood's work was that of Trinka. Trinka (1987) studied the

American children's folk songs found in elementary music series textbooks.

Understanding that the textbooks are most often the sole source of music and curriculum

for teachers (Dominy, 1958, p. 13), Trinka's study analyzes their American children's

folk song content.

In The Performance Style of American Folksongs on School Music Series and

Non-School Music Series Recordings: A Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors

Trinka (1987) studied American children's folk songs, performing a comparative analysis

of the children's folk songs in school music series textbooks and their accompanying

recordings. Trinka examined songs from: The Music Book by Holt, Rinehart, and

Winston (1981); Silver Burdett Music by Silver Burdett Company (1981); Silver Burdett

Music: Centennial Edition by Silver Burdett Company (1985); and The Spectrum of

Music With Related Arts by Macmillan (1983). She was able to identify both similarities









and discrepancies in the interpretation of the folk song recordings. Appendix A (Trinka,

1987, p. 402) was a valuable "data collection instrument" for identifying the American

folk songs in the school music series textbooks she was reviewing. Trinka identified

American folk songs according to the following criteria:

a. American folksong, traditional folksong, traditional, folk tune, early
American song

b. Afro-American folksong, Black American folksong

c. Play party, play song, play party game

d. Singing game, old singing game, traditional singing game, game song, old
game song, folk game, game chant, rope-jumping song, traditional
nonsense song

e. Sub-types such as cowboy, sea chantey, ballad, work song, pioneer,
frontier, railroad, mining, lumberjack

f. Any combination of (a) or (b) above with types listed in c-e above (e.g.,
"Afro-American play party song," "American singing game," "American
folk game")

g. Geographic region of the United States-and/or state-together with types
listed in c-e above (e.g., "Virginia game song," "Oklahoma play party
song," "Southern folksong," "New England sea chantey")

h. Spiritual-White, Black American, Afro-American

i. Shaker hymn

j. English, British, or British Isles folksong-where the song was known by
this researcher as a folksong sung in the United States (e.g., "Sally Go
'Round the Sun," "Santy Maloney")

k. Songs attributed to such folksong singer/songwriters as Woody Guthrie,
Bessie Jones, Leadbelly, Oscar Brand, and Ella Jenkins, which exist in
variant forms in the United States (e.g., Oscar Brand's "When I First Came
to This Land," Woody Guthrie's "This Land is Your Land," "Riding in My
Car")

Source: Trinka, J.L. (1987). The performance style of American folksongs on school
music series and non-school music series recordings: a comparative analysis of









selected factors. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1987).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1694, pp. 96-97.

Trinka's results revealed that the Silver Burdett Music series contained more

American children's folksongs than the other series, and that the kindergarten textbooks

contained more American children's folk songs than any of the other grade levels.

After an extensive overall examination of the school music series texts and

recordings of American children's folk songs, Trinka concluded that the American

children's folk songs included in school music series textbooks, as well as the

accompanying recordings, are false and fake (p.390). She acknowledges poor

representation of authentic performance style and interpretation. Trinka contends that

music educators must address this problem (Trinka, 1987, pp. 397-400).

The previous two studies laid the foundation for this present research. Their work

and conclusions helped create the need for and focus of the present investigation.

Additional critical analysis exists in the research of Zinar. Twelve years earlier,

Zinar (1975) studied American general music textbooks published between 1939 and

1969. She reported that the majority of the textbooks contained "stereotyping, tokenism,

and misrepresentation" and concluded that the folk music was often inadequately

depicted (pp. 33-39).

Nye and Nye (1977) rebut with examples which demonstrate that the music of most

cultures is altered and influenced by music from other cultures, and almost always altered

and changed when other cultures attempt to recreate it or teach it in their own

environment.

Nye (1975) proposes that through children's folk songs young people learn "who

they are." She believes this to be a prerequisite to valuing oneself, and self-value to be a









precursor to appreciating and valuing others. Nye suggests that children come to know

themselves through the songs of their nation' children's folk music heritage. She

believes its dynamics reach into the family, the school, town, nation, and ultimately

encompass the way children grow to see relationships with others in the world. Nye finds

the value of children's folk songs to include many aspects of a child's socialization. Nye

shows that through American children's folk songs, our children find acceptance and

self-worth, and are able to build positive sentiments toward others (Nye, 1975, pp. 6-7).

With all of their failings, music series textbooks still chart the course and establish

the destiny in regards to quality, curriculum, and repertoire in our classrooms. Trinka

(1987) points out that throughout the past century, textbooks have dominated the quality

and curriculum in education (Trinka, 1987, p. 18). Research by Talmadge and Eash

(1979) indicate that not only do textbooks dominate curriculum, but that in a majority of

classrooms, the textbook is the only curriculum used. "The philosophy of education, the

curriculum, and the instructional practices in a school district emanate from them [music

series textbooks]" (Talmadge & Eash, 1979, p. 164).

Dominy (1958) found that music series textbooks directed and charted what

happened in elementary music education throughout our nation. Elementary music

textbooks provided the solitary source of material for the teacher, as well as the structure

of the music education provided. Dominy believed that the music textbook determined

the destiny of music education (Dominy, 1958, p. 13).

Bennett Reimer relates a degree of agreement, "The modem textbook series, by the

nature of the conditions which determine their existence, are probably the most vivid









exemplifications of all that a field has become and is likely to be in the period of some

two decades they span" (Reimer, 1982, p.6).

Related research on American folk songs in general music textbooks

Hesser (1934) studied the folk songs in six music textbooks. His results revealed

that of the total repertoire of 828 songs, 28.6% (237) were folk songs, and 1.2% (10)

were American children's folk songs. European folk songs comprised the vast majority

of the folk songs.

Knudson (1946) studied the folk songs found in school music textbooks published

between 1914 and 1945. Her results revealed a total of 1,198 folk songs, and showed an

increase in the number of American children's folk songs between 1936 and 1945.

Among her recommendations, Knudson appeals for more research to uncover folk songs

which may be incorporated in school music textbooks.

James (1976) researched the extent to which African-American folk songs were

integrated into elementary music textbooks published between 1864 and 1970. James

reviewed ninety-eight different school music textbook series and almost five hundred

(499) elementary music textbooks. She found African-American folk songs in music

textbooks throughout the twentieth century, with a dramatic increase in the number of

African-American folk songs and music occurring around 1950.

Moore (1977) analyzed the contents of American folk songs in elementary general

music textbooks. Four elementary music textbook series published by the American

Book Company and the Silver Burdett Company were used. Publications between 1928-

1955 and 1965-1975 were considered, with all of the texts in grades one through six

being studied. Moore's study focused on African-American and Native American folk

songs. Her results revealed that African-American and Native American folk songs









represented a small ratio of the overall song repertoire of the series. She found an

increase in the number of American children's folk songs in the period 1965-1976.

Among her recommendations Moore suggested that teachers invest time examining the

American children's folk song repertoire included in their respective music textbooks

(Moore, 1977).

Curry (1982) evaluated African-American folk songs in elementary music

textbooks and concluded that they are not adequately represented.

Kavanaugh (1982) analyzed seven hundred and twenty randomly selected songs

from elementary music series textbooks published between circa 1945 and 1975. She

concluded that a great deal of diversity existed in the goals of the objectives for singing.

Evidently accomplishment of some of the stated goals for singing were not manifest in

the lessons and songs related to them.

Summary

Elementary school music textbooks are the principal source of song repertoire and

curriculum in elementary music classrooms. Criticism directed against the music

textbooks underscore the value of the amount of American children's folk songs, as well

as the quality of those songs.

In the classroom

Research on the contents of elementary school music textbooks is much more

prolific than research specifically on the American children's folk songs found in those

textbooks. Baird (2001) studied the role of music and singing in children's lives. He

found that singing and children's folk songs were vital to a child's inner development of

attitudes of social justice. His research revealed that in American pre-schools and

elementary schools, the amount of time spent singing children's songs is shrinking. He









found that there has been a significant decline in the amount of singing children do in

school today, when compared to previous decades. The findings indicated that

consumerism as well as the general impact of the media has contributed to the decline of

singing in schools. He also noted that movements to narrow school curriculum and high

stakes tests which do not include music also contribute to the problem. The

recommendations include increased use of children's songs in the classroom to

accomplish many purposes, among them was the goal of developing a law-abiding

citizenry.

Prickett and Bridges (2000) researched college students' knowledge of twenty-five

standard children's folk songs. Their results revealed that the students do not have a

shared repertoire and over half of the subjects could not identify a number of the songs

which experts believe should be in the common repertory of all Americans. Their study

contributed to the need for the present study.

Regarding the value of increasing singing in schools, a treatise by Fetzer (1994) on

the significance of children's songs in elementary schools, found that schools which

taught the children's songs in question experienced a significant growth in confidence,

competence, enthusiasm and involvement in reading.

Providing a foundation for Fetzer's study as well as providing both foundation and

methods for this present study, Foy (1988) examined the 1913 Music Supervisor's

National Conference initiative, studying the history of the Community Song Movement,

and determining its relevance to current society. Foy's results provided a standardized

list of two hundred twenty-seven songs which her study determined to be the most

suitable for American school children. As a part of her study, she surveyed 1,308 music









educators who ranked each song in regards to its importance in the curriculum in order to

create the list.

National interest in the Hungarian music education curriculum created by Zoltan

Kodaly provided foundational philosophy for Fetzer's, Foy's and this present study.

Choksy (1981) notes that the Kodaly philosophy of music education is built upon the

foundational principle that indigenous folk songs are each child's "mother-tongue"

(Choksy, 1981, p. 11). According to Kodaly, early music education should not only be

built upon the folk songs of the nation, but it should consist of nothing else for at least the

first four years of formal music education (Landis & Carder, 1972).

Adapting the music education philosophy and methods of Zoltan Kodaly to

American children's folk music was the subject of Schade's (1976) research. Schade

analyzed American children's folk songs seeking to find adequate material for adapting

the music education philosophy of Kodaly to the American children's folk song heritage.

Schade studied and analyzed American children's folk songs, defining their salient

characteristics and determining the most logical sequence for teaching them. His

research revealed chromaticism to be extremely rare in American children's folk songs.

He found intervals of seconds and thirds to be quite common, lending to the singability of

the songs. Schade's results revealed that the rhythm of children's folk songs had been

derived from the words, and their performance was most commonly unaccompanied

(pp.99-106). Among his recommendations, Schade directs that as many American

children's folk songs as possible be taught in the elementary music classroom, ideally

consuming the song repertoire of the elementary years of school (Schade, 1976, p.181).









Buescher (1993) studied college and university community music programs for

preschool children, finding no common curricular approach or song repertory could be

identified, making it ripe for the incorporation of Kodaly principles.

Understanding the importance of each child's "mother-tongue" and attesting to the

fact that a person's children's song repertoire is of vital significance is visible in the

research of Stafford. Stafford (1987) studied the importance of singing in elementary

school music classes with reference to music teachers currently in the field, elementary

music education majors, and college elementary music education professors. He found a

teacher's ability to demonstrate acquaintance with the appropriate song repertoire to be

one of the top three competencies teachers must have in order to excel in the elementary

music classroom.

Even earlier research with the Kodaly method was conducted by Nelson (1981).

Nelson's work is built upon the value and immense benefits resulting from the integration

of American children's folk songs and the Kodaly method of Music Education. Her

research attempts to infuse African-American folk songs with the Kodaly method, hoping

that the cultural values and benefits would transfer. Results of her study revealed Black

American folk songs to be too melodically and rhythmically complex for use and study

by very young children (over 72% of the songs included complex rhythms). In her

conclusions and recommendations, Nelson reported that the Kodaly method would not

accommodate Black American folk music, recommending that a new method be created

which would accommodate the children's folk songs of Black Americans, but reaffirming

the vital nature of children's folk songs to our nation's youth.









Hill (1974) states that children's folk songs are one of the most foundational

sources of material suitable for education. Hill finds children's folk songs to express the

soul of a society, and exceptionally fitted for promoting understanding and appreciation

for one's culture (p. 6). Hill saw our nation's children's folk songs as providing the

framework and necessary support system upon which everything else could be solidly

placed.

Curry (1982) agreed, and states that children's folk songs provide a candid view of

society which by its nature contributes to that person's understanding and sympathetic

response toward the culture. These qualities work together to give children acceptable

and supportive reasons to respect their customs and culture (p. 18). Curry finds children's

folk songs to be vital to the music education and general education of our nation.

Regarding the all-encompassing nature of children's folk songs, Nettl (1964) finds

them to be universal. He suggests that the study of the role of songs and singing in a

culture to be the most vital duty of musicologists and music educators (p.224). He

considers it not only worthy of their time and energy but their obligation to society as

well.

In addition to children's folk songs' innate value and the compelling need for their

study, Blyler (1957) researched children's folk song preference. Blyler studied the songs

that over nine thousand American children both liked and disliked to sing. She

researched the repertoire of two popular song textbooks: New Music Horizons, and The

American Singer. Blyler discussed the proposition that children are "automatically and

irresistibly attracted" to American children's folk music. Her data revealed that song

preference changed by age and maturity, and could be distinctly categorized by grade.









Primary age children predominantly chose lullabies, songs about birds and animals, and

those including imaginary situations and creatures. Fourth grade students preferred

patriotic songs, cowboy songs, and nonsense songs. Fifth grade students appreciated

texts with more subtle humor than the fourth grade material and enjoyed service songs in

addition to patriotic and cowboy songs. Religious songs and topics of love, land, and

romance were favorites of sixth graders. Religious songs were among the favorites of

every grade, as was jazz. Overall, Blyler's research reveals that children prefer songs

which are musically expressive, with interesting melodies, more dynamic variation, and

varied harmonic progressions.

More than twenty years later, McCachern (1980) studied children's song

preferences, isolating musical and textual elements of significance. McCachern found

that the American children's folk songs which are widely preferred across the nation

could not have been assigned such value simply from song origin, form, tempo, length,

range, meter, or key. That while second grade students preferred transportation songs, as

well as work and religious songs, and that all students preferred songs in English, no

significant preferential trends outweighed others as the underlying factors for songs of the

American children's folk heritage.

Summary. American children's folk songs have had a place in our nation's

schools throughout our history. Children are automatically and irresistibly attracted to

them. They are the framework and support system upon which a child may more solidly

secure his/her inner development of attitudes of social justice, respect for customs and

culture, confidence, and competence. Even though less time is devoted to singing,

studies continue to point to the value of our children's folk songs.









The Value of Songs of Heritage

The most recent research regarding songs of the American heritage, and a study

which was used in the development of this current research methodology and design was

Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs

That Most People "Know" and "Should Know" by Kenneth McGuire (2000). Previous

research focused on identifying songs which accurately represent the folk heritage of

specific geographical regions of America. McGuire (2000) sought to catalog folk songs

common to several of those regions. Additionally, McGuire's aim was to research what

it means to "know" a song. He examined the epistemology of various characterizations

seeking to determine a more concrete concept. McGuire found that experts appear to

support the teaching of standard children's folk songs a great deal more than the

collections of new songs created by people who are trying to change the songs common

to American children. McGuire's (2000) results revealed that 38% of the songs included

in Get America Singing ... Again, MENC: The National Association for Music

Education's list of songs every American should know, were not found in previous

studies or historical community songbooks, leading McGuire to question their inclusion

in a national list.

The most recent research on the importance of songs of heritage was performed by

Ling-Yu Lee. In a new study, Lee (2002) created a program that fostered pre-school

children's knowledge of cultures, using a curriculum based on music. She used Chinese

and English songs and studied the children's social and cultural awareness throughout the

study. Ling-Yu Lee found that the music was able to foster a greater cultural awareness,

create cultural identities in the students, as well as improved language abilities. The









results of her research revealed that music and song played an important part in linking

both parents and children with culture.

Linking people to their culture and heritage was also a finding of a study done by

Dexter. Dexter (2001) studied the impact of songs and singing upon the culture and

identities of Black Pentecostals in Chicago. She found that moving to the urban

environment altered many people's culture and sense of identity. Worship was the

primary occasion for the singing, but the choice of songs differed greatly between

denominations and impacted the culture of the group, drawing them together and creating

a unique cultural group identity. The impact of their songs turned out to have tremendous

effect upon their culture and their ability to maintain a sense of heritage.

In addition to linking people to their culture and enabling them to maintain a sense

of heritage, a contemporary study by Dimitrievski shows that the contributions of folk

songs to society are almost too numerous and invaluable to delineate. Dimitrievski

(2001) researched the importance of Macedonian folk songs. Her results revealed that

folk songs are used to provide an informal education to the masses and are of such benefit

that their value is priceless. Dimitrievski's results showed significance in the use of folk

songs in Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania to impart cultural and historical

events, facts, and information. Her findings revealed the central role which folk songs

occupy in teaching culture, language, identity, and history to Macedonian people. More

importantly, Dimitrievski's study shows that songs have been transmitting culture and

heritage, history, language, and identity for many generations, and that it continues to

work today.









In addition to Dimitrievski's research, Sparling found that the same, even more

magnified results occurred in cultures with high rates of illiteracy. Sparling (2000)

studied the Gaelic folk songs of Puirt-a-beul, Nova Scotia. Her ethnographic study

revealed that folk songs occupy an even more vital role in conveying knowledge, history,

culture, identity, and values in somewhat illiterate cultures. Here the Scottish Gaelic

heritage is preserved and lives are much more reliant upon folk song than in more literate

communities. The role of the folk songs becomes more vital and valuable, as it provides

a memorable format for conveying facts and information of great importance to the

people and community.

Concurrent with Sparling's research, and providing another avenue with which to

reach the same conclusions, is the work of Estell. Like Sparling, Estell (2000) studied the

value of the folk songs of a fairly illiterate society. But Estell's study differed by

centuries in time.

Estell (2000) studied the role of songs and war in ancient Greece. Passages in the

Iliad by Homer explore his familiarity with songs of war in classical Greece.

Examination shows that particular folk songs on war themes and recounting victories

(and defeats) were common, and were used as mental and emotional preparation for war,

and were combined with dance and artistic voicing. These songs were an integral part of

general life, as well as in ceremonies, including ceremonies of initiation. The folk songs

were used by the common man as a memory aid and a way of preserving and passing on

important events, information, knowledge of attitudes and culture, and societal history.

Estell uncovers songs of war in the writings of many poets, including: Sparta, Tyrtaeus,

Alcman, Lesbos, Alcaeus, and Sappho.









When combined with the previous studies, Estell's research shows that folk songs

are being and have been used both across the world's disparate cultures, societies, and

nations, as well as throughout the course of human history; and that these folk songs have

been and are providing a vital link between the past and the present, imparting

multivariate benefits to mankind.

Understanding of the vital nature of folk songs is well-known to Estonians.

Research by Pierson (1998) reveals that a small country nestled between Russia, Finland,

and Latvia has made a national tradition of honoring and transmitting its folk songs.

Pierson (1998) studied the importance of folk songs to the heritage and culture in

Estonia. He found that folk songs occupy a crucial role in Estonians' identity, traditions,

customs, and values. Pierson's objective was to gain understanding into the significance

of the songs. Through interviewing twenty-four subjects, he learned that specific songs

sustained, comforted, encouraged, inspired, motivated, and strengthened the nation

during periods of oppression and suffering.

Interestingly, the goal of the Estonian folk song movement was to reinforce their

heritage and distance the people from their Communist oppressors. Wilcox (1998)

researched the folk songs of the Estonian's Communist oppressors and found that they

contained a wealth of culture, traditions, and values of their own. Wilcox (1998)

analyzed and examined the significance and merit of Russian folk songs, discovering a

rich musical heritage upon which Russian culture and character are built. Tracing the

history of Russian sacred music to 988 A.D., Wilcox highlights folk songs including

children's and young adult's ritual songs, detailing their value and worth to the Russian

way of life.









Research on the value of folk songs continues with a historical study by Sloan into

Tudor England. Sloan (1996) studied the use of songs and singing and its effects upon

social order in sixteenth century England. Sloan's study revealed that political reformers

were able to use songs to change the political and social atmosphere and culture of

England. Under the absolute monarchies of Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I,

and Elizabeth I, between two and four million people (there were two million people in

England in 1520, and four million in 1600) experienced dramatic life, political, and

social/cultural changes through the awesome power of song. According to Sloan's

research, certain songs were sung with the intent of purging specific people of self-

interest. Other songs were used to teach people to desire good for others through the

delight which resulted from performance of the song. Sloan is able to show that the

intended results were not always achieved, but nevertheless, the value of song to the lives

of millions of people in sixteenth century England was unmistakable, and monumental.

Sloan's work echoes that of George Puttenham, whose treatise The Arte of Poesie

(Puttenham, 1589) present an integration of values and poetry, which together create

stirring songs that shape the culture and values of the people in Tudor, England.

In America, research along these lines has come to similar conclusions. A study of

children's folk songs which took place in the United States (Sorensen, 1991), but which

was concerned only with recent immigrants from Asia and the Pacific Islands found, in

agreement with Sloan's conclusions, the value of the folk songs to be both unmistakable

and monumental. In Asian-Pacific Islander Perceptions of Childhood's Musical

Heritage, Sorensen (1991) transcribed 230 children's folk songs of Asian and Pacific

Island immigrants and refugees in Utah. She compiled the children's folk songs and









indicated the necessity of their role in preserving the musical heritage of the people.

Valuable insight was gleaned by Sorensen in determining the immense amount of

information transmitted through the children's folk songs.

Sorensen's conclusions echo and add emphasis to those of an earlier study.

Aduonum (1980) also found that children's folk songs transmit an immense amount of

vital information, considered in Africa as a necessary foundation for formal education.

Aduonum's (1980) research details the importance of children's folk songs as a "major

component in the training of children" in Africa (p.vii). In the African culture, children's

folk songs perform a vital role in each child's upbringing. The children's folk song

reveals African societal expectations, as well as the function and reason for specific

events. Mastery and acquaintance with African children's folk songs are considered

basic knowledge, and a prerequisite to formal education (entering school). Aduonum's

research reveals that the nature and value of specific African children's folk songs in

Ghana, "mmoguo," better develop each child's understanding of the cultural values of his

people, and their society at large. Specifically, the children's folk songs teach children

everything from "why the sky is far above our heads," to why they should obey parents

and authority figures.

The Importance of Songs and Singing in American History and Culture

Deakins' (1999) treatise on Appalachian music was a study of one hundred and

fifty Appalachian melodies. Deakin studied the importance of the songs and singing in

transmitting the history, as well as the cultural and musical heritage of the Appalachian

people to the community at large, but more specifically to Appalachian school children

and adults. Deakin noted the critical value of the songs as a vehicle for transmitting

history, culture, and musical heritage.









Soto (1995) analyzed teaching strategies and elementary music education in

Laredo, Texas. His research noted the importance and vital nature of children's folk

songs, and his recommendations included programming bi-cultural children's folk song

material into the classroom curricula. It was noted that the songs increased students'

understanding of the "culture's aesthetic values" and were connected to the way the

people of the highly Hispanic culture both think and act. Soto's research highlights the

contribution and merit of children's folk songs to the community.

While Soto studied the contribution of children's folk songs to the culture's

aesthetic values, Ashmore (1995) studied American contributions to children's voice

training. Ashmore concluded that children's songs were necessary for fostering a child's

enjoyment of singing and developing a worthwhile repertoire. She considered a

worthwhile repertoire to contain many children's folk songs.

At the same time, Greene (1995) studied how songs can be used to help people

create a sense of identity. In connection with Soto's results, which revealed a connection

between songs and a culture's aesthetic values, and Ashmore's results, which point to the

necessity of a good repertoire of songs, Greene showed how song could be used to create

identity. Greene analyzed the effect of song upon black women's sense of identity in the

late 1960's and 1970's. Greene found that Aretha Franklin's songs provided strength,

values, identity, culture, and an ability to mold the self, creating new avenues for socially

accepted behavior among black women in America in the late 1960's and 1970's.

Creating a foundation for Ashmore's study, Schoning (1993) studied the role of

singing in music education and created connections between that and children's voice

training. Schoning found that insufficient singing experiences and unstructured singing









has led to low ability in American students' singing skills. She calls for increased

attention to children's folk song repertoire, as well as improved teaching methods, and

higher standards for the quality of singing taking place across America. She echoes the

indispensable nature of singing and the value of a good children's folk song repertoire.

Research by Hildebrand reinforces the requisite nature of singing and children's

folk songs heralded by Schoning, Soto, and Deakin. Hildebrand (1992) studied music

and song in colonial America (1649-1776). He found that music education was not

limited to, or even focused toward the young. Colonial Americans in most every element

of society, class, and occupation were involved in learning and experiencing music. The

role American folk songs played was a vital one, permeating through the culture of the

town and its people. Children's folk songs were a vital part of childhood. Singing folk

songs was an integral part of early Americans' lives.

MENC: The National Association for Music Education has also played an

important role in promoting singing folk songs, children's folk songs, and quality music

in the general music classroom of schools throughout our nation. Studying MENC work

toward that end, Sanders (1990) researched the role radio played in achieving the

educational goals of promoting quality music education across the nation. This MENC

initiative targeted rural schools and broadcast two types of music: elementary classroom

music, mainly consisting of American children's folk songs; and classical music. The

radio program reached children across the nation and championed the merit of both

classical music and songs of the American children's folk heritage. By helping spread

songs of the American children's folk heritage, MENC has championed the cause of









these songs and contributed their support and recognition of the importance of songs of

the American children's folk heritage to the students and people of our nation.

Prior to MENC's initiative, Van Den Honert (1985) studied the importance of folk

songs in the New England states. Van Den Honert chose that area of America as a focus

because he considered the New England region to contain a "cultural make-up" which

nurtures the creation and cultivation of American folk songs (p.iii). Van Den Honert's

study revealed the complex and vital, continuing, integral nature of folk songs to people

in the New England region. Van Den Honert's study was able to generalize his research

to show that the value and importance of folk songs applied to people of every region of

our nation.

Related Research on American Folk Songs

Preparation for this undertaking included an investigation into American folk song.

There was no single, concise collection or history of American folk songs. Rather,

information was amassed from a number of sources, including previous scholarly

research.

Seeger (2001) points out the evolution of thinking which has taken place in

America in regards to its own cultural heritage. Contemporary thought had once held

that there was no American cultural heritage, no American folk songs, only the heritage

of the ancestry from which Americans came. She shows how this premise has been

completely debunked, yet hints of it still persist. Ruth Crawford Seeger was instrumental

in bringing national attention to American children's folk songs and shining light on the

American children's folk song heritage.









Vangsness (1997) performed an in-depth analysis of the term American folk song.

Among his conclusions and final remarks was the insight that folk songs have had and

continue to have sweeping influence and impact upon our nation.

This sweeping influence and impact was evidenced in rural American working-

class folk songs (Fox, 1995). Fox's research led to numerous significant observations

and conclusions regarding American folk songs. He studied song usage in American

rural working-class culture and found song to be a nexus in the culture and sociability of

rural, working-class people in Texas and Illinois. He concluded that folk songs were

emblematic of the rich inner qualities of the people. Fox reports that in rural, working-

class American culture, songs impact the socialization of children, speech, ideas of self,

gender relations, memory, perceptions of feeling and empathy, as well as humor. Songs

reflect and reproduce "class-specific values concerning the nature of the person and the

community, the centrality of musical and aesthetic practices to sociality, and the

cultivation of a sense of sacred and communal feeling" (p. vi). Songs are necessary

agents which help people construct a sense of community and identity in free societies.

Fox found that songs occupied a position of great importance and value in American life,

culture, and society.

Analyzing specific American folk songs led O'Neill to some different, yet

complementary conclusions. O'Neill (1993) studied American folk songs, analyzing and

classifying them by harmonic progressions. He discovered a significant degree of

cohesion, which he exposed at a structural level. This cohesion extended beyond the

harmony to include a cohesive effect on Americans, including performance and









performers. O'Neill concluded that a symbiotic relationship existed between the

elements of American folk songs and the American people.

O'Neill's research was a focused analysis. Cohen's (1971) work is even more

focused as it is limited to a specific folk song composer. Cohen (1971) studied American

folk song through the works of Woody Guthrie. This treatise provides information

regarding: the state of the nation, values of the stock market before and after the crash,

prices for common necessities, information on unemployment, and the human suffering

and misery experienced during different periods in our nation's history. The effect of

these factors upon American folk song was found to be significant in Cohen's research.

He believed that the aforementioned events and conditions influenced American folk

songs through the writers and the texts which they created.

Connecting the results of Cohen's American folk song research to that of the other

contributors would lead to the conclusion that a symbiotic relationship exists between life

events, the song writer, the performer, and the audience, which is an expansion of

Cohen's conclusions. It would be natural to observe that this symbiotic relationship is in

a constant state of flux or evolution, which was the focus and point of Scott's (1967)

research.

Scott (1967) provided a framework for the evolution of American folk song in The

Ballad of America. The book was divided into sections arranged by historical era: the

colonial period, the revolution, early in our nation, Jacksonian America, Civil War,

between the Civil War and WWI, between WWI and WWII, beyond the second world

war. Historical background was provided for the songs.









Scott was able to utilize foundational work provided by Bruno Nettl's (1965) Folk

and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Nettl's treatise was valuable toward

refining terms, categorizing, and differentiating between folk and primitive songs.

Even earlier research by Bluestein contributed to the critical framework upon

which Nettl and Scott built. Bluestein's (1960) research entitled The Background and

Sources of an American Folksong Tradition proved to be of great value for providing a

critical approach to understanding and analyzing the American folk song.

Only a year before, Wilgus (1959) had published his treatise, Anglo-American

Folksong Scholarship Since 1898. An invaluable source for this current study, the work

by Wilgus (1959) is very informative and fairly comprehensive. The bibliography

proved to be an extraordinary tool in locating resources, and the text was insightful and

thorough. Wilgus' work was foundational to research in songs of the American

children's folk heritage, but even more foundational was that of Ruth Crawford Seeger.

Seeger (1948) created American Folk Songs for Children in which hundreds of

American children's folk songs may be found. She recorded and transcribed countless

American children's folk songs over the course of many years, making early research into

American children's folk songs her life's work. The songs she was able to collect and

transcribe extended across the nation. In American Folk Songs for Children, Seeger

expounds upon the value and vital nature of our national children's folk songs, stating "It

belongs to our children-it is an integral part of their cultural heritage" (p. 21). "It is

within the singing capacity of practically everyone-even small children-yet it is 'good'

music" (p.24). "It is not just children's music-it is family music" (p. 24). "We have

said that this music belongs to our children. Perhaps it is even more important to say that









it belongs to them as adults" (p. 24). "Songs like these are sung by all ages. They are

family stuff' (p. 24). All of these songs have been a part of "the making of America"

(p.21). Ruth Crawford Seeger contends that our children have a right to be brought up

with these songs, that to deprive them of that is to deprive them of their heritage and

inheritance.

Prior to Seeger's work, specifically focused on American children's folk songs, the

main contributions to accessibility of research in the field of American folk song has been

made by John and Alan Lomax.

Lomax and Lomax (1941), compilers and collectors of folk songs, have invested

their careers in the study of American folk song. Our Singing Country: A Second

Volume of American Ballads and Folk Songs is a monumental work which represents

religious songs, social songs, work songs, outlaw songs, hollers and blues, and African

American songs. Alan Lomax was in charge of the Archive of American Folk Song as a

librarian in the Library of Congress and John Lomax was the honorary consultant and

curator of the Archive of American Folk Song in the Library of Congress during the time

of this publication. This accounts for the comprehensive nature of the contents of Our

Singing Country.

Summary of Literature Reviewed

The absolute essential nature of American children's folk songs to American

children both today and throughout our history was established by experts and

researchers. The degree of the presence of those songs in general music series textbooks

has been recorded, evaluated, and petitioned. It is universally accepted that children need

to know the songs of their nation's children's folk heritage.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Description of Research Methodology

This is a quantitative study with a descriptive design which establishes associations

between specific children's songs of the American heritage and the extent to which

general music teachers across the nation are teaching them. It consisted of three phases.

The first phase involved selecting the song list which would be foundational to the

study. Music textbooks and song books from the 1700's to 1950 were used to create an

initial song list. Two hundred twenty-three people over the age of 62 who had grown up

in America and represented 44 states were consulted to transform that list into one which

truly consisted of songs of the American children's folk heritage. They selected only the

songs they had learned as children in America, indicating which songs from the list they

had learned, as well as naming songs not found in the initial list. The elder study resulted

in the creation of a list of songs which represent the American children's folk heritage.

The resulting 250+ song list created by the elder study was used to create a pilot study.

Participants in the pilot study requested that the list be shortened to 100 songs. The

supervisory chair to the doctoral committee agreed that the list be shortened to 100 songs.

The second phase was an empirical study which involved condensing the list

created by the elder study (250+ songs) into a representative one hundred songs. Thirty

elementary music specialists at the top ranked universities in the nation (according to the

U.S. News and World Report, 2002 College Rankings) rated the songs. They ranked









them according to their suitability for placement in a representative list of songs of the

American children's folk heritage.

The third phase consisted of a national song assessment which was used to achieve

the purpose of this study, determining the extent to which songs of the American

children's folk heritage are taught by general music teachers throughout the United

States. Four thousand general music teachers, eighty in each of the fifty states, were

asked to assess the extent to which their students could sing each of the one hundred

songs of the American children's folk heritage from memory.

Three factors point to the use of this methodology for the purposes of this study.

1. Early research in most every scientific field is quantitative and descriptive.

2. Descriptive research is able to facilitate prediction. It is ideal for this current
research study, and will enable conclusions and recommendations in the field
because past behavior is a good predictor of future behavior.

3. Descriptive research is able to facilitate explanation, because once one knows
what happens, specific research may be directed to why it happens.

It is understood, through study of scientifically valid research methods, that an

accurate estimate of the relationship between variables in a descriptive study requires a

sample of hundreds or even thousands of subjects (as opposed to that of an experimental

study) in order to be valid.

It is also understood that in order to guarantee that the estimate of the relationship

between the variables in question contains a high degree of reliability (is less likely to be

biased), the participation rate needs to be high, and the sample selection must be done

with care (Phelps, Ferrara & Goolsby, 1993).









Research Design

Research Assimilated Into the Study

Rationale for memorization requirement. The most recent research regarding

songs of the American heritage, and a study which was used in the development of this

current research methodology and design was Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of

the United States: A Compilation of Songs That Most People "Know" and "Should

Know" by Kenneth McGuire (2000). Previous research had focused on identifying songs

which accurately represent the folk heritage of specific geographical regions of America.

McGuire (2000) sought to catalog folk songs common to several of those regions.

Additionally, McGuire's aim was to research what it means to "know" a song. He

examined the epistemology of various definitions seeking to determine a more concrete

characterization of what it means to "know" a song. His work was utilized in order to

create a clarified measurement instrument able to gauge the extent to which general

music teachers could measure the degree to which their students "knew" the specific

children's folk songs in the study. He concluded that memorization was the most

concrete and uniformly measurable method by which diverse populations could precisely

discuss the extent of a group or person's knowledge of particular songs. For this reason,

this study examined each song by the extent to which the students in question could sing

it from memory.

In addition, Trinka (1987) studied the American children's folk songs found in

school music series textbooks. Trinka's research was built upon the foundational

understanding that the contents of textbooks determined the music curriculum of the

nation's classrooms. Her research led to the demographic request for the name of the

music textbook series used by each general music teacher who participated in the study.









Through Trinka's insight, an analysis of variance was run which compared the extent to

which students could sing each of the American children's folk songs in the study by

memory to the music textbook series used by the teacher.

Initial Song Lists Considered But Not Used

1. The 88 "Songs Every American Should Know," put out by MENC in Get

America Singing ...Again (Seeger, 1996; Seeger, 2000) was not used. This

current research study was not able to use the MENC list because it did not meet

parameters of the current study. It was created by a committee who chose

according to consensus of preference, and it included songs outside the American

children's folk heritage parameters

(http://www.menc.org/information/prek 2/again.html -accessed March 21,

2003). Research by McGuire (2000) revealed that 38% of the songs included in

Get America Singing ... Again were not found in previous studies or historical

community songbooks, factors, which McGuire concluded, made their inclusion

in a national list suspect and questionable. The 88 "Songs Every American

Should Know" may be found in Appendix A.


2. "Fifty Songs Every Child Should Know" by Lisa Kleinman was not used. This

song list is endorsed by Disney and published on their website as the official list

of songs every child should know. Although it is quite good, it was not created

through scientifically valid research methods (Kleinman,

http://familyfun.go.com/entertain/music/feature/dony 108songs/dony 108songs2.ht

ml -accessed March 21, 2003). The "Fifty Songs Every Child Should Know"

may be found in Appendix B.









Song Lists Which Were Used

Two dissertations, which each created song lists for American children contributed

to the initial list. Initial song lists were created as a composite in order to provide the best

possible and most scientifically valid design.

Foy (1988) created a song list of seventy-four songs which she determined should

be taught to children before they reach sixth grade. All seventy-four of the songs were

included in the preliminary list for this study. Foy's list appears in Table 2. The initial

song list for this research study may be found in Appendix C.

The Foy list was not used exclusively because Foy chose her songs based on a

survey of teacher preference. While teacher preference is important and significant, this

study's target was songs of the American children's folk heritage, not the preferred songs

of American music teachers. Foy's list was good, but not appropriate for exclusive use in

this study.

Willis (1980) created a song list of 129 British-American folk songs which she

determined that all American children should know. The songs chosen by Willis were

not solely of British origin, as her title implied. Rather, the list is replete with American

children's folk songs. In light of information regarding early American children's folk

songs, this song list was suitable to the present study (research and historical accounts

reveal an early American preponderance for English folk songs-see Review of the

Literature). Willis' song list was included in the initial song list of this research study.

Willis' song list is presented in Table 3.









Table 2. Foy song list


Abide With Me
All Through the Night
America
America, The Beautiful
Are You Sleeping?
Auld Lang Syne
Battle Hymn of the
Republic
Bear Went Over the
Mountain
Billy Boy
Blow The Man Down
Blue-Tail Fly
Caissons Go Rolling
Along
Camptown Races
Clap Your Hands
Come Ye Thankful
People
Deck the Hall
Dixie
Do Re Mi
Down in the Valley
Erie Canal
First Noel, The
For He's A Jolly Good
Fellow
Frere Jacques
Go, Tell it on the
Mountain
God Bless America
Good King Wenceslas


Good Night, Ladies
Greensleeves
Hark! The Herald
Angels Sing
Here We Come A-
Wassailing
Home on the Range
I Whistle A Happy Tune
I've Been Working on
the Railroad
Jingle Bells
Joy to the World
Li'l Liza Jane
Marching to Praetoria
Marine Hymn
Michael, Row the Boat
Ashore
Mister Frog Went A
Courtin'
My Bonnie
O Come All Ye Faithful
Oh Come, Little
Children
Oh What a Beautiful
Morning
Oh! Susanna
Old Joe Clark
On Top of Old Smokey
Over the River
Polly Wolly Doodle
Red River Valley
Rock-a-by Baby


Row Your Boat
Scotland's Burning
She'll Be Coming
Round the Mountain
Shenandoah
Shoo Fly
Shortnin' Bread
Silent Night
Skip to my Lou
Sourwood Mountain
Star-Spangled Banner
Swing Low, Sweet
Chariot
Take Me Out to the
Ballgame
Taps
This is My Country
This Land is Your Land
This Train
Three Blind Mice
Twelve Days of
Christmas
We Gather Together
We Three Kings
We Wish You a Merry
Christmas
When Johnny Comes
Marching Home
White Christmas
Yankee Doodle


Source: Foy, P.S. (1988). The creation of a standardized body of song suitable for
American school children: a history of the community song movement and
suggested entries for a contemporary songlist. (Doctoral dissertation, University
of South Carolina, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 00213, pp.
108-126.









Table 3. Willis song list

American Folk Songs
Bingo
Black is the Color
Blue-Tail Fly
Clap Your Hands
Clementine
Darling Corey
Down in the Valley
Erie Canal
Every Night
Foggy Dew
Frankie and Johnnie
Hush Little Baby
I'm Sad and I'm Lonely
Johnny Has Gone
Little Ducks
Little Liza Jane
Lonesome Road
Old Colony Times
Old Dan Tucker
Old Joe Clark
Old MacDonald
On Top of Old Smokey
Paper of Pins
Pick a Bale of Cotton
Polly Wolly Doodle
Pretty Saro
Springfield Mountain
Skin and Bones
When Johnny Comes
Marching Home
Willie the Weeper
Yankee Doodle

Ballads
Barbara Allen
Billy Boy
Coasts of High Barbary
Edward
The Golden Vanity
Gypsie Laddie
Henry Martyn
House Carpenter
Lady Isabel


Lord Lovel
Lord Randal
Lord Thomas
Riddle Song
The Three Ravens
Young Beichan

Seasonal Songs
Christ Was Born
Cherry-Tree Carol
Go Tell it On the
Mountain
Joseph Dearest
Mary Had A Baby
Rise Up Shepherd

Singing Games and
Nonsense Songs
A Hot Time
Eency Weency Spider
Farmer in the Dell
Frog Went A-Courting
Hey! Betty Martin
If You're Happy
London Bridge
Looby Loo
Love Somebody
Old Brass Wagon
Old Gray Goose
Paw Paw Patch
Pop! Goes the Weasel
Shoo Fly
Skip to My Lou
This Old Man
Three Blind Mice

Spirituals
All God's Chillun
All Night, All Day
Amazing Grace
Balm in Gilead
Bound for the Promised
Land
Bye 'm Bye


Deep River
Didn't My Lord Deliver
Daniel
Every Time I Feel the
Spirit
Get On Board
Go Down, Moses
Greenfields
He's Got the Whole
World in His Hands
How Firm a Foundation
Jacob's Ladder
Joshua Fit de Battle
Let Us Break Bread
Little David
Little Wheel
Lonesome Valley
Mary Wore Three Links
Michael, Row the
Boat Ashore
My Lord, What a
Morning
Noah's Ark
Nobody Knows the
Trouble I've Seen
Oh! What a Beautiful
City
One More River
Rock-A My Soul
Roll, Jordan, Roll
Shaker Hymn
Sit Down, Sister
Sometimes I Feel Like
A Motherless Child
Steal Away
Swing Low, Sweet
Chariot
Wayfaring Stranger
Where You There?
When the Saints Go
Marching In
Wondrous Love










Table 3. Continued


Cowboy Songs
Git Along, Little
Doggies
Goodbye, Old Paint
Home on the Range
Jesse James
Old Chisholm Trail
Ole' Texas
Red River Valley
Streets of Laredo
Sweet Betsy from Pike


Railroad Songs
I've Been Working on
the Railroad
John Henry
New River Train
Paddy Works
She'll Be Comin' Round
the Mountain
Take This Hammer
Worried Man's Blues


Shanties
Blow the Man Down
Drunken Sailor
Go Way from My
Window
Lowlands
Rio Grande
Shenandoah


Source: Willis, C.J. (1985). Recommended British-American folk songs for use in
elementary school music. (Master's thesis, University of Massachusetts at
Lowell, 1985). Master's Abstracts International, 24, 0093, pp. 54-58.










Table 4. Willis' source books
Author
Bronson
Barlow
Boni
Boni
Dallin
Johnston
Lomax
Macmillan
Nick
Sandburg
Silver Burdett
Silver Burdett
Seeger
Sharp
Siegmeister
Swanson


Title
The Singing Tradition of Child Ballads
Foundations of Music
Fireside Book of Folk Songs
Favorite American Songs
Heritage Songster
Folk Songs North America Sings
Folk Songs of North America
Spectrum of Music
Materials for Music Fundamentals
The American Songbag
Music
Centennial Songbook
American Folk Songs for Children
English Folk Songs From Southern Appalachians
Harmony and Melody
Music Fundamentals


Source: Willis, C.J. (1985). Recommended British-American folk songs for use in
elementary school music. (Master's thesis, University of Massachusetts at
Lowell, 1985). Master's Abstracts International, 24, 0093, p. 59).









Willis' song list was taken from sixteen books. The books were reviewed for their

usefulness to this study, and many were used in this research. Her source books are listed

in Table 4. The source books for this study are located in Appendix J and in the

bibliography.

Nevertheless, the Willis list was not used exclusively because her research

emphasis was on British-American songs. While many of her songs have no British

connection at all, and are wholly American (e.g., "Goodbye, Old Paint," and "Streets of

Laredo," etc.), and the songbooks she chose her songs from consist of a number of high

quality American sources (e.g., Lomax Folk Songs of North America, 1960; and Seeger

American Folk Songs for Children, 1948) --sources which this research study also

employed, her focus was different. While Willis' song list was valuable and significant,

this study's target was songs of the American children's folk heritage, not songs of

British-American heritage. Truly, the American heritage includes a predominantly

British colonial origin, but differences do exist. Willis' list was good, but not appropriate

for exclusive use in this study.

Methodology of Song List Creation and Elder Study

Song lists from the dissertations by Willis and Foy were combined. The songs

from those lists may be found in Tables 1 and 2. General music textbooks published in

the United States between the 1700's and 1950 were acquired. The list of music series

textbooks and children's and folk song collections which contributed to the initial song

list may be found in Appendix J. Songs appearing in at least three of the books were

added to the initial song list. The initial song list is located in Appendix C. It is

presented in two parts, because of the length of the list.









Philosophical foundation for elder and music specialist contributions to the

study. Seeger (1991) states, "History is the subjective understanding of the past from the

perspective of the present" (p. 23). Even with the tremendous gains of studying history

and culture through music, students must keep in mind that their contemporary life will

influence their judgments upon the events, values, culture, and music of the past. Great

care was used in dealing with the songs chosen to represent the American heritage, in the

wording of the survey instruments, and in refining the list for the survey of general music

teachers across the nation. The precautions taken were deemed necessary in order to

avoid researcher bias, or other misrepresentation of the songs representative of the

American heritage, worldviews of a different historical period, different societal

expectations and cultural boundaries that differ from present ones. Barrett, McCoy and

Veblen (1997) warn that far too frequently in our present society and culture, writers and

leaders superimpose their contemporary thoughts, values, and current politically vogue

perspectives upon the lives, events, and traditions of the past, something historians refer

to as "present-mindedness" (Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997, p. 139). They continue

with caution against such value judgments. In light of this caution and insight, value

judgments and song censorship was not conducted by the researcher in this study. Song

texts which may be an affront to people of this present generation, may not have been

offensive at all in a different setting, culture, and society. Words which may disparage a

person's gender or ethnicity in our present societal climate did not necessarily insult

people from a different time or place, and not because they were less enlightened than we

(Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997).









Philosophical foundation for song list methodology. The reason that this

researcher did not simply choose songs which had been found in at least three different

school songbooks from the pre-1950 period, and then randomly select songs from that list

for inclusion in the general music teacher survey was to overcome publisher bias. A

survey of elderly people who grew up in America was necessary to derive a truer

collection of songs. The most familiar songs from times past, or books, textbooks, and

writings, reveal only a piece of the puzzle. "Sometimes a group of works attains a

privileged status as the canon of repertoire, music that reflects the beliefs, values, and

identities of the historians, musicologists, publishers, educators, or editors who have

traditionally held the power to select knowledge and sanction it as the correct version,

interpretation, or an official topic for study" (Barrett, McCoy, & Veblen, 1997, p. 148).

Publishers, historians, and writers select and choose songs that fit their purposes, needs,

values, and predispositions. Songs may also be unintentionally mislaid or forgotten.

This research study utilized great caution in choosing songs, fully acquainted with the

fact that what was excluded was just as important as what was included. For these

reasons, the elder study was deemed necessary as well as contacting elementary music

specialists, and enabling them to narrow the song list. In this way, the choice of

examples was selected and refined with great of care so as to identify, represent, refine,

study, and report upon our American children's song heritage with the most accuracy and

validity possible.

Song List Creation by Elderly

Selection of subjects. In order to determine which songs were truly songs of the

American children's folk heritage, assistance from Americans over the age of 62 was

solicited. A stratified and random sample of Americans over the age of 62 was necessary









in this research in order to verify and authenticate the song list. For this study, it is

important that the songs chosen truly represent the American children's folk heritage.

People who had grown up in the United States were eligible for the study. No

particular group comprised the representative sample. A wide range of ages, 62-98, was

represented. Two hundred twenty-three elderly people participated. Forty-four of the

fifty states were represented. Between four and six people from each of these states

provided input as to the songs they were taught as children in the United States. Table 5

lists the states that were included.

Table 5. States represented by elder study


Alabama Maine Oregon
Arizona Massachusetts Pennsylvania
Arkansas Michigan Rhode Island
California Minnesota South Carolina
Colorado Mississippi South Dakota
Connecticut Missouri Tennessee
Delaware Montana Texas
Florida Nebraska Utah
Georgia New Jersey Vermont
Illinois New Mexico Virginia
Indiana New York Washington
Iowa North Carolina West Virginia
Kansas North Dakota Wisconsin
Kentucky Ohio Wyoming
Louisiana Oklahoma



The researcher delivered the elder study to people over 62 in her state and area, but

the vast majority of work was done by Dr. Maybelle Hollingshead and her assistants. A

tally of participants from each state in the nation was created as people over 62 were

selected for the study. This list enabled the researcher to gain information and input

regarding the songs taught from people who grew up in a majority of states in the nation,









and refrain from over- and under-representation of any of the states available. A tally of

men to women was kept as people became available to assist in the study, and it enabled

the researcher to maintain appropriate proportions between research subjects and that of

the nation's actual make-up. (51% women, 49% men-in accordance with 2001 census

information by the U.S. Census Bureau:

http://eire.census.gov/popest/archives/national/nation3.php -accessed March 21, 2003).

Figure 1 shows the actual numbers and proportions of participants in the elder study.



049% 151%





women 114 O men 109

Figure 1. Gender of subjects in elder study

No other information was requested from the people over 62 who participated in

helping create an accurate song list representative of the American children's folk

heritage.

Both time and monetary restraints prohibited the researcher or her assistants from

traveling to and/or mailing assessment instruments to people over 62 in the remaining six

states. The goal of the investigation into songs taught to children in America from 50 to

100 years ago was to create a song list which appropriately represented the American

children's folk heritage. The input gained from the 223 elderly people who contributed to

the creation of the list was deemed enough to accomplish the purpose of verifying and

authenticating songs which truly represent the American children's folk heritage.









Distribution of measurement instruments. Dr. Hollingshead and her assistants

personally delivered and distributed the elder study to the homes and meeting places of

both friends and strangers, people over 62, and waited while they completed the study.

Because of the length of the study, participants and assistants were paid by Dr.

Hollingshead for their time and effort.

Directions. Subjects were asked to check the boxes of songs they had learned as

children in America. Conditions of aging frequently worked in favor of this research.

The ability of the participants to remember songs and events of their childhood with great

precision, items stored in their long-term memory, commonly provided excellent

conditions for the elder contributions. Space and direction at the end of the survey

enabled subjects to add to the list and include additional songs they had learned as

children growing up in the United States.

Analysis of results. The investigation into songs taught to elderly people as

children in the United States was performed. Data were collected, results were tallied,

and a shortened, verified, and more accurate list was created. The instruments used to

conduct the investigation into songs taught children in America from 50 to 100 years ago

may be found in Appendix C.

The results were compiled by Thomas and Maybelle Hollingshead. Songs which

were written in were added to the list, and songs which were not selected by a minimum

of 25 people were deleted from the list. The shortened list created by the elder study is

presented in Appendix E.

After the university elementary music specialist study was completed, narrowing

the list further, the final song list (Appendix F), was compared to the elder study data one









last time. Datum from each song chosen by the university elementary music specialists

was analyzed in regard to the number of participants in the elder study who had recalled

learning the song as a child in the United States. Songs that held high scores (40 or more

participants had selected the song) were placed in the recommended song list for this

study. The recommended song list is presented in Appendix K.

Pilot Study

An assessment instrument for general music classroom teachers was created, and a

pilot study was sent to four subjects. The pilot study is located in Appendix D. The

subjects were consulted with regard to perfecting the research measurement instrument.

None of the participants completed the study. Feedback was provided by all of the

subjects. The need for a further abbreviated list was the overwhelming and unanimous

request. The removal of certain demographic questions, as well as the shortening of

introductions and instructions were also suggested.

Elementary Music Specialists Abridge Song List

The list of songs which resulted from the contributions of subjects over 62 was

placed on a measurement instrument (for college music education specialists). Thirty

college and university elementary music education specialists were consulted in order to

narrow the list into a more manageable size.

The initial list consisted of 500+ songs. The participants in the elder study

(Appendix C) shortened it to approximately 250 songs. Participants in the pilot study

(Appendix D) reported that the song list was too long, and requested that the list be

shortened to 100 songs. The elementary specialists were sought to narrow the list to

accommodate the request made by the participants in the pilot study. One hundred songs

were to be placed on the final general music teacher assessment.









U.S. News and World Report 2002 College Rankings was used in order to

determine which schools and which elementary music specialists to select. The category,

"National Universities-Doctoral," was chosen as the ranking most appropriate for the

selection. Beginning at the top of the list and working down from number one of the top

100 colleges in the nation, the researcher contacted each of the colleges/universities.

Many of the schools did not have a music education program. Of those with a music

education program, a number of the programs had no faculty member who specialized in

elementary music education. The first thirty college/university professors with a specific

specialty in elementary music education were selected for the study.


0-5yrs6 -10 yrs
0-5 yrs
28%
8% 2 0-5 yrs

21+ yrs 6 -10 yrs
20% E 11-15 yrs

E 16-20 yrs
16-20 yrs 11-15 yrs W 21+yrs
8% 36%
Figure 2. Participating university elementary specialists' years of experience

Each of the professors was sent an Elementary Music Specialist Song Assessment.

The Specialist Assessment Instrument is presented in Appendix E. The Specialist

Assessment requested the subjects relate the amount of years they have taught

elementary/general music education at the college/university level. The profile of

respondents is shown in Figure 2.

The profile indicates that the elementary music specialists had a broad range of

years of experience. The majority of them had been in the college/university system for

between six and fifteen years. Of the 30 Assessments sent out, 25 were returned, creating









an 83% response rate, which is a satisfactory rate of return for the Music Specialist

Assessment. Figure 3 shows the proportion of the respondents to non-respondents in the

elementary specialist study.
returned
83%


returned 25

n not returned 5


not returned
17%
Figure 3. Specialist assessment response rate

Elementary music specialists were asked to rank children's folk songs according to

importance of each one's inclusion as a part of a representative list of songs of the

American Children's Folk Heritage. Four responses were available for each song. The

professors were asked to rank the songs by checking 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or "blank" (indicating

the professor felt the song to not be important for inclusion). Additional instructions

informed the professors that there was no limit to the amount of songs which could be

placed in each category: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or "blank." The elementary specialists were

instructed to rate each song according to its own merits. Space and direction at the end of

the assessment instrument enabled the elementary specialists to add to the list and include

additional songs they deemed important for inclusion. Responses from the elementary

music specialists' song assessment were tallied and results were used to create a list of

100 songs which represented the American children's folk song heritage. This final list

was not intended to be a comprehensive song list of the American children's folk

heritage. Information from the pilot study revealed that if the study contained a more









comprehensive children's song list, study participants would be less likely to assist in the

research. This final and representative list of 100 songs was used in the creation of the

final measurement instrument for general music teachers.

Creation of General Music Teacher Research Instrument

Instrumentation

The following surveys contributed to the creation of the general music teacher

measurement instrument: UF Graduate Student Survey created by Mark Brechtel (M.

Brechtel, personal communication, 2001); Song Survey from The Creation of a

Standardized Body of Song Suitable for American School Children, created by Patricia

Foy (Foy, 1980, pp. 87-95). The format and questions were then reviewed by professors

on the doctoral committee involved. The final general music teacher assessment

instrument is presented in Appendix F.

Selection of subjects

Population. General music teachers in the United States were the target population

of the study. Efforts were made to contact the state arts coordinator/state music

coordinator of several states in order to obtain e-mail or addresses of 80 truly random-

sample general music teachers from each state. The state arts coordinators were not at

liberty to provide such information. Privacy protection, which has become much more

prevalent in recent years, prohibited them from granting access to that information. This

situation quelled the current investigation's ability to conduct a truly random-sample

study of the population.

Sample. Selecting an available representative sample was of paramount

importance to this study. Realization that one's own experience may not be, and









probably was not representative, created the need for exercising great care in the selection

of the sample of general music teachers.

A stratified random sample of the 95,523 members of MENC: The National

Association for Music Education was determined to be the best course of action. MENC

had the largest national database of general music teachers that was accessible. It is the

main professional organization for elementary and general music teachers. It is the

largest non-profit organization which is dedicated to the advancement of music education

at both local and national levels.

From the 95,523 nationwide music teacher database at MENC, the researcher

purchased a stratified random sample which was generated by computer programmer

Chris Mirakian at MKTG Services- www.mktgservices.com.

The program which created the stratified random sample narrowed out all but the

general music teachers, which it divided by state, and then chose a random sample of 80

general music teachers from each of the 50 states in the United States. Extras were

provided to account for discrepancies (e.g., someone had moved, retired, or changed

professions). When a measurement instrument was returned, or when the researcher was

contacted by phone or e-mail regarding a participant's inapplicability (e.g., no longer

teaching), one of the extra surveys was sent out.

In this last and culminating segment of the study 4,000 total assessment instruments

were sent to general music teachers. Eighty measurement instruments were sent to

teachers in each state in the nation. The list of states which participated in the study is

presented in Appendix G.









Characteristics of the sample. The characteristics of the sample of general music

teachers who participated in the final study is as follows. Figure 4 reveals that the

respondents were predominantly female, with males comprising only 15% of the sample.
males -
15%

O males 270


females 1,522
females -
85%
Figure 4. Sample characteristics: males to females

Figure 5 shows the proportion of research participants by age, revealing that the

subjects were primarily older, veteran teachers, with the largest percentage of teachers

being 50 or more years old. Fewer young teachers than veteran teachers participated in

2% 6% C age 20-25












18% age 50
Figure 5. Sample characteristic age 26-29
39% 16% M age 30-35

0 age 36-39

2 age 40-45

0 age 46-49

18% 0 age 50+

Figure 5. Sample characteristics: age

the study. Because the teachers were chosen by random, stratified sample from the

MENC: National Association of Music Education database, it is unknown whether or not









the ratio of veteran teachers to young teachers presented in Figure 5 is an accurate picture

of the national ratio, or MENC membership, or if younger teachers chose not to

participate in the study more frequently than did those who had been in the profession

longer. Figure 5 shows the ratio and proportion of the age groups of the general music

teachers who participated in the study.

Figure 6 shows the proportions of respondents by ethnicity. It reveals that the

teacher population participating in the study was overwhelmingly white/Caucasian.

Contribution from general music teachers of other races was minimal. Due to the

sampling procedures, it is unknown if this ratio represents accurate ethnicity percentages

of general music teachers across the nation, or if it represents accurate ethnicity

percentages of the membership of MENC: the National Association for Music Education,

or if general music teachers of other ethnicities simply chose not to participate in the

study more frequently than did Caucasian teachers.


3%
1%
1% / Asian/Pacific Islander
1%

O Black/African
American

OE Hispanic/Latina(o)/C
hicana(o)

O Native
American/Alaskan

U White/Caucasian

94%

Figure 6. Sample characteristics: racial ethnicity









Figure 7 shows the proportion of respondents from public and private schools.

Private school contributions were valuable and consisted of ten percent of the whole.
10%

private
schools


public
schools


90%
Figure 7. Sample characteristics: school setting-private/public

29%

private
schools


public
schools


71%
Figure 8. U.S. Department of Education national ratio of public to private schools

Source: National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Digest of education statistics,
2001. (http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/digest2001/). Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Accessed March 21,
2003.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (http://nces.ed.gov/edstats/),

there are 85,393 public schools in the United States, and 34,438 private schools. These

numbers are not representative of only schools with general music teachers, but of the

entire K-12 educational system. Taking into consideration that the two pie charts in









Figures 7 and 8 do not represent the same populations, a broad comparison may be made

between the ratio of the number of K-12 public and private schools in the nation, and the

ratio of the number of public and private schools who participated in the study. Figures 7

and 8, respectively, show the comparison between the school settings of the study

participants, and the national ratio of public to private schools. By proportion, fewer

private schools participated in the study than exist, but it is not known whether or not

private and public schools employ general music teachers equally as often.

There are significantly more public schools than private schools. Significantly

more public school teachers participated in the study than did private school teachers,

although private school teachers are well represented, by approximately 400 teachers.

19%
19% Silver Burdett--
Music Connection
38% D Macmillan--Music
6% & You
0 Macmillan--Share
the Music
0 World of Music

11 Other or none
25%
12%

Figure 9. Sample characteristics: music series textbook used

Figure 9 shows the breakdown of music series textbooks used proportionally by

participants in the study. Silver Burdett's Music Connection was the most commonly

used textbook by survey subjects. The second most frequently used textbook series was

Macmillan's Share the Music. The "other" category enabled teachers to write in the

name of a textbook not listed, or designate that they did not use any music series textbook









at all. In the "other" category, Silver Burdett's Centennial Edition was the most common

write-in selection, with "none" being the next most common choice.

Six hundred eighty-one teachers who participated in the study used Silver Burdett's

Music Connection. One hundred eight used World of Music. Approximately one

hundred ninety-seven used Silver Burdett's Centennial Edition, and approximately one

hundred forty-three used no music series textbook at all.

Figure 10 shows the level at which the music teachers teach. The vast majority of

respondents were elementary music teachers, as shown in the proportions depicted. The

songs in the survey included a category specifically aimed at elementary age children,

although folk songs from a variety of age ranges were included. Figure 10 presents a

graphic depiction of the ratio of study participants. This ratio will become even more

significant in chapter 4, where the results of elementary teacher responses are compared

unfavorably to those of the smallest ratio of participants, those teaching high school or

higher.
7% 1%
Elem. or lower


O Middle


0 High School or
92% higher

Figure 10. Sample characteristics: school setting-level

The percent of high school or higher teachers who participated in this research is

quite small in comparison to the whole. Eighteen general music teachers from high

school settings or beyond contributed to the study. High school music teachers who did

not teach general music were ineligible for the study. It is possible that this ratio could be