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FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE CENTER: AN EMOTIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF
THE ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
This thesis was more emotional than its title suggests. My heartfelt thanks go to my
supervisory committee, Dr. Jon Morris, Dr. Joseph Pisani and Dr.Chang-Hoan Cho, for
believing in me and giving me constant encouragement. Dr. Morris, the chairperson of
my committee, was my guiding light when the tunnel that I had burrowed myself into
became especially dark. I can never thank him enough for the unconditional help that he
For helping me out on the statistical aspect of this thesis, a big thank you goes to
the SPSS major-domo: Jim Geason.
At the heart of this thesis lie sweat, tears, toil and, above all, love. Without
Madhura, that love would not have been possible. Now, it multiplies every day.
My parents never lost their belief in me and their support and affection were the
foundation that helped me to start and finish this endeavor. They gave me the confidence
to chase my dreams. Thanks largely to them, the dream is now a reality.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii
LIST OF TABLES ............................ ........... ..... .. ...... .. ............vi
ABSTRACT ........ ........................... .. ...... .......... .......... vii
1 IN TRODU CTION ....................................... ...... .. .......... .............. .
N eed for the Study ................. ............................................ ........ 3
Purpose of the Study .................. ............................ ............ .. .. ...... .... 4
R research Q questions ............................................................... .......... 5
O v erv iew .............................................................................................. 6
2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IEW ....................................................................... ...................7
D evelopm ent of Research on Em otion .................................... ..................................... 7
M easuring E m otion................... ................................................... ......................... 10
The PA D M odel ........................................................................ ............. 11
Verbal Measures of Emotional Response ....................................... .............. 11
Lang's SAM : A Non-Verbal M measure of Emotion............................... .................... 12
P ersuasion R esearch... ...................................................... .. .... ..... .. ............ 13
A ttitu d e ................ ....... ................................... 14
A attitude, A effect and B ehavior.............................. .. ..................... .................... 16
Attitude Change Theories and the Elaboration Likelihood Model............................ 17
Inside the ELM ......................................... 19
Central Route ......................................... 19
Peripheral R oute ......... ......... ............ .. .......... ..... ............ 20
ELM and Em otion................... ...................................... .. ........ .......... .......... .. 21
Summary of Literature Review ............ ..... ......... .... .............. 22
H ypotheses ................ .................................... ........................... 22
3 M ETH OD OLOGY .............. ............. ........................... .. ... .................. 24
R research D esign.................. ................................ ...... .......... ..... 24
C oding P rocedure....................................... .................. .. .. ............ .. ............ 25
Research Sample............................................ .......... 26
Instrumentation ............................................ 26
SAM--The Self-Assessment Manikin .......................................... .............. 26
Statistical A nalysis............................................ 27
D ata A nalysis.. .. ............................................... 27
A analysis of H ypotheses..................................................... ......................... 28
4 R E S U L T S ................................................................................................................ 2 9
D escriptive Statistics...................................................... ... .......... .. ................ 29
T ests of H ypotheses ....................................... .......... .... .. ......... ............. 30
5 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS .............................................. ...............32
H y p oth esis O n e ................................................................................. 32
H ypothesis Tw o .............. ... .............. ................................ ........ 33
Conclusion for Hypotheses One and Two ........... .............................. .............. 33
Lim stations ................................... ......................... ..... ...... ........ 34
Suggestions for future research................................................... ............................... 34
C o n c lu sio n .................................................................................................................... 3 5
A DESCRIPTION OF CAR ADVERTISEMENTS ............. .................................. 36
B VARIABLES TESTED IN ISOLATED RE-EXPOSURE TO CAR ADS .................37
C A D SA M G R A P H IC ........................................................................... ..................... 38
L IST O F R EFE R E N C E S ............................................................................ .............. 39
B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................45
LIST OF TABLES
1. D escriptiv e Statistics ......................................................................... ................... 2 9
2. PAD Results Between and Within Groups...................................... ............... 30
3. Likely to Contact a D ealer....................................................................... 31
4 Statistical Signifi chance .................................................................... ............. ....... .3 1
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Master of Arts in Mass Communication
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE CENTER: AN EMOTIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF
THE ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
Chair: Jon Morris
Major Department: Mass Communication
Most theories of attitude change and persuasion are concerned with taking a
cognitive route to long-term persuasion and a longer-lasting attitude change. The
Elaboration Likelihood Model is one such theory. This theory emphasizes that cognition
is the central factor in the route to attitude change and shows that emotion is an aspect,
albeit a less important one, in the process of attitude change. This study tries to establish
emotion at the center of the attitude change process by examining spontaneous reactions
to two car advertisements and then linking these reactions to purchase intentions to make
its case for emotion.
The results of this study show that emotion is an important factor in the process of
attitude change and that it may play a more central role in this process than has been
The Elaboration Likelihood Model developed by Petty and Cacioppo (1986)
proposed that there were two routes to attitude change:
If an individual processed a message through the central route and this resulted in a
change of attitude--predisposition towards an object, idea, etc.--this attitude change was
likely to be longer lasting than an attitude change that took place through the peripheral
The central route emphasized high-relevance of the message to the individual. The
more the relevance and the more the interest that the individual showed in the message,
the higher were the chances that he/she would think or elaborate on the message. It was
this elaboration that would lead to a change in attitude. Another aspect of the Central
Route was that it dealt with the message content--text, words, written material used in the
message--as opposed to the Peripheral Route that dealt with the message cues--colors
used, people/lifestyles depicted, visuals, etc. (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986).
The Peripheral Route was taken when the message had little or no relevance to its
receiver (Petty et al.., 1994). In this case, the individual would concentrate on heuristic
cues like attractive expert sources and number rather than content of arguments employed
by the message to process the message. If these cues produced an attitude change, this
change was likely to be shorter-lasting and unpredictable of that individual's behavior
(Petty and Cacioppo, 1986). Hence, the cognitive (central) aspect of the ELM
overshadowed its emotional (peripheral) aspect and the underlying suggestion of this
model was that an attitude change was mostly through cognition as opposed to emotion.
Both these routes--central and peripheral--can be thought of as occurring on a continuum
that has emotion on one end and cognition on the other. As an individual proceeded from
the emotional end of this continuum to its cognitive end, the individual also made a
journey from the peripheral to the central route and, in essence, from the presence of
emotion to its complete absence in the realm of cognition (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986).
This thesis will attempt to show that the emotional aspect is as important as the
cognitive aspect. The basis for this conclusion is that even as an individual processes a
message cognitively, that cognition has an emotional core. Also, there is a possibility that
content-processing (elaboration) probably gives rise to emotions and that this leads to a
longer lasting change in attitudes.
Given that man cannot live by thought alone, it may seem instinctive that a
combination of thoughts and emotions leads to an attitude change. There is scientific
support for the fact that the brain circuitry of cognition and emotion is not separate
(Davidson, 2000). Also, it seems that emotions "provide the bridge between rational and
nonrational processes." (Damasio, 1994). What is not clear is which of the two
predominates in leading to a longer-lasting attitude change. This thesis may help to shed
some light on this matter and supports the view that affect is likely to be the central cause
of a longer lasting change in attitude and that it is helped, to a certain degree, in this
endeavor by cognition.
Need for the Study
Advertising, an extremely pervasive form of visual and/or verbal communication,
rests on the fundamental belief that a consumer can be persuaded to purchase a given
product (Edens and McCormick, 2000). Thus, it is directly connected to the socio-
scientific field of persuasion research. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is a
theory of persuasion that is widely used in a disparate array of disciplines to explain
persuasion as a result of cognition. According to the theory, cognition takes precedence
over emotion in issues of high relevance and importance and, therefore, exerts a stronger
persuasive force than an emotion would (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986). The ELM could be
considered a microcosm of the till-now prevalent belief that an emotion is in some
manner inferior to cognition and that the higher process of cognition did not require the
help of the physiologically-based (hence, lowly) emotions (Davidson, 2000).
Now, as research on emotion takes center-stage in the field of neuroscience and a
number of scientific experiments are being conducted to understand the role of emotion
in shaping human progress (Damasio, 1994, 1999 and Ledoux, 1995), it is important to
review the role that emotions play in persuading a person to commit to action. The
primacy of emotion v/s cognition has been discussed at length (Zajonc, 1984 and
Lazarus, 1984) and scientific support for the primacy and indispensability of emotions
can be found in the works) of Joseph Ledoux (1995) and Antonio Damasio (1994).
Ledoux, through his work on fear--a basic emotion, and Damasio, through his work with
patients with prefrontal lobe damage, have reached the same conclusion: that emotion
plays a far more significant role in determining behavior than was previously understood.
Their findings have helped in understanding the process of emotion and emotional
reaction and have also challenged the traditional view that emotion and cognition, like oil
and water, never mix together and that a rational process may have no affective base
whatsoever (Damasio, 1994).
A review of the current research on emotion and its role in persuading an
individual suggests that not only is emotion a vital driving force in the iterative processes
of persuasion and decision-making, it may also be intricately linked with, or even more
important than, cognition in these processes (Roskos-Ewoldson et al., 2002 and Shiv and
Fedorikhin, 2002). This finding brings up the intriguing possibility of the lack of a clear
central or peripheral route and emphasizes the need for a study that tries to understand the
role that emotion plays in the Elaboration Likelihood Model.
As the importance of emotion becomes clearer to neuroscientists, social scientists
have been involved in the endeavor of understanding the importance of emotion in
persuading a person and guiding behavior. This thesis is an attempt to shed some light on
this controversial issue and add to the growing theoretical base in this fledgling area of
Purpose of the Study
That the ELM has a cognitive base is clear from a review of the model (Petty and
Cacioppo, 1986). What is also clear is that the model dispenses off affect as "a simple
peripheral cue" that causes a less persistent change in attitude and concentrates on
promoting cognition as the main force behind a longer-lasting change in attitude (Petty
and Cacioppo, 1986). This treatment of affect gives this study a two-fold purpose: to
examine the Elaboration Likelihood Model from an emotional standpoint and to
determine whether emotions are the driving force in the central route to persuasion thus
showing that a change in attitude and the resultant behavior is due to emotional as well as
cognitive drives. This purpose was further strengthened by recent research findings that
seemed to indicate that emotion is a variable whose importance increased in proportion to
the research conducted on it (Davidson, 2000). Having been put on the research back
burner for a number of years, emotion has re-emerged as a vital force that guides human
intelligence, is indispensable in social interaction and, in the case of this study, also
influences decision-making via persuasive routes. Given these research findings, it
seemed imperative to explore the role of emotion vis-a-vis the ELM.
This task was accomplished with the help of data analysis of respondent answers to
questionnaires based on car advertisements. For the purpose of this study, the respondents
were split into two groups:
1) Emotional and 2) Cognitive
The two groups were formed on the basis of the participants' spontaneous reactions
to car advertisements. If the spontaneous reaction contained a reference to a peripheral
cue like the executional elements/setting of the product, the reaction was considered
emotional. Likewise, any reference to the product and its features would result in that
reaction being considered cognitive. The datasets obtained from these two groups were
analyzed to determine whether cognition or emotion dictated the future purchasing
behavior (intention) of the respondents. This, in turn, helped to determine whether it was
justified to keep emotion at the periphery of the attitude-change process as defined by the
ELM or give it a more central role.
The questions addressed by the study were:
1. Would the cognitive group display any emotion? And if it did, would this amount
of emotion be significant when compared to the emotional group?
2. Does emotion play a more central role in the attitude-change process outlined by
3. What has a greater effect on the purchase intention (and hence, ultimate behavior)
of a consumer: cognition or emotion?
The literature review in Chapter 2 is divided into two distinct yet inter-connected
parts that clarify the need to re-examine the importance of emotion and its effect on
attitude changes. The first part of the review discusses a brief history of emotions as
symbolized by western thought. This is followed by a discussion of neuroscientific
research findings that show the indispensability of the emotion concept in cognitive
studies. A review of AdSAM: a non-verbal measure of emotion concludes the first part of
The second part of the review discusses persuasion theory, the importance of the
attitude concept and its relation to affect/emotion. The ELM is then discussed in detail
with a special emphasis on its relation to the concept of emotion to give an idea of how
emotions have been dealt within the ELM.
The methodology and findings of this study are detailed in Chapters 3 and 4
respectively. A discussion of the research implications in Chapter 5 concludes this study.
Development of Research on Emotion
The Western tradition of research on emotion was, until a few decades ago, based
on the idea that in order to understand emotions one must think of them as kinds of
thought or cognitive processes that affect a human being strongly (Jenkins and Oatley,
The three modem founding fathers of emotions--Charles Darwin, William James
and Sigmund Freud--each contributed to the understanding of emotions and were greatly
influential in shaping the direction for future emotional research. Darwin showed that
emotions connect us to our past (Darwin, 1872), James that they are involved in
physiological monitoring (James, 1884) and Freud, that they need to be discussed in
order to be understood (Freud & Breuer, 1895).
However, given its physiological origins, the field of emotion remained in the
shadow of the more thoughtful and superior process of cognition. The role of emotion
was largely ignored till the 1970s and there was a prevailing opinion that emotions for the
most part "disrupt and disorganize behavior and are primarily a source of human
problems."(Izard, 1991). Naturally, there were scientists who opposed the prevailing view
regarding emotions and were of the opinion that emotions played a central role in
behavioral changes that were said to represent learning (Mowrer, 1960). Despite this
support for its importance, for the most part emotion remained an absent entity in the
classic works of cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience that helped define the field
However, the concept of emotion could not be ignored for long and as the wave of
emotional research gathered momentum, several basic or "global" emotions were
identified based on a list of "primary" emotions as suggested by Tomkins (1962/1963).
These basic emotions were: happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust, contempt,
shame, shyness and guilt (Izard & Malatesta, 1987). This identification of the "basic"
emotions spurred affective neuroscientists who then started to research the origins of
these emotions (Davidson & Irwin, 1999; Davidson & Sutton, 1995).
The subsequent research conducted in the field of affective neuroscience elevated
emotions from the status of mere physiological responses and placed it in the regions of
the brain, specifically, in the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal, brain-stem nuclei,
hypothalamus and basal forebrain--thus identifying the areas responsible for processing
different emotions to varying degrees (Damasio, 1999). Most of these regions are sub-
cortical, i.e., they are located below the cerebral cortex--an area that is of primary
importance to cognitive neuroscientists.
The limbic or primitive/sub-cortical brain system was supposed to be the seat of
emotion and the cortex or the higher brain, the seat of cognition. However,
neuroscientific experiments disproved this theory (Davidson, 2000). Certain sub-cortical
structures that were previously thought to regulate only emotion have now been shown to
be intimately connected to cognition too (e.g., hippocampus for memory). On the other
hand, certain cortical structures that were exclusively the province of cognition (e.g., the
prefrontal cortex) have been shown to be involved in emotional processing (Nauta, 1971;
Damasio, 1989; Davidson, 2000).
Neuroscientists have also been attempting to solve one of the most enduring
controversies of social science--the primacy hypothesis--a hypothesis that attempts to
identify the primacy of affect over cognition or vice-versa. Joseph Ledoux's experiments
support the primacy of affect hypothesis as expounded by Zajonc (1984). A pioneering
affective neuroscientist, Ledoux's experiments involving fear conditioning in rats
conclusively showed that fear--one of the basic emotions--is processed in an almond-
shaped, sub-cortical structure of the brain--the amygdala. Not only does the amygdala
process the emotion of fear, it does so without the aid of conscious thought (Ledoux,
Antonio Damasio is another pioneer in the field of affective neuroscience. His work
with patients with deranged emotions as a result of frontal lobe damage showed that
though individuals may have complete control over their thought/logical processes, if
they don't have the same control over their emotions, their very survival is endangered
(Damasio, 1994). Also, Damasio experimentally proved that reasoning and decision-
making cannot exist without the accompaniment of emotion. In studies of patients who
were entirely rational till the time that neurological damage affected areas of the brain
that were involved in emotional processing, it was seen that not only did these individuals
lose a certain class of emotions, they also lost the ability to make rational decisions
Affective neuroscience, at the turn of the millennium, has firmly entrenched itself
in the brain. Drawing from the findings of pioneers such as Damasio and Ledoux,
researchers have established the fact that the brain circuitry of emotion and cognition is
not separate (Davidson, 2000). Data have shown that there are no parts of the brain that
are dedicated exclusively to cognition and/or emotion. Emotion evolved to facilitate an
organism's adaptation to complex challenges that it faced during its past (Tooby and
Cosmides, 1990) and is hard-wired in the brain (Ledoux, 1995). It has been conclusively
shown that the architecture of the brain does not honor the age-old concept of segregation
of cognition and emotion. Most compellingly, cognition has been proved to be rudderless
without emotion and studies in cognitive neuro- and behavioral sciences cannot be
conducted without taking emotion into account (Davidson, 2000).
Though emotion has been defined comprehensively, its measurement has
traditionally posed a problem because of the complexity of the emotion concept and also
the fact that most advertising testing systems are more suited to evaluating rational
appeals and are particularly weak in their capabilities to assess emotional commercials
(Plummer and Leckenby, 1985). To simplify the process of measuring emotions certain
bipolar theories have proposed that emotions are structurally related and that all emotions
originate from a relatively small number of basic emotions (Mehrabian and Russell,
1977; Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, 1957). These theories have been supported by
research evidence that emotional states have certain similarities that enable them to vary
along three basic bi-polar dimensions (Mehrabian and Russell, 1977 and Osgood, Suci
and Tannenbaum, 1957). These three dimensions are: pleasure-displeasure, aroused-calm
and dominance-powerlessness. These dimensions form the core of the PAD--Pleasure,
Arousal, Dominance--model (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974) and have gained widespread
attention in advertising research (Havlena and Holbrook, 1986).
The PAD Model
This model considers all emotions as originating from the three basic emotions of
pleasure, arousal and dominance. Various combinations of the three basic emotions result
in all other emotions (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974). For example, anger and anxiety,
considered as independent emotions by many theorists are actually a combination of the
PAD bi-polar continuous dimensions. Both anger and anxiety involve levels of
displeasure and arousal, but anger involves feelings of dominance whereas anxiety,
feelings of submissiveness.
Further support for Mehrabian and Russell's PAD theory (1977) was found in tests
that had been designed to determine whether the PAD dimensions were both necessary
and sufficient to define emotional states.
Verbal Measures of Emotional Response
Most measures of emotions developed and used in consumer research tend to be
verbal, i.e. they use semantic differential scales or adjective checklists. These measures,
however, contain certain inherent problems. Firstly, verbal measures are cognitively
oriented. Since affective reactions are automatic and instantaneous (Zajonc, 1980), it is
difficult to have them reported verbally (Hammond, 1987). Secondly, there is evidence
that reaction times for pleasant-unpleasant ratings are faster for pictures than words
(Pavio, 1978). Also, there is the issue that verbal measures of emotion are susceptible to
interpretation problems by subjects (Russell, 1989). Lastly, research on emotional
response that uses these measures tends to conceptualize the emotional response as a one-
dimensional phenomenon (Stout and Leckenby, 1986). As a result, these verbal measures
have been unable to encompass or comprehend a person's complete emotional reaction.
Lang's SAM: A Non-Verbal Measure of Emotion
The issues faced by verbal measures seem to have been solved by using the Self-
Assessment Manikin (SAM) that was developed by Lang (1980) on the basis of
Mehrabian and Russell's PAD (1977). The SAM is a visual measure that incorporates the
bi-polar dimensions of PAD into a graphic figure (see appendix C) that is easily
understood by children as well as adults (Lang, 1980) across cultures (Morris, Bradley
and Wei, 1994). It was originally developed to assist clinical psychologists in evaluating
the emotional responses of their patients who found verbal measures too difficult to
complete (Lang, 1980).
Morris et al. (1992) examined the effectiveness of SAM in evaluating advertising
messages by comparing SAM to a verbal PAD scale in an advertising environment. SAM
ratings were compared to Holbrook and Batra's (1988) three factor pleasure, arousal
and dominance scores standardized from semantic differential ratings for the same set
of television commercials. The correlations for the three dimensions were shown to be
SAM is now used in advertising research in a number of ways to measure
consumers' emotional responses. The AdSAM utilizes the SAM to measure emotional
response to marketing communications stimuli. The AdSAM employs a database of 232
emotional adjectives, scored with SAM, to gain insight into and understand the
relationships among attitude, affect, cognition and purchase intention (Morris et al.,
The roots of persuasion are embedded deep in the human psyche as well as human
history. It was approximately 2,400 years ago that Aristotle (Rhetoric) clearly identified
the three main aspects of the persuasion situation:
3. Message Content
Given this proof of that the process of persuasion has been around for so long, it
could be considered surprising that it was only 60 years ago that any sort of systematic
research attention was bestowed on the omnipresence of persuasion. Carl Hovland, a
Yale psychologist, has been attributed to an extent as having begun "the modem
experimental study of persuasion" (Petty and Cacioppo, 1996). However, systematic
persuasion research can be attributed to media effects research that began with Walter
Lippmann (1922) and Harold Lasswell (1927).
The problem with this research was that it was based on anecdotal evidence and not
empirical research (Petty and Priester, 1994). Then, in the 1940's and '50's, there was a
shift in researchers' thinking and evidence increasingly pointed to an indirect effects
model of persuasion. Hyman and Sheatsely (1947) suggested that a mere increase in
message flow could not achieve persuasion and that effective message dissemination
requires consideration of specific psychological barriers. This led to the idea of a "two-
step" flow of communication as suggested by Katz And Lazarsfeld (1955) who argued
that media tend to influence opinion leaders who in turn influence the public.
The persuasion debate was then pushed up to another level by the research of
Hovland, Lumsdaine and Sheffield (1949). These researchers investigated the social-
psychological variables responsible for military morale and completed a number of
studies that documented the importance of different factors in persuading people. Their
findings indicated a significant number of moderating variables that contributed to the
persuasive power of military films (Hovland, Lumsdaine and Sheffield, 1949).
Subsequent research on persuasion has focused on the moderating variables uncovered by
Hovland, et al., to develop contemporary models of persuasion.
And, as is with any important human process, the presence of both emotion as well
as cognition can be felt permeating the research on persuasion. And also, as usual, the
role of emotion was not clearly understood and hence it was sidelined in the persuasion
process until recent neuroscientific advances. Though persuasion researchers are split
into the camps of cognition and emotion, they all agree that "the most distinctive and
indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology" (Allport, 1935) is that of a
variable called attitude.
"I like apples."
"I thought that movie was really good because....."
Attitude. One of the central concerns of persuasion research, this variable can be
considered as a "posture of the mind" (Oskamp, 1977). The importance of the attitude
concept stems from the fact that it is believed to be a mediating variable for knowledge
acquisition as well as behavioral change (Petty and Priester, 1994).
Given the importance of attitudes and attitude change, many social psychologists
and sociologists have tried to define the term attitude. As a result, there is a multitude of
definitions of this term (Kiesler et al., 1969; Petty and Cacioppo, 1996). An attitude has
been variously defined as:
"A mental and neural state of readiness," (Allport, 1935).
"Our affinities for and our aversions to situations, objects, persons, groups."
"A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable
manner with respect to a given object." (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
However, social psychologists reached a sort of consensus that the term attitude
should be used to refer to "a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some
person, object or issue" (Insko and Schopler, 1972; Oskamp, 1977; Petty and Cacioppo,
1996) and the study of attitude change has become a source of great debate and assumed
primary focus for persuasion researchers.
The three basic components of an attitude were identified as (Oskamp, 1977):
Cognitive: These are the ideas and beliefs that are held by the attitude-holder
toward the attitude object. E.g. "George Bush will be elected the President of the USA."
Affective: These are feelings and emotions that one holds towards an attitude
object. E.g. "I would like to see George Bush become the President of the USA."
Conative: The action tendencies held toward an attitude object. E.g. "I am going to
go vote for George Bush in the Presidential elections."
And, according to Katz (1960), there are four functions that attitudes might serve
for a person:
Ego-defensive function: these help people to protect themselves from unpleasant
truths about themselves and people they consider important.
Value-expressive function: these allow people to express an important value.
Knowledge function: these allow people to get a better idea of people and events
Utilitarian function: these allow people to avoid punishments and gain rewards.
The pre-eminence and attention to the concept of attitude emerged because of the
"presumed ability of attitudes to direct (and thus allow prediction of) behaviors" (Petty
and Cacioppo, 1996).
Attitude and a change (negative or positive) in attitude as a result of persuasion is
thought to be linked to behavior and behavioral changes. There were a number of studies
that showed that attitudes may be unable to predict behaviors (Corey, 1937). And, in fact,
the mid-1970s were filled with disillusionment towards the attitude concept. As a result,
in that period, there was a sharp decline in the study of attitudes by social psychologists
(Lambert, 1980). However, Fishbein and Ajzen (1974, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977,
1980) were able to conclude, with confidence, that attitudes and behaviors were strongly
Attitude, Affect and Behavior
According to Fishbein and Ajzen, what distinguished attitude from other concepts
was its strongly affective nature and that "affect is the most essential part of the attitude
concept" (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Keeping in line with this thinking, Edwards (1990)
and von Hippel (1995) provided evidence that affect-based attitudes are held with greater
confidence that cognition-based attitudes. This may be due to the fact that:
a) affective responses often chronologically precede cognitive responses in attitude
formation and b) affective responses are more closely linked to the self as compared to
cognitive responses (Edwards & von Hippel, 1995). Also, given affect's stronger link to
the self, it could be hypothesized that in case of an affective-cognitive ambivalence,
individuals will rely more on their emotions in determining their overall attitudes and
attitude-relevant behavior. Not only was this hypothesis supported, it was also shown that
"affect was more generally predictive of behavior than was cognition among respondents
with ambivalent affective-cognitive structures" (Lavine et al., 1998). Also, in a study that
spanned over 23,000 responses to 240 advertising messages, Morris et al. (2002) proved
that affect, rather than cognition, was a better predictor of conative attitude and action as
compared to cognition. A strong link between attitudes and subsequent behavior had
already been examined, albeit cognitively, by Petty and Cacioppo in their Elaboration
Likelihood Model (1986).
Attitude Change Theories and the Elaboration Likelihood Model
Since the 1950's a great deal of research has been conducted to understand,
describe and predict consumers' attitudinal responses to advertising (Cohen, 1990).
According to Petty and Cacioppo (1996), most of these theories of attitude change that
have been developed as a result of research in the 1950's can be grouped into seven
major approaches, each of which focuses on different basic processes in order to explain
how attitude changes. Also, though these seven approaches utilized different variables
and different processes, "they really seem to indicate that there are only two
fundamentally different "routes" to changing a person's attitudes." (Petty and Cacioppo,
1996). And these two routes--Central and Peripheral--form the basis of the ELM, which
according to its authors was an attempt to outline a framework that "takes one step
toward a general theory of attitude change" (Petty and Cacioppo, 1996).
Developed by Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo, the ELM belongs to the
family of models described as the 'Response Hierarchy' models. These models attempted
to depict/describe the changes that a consumer underwent when he/she moved from a
state of relative unawareness about a certain brand or product to relative awareness and
then, finally, to purchase intentions/behavior (Belch and Belch, 1998).
One of the first (and perhaps the best known) 'Response Hierarchy' models was the
'Hierarchy of Effects' (HOE) model (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961). This HOE model was
an attempt to trace the footprints (or in this case, a mindprint) of a consumer that
eventually led to a purchase decision. According to Lavidge and Steiner (1961), there
were six steps followed by consumers before actual purchasing:
1) Awareness, 2) Knowledge, 3) Liking, 4) Preference, 5) Conviction and 6)
The formulation of these six steps then laid the basis for further models and a
plethora of research studies on how advertising works; e.g., Krugman (1965), Ray et al.
(1973), Houston and Rothschild (1978), Vaughn (1979), Petty et al. (1983), and so on.
These 'Hierarchy' models have proved to be conceptually useful in addition to
being approved and accepted by many advertising academicians and practitioners
(Preston, 1982). Amongst the many models that the 'Response Hierarchy' spawned, the
ELM received special attention because of its cognitive base and widespread usage in a
variety of disciplines.
Although a number of cognitive theories of attitude change have developed over
the years, the one that provided the foundation for the ELM was the
communication/persuasion matrix model of influence elaborated by McGuire (1985,
The McGuire model contained a few drawbacks (Petty, Baker and Gleicher, 1991;
Petty and Priester, 1994) that were addressed by the cognitive response theory developed
by Greenwald (1968) and Petty, Ostrom and Brock (1981b).
The cognitive response theory, too, had its share of drawbacks. The major one
being: it focused only on individuals who processed messages actively and failed to take
into account individuals who did not think actively about the information they received
(Petty and Priester, 1994).
The ELM filled this gap in the cognitive response theory by suggesting that there
were two routes to persuasion: 1) The route taken by individuals who did think actively
about information in a message--central route and 2) The route taken by individuals who
did not think actively about the informational content of a message--peripheral route.
Inside the ELM
According to Petty and Cacioppo (1986), research on attitudes and persuasion was
"a central concern of social psychology." Hence, the ELM at its core is concerned with
two intangibles, persuasion and attitudes. The model attempted to explain how a change
in attitude occurs as a result of persuasion and, specifically, the two routes this change
could occur through: the central route and the peripheral route.
This is the main route to attitude change. It emphasizes cognitive/effortful thinking
and minimal emotional involvement in processing messages. When an individual
indulges in "a private dialogue" in order to evaluate the merit/demerit of arguments
presented in a message, that individual is considered to be embarking on the central route
to persuasion. This path to persuasion involves "paying careful attention to the relevant
information in the message and relating that information to previous knowledge stored in
memory and generating new implications of the information" (Petty and Cacioppo,
1994). This process of cognitive responses (thoughts) to a message can be considered the
likelihood that an individual will elaborate on a particular message.
This route, however, demands that a message has high relevance to a particular
individual and this individual should have the motivation and ability to process the
arguments present in the message. Given the innumerable messages that an individual
faces on a daily basis, there are only a small number of messages that an individual can
process through this route. As a result, any attitude formation or changes that occur
through this route have the following properties: a) the attitude is relatively easy to recall,
b) it is relatively persistent and stable, c) it is resistant to challenges from competing
messages and, most importantly, d) it can help in predicting an individual's attitude-
relevant behavior (Petty and Cacioppo, 1994).
What happens to the rest of the (persuasive) messages that an individual receives
daily? As it is next to impossible to devote effortful thought to each and every message,
an individual processes largely irrelevant messages through the simpler, less effortful and
more emotional route to persuasion known as the peripheral route.
This route is almost the exact opposite of the central route to persuasion.
Individuals who travel this route are referred to as "cognitive misers" (Taylor, 1981) and
process messages based on simple (peripheral) affective cues such as source
attractiveness and message length. The individual takes this route in a low involvement/
low motivation situation and processes the message at a very basic (heuristic) level by
observing the audio-visual cues present in the message and without thinking too much of
the arguments present therein. Hence, the peripheral route was characterized by "an
absence of effortful message elaboration" and the attitude formations and changes
engendered by this route were "less accessible, persistent, resistant and predictive of
behavior" as compared to attitudes developed by the central route (Petty and Cacioppo,
ELM and Emotion
Basically a model of cognitive (thoughtful) responses, the ELM also tried to
account for the presence of emotion in the process of attitude formation and change by
keeping it on the periphery of that process. The model was developed at a time when the
role of emotions was not clearly understood by social scientists. The resurgence of
interest in emotions gave rise to new research and provided eye-opening results of the
role that emotions play in an individual's life. Hence, it becomes necessary to re-examine
the ELM in the light of these findings and wonder whether emotions should be kept at the
periphery of such a widely used model of attitude formation and change.
Current research has indicated that emotional reactions influenced both central
(systematic) and peripheral (heuristic) processing. It has been shown that positive
emotions influence peripheral information processing while negative emotions influence
central processing (Batra and Staynman, 1990; Kuykendall and Keating, 1990; Bohner
and Apostolidou, 1994; Bohner et al., 1994). Researchers have then gone a step forward
and claimed that, in fact, there may be no central or peripheral cues and that the two
routes to persuasion can interact with each other with one route dominating in the face of
contradictory information and both routes occurring concurrently when the persuasive
information provided does not contradict the attitude structure of an individual (Chaiken
and Maheswaran, 1994).
Subsequent research supported this line of thought and while investigating the
influence of print advertisements on the affective and cognitive responses of adolescents,
Edens and McCormick (2000) discovered that "many adolescents were unable to detect
the explicit claim of an advertisement yet maintained that the ad "made sense," which
suggests that peripheral visual information becomes the central message." Such research,
therefore, provides a strong case for placing affect at the center of the ELM.
Summary of Literature Review
Primarily a cognitive model of attitude change, the ELM relegated emotions to a
peripheral role in the attitude change process. The literature review attempted to show the
importance of the concept of emotion and its relation to persuasion research. In addition,
the review also examined current findings in affective neuroscience to suggest a re-
examination of the neglected emotional aspect of the ELM.
This study examined respondents' answers to questionnaires regarding car
advertisements with the help of data analysis. This is done to establish: 1) The
importance of the concept of emotion in a persuasive message (in this case, an
advertisement) and 2) The level of emotion present in a cognitive response to certain
Two hypotheses were developed on the basis of the research findings:
H1. The emotional response (ER) of the Cog group as measured by PAD will be
equivalent to or significantly greater than that of the Emo group. Thus, CogER > EmoER
H2. ER and Purchase Intent (PI) are directly related to each other. Thus, the more
emotional the group, the higher the purchase intent of that group.
These hypotheses were based on research findings that showed that cognition could
not exist in a vacuum. Indeed, the research suggests that the central route to persuasion
must incorporate a great degree of emotion in order to function effectively. Also, since
emotion is such an important aspect of human psychology, an intention that is a result of
a persuasive message, including purchase intention a key indicator of actual behavior,
must involve a substantial investment of emotion (Morris et al., 2002).
To evaluate the effectiveness of a mini-campaign of two car advertisements (see
appendix A) that depicted a mid-size luxury sedan, mall intercepts were conducted from
January 13th to January 25th, 1996, in the cities of Atlanta, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas,
Los Angeles, Melbourne, Minneapolis, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix and
San Francisco. The participants were paid to watch a series of advertisements and then to
respond to questions about the advertisements.
The copy testing of the sedan commercials intended to measure the performance of
each commercial on the basis of four key dimensions:
* Impact/ brand name registration
The participants were exposed to a clutter of 7 commercials and the sedan
commercial was placed in the center of the clutter. The idea was to test:
* Recall through clutter
* Main ideas through clutter
An isolated re-exposure to the sedan commercials) was then conducted to test a
number of variables (see appendix B) amongst which was the variable:
* Spontaneous reactions (thoughts and feelings)
The data sets that were generated as a result of this testing were then examined with
special emphasis on the variable of spontaneous reactions (SR). The question that helped
isolate this variable for analysis was: What went through your mind as you watched this
commercial? What were your thoughts as you watched it? In the given data sets, the
reactions to this question were isolated and recorded as SR.
An Advertising Self-Assessment Manikin (AdSAM)--a non-verbal measure that
assesses emotional response--had been conducted on the commercials in order to gauge
the emotional reactions of the participants on three dimensions:
The emotional responses to the sedan commercials) generated by the AdSAM
were then used in the analysis of the recorded data.
Three coders (two males and a female) independently coded the SR variable in
accordance with a set of rules:
* If the SR of a participant was related to the product and its features, that reaction
would be considered a central response and the participant would be placed in a
group labeled cognitive.
* If the SR of a participant was related to the execution/setting of the product it
would then be considered an peripheral response and the participant would be
placed in a group labeled emotional.
These rules were based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model and its concepts of
Cognition, Central Route, Emotions and Peripheral Route. The researcher was the
primary coder and trained two other coders to code the data to establish reliability.
Intercoder reliability was calculated using Holsti's formula (1969) for reliability
amongst coders: Reliability= 3M / N1+N2+N3
The letter M represents the number of coding decisions the coders agree on,
whereas N1, N2 and N3 represent the total number of coding decisions made by each of
the three coders. The three coders compared the results of their coding for the sample on
the SR variable. The inter-coder reliability was found to be 99.9%
The research sample was obtained from a large marketing communications firm
and was part of a comprehensive copy test. A total of 255 participants (50% males and
50% females) in major U.S. cities participated in the test of the sedan advertisements.
They were screened on the basis of qualifications that ensured that the sample was highly
involved in the research. These qualifications were:
* Age 35 54 (50% 35 -44, 50% 45 54)
* $50, 000+ household income
* Minimum of some college education
* Must be principal driver and primary/shared decision-maker of a 1992 or newer
vehicle, bought new (not a van or sport utility).
* Intends to purchase a new, not used vehicle from a qualifying vehicle set within the
next two years.
* Must consider both domestics and imports.
* Must qualify on a key psychographic battery.
SAM--The Self-Assessment Manikin
The non-verbal measure of emotional response, SAM, which has a continuous
nine-point scale to measure the dimensions of Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance (PAD),
was used in this study. The PAD bipolar dimensions consist of:
These dimensions adequately describe the full spectrum of human emotions. They
have been reliably measured and are sufficient to define all emotional states (Mehrabian
and Russell, 1977). PAD has gained popularity due to its simplicity and the ability to
cover the full range of human emotions (Havlena and Holbrook, 1986).
The use of the non-verbal SAM (Lang, 1980) as an instrument helped to overcome
problems associated with cumbersome and time-consuming verbal self-report measures.
SAM was developed to adequately represent Russell and Mehrabian's PAD. It uses a
graphic character that eliminates much of the biases associated with verbal and other non-
verbal measures (Morris and Waine, 1994). The graphic character is easily understood
and identifiable by both adults and children (Lang, 1980). Also, SAM reduces respondent
wearout and is not limited by age, gender, culture or language differences (Morris and
Waine, 1994). SAM has also proved to be an effective and efficient instrument to
determine emotional responses to advertisements (Morris, Bradley, Lang and Waine,
1992) and, most importantly, it accurately measures the respondents' feelings to an
In these tests of a mini-campaign of two car advertisements, SAM was placed near
the beginning of the questionnaire. After respondents was asked a series of three recall
questions, they were then asked to identify there feelings associated with the test
commercial. The AdSAM question asked them how the commercial made them feel, and
general took from 15 to 30 seconds to answer.
Data were inputted and calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS release 9.0). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was run to determine the
statistical significance of the relationships between the two groups--"cognitive" and
Analysis of Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: To see if the Emotional Response (ER) of the "cognitive" group
would be equivalent to or significantly greater than that of the "emotional" group, an
ANOVA was run on both groups and the results compared and evaluated.
Hypothesis 2: To seal the argument for emotional response and subsequent
behavior, the hypothesis that was advanced was that purchase intent (PI) would be
closely related to emotions and the group displaying more emotions would also be the
group with the higher PI. An ANOVA was run again on the "emotional" and "cognitive"
groups to test the PI variable.
The results from the comparison of the two groups--"cognitive" and "emotional"--
were obtained by examining for significant differences between the groups. The
descriptive statistics are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics
CarP CarA CarD
Cognitive SR Mean 7.20 6.21 6.18
N 113 114 113
Std. Deviation 1.61 2.10 1.92
Emotional SR Mean 6.42 5.80 5.68
N 140 141 141
Std. Deviation 1.95 2.48 2.31
Total Mean 6.77 5.98 5.91
N 253 255 254
Std. Deviation 1.84 2.32 2.16
The descriptive statistics in table 1 provide an interesting insight into the variable
of spontaneous reaction (SR) and show that the emotional reactions as analyzed by
AdSAM's PAD score are consistently higher for the "cognitive" group as compared to
the "emotional" group. On all the three major bi-polar emotional dimensions: pleasure,
arousal and dominance, the "cognitive" group has a higher mean score than the
"emotional" group. The mean scores were measured on a nine-unit bi-polar scale ranging
from 1 to 9.
Tests of Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: To test the hypothesis that the emotional response of the "cognitive"
group would be equivalent to or significantly greater than that of the "emotional" group,
an ANOVA was conducted. As per the analysis (see Table 2), the "cognitive" group
shows a significantly higher level of pleasure (p < .05) than the "emotion" group and
although not significantly different the means scores on arousal and dominance were
higher for the "cognitive group" than for the "emotional" group.
Table 2: PAD Results Between and Within Groups*
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Car P* CE Between Groups (Combined) 37.55 253 37.55 11.48 0.00
Within Groups 820.60 113 3.26
CarA*CE Between Groups (Combined) 11.00 255 11.00 2.04 0.15
Within Groups 1363.95 114 5.39
Car D CE Between Groups (Combined) 15.55 254 15.55 3.36 0.06
Within Groups 1165.36 113 4.62
P < .05 indicates a significant difference between the "cognitive" and "emotional"
groups. Means have been obtained from ANOVAs conducted between the two
groups. (CAR= vehicle being tested, P = Pleasure, A= Arousal, D= Dominance, C=
Cognitive, E= Emotional)
These results confirmed the hypothesis that the "cognitive" group did indeed
show a significant level of emotion.
Hypothesis 2: This hypothesis suggested that the more emotional group would be
the one with the higher PI (Purchase Intent) variable. An ANOVA was run on both
groups to verify this hypothesis. The results are given in Table 3 and 4.
Table 3: Likely to Contact a Dealer*
* measured on a 5 point scale where 1 is the lowest and 5 is the highest score.
Table 4: Statistical Significance
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups (Combined) 25.42 253 25.42 23.39 0.00
According to the analysis (see Table 3), the "cognitive" group (2.52) would be
more likely to contact a dealer than the "emotional" group (2.08). This result was shown
to be of statistical significance by the ANOVA in Table 4 where p < .05. Hence, this
hypothesis was supported because the "cognitive" group, which showed a higher
emotional response to the commercial, also showed a higher PI. Thus, the finding was
significant as it showed the "cognitive" group to be more likely to contact a dealer than
the "emotional" group. Both the hypotheses were supported and the belief that emotion
response rather than cognition is the central route to persuasion was strengthened.
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
This study intended to show that emotions are more than just a peripheral
occurrence in the process of persuasion as described in the Elaboration Likelihood
Model. The results of the data analysis give some insight into the role of emotions in the
process of persuasion. The three hypotheses attempted to show that even though an
individual may be processing information cognitively, that cognition has an emotional
core. The results concur with the hypotheses. The "cognitive" group shows either
significantly more emotion or a not significant difference in the amount of emotion when
compared to the "emotional" group. A higher purchase intent accompanies and
embellishes this display of emotion. These results give an insight into the importance of
the emotion concept with regard to persuasion and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.
The ANOVA conducted between the two groups reveals a significant presence of
emotion in the "cognitive" group. This shows that even though information is being
processed cognitively, the process is not being conducted in an emotional vacuum. In
fact, the "cognitive" group shows a significantly higher emotional response in terms of
the emotional variable of pleasure. These traces of emotion in cognitive processing
provide support for the necessity of re-examining the role of emotion in the ELM.
Though the ANOVA reveals a significant difference in only one emotional
variable--Pleasure, the other two emotional variables, Arousal and Dominance, are not
significantly different between the groups. This finding is interesting as it suggests that
even in a "cognitive" group, there is a certain amount of emotional reaction and that this
reaction is not significantly different from the reactions of the so called "emotional"
group. In fact, in some cases, the emotional response of the "cognitive" group may
exceed a similar response of the "emotional" group.
The results from the ANOVA regarding the variable of PI in terms of emotional
response seal the case for emotion. The "cognitive" group has a significantly higher
emotional level in one variable and is not significantly different from the "emotional"
group in the other two AdSAM variables. As the "cognitive" group shows a higher level
of emotional response in the pleasure variable as compared to its emotional counterpart
and a less than significant yet higher response on the other two emotional variables, the
emotional response of the "cognitive" group can be considered higher than the
"emotional" group. This would then support the hypothesis that purchase intent is related
to emotional response and the higher the emotional response, the stronger the purchase
Conclusion for Hypotheses One and Two
The hypotheses were based on research that gave evidence regarding the
importance of the emotion concept and as a result, it was extrapolated that this concept
could not be kept on the periphery of the ELM. The data analysis seems to support this
theory by providing significant proof of the existence of emotion in the cognitive sphere.
Also, by linking purchase intent with emotion, support is also provided for an attitude
change via an emotional route that could be at the center of the Elaboration Likelihood
Model. This is further support that it is the emotional response that is the stronger driver
of the intent. To establish this fact firmly, more research is required. Obtaining significant
results for emotional response between the two groups over a series of commercials
would confirm these findings.
It is important to determine the emotional response as accurately as possible and
the AdSAMTM is an excellent tool for measuring viewer's responses. The SAM is a
quick and precise method of testing and it does so without the problem of subjective
meaning differences or other biases. An excellent tool for dissecting emotional responses,
the SAM provided invaluable insight that helped to highlight the role of emotion in a
Several limitations of the study need to be highlighted. The sample used for the
study was restricted to a certain demographic and a certain class of product. This restricts
generalization of the results of this study.
Also, the data was recorded on the basis of simple rules specially devised for the
purpose of the study. These rules may need to be modified in order to conduct a more in-
depth analysis of the participant responses.
Furthermore, the number of coders involved limited the coding procedure. The
perception of the diverse responses may differ from coder to coder.
The purchase intent variable, too, can be considered a limitation as there is no
actual proof that a respondent from the "emotional" group actually did go through with
Suggestions for future research
Future research may attempt to include different demographic groups as well as
different types of media, such as print and radio, and also different types of products and
campaigns within this framework. There are a multitude of products and product classes
available that could be considered for research purposes. Also, a more rigorous statistical
analysis can be employed to reveal even more significant results between "cognitive" and
It would be interesting to conduct a study on other highly priced consumer goods
that would require as considerable pre-purchase cognition on part of the consumer and
identify the amount of emotion involved in the purchase. To make this study even more
intriguing, it could be worthwhile to ask a consumer the thoughts that went through
his/her mind immediately prior to and after the high price purchase. These responses
could then be examined for their emotional content and this could help in identifying
whether emotion or cognition was the main driving force behind the purchase.
The Elaboration Likelihood Model is widely used in a number of disciplines and
has increased in popularity ever since its inception because of its largely cognitive base
that attempts to explain the persuasive power of a message in terms of thought
elaboration. Thus, the ELM seems to be emphasizing cognition over emotion in the
process of persuasion. This study has attempted to show that the basic tenet that the ELM
proposes may be incorrect and that emotion needs to be given a much more significant
role and not be kept on the periphery of the ELM.
Research in neuro-scientific spheres has re-affirmed the importance of emotion
and the results of this study seem to support this research. It is hoped that this study will
add further insight to the role that emotion plays in a persuasive process.
DESCRIPTION OF CAR ADVERTISEMENTS
Commercial 1: "Listen to This." This commercial compares the sedan to a BMW
by letting the owner of the BMW test drive the sedan on a mountain road. The extensive
branding of the make and model throughout the execution emphasize the name of the
sedan. The performance of the sedan thoroughly impresses the BMW owner and the
commercial focuses on the low price of the sedan by communicating it as a "whisper"
between friends. The overall effect of the commercial is to provide a perception of
affordability without offering a sticker price.
Commercial 2: "Side of the Road." This commercial communicates a more
focused message of performance and handling of the sedan. By using emotional
descriptions of the sedan's engine and creating an exciting imagery of performance
coupled with upbeat music, the commercial attempts to communicate the superiority of
the sedan as compared to its European counterparts. The commercial concentrates on the
facets of a comfortable, safe and secure ride and various useful features to make its case
for the sedan. Affordability is indicated too, but not to the extent that it was in the first
commercial. The overall effect of the commercial is to generate overall positive imagery
for the sedan.
VARIABLES TESTED IN ISOLATED RE-EXPOSURE TO CAR ADS
* Main ideas
* Spontaneous reactions (thoughts and feelings)
* Elements found and confusing
* Elements found hard to believe
* Commercial profile--a battery of attributes designed to get at the tonality of
* Overall commercial rating
* Uniqueness of message
* Overall sedan rating
* Image scan--a battery of attributes designed to determine whether explicit
and implicit objectives are being communicated
* Increased interest rating
* Visitation intent
* Driver profile
* Slogan/tagline evaluation
* Character evaluation
* Music evaluation
* Overall profile battery
* Vehicle ownership
AdSAM: a visual measure that incorporates the bi-polar dimensions of PAD into a
graphic figure: The first row depicts pleasure-displeasure, the second, arousal-boredom
and the third, powerlessness-dominance.
Figure 1: AdSAM
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Ajatshatru Singh was born on February 14th, 1973, in Delhi, India. He completed
his bachelor's in commerce in 1994 from the University of Mumbai and followed that up
with a master's in economics from the same university in 1997. He will receive his M.A.
in Mass Communication with a specialization in advertising in May 2003 from the
University of Florida.