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Potential Interaction of Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein With a Protein Partner and Their Regulation in Immune Cells


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POTENTIAL INTERACTION OF CYSTEINE RICH INTESTINAL PROTEIN WITH A PROTEIN PARTNER AN D THEIR REGULATION IN IMMUNE CELLS By JOHN DAVID NICEWONGER II A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by John D. Nicewonger II

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This work is dedicated to my fianc C ynthia Rodriguez who always encourages me to be the best that I can be. She has taught me to be persistent in accomplishing my goals no matter how long it takes. I would also like to thank my family for their financial support during my time at graduate school.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor Dr. R. J. Cousins, for giving me a chance to work on this project. His funding throughout the entire two and a half years of my stay here helped me complete this project. Several times he or his staff have pointed me in the right direction whenever I needed help with a problem. He has taught me to be an independent thinker and to work hard to complete the goals that I have set for myself. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. B. McMahon and Dr. B. Langkamp-Henken, for extending their expertise to my project. I appreciated the technical expertise of Dr. Cal Green and Dr. Ray Blanchard. Their advise with the technical issues of my project helped me immensely. I would also like to thank Virginia Mauldin for helping me make the computer do what I wanted it to do when it was being stubborn. Finally, I would like to thank the entire University of Florida Food Science and Human Nutrition faculty for the great job they do teaching classes and running the department. I learned a vast amount of knowledge in their classes and I will make sure it gets put to good as I further my career in science. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Control of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis by Zinc....................................................1 Characteristics of LIM Proteins....................................................................................6 Characterization of Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein....................................................7 The Many Functions of Calreticulin.............................................................................9 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS................................................................................13 Detection of a CRIP Protein Partner...........................................................................13 Effects of IFN-, LPS, and Cell Proliferation on CRIP and CRT Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells...................................................................................................14 Real Time RT-PCR of CRIP and CRT RNA.............................................................16 Nondenaturing PAGE and Western Analysis.............................................................17 Immunocytochemistry................................................................................................18 Statistical Analysis......................................................................................................19 3 RESULTS...................................................................................................................20 Identification of Possible CRIP Binding Partner Using Affinity Chromatography...20 Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA.................20 Effect of IFNand LPS on CRIP CRT, and TNFmRNA Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells.......................................................21 Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP Protein Levels..............................22 Nondenaturing PAGE of RAW 264.7 Cell Cytosolic Extracts at 60% Confluency..22 Colocalization of CRIP and CRT...............................................................................23 5

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4 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................34 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................43 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................52 6

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins eluted from the CRIP affinity purification column. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified a 55 and 80 kD band. (B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column also identified a 55 and 80 kD band. (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column identified only a 55 kD band. (D) Salt was removed from the column eluate prior to electrophoresis. Note the improved apparent resolution of the 55 and 80 kD bands. M stands for marker and E# stands for elution number....................24 3-2 Western analysis of thymic (left) and intestinal (right) proteins eluted from the CRIP column performed with a calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) revealed that the 55 kD band that bound to the column in these samples was CRT.....................................................................................................25 3-3 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins that eluted off of the control column. The molecular weight of the 50 and 75 kD marker bands are labeled. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified no bands (B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column identified no bands (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column identified no bands................................................................26 3-4 Effect of RAW 264.7 cell proliferation on CRIP (A), CRT (B), and MT (C) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and approximate confluence (D) at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h after plating cells at a 1:3 ratio...........................................................................................................................27 3-5 Effects of LPS and IFNtreatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on CRIP (A) and CRT (B) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment...........................................................28 3-6 Effects of LPS and IFNtreatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on (A) TNFmRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and (B) nitric oxide prodution as measured by addition of Greiss reagent to medium at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment................................................................28 vii

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3-7 (A) Western analysis of RAW cell cytosolic CRIP protein levels up to 32 h after plating. (B) Densitometric measurement of CRIP protein increased from initial levels up till 10 h. At 22 h CRIP protein expression was back at initial levels.........................................................................................................................29 3-8 Western analysis of RAW 264.7 cell cytosol protein extracts analyzed in a nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylide gel and transferred to PVDF membrane (0.1 um) for analysis with CRIP and CRT antibodies..............................................30 3-9 RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP (UF 83) and anti-rabbit conjugated FITC antibodies (Sigma) and polyclonal goat anti-CRT (Santa Cruz Biotech) and anti-goat conjugated Texas Red antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotech) 12 and 24 h after plating on slides images were obtained using confocal microscopy. (A) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (B) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (C) CRIP and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (D) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at 3000 X..........................................................................................31 4-1 Model of potential CRIP interaction with CRT and PKC which would cause translocation of CRT to integrins at the cell membrane and block translocation of CRT into the endoplasmic reticulum...................................................................42 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science POTENTIAL INTERACTION OF CYSTEINE RICH INTESTINAL PROTEIN WITH A PROTEIN PARTNER AND THEIR REGULATION IN IMMUNE CELLS By John David Nicewonger II May 2003 Chair: Dr. Robert J. Cousins Major Department: Food Science and Human Nutrition Cysteine rich intestinal protein (CRIP) is an 8.5 kD protein which contains a distinct LIM domain consisting of two zinc coordinating fingers in close proximity to one another. There are several facts known about CRIP, but the function of the protein is still not well understood. CRIP mRNA is most abundant in macrophages, PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), and the intestine. It is also very abundant in thymus, spleen, heart, and lungs. Overexpression of CRIP in transgenic mice leads to increased secretion of Th2 (T helper 2) cytokines (interleukin 6, IL-6 and interleukin 10, IL-10) and decreased secretion of Th1 (T helper 1) cytokines (interferon-, IFNand interleukin-2, IL-2) after challenge of mice with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or virus, or mouse splenocytes with PHA (phytohemagglutinin). In order to better understand the function of CRIP we designed a CRIP affinity purification column to identify possible protein partners. Using the column we identified calreticulin (CRT) as a possible protein partner. CRT was first identified as a calcium binding chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, ix

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but recently, CRT has been shown to be necessary for cell adhesion and spreading because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and regulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion. CRT has also been localized to the nucleus where it binds to nuclear steroid hormone receptors, inhibiting their ability to bind to DNA. In order to further explore the relationship between CRIP and CRT, their mRNAs were measured during RAW 264.7 cell proliferation and upon treatment of cells with LPS +/IFNwhich led to apoptosis in this cell type. During cell proliferation both CRIP and CRT mRNA expression increased significantly and upon treatment with LPS +/IFNmRNA expression of both proteins decreased significantly. Immunocytochemistry using confocal microscopy revealed that both proteins colocalized during cell proliferation. The binding of CRIP to CRT may shift localization of CRT from the endoplasmic reticulum to sites of cell adhesion and/or the nucleus. Since CRT is an important chaperone for IFN(a Th1 cytokine) and MHC-I (major histocompatibility 1) complexes, this may also explain why overexpression of CRIP leads to increased secretion of Th2 cytokines and decreased expression of Th1 cytokines. x

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Zinc is a divalent cation that engages in structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles within organisms. Many proteins rely on zinc for both their structure and/or function. For example, zinc atoms are an important part of the structure of the zinc fingers at the amino terminus of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) (Hubbard et al., 1991). Yet, increased free intracellular zinc levels also activate PKC without affecting the zinc coordinated in the zinc fingers of PKC (Csermely et al., 1988a and 1988b and Zalewski et al., 1990). Zinc is also an important part of metalloenzymes like carbonic anhydrase. In carbonic anhydrase catalyzed reactions, the zinc atom acts as a Lewis acid, stabilizing the negative charge and allowing ionization of water and formation of bicarbonate (Voet & Voet, 1995). In addition, zinc has been shown to regulate transcription of genes. For example, the transcription factor MTF-1 (metal response element-binding transcription factor 1) has six zinc fingers in its structure. Binding of zinc to the sixth zinc finger causes translocation of MTF-1 to the nucleus, where it activates transcription of several genes by binding to metal response elements in their promoters (Smirnova et al., 2000). Control of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis by Zinc The mineral zinc is essential for cell proliferation. In many cell types zinc deficiency and excess results in apoptosis. Intracellular free zinc concentrations are very low, in the range of 1 nm (Atar et al., 1995). The intracellular distribution of loosely bound zinc may be much higher, micromolar concentrations (Coyle et al., 1994). Zinc is part of the structure of many proteins, including enzymes of cellular signaling pathways 1

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2 and transcription factors. Related to these roles, zinc regulates cell signaling on many levels, including modifying the activities of PKC, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), and MTF-1. These signal cascades are important in cell proliferation or apoptosis (Beyersmann & Haase, 2001). There are over one thousand transcription factors containing zinc finger domains (Berg & Shi, 1996). Therefore, zinc is essential for the proper regulation of transcription of many genes, including numerous genes important for the stimulation of growth. All of the nuclear steroid hormone receptors contain zinc fingers. Upon ligand binding, these proteins bind to steroid response elements in the promoters of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation (Berg et al., 1996). Also, the most well recognized zinc activated transcription factor is MTF-1. This protein contains six zinc finger motifs. Binding of zinc to the sixth zinc finger of MTF-1 triggers the translocation of MTF-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (Smirnova et al., 2000). Once in the nucleus MTF-1 binds to metal response elements in the promoters of the genes that code for proteins such as the zinc transporter ZnT-1, the zinc-donator/acceptor protein metalloththionein (Langmade et al., 2000), calreticulin (Nguyen et al., 1996), and a growing list of other proteins (Lichtlen et al., 2001). Recently, calreticulin has been characterized as a protein that binds to integrins in the cell membrane, and has been shown to be essential for cell adhesion and spreading (Coppolino et al., 1998). Therefore, it is not out of place for expression of this protein to be upregulated by zinc. Because of its relevance to this project, this protein will be discussed more in a later section of this introduction. Zinc is important for the stimulation of cell proliferation and growth. The evidence for this has been derived from numerous experimental approaches. Chelation of zinc in

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3 mammalian cell cultures causes decreased growth and DNA synthesis (Grummt et al., 1986). Zinc and calcium synergistically initiate DNA synthesis and mitogenic signaling in murine fibroblasts (Huang et al., 1999). Chesters et al. (1989 and 1990) reported the zinc chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) reduced thymidine incorporation into DNA and impaired transcription of the thymidine kinase gene in Swiss 3T3 cells. Roth & Kirchgessner (1994) found that zinc deficient rats secreted less growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Zinc deficiency led to decreased expression of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the livers of both humans (Cossack, 1991) and rats (McNall et al., 1995). IGF-1 is important for cell growth because it has been shown to mediate the transition from the G1to the S-phase in cultured cells. In addition, a translocation of metallothionein (MT) into the nucleus has been detected during the early S-phase of growth factor-stimulated primary rat hepatocytes (Tsujikawa et al., 1991), in regenerating rat liver (Tsujikawa et al., 1994), certain tumors (Kuo et al., 1994; Nartey et al., 1987; Woo & Lazo, 1997), and rat keratinocytes after irradiation with UV-B (Hanada et al., 1998). Apostolova & Cherian (2000) demonstrated that blocking DNA synthesis with aphidicolin in order to trap cells in the G1to S-transition, caused zinc and MT to remain in the nucleus. Only after removal of aphidicolin did cells reenter the S-phase, and both zinc and MT were translocated back to the cytoplasm. The nuclear translocation of MT could be important for donation of zinc to transcription factors important in cell proliferation. Zinc is also an important mediator of cell migration and proliferation. Zinc has been shown to modify integrin expression and cause increased cell migration in human keratinocyte cell cultures (Tenaud et al., 2000). Prior to this, Dreno (1996) demonstrated

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4 that zinc stimulates proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in wounds. Zinc is an essential structural element in the zinc fingers of the LIM domains in a family of proteins known as LIM proteins. LIM domains mediate protein-protein interactions. These proteins have been shown to be important in cell fate determination, cytoskeleton reorganization, and growth control (Bach, 2000; Dawid et al., 1998). Because of their relevance to this study, these proteins will be discussed further in a latter section of this introduction as well. Zinc is also part of the integral structure of many enzymes and zinc also has been shown to influence the catalytic activity of other enzymes. In murine fibroblasts increased extracellular zinc triggered protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPK activity (Hansson, 1996). Wu et al. (1999) reported zinc activated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and MAPK activity in human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, Samet et al. (1999) showed that zinc blocked several protein tyrosine phosphatases in human airway epithelial cells. Zinc has also been shown to be a structural part of many isoforms of PKC (Parker et al., 1986). Hubbard et al. (1991) reported that EXAFS spectra of PKC-beta-I confirmed complexation of four zinc atoms each by three cysteines and one histidine residue. The four zinc atoms are coordinated within four zinc fingers at the amino terminus of PKC. Nanomolar concentrations of zinc can activate PKC and cause translocation of the enzyme to the plasma membrane (Csermely et al., 1988a and 1988b). In addition, Zalewski et al. (1990) demonstrated that zinc regulates translocation of PKC to the cytoskeleton. Moreover, it was revealed that a chelatable pool of intracellular zinc enhances the binding of the PKC activator phorbol dibutyrate (Forbes et al., 1990). Zinc atoms bound in the finger domains of PKC could

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5 not be removed by treatment of PKC with high affinity heavy metal ion chelators (Hubbard et al., 1991). Additionally, the zinc chelators N,N,N',N-terakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) (Csermely et al., 1988b) and 1,10-phenanatroline (Forbes et al., 1990) were shown to hinder PKC activation. Therefore, the zinc bound in zinc fingers of PKC does not appear to influence activation of PKC. Zinc has also been shown to affect cGMP (cyclic guanine monophosphate) content of cells by modifying the activity of cGMP degrading cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. In addition, cGMP has been shown to control zinc uptake. After incubation of C6 rat glioma cells with 150 uM zinc chloride, zinc uptake reached maximal levels after 1 h. This increase was not observed when the cells were treated with specific guanylate cyclase inhibitors, but was accelerated by nitric oxide, an activator of guanylate cyclase. The rise in intracellular cGMP (cells treated with guanylate cyclase inhibitors) inhibited zinc import, while lower intracellular concentrations of cGMP (cells treated with nitric oxide) accelerated zinc import (Haase & Beyersmann, 1999). Studies have shown that in zinc deficient animals display more apoptotic cells in several tissues and organs, including the intestinal and retinal pigment epithelium, skin, thymic lymphocytes, testis and pancreatic acinar cells of adult animals (Duvall & Wyllie, 1986; Zalewski et al., 1990), and the neuroepithelium of fetal rats (Rogers et al., 1995). Apoptosis induced by zinc-deficiency has been shown to cause DNA and nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation (Troung-Tran, 2001). In addition, this type of apoptosis results in increased caspase-3 activity and caspase-3 inhibitors have been shown to partially block apoptosis (Chai et al., 2000).

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6 Moreover, studies by Troung-Tran et al. (2000) have revealed that labile pools of zinc are associated with precursor forms of caspase-3 in the mitochondria and microtubuoles. They suggested that decreased intracellular zinc concentrations may disrupt these zinc pools and trigger apoptosis. Furthermore, Cui et al. (1999 and 2000) have demonstrated increased oxidative stress due to enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production, increased tissue damage, and increased apoptosis in the skin and intestinal villi of zinc deficient rats. In conclusion, zinc has been shown to be very important in controlling life or death of the cell. Not only is zinc a structural component of many proteins, including transcription factors, enzymes, and adapter proteins, zinc also regulates the control of many cell signaling cascades involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Characteristics of LIM Proteins The LIM domain consists of a cysteine rich, zinc-coordinating domain that forms a double zinc finger motif and exists in proteins that are involved in determination of cell fate, growth control, or cytoskeleton organization (Bach, 2000 and Dawid et al. 1998). LIM proteins that have been identified to date are localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, or some are shuttled between both compartments (Bach, 2000). LIM proteins contain one or multiple LIM domains, where the fingers always occur in tandem. In many of these proteins, the LIM domain has been identified as an important structure in mediating protein:protein interactions and the formation of multiprotein complexes (Bach, 2000). LIM proteins that are localized to the nucleus include LHX (LIM homeodomain X) and LMO (LIM-only) proteins. LHX proteins are transcription factors that bind to DNA via their homeodomains. LMO proteins are transcriptional cofactors that are components of multiprotein regulatory elements (Bach, 2000).

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7 Several LIM proteins that are localized to the cytoplasm and/or the nucleus include LIMK (LIM kinase), CRIP, CRP (cysteine rich protein), enigma, zyxin, paxillin, and PINCH (particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein). LIMK proteins have LIM domains that are repeated in tandem, but they additionally have a kinase domain. The LIMK proteins have been localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. CRIP and CRP are proteins that have one and two LIM domains, respectively, but no apparent additional functional unit (Dawid et al., 1998). CRIP has been localized to the cytoplasm, but its function is still unknown (Fernandes et al., 1995). CRPs are associated with the cytoskeleton, and are involved in muscle differentiation (Harper et al., 2000). Enigma, zyxin, paxillin, and PINCH are proteins that contain different numbers of LIM domains located at the C-terminus (Dawid et al. 1998). These proteins have been reported to have important functions in cytoskeleton organization and cellular adhesion (Borrello et al., 2002; Hobert et al., 1999; Nix & Beckerle, 1997; Rearden, 1994; Sadler et al., 1992; Turner et al., 1990). Characterization of Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein (CRIP) is a small 8.5 kDa protein with one LIM domain. It is abundant in immune cells and organs, including the intestine. Its identification as a zinc binding intestinal protein using high resolution chromatography has been reviewed in detail by Khoo & Cousins (1993). Many proteins containing LIM domains are able to mediate multiple protein-protein interactions through these domains (Dawid et al. 1998). For example, zyxin, a protein containing three LIM domains, has been shown to bind to both H-warts/LATS1 which is involved in regulating mitotic progression and members of the CRP family which stabilize actin-rich structural elements in muscles. Zyxin seems to be important in

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8 actin assembly and organization because it localizes to sites of cell adhesion and leading lamellipodia and its LIM domains interact with proteins important in these processes. It has also been shown that upon mislocalization of zyxin, one member of the Ena/VASP family is also displaced, and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed (Nix & Beckerle, 1997; Nix et al., 2001; Sadler et al., 1992). Another LIM domain protein, DRAL/FHL2, has been shown by deletion analysis of particular LIM domains to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of several alpha and beta integrin chains. Particular LIM domains or LIM domain combinations of DRAL/FHL2 bound to these proteins. The fact that DRAL/FHL2 is found in cell adhesion complexes suggests that it is an adaptor/docking protein involved in integrin signaling pathways (Wixler et al., 2000). LIM proteins with only short sequences beyond their LIM motifs, such as CRP and LMO, function as adapter proteins to bring multiprotein complexes together (Dawid et al. 1998). Although the function of CRIP is unknown, CRIP also has only a short sequence beyond its LIM domain, and therefore it may function in an analogous fashion as an adapter protein. While little is known about CRIPs function, its tissue localization has been well characterized. CRIP mRNA is most abundant in macrophages, PBMCs, and the intestine. It is also very abundant in thymus, spleen, heart, and lungs (Hallquist et al., 1996). The organ in which CRIP mRNA seems to be least abundant is the liver. However liver CRIP mRNA increases upon carbon tetrachloride induced inflammation and CRIP was shown by immunohistochemistry to be localized to hepatocytes near the blood supply (Khoo et al., 1996). It is reasonable to conclude that CRIP has an important function in cell

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9 proliferation or differentiation because CRIP is most abundant in organs with high cellular turnover rates and increases in organs that are damaged. In addition, CRIP mRNA and protein levels increase in the rat small intestine throughout the suckling period, reaching highest levels by the late weanling stage. Because the CRIP gene promoter has several glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) it was hypothesized CRIP was developmentally regulated by glucocorticoids in the small intestine (Levenson et al., 1994). This was proven by administration of dexamethasone to both rat neonates and adults. CRIP mRNA and protein levels increased in the neonates, but in the adults they remained constant (Levenson et al., 1993). Since CRIP seems to be important in cell proliferation or differentiation it seems logical that it reaches maximum levels in the intestine by the weanling age when the rats switch from breast milk to solid food (Levenson et al., 1993). At this time development of rat immune defenses is taking place in the intestine. CRIP may be involved in differentiation or proliferation of these cells. Also, immunohistochemical localization of CRIP in the rat small intestine showed it to be localized to the Paneth cells, as well as enterocytes (Fernandes et al., 1995). Paneth cells are important in host defense, through production of lysozyme, defensins, and other proteins with antimicrobial activities (Erlandsen et al., 1974; Ouellette et al., 1992). The Many Functions of Calreticulin The protein calreticulin (CRT) was first identified as a calcium binding chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Ostwald & MacLennan, 1974). Recently, CRT was identified in other areas of the cell, and has also been shown to both inhibit cell proliferation by binding nuclear steroid hormone receptors and to be necessary for cell

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10 adhesion and spreading because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and regulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion and calcium signaling (Coppolino et al., 1998). Within the ER, CRT functions as a free floating lectin-like molecular chaperone for many different proteins. Along with other ER chaperones, such as the membrane bound lectin-like chaperone calnexin, CRT maintains proper folding of many glycosylated proteins (Michalak et al., 1999). A good example of how calnexin and CRT maintain this folding is the formation of the Class I MHC protein complex that presents antigens to T cells in order to activate the immune system against intracellular invaders. The MHC I complex is made up of an alpha chain, with constant and variable domains, which noncovalently associates with beta2 microglobulin (2-m), and in the process of folding binds an eight to eleven amino acid antigenic peptide that it will present to CD8+ T cell receptors when it reaches the cell membrane. In the ER the alpha chain associates with calnexin which maintains proper folding of the alpha chain and allows it to bind to B2-m. After binding, the alpha chain: 2-m complex dissociates from calnexin and becomes associated with CRT. Correct folding is maintained by CRT until the proper antigenic peptide is placed in a groove within the alpha chain. Then the MHC I complex is secreted to the cell surface for interaction with the proper CD8+ T cell receptor (Sadasivan et al., 1995 and 1996). At the C terminal end of CRT there is a carboxy-terminal ER retention sequence (KDEL). This sequence directs CRT to the ER, where it functions as a chaperone. Yet, CRT has been identified outside the ER (Dedhar, 1994). Specifically, CRT has been shown to colocalize and copurify with integrin subunits in the cell membrane (Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 1994), and CRT has been been shown to bind to steroid hormone

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11 receptors in vitro and in vivo. The question of how CRT escapes the ER has not yet been clearly answered. It has been suggested that this happens through saturation of the KDEL receptors on the ER because CRT that was associated with integrin subunits in the cell membrane was recognized by an anti-KDEL antibody (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Later experiments revealed the presence of a KDEL receptor in the cell membrane near the integrins to which CRT was found bound (Zhu et al., 1997). Therefore, it is still unknown how CRT is selectively targeted to KDEL receptors on the ER and/or those on cell membrane. It seems more likely that CRT may have a binding partner that directs it away from the ER. Binding of zinc, calcium, or phosphorylation of CRT has been shown to change the confirmation of the protein (Khanna et al., 1986; Li et al., 2001; Michalak et al., 1999). Therefore, binding of a partner protein to CRT may change its confirmation, rendering the KDEL sequence inoperable until the protein is released. Alternatively, binding of a protein partner may cause transport of CRT to the cell membrane, rather than the ER. In addition, other KDEL sequence-containing proteins have been shown to localize outside the ER, including protein disulfide isomerase (Yoshimori et al., 1990), endoplasmin, and the heavy chain binding protein (BiP/GRP78) (Takemoto et al., 1992), therefore it is conceivable that CRT can escape the ER. CRT has been shown to bind to the KXFFKR sequence in between the two zinc fingers of all known nuclear steroid hormone receptors (Dedhar, 1994). Specifically, CRT has been reported to bind to glucocorticoid receptor (Burns et al., 1994), androgen receptor, retinoic acid receptor (Dedhar, 1994), retinoic X receptor (Shago et al., 1997), and vitamin D receptor (St. Arnaud et al., 1995) in vitro and in vivo, and to inhibit the binding of these receptors to their response elements in DNA. In addition, CRT has been

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12 localized to the nucleus in several cell types (Dedhar, 1994; Ramsamooj et al., 1995; Roderick et al., 1997). By obstructing the binding of steroid hormone receptors to their steroid response elements, CRT has been shown to inhibit retinoic acid-sensitive neuronal differentiation (Shago et al., 1997) and vitamin D-induced mineralization in osteoblasts (St. Arnaud et al., 1995). Therefore, CRT can control steroid hormone-induced cell responses. CRT has been shown to co-localize with integrins by immunofluorescence and to co-purify with integrins within cell adhesion complexes using native gels, and to bind to the KXGFFKR sequence in the integrin alpha-subunit cytoplasmic domains by mutational analysis (Coppolino et al., 1995). Furthermore, several studies have shown blocking CRT function by downregulating CRT mRNA levels or treating with anti-CRT antibodies, inhibits adhesion and spreading of cells on an extra cellular matrix (ECM) (Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 1994 and Coppolino et al., 1995). It is thought that the binding of CRT to the alpha subunit of integrins stabilizes them in an activated confirmation to allow binding to the ECM and cell spreading (Coppolino et al., 1995). In addition, Coppolino et al. (1997) showed that the binding of surface integrins by CRT elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations owing to an influx of extracellular calcium, and that this transient calcium flux was absent in CRT-deficient embryonic stem cells. This calcium influx has been shown to be essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion (Sjaastad et al., 1996). It has been suggested that the influx of calcium permits the development of full adhesive sites around the integrins (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Therefore, CRT may control cell adhesion and spreading by modifying integrin function.

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CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Detection of a CRIP Protein Partner Spleen, thymus, and intestinal samples from B6SJL mice (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) were homogenized in S-12 buffer (10 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgSO4 7H2O, pH 8.0) using a Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer and centrifuged at 40,000 g for 30 min. The supernatant was then transferred to polycarbonate tubes and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min. The supernatant was removed and stored as a cytosol preparation at -80 C. Protein concentrations were measured using the Markwell method (97). The samples were then analyzed by 10% SDS PAGE and the gel was stained with Coomasie blue to determine if protein degradation had occurred. A CRIP affinity purification column was made using Pierces EDC/Diaminodipropylamine Immobilization Kit (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL) to cross-link CRIP (0.7 mg) to the column following the manufacturers protocol. Binding of CRIP to the column was confirmed by measuring the zinc content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of the flow though eluate before and after conjugation. Next, cytosol from the intestine, thymus, and spleen were individually loaded onto the CRIP affinity purification column and equilibrated at 4 C overnight. The column was washed first with S-12 buffer to remove any non-bound proteins from the column, and then 1 M NaCl was used to elute any proteins that specifically bound to the column. Identical amounts of cytosol were added to a control column with no protein bound to it, which was then treated in the same manner. Fractions were collected. Aliquots of each 13

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14 fraction were analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE. The gel was then stained using a silver staining detection kit (Biorad, Hercules, CA) to determine if any proteins bound to the CRIP or control columns. Thymus and intestinal cytosolic extracts were applied to the CRIP affinity purification column for comparative purposes. The samples were purified as above, analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE, and transferred to a 0.45 um PVDF membrane for Western analysis using a CRT antibody purchased from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA). Larger quantities of potential partner proteins were generated from spleens of mice of the same genotype as above. Spleens were harvested from eight mice and the cytosol extracts were obtained and individually loaded onto the CRIP affinity purification column as described earlier. The eluted fractions which contained the potential partner proteins were pooled, washed, and concentrated with S-12 buffer in Centricon-3 tubes (Amicon, ,MA). The concentrated sample was further resolved by 10 % SDS-PAGE and transferred to 0.45 um PVDF membrane. The membrane was stained using 0.02% Coomassie blue. A 55 kD and 80 kD band were identified and removed for sequencing at University of Floridas ICBR. Effects of IFN-, LPS, and Cell Proliferation on CRIP and CRT Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells RAW 264.7 cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 2 mM glutamine, 10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotic-antimycotic (ABAM). The cells were grown in T-75 flasks and as needed for experiments cells were transferred to 100 mm culture plates and allowed to adhere and grow to approximately 80% confluence over the span of 24 h. At 80% confluence the old medium was removed and

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15 10 mL of fresh medium containing either no treatment, rm (recombinant murine) IFN(100 U/ml, purchased from Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ), LPS (1 ug/ml, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, E. coli serotype 0127:B8), or both rm IFNand LPS was added. At 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment, plates were taken from each treatment group and the cells were removed by scraping. The scraped cells and medium were collected in 50 mL sterile tubes and put on ice. The tubes were then centrifuged at 150 g at 4 C for 10 min. The supernatant was decanted and the pellet was washed with 10 mL of ice cold PBS. The tubes were recentrifuged as before. Washing and centrifugation steps were repeated with PBS two more times. The cell pellet was suspended in 1 mL TriPure reagent (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) and total RNA was purified using the manufacturers protocol. Total RNA was measured by absorbance at 260 nm, 280 nm, and 230 nm to confirm purity and establish concentration of the RNA. Electrophoresis was used to confirm RNA integrity by analyzing 10 ug of total RNA per well in a 1% agarose formaldehyde gel. Ethidium bromide was used to stain the RNA and confirm ribosomal subunit RNA integrity (Nassir et al., 1996). The effect of proliferation was measured on cells without the addition of either IFNor LPS. As needed, cells were transferred to 100 mm culture plates and allowed to adhere and grow. The plates were taken at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h later and the cells were harvested and total RNA prepared as above. In order to prepare cytosolic protein preparations, three additional plates were taken at 0, 10, 15, 20, 24, and 28 h later and the cells were harvested and washed as above. The final cell pellets were resuspended in 3 mL of ice cold S-12 buffer and rapidly frozen at -80 C for 10 min and then thawed. Next, the samples were subjected to sonication (pulsed 0.7 s per 1.0 s for 2 min at a

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16 power setting of 4). Then, the samples were centrifuged at 40,000 g for 30 min. The soluble portion (cytosol) was removed and the pellets discarded. The protein concentrations of the cytosol fractions were measured using the Markwell method (Markwell et al., 1978). Finally, aliquots of the samples (100 ug) were loaded on a 10% SDS tris-tricene polyacrylimide gel, and after electrophoresis proteins were transferred to a PVDF membrane (0.1 um). The membrane was stained with amido black to determine protein distribution. The membrane was blocked in 5% non-fat milk in PBS for 1 h. Next, the membrane was incubated with a polyclonal anti-CRIP rabbit antibody (made against a peptide representing amino acid residues 64-77 of CRIP and coded UF 83) in 5% non-fat milk in PBS-T for 14 h at 4 C. Then, the membrane was washed in PBS-T three times for 10 min each, and incubated in anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Sigma) for 2 h at room temperature. Finally, the membrane was incubated with ECF western blotting reagent (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Arlington Heights, IL) for 3 min and scanned on a STORM 840 phosphorimager (Amersham Pharmacia, Sunnyside, CA). Real Time RT-PCR of CRIP and CRT RNA Real Time RT-PCR using the GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) was performed in order to quantify 18S, CRIP, CRT, and TNF(tumor necrosis factor-alpha) mRNA levels. Reverse transcription first converted these RNAs into cDNA. Specific primers and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes (purchased from Biosource International, Camarillo, CA) designed to amplify and detect these cDNAs were selected with Primer Express Software (Applied Biosystems). The Real Time RT-PCR primers and probes were as follows:

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17 CRIP forward 5-GCGACAAGGAGGTGTATTTCG-3 reverse 5-TTTCCACATTTCTCGCACTTC-3 FRET probe 5-FAM-TGACGTCACTAGGCAAGGACTGGCAT-BHQ1-3 CRT forward 5-GCCATCTATTTCAAAGAGCAGTTCT-3 reverse 5-CGGACTTATGTTTGGATTCGA-3 FRET probe 5-FAM-ACGGAGATGCCTGGACCAACCG-BHQ1-3 TNFforward 5-TCTCAGGCCTTCCTACCTTCAG-3 reverse 5-CTGTGAGGAAGGCTGTGCATT-3 FRET probe 5-FAM-CCTTTCCAGACTCTTCCCTGAGG-BHQ1-3 Normalization to determine relative abundances of these RNAs was with 18S ribosomal RNA using primers and a Taqman probe (purchased from Applied Biosystems) designed to amplify 18S cDNA. Nondenaturing PAGE and Western Analysis Nondenaturing PAGE was used to characterize proteins potentially bound to CRIP in vivo. RAW 264.7 cells were transferred to 100 mm culture plates and allowed to adhere and grow for 12 h (~60% confluency). The cells were harvested and washed as above. The final cell pellet was resuspended in 3 mL of ice cold low ionic strength S12 buffer (10 mM Tris, 70 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgSO4 7H2O, pH 8.0) and rapidly frozen at -80 C for 10 min and then thawed. Next, the sample was subjected to sonication (pulsed 0.7 s per 1.0 s for 2 min at power setting 4). Then, the sample was centrifuged at 40,000 g for 30 min. The soluble portion of the sample was removed and the pellet

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18 discarded. The protein concentration was measured using the Markwell method (Markwell et al., 1978). Finally, aliquots of the sample (100 ug) were loaded and run on a nondenaturing 7.5% Tris-Glycine polyacrylimide gel and transferred to a PVDF membrane (0.1 um). The membrane was stained with amido black to determine how the proteins were distributed. Next, the membrane was cut into two halves. Both halves of the membrane were blocked in 5% non-fat milk in PBS for one h. One half of the membrane was incubated with polyclonal anti-CRIP rabbit antibody (UF 83), while the other half of the membrane was incubated with anti-CRT rabbit antibody (Santa Cruz Biotech). Both were in 5% non-fat milk in PBS-T and both incubations were for 14 h at 4 C. The membranes were washed in PBS-T three times for 10 min each, and then incubated in anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Sigma) for 2 h at room temperature. The membranes were then incubated with ECF western blotting reagent (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) for 3 min and scanned on a STORM 840 phosphorimager (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Immunocytochemistry The RAW 264.7 cells were plated on polylysine-coated slides (Fisher) for 12 and 24 h in DMEM culture medium as mentioned earlier. Next, the cells were fixed for 12 min in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS, washed 3 times for 5 min each with PBS, and then permeabilized by incubation with Triton X-100 (0.1%) in PBS for 30 min. The nonspecific sites were blocked by incubation with 4% BSA in PBS for 30 min. The cells were then incubated with a 1:100 dilution of polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP antibody (UF 83) and a 1:200 dilution of polyclonal goat anti-CRT antibody (Santa Cruz Biotech) (in 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS) for 1 h at room temperature. After washing 3 times for 5 min each with PBS, the cells were incubated with secondary antibodies (Texas red conjugated

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19 anti-goat [Santa Cruz Biotech] and FITC conjugated anti-rabbit [Sigma]) at a 1:100 dilution for 30 min at room temperature. The cells were then washed 3 times for 5 min each with PBS, mounted with mounting medium, and visualized using a confocal microscope at the microscopy core lab of University of Floridas Brain Institute. Statistical Analysis Tests for significance were performed using the Students t-test or factorial ANOVA with Graphpad Quickcalcs Software (San Diego, CA, Graphpad.com). Differences were considered statistically significant if the P value was < 0.05.

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Identification of Possible CRIP Binding Partner Using Affinity Chromatography Cytosolic extracts of mouse spleen, thymus, and intestine were incubated separately in the CRIP affinity purification column with the hope of identifing a protein binding partner for CRIP. Aliquots of the fraction eluted with 1 M NaCl were analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE. Silver staining of the gels revealed a band of approximately 55 kD was present that bound to the column for each of the samples from the spleen, thymus, and intestine (Figure 3-1). The 55 kD band was amino acid sequenced at UFs Protein Core. The sequence obtained was DPAIYFKEQFLDGXA. A BLAST search revealed the sequence was identical to that of mouse calreticulin precursor. Westerns analysis of thymus and intestinal proteins eluted off the CRIP column was performed with a calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) that revealed that the 55 kD band that bound to the column in these samples was also CRT (Figure 3-2). A control column with no protein bound to it was also constructed to evaluate whether CRT would bind nonspecifically to the column. CRT did not bind to the control column (Figure 3-3), and therefore the interaction between CRIP and CRT may be specific. Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA levels were studied in RAW cells as a function of time in culture and extent of confluence. Compared to initial levels, CRIP mRNA levels significantly increased at 8 h (P<0.04). Levels significantly decreased between 12 and 15 20

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21 h (P<0.03) and 15 and 24 h (P<0.001) (Figure 3-4). CRT mRNA levels were significantly increased between 0 and 12 h (P<0.004) and 8 and 12 h (P<0.04). Levels significantly decreased between 15 and 24 h (P<0.005) (Figure 3-4). MT mRNA levels significantly increased at 8 h (P<0.006) compared to initial levels. Between 8 and 24 h, levels significantly decreased (P<0.008) (Figure 3-4). Expression of MT, CRIP, and CRT mRNA each followed a similar parabolic curve, peaking at different time points, 8, 12, and 15 h respectively (Figure 3-4). Percent confluence at the time points examined, 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h, after plating was approximately 30, 40, 60, 70, and 90%, respectively when judged by observation (Figure 3-4). Effect of IFNand LPS on CRIP CRT, and TNFmRNA Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells In order to measure CRIP and CRT mRNA expression in activated RAW cells, the cells were allowed to grow to approximately 80% confluence prior to the addition of LPS and/or IFN-. Relative CRIP and CRT mRNA abundance was measured at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment. CRIP mRNA levels significantly (P<0.03) decreased in all groups from 0 to 9 h (Figure 3-5A). At 9 h expression was not significantly different between the control and IFNtreated cells, but was significantly lower (P<0.003) in those treated with LPS +/IFNcompared to the control. Similarly, by 9 h in culture expression of CRT mRNA was significantly (P<0.04) lowered in all cells except those treated with IFN(P<0.07) (Figure 3-5B). Likewise, at 9 h expression was not significantly different between the control and IFNtreated cells, but was significantly lower (P<0.02) in those treated with LPS +/IFNcompared to the control. The latter observations suggest a specific biological response induced by LPS +/IFNtreatment of RAW 264.7 cells is responsible for the decrease in CRIP and CRT mRNA expression.

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22 Treatment of these cells with LPS +/IFNhas been reported to result in secretion of TNF-, which induces nitric oxide production through an autocrine response (MeBmer et al., 1996). For that reason, TNFmRNA expression and nitric oxide production were monitored as positive controls at 0, 3, and 9 h in culture. Relative expression of TNFmRNA levels (Figure 3-6A) did not change significantly during the entire 9 h culture period in control and IFNtreated cells. However, TNFmRNA levels increased markedly (P<.011) from initial values in the LPS +/IFNtreated cells at 3 h, but decreased markedly (P<.031) between 3 and 9 h. In order to measure nitric oxide production, samples of the media were taken at 0, 3, and 9 h. Between 0 and 3 h no nitric oxide was detected in the medium of any group (Figure 3-6B). Control and IFNtreated cells did not release any nitric oxide into the medium, but LPS +/IFNtreated cells increased nitric oxide release significantly (P<0.0006) by 9 h. Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP Protein Levels CRIP protein levels were studied in the cells as a function of time and confluence. Protein expression increased up to 10 h (approximately 60% confluency) and declined thereafter (Figure 3-7). CRIP protein levels followed the mRNA levels very closely. Nondenaturing PAGE of RAW 264.7 Cell Cytosolic Extracts at 60% Confluency Peak induction of CRIP mRNA levels occurred at 12 h after plating the cells. At that time the RAW cells were at approximately 60% confluency. Therefore, based upon the hypothesis that CRIP functions in cell proliferation, it was decided that at this time point CRIP would most likely be complexed with CRT, if it is a protein partner. In order to identify a CRIP:CRT complex, the cells were allowed to grow for 12 h and cytosolic fractions (supernatants after 40,000 g centrifugation) were obtained. Aliquots of these extracts were run on a nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylimide gel and transferred to a PVDF

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23 membrane. The membrane was cut in half. One half of the membrane was incubated with an anti-CRIP rabbit antibody, and the other half was incubated with an anti-CRT antibody. After Western analysis with both membranes, the banding pattern was analyzed by phosphorimaging. The CRIP and CRT antibodies each identidied one primary band with other minor bands. These bands were in identical positions in both membranes probed with the CRIP and CRT antibodies (Figure 3-8). Therefore, one interpretation is that CRIP and CRT are possibly in complex with each other and with other proteins. Upon repetition of the nondenaturing gel only the major band in the CRIP and major band in the CRT Western analysis were detected. The minor bands that were detected in identical places as the major bands on opposing Westerns could not be reproduced. Colocalization of CRIP and CRT In studies using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry both CRIP and CRT were shown to colocalize in RAW 264.7 cells at 12 h after plating on slides and there was less colocalization at 24 h when CRIP expression had decreased (Figure 3-9). The immunofluorescence confirms the Western data. At 12 h CRIP expression is higher than at 24 h as measured by both Western and immunofluorescence.

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24 A B M E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 M M E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 M 80 kD 80 kD 55 kD 55 kD C D M E1 E2 E3 E4 M E2 E3 E2 E3 M 80 kD 55 kD 55 kD Figure 3-1 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins eluted from the CRIP affinity purification column. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified a 55 and 80 kD band. (B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column also identified a 55 and 80 kD band. (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column identified only a 55 kD band. (D) Salt was removed from the column eluate prior to electrophoresis. Note the improved apparent resolution of the 55 and 80 kD bands. M stands for marker and E# stands for elution number.

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25 55 kD Figure 3-2 Western analysis of thymic (left) and intestinal (right) proteins eluted from the CRIP column performed with a calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) revealed that the 55 kD band that bound to the column in these samples was CRT.

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26 M E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 M M E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 M A B 75 kD 75 kD 50 kD 50 kD C M E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 M 75 kD 50 kD Figure 3-3 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins that eluted off of the control column. The molecular weight of the 50 and 75 kD marker bands are labeled. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified no bands (B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column identified no bands (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column identified no bands.

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27 A Effect of cell proliferation on CRIP mRNA05010015020008121524Time (Hrs)Relative CRIP mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) CRIPmRNA B Effect of cell proliferation on CRT mRNA024681012141608121524Time (Hrs)Relative CRT mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) CRTmRNA C Effect of cell proliferation on MT mRNA0246810121408121524Time (Hrs)Relative MT mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) MTmRNA D Effect of cell proliferation on confluence 02040608010008121524Time (Hrs)Percent Confluence Confluence /Time Figure 3-4 Effect of RAW 264.7 cell proliferation on CRIP (A), CRT (B), and MT (C) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and approximate confluence (D) at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h after plating cells at a 1:3 ratio.

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28 A Effects of LPS and IFN on CRIP mRNA050100150200250039Time (hrs)Relative CRIP mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) Control LPS IFN LPS+ IFN B Effects of LPS and IFN on CRT mRNA05101520039Time (hrs)Relative CRT mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) Control LPS IFN LPS+ IFN Figure 3-5 Effects of LPS and IFNtreatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on CRIP (A) and CRT (B) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment. A Effect of LPS and IFN on TNFa mRNA expression0102030405060039Time (hrs)Relative TNFa mRNA to 18S RNA (arbitrary units) Control LPS IFN LPS+ IFN B Effects of LPS and IFN on Nitric Oxide production 00.20.40.60.8039Time (hrs)Nitrite concentration (uM) Control LPS IFN LPS+ IFN Figure 3-6 Effects of LPS and IFNtreatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on (A) TNFmRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and (B) nitric oxide prodution as measured by addition of Greiss reagent to medium at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment.

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29 Time (h) 0 10 18 22 32 A CRIP Effect of cell proliferation on CRIP protein expression 012345010182232Time (Hrs)Protein expression (relative units) Proteinexpression/Time B Figure 3-7 (A) Western analysis of RAW cell cytosolic CRIP protein levels up to 32 h after plating. (B) Densitometric measurement of CRIP protein increased from initial levels up till 10 h. At 22 h CRIP protein expression was back at initial levels.

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30 CRIP CRT Figure 3-8 Western analysis of RAW 264.7 cell cytosol protein extracts analyzed in a nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylide gel and transferred to PVDF membrane (0.1 um) for analysis with CRIP and CRT antibodies.

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31 A B C D Figure 3-9 RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP (UF 83) and anti-rabbit conjugated FITC antibodies (Sigma) and polyclonal goat anti-CRT (Santa Cruz Biotech) and anti-goat conjugated Texas Red antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotech) 12 and 24 h after plating on slides images were obtained using confocal microscopy. (A) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (B) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (C) CRIP and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (D) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at 3000 X.

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32 E F G H Figure 3-9Continued. (E) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 3000 X (F) CRIP and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 3000X (G) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 24 h at 1800 X (H) CRT (red) localization in cells at 24 h at 1800 X.

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33 I Figure 3-9Continued. (I) CRIP and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 24 h at 1800 X.

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION Proteins with LIM domains can act as adaptors for the formation of multiprotein complexes. Many of these proteins are involved in cell growth and differentiation (Bach, 2000; Dawid et al., 1998). In this study we show that CRIP binds to the protein CRT, and that mRNA expression of both proteins is upregulated during cell spreading and proliferation and downregulated by cell growth arrest in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, mRNA expression of both proteins is further downregulated by treatment of these cells with LPS +/IFN-. Therefore, the similar expression of both CRIP and CRT mRNA on a temporal basis and evidence that they interact in vitro and colocalize suggest they act as protein partners for a function related to proliferation. Ever since it was first identified, CRT has been studied as a chaperoning protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (Ostwald & MacLennan, 1974). Recently, CRT was identified in other areas of the cell, and has also been shown to both inhibit cell proliferation by binding nuclear steroid hormone receptors and to be necessary for cell spreading because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and regulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion and calcium signaling (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Several in vitro studies have shown that CRT is able to bind to the KXFFKR sequence in between the two zinc fingers of all known nuclear steroid hormone receptors (Dedhar, 1994). In vitro binding of CRT to several steroid hormone receptors has also been shown to inhibit the ability of these receptors to bind to their DNA elements and upregulate transcription of the specific genes (Burns, 1994; Dedhar et al., 1994; Shago et 34

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35 al., 1997; St. Arnaud et al., 1995; Winrow et al., 1995). Dedhar et al. (1994) co-transfected expression vectors with full length CRT and androgen receptor genes along with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene driven by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) containing androgen response elements into Vero fibroblast cells. This resulted in a dose-dependent CRT vector related inhibition of CAT activity induced by the androgen receptor. On the other hand, Winrow et al. (1995) showed that although purified CRT inhibits the binding of PPAR/RXR alpha heterodimers and other nuclear hormone receptors, to peroxisome proliferators-responsive DNA elements in vitro, overexpression of CRT in transiently transfected cultured cells had no effect on transactivation mediated by PPAR/RXR. Then again, Shago et al. (1997) and St. Arnaud et al. (1995) showed that over-expression of CRT can inhibit retinoic acid-sensitive neuronal differentiation and vitamin D-induced mineralization in osteoblasts. It may be possible that an interaction between CRIP and CRT prevents CRT from inhibiting the steroid hormone receptors from binding to DNA. During RAW 264.7 cell proliferation CRIP mRNA expression is upregulated before CRT (Figure 3-1 and 3-2). CRIP is upregulated by glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoid response elements have been identified in the CRIP promoter and other steroid response elements may also be present (Levenson et al., 1993). Therefore, increased CRIP production before CRT during cell proliferation and spreading could allow the formation of a CRIP:CRT complex, which may prevent CRT from inhibiting growth by binding to nuclear steroid hormone receptors. Additionally, CRT has been shown to co-localize and co-purify with integrins within cell adhesion complexes, and to bind to the KXGFFKR sequence in the integrin

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36 alpha-subunit cytoplasmic domains (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Furthermore, several studies have shown blocking CRT function by downregulating CRT mRNA or treating with anti-CRT antibodies inhibits adhesion and spreading of cells on an extra cellular matrix (ECM) (Coppolino et al., 1995; Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 1994). It is thought that the binding of CRT to the alpha subunit of integrins stabilizes integrins in an activated confirmation to allow binding to the ECM and spreading of cells (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Several LIM proteins have been identified within adhesion complexes. Wixler et al. (2000) reported that the four and one half LIM domain protein DRAL/FHL2 interacts with several alpha and beta integrin subunits, and localized DRAHL/FHL2 to cell adhesion complexes. Y. Tu et al. (1999) demonstrated that the five LIM-only domain protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin linked kinase (ILK), is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells, and acts as a bridge stabilizing the interaction between ILK and Nck-2. LIM proteins also interact with the cysteine-rich zinc finger domains of PKC. Zhou et al. (1999) found that the three LIM domains of cypher 1 bind several isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), which allows the protein to be phosphorylated by PKC. They suggest that cypher1 may function as an adaptor in striated muscle to couple PKC-mediated signaling, via its LIM domains, to the cytoskeleton ( -actinin-2) through its PDZ domain. Kuroda et al. (1996) reported that the LIM 2 domain of LIMK1 is crucial for binding between LIMK1 and PKC gamma. The interaction between LIM proteins and PKC may relate to an interaction between CRIP, PKC, and CRT. CRT contains a recognizable site for phosphorylation by PKC (Michalak et al., 1992). Also, the receptor

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37 for activated PKC was shown to interact with integrin beta subunit cytoplasmic tails (Liliental et al., 1998). It is possible that CRIP that is bound to CRT may facilitate the phosphorylation of CRT by PKC because of an interaction between PKC and CRIPs LIM domain (Figure 4-1). Other CRIP binding partners were bound by the CRIP affinity purification column. Unfortunately, we were unable to amino acid sequence their terminal ends for identification. Also, the nondenaturing gel detected CRIP and CRT together in bands of different molecular weights. This suggests that CRIP and CRT form complexes that include other proteins as well. Immunoprecipitation of complexed proteins usisng CRIP and/or CRT antibodies should be carried out to study CRIPs interaction with proteins in vivo. One of the other partners that bound to the CRIP affinity purification column had a molecular weight of around 80 kD, which is the same molecular mass as several isoforms of PKC (Chang et al., 2002). Phosphorylation of CRT may be required to stabilize its interaction with integrin alpha subunits as well as to stabilize integrins in an active confirmation and allow cell adhesion and spreading to take place. Stabilizing the interaction between CRT and integrin alpha subunits may also be necessary to allow calcium influx that is essential for integrin mediated cell adhesion. In addition, CRIP may function as an adaptor protein that allows CRT to be phosphorylated by PKC which may cause translocation of the CRIP:CRT:PKC complex to the cell membrane where it binds integrins and stabilizes their function (Figure 4-1). Within the endoplasmic reticulum CRT has been shown to be a chaperone necessary for the secretion of interferon-gamma and the synthesis of MHC I complexes (Kosuge et al., 2000 and Sadasivan et al., 1995 and 1996). Overexpression of CRIP in transgenic mice leads to increased secretion of Th2 (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines and

PAGE 48

38 decreased secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFNand IL-2) after challenge of mice with LPS or mouse splenocytes with PHA (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2002). It is possible that overexpression of CRIP leads to low levels of CRT in the endoplasmic reticulum (Figure 4-1). This would inhibit the secretion of IFNduring an immune response, which would in turn lead to less CD4+ T cells differentiating into Th1 cells that primarily secrete IL-2 and IFN-. Therefore, less IL-2 and IFNwould be secreted during an immune response because of a decreased number of CD4+ T cells differentiating into Th1 cells. Also, as a consequence of less secretion of the Th1 cytokine, IFN-, more CD4+ T cells would develop into Th2 cells that primarily secrete IL-6 and IL-10. Neither IL-6 nor IL-10 have been shown to rely on the chaperone CRT for proper folding, and therefore, would still be secreted. Consequently, an increased concentration of Th2 cytokines would be detected. Furthermore, MHC I is an important antigen presenting protein that is required to activate a CD8+ T cell response. The CD8+ T cell response is important for clearing viral infections. When challenged with influenza virus, the ability of transgenic mice that overexpress CRIP to clear the virus from their lungs was severely compromised (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2002). CD8+ T cells also produce IFNand IL-2 when activated. Consequently, decreased concentrations of CRT in the endoplasmic reticulum could also inhibit the formation of MHC I complexes on the surface of the cell membrane, which would lead to less activation of CD8+ T cells and production of IFNand IL-2. Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroid hormones that have been shown to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, like IFN-, and stimulate the production of Th2 cytokines, like IL-10, during an immune response (Elenkov et al., 2002). CRIP has been

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39 shown to be induced by treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid-like hormone, because of glucocorticoid response elements in its promoter (Levenson et al., 1993). Initial studies in RAW 264.7 cells have shown that CRIP mRNA levels are upregulated by treatment with DEX (data not shown). Part of the mechanism by which glucocorticoids may downregulate secretion of IFNmay be by upregulating CRIP expression. CRIP could then bind to CRT and prevent CRT from entering the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Less CRT in the ER would prevent proper folding of IFNand decrease the secretion of IFNby the cell. MeBmer et al. (1996) reported that nitric oxide (NO) released endogenously via iNOS induction triggered by treating RAW 264.7 cells with 10 ug/mL LPS and 100 U/mL IFNled to apoptotic cell death in 50% of the stimulated cells after 24 h. Furthermore, Oyadomari et al. (2001) reported that treating mouse MIN6 pancreatic beta cells with an NO donor caused apoptosis to occur in these cells in similar time course as in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of MIN6 cells with an NO donor led to depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores which induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), which plays an important role cell growth arrest and apoptosis in these cells. In addition, NO has been shown to activate guanylate cyclase, leading to increased intracellular cGMP concentrations, and the ensuing activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in pancreatic beta cells (Loweth et al., 1997). In this study, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS +/IFNled to NO production after only 9 h. Both CRIP and CRT mRNA expression in cells treated with LPS +/IFNwere only significantly decreased from the control after 9 h, when NO was produced. Taking into consideration the effects of NO on

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40 cell calcium, cGMP, and apoptotic cell death, it is possible that both CRIP and CRT mRNA expression are downregulated by some signal cascade that is activated when cells produce NO. Given that both CRIP and CRT mRNA expression are upregulated during cell spreading and CRT has been shown to be essential for cell adhesion and spreading, it is possible that downregulation of CRIP and CRT mRNA expression is related to the concurrent apoptosis. Conran et al. (2001) showed that eosinophil cell surface integrin expression and function were altered by treatment of cells with an NO donor. The NO donor significantly inhibited ability of the eosinophils to bind to serum and fibronectin. If the CRIP:CRT complex is important in stabilizing integrins and allowing cell adhesion, downregulation of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression would inhibit cell adhesion by disrupting integrin function. Blocking cell adhesion in the LIM 1863 colon carcinoma cell line by generating an anti-integrin antibody that blocked integrins from being able to trigger cell adhesion has been reported to lead to rapid apoptosis (Bates et al., 1994). Therefore, if the CRIP:CRT complex is important in targeting CRT to integrins, or stabilizing integrins in a confirmation that triggers adhesion to an ECM, downregulation of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression would inhibit cell adhesion and lead to apoptosis. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of intracellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases, has been reported to modulate integrin affinity (Hedman et al., 1992). Coppolino et al. (1999) have recently reported that incubation of PC-3 and Jurkat T cells with okadaic acid inhibited integrin adhesion to collagen. They also reported that okadaic acid inhibited CRT binding to integrins. Kwon et al. (2001) reported that treatment of U937 cells with okadaic acid led to apoptosis in these cells. They also reported that this

PAGE 51

41 apoptotic response was inhibited by treatment of these cells with phorbol myristate acetate, an activator of PKC. Therefore, it is possible that protein serine/threonine phosphatases are responsible for activation of PKC. Activated PKC may then phosphorylate CRT by interacting with the CRIP:CRT complex and this would lead to binding of CRT and integrins. Binding of CRT and integrins would then stimulate cell adhesion which would lead to proliferation. Conversely, lack of activation of PKC would lead to lack of an interaction between CRT and integrins, lack of cell adhesion, and apoptosis. It is also interesting to note that both CRT and CRIP have not been identified in any prokaryote genomes that have been sequenced to date (Clarke et al., 1998 and Michalak et al., 1999). If these proteins are binding partners that act together to stimulate adhesion to the ECM and cell proliferation, this interaction would represent a eukaryotic-specific function. In conclusion, both CRT and CRIP mRNA expression are upregulated during cell spreading and proliferation and downregulated by conditions that lead to apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Both CRIP and CRT have been shown to associate in vitro and colocalize in vivo. The response of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression during RAW 264.7 cell spreading and proliferation suggests that the CRIP:CRT complex is necessary to trigger cell adhesion and spreading. Additionally, the fact that overexpression of CRIP in transgenic mice decreases secretion of Th1 cytokines suggests that the CRIP:CRT complex may also prevent CRT from being transported to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it has important chaperoning functions, especially in regulating a Th1 immune response, in cells.

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Figure 4-1 Model of potential CRIP interaction with CRT and PKC which would cause translocation of CRT to integrins at the cell membrane and block translocation of CRT into the endoplasmic reticulum. 42

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH John David Nicewonger II was born to John and Barbara Nicewonger in Fort Lauderale, Florida on November 18, 1976. John was raised in south Florida. He graduated among the top ten in his class from Spanish River High School in Boca Raton in May, 1995. The following fall he began studies at the University of Florida. In May, 1999, he graduated with honors from the University of Florida earning a B. S. in microbiology and cell science. In January, 2000, John decided to apply for a masters program in the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department at the University of Florida. He was accepted and awarded the Davis Graduate Nutrition Enhancement Award of $5000 per year. In August of 2000 he began an assistantship under Dr. R. J. Cousins. While working toward finishing his project, John developed a passion for the study of immunology. He is planning on finishing his thesis in December, 2002, and will be applying to the University of Pittsburgh to begin doctorate studies in immunology and pathology. 52


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Copyright Date: 2008

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POTENTIAL INTERACTION OF CYSTEINE RICH INTESTINAL PROTEIN WITH
A PROTEIN PARTNER AND THEIR REGULATION IN IMMUNE CELLS















By

JOHN DAVID NICEWONGER II


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003























Copyright 2003

by

John D. Nicewonger II



































This work is dedicated to my fiance Cynthia Rodriguez who always encourages
me to be the best that I can be. She has taught me to be persistent in accomplishing my
goals no matter how long it takes. I would also like to thank my family for their financial
support during my time at graduate school.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my advisor Dr. R. J. Cousins, for giving me a chance to work

on this project. His funding throughout the entire two and a half years of my stay here

helped me complete this project. Several times he or his staff have pointed me in the

right direction whenever I needed help with a problem. He has taught me to be an

independent thinker and to work hard to complete the goals that I have set for myself. I

would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. B. McMahon and Dr. B.

Langkamp-Henken, for extending their expertise to my project.

I appreciated the technical expertise of Dr. Cal Green and Dr. Ray Blanchard.

Their advise with the technical issues of my project helped me immensely. I would also

like to thank Virginia Mauldin for helping me make the computer do what I wanted it to

do when it was being stubborn.

Finally, I would like to thank the entire University of Florida Food Science and

Human Nutrition faculty for the great job they do teaching classes and running the

department. I learned a vast amount of knowledge in their classes and I will make sure it

gets put to good as I further my career in science.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

L IST O F FIG U R E S .... ...... ...................... ........................ .. ....... .............. vii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... ...................... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................. .................................. .... ........ .. ............. .

Control of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis by Zinc................................... ........... 1
Characteristics of LIM Proteins......... ..... ................... .............. ...........................6
Characterization of Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein.............................................
The M any Functions of Calreticulin.................................... .......................... ......... 9

2 M ATERIALS AND M ETHOD S.......................................... .......................... 13

Detection of a CRIP Protein Partner....................................... ............... 13
Effects of IFN-y, LPS, and Cell Proliferation on CRIP and CRT Expression in
R A W 264 .7 C ells ................. ................ .................... 14
Real Time RT-PCR of CRIP and CRT RNA ................................... .....................16
Nondenaturing PAGE and Western Analysis................................................. 17
Im m u n ocytoch em istry ..................................................................... ..................... 18
Statistical A nalysis................................................... 19

3 R E S U L T S .............................................................................2 0

Identification of Possible CRIP Binding Partner Using Affinity Chromatography ...20
Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA ...............20
Effect of IFN-y and LPS on CRIP, CRT, and TNF-a mRNA Expression and
Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells ........................... ............... 21
Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP Protein Levels.............................22
Nondenaturing PAGE of RAW 264.7 Cell Cytosolic Extracts at 60% Confluency ..22
Colocalization of CRIP and CRT ........................................ .......................... 23









4 D IS C U S S IO N .............. ..... ............ ................. ............................................ 3 4

LIST OF REFEREN CE S ............................................. ........................ ............... 43

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................52















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins eluted
from the CRIP affinity purification column. (A) Silver staining of thymus
cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified a 55 and 80 kD band.
(B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column also identified a 55
and 80 kD band. (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column
identified only a 55 kD band. (D) Salt was removed from the column eluate
prior to electrophoresis. Note the improved apparent resolution of the 55 and
80 kD bands. M stands for marker and E# stands for elution number....................24

3-2 Western analysis of thymic (left) and intestinal (right) proteins eluted from the
CRIP column performed with a calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz
Biotechnology) revealed that the 55 kD band that bound to the column in these
sam ples w as C R T ........................................................................... ................ .. 2 5

3-3 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins that eluted
off of the control column. The molecular weight of the 50 and 75 kD marker
bands are labeled. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins eluted off
the column identified no bands (B) Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted
off the column identified no bands (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts
eluted off the column identified no bands ................................... ...................26

3-4 Effect of RAW 264.7 cell proliferation on CRIP (A), CRT (B), and MT
(C) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and
approximate confluence (D) at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h after plating cells at a 1:3
ra tio ........................................................................... 2 7

3-5 Effects of LPS and IFN-y treatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on
CRIP (A) and CRT (B) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real
time RT PCR at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment. ................................ ............... 28

3-6 Effects of LPS and IFN-y treatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on
(A) TNF-a mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT
PCR and (B) nitric oxide production as measured by addition of Greiss reagent
to medium at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment.............. ...................... ..........28











3-7 (A) Western analysis of RAW cell cytosolic CRIP protein levels up to 32 h
after plating. (B) Densitometric measurement of CRIP protein increased from
initial levels up till 10 h. At 22 h CRIP protein expression was back at initial
levels .............. ..... ................. .. ..........................................29

3-8 Western analysis of RAW 264.7 cell cytosol protein extracts analyzed in a
nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylide gel and transferred to PVDF membrane
(0.1 um) for analysis with CRIP and CRT antibodies................... .....................30

3-9 RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP (UF 83) and
anti-rabbit conjugated FITC antibodies (Sigma) and polyclonal goat anti-CRT
(Santa Cruz Biotech) and anti-goat conjugated Texas Red antibodies
(Santa Cruz Biotech) 12 and 24 h after plating on slides images were obtained
using confocal microscopy. (A) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at
900 X (B) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (C) CRIP and CRT
(yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (D) CRIP (green) localization
in cells at 12 h at 3000 X ..................................................... ..... .. ......... .. .. 3 1

4-1 Model of potential CRIP interaction with CRT and PKC which would cause
translocation of CRT to integrins at the cell membrane and block translocation
of CRT into the endoplasmic reticulum. ...................................... ............... 42















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

POTENTIAL INTERACTION OF CYSTEINE RICH INTESTINAL PROTEIN WITH
A PROTEIN PARTNER AND THEIR REGULATION IN IMMUNE CELLS

By

John David Nicewonger II

May 2003

Chair: Dr. Robert J. Cousins
Major Department: Food Science and Human Nutrition

Cysteine rich intestinal protein (CRIP) is an 8.5 kD protein which contains a

distinct LIM domain consisting of two zinc coordinating fingers in close proximity to one

another. There are several facts known about CRIP, but the function of the protein is still

not well understood. CRIP mRNA is most abundant in macrophages, PBMCs (peripheral

blood mononuclear cells), and the intestine. It is also very abundant in thymus, spleen,

heart, and lungs. Overexpression of CRIP in transgenic mice leads to increased secretion

of Th2 (T helper 2) cytokines (interleukin 6, IL-6 and interleukin 10, IL-10) and

decreased secretion of Thl (T helper 1) cytokines (interferon-y, IFN- y and interleukin-2,

IL-2) after challenge of mice with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or virus, or mouse

splenocytes with PHA (phytohemagglutinin). In order to better understand the function

of CRIP we designed a CRIP affinity purification column to identify possible protein

partners. Using the column we identified calreticulin (CRT) as a possible protein partner.

CRT was first identified as a calcium binding chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum,









but recently, CRT has been shown to be necessary for cell adhesion and spreading

because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and regulate integrin-

mediated cell adhesion. CRT has also been localized to the nucleus where it binds to

nuclear steroid hormone receptors, inhibiting their ability to bind to DNA. In order to

further explore the relationship between CRIP and CRT, their mRNAs were measured

during RAW 264.7 cell proliferation and upon treatment of cells with LPS +/- IFN-y

which led to apoptosis in this cell type. During cell proliferation both CRIP and CRT

mRNA expression increased significantly and upon treatment with LPS +/- IFN-y mRNA

expression of both proteins decreased significantly. Immunocytochemistry using

confocal microscopy revealed that both proteins colocalized during cell proliferation.

The binding of CRIP to CRT may shift localization of CRT from the endoplasmic

reticulum to sites of cell adhesion and/or the nucleus. Since CRT is an important

chaperone for IFN-y (a Thl cytokine) and MHC-I (major histocompatibility 1)

complexes, this may also explain why overexpression of CRIP leads to increased

secretion of Th2 cytokines and decreased expression of Thl cytokines.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Zinc is a divalent cation that engages in structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles

within organisms. Many proteins rely on zinc for both their structure and/or function.

For example, zinc atoms are an important part of the structure of the zinc fingers at the

amino terminus of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) (Hubbard et al., 1991). Yet,

increased free intracellular zinc levels also activate PKC without affecting the zinc

coordinated in the zinc fingers of PKC (Csermely et al., 1988a and 1988b and Zalewski

et al., 1990). Zinc is also an important part of metalloenzymes like carbonic anhydrase.

In carbonic anhydrase catalyzed reactions, the zinc atom acts as a Lewis acid, stabilizing

the negative charge and allowing ionization of water and formation of bicarbonate (Voet

& Voet, 1995). In addition, zinc has been shown to regulate transcription of genes. For

example, the transcription factor MTF-1 (metal response element-binding transcription

factor 1) has six zinc fingers in its structure. Binding of zinc to the sixth zinc finger

causes translocation of MTF-1 to the nucleus, where it activates transcription of several

genes by binding to metal response elements in their promoters (Smimova et al., 2000).

Control of Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis by Zinc

The mineral zinc is essential for cell proliferation. In many cell types zinc

deficiency and excess results in apoptosis. Intracellular free zinc concentrations are very

low, in the range of 1 nm (Atar et al., 1995). The intracellular distribution of loosely

bound zinc may be much higher, micromolar concentrations (Coyle et al., 1994). Zinc is

part of the structure of many proteins, including enzymes of cellular signaling pathways









and transcription factors. Related to these roles, zinc regulates cell signaling on many

levels, including modifying the activities of PKC, mitogen activated protein kinases

(MAPK), and MTF-1. These signal cascades are important in cell proliferation or

apoptosis (Beyersmann & Haase, 2001).

There are over one thousand transcription factors containing zinc finger domains

(Berg & Shi, 1996). Therefore, zinc is essential for the proper regulation of transcription

of many genes, including numerous genes important for the stimulation of growth. All of

the nuclear steroid hormone receptors contain zinc fingers. Upon ligand binding, these

proteins bind to steroid response elements in the promoters of genes involved in

proliferation and differentiation (Berg et al., 1996). Also, the most well recognized zinc

activated transcription factor is MTF-1. This protein contains six zinc finger motifs.

Binding of zinc to the sixth zinc finger of MTF-1 triggers the translocation of MTF-1

from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (Smimova et al., 2000). Once in the nucleus MTF-1

binds to metal response elements in the promoters of the genes that code for proteins such

as the zinc transporter ZnT-1, the zinc-donator/acceptor protein metalloththionein

(Langmade et al., 2000), calreticulin (Nguyen et al., 1996), and a growing list of other

proteins (Lichtlen et al., 2001). Recently, calreticulin has been characterized as a protein

that binds to integrins in the cell membrane, and has been shown to be essential for cell

adhesion and spreading (Coppolino et al., 1998). Therefore, it is not out of place for

expression of this protein to be upregulated by zinc. Because of its relevance to this

project, this protein will be discussed more in a later section of this introduction.

Zinc is important for the stimulation of cell proliferation and growth. The evidence

for this has been derived from numerous experimental approaches. Chelation of zinc in









mammalian cell cultures causes decreased growth and DNA synthesis (Grummt et al.,

1986). Zinc and calcium synergistically initiate DNA synthesis and mitogenic signaling

in murine fibroblasts (Huang et al., 1999). Chesters et al. (1989 and 1990) reported the

zinc chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) reduced thymidine

incorporation into DNA and impaired transcription of the thymidine kinase gene in Swiss

3T3 cells. Roth & Kirchgessner (1994) found that zinc deficient rats secreted less growth

hormone from the pituitary gland. Zinc deficiency led to decreased expression of growth

hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the livers of both humans (Cossack,

1991) and rats (McNall et al., 1995). IGF-1 is important for cell growth because it has

been shown to mediate the transition from the Gl- to the S-phase in cultured cells. In

addition, a translocation of metallothionein (MT) into the nucleus has been detected

during the early S-phase of growth factor-stimulated primary rat hepatocytes (Tsujikawa

et al., 1991), in regenerating rat liver (Tsujikawa et al., 1994), certain tumors (Kuo et al.,

1994; Nartey et al., 1987; Woo & Lazo, 1997), and rat keratinocytes after irradiation with

UV-B (Hanada et al., 1998). Apostolova & Cherian (2000) demonstrated that blocking

DNA synthesis with aphidicolin in order to trap cells in the Gl- to S-transition, caused

zinc and MT to remain in the nucleus. Only after removal of aphidicolin did cells reenter

the S-phase, and both zinc and MT were translocated back to the cytoplasm. The nuclear

translocation of MT could be important for donation of zinc to transcription factors

important in cell proliferation.

Zinc is also an important mediator of cell migration and proliferation. Zinc has

been shown to modify integrin expression and cause increased cell migration in human

keratinocyte cell cultures (Tenaud et al., 2000). Prior to this, Dreno (1996) demonstrated









that zinc stimulates proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in wounds. Zinc is an

essential structural element in the zinc fingers of the LIM domains in a family of proteins

known as LIM proteins. LIM domains mediate protein-protein interactions. These

proteins have been shown to be important in cell fate determination, cytoskeleton

reorganization, and growth control (Bach, 2000; Dawid et al., 1998). Because of their

relevance to this study, these proteins will be discussed further in a latter section of this

introduction as well.

Zinc is also part of the integral structure of many enzymes and zinc also has been

shown to influence the catalytic activity of other enzymes. In murine fibroblasts

increased extracellular zinc triggered protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPK

activity (Hansson, 1996). Wu et al. (1999) reported zinc activated epidermal growth

factor receptor phosphorylation and MAPK activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

In addition, Samet et al. (1999) showed that zinc blocked several protein tyrosine

phosphatases in human airway epithelial cells. Zinc has also been shown to be a

structural part of many isoforms of PKC (Parker et al., 1986). Hubbard et al. (1991)

reported that EXAFS spectra of PKC-beta-I confirmed complexation of four zinc atoms

each by three cysteines and one histidine residue. The four zinc atoms are coordinated

within four zinc fingers at the amino terminus of PKC. Nanomolar concentrations of zinc

can activate PKC and cause translocation of the enzyme to the plasma membrane

(Csermely et al., 1988a and 1988b). In addition, Zalewski et al. (1990) demonstrated that

zinc regulates translocation of PKC to the cytoskeleton. Moreover, it was revealed that a

chelatable pool of intracellular zinc enhances the binding of the PKC activator phorbol

dibutyrate (Forbes et al., 1990). Zinc atoms bound in the finger domains of PKC could









not be removed by treatment of PKC with high affinity heavy metal ion chelators

(Hubbard et al., 1991). Additionally, the zinc chelators N,N,N',N-terakis-(2-

pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) (Csermely et al., 1988b) and 1,10-phenanatroline

(Forbes et al., 1990) were shown to hinder PKC activation. Therefore, the zinc bound in

zinc fingers of PKC does not appear to influence activation of PKC.

Zinc has also been shown to affect cGMP (cyclic guanine monophosphate) content

of cells by modifying the activity of cGMP degrading cyclic nucleotide

phosphodiesterases. In addition, cGMP has been shown to control zinc uptake. After

incubation of C6 rat glioma cells with 150 uM zinc chloride, zinc uptake reached

maximal levels after 1 h. This increase was not observed when the cells were treated

with specific guanylate cyclase inhibitors, but was accelerated by nitric oxide, an

activator of guanylate cyclase. The rise in intracellular cGMP (cells treated with

guanylate cyclase inhibitors) inhibited zinc import, while lower intracellular

concentrations of cGMP (cells treated with nitric oxide) accelerated zinc import (Haase &

Beyersmann, 1999).

Studies have shown that in zinc deficient animals display more apoptotic cells in

several tissues and organs, including the intestinal and retinal pigment epithelium, skin,

thymic lymphocytes, testis and pancreatic acinar cells of adult animals (Duvall & Wyllie,

1986; Zalewski et al., 1990), and the neuroepithelium of fetal rats (Rogers et al., 1995).

Apoptosis induced by zinc-deficiency has been shown to cause DNA and nuclear

fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation (Troung-Tran,

2001). In addition, this type of apoptosis results in increased caspase-3 activity and

caspase-3 inhibitors have been shown to partially block apoptosis (Chai et al., 2000).









Moreover, studies by Troung-Tran et al. (2000) have revealed that labile pools of zinc are

associated with precursor forms of caspase-3 in the mitochondria and microtubuoles.

They suggested that decreased intracellular zinc concentrations may disrupt these zinc

pools and trigger apoptosis. Furthermore, Cui et al. (1999 and 2000) have demonstrated

increased oxidative stress due to enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity

and nitric oxide (NO) production, increased tissue damage, and increased apoptosis in the

skin and intestinal villi of zinc deficient rats.

In conclusion, zinc has been shown to be very important in controlling life or death

of the cell. Not only is zinc a structural component of many proteins, including

transcription factors, enzymes, and adapter proteins, zinc also regulates the control of

many cell signaling cascades involved in proliferation and apoptosis.

Characteristics of LIM Proteins

The LIM domain consists of a cysteine rich, zinc-coordinating domain that forms a

double zinc finger motif and exists in proteins that are involved in determination of cell

fate, growth control, or cytoskeleton organization (Bach, 2000 and Dawid et al. 1998).

LIM proteins that have been identified to date are localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, or

some are shuttled between both compartments (Bach, 2000). LIM proteins contain one

or multiple LIM domains, where the fingers always occur in tandem. In many of these

proteins, the LIM domain has been identified as an important structure in mediating

protein:protein interactions and the formation of multiprotein complexes (Bach, 2000).

LIM proteins that are localized to the nucleus include LHX (LIM homeodomain X)

and LMO (LIM-only) proteins. LHX proteins are transcription factors that bind to DNA

via their homeodomains. LMO proteins are transcriptional cofactors that are components

of multiprotein regulatory elements (Bach, 2000).









Several LIM proteins that are localized to the cytoplasm and/or the nucleus include

LIMK (LIM kinase), CRIP, CRP (cysteine rich protein), enigma, zyxin, paxillin, and

PINCH (particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein). LIMK proteins

have LIM domains that are repeated in tandem, but they additionally have a kinase

domain. The LIMK proteins have been localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus.

CRIP and CRP are proteins that have one and two LIM domains, respectively, but no

apparent additional functional unit (Dawid et al., 1998). CRIP has been localized to the

cytoplasm, but its function is still unknown (Fernandes et al., 1995). CRPs are associated

with the cytoskeleton, and are involved in muscle differentiation (Harper et al., 2000).

Enigma, zyxin, paxillin, and PINCH are proteins that contain different numbers of LIM

domains located at the C-terminus (Dawid et al. 1998). These proteins have been

reported to have important functions in cytoskeleton organization and cellular adhesion

(Borrello et al., 2002; Hobert et al., 1999; Nix & Beckerle, 1997; Rearden, 1994; Sadler

et al., 1992; Turner et al., 1990).

Characterization of Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein

Cysteine Rich Intestinal Protein (CRIP) is a small 8.5 kDa protein with one LIM

domain. It is abundant in immune cells and organs, including the intestine. It's

identification as a zinc binding intestinal protein using high resolution chromatography

has been reviewed in detail by Khoo & Cousins (1993).

Many proteins containing LIM domains are able to mediate multiple protein-

protein interactions through these domains (Dawid et al. 1998). For example, zyxin, a

protein containing three LIM domains, has been shown to bind to both H-warts/LATS1

which is involved in regulating mitotic progression and members of the CRP family

which stabilize actin-rich structural elements in muscles. Zyxin seems to be important in









actin assembly and organization because it localizes to sites of cell adhesion and leading

lamellipodia and its LIM domains interact with proteins important in these processes. It

has also been shown that upon mislocalization of zyxin, one member of the Ena/VASP

family is also displaced, and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed (Nix

& Beckerle, 1997; Nix et al., 2001; Sadler et al., 1992). Another LIM domain protein,

DRAL/FHL2, has been shown by deletion analysis of particular LIM domains to bind to

the cytoplasmic domain of several alpha and beta integrin chains. Particular LIM

domains or LIM domain combinations of DRAL/FHL2 bound to these proteins. The fact

that DRAL/FHL2 is found in cell adhesion complexes suggests that it is an

adaptor/docking protein involved in integrin signaling pathways (Wixler et al., 2000).

LIM proteins with only short sequences beyond their LIM motifs, such as CRP and

LMO, function as adapter proteins to bring multiprotein complexes together (Dawid et al.

1998). Although the function of CRIP is unknown, CRIP also has only a short sequence

beyond its LIM domain, and therefore it may function in an analogous fashion as an

adapter protein.

While little is known about CRIP's function, its tissue localization has been well

characterized. CRIP mRNA is most abundant in macrophages, PBMCs, and the intestine.

It is also very abundant in thymus, spleen, heart, and lungs (Hallquist et al., 1996). The

organ in which CRIP mRNA seems to be least abundant is the liver. However liver CRIP

mRNA increases upon carbon tetrachloride induced inflammation and CRIP was shown

by immunohistochemistry to be localized to hepatocytes near the blood supply (Khoo et

al., 1996). It is reasonable to conclude that CRIP has an important function in cell









proliferation or differentiation because CRIP is most abundant in organs with high

cellular turnover rates and increases in organs that are damaged.

In addition, CRIP mRNA and protein levels increase in the rat small intestine

throughout the suckling period, reaching highest levels by the late weanling stage.

Because the CRIP gene promoter has several glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) it

was hypothesized CRIP was developmentally regulated by glucocorticoids in the small

intestine (Levenson et al., 1994). This was proven by administration of dexamethasone

to both rat neonates and adults. CRIP mRNA and protein levels increased in the

neonates, but in the adults they remained constant (Levenson et al., 1993). Since CRIP

seems to be important in cell proliferation or differentiation it seems logical that it

reaches maximum levels in the intestine by the weanling age when the rats switch from

breast milk to solid food (Levenson et al., 1993). At this time development of rat

immune defenses is taking place in the intestine. CRIP may be involved in

differentiation or proliferation of these cells. Also, immunohistochemical localization of

CRIP in the rat small intestine showed it to be localized to the Paneth cells, as well as

enterocytes (Fernandes et al., 1995). Paneth cells are important in host defense, through

production of lysozyme, defensins, and other proteins with antimicrobial activities

(Erlandsen et al., 1974; Ouellette et al., 1992).

The Many Functions of Calreticulin

The protein calreticulin (CRT) was first identified as a calcium binding chaperone

in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Ostwald & MacLennan, 1974). Recently, CRT was

identified in other areas of the cell, and has also been shown to both inhibit cell

proliferation by binding nuclear steroid hormone receptors and to be necessary for cell









adhesion and spreading because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and

regulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion and calcium signaling (Coppolino et al., 1998).

Within the ER, CRT functions as a free floating lectin-like molecular chaperone for

many different proteins. Along with other ER chaperones, such as the membrane bound

lectin-like chaperone calnexin, CRT maintains proper folding of many glycosylated

proteins (Michalak et al., 1999). A good example of how calnexin and CRT maintain this

folding is the formation of the Class I MHC protein complex that presents antigens to T

cells in order to activate the immune system against intracellular invaders. The MHC I

complex is made up of an alpha chain, with constant and variable domains, which

noncovalently associates with beta2 microglobulin (p2-m), and in the process of folding

binds an eight to eleven amino acid antigenic peptide that it will present to CD8+ T cell

receptors when it reaches the cell membrane. In the ER the alpha chain associates with

calnexin which maintains proper folding of the alpha chain and allows it to bind to B2-m.

After binding, the alpha chain: p2-m complex dissociates from calnexin and becomes

associated with CRT. Correct folding is maintained by CRT until the proper antigenic

peptide is placed in a groove within the alpha chain. Then the MHC I complex is

secreted to the cell surface for interaction with the proper CD8+ T cell receptor

(Sadasivan et al., 1995 and 1996).

At the C terminal end of CRT there is a carboxy-terminal ER retention sequence

(KDEL). This sequence directs CRT to the ER, where it functions as a chaperone. Yet,

CRT has been identified outside the ER (Dedhar, 1994). Specifically, CRT has been

shown to colocalize and copurify with integrin subunits in the cell membrane (Leung-

Hagesteijn et al., 1994), and CRT has been been shown to bind to steroid hormone









receptors in vitro and in vivo. The question of how CRT escapes the ER has not yet been

clearly answered. It has been suggested that this happens through saturation of the

KDEL receptors on the ER because CRT that was associated with integrin subunits in the

cell membrane was recognized by an anti-KDEL antibody (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998).

Later experiments revealed the presence of a KDEL receptor in the cell membrane near

the integrins to which CRT was found bound (Zhu et al., 1997). Therefore, it is still

unknown how CRT is selectively targeted to KDEL receptors on the ER and/or those on

cell membrane. It seems more likely that CRT may have a binding partner that directs it

away from the ER. Binding of zinc, calcium, or phosphorylation of CRT has been shown

to change the confirmation of the protein (Khanna et al., 1986; Li et al., 2001; Michalak

et al., 1999). Therefore, binding of a partner protein to CRT may change its

confirmation, rendering the KDEL sequence inoperable until the protein is released.

Alternatively, binding of a protein partner may cause transport of CRT to the cell

membrane, rather than the ER. In addition, other KDEL sequence-containing proteins

have been shown to localize outside the ER, including protein disulfide isomerase

(Yoshimori et al., 1990), endoplasmin, and the heavy chain binding protein (BiP/GRP78)

(Takemoto et al., 1992), therefore it is conceivable that CRT can escape the ER.

CRT has been shown to bind to the KXFFKR sequence in between the two zinc

fingers of all known nuclear steroid hormone receptors (Dedhar, 1994). Specifically,

CRT has been reported to bind to glucocorticoid receptor (Burns et al., 1994), androgen

receptor, retinoic acid receptor (Dedhar, 1994), retinoic X receptor (Shago et al., 1997),

and vitamin D receptor (St. Arnaud et al., 1995) in vitro and in vivo, and to inhibit the

binding of these receptors to their response elements in DNA. In addition, CRT has been









localized to the nucleus in several cell types (Dedhar, 1994; Ramsamooj et al., 1995;

Roderick et al., 1997). By obstructing the binding of steroid hormone receptors to their

steroid response elements, CRT has been shown to inhibit retinoic acid-sensitive neuronal

differentiation (Shago et al., 1997) and vitamin D-induced mineralization in osteoblasts

(St. Arnaud et al., 1995). Therefore, CRT can control steroid hormone-induced cell

responses.

CRT has been shown to co-localize with integrins by immunofluorescence and to

co-purify with integrins within cell adhesion complexes using native gels, and to bind to

the KXGFFKR sequence in the integrin alpha-subunit cytoplasmic domains by

mutational analysis (Coppolino et al., 1995). Furthermore, several studies have shown

blocking CRT function by downregulating CRT mRNA levels or treating with anti-CRT

antibodies, inhibits adhesion and spreading of cells on an extra cellular matrix (ECM)

(Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 1994 and Coppolino et al., 1995). It is thought that the binding

of CRT to the alpha subunit of integrins stabilizes them in an activated confirmation to

allow binding to the ECM and cell spreading (Coppolino et al., 1995). In addition,

Coppolino et al. (1997) showed that the binding of surface integrins by CRT elevated

cytosolic calcium concentrations owing to an influx of extracellular calcium, and that this

transient calcium flux was absent in CRT-deficient embryonic stem cells. This calcium

influx has been shown to be essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion (Sjaastad et al.,

1996). It has been suggested that the influx of calcium permits the development of full

adhesive sites around the integrins (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Therefore, CRT may

control cell adhesion and spreading by modifying integrin function.














CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Detection of a CRIP Protein Partner

Spleen, thymus, and intestinal samples from B6SJL mice (Jackson Laboratory, Bar

Harbor, ME) were homogenized in S-12 buffer (10 mM Tris, 150 mM NaC1, 10 mM

MgSO4 7H20, pH 8.0) using a Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer and centrifuged at

40,000 g for 30 min. The supernatant was then transferred to polycarbonate tubes and

centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min. The supernatant was removed and stored as a

cytosol preparation at -80 0 C. Protein concentrations were measured using the Markwell

method (97). The samples were then analyzed by 10% SDS PAGE and the gel was

stained with Coomasie blue to determine if protein degradation had occurred.

A CRIP affinity purification column was made using Pierce's

EDC/Diaminodipropylamine Immobilization Kit (Pierce Biotechnology, Rockford, IL)

to cross-link CRIP (0.7 mg) to the column following the manufacturer's protocol.

Binding of CRIP to the column was confirmed by measuring the zinc content by atomic

absorption spectrophotometry of the flow though eluate before and after conjugation.

Next, cytosol from the intestine, thymus, and spleen were individually loaded onto the

CRIP affinity purification column and equilibrated at 4 C overnight. The column was

washed first with S-12 buffer to remove any non-bound proteins from the column, and

then 1 M NaCl was used to elute any proteins that specifically bound to the column.

Identical amounts of cytosol were added to a control column with no protein bound to it,

which was then treated in the same manner. Fractions were collected. Aliquots of each









fraction were analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE. The gel was then stained using a silver

staining detection kit (Biorad, Hercules, CA) to determine if any proteins bound to the

CRIP or control columns. Thymus and intestinal cytosolic extracts were applied to the

CRIP affinity purification column for comparative purposes. The samples were purified

as above, analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE, and transferred to a 0.45 um PVDF membrane

for Western analysis using a CRT antibody purchased from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa

Cruz, CA).

Larger quantities of potential partner proteins were generated from spleens of mice

of the same genotype as above. Spleens were harvested from eight mice and the cytosol

extracts were obtained and individually loaded onto the CRIP affinity purification

column as described earlier. The eluted fractions which contained the potential partner

proteins were pooled, washed, and concentrated with S-12 buffer in Centricon-3 tubes

(Amicon, ,MA). The concentrated sample was further resolved by 10 % SDS-PAGE and

transferred to 0.45 um PVDF membrane. The membrane was stained using 0.02%

Coomassie blue. A 55 kD and 80 kD band were identified and removed for sequencing

at University of Florida's ICBR.

Effects of IFN-y, LPS, and Cell Proliferation on CRIP and CRT Expression in RAW
264.7 Cells

RAW 264.7 cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection

(ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 2 mM glutamine,

10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotic-antimycotic (ABAM).

The cells were grown in T-75 flasks and as needed for experiments cells were transferred

to 100 mm culture plates and allowed to adhere and grow to approximately 80%

confluence over the span of 24 h. At 80% confluence the old medium was removed and









10 mL of fresh medium containing either no treatment, rm (recombinant murine) IFN-y

(100 U/ml, purchased from Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ), LPS (1 ug/ml, Sigma, St. Louis,

MO, E. coli serotype 0127:B8), or both rm IFN- y and LPS was added. At 0, 3, and 9 h

after treatment, plates were taken from each treatment group and the cells were removed

by scraping. The scraped cells and medium were collected in 50 mL sterile tubes and put

on ice. The tubes were then centrifuged at 150 g at 4 C for 10 min. The supernatant

was decanted and the pellet was washed with 10 mL of ice cold PBS. The tubes were

recentrifuged as before. Washing and centrifugation steps were repeated with PBS two

more times. The cell pellet was suspended in 1 mL TriPure reagent (Roche, Indianapolis,

IN) and total RNA was purified using the manufacturer's protocol. Total RNA was

measured by absorbance at 260 nm, 280 nm, and 230 nm to confirm purity and establish

concentration of the RNA. Electrophoresis was used to confirm RNA integrity by

analyzing 10 ug of total RNA per well in a 1% agarose formaldehyde gel. Ethidium

bromide was used to stain the RNA and confirm ribosomal subunit RNA integrity (Nassir

et al., 1996).

The effect of proliferation was measured on cells without the addition of either

IFN- y or LPS. As needed, cells were transferred to 100 mm culture plates and allowed

to adhere and grow. The plates were taken at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h later and the cells

were harvested and total RNA prepared as above. In order to prepare cytosolic protein

preparations, three additional plates were taken at 0, 10, 15, 20, 24, and 28 h later and the

cells were harvested and washed as above. The final cell pellets were resuspended in 3

mL of ice cold S-12 buffer and rapidly frozen at -80 C for 10 min and then thawed.

Next, the samples were subjected to sonication (pulsed 0.7 s per 1.0 s for 2 min at a









power setting of 4). Then, the samples were centrifuged at 40,000 g for 30 min. The

soluble portion (cytosol) was removed and the pellets discarded. The protein

concentrations of the cytosol fractions were measured using the Markwell method

(Markwell et al., 1978). Finally, aliquots of the samples (100 ug) were loaded on a 10%

SDS tris-tricene polyacrylimide gel, and after electrophoresis proteins were transferred to

a PVDF membrane (0.1 um). The membrane was stained with amido black to determine

protein distribution. The membrane was blocked in 5% non-fat milk in PBS for 1 h.

Next, the membrane was incubated with a polyclonal anti-CRIP rabbit antibody (made

against a peptide representing amino acid residues 64-77 of CRIP and coded UF 83) in

5% non-fat milk in PBS-T for 14 h at 4 o C. Then, the membrane was washed in PBS-T

three times for 10 min each, and incubated in anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to alkaline

phosphatase (Sigma) for 2 h at room temperature. Finally, the membrane was incubated

with ECF western blotting reagent (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Arlington Heights,

IL) for 3 min and scanned on a STORM 840 phosphorimager (Amersham Pharmacia,

Sunnyside, CA).

Real Time RT-PCR of CRIP and CRT RNA

Real Time RT-PCR using the GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System

(Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) was performed in order to quantify 18S, CRIP,

CRT, and TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) mRNA levels. Reverse transcription first

converted these RNAs into cDNA. Specific primers and fluorescence resonance energy

transfer (FRET) probes (purchased from Biosource International, Camarillo, CA)

designed to amplify and detect these cDNAs were selected with Primer Express Software

(Applied Biosystems). The Real Time RT-PCR primers and probes were as follows:









CRIP forward 5'-GCGACAAGGAGGTGTATTTCG-3'

reverse 5'-TTTCCACATTTCTCGCACTTC-3'

FRET probe 5'-FAM-TGACGTCACTAGGCAAGGACTGGCAT-BHQ 1-3'



CRT forward 5'-GCCATCTATTTCAAAGAGCAGTTCT-3'

reverse 5'-CGGACTTATGTTTGGATTCGA-3'

FRET probe 5'-FAM-ACGGAGATGCCTGGACCAACCG-BHQ 1-3'



TNF-a forward 5'-TCTCAGGCCTTCCTACCTTCAG-3'

reverse 5'-CTGTGAGGAAGGCTGTGCATT-3'

FRET probe 5'-FAM-CCTTTCCAGACTCTTCCCTGAGG-BHQ 1-3'



Normalization to determine relative abundances of these RNA's was with 18S

ribosomal RNA using primers and a Taqman probe (purchased from Applied

Biosystems) designed to amplify 18S cDNA.

Nondenaturing PAGE and Western Analysis

Nondenaturing PAGE was used to characterize proteins potentially bound to CRIP

in vivo. RAW 264.7 cells were transferred to 100 mm culture plates and allowed to

adhere and grow for 12 h (-60% confluency). The cells were harvested and washed as

above. The final cell pellet was resuspended in 3 mL of ice cold low ionic strength S12

buffer (10 mM Tris, 70 mM NaC1, 5 mM MgSO4 7H20, pH 8.0) and rapidly frozen at

-80 C for 10 min and then thawed. Next, the sample was subjected to sonication

(pulsed 0.7 s per 1.0 s for 2 min at power setting 4). Then, the sample was centrifuged at

40,000 g for 30 min. The soluble portion of the sample was removed and the pellet









discarded. The protein concentration was measured using the Markwell method

(Markwell et al., 1978). Finally, aliquots of the sample (100 ug) were loaded and run on

a nondenaturing 7.5% Tris-Glycine polyacrylimide gel and transferred to a PVDF

membrane (0.1 um). The membrane was stained with amido black to determine how the

proteins were distributed. Next, the membrane was cut into two halves. Both halves of

the membrane were blocked in 5% non-fat milk in PBS for one h. One half of the

membrane was incubated with polyclonal anti-CRIP rabbit antibody (UF 83), while the

other half of the membrane was incubated with anti-CRT rabbit antibody (Santa Cruz

Biotech). Both were in 5% non-fat milk in PBS-T and both incubations were for 14 h at

4 o C. The membranes were washed in PBS-T three times for 10 min each, and then

incubated in anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Sigma) for 2 h at room

temperature. The membranes were then incubated with ECF western blotting reagent

(Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) for 3 min and scanned on a STORM 840

phosphorimager (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech).

Immunocytochemistry

The RAW 264.7 cells were plated on polylysine-coated slides (Fisher) for 12 and

24 h in DMEM culture medium as mentioned earlier. Next, the cells were fixed for 12

min in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS, washed 3 times for 5 min each with PBS, and then

permeabilized by incubation with Triton X-100 (0.1%) in PBS for 30 min. The

nonspecific sites were blocked by incubation with 4% BSA in PBS for 30 min. The cells

were then incubated with a 1:100 dilution of polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP antibody (UF

83) and a 1:200 dilution of polyclonal goat anti-CRT antibody (Santa Cruz Biotech) (in

0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS) for 1 h at room temperature. After washing 3 times for 5 min

each with PBS, the cells were incubated with secondary antibodies (Texas red conjugated






19


anti-goat [Santa Cruz Biotech] and FITC conjugated anti-rabbit [Sigma]) at a 1:100

dilution for 30 min at room temperature. The cells were then washed 3 times for 5 min

each with PBS, mounted with mounting medium, and visualized using a confocal

microscope at the microscopy core lab of University of Florida's Brain Institute.

Statistical Analysis

Tests for significance were performed using the Student's t-test or factorial

ANOVA with Graphpad Quickcalcs Software (San Diego, CA, Graphpad.com).

Differences were considered statistically significant if the P value was < 0.05.














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

Identification of Possible CRIP Binding Partner Using Affinity Chromatography

Cytosolic extracts of mouse spleen, thymus, and intestine were incubated

separately in the CRIP affinity purification column with the hope of identifying a protein

binding partner for CRIP. Aliquots of the fraction eluted with 1 M NaCl were analyzed

by 10% SDS-PAGE. Silver staining of the gels revealed a band of approximately 55 kD

was present that bound to the column for each of the samples from the spleen, thymus,

and intestine (Figure 3-1). The 55 kD band was amino acid sequenced at UF's Protein

Core. The sequence obtained was DPAIYFKEQFLDGXA. A BLAST search revealed

the sequence was identical to that of mouse calreticulin precursor. Westerns analysis of

thymus and intestinal proteins eluted off the CRIP column was performed with a

calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) that revealed that the 55 kD

band that bound to the column in these samples was also CRT (Figure 3-2).

A control column with no protein bound to it was also constructed to evaluate

whether CRT would bind nonspecifically to the column. CRT did not bind to the control

column (Figure 3-3), and therefore the interaction between CRIP and CRT may be

specific.

Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA

CRIP, CRT, and MT mRNA levels were studied in RAW cells as a function of time

in culture and extent of confluence. Compared to initial levels, CRIP mRNA levels

significantly increased at 8 h (P<0.04). Levels significantly decreased between 12 and 15









h (P<0.03) and 15 and 24 h (P<0.001) (Figure 3-4). CRT mRNA levels were

significantly increased between 0 and 12 h (P<0.004) and 8 and 12 h (P<0.04). Levels

significantly decreased between 15 and 24 h (P<0.005) (Figure 3-4). MT mRNA levels

significantly increased at 8 h (P<0.006) compared to initial levels. Between 8 and 24 h,

levels significantly decreased (P<0.008) (Figure 3-4). Expression ofMT, CRIP, and

CRT mRNA each followed a similar parabolic curve, peaking at different time points, 8,

12, and 15 h respectively (Figure 3-4). Percent confluence at the time points examined,

0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h, after plating was approximately 30, 40, 60, 70, and 90%,

respectively when judged by observation (Figure 3-4).

Effect of IFN-y and LPS on CRIP CRT, and TNF-a mRNA Expression and Nitric
Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells

In order to measure CRIP and CRT mRNA expression in activated RAW cells, the

cells were allowed to grow to approximately 80% confluence prior to the addition of LPS

and/or IFN-y. Relative CRIP and CRT mRNA abundance was measured at 0, 3, and 9 h

after treatment. CRIP mRNA levels significantly (P<0.03) decreased in all groups from 0

to 9 h (Figure 3-5A). At 9 h expression was not significantly different between the

control and IFN-y treated cells, but was significantly lower (P<0.003) in those treated

with LPS +/- IFN-y compared to the control. Similarly, by 9 h in culture expression of

CRT mRNA was significantly (P<0.04) lowered in all cells except those treated with

IFN-y (P<0.07) (Figure 3-5B). Likewise, at 9 h expression was not significantly different

between the control and IFN-y treated cells, but was significantly lower (P<0.02) in those

treated with LPS +/- IFN-y compared to the control. The latter observations suggest a

specific biological response induced by LPS +/- IFN-y treatment of RAW 264.7 cells is

responsible for the decrease in CRIP and CRT mRNA expression.









Treatment of these cells with LPS +/- IFN-y has been reported to result in secretion

of TNF-a, which induces nitric oxide production through an autocrine response (MeBmer

et al., 1996). For that reason, TNF-a mRNA expression and nitric oxide production were

monitored as positive controls at 0, 3, and 9 h in culture. Relative expression of TNF-a

mRNA levels (Figure 3-6A) did not change significantly during the entire 9 h culture

period in control and IFN-y treated cells. However, TNF-a mRNA levels increased

markedly (P<.011) from initial values in the LPS +/- IFN-y treated cells at 3 h, but

decreased markedly (P<.031) between 3 and 9 h. In order to measure nitric oxide

production, samples of the media were taken at 0, 3, and 9 h. Between 0 and 3 h no nitric

oxide was detected in the medium of any group (Figure 3-6B). Control and IFN-y treated

cells did not release any nitric oxide into the medium, but LPS +/- IFN-y treated cells

increased nitric oxide release significantly (P<0.0006) by 9 h.

Effect of RAW 264.7 Cell Proliferation on CRIP Protein Levels

CRIP protein levels were studied in the cells as a function of time and confluence.

Protein expression increased up to 10 h (approximately 60% confluency) and declined

thereafter (Figure 3-7). CRIP protein levels followed the mRNA levels very closely.

Nondenaturing PAGE of RAW 264.7 Cell Cytosolic Extracts at 60% Confluency

Peak induction of CRIP mRNA levels occurred at 12 h after plating the cells. At

that time the RAW cells were at approximately 60% confluency. Therefore, based upon

the hypothesis that CRIP functions in cell proliferation, it was decided that at this time

point CRIP would most likely be completed with CRT, if it is a protein partner. In order

to identify a CRIP:CRT complex, the cells were allowed to grow for 12 h and cytosolic

fractions (supernatants after 40,000 g centrifugation) were obtained. Aliquots of these

extracts were run on a nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylimide gel and transferred to a PVDF









membrane. The membrane was cut in half. One half of the membrane was incubated

with an anti-CRIP rabbit antibody, and the other half was incubated with an anti-CRT

antibody. After Western analysis with both membranes, the banding pattern was

analyzed by phosphorimaging. The CRIP and CRT antibodies each identified one

primary band with other minor bands. These bands were in identical positions in both

membranes probed with the CRIP and CRT antibodies (Figure 3-8). Therefore, one

interpretation is that CRIP and CRT are possibly in complex with each other and with

other proteins. Upon repetition of the nondenaturing gel only the major band in the CRIP

and major band in the CRT Western analysis were detected. The minor bands that were

detected in identical places as the major bands on opposing Westerns could not be

reproduced.

Colocalization of CRIP and CRT

In studies using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry both CRIP and

CRT were shown to colocalize in RAW 264.7 cells at 12 h after plating on slides and

there was less colocalization at 24 h when CRIP expression had decreased (Figure 3-9).

The immunofluorescence confirms the Western data. At 12 h CRIP expression is higher

than at 24 h as measured by both Western and immunofluorescence.







SMElE2E3 E4 E5 M I


LOknIz


55 Mn


doM B


I M El E2 E3 E4


c


0I M


55 kD

D


Figure 3-1 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins eluted
from the CRIP affinity purification column. (A) Silver staining of thymus
cytosolic proteins eluted off the column identified a 55 and 80 kD band. (B)
Silver staining of spleen extracts eluted off the column also identified a 55 and
80 kD band. (C) Silver staining of intestinal extracts eluted off the column
identified only a 55 kD band. (D) Salt was removed from the column eluate
prior to electrophoresis. Note the improved apparent resolution of the 55 and
80 kD bands. M stands for marker and E# stands for elution number.


IM E2 E3 E2 E3 M I


IM E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 M I























Figure 3-2 Western analysis of thymic (left) and intestinal (right) proteins eluted from the
CRIP column performed with a calreticulin (CRT) antibody (Santa Cruz
Biotechnology) revealed that the 55 kD band that bound to the column in
these samples was CRT.









I M El E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 M I


75 kD

50 kD


M El E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 M


75 kD


50 kD



C


Figure 3-3 Silver stained 10% SDS tris-glycine polyacrylimide gels of proteins that
eluted off of the control column. The molecular weight of the 50 and 75 kD
marker bands are labeled. (A) Silver staining of thymus cytosolic proteins
eluted off the column identified no bands (B) Silver staining of spleen
extracts eluted off the column identified no bands (C) Silver staining of
intestinal extracts eluted off the column identified no bands.


I M El E2 E3 E4 E5 M I


F5 kD]


















+CRIP
mRNA


0 8 121524
Time (Hrs)


Effect of cell proliferation on CRT
mRNA


0



o g


0 8 12 15 24

Time (Hrs)


- CRT
mRNA


Effect of cell proliferation on MT
mRNA


0
- 14
| 12
2 -10
E 8
< c 6
> 4
w 2
a, 0


Effect of cell proliferation on
confluence


- MT
mRNA


0 8 12 15 24
Time (Hrs)


S- Confluen
ce /Time


0 8 12 15 24
Time (Hrs)


Figure 3-4 Effect of RAW 264.7 cell proliferation on CRIP (A), CRT (B), and MT (C)
mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT PCR and
approximate confluence (D) at 0, 8, 12, 15, and 24 h after plating cells at a 1:3
ratio.


Effect of cell proliferation on CRIP
mRNA


< 200
E 150
|t 100
wi 50
IS 0
a,












Effects of LPS and IFN on CRIP
mRNA


Control
HELPS
OIFN
OLPS+ IFN


0 3 9
Time (hrs)


Effects of LPS and IFN on CRT mRNA


S20

o 15

-E
w 10
E
u 5
N 0
0


SControl
SLPS
OIFN
OLPS+ IFN


0 3 9
Time (hrs)


Figure 3-5 Effects of LPS and IFN-y treatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on
CRIP (A) and CRT (B) mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by
real time RT PCR at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment.


Effect of LPS and IFN on TNFa mRNA
expression


*Control
*LPS
DIFN
OLPS+ IFN


0 3 9
Time (hrs)


Effects of LPS and IFN on Nitric Oxide
production


0



0-


z
.
z


* Control
SLPS
OIFN
OLPS+ IFN


0 3 9
Time (hrs)


Figure 3-6 Effects of LPS and IFN-y treatment of RAW 264.7 cells at 80% confluency on
(A) TNF-a mRNA levels relative to 18S RNA as measured by real time RT
PCR and (B) nitric oxide production as measured by addition of Greiss reagent
to medium at 0, 3, and 9 h after treatment.


250
S200
E 150
100
z 50
o 0


60
"o 60
z 50
' 40
Em
S30
z 20
10
" 0














Time (h) 0


A T
A


Effect of cell proliferation on
expression


a
.2

xci
ci W
0>

2e
M


CRIP protein




-- Protein
expression
/Time


0 10 18 22 32
Time (Hrs)


Figure 3-7 (A) Western analysis of RAW cell cytosolic CRIP protein levels up to 32 h
after plating. (B) Densitometric measurement of CRIP protein increased from
initial levels up till 10 h. At 22 h CRIP protein expression was back at initial
levels.


18 22









CRIP CRT

























Figure 3-8 Western analysis of RAW 264.7 cell cytosol protein extracts analyzed in a
nondenaturing 7.5% polyacrylide gel and transferred to PVDF membrane (0.1
um) for analysis with CRIP and CRT antibodies.




















A B















C D



Figure 3-9 RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with polyclonal rabbit anti-CRIP (UF 83)
and anti-rabbit conjugated FITC antibodies (Sigma) and polyclonal goat anti-
CRT (Santa Cruz Biotech) and anti-goat conjugated Texas Red antibodies
(Santa Cruz Biotech) 12 and 24 h after plating on slides images were obtained
using confocal microscopy. (A) CRIP (green) localization in cells at 12 h at
900 X (B) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (C) CRIP and
CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 900 X (D) CRIP (green)
localization in cells at 12 h at 3000 X.





















E F














G H



Figure 3-9-Continued. (E) CRT (red) localization in cells at 12 h at 3000 X (F) CRIP
and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 12 h at 3000X (G) CRIP (green)
localization in cells at 24 h at 1800 X (H) CRT (red) localization in cells at 24
h at 1800 X.























I




Figure 3-9-Continued. (I) CRIP and CRT (yellow) colocalization in cells at 24 h at
1800 X.














CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

Proteins with LIM domains can act as adaptors for the formation of multiprotein

complexes. Many of these proteins are involved in cell growth and differentiation (Bach,

2000; Dawid et al., 1998). In this study we show that CRIP binds to the protein CRT,

and that mRNA expression of both proteins is upregulated during cell spreading and

proliferation and downregulated by cell growth arrest in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition,

mRNA expression of both proteins is further downregulated by treatment of these cells

with LPS +/- IFN-y. Therefore, the similar expression of both CRIP and CRT mRNA on

a temporal basis and evidence that they interact in vitro and colocalize suggest they act as

protein partners for a function related to proliferation.

Ever since it was first identified, CRT has been studied as a chaperoning protein in

the endoplasmic reticulum (Ostwald & MacLennan, 1974). Recently, CRT was

identified in other areas of the cell, and has also been shown to both inhibit cell

proliferation by binding nuclear steroid hormone receptors and to be necessary for cell

spreading because of its ability to bind integrins in the cell membrane and regulate

integrin-mediated cell adhesion and calcium signaling (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998).

Several in vitro studies have shown that CRT is able to bind to the KXFFKR

sequence in between the two zinc fingers of all known nuclear steroid hormone receptors

(Dedhar, 1994). In vitro binding of CRT to several steroid hormone receptors has also

been shown to inhibit the ability of these receptors to bind to their DNA elements and

upregulate transcription of the specific genes (Burns, 1994; Dedhar et al., 1994; Shago et









al., 1997; St. Arnaud et al., 1995; Winrow et al., 1995). Dedhar et al. (1994) co-

transfected expression vectors with full length CRT and androgen receptor genes along

with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene driven by mouse

mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) containing androgen

response elements into Vero fibroblast cells. This resulted in a dose-dependent CRT

vector related inhibition of CAT activity induced by the androgen receptor. On the other

hand, Winrow et al. (1995) showed that although purified CRT inhibits the binding of

PPAR/RXR alpha heterodimers and other nuclear hormone receptors, to peroxisome

proliferators-responsive DNA elements in vitro, overexpression of CRT in transiently

transfected cultured cells had no effect on transactivation mediated by PPAR/RXR. Then

again, Shago et al. (1997) and St. Arnaud et al. (1995) showed that over-expression of

CRT can inhibit retinoic acid-sensitive neuronal differentiation and vitamin D-induced

mineralization in osteoblasts. It may be possible that an interaction between CRIP and

CRT prevents CRT from inhibiting the steroid hormone receptors from binding to DNA.

During RAW 264.7 cell proliferation CRIP mRNA expression is upregulated before CRT

(Figure 3-1 and 3-2). CRIP is upregulated by glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoid

response elements have been identified in the CRIP promoter and other steroid response

elements may also be present (Levenson et al., 1993). Therefore, increased CRIP

production before CRT during cell proliferation and spreading could allow the formation

of a CRIP:CRT complex, which may prevent CRT from inhibiting growth by binding to

nuclear steroid hormone receptors.

Additionally, CRT has been shown to co-localize and co-purify with integrins

within cell adhesion complexes, and to bind to the KXGFFKR sequence in the integrin









alpha-subunit cytoplasmic domains (Coppolino & Dedhar, 1998). Furthermore, several

studies have shown blocking CRT function by downregulating CRT mRNA or treating

with anti-CRT antibodies inhibits adhesion and spreading of cells on an extra cellular

matrix (ECM) (Coppolino et al., 1995; Leung-Hagesteijn et al., 1994). It is thought that

the binding of CRT to the alpha subunit of integrins stabilizes integrins in an activated

confirmation to allow binding to the ECM and spreading of cells (Coppolino & Dedhar,

1998).

Several LIM proteins have been identified within adhesion complexes. Wixler et

al. (2000) reported that the four and one half LIM domain protein DRAL/FHL2 interacts

with several alpha and beta integrin subunits, and localized DRAHL/FHL2 to cell

adhesion complexes. Y. Tu et al. (1999) demonstrated that the five LIM-only domain

protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin linked kinase (ILK), is recruited to

integrin-rich sites in spreading cells, and acts as a bridge stabilizing the interaction

between ILK and Nck-2.

LIM proteins also interact with the cysteine-rich zinc finger domains of PKC.

Zhou et al. (1999) found that the three LIM domains of cypher 1 bind several isoforms of

protein kinase C (PKC), which allows the protein to be phosphorylated by PKC. They

suggest that cypherl may function as an adaptor in striated muscle to couple PKC-

mediated signaling, via its LIM domains, to the cytoskeleton ( -actinin-2) through its

PDZ domain. Kuroda et al. (1996) reported that the LIM 2 domain of LIMK1 is crucial

for binding between LIMK1 and PKC gamma. The interaction between LIM proteins

and PKC may relate to an interaction between CRIP, PKC, and CRT. CRT contains a

recognizable site for phosphorylation by PKC (Michalak et al., 1992). Also, the receptor









for activated PKC was shown to interact with integrin beta subunit cytoplasmic tails

(Liliental et al., 1998). It is possible that CRIP that is bound to CRT may facilitate the

phosphorylation of CRT by PKC because of an interaction between PKC and CRIP's

LIM domain (Figure 4-1). Other CRIP binding partners were bound by the CRIP affinity

purification column. Unfortunately, we were unable to amino acid sequence their

terminal ends for identification. Also, the nondenaturing gel detected CRIP and CRT

together in bands of different molecular weights. This suggests that CRIP and CRT form

complexes that include other proteins as well. Immunoprecipitation of completed

proteins using CRIP and/or CRT antibodies should be carried out to study CRIP's

interaction with proteins in vivo. One of the other partners that bound to the CRIP

affinity purification column had a molecular weight of around 80 kD, which is the same

molecular mass as several isoforms of PKC (Chang et al., 2002). Phosphorylation of

CRT may be required to stabilize its interaction with integrin alpha subunits as well as to

stabilize integrins in an active confirmation and allow cell adhesion and spreading to take

place. Stabilizing the interaction between CRT and integrin alpha subunits may also be

necessary to allow calcium influx that is essential for integrin mediated cell adhesion. In

addition, CRIP may function as an adaptor protein that allows CRT to be phosphorylated

by PKC which may cause translocation of the CRIP:CRT:PKC complex to the cell

membrane where it binds integrins and stabilizes their function (Figure 4-1).

Within the endoplasmic reticulum CRT has been shown to be a chaperone

necessary for the secretion of interferon-gamma and the synthesis of MHC I complexes

(Kosuge et al., 2000 and Sadasivan et al., 1995 and 1996). Overexpression of CRIP in

transgenic mice leads to increased secretion of Th2 (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines and









decreased secretion of Thl cytokines (IFN-y and IL-2) after challenge of mice with LPS

or mouse splenocytes with PHA (Lanningham-Foster et al., 2002). It is possible that

overexpression of CRIP leads to low levels of CRT in the endoplasmic reticulum (Figure

4-1). This would inhibit the secretion of IFN-y during an immune response, which would

in turn lead to less CD4+ T cells differentiating into Thl cells that primarily secrete IL-2

and IFN-y. Therefore, less IL-2 and IFN-y would be secreted during an immune response

because of a decreased number of CD4+ T cells differentiating into Thl cells. Also, as a

consequence of less secretion of the Thl cytokine, IFN-y, more CD4+ T cells would

develop into Th2 cells that primarily secrete IL-6 and IL-10. Neither IL-6 nor IL-10 have

been shown to rely on the chaperone CRT for proper folding, and therefore, would still

be secreted. Consequently, an increased concentration of Th2 cytokines would be

detected. Furthermore, MHC I is an important antigen presenting protein that is required

to activate a CD8+ T cell response. The CD8+ T cell response is important for clearing

viral infections. When challenged with influenza virus, the ability of transgenic mice that

overexpress CRIP to clear the virus from their lungs was severely compromised

(Lanningham-Foster et al., 2002). CD8+ T cells also produce IFN-y and IL-2 when

activated. Consequently, decreased concentrations of CRT in the endoplasmic reticulum

could also inhibit the formation of MHC I complexes on the surface of the cell

membrane, which would lead to less activation of CD8+ T cells and production of IFN-y

and IL-2.

Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroid hormones that have been shown to

inhibit the production of Thl cytokines, like IFN-y, and stimulate the production of Th2

cytokines, like IL-10, during an immune response (Elenkov et al., 2002). CRIP has been









shown to be induced by treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a potent synthetic

glucocorticoid-like hormone, because of glucocorticoid response elements in its promoter

(Levenson et al., 1993). Initial studies in RAW 264.7 cells have shown that CRIP mRNA

levels are upregulated by treatment with DEX (data not shown). Part of the mechanism

by which glucocorticoids may downregulate secretion of IFN-y may be by upregulating

CRIP expression. CRIP could then bind to CRT and prevent CRT from entering the

endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Less CRT in the ER would prevent proper folding of IFN-y

and decrease the secretion of IFN-y by the cell.

MeBmer et al. (1996) reported that nitric oxide (NO) released endogenously via

iNOS induction triggered by treating RAW 264.7 cells with 10 ug/mL LPS and 100

U/mL IFN-y led to apoptotic cell death in 50% of the stimulated cells after 24 h.

Furthermore, Oyadomari et al. (2001) reported that treating mouse MIN6 pancreatic beta

cells with an NO donor caused apoptosis to occur in these cells in similar time course as

in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of MIN6 cells with an NO donor led to depletion of

endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores which induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress

protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), which plays an

important role cell growth arrest and apoptosis in these cells. In addition, NO has been

shown to activate guanylate cyclase, leading to increased intracellular cGMP

concentrations, and the ensuing activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in

pancreatic beta cells (Loweth et al., 1997). In this study, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells

with LPS +/- IFN-y led to NO production after only 9 h. Both CRIP and CRT mRNA

expression in cells treated with LPS +/- IFN-y were only significantly decreased from the

control after 9 h, when NO was produced. Taking into consideration the effects of NO on









cell calcium, cGMP, and apoptotic cell death, it is possible that both CRIP and CRT

mRNA expression are downregulated by some signal cascade that is activated when cells

produce NO.

Given that both CRIP and CRT mRNA expression are upregulated during cell

spreading and CRT has been shown to be essential for cell adhesion and spreading, it is

possible that downregulation of CRIP and CRT mRNA expression is related to the

concurrent apoptosis. Conran et al. (2001) showed that eosinophil cell surface integrin

expression and function were altered by treatment of cells with an NO donor. The NO

donor significantly inhibited ability of the eosinophils to bind to serum and fibronectin.

If the CRIP:CRT complex is important in stabilizing integrins and allowing cell adhesion,

downregulation of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression would inhibit cell adhesion by

disrupting integrin function. Blocking cell adhesion in the LIM 1863 colon carcinoma

cell line by generating an anti-integrin antibody that blocked integrins from being able to

trigger cell adhesion has been reported to lead to rapid apoptosis (Bates et al., 1994).

Therefore, if the CRIP:CRT complex is important in targeting CRT to integrins, or

stabilizing integrins in a confirmation that triggers adhesion to an ECM, downregulation

of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression would inhibit cell adhesion and lead to apoptosis.

Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of intracellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases,

has been reported to modulate integrin affinity (Hedman et al., 1992). Coppolino et al.

(1999) have recently reported that incubation of PC-3 and Jurkat T cells with okadaic

acid inhibited integrin adhesion to collagen. They also reported that okadaic acid

inhibited CRT binding to integrins. Kwon et al. (2001) reported that treatment of U937

cells with okadaic acid led to apoptosis in these cells. They also reported that this









apoptotic response was inhibited by treatment of these cells with phorbol myristate

acetate, an activator of PKC. Therefore, it is possible that protein serine/threonine

phosphatases are responsible for activation of PKC. Activated PKC may then

phosphorylate CRT by interacting with the CRIP:CRT complex and this would lead to

binding of CRT and integrins. Binding of CRT and integrins would then stimulate cell

adhesion which would lead to proliferation. Conversely, lack of activation of PKC would

lead to lack of an interaction between CRT and integrins, lack of cell adhesion, and

apoptosis.

It is also interesting to note that both CRT and CRIP have not been identified in

any prokaryote genomes that have been sequenced to date (Clarke et al., 1998 and

Michalak et al., 1999). If these proteins are binding partners that act together to stimulate

adhesion to the ECM and cell proliferation, this interaction would represent a eukaryotic-

specific function.

In conclusion, both CRT and CRIP mRNA expression are upregulated during cell

spreading and proliferation and downregulated by conditions that lead to apoptosis in

RAW 264.7 cells. Both CRIP and CRT have been shown to associate in vitro and

colocalize in vivo. The response of CRT and CRIP mRNA expression during RAW

264.7 cell spreading and proliferation suggests that the CRIP:CRT complex is necessary

to trigger cell adhesion and spreading. Additionally, the fact that overexpression of CRIP

in transgenic mice decreases secretion of Thl cytokines suggests that the CRIP:CRT

complex may also prevent CRT from being transported to the endoplasmic reticulum,

where it has important chaperoning functions, especially in regulating a Thl immune

response, in cells.
















Endoplasmic
Cytoplasm Reticulum


CRT CRT chaperones
PKC these proteins
CRIP
MHC-1


IFN-gamma





/ Cell Membrane

CRIP:CRT interacts with Integrins to signal growth


MHC-I is expressed
on the cell surface


IFN-gamma
is secreted
by the cell


Figure 4-1 Model of potential CRIP interaction with CRT and PKC which would cause
translocation of CRT to integrins at the cell membrane and block translocation
of CRT into the endoplasmic reticulum.


J ____















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

John David Nicewonger II was born to John and Barbara Nicewonger in Fort

Lauderale, Florida on November 18, 1976. John was raised in south Florida. He

graduated among the top ten in his class from Spanish River High School in Boca Raton

in May, 1995. The following fall he began studies at the University of Florida. In May,

1999, he graduated with honors from the University of Florida earning a B. S. in

microbiology and cell science.

In January, 2000, John decided to apply for a master's program in the Food

Science and Human Nutrition Department at the University of Florida. He was accepted

and awarded the Davis Graduate Nutrition Enhancement Award of $5000 per year. In

August of 2000 he began an assistantship under Dr. R. J. Cousins. While working toward

finishing his project, John developed a passion for the study of immunology. He is

planning on finishing his thesis in December, 2002, and will be applying to the

University of Pittsburgh to begin doctorate studies in immunology and pathology.