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Design and Implementation of An Ultrasonic Position System for Multiple Vehicle Control


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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ULTRASONIC POSITION SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE VEHICLE CONTROL By DONALD K. MACARTHUR A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Donald K. MacArthur

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Carl Crane fo r his support, guidance, and hard work towards providing the faciliti es and working environment necessary for my research. I would also like to thank Dr. Gary Matthew and Dr. John Schueller for their guidance and for serving on my committee. I would like to thank all of the personnel of the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robo tics and the Machine Intelligence Laboratory for their support and expertise. I would also like to sincerely thank Erica Zawodny for her love and support throughout this entire process. Fi nally, I would like to thank my family, to whom I owe everything.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1 CIMAR Background.......................................................................................................1 Concept Foundation........................................................................................................1 Position System Dependence..........................................................................................2 Problem Definition..........................................................................................................3 2 POSITION SYSTEMS BACKGROUND........................................................................4 GPS............................................................................................................................ .....4 Introduction.................................................................................................................4 Position Solution.........................................................................................................5 Accuracy and Update Rate..........................................................................................6 Beacon Based Position Systems.....................................................................................6 Landmark Based Position Systems.................................................................................8 3 ULTRASONICS BACKGROUND................................................................................13 Ultrasonic Ranging Systems.........................................................................................13 Transmitting Ultrasonic Waves................................................................................13 Receiving Ultrasonic Waves.....................................................................................14 Ultrasonic Ranging Configurations..........................................................................15 Types of Ultrasonic Sensors.....................................................................................16 Electrostatic Ultrasonic Sensors...........................................................................16 Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Sensors...........................................................................17 Speed of Sound.........................................................................................................18 Acoustic Interference................................................................................................19 4 DIFFERENCE IN TIME OF FLIGHT...........................................................................21

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v Concept Fundamentals..................................................................................................21 Foundation Equations...............................................................................................22 Solution Verification.................................................................................................24 Solution Singularities................................................................................................25 5 INITIAL PROTOTYPE DESIGN..................................................................................30 Prototype Construction.................................................................................................30 Prototype Testing Results.............................................................................................32 Establishing Proof of Concept..................................................................................32 Improving Prototype Configuration..........................................................................34 6 FINAL PROTOTYPE.....................................................................................................39 7 FINAL ULTRASONIC POSITIONING SYSTEM.......................................................47 Global Position Solution...............................................................................................47 Complete Position System for Multiple Vehicle Control.............................................49 Indoor Testing...............................................................................................................50 8 CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................................56 Overview....................................................................................................................... 56 DTOF Versus TOF/DTOF Methods.............................................................................56 Final Prototype..............................................................................................................57 Multiple Vehicle Control..............................................................................................59 APPENDIX A VERIFICATION CA LCULATION DATA..................................................................60 B LIST OF MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS.........................................................61 Initial Prototype............................................................................................................61 Final Prototype..............................................................................................................61 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................62 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................65

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1.1: Multiple Vehicle System................................................................................................3 2.1: Global Position System Illustration................................................................................5 2.2: Beacon Based Positioning for Aircraft...........................................................................8 2.3: Indoor Landmark Positioning Illustration.......................................................................9 2.4: Incremental Encoder....................................................................................................... 10 2.5: Precision Navigation Inc. Digital Compass....................................................................12 3.1: Ultrasonic Transmitter.................................................................................................... 14 3.2: Illustration of Reflected Ultrasonic Signal.....................................................................14 3.3: Illustration of Transmitter/Receiver Pair........................................................................15 3.4: Illustration of Tran sceiver Configuration.......................................................................16 3.5: Polaroid Electrostatic Transducers.................................................................................17 3.6: Polaroid Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer.................................................................18 4.1: Diagram of DTOF Configuration...................................................................................22 4.2: Emitter Verification Coordinates....................................................................................24 4.3: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in r1 versus x plane................................................................26 4.4: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in r1 versus x plane................................................................26 4.5: Plot of the Quality Index in the y/a versus x/a plane......................................................27 4.6: Quality Index for x/a=0..................................................................................................2 8 4.7: Quality Index for y/a=0..................................................................................................2 8

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vii 5.1: Initial Prototype System Circuitry Overview.................................................................30 5.2: Initial Prototype......................................................................................................... .....31 5.3: Initial Testing Configuration..........................................................................................32 5.4: Calculated Range using DTOF method..........................................................................32 5.5: Calculated x using DTOF method..................................................................................33 5.6: Calculated Range for th e Initial Prototype at r1=10 feet.................................................35 5.7: Calculated x for Initial Prototype at r1=10 feet...............................................................35 5.8: Calculated Range for th e Initial Prototype at r1=15 feet.................................................36 5.9: Calculated x for the Init ial Prototype at r1=15 feet........................................................36 5.10: Calculated Range for the In itial Prototype at r1=20 feet..............................................37 5.11: Calculated Range for the In itial Prototype at r1=20 feet..............................................37 6.1: Final Prototype System Overview..................................................................................40 6.2: Final Prototype Geometry...............................................................................................41 6.3: Testing Configuratio n for Final Prototype......................................................................42 6.4: Measured Range for the Fi nal Prototype at r = 10 feet...................................................43 6.5: Measured x for the Fina l Prototype at r=10 feet.............................................................43 6.6: Measured Range for the Fi nal Prototype at r=15 feet.....................................................44 6.7: Measured x for the Fina l Prototype at r=15 feet.............................................................44 6.8: Measured Range for the Fi nal Prototype at r=20 feet.....................................................45 6.9: Measured x for the Fina l Prototype at r=20 feet.............................................................46 7.1: Overall Ultrasonic Positioning System Diagram............................................................47 7.2: Host Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System........................................................50 7.3: Client Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System......................................................50 7.4: Coordinate system for Client System.............................................................................51 7.5: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +x direction......................................51

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viii 7.6: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +y direction......................................52 7.7: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -x direction......................................53 7.8: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -y direction......................................53 7.9 Ultrasonic Position Sy stem Host Vehicle........................................................................54 7.10: Ultrasonic Position System Client Vehicle...................................................................55 7.11: Following Control using the Ultrasonic Positioning System........................................55 8.1: Calculated x versus y for Ultrason ic Emitter Placed along Different Axes...................58 8.2: Host and Client hardware for Final Prototype................................................................58 8.3: Host and Client Vehicle wi th Ultrasonic Position System.............................................59

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ULTRASONIC POSITIONING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE VEHICLE CONTROL By Donald K. MacArthur May 2003 Chairman: Carl Crane Major Department: Mechanic al and Aerospace Engineering This thesis presents the processes and methods by which an ultrasonic positioning system was developed for the purpose of controlling autono mous/unmanned ground vehicles. The presentation is broken down into the different stages in the design, testing, and implementation process. The system involves various technologi es, and each will be addressed with corresponding background information to allow th e reader insight as to the justification of the design decisions. The development of the ultrasonic positioning system started with the solution of the general problem of position determination. The system was composed of a host agent with several client agents. There were two methods that were used for determining the orientation and range of the host agent relative to the client agents. The first method was the “difference in time of flight” of th e ultrasonic signal. The second method was a

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x combination of the “difference in time of f light” and the “time of flight” methods. The two methods were implemented in hardware and tested. The results from the DTOF experiments showed that the me thod provided relative position solutions of ~ 4 feet at a 20 foot range. These results verified the validity of the DTOF method for relative positioning but lack ed practical applicab ility. The combined DTOF/TOF method produced relati ve position solutions of ~5 inches at a 20 foot range. This method provided the accuracy nece ssary for multiple vehicle system implementation. The DTOF/TOF hardware was implemented on two experimental ground vehicle platforms. Following control was devel oped and implemented using the ultrasonic positioning system. These experiments demonstr ated the capability and applicability of the ultrasonic positioning system for a multiple vehicle system.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION CIMAR Background Personnel at the Center for Intelligen t Machines and Robo tics (CIMAR) have performed extensive research involving se veral areas of Autonomous Ground Vehicle systems. Some areas that have been research ed in the past have been autonomous vehicle controls, autonomous navigation, positioning systems, path planning, environment perception, and sensor processing. In the ar ea of position systems, various systems have been used for the determination of vehicle position and orientation. Concept Foundation Vehicle position can be used for va rious purposes in Autonomous Ground Vehicle research. Knowledge of the location and orient ation of a vehicle provides vehicle state information, which can be ut ilized by numerous algorithms. This information can be used to improve overall vehicle functionality. This information can allow an autonomous agent to map relative features such as obstacles to a global reference frame. This allows map buildi ng and environment knowledge to be extended past the range of the local sensors. Tasks such as sensor fusion for environment perception and mapping, vehicle control, path planning, and following can be performed when global pose information is available. Extensive research has been performed utilizing expensive positioning equipment. There exists a need to harness the power of a small number of expensive positioning

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2 sensors in a multiple agent system to allo w their information to be shared by other vehicles. This concept forms the basis for the ultrasonic positioning system that is developed here. This system would not provi de Global Position solutions in its isolated form, but provide accurate Global Positioning solutions to an entire multiple vehicle system when coupled with more expensiv e hardware. This would provide Global Position solutions at a fraction of the price of equipping each vehicl e with the necessary hardware to attain similar position solutions. The ultrasonic positioning system can al so be used to prov ide relative vehicle information. The system would provide slave systems with relative position information with respect to the master system. In a mu lti-agent system, this positioning system would provide information necessary for di stributed control strategies. Position System Dependence The research that has been performed prev iously at CIMAR in the areas of path planning/execution and vehi cle control has emphasized the requirement of having accurate position information. Previous rese archers have formed a solid foundation on position reliance. In conjunction with previ ous efforts the ultrasonic positioning system seeks to provide multiple position solutions and the ability for the next generation of vehicles to be scaled yet operate under similar foundation principles. A proposed multiple vehicle system would consist of a larger vehicle with a formation of smaller, less expensive vehicles at the periphery (Figure 1.1). This type of system would be beneficial in areas where sensor data is to be collected in areas where the larger vehicle either physic ally cannot enter or it is t oo dangerous to travel. The

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3 smaller vehicles would provide less costly ag ents that could expl ore and cover larger areas faster than a single vehicle. Fig. 1.1: Multiple Vehicle System Problem Definition One objective for this research would be to develop a syst em that utilizes expensive hardware on a host agent for the us e of the overall Multiple Agent system. The general problem can be reduced to solv ing for the global pose of the client agent using the global pose of the host agent and the ultrasonic positioning system Hardware. The result was a system that could provi de position and orientation solutions for every entity within the Multiple Agent syst em. Although there are several hardware systems involved in providing the position solution, the system would operate transparently and appear as if each vehicle had its own independent position system.

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4 CHAPTER 2 POSITION SYSTEMS BACKGROUND This chapter will present background information about several position systems that are conventionally used for autonom ous ground vehicle navigation. Position and orientation information can be relative or gl obal. The knowledge of the global or relative orientation and position of a vehicle provide s the ability to create advanced control strategies and can be used to improve the ove rall perception of a vehi cle’s environment. GPS Introduction Global Position Systems are widely beco ming the position system of choice for autonomous navigation. This technology allows for an agent to de termine its location using broadcasted signals from satellites overhead. The Global Positioning System associated with the United States is maintain ed by the Department of Defense to provide a positioning service for use by the US military [5]. Since its creation, the service has been used for commercial purposes such as nautical, aeronautical, and ground based navigation, and land surveying. The current US based GPS satellite constellation system consists of a 24-satellite system. The number of satellites for this system can vary due to satellites being taken in and out of service. Other countries are leading efforts to develop alternative satellite systems for their own G PS systems. A similar GPS systems is the GLONASS constructed by Russia [5]. Each sa tellite maintains its own specific orbit and circumnavigates earth once every 12 hours. The orbit of each satellite is timed and coordinated so that five to eight satellites are above the horizon of any location on the

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5 surface of earth at any time. Figure 2.1 illu strates the manner by which an autonomous vehicle determines its’ position using GPS. Fig. 2.1: Global Positi on System Illustration Position Solution A GPS receiver calculates position by first receiving the microwave RF signals broadcast by each visible satellite [5]. The signals broadcasted by the satellites are complex high frequency signals with encoded binary information. The encoded binary data contains a large amount of information but mainly contains information about the time that the data was sent and location of the satellite in orbit. The GPS receiver processes this information to solve for its position and current time.

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6 Accuracy and Update Rate GPS receivers typically provide position solutions at 1Hz but GPS receivers can be purchased that output position solutions up to 20Hz. The accuracy of a commercial GPS system without any augmentation is appr oximately 15 meters [8]. Differential GPS is an alternative method by which GPS signals from multiple receivers can be used to obtain higher accuracy position solutions. Differential GPS operates by placing a specialized GPS receiver in a known location and measuring the errors in the position solution and the associated satellite data. The information is then broadcast in the form of correction data so that ot her GPS receivers in the area can calcula te a more accurate position solution. This system is based on the fa ct that there are inhe rent delays as the satellite signals are transmitted through the atmosphere. Localized atmospheric conditions cause the satellite signals within that area to have the same delays. By calculating and broadcasting the correction values for each visible satellite the differential GPS system can attain accuracy from 1mm to 1cm [5]. Recently a new type of GPS correction syst em has been integrated so that a land based correction signal is not required to improve positi on solutions. The Wide Area Augmentation System sends loca lized correction signals from orbiting satellites [7]. Currently this system only covers most of No rth America. This type of system has been used in our research and position solutions with errors of less than three meters have been observed. Beacon Based Position Systems This type of position system is based on determining the position of a mobile agent by actively or passively communicating with devices in the environment. These

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7 devices can range from RF and ultrasonic transmitters to signal reflectors similar to those used for Radar. This system typically reli es on knowledge of beacon positions apriori. With an accurate world map of the locations of the various beacons in the environment, a mobile agent can calculate it s’ position and orientation by using the perceived geometric relationship between the beacons. Shown below in Figure 2.2 is an illustration of a typical beacon configuration for determining the position and orientation of a m obile agent. GPS is a form of space based beacon position system. Typically an autonomou s agent determines the distances and or angles from its position and orientation to the specified beacon and combines this information with that of other beacons. B eacon based position systems can be used for many types of navigation but have limitati ons dependent on their configurations. Historically, aircraft used to perform na vigation by receiving la nd based beacon signals [4]. Each beacon had a specific broadcast fr equency. An aircraft would tune into the broadcast frequencies of the beacons located at the departure and arrival destinations. Using the information derived from relative angles of the beacons, an aircraft could maintain a direct flight path. This syst em caused problems due to the constraint and inefficiency of direct flight paths. This system also required large numbers of beacons to be placed across the country to accommodate typical flight paths. The system also presented problems when traveling across large oceans where intermediate beacons could not be placed.

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8 Fig. 2.2: Beacon Based Positioning for Aircraft Landmark Based Position Systems This form of position system can loosely be described as a system that utilizes the characteristics of a single feature or multiple features of the environment to determine pose information about the respective mob ile agent. The key to landmark based positioning is being able to identify and isolate landmarks or spatial features from the sensor data. Landmark based positioning has been performed previously using panoramic image data. [28] This research utilized panoramic image data for local and global position determination. Landmarks have been used for navigation for hundreds of years. This method provides a basis by which autonomous agents can use their perception of the environment for position determ ination. Figure 2.3 illustrates the use of doorways in an office building for land marks to determine vehicle position.

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9 Fig. 2.3: Indoor Landmark Positioning Illustration The most difficult task for landmark base d positioning is bein g able to process sensor data by extracting and recognizing know n environmental features. These features can vary depending on the environment. I ndoor navigation can use landmarks such as doors, office furniture, and windows. Previous researchers have used reflective strips located strategically throughout a building that could be scanned by the laser of an autonomous agent [14]. An autonomous ag ent can determine position and orientation based on the known locations of each barcode and the relative location of locally perceived barcodes. When landmarks cannot be individually id entified, the relative location of multiple landmarks can be used to determine position and orientation. This

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10 can be accomplished by comparing the combined landmark location and orientation information with a database of all known landmarks. Dead Reckoning Dead Reckoning is another common me thod by which an autonomous agent can perceive its position and orientat ion. There are several types of sensors that can be used to perform Dead Reckoning. These sensor s can vary depending on what physical properties they measure. A common sensor used for autonomous ground vehicles are optical encoders. These sensors measure a ngular displacement due to rotation of wheels or tracks used for propulsion. Figure 2.4 show n below is a picture of an incremental encoder manufactured by BEI T echnologies Incorporated. Fig. 2.4: Incremental Encoder Optical encoders can be classed as eith er incremental or absolute encoders. Incremental encoders produce a specific numbe r of electric signal pulses every time they complete a full angular rotation. Some incremen tal encoders also generate these electric signals in such a way that the pulses and direction of rotation can be determined. Absolute encoders generally only operate w ithin one shaft revolution. These encoders generally have a data bus that has a binary code mapped to every shaft angle. The

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11 resolution of the encoder dictates the size of the binary code required to encompass all angles within the scope of the encoder. The use of an encoder can provide angular position, velocity, and ac celeration information. These sensors can be used to determine the motion of a vehicle by translating the rotational information of the prime mover to the linear tran slation of the vehicle body. These sensors provide information about the mo tion of the vehicle ov er a short period of time but they are plagued by the accumulati on of errors over long periods of time. Position errors occur due mainly to wheel sl ippage. This occurs when there exists a difference between the theoretical motion cause d by the wheels or tracks of a vehicle and the overall motion of the vehicle. Over a short period of time the position solution is tolerant to these small errors but over time the position solution become more dependent on previous position measurements and the errors accumulate dramatically. Another type of commonly used dead r eckoning sensor is a digital compass. These devices use the Earth’s magnetic fi eld to calculate the orientation of the autonomous vehicle. These devices measure the local magnetic field around the vehicle and output resulting heading information. Th ese devices are typica lly augmented with a tilt sensor to compensate for situations when the sensor is not oriented perfectly horizontal to the surface of the Earth. Shown in Figure 2.5 is a digital compass manufactured by Precision Navigation Incorporated.

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12 Fig. 2.5: Precision Navigati on Inc. Digital Compass Inertial Measurement Units or IMUs ar e another form of dead-reckoning device commonly used in robotics [12,13,21]. Thes e devices measure the acceleration of the motion of the mobile agent. This informati on can be integrated to provide velocity and position information. These devices can also be used to measure the local gravity vector, which can be used in calculating the orient ation of the vehicle. These systems have similar problems with error propagation as wheel or track encoders. When deriving position based on the accumulated past motions of the vehicle, position solutions tend to accumulate errors over long periods of time.

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13 CHAPTER 3 ULTRASONICS BACKGROUND Ultrasonic systems have been used prev iously in robotics research for position and orientation determination [1,2,11,13,16,17,18,19,26,27,29]. The systems discussed in these references vary in their sensor c onfigurations yet all rely on the properties of ultrasonic wave propagation through air. Solutions have been developed where the Time-of-Flight, and Differences in the Time -of-Flight of the ultrasonic waveform are used for position and orientation determina tion. Both systems have advantages and disadvantage depending on the particular application. Ultrasonic Ranging Systems Typical ultrasonic Ranging systems operate by using sensors composed of either a transmitter/receiver pair or a single transducer. The systems operate by using the inherent wave propagation properties of the selected medium. The range determination process consists of creating the ultrasoni c wave, receiving the ultrasonic wave, and calculating the time difference between transmit ting and receiving the ultrasonic signal. A transducer is different from a transmitter/receiver pair in that the same surface is used to create and receive the ultrasonic waves. Transmitting Ultrasonic Waves The transmitter or transducer is comp osed of electromechanical components. When transmitting, an electrical signal is supplied to the sensor. The internal components of the sensor convert the electrical signal to a physical form and activate an open medium surface. This oscillating physic al surface creates the ultrasonic Waves.

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14 The oscillating surface creates a pressure varia tion and ultimately a pressure wave with a frequency equal to that of the surface oscillation. Figur e 3.1 illustrates the method by which the ultrasonic signal is generated. Fig. 3.1: Ultrasonic Transmitter Receiving Ultrasonic Waves The pressure wave travels outward from the transmitter surfac e until it encounters a physical surface. To simplify the discussi on, assume that the transmitter surface and reflection surface are flat, inline, and parallel. The pressure waves then are reflected back in the opposite direction until they reach the receiver/tra nsducer surface. Figure 3.2 illustrates the method by which ultrasoni c waves are reflected and processed. Fig. 3.2: Illustration of Re flected Ultrasonic Signal

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15 Ultrasonic Ranging Configurations For typical ranging applications, there exist two configurations for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals The typical inexpensive ra nging system configurations consist of a paired transmitter and receiver [6]. In this configuration the ultrasonic signal is produced by the transmitter and associated circuitry. The ultrasonic signal is then received by a separate receiving device and circuitry. For this configuration the transmitter surface and the receiver surface are se parate. This configuration is illustrated in Figure 3.3. Fig. 3.3: Illustration of Transmitter/Receiver Pair The second configuration consists of a system with separate transmitter and receiver circuitry yet with a common sensor su rface [23]. The device used by this type of system is referred to as a tran sceiver due to its ability to transmit and receive ultrasonic signals. These devices are generally more expensive than the transmitter/receiver pairs and require different circuitry to be able to transmit and receive on the same line. Figure 3.4 illustrates the transceiver configuration.

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16 Fig. 3.4: Illustration of Transceiver Configuration Types of Ultrasonic Sensors The three categories of ultrasonic sensors are transmitters, receivers, and transceivers. There is another feature of u ltrasonic sensors that distinguish each other besides the specified categories. Most common ultrasonic sensors can be further separated into two groups depending on the phys ical construction of the sensor and the way by which the sensor converts back and forth from electrical signals to acoustic signals. The most common types of ultras onic sensors consist of Electrostatic and Piezoelectric sensors. Electrostatic Ultrasonic Sensors Electrostatic ultrasonic sensor s operate similar to an el ectrical capacitor. These sensors usually are composed of a fixed conductive plate and a free metallic surface coated with a layer of insulati on that separates the two plates. When an electric potential is placed across the fixed conductive plate, th e free metallic surface is pulled against the

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17 fixed plate. When an oscillati ng electrical potential is applied to the fixed plate, the free plate oscillates at a similar frequency there by creating acoustic pre ssure waves. When receiving an ultrasonic signa l, the Electrostatic ultras onic sensors produce a varying capacitance created by the pressure waves hitting the free metal lic surface. Figure 3.5 is an example of several Electrostatic ultras onic sensors manufactured by Polaroid Corp. Fig. 3.5: Polaroid Electrostatic Transducers Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Sensors Piezoelectric ultrasonic Sensor s are composed of a Piezo material and an acoustic surface. The Piezo material can either be a crystal or ceramic. The Piezo material is attached to the acoustic surface such that a ny physical changes in the geometry of the material will affect the acoustic surface. When an electrical potential is placed across the Piezo material the geometry changes thereby disturbing the acoustic surface. When an oscillating electrical potential is placed acr oss the Piezo material, the acoustic surface generates an acoustic signal. When receivi ng an ultrasonic signal, the ultrasonic waves

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18 strike the acoustic surface th ereby compressing the Piezo material. The Piezo material emits electrons when compressed thereby crea ting an electrical signal. Figure 3.6 shows a Piezoelectric ultrasonic Transducer manufactured by Polaroid Corp. Fig. 3.6: Polaroid Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer The main difference between the operation of these particular Electrostatic ultrasonic sensors and the Piezo electric ultrasonic sensors is the ability to measure an ultrasonic signal from the sensor with or w ithout external circuitr y. The Electrostatic sensor requires a 200 Volt potential across th e sensor while measuring the ultrasonic signal whereas the piezoelectric sensor can ge nerate its own signal. This is important when dealing with passive sensors that are used solely for listening. Speed of Sound To measure range using ultrasonic sensor s, generally the time is measured between the transmission and reception of th e ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic pulse travels at a relatively constant speed th rough the air. By multiplying this physical

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19 constant by the flight time of the ultras onic pulse, the total distance traveled by the ultrasonic pulse can be determined. This c onstant speed is the speed of sound though air at the current air temperature. [25] defines the speed of sound at a particular temperature as shown in Equation 3.1. 273 T 1 C C0 T Eq. 3.1 where: CT = speed of sound at specified temperature C0 = speed of sound at 0 C T = temperature in degrees C Typically the air temperature is the main factor determining the propagation speed of sound. When using ultrasonic sensors other factors such as air turbulence, convective currents, atmospheric pressure, and humidity ha ve slight affects in sensor readings. For most testing environments, the other factors can be ignored and the speed of sound can be determined solely from air temperature. Acoustic Interference Range measurements derived from ultras onic signals can be affected by acoustic interference. The measurements will be a ffected when the environmental acoustic noise has similar frequency to that of the ultrason ic signal frequency. This causes problems by preventing the measurement hardware from di stinguishing between th e ultrasonic signal and the background noise. This noise can cause the system to become inoperable in the environment or induce random error in the m easurement readings. Careful consideration

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20 must be made if the environment contains noi se with frequency content around that of the ultrasonic equipment.

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21 CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENCE IN TIME OF FLIGHT This chapter will describe a method by which the orientation and range of an ultrasonic emitter relative to a linear array of ultrasonic receivers can be obtained. Previous research [16] performed at the University of Florida involved ultrasonic positioning systems that used time of flight methods. These methods assumed that the time that the ultrasonic emitters were fired wa s known. The Difference in Time of Flight method was developed to investigate the pa ssive method of determining position using only the ultrasonic pulse sent from the emitter. Linear arrays of sensors are commonly used for RF and Sonar applications. Signal processing for passive sonar arrays allo w for spectral and spatial information to be determined from an emitter source [10]. Concept Fundamentals The difference in time of flight deri vation is based on determining the two dimensional position of an ultrasonic emitter re lative to a three element linear array of ultrasonic receivers. Th e basis of the DTOF derivation is the Pythagorean theorem. The derivation references the diagram shown in Figure 4.1.

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22 Fig. 4.1: Diagram of DTOF Configuration where: ri = distance from ultrasonic emitter to receiver i a = receiver array separation distance The diagram defines several quantities th at are used for the DTOF derivation. Foundation Equations The derivation is based on the fo llowing three equations relating ri with the x and y coordinates of the ultrasonic emitter: 2 2 2 1y x r Eq. 4.1 2 2 2 2y ) a x ( r Eq. 4.2 2 2 2 3y ) a x ( r Eq. 4.3 The terms r12 and r13 are defined as 2 1 12r r r Eq. 4.4

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23 3 1 13r r r Eq. 4.5 and equations 4.2 and 4.3 can be re-expressed as 2 2 2 12 1y ) a x ( ) r r ( Eq. 4.6 2 2 2 13 1y ) a x ( ) r r ( Eq. 4.7 Utilizing the difference in time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse, the quantities r12 and r13 can be obtained. Equations 4.1, 4.6, a nd 4.7 are now in terms of the three unknowns r1, x, and y. Subtracting e quation 4.1 from equation 4.6 yields 2 2 2 1 2 12 1x ) a x ( r ) r r ( Eq 4.8 Expanding and regrouping this equation gives 2 2 12 12 1a ax 2 r r r 2 Eq. 4.9 2 12 2 12 1r a r r 2 ax 2 Eq. 4.10 Subtracting equation 4.1 from equation 4.7 yields 2 2 2 1 2 13 1x ) a x ( r ) r r ( Eq. 4.11 Expanding and regrouping this equation gives 2 2 13 13 1a ax 2 r r r 2 Eq. 4.12 2 13 2 13 1r a r r 2 ax 2 Eq. 4.13 Equations 4.10 and 4.13 now form two lin ear equations in te rms of the unknowns r1 and x. These two equations can be written in matrix form as 2 13 2 2 12 2 1 13 12r a r a r x r 2 a 2 r 2 a 2 Eq. 4.14

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24 Solving for r1 and x yields ) r r ( 2 a 2 r r r13 12 2 2 13 2 12 1 Eq. 4.15 a 4 ) r r ( r r a 2 r r r r x13 12 13 12 2 2 13 2 12 2 13 2 12 Eq. 4.16 With explicit equations for x and r1, y can be calculated by using Eq. 4.1 as 2 2 1x r y Eq. 4.17 This equation leaves some ambiguity about the sign of the y component of the emitter position. This is caused by geometry chosen for the receiver array and the assumption that the receivers ar e omni-directional. This problem is remedied when the system is implemented in hardware. Solution Verification To verify that the equations are valid for emitter placement w ithin the first two quadrants of the Cartesian coordinate system, the emitter coordinates were selected as shown in Figure 4.2. Emitter x and y Coordinates 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 -3-2-10123 xy Fig. 4.2: Emitter Verification Coordinates

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25 The coordinates were used to calculate r1, r12, and r13 assuming a=1 and positive y values. The values for x, y, and r1 were back calculated using the derived equations 4.15, 4.16, and 4.17. The resu lts obtained showed that the actual and calculated values for x, y, and r1 matched exactly. The results for the above calculation are listed in Appendix A. Solution Singularities When constrained to the first two quadran ts in the Cartesian coordinate system, equations 4.15 and 4.16 can provide unique solutions for r1 and x except for when y=0 and |x|>a. When y=0 the emitter is located along the x-axis. As an example, if the emitter’s x coordinate is positive, the terms r12 = -a and r13 = a. This causes a singularity in the position solution of the emitter where the solutions for r1 and x become indeterminate as follows: 0 0 ) a a ( 2 a 2 a a r2 2 2 1 Eq. 4.18 0 0 a 4 ) a a ( a a a 2 a a a a x2 2 2 2 2 Eq. 4.19 Upon analysis of the singularity it ha s been observed that when y=0 and |x|>a any change in either x or r1 causes no change in r12 or r13. This becomes the limiting factor for this array geometry. The matrix equation 4. 14 can be visualized as two lines in the x and r1 plane. The intersection of these two lines defines the position solution of the emitter. The equations of the two lines can be written as 12 2 12 2 1r 2 ax 2 r a r Eq. 4.20

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26 13 2 13 2 1r 2 ax 2 r a r Eq. 4.21 Figure 4.3 displays the plot of equations 4.20 and 4.21 for a sample emitter position (x=0, y=3) assuming a=1. r1 versus x for Emitter Position (x=0, y=3) -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 -4-3-2-101234 r1x Eq. 4.20 Eq. 4.21 Fig. 4.3: Plot of Eq. 4.20 a nd 4.21 in r1 versus x plane When y=0 and |x|>a, a singularity is reach ed and there is no unique solution for x and r1 that satisfy the given r12 and r13. Figure 4.4 displays a plot of equations 4.20 and 4.21 for a sample emitter position (x=0, y=3) assuming a=1. r1 versus x for Emitter Position (x=3, y=0) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -4-3-2-101234 xr1 Eq. 4.20 Eq. 4.21 Fig. 4.4: Plot of Eq. 4.20 a nd 4.21 in r1 versus x plane

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27 Figure 4.4 shows that the two lines are coincident. This implies that the two lines are also linearly dependent. For further an alysis a unitized qualit y index was derived to quantify the linear dependence of Eq. 4.20 a nd 4.21 for all points in the first two quadrants of the Cartesian coordinate system The quality index is defined as Q where 13 121 1 Q Eq. 4.22 and where ij = rij / a Eq. 4.23 This quality index established a method for determining the strength of a position solution for different regions of the input sp ace. Figure 4.5 shows a plot of the quality index for various points on th e y/a versus x/a plane. Fig. 4.5: Plot of the Quality In dex in the y/a versus x/a plane

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28 To illustrate the quality of specific regi ons of the input space, two dimensional plots were created to show the quality index for specific cases. Figure 4.6 shows a plot of the quality index for x/a=0. Figure 4.7 show s a plot of the quality index for y/a=0. Quality Index verus y/a0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0246810 y/aQ Fig. 4.6: Quality Index for x/a=0 Quality Index versus x/a0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 -5-3-1135 x/aQ Fig. 4.7: Quality Index for y/a=0

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29 The figures show that as the emitter is pl aced farther from the center receiver, the quality index decreases. For the case when y=0, the quality index drops to zeros at |x|=a. This implies that the strongest solution at ranges greater than the array separation occur when the emitter is located such that the pa th from the emitter to the center receiver is perpendicular to the receiver array.

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30 CHAPTER 5 INITIAL PROTOTYPE DESIGN This chapter will present the design process used and explain the hardware and software used to develop the initial prototype system. The basic system specifications were established before the system was designe d. It was estimated that the system should be able to output position solutions at a rate greater than 1 Hz, which has been a standard for most of the positioning systems that have been used at the University of Florida for autonomous vehicle navigation in the past. The system was to provide the highest resolution attainable with considerations made for increased cost versus resolution. Prototype Construction The operating principles of this prot otype rely on the Difference in Time-ofFlight method discussed earlier The prototype was designed to test the DTOF concept and to test the resolution of initial circuit designs. The prototype consisted of a Motorola 68HC11 microprocessor, an RC servomotor, a nd ultrasonic signal proc essing circuitry. Figure 5.1 shows an outline of the overall hardware configurations. Fig 5.1: Initial Prototype System Circuitry Overview

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31 The signal processing circuitry consisted of an analog front-end that filtered and amplified the signal, and digita l threshold circuitry. This combination allowed the signal to be converted from three analog signals to th ree binary signals. The binary signals were processed by the microcontroller and a time st amp was associated w ith the intercept of the ultrasonic signal by the three receivers. The microcontroller processed the time stamps for each signal, which was then sent to the Host PC. The Host PC processed th e data and calculated the position solution. The prototype addressed the issues of th e symmetry of the DTOF solution and the existence of singularities. The symmetry was addressed by the very nature of the ultrasonic sensors that were used. The re sponse of the ultrasonic sensors was very directional in nature allowing for the solution to be known a pr iori that if an intercept occurred that the solution exists in the pos itive y region where the sensors are facing. The RC servomotor addressed th e singularities by orienting the linear array perpendicular to the incoming signal. This solved the si ngularity issue and the problems with the directional nature of the sensors. By orienting the sensors towards the ultrasonic transmitter, the system maximized the signal strength and the solution quality. Figure 5.2 shows the initial prototype fully constructed. Fig. 5.2: Initial Prototype

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32 Prototype Testing Results Establishing Proof of Concept The purpose of the initial testing was to obt ain results verifying the validity of the DTOF method. The first tests were conducted with an array separation a=3 inches. The emitter was placed perpendicular to the overall frame of the system at a range of five feet. Figure 5.3 shows a diagram of the testing c onfiguration used for the initial prototype. Fig. 5.3: Initial Te sting Configuration Figure 5.4 shows the calculated range of an emitter using the DTOF method. Calculated Range versus Sample Number -400.00 -200.00 0.00 200.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 1000.00 1200.00 1400.001 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 111 121 131 141 151Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 5.4: Calculated Range using DTOF method

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33 In this figure the x-axis represents th e sample number and the y-axis represents the estimated range in inches. The transient in the starting samples is due to the fact that the array was not initially facing the ultrasonic transmitter and the RC servomotor had to orient the array to the transmitter. The aver age was calculated to be 106.63 inches, with a standard deviation of 224.57 inches. The data shows that the solution does produce viable results but the resolution and accuracy of the solution was not useful for our applications. Figure 5.5 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter using the DTOF method. Calculated x versus Sample Number -30.00 -20.00 -10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.001 10 19 28 37 46 55 64 73 82 91 100 109 118 127 136 145Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 5.5: Calculated x using DTOF method The results for the calculated x value of the ultrasonic emitter were promising. The range results had significant noise but followed a general trend towards the actual range value. The calculated x values fo llowed the actual value closely with a few sporadic readings.

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34 Improving Prototype Configuration It was found that the DTOF method is highl y dependent on the R/a ratio were R is the distance of the ultrasonic transmitter to the center of the ultrasonic Receiver array and a was the receiver array spacing. As the R/a ra tio increases, the resolution of the solution is more dependent on the resolution of the tim e stamp and exact sensor intercept times. Errors introduced by the resolution of the tim e stamp and delays in the analog circuitry affect the solution greater as the R/a ratio increases. This implies that the DTOF method is ideal in applications were there is a good balance between reso lution and accuracy of the ultrasonic signal hardware and the maximum range/array spacing ratio. To prove this point further, the prot otype was modified so that the array separation was now 12 inches. The experime nts were conducted again at 10, 15, and 20 foot ranges. In this setup the array was fi xed to a platform and the ultrasonic transmitter was placed perpendicular to th e array and at the specified range. Figure 5.6 shows the calculated range results for th e 10-foot testing setup. Fi gure 5.7 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for the 10-foot testing setup. Figure 5.8 shows the calculated range result s for the 15-foot testing setup. Figure 5.9 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for the 15-foot testing setup. The data for the x position of the ultrasonic emitter shown in the previous figure indicates a significant constant offset. This can be attributed to misalignment of the receiver array during testing. Figure 5.10 s hows the calculated range results for the 20foot testing setup. Figure 5. 11 shows the calculated x coordi nate of the ultrasonic emitter for the 20-foot testing setup.

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35 Calculated range versus Sample Number 108.00 110.00 112.00 114.00 116.00 118.00 120.00 122.00 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 5.6: Calculated Range fo r the Initial Prototype at r1=10 feet Calculated x versus Sample Number -0.90 -0.80 -0.70 -0.60 -0.50 -0.40 -0.30 -0.20 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 5.7: Calculated x fo r Initial Prototype at r1=10 feet

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36 Calculated Range versus Sample Number 125.00 145.00 165.00 185.00 205.00 225.00 245.00 265.00 285.00 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 5.8: Calculated Range fo r the Initial Prototype at r1=15 feet Calculated x versus Sample Number-9.00 -8.50 -8.00 -7.50 -7.00 -6.50 -6.00 -5.50 -5.00 -4.50 -4.00 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample Numberx (in) Fig. 5.9: Calculated x for the Initial Prototype at r1=15 feet

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37 Calculated Range versus Sample Number 150.00 170.00 190.00 210.00 230.00 250.00 270.00 290.00 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 5.10: Calculated Range for th e Initial Prototype at r1=20 feet Calculated x versus Sample Number -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 151101151201251301351401451501 Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 5.11: Calculated Range for th e Initial Prototype at r1=20 feet

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38 The results from these three experiments verified that the DT OF method could be implemented in a real system. The results showed that the accuracy for the range degraded as the range was increased. This verified the validity of the R/a discussion earlier. The results for the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter were extremely promising. The results showed that the calcu lated x coordinate data did not vary more than 2 inches over the cour se of the entire testing ranges. These experiments verified the foundati on equations of the DTOF method and also brought about several observations. It was observed that the R/a ratio had a significant effect on the accuracy of range calculations. It was also observed that the accuracy of the range calculations were not within tolerable levels at r1=20 feet. The accuracy of the x coordinate calculati ons were very promising even at r1=20 feet. This implies that the DTOF method is more appropr iate for calculating the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter versus calculating the range.

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39 CHAPTER 6 FINAL PROTOTYPE The initial prototype established the foundation for determining the relative position of the ultrasonic emitter with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array. This method was developed such that the relativ e position could be determined without knowledge of the actual time at which the ultr asonic pulse was generated. The initial prototype produced relative positi on solutions with accuracies of ~ 2 feet for the 20 foot range tests. Although the error seemed high for the working area envelop, the accuracy of the calculated x position was on the order of inches for the 20 foot range tests. This implied that the DTOF method was very good at determining the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter yet there existed signi ficant error for the range calculation. To improve the overall position solution, it was desired to improve the range calculation. Introducing the know ledge of the actual time at which the ultrasonic pulse was generated could improve range calcu lations. Improving the range calculation accuracy using the DTOF me thod required improving the accuracy of the determining intercept time. This would involve more e xpensive circuitry and a significant amount of additional experimentation. It was desired to find a soluti on that would provide improved range measurements without extensive redesign of the system circuitry. [16] involved measuring the exact time the ultrasonic pulse was generated by using Infrared transmitters and receivers. The system opera ted by transmitting an Infrared signal at the same time as the ultrasonic pulse. Assuming that the time that it took for the Infrared signal to travel was insignificant due to th e speed of light, the actual time that the

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40 ultrasonic pulse was sent could be determined. This allowed for the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse to be easily calculated. There existed several problems with the Infr ared system. Due to the high Infrared spectral content of sunlight, th e Infrared system was inoperabl e in regular to high sunlight levels. The Infrared system that was used was also highly dire ctional requiring the transmitter to be pointed directly at the receiver. Both of these issues were resolved by using an RF transmitter and receiver pair Using an omnidirectional antenna, the transmitter sent an RF signal, which could be received in any direction. The RF signal traveled at such a high velocity, the time of flight of the RF signal could be neglected. This configuration allowed for highly accura te range measurements to be taken. Combining this with the equations deri ved using the DTOF method; accurate measurements for the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter could also be obtained. Figure 6.1 shows a diagram of the overall TOF/DTOF system. Fig. 6.1: Final Protot ype System Overview The system no longer required three ultr asonic emitters to produce the relative position of the ultrasonic emitter. The system now used the RF transmitter and receiver

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41 along with two ultrasonic receiv ers to calculate the distance fr om the ultrasonic emitter to each ultrasonic receiver. Figure 6.2 shows a diagram of the geometry of the time of flight/difference in time of flight problem. Fig. 6.2: Final Prototype Geometry The emitter distances r1 and r2 can be calculated directly by scaling the time of flight measurements. It thus remains to determine the location of the emitter whose coordinates will be referred to as (x ,y) in terms of the range distances r1 and r2 and the separation distance a. The followi ng two equations can be written 2 2 2 1y 2 a x r Eq. 6.1 2 2 2 2y 2 a x r Eq. 6.2 Subtracting equation 6.1 fr om equation 6.2 yields 2 2 2 1 2 22 a x 2 a x r r Eq. 6.3

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42 Expanding this equation and regrouping yields 2 x a + r1 2 – r2 2 = 0 Eq. 6.4 Solving for x gives a 2 r r x2 1 2 2 Eq. 6.5 Corresponding values for y2 can be obtained from either equation 6.1 or 6.2. Again, y is double valued, but in this case the positive value can be assumed to be the correct solution. Experiments were conducted to m easure the calculated range, i.e. 2 2y x and x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter. The final prototype system was configured with the same overall array size during the tests. To maintain the same overall array size, the receivers were placed two feet apart. The ultrasonic emitter was placed perpendicular to the receiver array and th e tests were conducted at the same ranges as those of the DTOF experiments. Figure 6.3 shows a diagram of the testing configuration for the final prototype. Fig. 6.3: Testing Configur ation for Final Prototype

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43 Figure 6.4 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 10 feet. Figure 6.5 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 10 feet. Measured Range versus Sample Number 120.2 120.3 120.4 120.5 120.6 120.7 120.81 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 6.4: Measured Range for th e Final Prototype at r = 10 feet Measured x versus Sample Number 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 41 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 6.5: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=10 feet

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44 Figure 6.6 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 15 feet. Figure 6.7 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 15 feet. Measured Range versus Sample Number 180.5 180.55 180.6 180.65 180.7 180.75 180.81 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 6.6: Measured Range for th e Final Prototype at r=15 feet Measured x versus Sample Number -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.51 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 6.7: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=15 feet

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45 Figure 6.8 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 20 feet. Figure 6.9 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 20 feet. Measured Range versus Sample Number241 241.2 241.4 241.6 241.8 242 242.2 242.4 242.6 242.81 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample NumberRange (in) Fig. 6.8: Measured Range for th e Final Prototype at r=20 feet The results showed that the combined TOF/DTOF design had a significant improvement in overall system performan ce compared with the DTOF design. The addition of an inexpensive RF transmitter and receiver pair allowed for increased system performance and a reduction in system complexity.

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46 Measured x versus Sample Number -20 -10 0 10 20 30 401 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 1001 1101 1201 1301 1401 1501 1601 1701 1801 1901Sample Numberx (in ) Fig. 6.9: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=20 feet

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47 CHAPTER 7 FINAL ULTRASONIC POSITIONING SYSTEM Global Position Solution The DTOF and TOF/DTOF prototypes have thus far only been able to measure the relative range and orientation of the ultrasonic emitter with respect to the receiver array. The two prototypes have solved th e relative range and or ientation problem but have not solved the global position problem. The relative range and orientation of the ultrasonic emitter to the receiver array cannot alone be used to calculate the global position of the receiver array given the global position of the ultrasonic emitter. The ultimate goal of the ultrasonic position syst em was to develop a system that could determine the global position of the recei ver array given the global position and orientation of the ultrasonic emitter. Figure 7.1 shows a diagram of the overall ultrasonic position system problem. Fig. 7.1: Overall Ultrasonic Positioning System Diagram

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48 The diagram shown above assumes that th e global orientation of the host vehicle and the client vehicle are known. The problem is defined below. Given: TF 1, the position and orientation of coor dinate system 1 with respect to the fixed coordinate system RF 2, the orientation of coordinate sy stem 2 with respect to the fixed coordinate system orig 1 2P, the coordinates of the origin of coordinate system 1 measured with respect to coordinate system 2 Find: TF 2, the position and orientation of coor dinate system 2 with respect to the fixed coordinate system The term TF 1 and orig 1 2P are obtained from the orientation and position system hardware located on the host vehicle. The term RF 2is obtained by a global orientation sensor located onboard the client vehicle. The coordinates of the origin of the first coordinate system are given in terms of both the fixed and second coordinate sy stems. Thus it may be written that origin 1 2 F 2 origin 1 FP T P Eq. 7.1 where: 1 0 0 0 P R Torig 2 F F 2 F 2 Eq. 7.2

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49 origin 1 FP is known since TF 1is given and therefore the only unknown in equation 7.2 is orig 2 FP, the origin of the second coordinate system as measured in the fixed coordinate system. Equation 7.2 may be rewritten without using homogeneous coordinates as orig 2 F orig 1 2 F 2 origin 1 FP P R P Eq. 7.3 Solving for orig 2 FP gives orig 1 2 F 2 orig 1 F orig 2 FP R P P Eq. 7.4 This solution provides the equations to cal culate the global position of the client vehicle given the global orientat ion of the client vehicle, the global position of the host vehicle, and the relative or ientation provided by the ultras onic software and hardware. Complete Position System for Multiple Vehicle Control In order to utilize the ab ove equations, additional ha rdware was required for the overall system. Digital compasses were a dded to the system to provide the global orientation data. The ultrasonic receiver array was attached to a pan/tilt device so that the angle of array could be controlled. The pan/ tilt device contained potentiometers so that the orientation could be measured. The fi gures below show the system implemented on two mobile test vehicles. Figure 7.2 shows th e Host system equipped with an ultrasonic transmitter array, RF transmitter, and associated hardware. Figure 7.3 shows the Client system equipped with the ultrasonic Receiver array, pan/tilt devi ce, and associated hardware.

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50 Fig. 7.2: Host Portion of th e Ultrasonic Positioning System Fig. 7.3: Client Portion of th e Ultrasonic Positioning System Indoor Testing In order to evaluate the new system, measurements were taken with the host system placed at specific distances from the client system. The client system would

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51 home the pan/tilt device and rotate the ultr asonic receiver array towards the ultrasonic emitter. Figure 7.4 shows a diagram of the coordinate system for the client system. Fig. 7.4: Coordinate system for Client System Figure 7.5 shows the results for the host system placed along the +x direction relative to the client system. Calculated x versus y -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 051015202530 x (ft)y(ft) 5 feet 10 feet 15 feet 20 feet 25 feet Fig. 7.5: Calculated Position of Ho st System Placed along +x direction

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52 Figure 7.6 shows the results for the host system placed along the +y direction relative to the client system. Calculated x versus y 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -15-10-5051015 x (ft)y (ft) 5 feet 10 feet 15 feet 20 feet 25 feet Fig. 7.6: Calculated Position of Ho st System Placed along +y direction Figure 7.7 shows the results for the host system placed along the -x direction relative to the client system. Figure 7.8 shows the results for the host system placed along the -y direction relative to the client system. When compared with the results from the array testing without the pan/tilt, there is a significant amount of erro r introduced by the angle read ing of the pan/tilt device. Implementing a more accurate method such as an angular encoder for determining angular position of the receive r array would reduce the error significantly for this system.

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53 Calculated x versus y -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 -30-25-20-15-10-50 x (ft)y (ft) 5 feet 10 feet 15 feet 20 feet 25 feet Fig. 7.7: Calculated Position of Ho st System Placed along -x direction Calculated x versus y -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 -15-10-5051015 x (ft)y (ft) 5 feet 10 feet 15 feet 20 feet 25 feet Fig. 7.8: Calculated Position of Ho st System Placed along -y direction

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54 The host and client systems were impl emented onto a set of mobile ground vehicle test platforms. Figure 7.9 shows the host vehicle with the associated ultrasonic and RF transmitters and additional hardware. Figure 7.10 shows the client vehicle with the ultrasonic receiver array ha rdware and the pan/tilt device. Fig. 7.9 Ultrasonic Position System Host Vehicle To demonstrate the ultrasonic position system implemented on a ground vehicle system, the host and client systems were conf igured such that the client vehicle would follow the host vehicle at a specific distance. Figure 7.11 illustra tes the dynamic testing for the ultrasonic position system. Movies were recorded for multiple tests of the implemented ultrasonic position system on the Host and Client vehicles. Although the control algorithm used for the vehicle following using the ultrasonic posit ioning system was not complex it still demonstrated the potential the ultrasonic positio n system and future research in this area.

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55 Fig. 7.10: Ultrasonic Pos ition System Client Vehicle Fig. 7.11: Following Control using the Ultrasonic Positioning System

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56 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS Overview The goal of the ultrasonic position system was to deve lop a system that could provide global position solutions for a multip le vehicle system. This system would utilize high precision positioning hardware located on the Host system. The information would be shared between the Client systems in the group. The goal was for all of the Client systems to determine their global posi tion solution utilizing the ultrasonic position system hardware along with the position inform ation from the Host system. The system was designed to be unaffected by an increase or decrease in Client vehicles within the multiple vehicle system. The Host system was based on an omnidirectional ultrasonic Transmitter array with associated hardware. The Client system was based on a directional ultrasonic receiver array with a ssociated hardware. The entire system was built upon the capability of determining the relative range and orientation of the ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array. DTOF Versus TOF/DTOF Methods The first part of the ultrasonic positioni ng system that needed to be established was determining the relative positioning of the ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array. Two methods were developed to achieve this ca pability. The Difference in Time of Flight method calculate d the relative range a nd orientation of the ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array by using the difference in the time at which each ultras onic receiver intercepted the ultrasonic pulse

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57 sent by the ultrasonic emitter. This method did not re quire the knowledge of when the ultrasonic pulse was sent. The results from the DTOF prototype were encouraging but had significant error in the range calculations. The final prototype utilized a combina tion of the DTOF and Time of Flight methods. The addition of an RF transmitter and receiver pair allowed for the Client system to know exactly when the ultrasonic pu lse was fired. In this system, the Host system would fire the RF transmitter and th e ultrasonic emitter at the same time. The Client system would receive the RF signa l almost instantly and began timing the ultrasonic signal. When the signal arrived, the relative orientation and position of the Host system was calculated. When compar ed with the DTOF method, the TOF/DTOF method provided a dramatic improvement in system performance requiring only the addition of an RF transmitter and receiver pair. Final Prototype The final prototype was based on the TO F/DTOF method. The Host system consisted of an RF transmitter, semi-omnidirectional ultrasonic emitter, and associated hardware. The client system consisted of an ultrasonic receiver arra y, pan/tilt device, RF receiver and associated hardware. The sy stem operated by orienting the ultrasonic receiver array perpendicular to the direction towards the ultrasonic emitter. This maximized signal strength and provided the be st position solutions. Figure 8.1 shows the results of experiments where the ultrasonic emitter was placed at different ranges and orientations with respect to the Client base platform.

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58 Calculated x versus y -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 -30-20-100102030 x (ft)y (ft) Fig. 8.1: Calculated x versus y for Ul trasonic Emitter Placed along Different Axes Figure 8.2 shows the Host and Client system hardware. Fig. 8.2: Host and Client hardware for Final Prototype

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59 Multiple Vehicle Control The Host and Client hardware were im plemented on two research ground vehicle platforms. Control software was written to enable the Client vehicle to follow the Host vehicle at a specific distance. Movies were taken of the multiple vehicle system, which demonstrated the preliminary capability of the ultrasonic position system. Figure 8.3 shows the Host and Client vehicle with the implemented ultrasonic position system hardware. Fig. 8.3: Host and Client Vehicl e with Ultrasonic Position System In conclusion, this research has investigated and implemented the DTOF and TOF/DTOF method for determining the orient ation and range of an ultrasonic emitter with respect to an ultrason ic receiver array. The DTOF method was established and produced desirable results. To improve the overall system performance, the TOF/DTOF method was implemented. This system had an increase in performance compared with the DTOF implementation by simply adding an RF transmitter and receiver pair. The TOF/DTOF system was implemented on a multiple vehicle system and following control was established.

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60 APPENDIX A VERIFICATION CALCULATION DATA xCalculated xyCalculated yr1Calculated r1delta12delta13 00.000011.000011-0.414214-0.414214 00.000022.000022-0.236068-0.236068 00.000033.000033-0.162278-0.162278 11.000011.00001.4142141.414213562-0.8218540.414214 11.000022.00002.2360682.236067977-0.5923590.236068 11.000033.00003.1622783.16227766-0.4432740.162278 22.000011.00002.2360682.236067977-0.926210.821854 22.000022.00002.8284272.828427125-0.7771240.592359 22.000033.00003.6055513.605551275-0.6370890.443274 33.000011.00003.1622783.16227766-0.9608280.92621 33.000022.00003.6055513.605551275-0.8665850.777124 33.000033.00004.2426414.242640687-0.7573590.637089 -1-1.000011.00001.4142141.4142135620.414214-0.821854 -1-1.000022.00002.2360682.2360679770.236068-0.592359 -1-1.000033.00003.1622783.162277660.162278-0.443274 -2-2.000011.00002.2360682.2360679770.821854-0.92621 -2-2.000022.00002.8284272.8284271250.592359-0.777124 -2-2.000033.00003.6055513.6055512750.443274-0.637089 -3-3.000011.00003.1622783.162277660.92621-0.960828 -3-3.000022.00003.6055513.6055512750.777124-0.866585 -3-3.000033.00004.2426414.2426406870.637089-0.757359

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61 APPENDIX B LIST OF MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS Initial Prototype 1. Motorola 68HC11 EVBU 2. Polaroid 6500 Ultrasonic Ranging Modules 3. Polaroid 9000 Series Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers 4. Polaroid 600 Series Electrostatic Ultrasonic Transducers Final Prototype 1. Motorola 68HC11 EVBU 2. Polaroid 6500 Ultrasonic Ranging Modules 3. Polaroid 9000 Series Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers 4. Polaroid 600 Series Electrostatic Ultrasonic Transducers 5. RF Monolithics, Inc. RFM3000 Transceiver Modules

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62 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Abreu, J. M., Ceres, R., Caldern, L., Jimnez, M. A., Gonzlez-de-Santos, P., “Measuring the 3D-position of a Walk ing Vehicle using Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic Waves,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 75, pp. 131-138, 1999. 2. Arai, T., Nakano, E., “Development of Measuring Equipment for Location and Direction (MELODI) using Ultrasonic Wa ves,” Transactions of the ASME, vol. 105, pp. 152-156, September 1983. 3. Borenstein, J., Koren, Y., “Obstacle A voidance with Ultrasonic Sensors,” IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, vol 4, no. 2, pp. 213-218, April 1988. 4. Center for Advanced Aviation Systems Development, The MITRE Corporation, “Navigation,” 2/25/2002, www.caasd.org/work/navigation.html 4/21/2003. 5. Dana, P. H., “Global Positioning System Overview,” 5/1/2001, http://www.colorado.edu/geogra phy/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html 1/14/2003. 6. Devantech, SRF04 Ultrasonic Range Finder, Norfolk, England. 7. Federal Aviation Administration “Wide Area Augmentation System,” http://gps.faa.gov/Programs/WAAS/waas.htm 4/21/2003. 8. Garmin, GPS16 OEM GPS receiver, Olathe, Kansas. 9. Hardt, H., Wolf, D., Husson, R., “The Dead-Reckoning Localization System of the Wheeled Mobile Robot ROMANE,” in Proceedings of 1996 IEEE/SICE/RSJ International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, IEEE, Washington DC, pp 603-610, 1996. 10. Haykin, S., Array Signal Processing Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1985. 11. Crossbow, IMU400 Inertial Measurement Unit, San Jose, California. 12. Honeywell, INU Inertial Measurement Unit, Morristown, New Jersey.

PAGE 73

63 13. Kleeman, L., “Optimal Estimation of Position and Heading for Mobile Robots using Ultrasonic Beacons and Dead -Reckoning,” in Proceedings of 1992 International Conference on Robotics a nd Automation, IEEE, Nice, France, pp 2582-2587, 1992. 14. Koki, M., Michihisa, I., Mikio, U., Keita, O., “Automatic Following Vehicle System (Part 3),” ASAE Annual Intern ational Meeting, ASAE, Sacramento, California, 2001. 15. Krotkov, E., “Mobile Robot Localization using a Single Image,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, IEEE, vol. 2, pp 978-983, 1989. 16. Lavakumar, K., “Development of an Ultr asonic Based Positioning System for Indoor Navigation,” Master’s Thesis University of Florida, 1999. 17. Mahajan, A., Figueroa, F., “An Auto matic Self-Installation and Calibration Method for a 3d Position Sensing Syst em using Ultrasonics,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 28, pp. 281-294, February 1999. 18. Mahajan, A., Walworth, M., “ 3-D Positi on Sensing Using the Difference in the Time-of-Flights from a Wave Source to Various Receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 91-94, February 2001. 19. McGillem, C. D., Rappaport, T., “A Beacon Navigation Method For Autonomous Vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicu lar Technology, vol. 38, no. 3, August 1989, pp. 132-139. 20. Micea, M. V., Muntean, L., Brosteanu, D., “Simple Real-tim e Sonar with the DSP56824,” Motorola Application Note, Rev. 0, 2001. 21. Microstrain, 3DMG Inertial Orientation Sensor, Williston, Vermont. 22. Palmer, R. J., “Test Results of a Precise, Short Range, RF Navigational/Positional System,” First Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference-VNIS 1989, Toronto, Ontario, Ca nada, Sept. 1989, pp. 151-155. 23. Polaroid, 6500 Ultrasonic Ranging Module, Waltham, Massachusetts. 24. Rybski, P. E., Papanikolopoulos, N. P., Stoete r, S. A., Krantz, D. G., Yesin, K. B., Gini, M., Voyles, R., Hougen, D. F., Nelson, B., Erickson M. D., “Enlisting Rangers and Scouts for Reconnaissance and Surveillance,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 14-24, December 2000. 25. Shirley, P. A., Massa Products Corp. “A n Introduction to U ltrasonic Sensing,” Sensors: The Journal of Machine Percep tion, vol. 6, no. 11, November 1989.

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64 26. Shoval, S., Borenstein, J., “Measuring the Relative Position and Orientation between Two Mobile Robots with Binaur al Sonar,” Proceedings of the ANS 9th International Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems, Seattle, Washington, March 2001. 27. Shoval, S., Borenstein, J., “Measurement of Angular Position of a Mobile Robot Using Ultrasonic Sensors,” ANS Confer ence on Robotics and Remote Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, April 1999. 28. Thompson, S., Zelinsky, A.,”Accurate Lo cal Positioning Using Visual Landmarks From A Panoramic Sensor,” in Pr oceedings of 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA, pp 900-907, 2002. 29. Tsai, C., “A Localization System of a Mobile Robot by Fusing Dead-Reckoning and Ultrasonic Measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 47, no. 5, pp.1399-1404, October 1998.

PAGE 75

65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Donald Kawika MacArthur was born on Ma rch 20, 1978, in Miami, Florida, of parents Donald and Jane MacArthur. He gr aduated from MAST Academy high school in June 1996. He attended the University of Florida for undergraduate studies. In August 2000, he graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. He continued his education by attending graduate school at the University of Florida immediately after hi s undergraduate studies. In gr aduate school, he conducted research for the Center for Intelligent Mach ines and Robotics. He will be receiving a master’s degree in May 2003. After graduati on, he plans on continuing his research at the University of Florida in the Department of Mechanical And Aerospace Engineering involving the control an d integration of heterogeneous autonomous vehicle systems.


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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ULTRASONIC POSITION SYSTEM
FOR MULTIPLE VEHICLE CONTROL


















By

DONALD K. MACARTHUR


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003




























Copyright 2003

by

Donald K. MacArthur















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. Carl Crane for his support, guidance, and hard work

towards providing the facilities and working environment necessary for my research. I

would also like to thank Dr. Gary Matthew and Dr. John Schueller for their guidance and

for serving on my committee. I would like to thank all of the personnel of the Center for

Intelligent Machines and Robotics and the Machine Intelligence Laboratory for their

support and expertise. I would also like to sincerely thank Erica Zawodny for her love

and support throughout this entire process. Finally, I would like to thank my family, to

whom I owe everything.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iii

LIST O F FIG U R E S .... .............................. ....................... ........ .. ............... vi

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ....................................... ...... .. ........ .... .............. .

CIM A R B background ............................................... .. ....................... .. 1
C concept F foundation ...................................................... .............. ... .. 1
Position System D ependence....................................................................... 2
Problem Definition........................................ 3

2 POSITION SYSTEMS BACKGROUND ............................................. ............... 4

G P S .................................................................... .......... ...... 4
Introduction .................... ............ ............... ... ................ 4
Position Solution ....................................... .............. 5
A accuracy and U pdate R ate.............................................. ................................ 6
Beacon Based Position System s ........................... ....... .................... .............. 6
Landmark Based Position System s................................................ .... .... 8

3 ULTRASONICS BACKGROUND .......................................................... .......... 13

U ltrasonic R hanging System s ............................................... ................................ 13
Transm hitting U ltrasonic W aves ........................................ .......................... 13
R receiving U ltrasonic W aves.............................. ............................. .............. 14
Ultrasonic Ranging Configurations .................... ......................... ............ 15
Types of U ltrasonic Sensors ....................... .............................. ............ .............. 16
Electrostatic U ltrasonic Sensors ........................................ ....................... 16
Piezoelectric U ltrasonic Sensors.................................... .................................... 17
Speed of Sound .................................................................... ......... 18
A acoustic Interference ................................................... ........ .......... 19

4 DIFFERENCE IN TIME OF FLIGHT ................................................................ 21










C concept Fundam entals .............................................................. ..... 21
F ou n d action E qu action s ............................................................................................... 2 2
Solution V verification ............................................................. .......... ........... 24
Solution Singularities............................................................ ........... ...... ...... 2 5

5 INITIAL PROTOTYPE DESIGN........................................................ ............... 30

P prototype C construction .............. .......................................................... .............. 30
P prototype T testing R results ...................................... ................................................. 32
Establishing Proof of Concept ........... .............. .................. 32
Improving Prototype Configuration....................... .... .......................... 34

6 FIN A L PR O T O TY PE ........................................................................... ............... 39

7 FINAL ULTRASONIC POSITIONING SYSTEM ................................................. 47

G lob al P position Solution ..................................... .................................. ................ .. 47
Complete Position System for Multiple Vehicle Control .......................................... 49
In d o o r T e stin g .................................................................................. 5 0

8 CONCLUSIONS....... ...................................... ...... ..................56

Overview................... ............................................ 56
D TOF V ersus TOF/D TOF M ethods........................................................... ....... ....... 56
Final Prototype............................ ............... ..... 57
M u ltip le V eh icle C control .............................................................................................. 59

APPENDIX

A VERIFICATION CALCULATION DATA.........................................................60

B LIST OF MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS ............................... ...............61

Initial Prototype ........................................ 6 1
Final Prototype............................ ............... ..... 61

L IST O F R EFE R E N C E S ............................................................................ .............. 62

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................65












v
















LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Page

1.1: M multiple V vehicle System ............................................................... ........................ 3

2.1: Global Position System Illustration ...................................................... .................5

2.2: Beacon Based Positioning for Aircraft................................ ......................... ....... 8

2.3: Indoor Landmark Positioning Illustration................................................... ........9

2.4: Increm mental Encoder ............................................................... .... ...... 10

2.5: Precision Navigation Inc. Digital Compass ...................................... ...............12

3. 1: U ltrasonic Transm hitter .................. .................................... ........ ........... ... 14

3.2: Illustration of Reflected Ultrasonic Signal ........................................ ............... 14

3.3: Illustration of Transmitter/Receiver Pair .... ............................. .............15

3.4: Illustration of Transceiver Configuration ............................................... ............... 16

3.5: Polaroid Electrostatic Transducers ........................................ ........................... 17

3.6: Polaroid Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer ............... .....................................18

4.1: Diagram of DTOF Configuration ............................................................................22

4.2: Em itter V erification Coordinates ...................................................................... 24

4.3: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in rl versus x plane ......................................................26

4.4: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in rl versus x plane ......................................................26

4.5: Plot of the Quality Index in the y/a versus x/a plane.....................................................27

4 .6 : Q quality Index for x/a= 0 ........................................................................ ....................28

4 .7 : Q quality Index for y/a= 0 ........................................................................ ....................28



vi









5.1: Initial Prototype System Circuitry Overview ...................................... ............... 30

5.2 : Initial Prototype ........................................... ........................... .. 3 1

5.3: Initial Testing C configuration ................................................ .............................. 32

5.4: Calculated Range using D TOF m ethod................................. ........................ .. ......... 32

5.5: Calculated x using D TOF m ethod ............................................................................ 33

5.6: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=10 feet..................................... 35

5.7: Calculated x for Initial Prototype at rl=10 feet..... .......... ..................................... 35

5.8: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at ri=15 feet..................................... 36

5.9: Calculated x for the Initial Prototype at rl=15 feet.......................................................36

5.10: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=20 feet............... ........................37

5.11: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=20 feet............... ........................37

6.1: Final Prototype System Overview .................................................... ..................40

6.2: Final Prototype G eom etry.......................................................................... ............... 41

6.3: Testing Configuration for Final Prototype.................................. ........................ 42

6.4: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r = 10 feet............................................43

6.5: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=10 feet......................................................43

6.6: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r 15 feet................... .......................... 44

6.7: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=15 feet...................... ......................44

6.8: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r=20 feet................... .......................... 45

6.9: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=20 feet............................... ...................46

7.1: Overall Ultrasonic Positioning System Diagram ....... .............. ........................47

7.2: Host Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System ................. ............ ............... 50

7.3: Client Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System................ ...............50

7.4: Coordinate system for Client System ........................................ ......................... 51

7.5: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +x direction............... ..................51









7.6: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +y direction............... .................52

7.7: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -x direction ...................................53

7.8: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -y direction ...................................53

7.9 Ultrasonic Position System Host Vehicle................................................54

7.10: Ultrasonic Position System Client Vehicle........................................ ............... 55

7.11: Following Control using the Ultrasonic Positioning System ..................................55

8.1: Calculated x versus y for Ultrasonic Emitter Placed along Different Axes ...................58

8.2: Host and Client hardware for Final Prototype................ ...... ........ ...........58

8.3: Host and Client Vehicle with Ultrasonic Position System ..........................................59















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ULTRASONIC POSITIONING
SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE VEHICLE CONTROL

By

Donald K. MacArthur

May 2003


Chairman: Carl Crane
Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

This thesis presents the processes and methods by which an ultrasonic positioning

system was developed for the purpose of controlling autonomous/unmanned ground

vehicles. The presentation is broken down into the different stages in the design, testing,

and implementation process.

The system involves various technologies, and each will be addressed with

corresponding background information to allow the reader insight as to the justification

of the design decisions.

The development of the ultrasonic positioning system started with the solution of

the general problem of position determination. The system was composed of a host agent

with several client agents. There were two methods that were used for determining the

orientation and range of the host agent relative to the client agents. The first method was

the "difference in time of flight" of the ultrasonic signal. The second method was a









combination of the "difference in time of flight" and the "time of flight" methods. The

two methods were implemented in hardware and tested.

The results from the DTOF experiments showed that the method provided relative

position solutions of -4 feet at a 20 foot range. These results verified the validity of the

DTOF method for relative positioning but lacked practical applicability. The combined

DTOF/TOF method produced relative position solutions of ~5 inches at a 20 foot range.

This method provided the accuracy necessary for multiple vehicle system

implementation.

The DTOF/TOF hardware was implemented on two experimental ground vehicle

platforms. Following control was developed and implemented using the ultrasonic

positioning system. These experiments demonstrated the capability and applicability of

the ultrasonic positioning system for a multiple vehicle system.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

CIMAR Background

Personnel at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics (CIMAR) have

performed extensive research involving several areas of Autonomous Ground Vehicle

systems. Some areas that have been researched in the past have been autonomous vehicle

controls, autonomous navigation, positioning systems, path planning, environment

perception, and sensor processing. In the area of position systems, various systems have

been used for the determination of vehicle position and orientation.

Concept Foundation

Vehicle position can be used for various purposes in Autonomous Ground

Vehicle research. Knowledge of the location and orientation of a vehicle provides

vehicle state information, which can be utilized by numerous algorithms. This

information can be used to improve overall vehicle functionality. This information can

allow an autonomous agent to map relative features such as obstacles to a global

reference frame. This allows map building and environment knowledge to be extended

past the range of the local sensors. Tasks such as sensor fusion for environment

perception and mapping, vehicle control, path planning, and following can be performed

when global pose information is available.

Extensive research has been performed utilizing expensive positioning equipment.

There exists a need to harness the power of a small number of expensive positioning









sensors in a multiple agent system to allow their information to be shared by other

vehicles.

This concept forms the basis for the ultrasonic positioning system that is

developed here. This system would not provide Global Position solutions in its isolated

form, but provide accurate Global Positioning solutions to an entire multiple vehicle

system when coupled with more expensive hardware. This would provide Global

Position solutions at a fraction of the price of equipping each vehicle with the necessary

hardware to attain similar position solutions.

The ultrasonic positioning system can also be used to provide relative vehicle

information. The system would provide slave systems with relative position information

with respect to the master system. In a multi-agent system, this positioning system would

provide information necessary for distributed control strategies.

Position System Dependence

The research that has been performed previously at CIMAR in the areas of path

planning/execution and vehicle control has emphasized the requirement of having

accurate position information. Previous researchers have formed a solid foundation on

position reliance. In conjunction with previous efforts the ultrasonic positioning system

seeks to provide multiple position solutions and the ability for the next generation of

vehicles to be scaled yet operate under similar foundation principles.

A proposed multiple vehicle system would consist of a larger vehicle with a

formation of smaller, less expensive vehicles at the periphery (Figure 1.1). This type of

system would be beneficial in areas where sensor data is to be collected in areas where

the larger vehicle either physically cannot enter or it is too dangerous to travel. The









smaller vehicles would provide less costly agents that could explore and cover larger

areas faster than a single vehicle.

















Fig. 1.1: Multiple Vehicle System

Problem Definition

One objective for this research would be to develop a system that utilizes

expensive hardware on a host agent for the use of the overall Multiple Agent system.

The general problem can be reduced to solving for the global pose of the client agent

using the global pose of the host agent and the ultrasonic positioning system Hardware.

The result was a system that could provide position and orientation solutions for

every entity within the Multiple Agent system. Although there are several hardware

systems involved in providing the position solution, the system would operate

transparently and appear as if each vehicle had its own independent position system.














CHAPTER 2
POSITION SYSTEMS BACKGROUND

This chapter will present background information about several position systems

that are conventionally used for autonomous ground vehicle navigation. Position and

orientation information can be relative or global. The knowledge of the global or relative

orientation and position of a vehicle provides the ability to create advanced control

strategies and can be used to improve the overall perception of a vehicle's environment.

GPS

Introduction

Global Position Systems are widely becoming the position system of choice for

autonomous navigation. This technology allows for an agent to determine its location

using broadcasted signals from satellites overhead. The Global Positioning System

associated with the United States is maintained by the Department of Defense to provide

a positioning service for use by the US military [5]. Since its creation, the service has

been used for commercial purposes such as nautical, aeronautical, and ground based

navigation, and land surveying. The current US based GPS satellite constellation system

consists of a 24-satellite system. The number of satellites for this system can vary due to

satellites being taken in and out of service. Other countries are leading efforts to develop

alternative satellite systems for their own GPS systems. A similar GPS systems is the

GLONASS constructed by Russia [5]. Each satellite maintains its own specific orbit and

circumnavigates earth once every 12 hours. The orbit of each satellite is timed and

coordinated so that five to eight satellites are above the horizon of any location on the









surface of earth at any time. Figure 2.1 illustrates the manner by which an autonomous

vehicle determines its' position using GPS.

c ^


Fig. 2.1: Global Position System Illustration


Position Solution

A GPS receiver calculates position by first receiving the microwave RF signals

broadcast by each visible satellite [5]. The signals broadcasted by the satellites are

complex high frequency signals with encoded binary information. The encoded binary

data contains a large amount of information but mainly contains information about the

time that the data was sent and location of the satellite in orbit. The GPS receiver

processes this information to solve for its position and current time.









Accuracy and Update Rate

GPS receivers typically provide position solutions at 1Hz but GPS receivers can

be purchased that output position solutions up to 20Hz. The accuracy of a commercial

GPS system without any augmentation is approximately 15 meters [8]. Differential GPS

is an alternative method by which GPS signals from multiple receivers can be used to

obtain higher accuracy position solutions. Differential GPS operates by placing a

specialized GPS receiver in a known location and measuring the errors in the position

solution and the associated satellite data. The information is then broadcast in the form

of correction data so that other GPS receivers in the area can calculate a more accurate

position solution. This system is based on the fact that there are inherent delays as the

satellite signals are transmitted through the atmosphere. Localized atmospheric

conditions cause the satellite signals within that area to have the same delays. By

calculating and broadcasting the correction values for each visible satellite the differential

GPS system can attain accuracy from 1mm to 1cm [5].

Recently a new type of GPS correction system has been integrated so that a land

based correction signal is not required to improve position solutions. The Wide Area

Augmentation System sends localized correction signals from orbiting satellites [7].

Currently this system only covers most of North America. This type of system has been

used in our research and position solutions with errors of less than three meters have been

observed.



Beacon Based Position Systems

This type of position system is based on determining the position of a mobile

agent by actively or passively communicating with devices in the environment. These









devices can range from RF and ultrasonic transmitters to signal reflectors similar to those

used for Radar. This system typically relies on knowledge of beacon positions apriori.

With an accurate world map of the locations of the various beacons in the environment, a

mobile agent can calculate its' position and orientation by using the perceived geometric

relationship between the beacons.

Shown below in Figure 2.2 is an illustration of a typical beacon configuration for

determining the position and orientation of a mobile agent. GPS is a form of space based

beacon position system. Typically an autonomous agent determines the distances and or

angles from its position and orientation to the specified beacon and combines this

information with that of other beacons. Beacon based position systems can be used for

many types of navigation but have limitations dependent on their configurations.

Historically, aircraft used to perform navigation by receiving land based beacon signals

[4]. Each beacon had a specific broadcast frequency. An aircraft would tune into the

broadcast frequencies of the beacons located at the departure and arrival destinations.

Using the information derived from relative angles of the beacons, an aircraft could

maintain a direct flight path. This system caused problems due to the constraint and

inefficiency of direct flight paths. This system also required large numbers of beacons to

be placed across the country to accommodate typical flight paths. The system also

presented problems when traveling across large oceans where intermediate beacons could

not be placed.



























Fig. 2.2: Beacon Based Positioning for Aircraft

Landmark Based Position Systems

This form of position system can loosely be described as a system that utilizes the

characteristics of a single feature or multiple features of the environment to determine

pose information about the respective mobile agent. The key to landmark based

positioning is being able to identify and isolate landmarks or spatial features from the

sensor data. Landmark based positioning has been performed previously using

panoramic image data. [28] This research utilized panoramic image data for local and

global position determination. Landmarks have been used for navigation for hundreds of

years. This method provides a basis by which autonomous agents can use their

perception of the environment for position determination. Figure 2.3 illustrates the use of

doorways in an office building for landmarks to determine vehicle position.



































Fig. 2.3: Indoor Landmark Positioning Illustration

The most difficult task for landmark based positioning is being able to process

sensor data by extracting and recognizing known environmental features. These features

can vary depending on the environment. Indoor navigation can use landmarks such as

doors, office furniture, and windows. Previous researchers have used reflective strips

located strategically throughout a building that could be scanned by the laser of an

autonomous agent [14]. An autonomous agent can determine position and orientation

based on the known locations of each barcode and the relative location of locally

perceived barcodes. When landmarks cannot be individually identified, the relative

location of multiple landmarks can be used to determine position and orientation. This









can be accomplished by comparing the combined landmark location and orientation

information with a database of all known landmarks.

Dead Reckoning

Dead Reckoning is another common method by which an autonomous agent can

perceive its position and orientation. There are several types of sensors that can be used

to perform Dead Reckoning. These sensors can vary depending on what physical

properties they measure. A common sensor used for autonomous ground vehicles are

optical encoders. These sensors measure angular displacement due to rotation of wheels

or tracks used for propulsion. Figure 2.4 shown below is a picture of an incremental

encoder manufactured by BEI Technologies Incorporated.
















Fig. 2.4: Incremental Encoder

Optical encoders can be classed as either incremental or absolute encoders.

Incremental encoders produce a specific number of electric signal pulses every time they

complete a full angular rotation. Some incremental encoders also generate these electric

signals in such a way that the pulses and direction of rotation can be determined.

Absolute encoders generally only operate within one shaft revolution. These encoders

generally have a data bus that has a binary code mapped to every shaft angle. The









resolution of the encoder dictates the size of the binary code required to encompass all

angles within the scope of the encoder. The use of an encoder can provide angular

position, velocity, and acceleration information.

These sensors can be used to determine the motion of a vehicle by translating the

rotational information of the prime mover to the linear translation of the vehicle body.

These sensors provide information about the motion of the vehicle over a short period of

time but they are plagued by the accumulation of errors over long periods of time.

Position errors occur due mainly to wheel slippage. This occurs when there exists a

difference between the theoretical motion caused by the wheels or tracks of a vehicle and

the overall motion of the vehicle. Over a short period of time the position solution is

tolerant to these small errors but over time the position solution become more dependent

on previous position measurements and the errors accumulate dramatically.

Another type of commonly used dead reckoning sensor is a digital compass.

These devices use the Earth's magnetic field to calculate the orientation of the

autonomous vehicle. These devices measure the local magnetic field around the vehicle

and output resulting heading information. These devices are typically augmented with a

tilt sensor to compensate for situations when the sensor is not oriented perfectly

horizontal to the surface of the Earth. Shown in Figure 2.5 is a digital compass

manufactured by Precision Navigation Incorporated.
























Fig. 2.5: Precision Navigation Inc. Digital Compass

Inertial Measurement Units or IMUs are another form of dead-reckoning device

commonly used in robotics [12,13,21]. These devices measure the acceleration of the

motion of the mobile agent. This information can be integrated to provide velocity and

position information. These devices can also be used to measure the local gravity vector,

which can be used in calculating the orientation of the vehicle. These systems have

similar problems with error propagation as wheel or track encoders. When deriving

position based on the accumulated past motions of the vehicle, position solutions tend to

accumulate errors over long periods of time.














CHAPTER 3
ULTRASONICS BACKGROUND

Ultrasonic systems have been used previously in robotics research for position

and orientation determination [1,2,11,13,16,17,18,19,26,27,29]. The systems discussed

in these references vary in their sensor configurations yet all rely on the properties of

ultrasonic wave propagation through air. Solutions have been developed where the

Time-of-Flight, and Differences in the Time-of-Flight of the ultrasonic waveform are

used for position and orientation determination. Both systems have advantages and

disadvantage depending on the particular application.

Ultrasonic Ranging Systems

Typical ultrasonic Ranging systems operate by using sensors composed of either a

transmitter/receiver pair or a single transducer. The systems operate by using the

inherent wave propagation properties of the selected medium. The range determination

process consists of creating the ultrasonic wave, receiving the ultrasonic wave, and

calculating the time difference between transmitting and receiving the ultrasonic signal.

A transducer is different from a transmitter/receiver pair in that the same surface is used

to create and receive the ultrasonic waves.

Transmitting Ultrasonic Waves

The transmitter or transducer is composed of electromechanical components.

When transmitting, an electrical signal is supplied to the sensor. The internal

components of the sensor convert the electrical signal to a physical form and activate an

open medium surface. This oscillating physical surface creates the ultrasonic Waves.









The oscillating surface creates a pressure variation and ultimately a pressure wave with a

frequency equal to that of the surface oscillation. Figure 3.1 illustrates the method by

which the ultrasonic signal is generated.





Hscillator Amplifier





Fig. 3.1: Ultrasonic Transmitter

Receiving Ultrasonic Waves

The pressure wave travels outward from the transmitter surface until it encounters

a physical surface. To simplify the discussion, assume that the transmitter surface and

reflection surface are flat, inline, and parallel. The pressure waves then are reflected back

in the opposite direction until they reach the receiver/transducer surface. Figure 3.2

illustrates the method by which ultrasonic waves are reflected and processed.






I CIr ult i
^U ,'l


Fig. 3.2: Illustration of Reflected Ultrasonic Signal









Ultrasonic Ranging Configurations

For typical ranging applications, there exist two configurations for transmitting

and receiving ultrasonic signals. The typical inexpensive ranging system configurations

consist of a paired transmitter and receiver [6]. In this configuration the ultrasonic signal

is produced by the transmitter and associated circuitry. The ultrasonic signal is then

received by a separate receiving device and circuitry. For this configuration the

transmitter surface and the receiver surface are separate. This configuration is illustrated

in Figure 3.3.



Transmitter

Transmitter
Circuit


Receiver
Circuit

Receive






Fig. 3.3: Illustration of Transmitter/Receiver Pair

The second configuration consists of a system with separate transmitter and

receiver circuitry yet with a common sensor surface [23]. The device used by this type of

system is referred to as a transceiver due to its ability to transmit and receive ultrasonic

signals. These devices are generally more expensive than the transmitter/receiver pairs

and require different circuitry to be able to transmit and receive on the same line. Figure

3.4 illustrates the transceiver configuration.































Fig. 3.4: Illustration of Transceiver Configuration

Types of Ultrasonic Sensors

The three categories of ultrasonic sensors are transmitters, receivers, and

transceivers. There is another feature of ultrasonic sensors that distinguish each other

besides the specified categories. Most common ultrasonic sensors can be further

separated into two groups depending on the physical construction of the sensor and the

way by which the sensor converts back and forth from electrical signals to acoustic

signals. The most common types of ultrasonic sensors consist of Electrostatic and

Piezoelectric sensors.

Electrostatic Ultrasonic Sensors

Electrostatic ultrasonic sensors operate similar to an electrical capacitor. These

sensors usually are composed of a fixed conductive plate and a free metallic surface

coated with a layer of insulation that separates the two plates. When an electric potential

is placed across the fixed conductive plate, the free metallic surface is pulled against the









fixed plate. When an oscillating electrical potential is applied to the fixed plate, the free

plate oscillates at a similar frequency thereby creating acoustic pressure waves. When

receiving an ultrasonic signal, the Electrostatic ultrasonic sensors produce a varying

capacitance created by the pressure waves hitting the free metallic surface. Figure 3.5 is

an example of several Electrostatic ultrasonic sensors manufactured by Polaroid Corp.






















Fig. 3.5: Polaroid Electrostatic Transducers

Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Sensors

Piezoelectric ultrasonic Sensors are composed of a Piezo material and an acoustic

surface. The Piezo material can either be a crystal or ceramic. The Piezo material is

attached to the acoustic surface such that any physical changes in the geometry of the

material will affect the acoustic surface. When an electrical potential is placed across the

Piezo material the geometry changes thereby disturbing the acoustic surface. When an

oscillating electrical potential is placed across the Piezo material, the acoustic surface

generates an acoustic signal. When receiving an ultrasonic signal, the ultrasonic waves









strike the acoustic surface thereby compressing the Piezo material. The Piezo material

emits electrons when compressed thereby creating an electrical signal. Figure 3.6 shows

a Piezoelectric ultrasonic Transducer manufactured by Polaroid Corp.





















Fig. 3.6: Polaroid Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer

The main difference between the operation of these particular Electrostatic

ultrasonic sensors and the Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors is the ability to measure an

ultrasonic signal from the sensor with or without external circuitry. The Electrostatic

sensor requires a 200 Volt potential across the sensor while measuring the ultrasonic

signal whereas the piezoelectric sensor can generate its own signal. This is important

when dealing with passive sensors that are used solely for listening.

Speed of Sound

To measure range using ultrasonic sensors, generally the time is measured

between the transmission and reception of the ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic pulse

travels at a relatively constant speed through the air. By multiplying this physical









constant by the flight time of the ultrasonic pulse, the total distance traveled by the

ultrasonic pulse can be determined. This constant speed is the speed of sound though air

at the current air temperature. [25] defines the speed of sound at a particular temperature

as shown in Equation 3.1.


CT = C 1-
CT O 273 Eq. 3.1


where:

CT = speed of sound at specified temperature

Co = speed of sound at 00 C

T = temperature in degrees C

Typically the air temperature is the main factor determining the propagation speed

of sound. When using ultrasonic sensors other factors such as air turbulence, convective

currents, atmospheric pressure, and humidity have slight affects in sensor readings. For

most testing environments, the other factors can be ignored and the speed of sound can be

determined solely from air temperature.

Acoustic Interference

Range measurements derived from ultrasonic signals can be affected by acoustic

interference. The measurements will be affected when the environmental acoustic noise

has similar frequency to that of the ultrasonic signal frequency. This causes problems by

preventing the measurement hardware from distinguishing between the ultrasonic signal

and the background noise. This noise can cause the system to become inoperable in the

environment or induce random error in the measurement readings. Careful consideration






20


must be made if the environment contains noise with frequency content around that of the

ultrasonic equipment.














CHAPTER 4
DIFFERENCE IN TIME OF FLIGHT

This chapter will describe a method by which the orientation and range of an

ultrasonic emitter relative to a linear array of ultrasonic receivers can be obtained.

Previous research [16] performed at the University of Florida involved ultrasonic

positioning systems that used time of flight methods. These methods assumed that the

time that the ultrasonic emitters were fired was known. The Difference in Time of Flight

method was developed to investigate the passive method of determining position using

only the ultrasonic pulse sent from the emitter.

Linear arrays of sensors are commonly used for RF and Sonar applications.

Signal processing for passive sonar arrays allow for spectral and spatial information to be

determined from an emitter source [10].

Concept Fundamentals

The difference in time of flight derivation is based on determining the two

dimensional position of an ultrasonic emitter relative to a three element linear array of

ultrasonic receivers. The basis of the DTOF derivation is the Pythagorean theorem. The

derivation references the diagram shown in Figure 4.1.










Emitter





KB~


2 1 3
Receiver Array


Fig. 4.1: Diagram ofDTOF Configuration

where:

ri = distance from ultrasonic emitter to receiver i

a = receiver array separation distance

The diagram defines several quantities that are used for the DTOF derivation.

Foundation Equations

The derivation is based on the following three equations relating ri with the x and

y coordinates of the ultrasonic emitter:


2 )2 +2
r2 = + Eq. 4.1

2r =(x+a)2+ 2 Eq. 4.2

r2 = (- )2 2 Eq. 4.3

The terms Ar12 and Ar13 are defined as

1A2 = I1 r2 Eq. 4.4









Ar13 1 -r3 Eq. 4.5

and equations 4.2 and 4.3 can be re-expressed as

(rl -Ar12)2 = (x+a)2 +y2, Eq. 4.6

(r Arl3)2 =( a)2 +2 Eq. 4.7

Utilizing the difference in time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse, the quantities Ar12

and Ar13 can be obtained. Equations 4.1, 4.6, and 4.7 are now in terms of the three

unknowns rl, x, and y. Subtracting equation 4.1 from equation 4.6 yields

(r Ar)122 r12 = (x + a)2 X2 Eq 4.8

Expanding and regrouping this equation gives

2rAr12 +Ar2 = 2ax + a2, Eq. 4.9

2ax + 2rAr12 = -a2 + Ar Eq. 4.10

Subtracting equation 4.1 from equation 4.7 yields

(r -Ar)132 2 = (X a)2 X2 Eq. 4.11

Expanding and regrouping this equation gives

2rAr13 + 3 = -2ax + a2, Eq. 4.12

2ax -2riArl3 = a2 1. Eq. 4.13

Equations 4.10 and 4.13 now form two linear equations in terms of the unknowns

ri and x. These two equations can be written in matrix form as

L2a 2Ar12 [X -a2 + A2
2a -2Ar l a2 -Ar2 Eq. 4.14
12a 2Arl3_1[_ a2 12 Q










Solving for rl and x yields


Ar22 Ar3 2a2
r 2(Arl2 A13) Eq. 4.15




,Ar.A Ar-2 + Ar13 (Ar2 -Ar3)
x = Eq. 4.16
4a

With explicit equations for x and rl, y can be calculated by using Eq. 4.1 as


y = +r2x2 Eq. 4.17

This equation leaves some ambiguity about the sign of the y component of the

emitter position. This is caused by geometry chosen for the receiver array and the

assumption that the receivers are omni-directional. This problem is remedied when the

system is implemented in hardware.

Solution Verification

To verify that the equations are valid for emitter placement within the first two

quadrants of the Cartesian coordinate system, the emitter coordinates were selected as

shown in Figure 4.2.


Emtter x and y Coordinates

3
25
2
15
1
05

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3


Fig. 4.2: Emitter Verification Coordinates









The coordinates were used to calculate rl, Ar12, and Ar13 assuming a=1 and

positive y values. The values for x, y, and ri were back calculated using the derived

equations 4.15, 4.16, and 4.17. The results obtained showed that the actual and

calculated values for x, y, and ri matched exactly. The results for the above calculation

are listed in Appendix A.

Solution Singularities

When constrained to the first two quadrants in the Cartesian coordinate system,

equations 4.15 and 4.16 can provide unique solutions for ri and x except for when y=0

and x|>a. When y=0 the emitter is located along the x-axis. As an example, if the

emitter's x coordinate is positive, the terms Ar12 = -a and Ar13 = a. This causes a

singularity in the position solution of the emitter where the solutions for ri and x become

indeterminate as follows:

a2 +a2 -2a2 0
r1 =, Eq. 4.18
2(-a + a) 0


2 2 a2 + a2 2a2 a a)
a -a -a-a)
-a+a 0
x = Eq. 4.19
4a 0

Upon analysis of the singularity it has been observed that when y=0 and |xl>a any

change in either x or ri causes no change in Ari2 or Ar13. This becomes the limiting factor

for this array geometry. The matrix equation 4.14 can be visualized as two lines in the x

and ri plane. The intersection of these two lines defines the position solution of the

emitter. The equations of the two lines can be written as

-a2 +r12 -2ax
r = Ar Eq. 4.20
2Ar2











-a2 +Ar1 +2ax

2Ar3


Eq. 4.21


Figure 4.3 displays the plot of equations 4.20 and 4.21 for a sample emitter

position (x=0, y=3) assuming a=l.


rl versus x for Emitter Position (x=0, y=3)


Fig. 4.3: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in rl versus x plane

When y=0 and x|>a, a singularity is reached and there is no unique solution for x

and rl that satisfy the given Ar12 and Ar13. Figure 4.4 displays a plot of equations 4.20

and 4.21 for a sample emitter position (x=0, y=3) assuming a=l.


rl versus x for Emitter Position (x-3, y=0)
4
3

2
S-Eq. 4.20
Eq. 4.21

-4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3

-2

-3
-4
x


Fig. 4.4: Plot of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 in rl versus x plane









Figure 4.4 shows that the two lines are coincident. This implies that the two lines

are also linearly dependent. For further analysis a unitized quality index was derived to

quantify the linear dependence of Eq. 4.20 and 4.21 for all points in the first two

quadrants of the Cartesian coordinate system. The quality index is defined as Q where

1 A2
Q 12 Eq. 4.22
1 -A13

and where

Ai = Arij / a. Eq. 4.23

This quality index established a method for determining the strength of a position

solution for different regions of the input space. Figure 4.5 shows a plot of the quality

index for various points on the y/a versus x/a plane.















S0 a
1.5



(i5





y/a 5

lo 10 xa


Fig. 4.5: Plot of the Quality Index in the y/a versus x/a plane










To illustrate the quality of specific regions of the input space, two dimensional

plots were created to show the quality index for specific cases. Figure 4.6 shows a plot of

the quality index for x/a=0. Figure 4.7 shows a plot of the quality index for y/a=0.


2 4 6 8
y/a


Fig. 4.6: Quality Index for x/a=0


Quality Indexversus x/a


-3 -1 1 3
x/a


Fig. 4.7: Quality Index for y/a=0






29


The figures show that as the emitter is placed farther from the center receiver, the

quality index decreases. For the case when y=0, the quality index drops to zeros at xl=a.

This implies that the strongest solution at ranges greater than the array separation occur

when the emitter is located such that the path from the emitter to the center receiver is

perpendicular to the receiver array.
















CHAPTER 5
INITIAL PROTOTYPE DESIGN

This chapter will present the design process used and explain the hardware and

software used to develop the initial prototype system. The basic system specifications

were established before the system was designed. It was estimated that the system should

be able to output position solutions at a rate greater than 1 Hz, which has been a standard

for most of the positioning systems that have been used at the University of Florida for

autonomous vehicle navigation in the past. The system was to provide the highest

resolution attainable with considerations made for increased cost versus resolution.

Prototype Construction

The operating principles of this prototype rely on the Difference in Time-of-

Flight method discussed earlier. The prototype was designed to test the DTOF concept

and to test the resolution of initial circuit designs. The prototype consisted of a Motorola

68HC 11 microprocessor, an RC servomotor, and ultrasonic signal processing circuitry.

Figure 5.1 shows an outline of the overall hardware configurations.


Processing 68HC1L
Circuitry Microcontroller


Ultrasonic
Receiver I Host
Array PC



Servo
Motor


Fig 5.1: Initial Prototype System Circuitry Overview









The signal processing circuitry consisted of an analog front-end that filtered and

amplified the signal, and digital threshold circuitry. This combination allowed the signal

to be converted from three analog signals to three binary signals. The binary signals were

processed by the microcontroller and a time stamp was associated with the intercept of

the ultrasonic signal by the three receivers.

The microcontroller processed the time stamps for each signal, which was then

sent to the Host PC. The Host PC processed the data and calculated the position solution.

The prototype addressed the issues of the symmetry of the DTOF solution and the

existence of singularities. The symmetry was addressed by the very nature of the

ultrasonic sensors that were used. The response of the ultrasonic sensors was very

directional in nature allowing for the solution to be known a priori that if an intercept

occurred that the solution exists in the positive y region where the sensors are facing.

The RC servomotor addressed the singularities by orienting the linear array perpendicular

to the incoming signal. This solved the singularity issue and the problems with the

directional nature of the sensors. By orienting the sensors towards the ultrasonic

transmitter, the system maximized the signal strength and the solution quality. Figure 5.2

shows the initial prototype fully constructed.

Fi~;;;


Fig. 5.2: Initial Prototype










Prototype Testing Results

Establishing Proof of Concept

The purpose of the initial testing was to obtain results verifying the validity of the

DTOF method. The first tests were conducted with an array separation a=3 inches. The

emitter was placed perpendicular to the overall frame of the system at a range of five feet.

Figure 5.3 shows a diagram of the testing configuration used for the initial prototype.

+y
Em tter









2 3
Receiver Array


Fig. 5.3: Initial Testing Configuration

Figure 5.4 shows the calculated range of an emitter using the DTOF method.


Calculated Range versus Sample Number
1400.00

1200.00

1000.00

800.00

S600.00
bD
400.00

200.00

0.00

-200.00 -

-400.00
Sample Number


Fig. 5.4: Calculated Range using DTOF method








In this figure the x-axis represents the sample number and the y-axis represents
the estimated range in inches. The transient in the starting samples is due to the fact that
the array was not initially facing the ultrasonic transmitter and the RC servomotor had to
orient the array to the transmitter. The average was calculated to be 106.63 inches, with a
standard deviation of 224.57 inches. The data shows that the solution does produce
viable results but the resolution and accuracy of the solution was not useful for our
applications. Figure 5.5 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter using
the DTOF method.

I Calculated xversus Sample Number


50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
n m


.. e. -..- > x o 0 o ..
-10.00
-20.00
-30.00
Sample Number

Fig. 5.5: Calculated x using DTOF method
The results for the calculated x value of the ultrasonic emitter were promising.
The range results had significant noise but followed a general trend towards the actual
range value. The calculated x values followed the actual value closely with a few
sporadic readings.


I I:









Improving Prototype Configuration

It was found that the DTOF method is highly dependent on the R/a ratio were R is

the distance of the ultrasonic transmitter to the center of the ultrasonic Receiver array and

a was the receiver array spacing. As the R/a ratio increases, the resolution of the solution

is more dependent on the resolution of the time stamp and exact sensor intercept times.

Errors introduced by the resolution of the time stamp and delays in the analog circuitry

affect the solution greater as the R/a ratio increases. This implies that the DTOF method

is ideal in applications were there is a good balance between resolution and accuracy of

the ultrasonic signal hardware and the maximum range/array spacing ratio.

To prove this point further, the prototype was modified so that the array

separation was now 12 inches. The experiments were conducted again at 10, 15, and 20

foot ranges. In this setup the array was fixed to a platform and the ultrasonic transmitter

was placed perpendicular to the array and at the specified range. Figure 5.6 shows the

calculated range results for the 10-foot testing setup. Figure 5.7 shows the calculated x

coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for the 10-foot testing setup.

Figure 5.8 shows the calculated range results for the 15-foot testing setup. Figure

5.9 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for the 15-foot testing

setup.

The data for the x position of the ultrasonic emitter shown in the previous figure

indicates a significant constant offset. This can be attributed to misalignment of the

receiver array during testing. Figure 5.10 shows the calculated range results for the 20-

foot testing setup. Figure 5.11 shows the calculated x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter

for the 20-foot testing setup.












122.00


120.00


118.00


S116.00


M 114.00


112.00


110.00


108.00


Calculated range versus Sample Number


1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Sample Number


Fig. 5.6: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=10 feet


Calculated xversus Sample Number
-0.20


-0.30


-0.40


- -0.50


-0.60


-0.70


-0.80


-0.90
1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Sample Number


Fig. 5.7: Calculated x for Initial Prototype at ri=10 feet












Calculated Range versus Sample Number


285.00

265.00

245.00

225.00

205.00

185.00

165.00

145.00

125.00


1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501

Sample Number



Fig. 5.8: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at ri=15 feet


Calculated x versus Sample Number
-4.00

-4.50

-5.00

-5.50

-6.00

S-6.50

-7.00

-7.50

-8.00-

-8.50

-9.00 -
1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Sample Number


Fig. 5.9: Calculated x for the Initial Prototype at rl=15 feet












Calculated Range versus Sample Number


290.00

270.00

250.00

230.00

210.00

190.00

170.00

150.00
1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Sample Number


Fig. 5.10: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=20 feet


Calculated xversus Sample Number
1.50


1.00


0.50


0.00 -


-0.50 -


-1.00 -


-1.50
1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Sample Number



Fig. 5.11: Calculated Range for the Initial Prototype at rl=20 feet









The results from these three experiments verified that the DTOF method could be

implemented in a real system. The results showed that the accuracy for the range

degraded as the range was increased. This verified the validity of the R/a discussion

earlier. The results for the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter were extremely

promising. The results showed that the calculated x coordinate data did not vary more

than +2 inches over the course of the entire testing ranges.

These experiments verified the foundation equations of the DTOF method and

also brought about several observations. It was observed that the R/a ratio had a

significant effect on the accuracy of range calculations. It was also observed that the

accuracy of the range calculations were not within tolerable levels at r1=20 feet. The

accuracy of the x coordinate calculations were very promising even at r1=20 feet. This

implies that the DTOF method is more appropriate for calculating the x coordinate of the

ultrasonic emitter versus calculating the range.














CHAPTER 6
FINAL PROTOTYPE

The initial prototype established the foundation for determining the relative

position of the ultrasonic emitter with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array. This

method was developed such that the relative position could be determined without

knowledge of the actual time at which the ultrasonic pulse was generated. The initial

prototype produced relative position solutions with accuracies of -2 feet for the 20 foot

range tests. Although the error seemed high for the working area envelop, the accuracy

of the calculated x position was on the order of inches for the 20 foot range tests. This

implied that the DTOF method was very good at determining the x coordinate of the

ultrasonic emitter yet there existed significant error for the range calculation.

To improve the overall position solution, it was desired to improve the range

calculation. Introducing the knowledge of the actual time at which the ultrasonic pulse

was generated could improve range calculations. Improving the range calculation

accuracy using the DTOF method required improving the accuracy of the determining

intercept time. This would involve more expensive circuitry and a significant amount of

additional experimentation. It was desired to find a solution that would provide improved

range measurements without extensive redesign of the system circuitry. [16] involved

measuring the exact time the ultrasonic pulse was generated by using Infrared

transmitters and receivers. The system operated by transmitting an Infrared signal at the

same time as the ultrasonic pulse. Assuming that the time that it took for the Infrared

signal to travel was insignificant due to the speed of light, the actual time that the









ultrasonic pulse was sent could be determined. This allowed for the time of flight of the

ultrasonic pulse to be easily calculated.

There existed several problems with the Infrared system. Due to the high Infrared

spectral content of sunlight, the Infrared system was inoperable in regular to high sunlight

levels. The Infrared system that was used was also highly directional requiring the

transmitter to be pointed directly at the receiver. Both of these issues were resolved by

using an RF transmitter and receiver pair. Using an omnidirectional antenna, the

transmitter sent an RF signal, which could be received in any direction. The RF signal

traveled at such a high velocity, the time of flight of the RF signal could be neglected.

This configuration allowed for highly accurate range measurements to be taken.

Combining this with the equations derived using the DTOF method; accurate

measurements for the x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter could also be obtained.

Figure 6.1 shows a diagram of the overall TOF/DTOF system.


Signal
Processing 68HCll
Circuitry Microcontroller
U rrtr1ro
Ultrasonic
Receiver
Array Hos
PC

-----------


RF Receiver



Fig. 6.1: Final Prototype System Overview

The system no longer required three ultrasonic emitters to produce the relative

position of the ultrasonic emitter. The system now used the RF transmitter and receiver









along with two ultrasonic receivers to calculate the distance from the ultrasonic emitter to

each ultrasonic receiver. Figure 6.2 shows a diagram of the geometry of the time of

flight/difference in time of flight problem.

+y
Emltter












2 1
Receiver Array


Fig. 6.2: Final Prototype Geometry

The emitter distances rl and r2 can be calculated directly by scaling the time of

flight measurements. It thus remains to determine the location of the emitter whose

coordinates will be referred to as (x,y) in terms of the range distances rl and r2 and the

separation distance a. The following two equations can be written

2 f a 2
r = x-- +y Eq. 6.1
2)


r2 = x+- +y Eq. 6.2


Subtracting equation 6.1 from equation 6.2 yields


r2 -r = x+- x- Eq. 6.3










Expanding this equation and regrouping yields

2 x a + r2 -r22 = 0. Eq. 6.4

Solving for x gives

2 2
x = Eq. 6.5
2a


Corresponding values for y2 can be obtained from either equation 6.1 or 6.2. Again, y is

double valued, but in this case the positive value can be assumed to be the correct

solution.


Experiments were conducted to measure the calculated range, i.e. x2 + y and


x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter. The final prototype system was configured with

the same overall array size during the tests. To maintain the same overall array size, the

receivers were placed two feet apart. The ultrasonic emitter was placed perpendicular to

the receiver array and the tests were conducted at the same ranges as those of the DTOF

experiments. Figure 6.3 shows a diagram of the testing configuration for the final

prototype.

+y
Emitter







2 1
Receiver Array


Fig. 6.3: Testing Configuration for Final Prototype











Figure 6.4 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 10

feet. Figure 6.5 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance

of 10 feet.


120.8


120.7


120.6


120.5


120.4


120.3


120.2


Measured Range versus Sample Number









- 1 i 1 I i *


^ CN C^ 0t ) O t^ o00o C^ o cN1 r0 0t *) O [t^ o00 C

Sample Number


Fig. 6.4: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r = 10 feet


Measured xversus Sample Number
4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5



0.5

0


Sample Number


Fig. 6.5: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=10 feet









Figure 6.6 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 15

feet. Figure 6.7 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance

of 15 feet.


Measured Range versus Sample Number
180.8

180.75

180.7

180.65

180.6

180.55

180.5
00- Cl 000 0 0 t- 0 0 0S- (N u m- 00 o
Sample Number


Fig. 6.6: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r=15 feet


Measured xversus Sample Number


0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3

-3.5


i1 ILi T,


0 0 0 0 0


tit.Li


Eill El 'fl1t!P' p fj' 1


00 N000000m00
Sample Number


Fig. 6.7: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=15 feet


I ir ^L.i ri i lii


%t -1I










Figure 6.8 shows the measured range of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance of 20

feet. Figure 6.9 shows the measured x coordinate of the ultrasonic emitter for a distance

of 20 feet.


Measured Range versus Sample Number
242.8

242.6

242.4

242.2

-= 242

241.8 -

241.6

241.4

241.2

241
0- -0 00 0 00 0-

Sample Number


Fig. 6.8: Measured Range for the Final Prototype at r=20 feet

The results showed that the combined TOF/DTOF design had a significant

improvement in overall system performance compared with the DTOF design. The

addition of an inexpensive RF transmitter and receiver pair allowed for increased system

performance and a reduction in system complexity.












Measured xversus Sample Number
40



30



20-



10 -



0



-10



-20
Sample Number


Fig. 6.9: Measured x for the Final Prototype at r=20 feet














CHAPTER 7
FINAL ULTRASONIC POSITIONING SYSTEM

Global Position Solution

The DTOF and TOF/DTOF prototypes have thus far only been able to measure

the relative range and orientation of the ultrasonic emitter with respect to the receiver

array. The two prototypes have solved the relative range and orientation problem but

have not solved the global position problem. The relative range and orientation of the

ultrasonic emitter to the receiver array cannot alone be used to calculate the global

position of the receiver array given the global position of the ultrasonic emitter. The

ultimate goal of the ultrasonic position system was to develop a system that could

determine the global position of the receiver array given the global position and

orientation of the ultrasonic emitter. Figure 7.1 shows a diagram of the overall ultrasonic

position system problem.














Fig. 7.yf


Fig. 7.1: Overall Ultrasonic Positioning System Diagram









The diagram shown above assumes that the global orientation of the host vehicle

and the client vehicle are known. The problem is defined below.

Given:

T, the position and orientation of coordinate system 1 with respect to

the fixed coordinate system

1 R, the orientation of coordinate system 2 with respect to the fixed

coordinate system

S2 Plorg the coordinates of the origin of coordinate system 1 measured

with respect to coordinate system 2

Find:

2T, the position and orientation of coordinate system 2 with respect to

the fixed coordinate system

The term F T and 2 PIrig are obtained from the orientation and position system

hardware located on the host vehicle. The term 2R is obtained by a global orientation

sensor located onboard the client vehicle.

The coordinates of the origin of the first coordinate system are given in terms of

both the fixed and second coordinate systems. Thus it may be written that
FP FT2P Eq. 7.1
origin 2 origin 1

where:



T [] [p2rlgEq. 7.2
2T= 20rg Eq. 7.2

0 0 0 1










FPorigin is known since FT is given and therefore the only unknown in equation

7.2 is F P2org the origin of the second coordinate system as measured in the fixed

coordinate system. Equation 7.2 may be rewritten without using homogeneous

coordinates as

FP FR2 +FP E. 7.3
logorig 2 log 2org Eq. 7

Solving for FP2orig gives

FP =FP R2P Eq. 7.4
2orig Plong 2 long Eq.7.4

This solution provides the equations to calculate the global position of the client

vehicle given the global orientation of the client vehicle, the global position of the host

vehicle, and the relative orientation provided by the ultrasonic software and hardware.

Complete Position System for Multiple Vehicle Control

In order to utilize the above equations, additional hardware was required for the

overall system. Digital compasses were added to the system to provide the global

orientation data. The ultrasonic receiver array was attached to a pan/tilt device so that the

angle of array could be controlled. The pan/tilt device contained potentiometers so that

the orientation could be measured. The figures below show the system implemented on

two mobile test vehicles. Figure 7.2 shows the Host system equipped with an ultrasonic

transmitter array, RF transmitter, and associated hardware. Figure 7.3 shows the Client

system equipped with the ultrasonic Receiver array, pan/tilt device, and associated

hardware.



































Fig. 7.2: Host Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System


Fig. 7.3: Client Portion of the Ultrasonic Positioning System

Indoor Testing

In order to evaluate the new system, measurements were taken with the host

system placed at specific distances from the client system. The client system would









home the pan/tilt device and rotate the ultrasonic receiver array towards the ultrasonic

emitter. Figure 7.4 shows a diagram of the coordinate system for the client system.


PIn/T t


Client System


Fig. 7.4: Coordinate system for Client System

Figure 7.5 shows the results for the host system placed along the +x direction

relative to the client system.


Calculated xversus y


15
x(ft)


Fig. 7.5: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +x direction


5 feet
S10 feet
15 feet
20 feet
") 25 feet

' )










Figure 7.6 shows the results for the host system placed along the +y direction

relative to the client system.


30


25


20


15


10


Calculated xversus y


0
x (ft)


Fig. 7.6: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along +y direction

Figure 7.7 shows the results for the host system placed along the -x direction

relative to the client system.

Figure 7.8 shows the results for the host system placed along the -y direction

relative to the client system.

When compared with the results from the array testing without the pan/tilt, there

is a significant amount of error introduced by the angle reading of the pan/tilt device.

Implementing a more accurate method such as an angular encoder for determining

angular position of the receiver array would reduce the error significantly for this system.


* 5 feet
. 10 feet
15 feet
20 feet
S25 feet











Calculated xversus y


5 feet
10 feet 10
15 feet
20 feet 5
25 feet ,




-5


-10



-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5
x(ft)


Fig. 7.7: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -x direction


Calculated xversus y


x(ft)


Fig. 7.8: Calculated Position of Host System Placed along -y direction


-10 -5 0 5 10









5 feet
10 feet
15 feet
"-- .. 20 feet
= 25 feet









The host and client systems were implemented onto a set of mobile ground

vehicle test platforms. Figure 7.9 shows the host vehicle with the associated ultrasonic

and RF transmitters and additional hardware. Figure 7.10 shows the client vehicle with

the ultrasonic receiver array hardware and the pan/tilt device.






















Fig. 7.9 Ultrasonic Position System Host Vehicle

To demonstrate the ultrasonic position system implemented on a ground vehicle

system, the host and client systems were configured such that the client vehicle would

follow the host vehicle at a specific distance. Figure 7.11 illustrates the dynamic testing

for the ultrasonic position system.

Movies were recorded for multiple tests of the implemented ultrasonic position

system on the Host and Client vehicles. Although the control algorithm used for the

vehicle following using the ultrasonic positioning system was not complex it still

demonstrated the potential the ultrasonic position system and future research in this area.































Fig. 7.10: Ultrasonic Position System Client Vehicle


Fig. 7.11: Following Control using the Ultrasonic Positioning System














CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS

Overview

The goal of the ultrasonic position system was to develop a system that could

provide global position solutions for a multiple vehicle system. This system would

utilize high precision positioning hardware located on the Host system. The information

would be shared between the Client systems in the group. The goal was for all of the

Client systems to determine their global position solution utilizing the ultrasonic position

system hardware along with the position information from the Host system. The system

was designed to be unaffected by an increase or decrease in Client vehicles within the

multiple vehicle system. The Host system was based on an omnidirectional ultrasonic

Transmitter array with associated hardware. The Client system was based on a

directional ultrasonic receiver array with associated hardware. The entire system was

built upon the capability of determining the relative range and orientation of the

ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array.

DTOF Versus TOF/DTOF Methods

The first part of the ultrasonic positioning system that needed to be established

was determining the relative positioning of the ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the

ultrasonic receiver array. Two methods were developed to achieve this capability. The

Difference in Time of Flight method calculated the relative range and orientation of the

ultrasonic emitter array with respect to the ultrasonic receiver array by using the

difference in the time at which each ultrasonic receiver intercepted the ultrasonic pulse









sent by the ultrasonic emitter. This method did not require the knowledge of when the

ultrasonic pulse was sent. The results from the DTOF prototype were encouraging but

had significant error in the range calculations.

The final prototype utilized a combination of the DTOF and Time of Flight

methods. The addition of an RF transmitter and receiver pair allowed for the Client

system to know exactly when the ultrasonic pulse was fired. In this system, the Host

system would fire the RF transmitter and the ultrasonic emitter at the same time. The

Client system would receive the RF signal almost instantly and began timing the

ultrasonic signal. When the signal arrived, the relative orientation and position of the

Host system was calculated. When compared with the DTOF method, the TOF/DTOF

method provided a dramatic improvement in system performance requiring only the

addition of an RF transmitter and receiver pair.

Final Prototype

The final prototype was based on the TOF/DTOF method. The Host system

consisted of an RF transmitter, semi-omnidirectional ultrasonic emitter, and associated

hardware. The client system consisted of an ultrasonic receiver array, pan/tilt device, RF

receiver and associated hardware. The system operated by orienting the ultrasonic

receiver array perpendicular to the direction towards the ultrasonic emitter. This

maximized signal strength and provided the best position solutions. Figure 8.1 shows the

results of experiments where the ultrasonic emitter was placed at different ranges and

orientations with respect to the Client base platform.







58



Calculated xversus y
30



20
X222





















x(ft)


Fig. 8.1: Calculated x versus y for Ultrasonic Emitter Placed along Different Axes

Figure 8.2 shows the Host and Client system hardware.


Fig. 8.2: Host and Client hardware for Final Prototype









Multiple Vehicle Control

The Host and Client hardware were implemented on two research ground vehicle

platforms. Control software was written to enable the Client vehicle to follow the Host

vehicle at a specific distance. Movies were taken of the multiple vehicle system, which

demonstrated the preliminary capability of the ultrasonic position system. Figure 8.3

shows the Host and Client vehicle with the implemented ultrasonic position system

hardware.















Fig. 8.3: Host and Client Vehicle with Ultrasonic Position System

In conclusion, this research has investigated and implemented the DTOF and

TOF/DTOF method for determining the orientation and range of an ultrasonic emitter

with respect to an ultrasonic receiver array. The DTOF method was established and

produced desirable results. To improve the overall system performance, the TOF/DTOF

method was implemented. This system had an increase in performance compared with

the DTOF implementation by simply adding an RF transmitter and receiver pair. The

TOF/DTOF system was implemented on a multiple vehicle system and following control

was established.


















APPENDIX A
VERIFICATION CALCULATION DATA


Calculated x y
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
3.0000
3.0000
3.0000
-1.0000
-1.0000
-1.0000
-2.0000
-2.0000
-2.0000
-3.0000
-3.0000
-3.0000


Calculated y rl
1.0000 1
2.0000 2
3.0000 3
1.0000 1.414214
2.0000 2.236068
3.0000 3.162278
1.0000 2.236068
2.0000 2.828427
3.0000 3.605551
1.0000 3.162278
2.0000 3.605551
3.0000 4.242641
1.0000 1.414214
2.0000 2.236068
3.0000 3.162278
1.0000 2.236068
2.0000 2.828427
3.0000 3.605551
1.0000 3.162278
2.0000 3.605551
3.0000 4.242641


Calculated rl deltal2 deltal3


1
2
3
1.414213562
2.236067977
3.16227766
2.236067977
2.828427125
3.605551275
3.16227766
3.605551275
4.242640687
1.414213562
2.236067977
3.16227766
2.236067977
2.828427125
3.605551275
3.16227766
3.605551275
4.242640687


-0.414214
-0.236068
-0.162278
-0.821854
-0.592359
-0.443274
-0.92621
-0.777124
-0.637089
-0.960828
-0.866585
-0.757359
0.414214
0.236068
0.162278
0.821854
0.592359
0.443274
0.92621
0.777124
0.637089


-0.414214
-0.236068
-0.162278
0.414214
0.236068
0.162278
0.821854
0.592359
0.443274
0.92621
0.777124
0.637089
-0.821854
-0.592359
-0.443274
-0.92621
-0.777124
-0.637089
-0.960828
-0.866585
-0.757359















APPENDIX B
LIST OF MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS

Initial Prototype

1. Motorola 68HC11 EVBU

2. Polaroid 6500 Ultrasonic Ranging Modules

3. Polaroid 9000 Series Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

4. Polaroid 600 Series Electrostatic Ultrasonic Transducers



Final Prototype

1. Motorola 68HC11 EVBU

2. Polaroid 6500 Ultrasonic Ranging Modules

3. Polaroid 9000 Series Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

4. Polaroid 600 Series Electrostatic Ultrasonic Transducers

5. RF Monolithics, Inc. RFM3000 Transceiver Modules















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Donald Kawika MacArthur was born on March 20, 1978, in Miami, Florida, of

parents Donald and Jane MacArthur. He graduated from MAST Academy high school in

June 1996. He attended the University of Florida for undergraduate studies. In August

2000, he graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical

Engineering. He continued his education by attending graduate school at the University

of Florida immediately after his undergraduate studies. In graduate school, he conducted

research for the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics. He will be receiving a

master's degree in May 2003. After graduation, he plans on continuing his research at

the University of Florida in the Department of Mechanical And Aerospace Engineering

involving the control and integration of heterogeneous autonomous vehicle systems.