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Floristic Inventory of Morningside Nature Center, Alachua County, Florida


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FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF MORNINGSIDE NATURE CENTER, ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA By CATHLEEN KABAT A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Cathleen Kabat

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First I thank Dr. Walter Judd, my supervis ory committee chairman, for all of his support and communication of valuable info rmation. Much of the knowledge I have gained during my graduate career has come from his teaching. He is a dedicated and enthusiastic teacher who always strives to pass on the most valuable and current information. In my opinion, he turns more mi nds on to plants than any other professor I have known. Without his help and his confiden ce in me, I would not have been able to complete this master’s project, and for this I will always be gratef ul and appreciative. Valuable assistance also came from my ot her committee members, Dr. David Hall and Dr. Bijan Dehgan. They have both been out standing in their support and communication of knowledge. I thank Dr. Hall for his expertise in grass identifications and for all of his time spent checking the identifications of all my other plants. Both of these teachers have been extremely willing to help and have cont ributed to the success of my graduate career. I would also like to thank Kent Perkins and Trudy Lindler, of the University of Florida Herbarium, for all of their help. De nise Sauerbrey, Geoff Parks, Gary Paul, and the staff at Morningside were a constant he lp, especially with lo cality of plants and history of the park. I also had the help of my fellow grad uate students during the collecting and identification processes. I am grateful to Kim Gullege for her help with collecting Lechea specimens and her help with thesis “t echnicalities” and map creation. Katia Silvera was always willing to go collec ting and help with identifications.

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iv I am so grateful to have the love and s upport of my family, especially my parents, Terrell and Colleen Touchton. They have alwa ys given me the freedom to make my own life decisions and have always supported me no matter what these decisions may have been. Without their support, I would never have had the confidence in myself to come this far in my education. I especially thank my dad fo r all of his weekends spent collecting with me when no one else would brav e the heat, rain, ticks, and chiggers! I am also extremely lucky to have the love and support of my wonderful husband, Steven. He was my constant field compani on, my tower of strength, and my partner in learning. He made my graduate career much easier and a lot more pleasant with his constant companionship.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................vi ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Climate and Weather....................................................................................................3 Geology of Florida........................................................................................................9 The Florida Plateau................................................................................................9 Topography..........................................................................................................10 Soils.......................................................................................................................... ..13 2 METHODS.................................................................................................................20 3 PLANT COMMUNITIES..........................................................................................21 Pine Flatwoods............................................................................................................21 Flatwoods Depression.................................................................................................26 Sandhill....................................................................................................................... 26 Cypress Swamp..........................................................................................................30 Ruderal........................................................................................................................ 31 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................34 5 ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES............................................................................38 Ferns.......................................................................................................................... .39 Conifers....................................................................................................................... 39 Angiosperms...............................................................................................................40

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vi LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................78 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................81

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Trails at Morningside Nature Center..........................................................................4 1-2 Soil types of Morningside Nature Center.................................................................19 3-1 Burn compartments at Morningside Nature Center.................................................22 3.2 Morningside Nature Center, w ith delimited plant communities..............................24 3-3 Plant comminites at Morningside Nature Center.....................................................33

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viii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF MORNINGSIDE NATURE CENTER, ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA By Cathleen A. Kabat May 2003 Chair: Walter S. Judd Department: Botany A floristic inventory of Morningside Natu re Center in Alachua County, Florida, was conducted from May 2001 to April 2003. From the 278-acre park, a total of 511 vascular plant species were collected. These included 9 ferns, 5 conifers, and 497 angiosperms (representing 107 families and 306 genera). Five plant communities are recognized in the park: pine flatwoods, wh ich cover 53.6% of the park; sandhills, which cover 21.5% of the park; rudera l areas, which cover 20.1% of the park; cypress swamps, which cover 4.4% of the park; and flatwoods de pressions, which cover 0.4% of the park. The plant families best represented at Morningside include the Asteraceae with 70 species, Poaceae with 60 species, Fabaceae with 42 species, Cyperaceae with 30 species, and Ericaceae and Euphorbiaceae, with 15 species each. The largest genera at Morningside include Quercus (11 species), Desmodium (9 spp.), Cyperus and Hypericum (8 spp. each), and Asclepias and Rhynchospora (7 spp. each).

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The floristic study was conducted at Morni ngside Nature Center. This 278-acre park is located at 3540 East University Av enue in Section 2, Township 10 south, Range 20 east, and Section 35, Township 9 south, Ra nge 20 east, in Gainesville, Florida. Morningside is bordered by state-owned lands to the north, the Nort h Florida Evaluation and Treatment Center to the east, University Avenue to the south, and the Loften Center (part of Alachua County public school system) to the west. The living history farm uses 10 acres of the park (Johnson, L. and the Division of Recreation and Parks. 1998. Morningside Nature Center work plan (f iscal year 1997-1998). U npublished manuscript) (Fig. 1-1). The land that was to become Morningside Nature Center was first recorded as being owned by Neamiah Brush in the early to mid-1800s. On November 13, 1848, the heirs of Neamiah Brush were in circuit cour t regarding the disposition of the land; the heirs sold many parcels. A large chunk of th e land was sold to James Vidal. The first recorded use of the land was for producing tu rpentine by tapping the numerous pines. In 1898, Padgett and Millicon (who bought the land from Vidal), were also extracting turpentine. In 1903, A.R. Scruggs of Alac hua County bought all of the land currently forming Morningside Nature Center. During his ownership, the land was primarily used for timber and turpentine operations. In 1909, J. D. Stringfellow, H.B. Coe, J. Ira Gore, and D.P. Davis divided the land into 10-acre plot s in anticipation of selling them to Lake Forest Farms, a planned development. The development plan was abandoned; and in

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2 1911, Alachua County received a right-of-way of 105 feet on the south side of the land for the development of University Avenue. In 1910, the land was divided and sold to individuals from Illinois, Mi chigan, New York, and Georgia; and during their ownership, the land was not used or a dditionally developed. In 1920, parts of the land were purchased by the county commission for a st ate institution for the feeble-minded. This plan was also abandoned and the land was soon sold back to the previous owners. The property changed hands many times during th e 1920s, and continued to be used for timber and turpentine; S.H. Colson, W.H. Waits A.B. Swafford, D.P. McKenzie, E. Mize and T.L. Parker all of Paradise Naval Stor es participated in the timber and turpentine operations. In 1948, the land was purchased by th e federal government as a site of an anticipated Veteran’s Administ ration hospital. However, this plan was abandoned. The hospital was built, instead, on Archer Road; and the future Morningside became surplus land. In 1964, the City of Gainesville bought the land from the federal government for $80,820 and reserved the land for outdoor activit ies and recreation. In 1967, the city received a $24,000 grant from the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to help cover the costs of the initial development of the park. Morningside Nature Center was established in 1970, with much help from Marjorie Carr and the Junior Welfare League (today’s Ju nior League of Gainesville). Marjorie Carr was a nationally recognized environmentalis t who lived here in northern Florida. She was also involved in the creation of Payne’s Prairie State Preserve and helped to stop the development of the Cross Florida Barge Ca nal. When she learned of the surplus land the city had purchased, she urged the Junior Welfare League to adopt the project of turning this land into a nature park. Th e design for the park was obtained from the

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3 National Audubon Society’s planning team. Af ter the park was established, the Junior Welfare League donated $15,000 and added the Nature Center. This money helped operate the Center. In 1973, the Junior L eague joined the Florida State Museum, the County Action ’76 Committee, and the Al achua County Historic Commission in recommending the addition of the living hi story farm (Fig. 1-1). These various committees donated a total of about $35,000 to the project. In 1976, a longleaf-pine cabin built in 1840 was moved from Micanopy to Morningside (Fig. 1-1). Soon after, tw o 1880s twin-crib barns from Chiefland, a split-rail fenced barnyard, fa rm animals, a vegetable and cash-crop garden were added (Fig. 1.1). In 1990, a one-room schoolhouse was added to the farmstead. This schoolhouse was previously on the adjacent prope rty of the Loften Center, where it was relocated in 1976. Since the addition of the farm, over 140,000 school children have participated in the historical programs at Morningside. Climate and Weather Four major variables are responsible for Florida’s climate and weather. These variables include latitude; la nd and water distribution; ocea n currents; and a combination of winds, storms, and pressure systems. Flor ida and Texas are the closest one can get to the equator in the continental United States. This means that when the sun is highest in the sky, its rays strike here at a greater angl e than anywhere else in the contiguous United States. On the day of the Northern Hemisphe re summer solstice (June 22), the sun’s rays hit Orlando at an angle of 85o and during the winter solstice at 38o (December 21). These angles are larger in Florida and Texas than in any other state. Th is, in part, accounts for the higher average summer and winter temperatur es in these two states. Also, the sun is above the horizon longer during winter in Florida than in northern states, such as New

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4 York, where the duration of sunlight is about an hour less per day. The opposite is true during the summer (Winsberg 1990). Figure 1-1. Trails at Mo rningside Nature Center The northern part of Florida is separa ted from the southern part by about 6.5o latitude. The input of the sun’s energy varies greatly between these two points, as is most commonly noticed during the winter. The av erage maximum temperature in January in

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5 north Florida is 10oF lower than in Key West, but there is only 1oF difference between the two during the summer (Winsberg 1990). No place in Florida is farther than 80 miles from the Gulf of Mexi co or the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, these water bodies play a ro le in the weather patterns and climate of Florida, especially areas along the coast. Coastal communities have a lower average maximum temperature during the summer and a higher average minimum temperature during the winter. When exposed to the same angles of the sun’s rays, the ocean heats up much slower than the land, because the heat dissipates through the depths of water and also evaporation helps to keep the water cool er. The land heats much faster because heat concentrates in a narrow layer near the surface (Winsberg 1990). Therefore, inland habitats in Florida are always a little bit warmer in the summ er than the coastal areas. The opposite is true during the winter. The wa ter is warmer than the land and therefore has warm air above it. This warm air then arrives on shore and acts as a warm blanket for the coastal plant communities. Ocean currents influence the weather when the air that is over it moves onto land. The Gulf Stream helps to keep the east coast of Florida warm in winter. The Gulf Stream is a warm current that moves from the tropics up the Atlantic coast. The Gulf of Mexico exerts very little influence on the weather of Florida because its currents are very weak (Winsberg 1990). Air moves from areas of high pressure to low pressure. Air circulates when air rises over the warm equator, and the earth’s rotation causes pressure belts and prevailing winds to form along certain latitudes. The westerly winds form between 30 and 60 and the easterly winds form between the equa tor and 30. These two winds and the

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6 high-pressure belt that separates them are th e three prevailing patterns that influence the weather and climate of nor th Florida (Winsberg 1990). Florida is one of the wettes t states in the nation on an annual basis (Henry et al. 1994). Convectional rainstorms are the most common type of precipitation in Florida. These storms are caused when, during the summer months, the ground heats up, and in turn heats up the layer of air directly above it. This air then becomes unstable and rises, creating a convectional current. When the ai r rises high enough, the water vapor in it will begin to condense into water droplets and cl ouds begin to form. When the droplets are heavy enough, they fall from the clouds to the ground. These types of storms are usually accompanied by thunder and lightning (Winsberg 1990). Another common way precipita tion forms in Florida is through frontal systems. Air can be lifted when a mass of air with a high temperature meets a mass with a low temperature. The warm air will rise over the cold since it is more buoyant and unstable. The air rises high enough so that the water vapor condenses to liquid, and rain then falls (Winsberg 1990). Such precipitation is co mmon during the fall and winter months. The last possibility for the formation of precipitation in Florida is through the convergent movement of two ai r masses of the same temperature. Air becomes uplifted due to crowding, and like the other two met hods, air rises and cools, causing precipitation (Winsberg 1990). This type of precipitation formation is not as common as the other two. Within the belts of winds, low-pressure storms develop and are known as hurricanes. Hurricanes have a relatively sma ll diameter, but have a very large difference in pressure between their centers and peri pheries (Winsberg 1990). The violent winds

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7 and heavy rains can have catas trophic effects, as seen in Miami and Homestead during Hurricane Andrew in 1992. When these storms hit land, they usually lose strength as they travel greater distances. Therefore, the coastal communities are usually left with much more damage than the inland areas, esp ecially from the ocean swells produced by the storm. While northern Florida is geographically rather homogenous Alachua County’s climate differs from that of other North Florida counties because of its unique latitudinal location, distance from the sea, and the vari ety of surface features. Alachua County has two major seasons, a warm rainy season and a cooler dry season. Th e warm rainy season lasts from the middle of May to the end of September. About 60 percent of the precipitation occurs in thes e warm months. Rainfall us ually occurs as afternoon thunderstorms, which are generated by surf ace heating and fed by the convergence of breezes from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlant ic Ocean. The most variable rain for the county is produced by frontal passages during the winter months. An average of 38 frontal systems pass through North Florida dur ing the winter season, 29 during spring, 19 during summer, and 41 during fall accord ing to records kept for 1965 through 1967 (Dohrenwend 1978). Most of the rainfall in Alachua County occurs in the four months of June, July, August, and September. The most precipitation occurs in August with an average of 208 mm. The average annual rainfall for Gain esville is 1370 mm. November is the month with the lowest amount of rainfall (44 mm). Precipitation is extremely variable from year to year and may deviate from the mean by as much as 40%. Snow is infrequent, but

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8 when it occurs, it is light and does not normally accumulate or remain in place (Dohrenwend 1978). The average annual pan evaporation fo r Gainesville is 1674 mm, although true evaporative loss is less than that of pan ev aporation. The average annual solar radiation is 156,150 langleys. The greatest amount of sola r radiation occurs in May and the least in January. The greatest yea r-to-year variation occurs in June (Dohrenwend 1978). The average range in monthly temperatur e is approximately 13C and the average difference between daytime and nighttime temp eratures is also 13C. The highest maximum shade temperature recorded was 40C and the lowest winter temperature was -9C. The average number of freezes per year is four. The average frost season is 70 days. The average annual soil temperatur e at a 10 cm depth is 23C. The warmest month is July and the coldest is Fe bruary, at that de pth (Dohrenwend 1978). The average monthly minimum humidity is almost always above 40 percent. There are a few summer days where humidity remain s above 70%. Alachua County usually has light winds. Ninety-five per cent of all winds are less th an 12 knots, 78% less than 9 knots, 56% less than 6 knots, and there is no measurable wind 22% of the time. The average wind speed for three years of r ecording was 3 knots. From October through April, night winds are calm, with 90% of the winds that were less than three knots occurring between 8 p.m. and 8 a.m. From May through September, there is a shorter calm period, with 90 percent of the winds th at were less than 3 knots occurring between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. Year round, the winds usua lly come from the north during the night. During the day, however, the wind can come from any direction (Dohrenwend 1978).

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9 Geology of Florida The Florida Plateau The state of Florida sits on what is co mmonly called the Floridian Plateau. This Plateau is a projection of the continent of North America that separates the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico. The Plateau includes Florida and also an area that is as large or larger, but is submerged below the wa ter to a depth of 300 feet. The southern tip of the Plateau ends in the Florida Keys wher e there is a steep drop into the Straits of Florida, which separates the Plateau from C uba. The Floridian Plat eau is centered at 15o W, passing through Key West, Sarasota, Cedar Keys, and Madison. The state of Florida lies almost entirely east of the middle of the Plateau (Cooke 1945). During the Paleozoic era (approximately 600 million years ago), Florida was part of “Africa” as part of Gondwanaland. The Osceola granite and high-feldspar volcanic rocks that now compose Florida’s basement rocks date back to the Cambrian period. Early Paleozoic sediments that may be up to several kilometers thick overlie the basement rocks. The oldest sediment s are composed of quartz sandstones and interbedded shales, and are in beds that c ontain Ordovician marine fossils. Above these are dark shales with occasional thin sands tones, ranging in age from Silurian through middle Devonian (Myers & Ewel 1990). During the Mesozoic, Gondwanaland bega n to break up and Florida ultimately became attached to North America. Early in this era, Florida experienced a round of volcanic activity due to an oceanic hot spot located where the Bahamas are now. Later, during the Jurassic, shallow ma rine carbonate sediments were deposited onto Florida. Fossiliferous chalky limestones were typical de posits of the Cretaceous period (Myers & Ewel 1990).

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10 Shallow marine conditions continued to dominate during the early Cenozoic. Carbonate marine fossils were constantly being deposited in th e Paleocene through the Oligocene. In the late Oligocene, the A ppalachian Mountains went through a period of uplift, creating a southward movement into Flor ida of clastic sediments such as sand, silt, and clay (Myers & Ewel 1990). Parts of Florida emerged from the sea approximately 30 million years ago during the Oligocene. Florida’s highest ridges we re formed from coastal dunes and all rock formations are formed from blankets of mari ne sediments. Terrestrial and marginal marine sediments dominated the deposits of the middle Miocene. These included phosphatic sands, clays, and lignitic deposits which were interfaced with carbonate facies. These deposits were of fluvial thr ough estuarine to marine in origin. These deposits are now what composes the Hawthorn formation. During the later part of the Miocene, fluvial and estuarine deposits accumula ted in the central and north peninsula. Also, two major sea level drops occurred during this time. From the Miocene to present, the sea level has been greatly fluctuating, leaving us with records of extremely differing shorelines throughout Florida’s history (Myers & Ewel 1990). Topography Florida consists of five natural topog raphic divisions: the Central Highlands, Tallahassee Hills, Marianna Lowlands, West ern Highlands, and Coastal Lowlands. Alachua County lies within the Central Highla nds. This area extends from the Georgia state line south to Glades County and lies between the Withlacoochee and St. Mary’s Rivers. This region is physiographically di verse and includes swampy plains, thousands of lakes, and hills. The soils are mostly sandy, the sand being derived from Pleistocene marine terraces, the Miocene Hawthorne formation, and the Pliocene Citronelle

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11 formation. The altitude varies from less than forty feet above sea level to the highest point in the peninsula, 325 feet on the summit of Iron Mount ain near Lake Wales. The many lakes in this area indicate the occurren ce of shallow, soluble limestone below the surface (Cooke 1945). Morningside is underlain by Ocala limest one. This limestone ranges from pure white to yellow, and is commonly granular in texture, but in some places has become compacted rock due to the deposition of travertine or calcite in its interspaces. In some locations, it is extremely porous because it consists of a loose mass of foraminifers, bryozoans, and other small organisms. The chemical composition of this limestone is extremely uniform. It mostly consists of car bonate of lime and contains as little as twofifths of one percent of impurities. The thickness of this limestone layer has not been determined due to the erosion of the surface and the inability to identify the bottom. The Ocala limestone underlies all of Florida and co mes near to the surface in two places -the eastern corner of Walton Count y to the Chattahoochee River, a length of 60 miles, and from Marianna and Caryville to the Alabama line, a width of 16 miles. However, it is sometimes covered by Pleistocene sand or by portions of other sediments, constituting the Suwannee limestone, Hawthorne forma tion, or Alachua formation (Cooke 1945). Alachua County is commonly divided into three major physiographic regions: “a plateau-like region north of Gainesville a nd includes most of northeastern Alachua County, a western plains region, and an area in the south-cent ral and southeastern part characterized by flat-bottomed lakes, prairi es, and erosional remnants of the plateau” (Pirkle 1956). Morningside is situated in the plateau ar ea, which has a nearly level topography and ranges in elevation from 150 to 200 feet above sea level. Loose sands at

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12 the surface in these areas are underlain by an im permeable clay layer, resulting in a radial pattern of drainage from the plateau to su rrounding areas. It is thought that the higher parts of the plateau were once a divide between drainage to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Some of the drainage does still reach the Gulf by way of the Suwannee River, which is fed by the Santa Fe River. Drainage is also received by Newnan’s Lake, which is thought in the past to have draine d into Orange Lake vi a the Prairie Creek, and reached the Atlantic Ocean by way of Orange Creek and the St. Johns River. Presently, due to the development of Payne’s Prairie, drainage from Newnan’s Lake has been diverted from Payne’s Prairie to Orange Lake (Pirkle 1956). Many peaty swamps occur throughout the plateau area. These may have been formed by the compaction of Pleistocene sediments, or by solution of underlying calcareous rocks. Sinkholes ar e not common in this area, but a few can be found near its margins, such as Devil’ s Millhopper (Pirkle 1956). The western plains area is found in western Alachua County, and ranges in elevation from 50 to 80 feet above sea level. Here, the limestone is close to the surface, and is overlain by a thin layer of loose sa nd. It was formed from the breaching, by erosion, of the Ocala arch and the work of the Pleistocene seas. The solvent action of groundwater has been integral in the formati on of solution depressions and small caves of this region (Pirkle 1956). The south-central and southeastern por tions of Alachua County contain shallow flat-bottomed lakes, prairies, disappearing stre ams, and erosional remn ants of the plateau. The water table in these areas is at the base to which the lake bottoms have been eroded. The bottom of these lakes and prairies may be up to 60 feet above sea level. There are

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13 three types of flat-bottomed depressions comm only recognized in this region: erosional surfaces developed on the Ocala limestone, er osional surfaces developed on Hawthorne sediments, and depositional sediments, which have developed from the filling of solution areas (Pirkle 1956). Soils There are fourteen different soil types at Morningside Nature Center (Fig. 1-2). These soil types are closely correlated with the various plant communities occurring at Morningside. Candler fine sand (Fig. 1-2, so il type 2B) is a soil that is excessively drained and is found in deep, sandy uplands, s upporting a sandhill community. There is a thin belt of this soil type in the southeast ar ea of the park. The surface layer of this soil type is very dark grayish br own fine sand that is about si x inches thick. The underlying layers are also fine sand, ex tending to a depth of 82 inches or more. This soil has low available water capacity and permeability is very fast. The soil is relatively low in fertility and in organic matter. The water tabl e is at a depth of 72 inches or more (Soil Conservation Service 1985). Millhopper sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 8B) is a moderately drained soil that is in irregularly shaped areas in sandhill uplands a nd slightly rolling hills in pine flatwoods. The surface layer of this soil type is dark gr ayish brown sand to about nine inches thick. The underlying layers are also sand or fine sa nd to a depth of 89 inches. The soil has low available water capacity in th e surface and subsurface layers and is low to medium in the subsoil. Permeability is fast in the upper layers and slower below. The soil is relatively low in fertility and organic matter. The wate r table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for one to four months, and at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for two to four months during the year (SCS 1985).

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14 Pelham sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 13) is a poor ly drained soil in pine flatwoods. The surface of this soil is about seven inches thic k, with the upper four in ches being very dark gray and the lower three inches dark gra y. The underlying layer of sand is up to 80 inches thick. The availabl e water capacity is low in the upper and middle layers and moderate in the bottom layer. Fertility is low in the upper 29 inches and moderate below 29 inches, and the fertility is moderately low. The surface runoff is relatively slow. The water table is less than ten inches below the su rface for one to four months in most years. The water table may be at a depth of 40 inches in the dry season (SCS 1985). Pomona sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 14) is a poor ly drained soil indicative of level pine flatwoods. The surface layer of th is soil type is very dark gray sand to five inches thick. The underlying layers of sand extend to about 84 inches. The soil has a low to medium available water capacity in th e surface and subsurface layers and may be low or high in the subsoil layers. Permeability is rapid in the upper and middle la yers, and moderately slow to moderate in the lower layer. Surf ace runoff is slow. The water table is usually within ten inches of the surface for one to three months but may recede to more than 40 inches below the surface during dry periods. The soil is relatively low in fertility and organic matter (SCS 1985). Surrency sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 16) is very poorly drained and found in ponds and in wet depressions in pine flatwoods. The surface layer of this so il type is black sand that is about 15 inches thick. The underlying layers extend to a depth of 80 inches. The soil has a low to high available water capac ity throughout all layers. Permeability is rapid in the upper two layers a nd slow to moderately slow in the loamy subsoil. The water table is within ten inches of the surf ace for six or more months of the year, and

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15 water is on the surface for usually four or mo re months. Fertility is medium in the surface layer and low in the two lower layers. Organic matter is high or very high in the surface layer (SCS 1985). Wauchula sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 17) is a poorly drained soil dominant in pine flatwoods. The surface layer is approximately eight inches thick. The upper five inches is black sand, and the lower th ree inches is dark gray sa nd. This underlying soil extends to a depth of 80 inches and is underlain by a hard claypan. The available water capacity is low to medium in the surface layer, and is variable in the other layers. Permeability is rapid in the upper two layers, a nd variable below. The fertil ity is low in the surface layer and low to moderate in the subsurface layer. The soil is low in organic matter content. The water table is at a depth of less than ten in ches for one to four m onths of the year, ten to 40 inches for about six months, and may even drop below 40 inches in the driest months (SCS 1985). Monteocha loamy sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 19) is very poorly drained soil that is found in wet ponds and shallow depressions in pine flatwoods. The surface layer of this soil type is black loamy sand, which is about tw elve inches thick. The subsoil has a layer that consists of fine, loamy sand, which is underlain by light gray sand to a depth of 94 inches. The available water capacity is high to very high in the surface layer and medium in the lower layers. Permeability is rapid in the uppermost layers, but becomes slower the deeper the sand. Fertility is medium in the surface layer and the organic matter is high to very high in the surface layer. The wate r table is at a depth of ten inches or less for more than six months of the year. Most areas are covered with wa ter for at least four months (SCS 1985).

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16 Tavares sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 20B) is a deep and sandy soil that is moderately well drained. This soil type may be found in pine flatwoods or sandhills. The surface layer is about eight inches th ick and consists of dark gray sand. The underlying layers may reach a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil has very low to low available water capacity and permeability is fast to very fast. Fertility is low and organic matter content is low to moderately low in the surface layer. The water table is at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for six months or more during a normal year. It may recede to a depth of 72 inches or more during dry spells (SCS 1985). Pomona sand, depressional (Fig. 1-2, soil ty pe 25) is a very poorly drained soil in pine flatwoods depression s and drainageways, usually dominated by species characteristic of cypress swamps. The su rface layer is about four inches thick and consists of very dark gray sand. The underlyi ng layers extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil type has a low available water capacity in the surface and subsurface layers and has a low to high capacity in the subs oil. Permeability is rapid to very rapid in the surface layer and becomes slower with incr easing depth. Fertility is low and organic matter content is moderately low in the surf ace layer. The water ta ble is less than ten inches below the surface for six months or mo re during a typical year Water is usually on the surface for four months or more (SCS 1985). Chipley sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 28) is a poorly drained soil f ound in the flatwoods and in transition zones between the flatwoods and sandhills. The surf ace layer is usually twelve inches thick, with the upper six inches being very dark gray and the lower six being dark grayish brown. The underlying layers may reach a depth of 81 inches or more. This soil has a low available water capacity a nd the permeability is rapid. The fertility is

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17 low and the organic matter content is moderate to moderately low in the surface layer. The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for two to four months in a normal year. It may be as shallow as 15 inches for a c ouple of weeks during an extremely wet period. However, it may recede to a depth of 40 inches or more during dry periods (SCS 1985). Placid sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 34) is a ve ry poorly drained sand that is found in flatwoods depressions and drainageways, and typically supports a cypress swamp community. The surface layer of sand is about 15 inches thick. The upper eight inches is black and the lower seven inches is very da rk gray. The underlying layers of sand may extend to 82 inches or more. This soil has a high available water ca pacity in the upper 15 inches, but low below this depth. Fertility a nd organic matter content is high in the upper 15 inches, but is very low beyond this depth. Th e water table is within ten inches of the surface for six to twelve months during a t ypical year. The surface is usually covered with water for six months or more (SCS 1985). Myakka sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 48) is a poor ly drained soil that is typical of pine flatwoods. The surface layer is eight inches th ick and is composed of dark grayish brown sand. The underlying layers may reach a depth of 82 inches or more. The available water capacity is greatest at a depth of 24 to 30 inches and decreases above and below this depth. The permeability is rapid on the surface. Both fertility and organic matter content are low. The water ta ble is at a depth of less than ten inches for one to four months, and ten to forty inches for two to four months during a typical year. It may recede to a depth of 40 inches or more during a dry spell (SCS 1985). Sparr fine sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 50) is a poorly drained soil that is found on rises in pine flatwoods and on smooth or slightly convex slopes in sandhills. The surface layer

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18 of sand is typically eight inches thick. The upper four inches is dark gray and the lower four inches is dark grayish brown. The underl ying layers extend to a depth of 84 inches or more. The surface and subsurface layers are sandy, and the subsoil layer is loamy. The available water capacity is medium in the surface and subsoil layers, and low in the subsurface layer. Permeability rapid to very rapid in the upper two layers and gets slower as the depth increases. Fertility is low to a depth of 48 inches, and becomes medium below this depth. Organic matter content is low to moderately low. The water table is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches for one to two mont hs and is 30 to 40 inches deep for two to three months. During the dry season, the wate r table may be 40 inches or more below the surface (SCS 1985). Plummer fine sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 51) is a poorly drained soil in broad areas of pine flatwoods. The surface layer is about si x inches thick and consists of black fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 81 inches or more, with the lowest layer consisting of light gray sandy cl ay loam. The available wate r capacity is medium to high in the surface and subsurface layers and is low to medium in the subsoil. The permeability is more or less rapid in the upper two layers and moderate below. Fertility is low and the organic matter content is moderate ly low. The water table is ten inches or less for one to three months and is ten to fo rty inches for three to four months during typical years. The water table may recede to a depth of more that forty inches during dry periods (SCS 1985).

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19 Figure 1-2. Soil types of Morningside Nature Center; Soil type 2B Candler fine sand, 8B, Millhopper sand; 13, Pelham sand; 14, Pomona sand; 16, Surrency sand; 17, Wauchula sand; 19, Monteocha sand; 20B, Tavares sand; 25, Pomona sand, depressional; 28, Chipley sand; 34, Placid sand; 48, Myakka sand; 50, Sparr fine sand; 51, Plummer fine sand (SCS 1985) (Soil Conservation Service (USDA). 1985. Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida Gainesville, Florida, sheet 69).

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20 CHAPTER 2 METHODS A floristic inventory of Morningside Na ture Center was conducted from May 2001 to November 2002. Plants were collected by walking through all parts of the park. A map of trails (Fig. 1.1) was used to determine which areas of the park had been thoroughly sampled. Each area of the park wa s visited as often as possible to ensure proper sampling. The shallow stream on th e east side of the park was sampled by walking in it as far as it ex tended on the Morningside property. At least two voucher specimens of each sp ecies were collected, one being deposited in the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) and the other in the Morningside herbarium. The specimens were prepared following standard field and herbarium techniques (Judd et al. 2002, U. F. Herbarium 2001). The plant specimens were identified us ing mainly Wunderlin (1998), and often referencing Wunderlin (1982), Campbell (1983), Clewell (1985), Hall (1978), and Wunderlin & Hansen (2002).

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21 CHAPTER 3 PLANT COMMUNITIES There are four distinct plant communiti es at Morningside. These are pine flatwoods, sandhills, cypress swamps, and vari ous ruderal sites. These four ecosystems are very common in Florida, and each has dist inct species of plants and animals, as well as characteristic soil and hydrologic conditions. At Morningside, prescribed fire is an im portant management tool and is used on a regular basis to maintain the health of the flatwoods and sandhills (Fig. 3-1). This fire schedule keeps weedy species and fast-growi ng hammock shrubs and trees from invading these plant communities. Pine Flatwoods Pine flatwoods are the most common pl ant community found in Florida, covering approximately fifty percent of the land in the state. This percentage was probably greater in the past, but due to hab itat destruction, resulting fr om conversion of land to agricultural purposes, forestry operations, a nd urban growth, the amount of land covered by undisturbed flatwoods has been significan tly reduced (Myers & Ewel 1990, Taylor 1998). This community is also the major c onstituent of Mornings ide Nature Center, covering 149 acres, or 53.6% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3). The occurrence of flatwoods in Florida can be explained by past changes in sea level due to the repeated pe riods of glaciation that may have begun as early as the Miocene period. When the polar ice caps adva nced, large areas of the continental shelf

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22 Figure 3-1. Burn compartments at Morningside Nature Center were exposed. Then when the ice caps receded, the sea levels rose and these exposed areas were covered with water. During this time, sand was deposited on these shelves. This sandy soil, along with the low elevation of the land and poor drainage, became the necessary ingredients for the formation of today’s flatwoods communities (Myers & Ewel 1990). Pine flatwoods are characterized by a low elevation and flat topography with acidic, sandy soils that are poorly drained, of ten underlain by a clay hardpan. The sand is

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23 underlain by a compressed organic layer form ed by the downward movement of organics as water percolates down through the surface. A hardpan, or a compressed layer of clay often underlies this organic layer. The hardpa n is formed in a similar fashion. As water percolates through the soil surf ace, clay and other fine pa rticles and minerals collect beneath the compressed organic layer, formi ng the hardpan. The soil is usually fine textured, contains few nutrients, and has ve ry low amounts of clay and organic matter (Myers & Ewel 1990). During the rainy season, water sometimes stands in flatwoods if a hardpan is present, and water depth exceeds the depth of th e soil. In contrast, during the dry season, the sandy soil remains extremely dry because not enough water is present so that it reaches the surface. Therefore, a droughty c ondition usually persists during such periods. Any organic material that fa lls to the ground may lessen the effects of drought and high temperatures. It has been found that moisture levels are much highe r in areas that have not been burned due to the higher amount of organic litter remaining on the ground (Myers & Ewel 1990). In the past, natural fires frequently burned flatwoods at one to f our year intervals. However, the early settlements of Sp anish, followed by English and American settlements in the area, led to a dramatic de crease in the frequency of natural fires. Settlers began farming and also brought lives tock to the land; the population increased, which led to the need for roads. These ro ads and other human constructions acted as barriers to the natural fires, t hus causing a decrease in fire frequency. The lack of fire changed the understory of the flatwoods ecosy stem, reducing the abunda nce of herbs, and increasing the dominance of shrubs. It is thought that today’s flatwoods are quite

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24 Figure 3.2. Morningside Nature Center with delimited plant communities different than those of the past, although precise floristic cha nges are difficult to determine (Myers & Ewel 1990). The dominant tree species found in flatwoods in Florida are Pinus palustris, Pinus serotina, Pinus elliottii, Pinus taeda, Quercu s virginiana, Quercus nigra, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Acer rubrum Depending on the topology of the area, only one of these pine species may be dominant in any particular place. Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) is

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25 more fire tolerant than P. serotina and P. elliottii and is found in highe r elevation areas, where there is very rarely standing water at any time of the year. Pinus elliottii and P. serotina are found in lower elevation areas wher e water is more prevalent during the rainy season. Pinus palustri s historically dominated flat woods, but commercial logging has long since destroyed most of the virgin longleaf pine flatwoods. Because of this logging and suppression of natural fires, all three species of pine are commonly found coexisting in the same area (Myers & Ewel 199 0). Commonly, a fourth species of pine, P. taeda also can be found dominating the canopy of the flatwoods. This pine is very fast-growing (Taylor 1998) and quickly coloni zes in areas that have been disturbed. Pinus palustris and P. elliottii are the two dominant pi nes in the flatwoods at Morningside. The shrub layer of the flatwoods at Morningside is dominated by Befaria racemosa Callicarpa americana, Gaylussacia dumosa G. nana Hypericum hypericoides H. tetrapetalum, Ilex coriacea, I. glabra, Kalmia hirsuta Licania michauxii Lyonia lucida Myrica cerifera Quercus minima Q. pumila Rhus copallina Serenoa repens and Vaccinium myrsinites The ground layer consists of a variety of wildflowers and herbaceous species. Dominants include Aristida stricta var. beyrichiana Asclepias pedicellata Carphephorus paniculatus Cirsium horridulum Doellingeria reticulata Elephantopus elatus Eupatorium mohrii Eupatorium rotundifolium Fuirena scirpoidea Gamochaeta falcata Lachnocaulon anceps Polygala nana Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium Pterocaulon pycnostachyum Smilax auriculata and Symphyotrichum walteri

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26 Flatwoods Depression The flatwoods depressions, also called flatwoods ponds, depression marshes, or pineland depressions, comprise about 0.4% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3). These small, shallow, rounded depressions support a unique as semblage of plants due to the ephemeral presence of water. A depression marsh is usually formed when sand slumps over or around a sinkhole and creates a conical depr ession, which becomes filled by direct rainfall, runoff, or seepage from upland hab itats. The soil in these marshes is usually acidic and the center of the depression become s filled with peat. Fi re is important for exclusion of shrubs and trees, and the mainte nance of peat. The hydrology of these areas is variable, with most of the depre ssion marshes drying in most years. Cephalanthus occidentalis and Myrica cerifera are common shrubs found in the depression marshes at Morningside. Typical herbs f ound in this habitat include: Agalinis linifolia Lachnanthes caroliniana Pluchea rosea Sagittaria graminea Woodwardia virginica and Xyris caroliniana Sandhill Sandhills, often called high pinelands, are another common type of community in Florida. Sandhills compose 59.8 acres (21.5 %) of Morningside (Figs. 3-2, 3-3). Sandhills are characterized by an open canopy of Pinus palustris on rolling sand hills with an open, herb-dominated understory (Mye rs & Ewel 1990). Sandhills were once a very common plant community stretching thr oughout the southeastern United States from Virginia to eastern Texas. Historically, th ey provided a great hi ghway through which the early settlers could drive th eir wagons because of the open canopy and understory (Myers & Ewel 1990).

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27 Like flatwoods, sandhills are fi re controlled. The life fo rms in this community are adapted to low-intensity fires that usually oc cur every one to ten years. Sandhills often grade into other community types such as fl atwoods or scrub, and therefore often have many species in common with other plant comm unities (Myers & Ewel 1990). In fact, it has been hypothesized that presettlement longl eaf pine forests occurred on both sandhills and flatwoods. Pollen evidence has shown that the ratio of pines rela tive to hardwoods in this community has varied over the past 20,000 years. The cause of this fluctuation, however, is still unknown. The establishment of xeric, fire-adapted species is thought to have greatly increased in the sandhill communitie s within the last several thousand years. It may have been due to an increase in the frequency of fire, brought about by the agriculture of the Native Americans or an in crease in lighting-set fires (Myers & Ewel 1990). Sandhill formation began as early as the Pleistocene, as ridges possessing coarse, well-drained sands developed. There is much va riation in texture, dr ainage, and fertility of the soil, and because of this variation, it is thought that fire, rather than soil, has been the greatest influence on the patterns of vegetation found in this community. The sand has been derived from marine fluvial deposits and is very low in nutrients (Myers & Ewel 1990). The vegetation of sandhills consists of a pine canopy, a deciduous oak canopy, and a herbaceous ground cover. Longleaf pine, Pinus palustris is the major overstory species of sandhills. Because of extensive misuse of the land, the virgin longleaf pine forests have been virtually eradicated. This pine is extremely long-lived, reaching ages of more than five hundred years. This species is highly fire-resista nt and depends on low-

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28 intensity fires for its success in the sandhill ecosystem. The trees depend on fire to clear the herbaceous understory, providing bare soil needed for germination. Once the seed germinates, the young tree begins its life as a “grass stage.” At this stage, the sapling can easily survive if a fire passes through the area. The apical meristem stays close to the ground and is protected by long, moisture-fille d needles. During this period, it builds a long, thick taproot, which stores the water and nutrients the tree will need when it bolts up as a single-stemmed young tree. It bolts very quickly in order to get its terminal bud above the fire-level in case a fire passes through. When the tree is mature, the bark consists of plates, which can flake off when h eated in a fire. This dissipates the heat, which protects the trunk from fire damage (Myers & Ewel 1990). Other common trees found in the sandhill at Morningside include Quercus incana and Q. laevis As fire becomes more infrequent, Diospyros virginiana becomes frequent. Common shrubs found in sandhills at Morningside include Asimina angustifolia A. incana A. reticulata Licania michauxii Quercus pumila Rhus copallina, Vaccinium myrsinites and V. stamineum The understory of the sandhill at Morningside includes the following herbaceous elements: Andropogon gyrans Aristida stricta var. beyrichiana, Balduina angustifolia Berlandiera subacaulis, Carphephor us corymbosus, Chrysopsis scabrella Cnidoscolus stimulosus Crotolaria rotundifolia Croton argyranthemus Cuthbertia ornata Helianthemum corymbosum Liatris gracilis L. pauciflora Opuntia humifusa Palafoxia integrifolia Pityopsis graminifolia Pteridium aquilinum Rhyncospora megalocarpa Rubus cuneifolius Solidago odora var. chapmanii Sorghastrum secundum Sporobolus junceus and Stillingia sylvatica

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29 Wire grass, Aristida stricta var. beyrichiana is an indicator sp ecies. It is a bunch grass that flourishes under the appropriate c onditions and frequent fires. When these conditions are met, the grass forms a dense, vast groundcover. However, many stands of this grass have been eliminat ed since human settlement. Wi re grass spreads very slowly and has actually never been observed creeping into a cleared area, nor does it recolonize an area after being removed. It is also very easily exterminated. It apparently does not frequently grow from seed and often does not even flower. Controlled burning practices are often limited to the winter months, and th is fire regime always results in flowering without the production of seed in the wiregras s. It has been found that if the land is burned during the growing season, the grass flow ers profusely and produces seed (Myers & Ewel 1990). Therefore, burning regimes s hould be altered on public and private lands to accommodate this ecologically significant and slowly reproducing species. Fire frequency, intensity, and the season of the fi re has profound effects on most species of the sandhill ecosystem. Fire can stimulate s eed germination and maintain the understory, but, if not regular, it can also destroy pines and other important species. Sandhills consist of a unique and varying balance of fire resistant species that have adapted to the natural fires that sweep through the environment. The landscape is serene and pleasurable. Hall (1829) best captured the essence of the ecosystem when he wrote, “For five hundred miles, at least, we trav eled, in different parts of the South, over a country almost everywhere consisting of sand, feebly held together by a short wiry grass, shaded by the endless forest. I don’t know ex actly what was the cause, but it was a long time before I got quite tired of the scenery of these pine barrens. There was something, I thought, very graceful in the millions upon millio ns of tall and slender columns, growing

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30 up in solitude, not crowded upon one another, bu t gradually appearing to come closer and closer, till they formed a compact mass, beyond which nothing was to be seen.” Cypress Swamp Cypress swamps encompasses approximately 4.4% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3). This ecosystem is the most common type of stillwater swamp in Florida, and gets its water supply from shallow, acid groundwater. Such swamps occur in depressions and are usually scattered in poorly drained pine flat woods. The impermeable clay that underlies the pine flatwoods also underlies the swamp. The rate of decomposition in the swamp is low, and peat accumulates in the depressions. The amount of accumulated organic matter is usually greater than one meter. The wate r level in these swamps fluctuates greatly, exposing the peat bottom for weeks or even months. Organic acids accumulate in the water, giving it a reddish-brown color, maki ng it impenetrable to light. As a result, phytoplankton cannot survive, which causes the productivity and oxygen level of the swamp to be very low. Fire frequency is moderate and occurs approximately five times per century in a typical cypress swamp. It is thought that these fires burn accumulated organic matter and keep the swamps from becoming mesic ecosystems (Myers & Ewel 1990). Because of the effects of inundation of the la nd by water, the plants that grow in the cypress swamps must be able to adapt to the low oxygen and high acid content. As a result, the diversity of these ecosystems is so mewhat lower than that of ecosystems that do not have standing water. Also, the amount of time that an area is covered by water is directly proportional to the diversity found in that area. The longer an area is submerged, the fewer the number of species that can survive the length of time spent inundated. Having thickened leaves and low transpirati on rates are common adaptations for plants

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31 living in this ecosystem (Myers & Ewel 1990). Common trees and shrubs found in the cypress swamps at Morningside include: Acer rubrum Cephalanthus occidentalis Ilex cassine Itea virginica Lyonia lucida Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora and Taxodium ascendens Common understory herbs are: Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum Cladium jamaicense Eleocharis vivipara Lachnanthes caroliana Lycopus rubellus Panicum hemitomon Rubus argutus Saururus cernuus, and Woodwardia virginica Ruderal The ruderal habitats roughl y cover 20.1% of the park (Fig. 3-2). There are many different disturbed areas at Morningside. For example, the garden near the homestead provides an excellent opportunity for annual weedy species to thrive. The garden is seasonally planted and lays fallow otherwise. Fast-growing species are able to colonize the site. Also, there are ma ny characteristic disturbed or “weedy” species found along the trails, disturbed stream banks, University Av enue and the entrance road, the parking lots, and along the southeast side of the park where the property is adjacent to a housing community. Common trees, shrubs, and vine s found in these rude ral areas include Aleurites fordii Aralia spinosa Cinnamomum camphora Ligustrum lucidum Prunus serotina Sapium sebiferum and Vitis rotundifolia Commonly found herbs are Allium canadense Ambrosia artemisiifolia Cenchrus echinatus Chenopodium ambrosioides Conyza canadensis var. pusilla Cyperus croceus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dioscorea bulbifera Eremochloa ophiuroides Erigeron quercifolius Eupatorium compositifolium Euphorbia cyathophora Paspalum notatum Phytolacca americana var rigida Richardia brasiliensis Setaria parviflora Sida rhombifolia Sporobolus indicus var. indicus Stenotaphrum secundatum Wisteria sinensis and Youngia japonica

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32 A creek runs along the west side of the par k. This area is consid ered to be ruderal because of constant disturbance caused by dredging the canal. This creek has many dominant species that are uni que to this area, including Cicuta maculata Colocasia esculenta Ludwigia decurrens, L. peruviana, Lygodium japonicum, Sesbania punicea, Thelypteris hispidula, and T. palustris.

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33 Figure 3-3. Plant comminites at Morningside Nature Center; A, pine flatwoods; B, cypr ess swamp; C, flatwoods depression; D, sandhill

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34 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS A total of 525 species were found in 316 genera, which were included in 107 families. The largest families, followed by nu mber of species, are Asteraceae (70 spp.), Poaceae (60), Fabaceae (42), Cyperaceae (3 2), Ericaceae (15), Lamiaceae (15), Euphorbiaceae (14), Apiaceae (12), Fagaceae (1 1), Plantaginaceae (11), and Rubiaceae (10). The largest genera are Quercus (11 spp.), Desmodium (9), Cyperus (8), Hypericum (8), Asclepias (7), Rhynchospora (7), Andropogon (6), Dichanthelium (6), Ludwigia (6), Polygala (6), and Smilax (6). Twenty-two species are new records for Alachua County. These include Agalinis purpurea, Aristida gyrans, Bulbostylis stenophylla, Cirsium nuttallii, Commelina benghalensis, Dalea carnea var. carnea, Desmodium viri diflorum, Dicanthelium strigosum var. leucoblepharis, Hypericum brachyphy llum, Juniperus virginiana, Liatris tenuifolia var. tenuifolia, Ludwigia erecta, Ludw igia virgata, Lygodium japonicum, Pogonia divaricata, Populus deltoides, Sabatia brevifolia, Sorghastrum secundum, Symphyotrichum adnatum, Trichostema setaceum, Utricularia juncea, and Yucca aloifolia Six Florida endemics were also found. There are Asimina reticulata, Arnoglossum floridanum, Berlandiera subacaulis Chrysopsis subulata, Cuthbertia ornata, and Verbesina heterophylla Three species found at Morningside are list ed as threatened by Coile (2000): Pogonia divaricata, Sarracenia minor, and Zephyranthes treatiae Ctenium floridanum is listed as endangere d (Coile 2000, FNAI 2002). Osmunda cinnamomea, O. regalis, and

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35 Rapidophyllum hystrix are listed as commercially e xploited (Coile 2000). Ward (1979) listed two of the species as threatened: Rapidophyllum hystrix and Smilax smallii None of the species found at Morningside are listed as threatened plants by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (2002), but two are listed as “U.S. management concerns:” Pteroglossaspis ecristata and Verbesina heterophylla Nine species found at Morningside were f ound to be near or at the northern or southern limits of their geographic range (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002). Two species were found to be at their extreme southern limit in Alachua County. These include Pogonia divaricata and Agalinis purpurea Species that are near their southern limit are: Aleurites fordii Andropogon gerardii, and Pycnanthemum nudum Aleurites fordii is naturalized and occurs randomly, but is near its southe rn limit except for a di sjunct population in Citrus County. Agalinis gerardii and Pycnanthemum nudum are at their southern limit in Volusia County. Several species are near their northern limit in Alachua county: Aristida gyrans, Asimina reticulata, Chrysopsis scabrella, and Solidago odora var. chapmanii Aristida gyrans is at its northern limit in Clay County, A. reticulata in Bradford County, and C. scabrella and S. odora var. chapmanii in Columbia County. Chrysopsis subulata and Callisia ornata are at their northern limit except for a disjunct population of C. ornata that occurs in the panha ndle (in Gulf County). Verbesina heterophylla is at its western limit in Alachua County. Many non-native plants that are considered to be naturalized in Florida were also found at the park. These naturalized species are included in tabl e 4-1, along with an indication of their native range.

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36 Table 4-1 Introduced plants in Florida and their native range (some botanists consider species listed with an asterisk to be native). Species Origin of nativity Albizia julibrissin Asia Aleurites fordii Central Asia Alternanthera philoxeroides Tropical America Amaranthus viridis Tropical America Begonia cucullata South America Broussonetia papyrifera Asia Bulbostylis barbata Old World tropics Chenopodium ambrosioidies Tropical America Cinnamomum camphora Asia Clerodendrum bungei China Clerodendrum indicum East Indies Colocasia esculenta Asia Commelina benghalense Tropical Asia Crotolaria pallida Africa Cuphea carthegenensis South America Cyclospermum leptophyllum Tropical America Dactyloctenium aegyptium Old World Desmodium triflorum Old World Desmodium tortuosum Tropical America Dioscorea bulbifera Tropical Asia Echinochloa crusgalli Eurasia Eleusine indica Old World Eragrostis amabilis Old World Eremochloa ophiuroides Asia Eriobotrya japonica Asia Hyptis mutabilis Tropical America Indigofera hirsuta Africa Indigofera spicata Africa Ipomoea quamoclit Mexico Kyllinga squamulata Asia Lamium amplexicaule Europe *Lantana camara West Indies Ligustrum lucidum Asia Ligustrum sinense China Lolium perenne Europe Lonicera japonica Asia *Ludwigia peruviana Tropical America Lygodium japonicum Eastern Asia Medicago lupulina Europe Melilotus alba Eurasia Merremia dissecta Tropical America Mollugo verticillata Tropical America

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37 Table 4.1 Continued Species Origin of nativity Murdannia nudiflora Tropical Asia Oldenlandia corymbosa Old World Oxalis debilis Tropical America Panicum repens South America Paspalum notatum var. saurae Tropical America Paspalum urvillei South America Phyllanthus urinaria Tropical East Asia Physostegia virginiana Northeast United States Portulaca amilis South America Raphanus raphanistrum Eurasia Richardia brasiliensis South America Richardia scabra South America Sapium sebiferum China and Japan Sesbania punicea South America Sisyrinchium rosulatum South America Sonchus oleraceus Europe Sorghum halepense Mediterranean Region Sporobolis indicus var. indicus Asia Stellaria media Eurasia Urochloa racemosa Tropical Asia Verbascum thapsis Europe Verbena bonariensis Tropical Mexico Verbena brasiliensis Tropical Mexico Veronica arvensis Europe Wahlenbergia marginata Asia Wisteria sinensis China Xyris jupicai Tropical America Youngia japonica Southeast Asia *Yucca aloifolia West Indies and Mexico

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38 CHAPTER 5 ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES The species nomenclature follows Wunderlin (1998) and the ISB Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002). Nomenclature and circumscription of plant families are based on the Angiosperm Phyloge ny Group II (In press. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification fo r the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Kew Bulletin) and Judd et al. (2002). Recent ta xonomic revisions were also cited for several species. When these recent revisions differed from the taxonomy and nomenclature of Wunderlin (1998), the most recent name was used, and the reference is cited after the species listing. The species list is arranged alphabetica lly by family, genus, and species within larger monophyletic groups of ferns, conifers and angiosperms. Each entry includes the species name, followed by the author or authors (as taken from Wunderlin 1998, Wunderlin & Hansen 2002), the common name of the plant, the habitat in which it was found, its relative abundance, its flowering times, and th e collection number. For abundance, the following categories were used, and were based on the collector’s observations of the plants: rare (one or very few occurrences), occasional (sporadic occurrence), frequent (widespread throughout study area or plant community), and common (dominants in the plant community). Cathleen Kabat made all of the collecti ons unless indicated otherwise. Some vouchers for plants, which were not collected as part of this study are also cited. Laura J. Lehtonen made herbarium specimens of speci es at Morningside from 1982 through 1984,

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39 and these have been deposited in the Morn ingside herbarium. Her vouchers document several species in the followi ng list. Also, Gary Place, M. S. Carrara, and Richard Abbott collected and preserved a few specimens from the park, and these are referenced in the species list for species that were not r ecollected as part of this investigation. Ferns Osmundaceae Osmunda cinnamomea L. – Cinnamon fern. Cypre ss swamp. Common. Summer through fall. 309. Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray – Royal fern. Cypress swamp and disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring. 526. Polypodiaceae (including Aspleniaceae, Blechnaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, and Thelypteridaceae, etc.; Saulmon 1971, Pryer et al. 1995, Judd et al. 2002) Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Britton et al. – Ebony sp leenwort. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 369. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller – Bracken fern. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. 270. Thelypteris hispidula (Decne.) C.F. Reed var. versicolor (R.P. St. John) Lellinger -Hairy maiden fern. Disturbed creek ba nk. Occasional. Summer through fall. 371. Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (G. Lawson) Fern. – Marsh fern. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. 145. Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore – Netted chain fern. Cypress swamp, disturbed creek bank, and flatwoods depression. Frequent. Summer through fall. 236. Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. – Virginia chain fer n. Cypress swamp and flatwoods depression. Frequent. Summer through fall. 204, 217, 245. Schizaceae Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. – Japanese climbing fern. Disturbed stream bank. Frequent. Fall. 367. Conifers Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae; Watson 1993, Judd et al. 2002)

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40 Juniperus virginiana L. – Red cedar. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 289. Taxodium ascendens Brongn. – Pond-cypress. Cypre ss swamp. Frequent. Spring. 364, 626. Pinaceae Pinus elliottii Engelm. – Slash pine. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring. 493. Pinus palustris Mill. – Longleaf pine. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 265. Pinus taeda L. – Loblolly pine. Ruderal a nd sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 220, 365. Angiosperms Acanthaceae Dyschoriste oblongifolia (Michx.) Kuntze – Oblongleaf tw inflower; Oblong snakeherb. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 33, 489a. Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. – Carolina w ild petunia. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 489b. Adoxaceae (Including Sambucus and Viburnum Stevens 2002; Judd et al. 2002) Sambucus nigra L. subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli – Elderberry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 465. Viburnum nudum L. – Possumhaw. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 354. Agavaceae Yucca aloifolia L. – Spanish bayonet. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 538. Alismataceae Sagittaria graminea Michx. var. graminea – Grassy arrowhead. Cypress swamp, pine flatwoods, and flatwoods depression. Occasional. Spring through fall. 135, 239, 608. Alliaceae (Stevens 2002, Fay and Chase 1996, Judd et al. 2002, Dahlgren et al. 1985) Allium canadense L. var. canadense – Meadow garlic. Distur bed creek bank. Frequent. Spring. 523. Altingiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

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41 Liquidambar styraciflua L. – Sweetgum. Cypress sw amp and ruderal. Common. Spring. 485. Amaranthaceae (including Chenopodiaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. – Alligatorw eed. Disturbed creek bank. Locally common. All year. 142. Amaranthus viridis L. – Slender amaranth. Ruderal. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 456. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. – Mexican tea. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer through fall. 254. Amaryllidaceae (excluding Alliaceae and Hypoxidaceae; Dahlgren et al. 1985, Fay and Chase 1996, Judd et al. 2002, Stevens 2002) Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herb. var. treatiae (S. Watson) Meerow – Treat’s rainlily. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring. 447. Anacardiaceae Rhus copallinum L. – Winged sumac. Pine flatwo ods and sandhill. Common. Spring through summer. 148. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze – Eastern poison ivy. Disturbed creek bank and ruderal. Common. Spring through summer. 190. Annonaceae Asimina angustifolia Raf. – Slimleaf pawpaw. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring through summer. 41, 59, 160. Asimina angustifolia Raf. x A. incana (W. Bartram) Exell. – Sandhill. Occasional. Asimina incana (W. Bartram) Exell. – Wooly pa wpaw; Polecat bush. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 15. Asimina pygmaea (W. Bartram) Dunal – Dwarf pawpaw. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 161. Asimina reticulata Shuttlew. ex Chapm. – Netted pawpaw Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 285. Apiaceae (including Araliaceae; Judd et al. 2002) Aralia spinosa L. – Devil’s walkingstick. R uderal. Frequent. Summer. 475.

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42 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. – Spadeleaf. Rude ral. Occasional. Summer. 472. Cicuta maculata L. – Spotted water hemlock. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 141. Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson – Marsh parsley. Disturbed creek bank, ruderal. Frequent. Winter through spring. 423, 550. Eryngium aromaticum Baldwin – Fragrant eryngo. Sa ndhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 206. Eryngium baldwinii Spreng. – Baldwin’s eryngo. Pi ne flatwoods and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 80, 528. Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. – Button rattlesnakemaster; Button eryngo. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 83. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. – Manyflower marshpennywor t. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Winter through spring. 442 Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. – Whorled marshpennywort. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 206. Oxypolis filiformis (Walter) Britton subsp. filiformis – Water cowbane. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 358. Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. – Mock bishopsweed. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 280, 541. Spermolepis divaricata (Walter) Raf. – Roughfruit scales eed. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 488. Apocynaceae (including Asclepidaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 1994, 2002) Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. – Clasping milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 498b. Asclepias cinerea Walter – Carolina milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 63. Asclepias humistrata Walter – Pinewoods milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 2, 498a. Asclepias longifolia Michx. – Longleaf milkweed. Pi ne flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 501, 552.

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43 Asclepias pedicellata Walter – Savannah milkweed. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through summer. 180. Asclepias tuberosa L. – Butterflyweed; Butterfly milkweed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 37. Asclepias verticillata L. – Whorled milkweed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 112, 150. Aquifoliaceae Ilex cassine L. – Dahoon. Cypress swamp and pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 133. Ilex coriacea (Pursh) Chapm. – Large gallberry; Sweet gallberry. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring. 312. Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray – Inkberry; Gallberry. Pine flatwoods. Common. Winter through spring. 44. Ilex opaca var. opaca Aiton – American holly. Cypress swamp, pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 215. Ilex vomitoria Aiton – Yaupon. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 340. Araceae (including Lemnaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott – Wild taro. Dist urbed creek bank. Common. Spring through summer. 370. Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. – Lesser duckweed. Cypre ss swamp, flatwoods depression. Locally common. Summer through fall. 410. Arecaceae Butia capitata Becc. – Pindo palm. Ruderal. Rare. 500. Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude – Needlepalm. Ruderal. Only one found. Spring through summer. 337. Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. – Cabbage palm. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Occasiona l. Spring through summer. 444. Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small – Saw palmett o. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring through summer. 87.

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44 Asteraceae Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen var. repens (Walter) R.K. Jansen – Oppositeleaf spotflower. Disturbed stream bank. Occasional. Fall. 404. Ageratina jucundum (Greene) Clewell & Wooten – Hammock snakeroot. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 382. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. – Common ragwee d. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 392. Arnoglossum floridanum (A. Gray) H. Rob. – Florida Indian plantain. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer. 115. Baccharis halimifolia L. – Groundsel tree; Sea myrtle. Ruderal and sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 293. Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) B.L. Rob. – Coastalplain honeycombhead. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 28, 130, 223. Berlandiera subacaulis (Nutt.) Nutt. – Florida greeneyes. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 27. Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata (Sch. Bip.) R.E. Ballard ex Melchert. – Beggarticks. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 54. Bidens laevis (L.) Britton et al. – Burrmarigold; Smooth beggarticks. Disturbed stream bank. Occasional. Fall. 405. Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff – Smallfruit beggartic ks. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 363, 377. Carphephorus corymbosus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray – Coastalplain chaffhead; Florida paintbrush. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 250. Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmel.) H. Herbert – Vanillaleaf. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 240. Carphephorus paniculatus (J. F. Gmel.) H. Herbert – Ha iry chaffhead. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall through winter. 386. Chaptalia tomentosa Vent. – Woolly sunbonnets; Pineland daisy. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Fall through winter. 415. Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Elliott – Maryland goldenaster. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 101, 362.

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45 Chrysopsis scabrella Torr. & A. Gray – Coastalplain goldenaster. Sandhill. Common. Fall. 251. Chrysopsis subulata Small – Scrubland goldenaster. Pi ne flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 247, 301. Cirsium horridulum Michx. – Yellow thistle. Pine fl atwoods and ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 483. Cirsium nuttallii DC. – Nuttall’s thistle. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 77. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronquist – Dwarf Canadian horseweed. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 255, 276. Doellingeria reticulata (Pursh) Greene – Whitetop aster. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. 502, 574 (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002) Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. – False daisy. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 598. Elephantopus elatus Bertol. – Tall elephantsf oot. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 172. Elephantopus nudatus A. Gray – Smooth elephantsfoot. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 366. Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. – American burnweed; Fireweed. Cypress swamp. Common. All year. 99. Erigeron quercifolius Lam. – Oakleaf fleabane. Ruderal. Common. Spring through summer. 31, 431. Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. – Prairie fleabane. Flatwoods depression and ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer. 543. Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray – Early whitetop fleabane. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 102, 619. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small – Dogfennel. R uderal and sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 281. Eupatorium compositifolium Walter – Yankeeweed. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 307.

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46 Eupatorium mohrii Greene – Mohr’s thoroughwort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 76, 134, 177. Eupatorium pilosum Walter – Rough boneset. Pine flat woods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 233. Eupatorium rotundifolium L. – Roundleaf thoroughw ort; False horehound. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Summer through fall. 242. Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britt on – Slender goldenrod. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Frquent. Summer through fall. 343. Gamochaeta falcata (Lam.) Cabrera – Narrowleaf purpl e everlasting. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through summer. 486 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Gamochaeta pensylvatica (Willd.) Cabrera – Pennsylvania everlasting. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 21 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Helianthus angustifolius L. – Narrowleaf sunflower; Swamp sunflower. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 237, 590. Helianthus radula (Pursh) Torr. and A. Gray – Stiff sunflower. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 199. Hieracium gronovii L. – Queen-devil. Pine flatw oods and sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 192, 195. Hieracium megacephalon Nash – Coastalplain hawkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 34 108. Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. – Virginia dwarfdandelion. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 458. Lactuca canadensis L. – Canada lettuce. Pine flatw oods. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 390. Lactuca graminifolia Michx. – Grassleaf lettuce. R uderal. Frequent. Summer. 114, 514. Liatris gracilis Pursh – Slender gayfeather. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 300. Liatris pauciflora Pursh – Fewflower gayfeather. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 225.

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47 Liatris tenuifolia Nutt. var. tenuifolia – Shortleaf gayfeather. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 269. Lygodesmia aphylla (Nutt.) DC. – Rose-rush. Sandh ills. Occasional. Spring through summer. 24. Melanthera nivea (L.) Small – Snow squarestem. Ruderal. Only one found. Summer. 227. Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. – Climbing hempvine. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 368. Palafoxia integrifolia (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray – Co astalplain palafox. Sandhill. Common. Fall. 249. Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. – Narrowleaf s ilkgrass. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 197. Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. – Sweetscent. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 342. Pluchea rosea R.K. Godfrey – Rosy camphorweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Summer. 92, 246. Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hillard & B.L. Burtt – Sweet everlasting; Rabbit tobacco. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 221 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michx.) Elliott – Blackroot. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Common. Spring through fall. 29. Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC. – Carolina desertchicory. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 539 544. Rudbeckia hirta L. – Blackeyed Susan. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 308. Sericocarpus tortifolius (Michx.) Nees – Whitetop aster; Di xie aster. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 241 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Solidago fistulosa Mill. – Pinebarren goldenrod. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 375, 409. Solidago odora Aiton var. chapmanii (Torr. & A. Gray) Cronquist – Chapman’s goldenrod. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 147, 193.

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48 Solidago stricta Aiton – Wand goldenrod. Pine flatw oods. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 393. Solidago tortifolia Elliott – Twistedleaf goldenrod. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 268. Sonchus oleraceus L. – Common sowthistle. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 422, 516. Symphyotrichum adnatum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom – Scaleleaf as ter. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 611 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G.L. Nesom – Eastern silver aster. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 413 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom – Rice butt on aster. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Common. Fall. 391 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Symphyotrichum walteri (Alex.) G.L. Nesom – Walter’s aster. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 243 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Verbesina heterophylla (Chapm.) A. Gray – Divers eleaf crownbeard. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 113, 579. Vernonia angustifolia Michx. – Tall ironwee d. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 310. Youngia japonica (L.) DC – Oriental false hawksbeard. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 381. Begoniaceae Begonia cucullata Willd. – Wax begonia; Club begonia. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. All year. 139. Bignoniaceae Campsis radicans (L.) Seemann ex Bureau – Trum pet creeper. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through summer. 89. Brassicaceae Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton – Western tansymustard. Ruderal. Locally common. Winter through spring. 427.

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49 Lepidium virginicum L. – Virginia pepperweed. R uderal. Occasional. Spring. 14. Raphanus raphanistrum L. – Wild radish. Rudera l. Occasional. Spring. 56. Bromeliaceae Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. – Ballmoss. Pine flatw oods and ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 278. Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. – Spanish moss. Pine flatwoods and rude ral. Common. Spring through fall. 264. Cactaceae Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. – Pricklypear. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 511. Campanulaceae Lobelia glandulosa Walt. – Glade lobelia. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 387. Lobelia paludosa Nutt. – White lobelia. Pine fl atwoods. Occasional. Spring through summer. 45, 189. Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. – Clasping Venus’ s Lookingglass. Ruderal. Occasional. Winter through summer. 434. Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC. – Southern rock bell. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 19, 105. Cannabaceae (Stevens 2002; as Celtidaceae; Judd et al. 2002) Celtis laevigata Willd. – Sugarberry; Hackberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 346. Cannaceae Canna flaccida Salisb. – Bandana-of-the-Everglades. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring through summer. 74, 577. Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Thunb. – Japanese honeysuckle. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 283, 622.

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50 Lonicera sempervirens L. – Coral honeysuckle; Trum pet honeysuckle. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 482. Caryophyllaceae Arenaria serpyllifolia L. subsp. serpyllifolia – Thymeleaf sandwort. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 457b. Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult. – Drymary; West Indian chickweed. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 468. Silene antirrhina L. – Sleepy catchfly. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 545. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – Common chickweed. Rude ral. Frequent. Winter through spring. 457a. Chrysobalanaceae Licania michauxii Prance – Gopher apple. Sandhill. Common. Spring through summer. 51. Cistaceae Helianthemum carolinanum (Walter) Michx. – Carolina fr ostweed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 649, Lehtonen 223a. Helianthemum corymbosum Michx. – Pinebarren frostweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring though summer. 58. Lechea minor L. – Thumeleaf pinweed. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 299. Lechea mucronata Raf. – Hairy pinweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 127. Lechea pulchella Raf. – Leggett’s pinweed. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer. Lehtonen 336. Lechea sessiliflora Raf. – Pineland pinweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 152, 459. Lechea torreyi (Chapm.) Legg. ex Britton – Pied mont pinweed. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 451.

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51 Clusiaceae Hypericum brachyphyllum (Spach) Steud. – Coastalplain St. John’s-wort. Flatwooods. Rare. Summer through fall. 645. Hypericum cistifolium Lam. – Roundpod St. John’s wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 376. Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz – St. Peter’s-wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 201. Hypericum gentianoides (L.) Britton et al. – Pineweeds; Orangegrass. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 309. Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz – St. Andrew’s-Cross. Pine flatwood s. Frequent. Summer through fall. 151, 174, 183. Hypericum mutilum L. – Dwarf St. John’s wort. Rude ral. Frequent. Spring through summer. 562. Hypericum myrtifolium Lam. – Myrtleleaf St. John’s-wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through summer. 70. Hypericum tetrapetalum Lam. – Fourpetal St. John’s-w ort. Flatwoods depression and pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 187. Commelinaceae Callisia ornata (Small) G.C. Tucker – Florida sc rub roseling. Sandhill. Common. Spring through summer. 40. Commelina benghalensis L. – Jio. Ruderal. Ra re. Summer through fall. 257. Commelina erecta L. – Whitemouth dayflower. Sandhill and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 36, 230. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan – Nakedstem dewflower. Ruderal. Frequent. Fall. 594. Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. – Bluejacket; Ohio spiderwort. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer. 88, 229. Convolvulaceae Cuscuta compacta Juss. ex Choisy – Compact dodder. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 356.

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52 Dichondra carolinensis Michx. – Carolina ponysfoot. R uderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 315. Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennst. – Tievine. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 274. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Meyer – Man-of-the-earth. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 117. Ipomoea quamoclit L. – Cypressvine. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 252. Ipomoea cf. sagittata Poir. – Saltmarsh morningglory. Ruderal. Rare. Summer through fall. 643. Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f. – Noyau vine. R uderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 121. Stylisma patens (Desr.) Myint – Coastalplain dawnflower. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 131. Cornaceae (including Nyssaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Cornus florida L. – Flowering dogwood. Ruderal (possibly planted). Occasional. Spring. 479. Nyssa sylvatica Marshall var. biflora (Walter) Sarg. – Swamp tupelo. Cypress swamp and flatwoods depressio n. Common. Spring. 316, 606. Cucurbitaceae Melothria pendula L. – Creeping cucumber. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 186. Cyperaceae Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke – Watergrass. Ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 164. Bulbostylis stenophylla (Elliott) C.B. Clarke – Sandyfield hairsedge. Ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 157. Bulbostylis warei (Torr.) C.B. Clarke – Ware’s hairsedge. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 129. Carex elliottii Schwein. & Torr. – Elliott’s sedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 530.

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53 Carex longii Mack. – Long’s sedge. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 437, 563. Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. – Hop sedge. R uderal. Spring through summer. Occasional. 525. Carex verrucosa Muhl. – Warty sedge. Pine fl atwoods. Frequent. Spring through summer. 176. Cladium jamaicense Crantz – Jamaica swamp sawgrass. Cypress swamp. Common. Summer through fall. 553. Cyperus compressus L. – Poorland flatsedge. Rudera l. Locally common. Summer through fall. 166, 212A. Cyperus croceus Vahl – Baldwin’s flatsedge. Rudera l. Common. Summer through fall. 23 154, 208. Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth – Coastalplain sedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Fall. 212B. Cyperus distinctus Steud. – Swamp flatsedge. Dist urbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through winter. 143. Cyperus filiculmis Vahl – Wiry flatsedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 159B. Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. – Manyspike flatsedge. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer through fall. 162. Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. – Pinebarren flatsedge. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer through fall. 104, 155, 159A, 211. Cyperus strigosus L. – Strawcolored flatsedge. Di sturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 402. Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. – Conecup spikerush. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer. 529a. Eleocharis vivipara Link – Viviparous spikerush. Cypress swamp. Locally common. Spring through summer. 101, 557. Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. – Slender fimbry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 165. Fimbristylis caroliniana (Lam.) Fernald – Carolina fimbr y. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 260.

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54 Fuirena scirpoidea Michx. – Southern umbrellasedge. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through fall. 491. Kyllinga odorata Vahl – Fragrant spikesedge. Rudera l. Occasional. Spring through fall. 167, 210. Kyllinga squamulata Thonn. ex Vahl – Asian spikesedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 644. Rhynchospora cephalantha A. Gray – Bunched beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring through fall. 519 558a. Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray – Shortbristle horned beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Spring through summer. 412. Rhynchospora fascicularis (Michx.) Vahl – Fascicled beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring through fall. 73, 188. Rhynchospora megalocarpa A. Gray – Sandyfield beaksedge. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 495. Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Gray – Southern beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring through fall. 556. Rhynchospora microcephala (Britton) Britton ex Small – Bunched beaksedge. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 470. Rhynchospora wrightiana Boeck. – Wright’s beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Summer through fall. 558b. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth – Woolgrass. Cypre ss swamp and ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 280, 582. Scleria triglomerata Michx. – Tall nutgrass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 504. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bulbifera L. – Air-potato. Ruderal. Fr equent. Spring through summer. 218. Droseraceae Drosera brevifolia Pursh – Dwarf sundew. Pine fl atwoods. Frequent. Spring. 648. Ebenaceae

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55 Diospyros virginiana L. – Common persimmon. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 271. Ericaceae Bejaria racemosa Vent. – Tarflower. Pine fl atwoods. Frequent. Summer. 86. Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) Torr. & A. Gray – Dwarf huckleberry. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 9, 48. Gaylussacia nana (A. Gray) Small – Blue huckleberry. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring. 492 (Luteyn et al. 1996) Gaylussacia tomentosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr. – Huckleberry. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring. 48 (Luteyn et al. 1996) Kalmia hirsuta Walter – Wicky; Hairy laurel. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through summer. 84. Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray – Swamp doghobble. Pine flatwoods and cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring. 330a. Lyonia fruticosa (Michx.) G.S. Torr. – Coastalplain staggerbush. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring. 46. Lyonia ligrustina (L.) DC. var. foliosiflora (Michx.) Fernald – Maleberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 559. Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch – Fetterbush. C ypress swamp and pine flatwoods. Common. Spring. 43, 98, 331. Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don – Piedmont staggerbush. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 566. Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr. – Swamp azalea. Pine flatwoods. R are. Summer. 118. Vaccinium arboreum Marshall – Sparkleberry; Farklebe rry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 11, 305, 466. Vaccinium corymbosum L. – Highbush blueberry. Pine fl atwoods. Frequent. Spring. 284, 330b, 450, 474, 560. Our material included both the V. fuscatum Ait. entity ( 330b, 474 ) and the V. ashei (L.) Reade entity ( 284, 450, 560, 564 ) (Uttal 1987). Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. – Shiny blueberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Very common. Spring. 426.

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56 Vaccinium stamineum L. – Deerberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring. 6, 8, 16. Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulon decangulare L. – Tenangle pipewort. Pine fl atwoods. Frequent. Summer. 71. Lachnocaulon anceps (Walter) Morong – Whitehead bogbutton. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through summer. 448. Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhland – Yellow hatpins. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring. 67, 429. Euphorbiaceae Acalypha gracilens A. Gray – Slender threeseed me rcury. Ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 311. Aleurites fordii Hemsl. – Tungoil tree. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 533. Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. – Pillpod sandmat. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 332. Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. – Graceful sandmat. Ruderal. Rare. Fall. 407. Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small – Hyssopleaf sandmat. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 256, 334, 335. Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small – Spotted sandmat. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 333. Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engelm. & A. Gray – Tread-softly. Ruderal and sandhill. Common. All year. 477. Croton argyranthemus Michx. – Silver croton; Heali ng croton. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 5. Croton glandulosus L. var. glandulosus – Vente conmigo. Sandhill. Occasional. All year. 350. Croton michauxii G.L. Webster – Rushfoil; Michaux’s croton. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 327.

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57 Euphorbia cyathophora (Murray) Bartl. – Painted leaf; Fire-on-the-mountain. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 394. Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. – Chinese tallowtree. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 467. Stillingia sylvatica L. – Queen’s delight. Pine flat woods and sandhill. Frequent. All year. 13. Tragia urens L. – Wavyleaf noseburn. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 38. Fabaceae Aeschynomene viscidula Michx. – Sticky jointvetch. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 125. Albizia julibrissin Durazz. – Silktree; Mimosa. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 401. Baptisia alba (L.) Vent. – White wild indi go. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 651. Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. Spurred butterfly pea. Sandhill and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 52. Cercis canadensis L. – Eastern Redbud. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 149. Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene – Partridge pea. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 203. Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. nictitans – Sensitive pea. Sandhill. Common. Spring through fall. 194. Clitoria mariana L. – Atlantic pigeonwings. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 250. Crotalaria pallida Aiton var. obovata (G. Don) Polhill – Smooth rattlebox. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 219. Crotalaria rotundifolia J.F. Gmel. – Rabbitbells. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Common. All year. 3, 22, 66. Dalea carnea (Michx.) Poir. var. albida (Torr. & A. Gray) Barneby – Whitetassels. Sandhill. Rare. Summer. D. and G. Place 380. Dalea carnea (Michx.) Poir. var. carnea – Whitetassels. Sandhill. Rare. Summer. 326.

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58 Dalea pinnata (J.F. Gmel.) Barneby var pinnata – Summer farewell. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 260. Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. – Hairy sm all-leaf ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 341. Desmodium floridanum Chapm. – Florida ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 110, 355. Desmodium incanum DC. – Zarzabacoa comun. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 123, 329, 351b. Desmodium lineatum DC. – Sand ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 588. Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. – Panicledleaf ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 351a. Desmodium tenuifolium Torr. & A. Gray – Slimleaf tic ktrefoil. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 198. Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. – Dixie ticktrefoil. R uderal. Rare. Spring through fall. Johnson 7 Sept. 1982. Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. – Threeflower ticktrefoil. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 548. Desmodium viridiflorum (L.) DC. – Velvetleaf ticktref oil. Sandhill and ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 171. Erythrina herbacea L. – Coralbean; Cherokee bean. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 505. Galactia regularis (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Pogg. – Easter n milkpea. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 61, 116, 328. Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton – Downy milkpea. Sa ndhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 320. Indigofera hirsuta L. – Hairy indigo. Rudera l. Frequent. All year. 258. Indigofera spicata Forssk. – Trailing indigo. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 361. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. – Hairy lespedeza. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 259.

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59 Medicago lupulina L. – Black medick. Ruderal. O ccasional. Winter through summer. 461. Melilotus albus Medik. – White sweetclover. Rude ral. Frequent. Spring through summer. 518. Mimosa quadrivalvis L. var. angustata (Torr. & A. Gray) Barneby – Sensitive brier. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 30. Mimosa strigillosa Torr. & A. Gray – Powderpuff. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 614. Pediomelum canescens (Michx.) Rydb. – Buckroot. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 7. Rhynchosia difformis (Elliott) DC. – Doubleform snoutbean. Sandhill. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 460. Rhynchosia reniformis DC. – Dollarleaf. Sandhill. Common. Spring through fall. 4b. Rhynchosia tomentosa (L.) Hook. & Arn. var. tomentosa – Twining snoutbean. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Fre quent. Spring through fall. 4a, 512. Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh – Danglepod. Rude ral. Occasional. Summer through fall. 397, 593. Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. – Rattlebox. Disturbe d creek bank. Frequent. Spring through summer. 522. Stylosanthes biflora (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Pogg. – Side beak pencilflower. Sandhill. Common. Summer. 109. Tephrosia chrysophylla Pursh – Scurf hoarypea. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 302. Tephrosia hispidula (Michx.) Pers. – Sprawling hoarypea. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 200, 513. Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet – Chinese wisteria. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 534. Zornia bracteata J.F. Gmel. – Viperina. Sandhill. Occasional. All year. 107, 196. Fagaceae Quercus falcata Michx. – Spanish oak; Southern red oak. Ruderal (planted?). Occasional. Spring. 481.

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60 Quercus geminata Small – Sand live oak. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 224. Quercus hemispherica W. Bartram ex Willd. – Laurel oa k. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 128 222 (Muller 1970). Quercus incana W. Bartram – Bluejack oak. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 304, 380a. Quercus x asheana Little ( Q. incana x Q. laevis ) – Sandhill. Rare. 569. Quercus laevis Walter – Turkey oak. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 494. Quercus laurifolia Michx. – Laurel oak; Diamond oak. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 535. Quercus minima (Sarg.) Small – Dwarf live oak. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring. 298. Quercus myrtifolia Willd. – Myrtle oak. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 303. Quercus nigra L. – Water oak. Cypress swamps and ruderal. Common. Spring. 277, 379. Quercus pumila Walter – Running oak. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring. 94. Quercus virginiana Mill. – Virginia live oak. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 476, 570. Quercus x walteriana Ashe ( Q. nigra x laevis) – Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 288. Gelsemiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W.T. Aiton – Carolina jessamine. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Winter through spring. 441. Gentianaceae Sabatia brevifolia Raf. – Shortleaf rosegentian. Sandhill. Spring through summer. 604. Geraniaceae Geranium carolinianum L. – Carolina cranesbill. Rudera l. Rare. Winter through spring. 455.

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61 Haemodoraceae Lachnanthes caroliana (Lam.) Dandy – Carolina redroot. Cypress swamp and flatwoods depression. Comm on. Summer. 575. Lehtonen 366. Haloragaceae Proserpinaca palustris L. – Marsh mermaidweed. Di sturbed creek. Rare. Spring through fall. 650. Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. – Combleaf mermaidweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Spring through fall. Lehtonen 352. Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis juncea Sm. – Fringed yellow st argrass. Pine flatwo ods. Frequent. Spring through fall. 65, 85, 181. Iridaceae Iris hexagona Walter – Dixie iris; Prairie iris. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring. 647. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. – Narrowleaf blueeyed grass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Winter through summer. 446. (Systematics of this group is unclear, and some systematists refer our plants to S. atlanticum E.P. Bicknell). Sisyrinchium rosulatum E.P. Bicknell – Annual blueeyed grass. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 446. Iteaceae (Stevens 2002) Itea virginica L. – Virginia willow. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring. 97, 509. Juglandaceae Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet – Pignut hickory. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 496. Juncaceae Juncus elliottii Chapm. – Bog rush; Elliott’s rush. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer. 75, 503. Juncus marginatus Rostk. – Shorerush; Grassleaf rus h. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Fall. 126, 414.

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62 Juncus megacephalus M.A. Curtis – Bighead rush. Di sturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer. 421, 519c. Juncus scirpoides Lam. – Needlepod rush. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 185. Krameriaceae Krameria lanceolata Torr. – Sandspur; Ratany. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. Lehtonen 447. Lamiaceae Callicarpa americana L. – American beautyberry. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring through summer. 90. Clerodendrum bungei Steud. – Rose glorybower. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 537. Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze – Turk’s turban; Skyr ocket. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 532. Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinners – Clustered bushmint; Muskymint. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 228, 235. Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. – Tropical bushmint Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 226, 395, 424. Lamium amplexicaule L. – Henbit deadnettle. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 454. Lycopus rubellus Moench – Taperleaf waterhor ehound. Cypress swamp. Common. Summer through fall. 214. Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. – Obedientplant. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Summer through fall. 403. Pycnanthemum nudum Nutt. – Coastalplain mountainmint. Flatwoods. Rare. Fall. 607. Salvia azurea Michx. ex Lam. – Azure blue sage. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 272. Salvia lyrata L. – Lyreleaf sage. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 310. Scutellaria integrifolia L. – Helmet skullcap. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 344.

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63 Scutellaria multiglandulosa (Kearney) Small ex R.M. Harper – Small’s skullcap. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 42, 238. Stachys floridana Shuttlew. ex Benth. – Florida hedgenettle; Florida bettony. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 400. Trichostema setaceum Houtt. – Narrowleaf bluecurls. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 248. Lauraceae Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. – Camphortree. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 373. Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. – Swamp bay. Cy press swamp. Common. Spring. 96, 306, 589. Lentibulariaceae Pinguicula pumila Michx. – Small butterwort. Pine flatwoods. Locally common. Winter through spring. 388, 417. Utricularia juncea Vahl – Southern bladderwort. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring through fall. 389. Utricularia purpurea Walter – Eastern purple bladderwort. Flatwoods depression. Occsional. All year. 617. Utricularia subulata L. – Zigzag bladderwort. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. Lehtonen 253. Loganiaceae Mitreola sessilifolia (J.F. Gmel.) G. Don – Swam p hornpod. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 335. Lythraceae Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. – Colombian waxweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 204. Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora L. – Southern magnolia. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 279, 339.

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64 Magnolia virginiana L. – Sweetbay. Cypress swam p. Frequent. Spring through summer. 573. Malvaceae Sida rhombifolia L. – Cuban jute; Indian hemp. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 393 Melanthiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Schoenocaulon dubium (Michx.) Small – Florida feat hershank. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 64. Melastomataceae Rhexia mariana L. – Pale meadowbeauty; Maryland meadowbeauty. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 91, 95, 580. Rhexia nuttallii C.W. James – Nuttall’s meadowbeaut y. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 324. Rhexia petiolata Walter – Fringed meadowbeauty. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 314. Molluginaceae Mollugo verticillata L. – Indian chickweed; Green car petweed. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 549. Moraceae Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. – Paper mulberry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 603. Myricaceae Myrica cerifera L. var. cerifera – Southern bayberry; Wax my rtle. Cypress swamps, pine flatwoods, and ruderal. Co mmon. Summer through fall. 266 (Clewell 1985) Myrica cerifera L. var. pumila Michx. – Dwarf wax myrtle. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through fall. 453 (Clewell 1985) Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia diffusa L. – Red spiderling; Wineflower. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 396.

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65 Oleaceae Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton – Glossy privet. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 425. Ligustrum sinense Lour. – Chinese privet. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring. 419. Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray – Wild olive; American devilwood. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 561, 616. Onagraceae Gaura angustifolia Michx. – Southern beeblossom. R uderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 520. Ludwigia decurrens Walter – Wingleaf primrosewillow. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring through fall. 398, 399, 620. Ludwigia erecta (L.) H. Hara – Yerba de jicotea. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Spring through fall. 599. Ludwigia maritima R.M. Harper – Seaside primrosewillow. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 231, 384, 578. Ludwigia palustris (L.) Elliott – Marsh seedbox. Flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. 357, 487. Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara – Peruvian primrosewillow. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. All year. 294. Ludwigia suffruticosa Walter – Shrubby primrosewillow. Ruderal. Spring through fall. Lehtonen 334, 334a. Oenothera laciniata Hill – Cutleaf evening primrose. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 517. Orchidaceae Pogonia divaricata (L.) R. Br. – Rosebud orchid. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 264 Pteroglossaspis ecristata (Fernald) Rolfe – Giant Orchid. Sandhill. Occasional. Late summer. 170.

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66 Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray – Spring ladiestre sses. Ruderal. Rare. Summer. Lehtonen 274. Orobanchaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Agalinis fasciculata (Ell.) Raf. – Beach false foxglove. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 385. Agalinis filifolia (Nutt.) Raf. – Seminole false fo xglove. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Occasional. Summer through fall. 385. Agalinis linifolia (Nutt.) Britton – Flaxleaf false foxglove. Pine flatwoods and flatwoods depression. Occasional. Summer through fall. 244. Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell – Purple false foxglove. Cypress swamp. Rare. Summer through fall. Carrara 12, Lehtonen 409. Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. var. pectinata (Nutt.) Gleason – Fernleaf yellow false foxglove. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through spring. 10. Buchnera americana L. – American bluehearts. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 609, Lehtonen 239, 291. Seymeria cassioides (G.F. Gmel.) S.F. Blake – Yaupon blacksenna. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Fall. 262. Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. – Common yellow woodsorrel; Cr eeping woodsorrel. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 57, 624. Oxalis debilis Kunth var. corymbosa (DC.) Lourteig – Pink woodsorrel. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 480. Papaveraceae (including Fumariaceae; St evens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Corydalis micrantha (Engelm. ex. A. Gray) A. Gray – Smallflower fumewort; Harlequin. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. Lehtonen 424. Passifloraceae Passiflora incarnata L. – Purple passionflower. Rude ral. Occasional. Spring through summer. 527.

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67 Phyllanthaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Phyllanthus urinaria L. – Chamber bitter. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 408. Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida Caulkins & Wyatt – Ameri can pokeweed. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 531 (Caulkins and Wyatt 1990) Plantaginaceae (APG) Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L. Rob. – Lemon bacopa ; Blue waterhyssop. Flatwoods depression. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 354. Gratiola hispida (Benth. ex Lindl.) Pollard – Rough hedgehyssop. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 62, 313. Gratiola pilosa Michx. – Shaggy hedgehyssop. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. Lehtonen 321. Gratiola virginiana L. – Roundfruit hedgehyssop. C ypress swamp. Rare. Spring through summer. Lehtonen 435. Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz. – Canada toadflax. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 20, 484. Linaria floridana Chapm. – Apalachicola toadflax. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. Lehtonen 431. Penstemon australis Small – Eustis Lake beard tongue. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. Lehtonen 219. Plantago virginica L. – Virginia plantain; Southern plantain. Disturbed creek bank. Locally common. Winter through spring. 435. Scoparia dulcis L. – Sweetbroom; licorice weed. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. All year. 286, 591. Veronica arvensis L. – Corn speedwell. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 456. Veronica peregrina L. – Neckweed. Ruderal. Occas ional. Winter through spring. 439.

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68 Poaceae Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum (Schult.) Hitchc. – Blue ma idencane. Cypress swamp. Locally common. Fall. 510. Andropogon brachystachyus Chapm. – Shortspike bluestem. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Rare. Summer through fall. 317, 634. Andropogon gerardii Vitman – Big bluestem. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 347, 360. Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Pogg. var. glaucopsis (Elliott) C. Mohr. – Purple bluestem. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 342. Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Pogg. var. glomeratus – Bushy bluestem. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. 636. Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Pogg. var. hirsutior – Bushy bluestem. Pine Flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 132, 631. Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Pogg. var. pumilus (Vasey) Vasey ex L.H. Dewey – Bushy bluestem. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 273, 627, 633. Andropogon gyrans Ashe var. gyrans – Elliott’s bluestem. Sa ndhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 383b. Andropogon ternarius Michx. – Splitbeard bluestem. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 60, 106. Andropogon virginicus L. var. glaucus Hack. – Chalky bluestem. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 632. Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus – Broomsedge bluestem. Pine flatwoods, ruderal, and sandhill. Frequent. Fall. 290, 635, 637, 639. Anthaenantia villosa (Michx.) P. Beauv. – Green silkys cale. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Abbott 9721. Aristida stricta Michx. var. beyrichiana (Trin. & Rupr.) D.B. Ward – Wiregrass. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Comm on. Spring through fall. 383a (Ward 2001) Aristida gyrans Chapm. – Corkscrew threeawn. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall through winter. 318, 319.

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69 Aristida purpurascens Poir. var. tenuispica (Hitchc.) Allred – H illsboro threeawn. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Fall. 629, 630. Aristida spiciformis Elliott – Bottlebrush threeawn. Pi ne flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 291. Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Walter ex Muhl. – Switchc ane. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 613. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm. – Common carpetgrass Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 153, 349. Axonopus furcatus (Flgg ) Hitchc. – Big carpetgrass. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 568. Cenchrus echinatus L. – Southern sandbur. Rude ral. Common. All year. 55. Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis – Coastal sandspur. Ruderal and sandhill. Frequent. All year. 122. Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates var. laxum -Slender woodoats. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 352, 359. Ctenium floridanum (Hichc.) Hichc. – Florida tooth achegrass. Sandhill. Rare. Spring through fall. Abbott 9719. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. ex Asch and Schwei nf – Durban crowfootgrass. Ruderal. Common. All year. 253. Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark – Narrowleaf panicum. Sandhill. Common. All year. 507. Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. acuminatum – Tapered witchgrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 209. Dichanthelium ensifolium (Baldwin ex El liott) Gould var. ensifolium – Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. 69. Dichanthelium laxiflorum (Lam.) Gould – Openflower panicum. Cypress swamp. Frequent. All year. 380b 508. Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark – Eggleaf witchgrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through summer. 1.

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70 Dichanthelium strigosum (Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann var. leucoblepharis (Trin.) Freckmann – Fringed panicum. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Summer through fall. 100, 297. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler – Southern crabgrass. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 292, 584. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv. – Barnyardgrass. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 406, 585, 592. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. – Indian goosegrass. Ruderal. Fr equent. Summer through fall. 168, 586. Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn. – Feather lovegr ass. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 213. Eragrostis elliottii S. Watson – Elliott’s lovegrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 261. Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. – Centipedegrass. Ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 207, 295. Eustachys petraea (Sw.) Desv. – Pinewoods fingerg rass. Ruderal and sandhill. Frequent. All year. 53B, 124. Gymnopogon ambiguous (Michx.) Britton et al. – Bearded skeletongrass. Sandhill. Rare. Fall. Abbott 9722. Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Benth. – Sweet tanglehead. Ruderal. Occasional. Fall. 597. Lolium perenne L. – Italian ryegrass. R uderal. Frequent. Spring. 546. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv. – Woodsgrass; Basket grass. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 642. Panicum anceps Michx. – Beaked panicum. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 169, 182b, 324. Panicum hemitomon Schult. – Maidencane. Cypress swamp. Common. Spring through fall. 554. Panicum repens L. – Torpedograss. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 205. Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees – Redtop Panicum. Flatwoods de pression. Occasional. Summer through fall. 605.

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71 Panicum verrucosum Muhl. – Warty panicgrass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 358. Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi – Bahiagrass. Rude ral. Frequent. Spring through fall. 53a. Paspalum praecox Walter – Early paspalum. Pine flatwoods. Spring through fall. Johnson 14. Paspalum setaceum Michx. – Thin paspalum. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through fall. 182a, 321. Paspalum urvillei Steud. – Vaseygrass. Ruderal and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 353, 521. Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers. – Sugarcane plumegrass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Fall. 374. Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash – American cupscale. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring through fall. 216, 325. Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium – Little bluestem. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Freque nt. Summer through fall. 638. Setaria corrugata (Elliott) Schult. – Coastal bristlegrass ; Coastal foxtail. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 178. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelen – Yellow bristlegras s; Knotroot foxtail. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 138, 202. Sorghastrum secundum (Elliott) Nash – Lopsided indi an grass. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 267. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. – Johnsongrass. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 322, 540. Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. – Prairie wedgescal e. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 438. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. indicus – Smutgrass. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Common. All year. 120, 156, 348. Sporobolus juncea (P. Beauv.) Kunth – Pineywoods dr opseed. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 506.

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72 Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze – St. Augustine gr ass. Ruderal. Common. Spring through fall. 323. Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc. – Tall redtop; Purpletop trid ens. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 628. Triplasis americana P. Beauv. – Perennial sandgrass. Sandhill. Rare. Fall. Abbott 9720a. Urochloa racemosa (L.) Nguyen –Browntop millet; Dixie signalgrass. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 583. Polygalaceae Polygala cymosa Walter – Tall pinebarren milkwort. Flatwoods depressions. Rare. Spring through fall. Lehtonen 359, 450. Polygala grandiflora Walter – Showy milkwort. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 26, 82. Polygala incarnata L. – Procession flower. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. 587. Polygala lutea L. – Orange milkwort. Pine flatw oods. Rare. Spring through summer. 68. Polygala nana (Michx.) DC. – Candyroot. Pine fl atwoods. Rare. Spring through summer. 184, 612. Polygala setacea Michx. – Coastalplain milkwort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. All year. 179. Polygonaceae Eriogonum tomentosum Michx. – Dogtongue wild buckwh eat. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through fall. 191. Polygonella gracilis Meisn. – Tall jointweed. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 263. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. – Mild waterpepper; Swamp smartweed. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer through fall. 411. Polygonum punctatum Elliott – Dotted smartweed. Rudera l. Rare. Spring through fall. 572.

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73 Rumex verticillatus L. – Swamp dock. Disturbed cr eek bank. Rare. Winter through spring. 433. Pontederiaceae Pontederia cordata L. – Pickerelweed. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring through summer. Carrara 28. Portulacaceae Portulaca amilis Speg. – Paraguayan purslane. Rude ral. Frequent. Spring through summer. 515. Rhamnaceae Berchemia scandens (J. Hill) K. Koch – Alabama supplejack; Rattanvine. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 282. Ceanothus microphyllus Michx. – Littleleaf buckbrush. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 336, 478. Rosaceae Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. – Loquat. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer. 640. Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & J.B. Phipps – Red chokeberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 345. Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina – Black cherry. Rudera l. Frequent. Spring. 536, 571, 646. Prunus umbellata Elliott – Pine flatwoods plum; Hog plum. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 432. Rubus argutus Link – Sawtooth blackberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 338. Rubus cuneifolius Pursh – Sand blackberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring. 39. Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis L. – Common buttonbush. Cypress swamp and flatwoods depression. Occasional. Spring. 81.

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74 Diodia teres Walter – Poor Joe; Rough buttonweed. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 136, 175. Diodia virginiana L. – Virginia buttonweed. Flatwoods depresssion. Rare. All year. 542, Johnson s.n., 8 Sept 82 Galium aparine L. – Goosegrass; Spring cleavers; St ickywilly. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Winter through spring. 443. Galium pilosum Aiton – Hairy bedstraw. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 111. Houstonia procumbens (J.F. Gmel.) Standl. – Innocence; Roundleaf bluet. Sandhill and ruderal. Occasional. Winter through summer. 430 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Mitchella repens L. – Partridgeberry; Twinberry. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 471. Oldenlandia corymbosa L. – Flattop Mille Graines. R uderal. Rare. Spring through summer. 595 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002) Richardia brasiliensis Gomes – Tropical Mexican clover. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 18. Richardia scabra L. – Rough Mexican clover. Ruderal. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 462. Rutaceae Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. – Hercules’-club; Toothache tr ee. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 497. Salicaceae Populus deltoids W. Bartram ex Marshall – Eastern cottonwood. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring. 602. Salix caroliniana Michx. – Carolina willow. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring. 610. Sapindaceae (including Aceraceae; Stev ens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Acer negundo L. – Boxelder. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring. 524. Acer rubrum L. – Red maple. Cypress swamp a nd ruderal. Common. Winter through spring. 296, 460.

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75 Sarraceniaceae Sarracenia minor Walter – Hooded pitcherplant. Cypr ess swamps and pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring. 72. Saururaceae Saururus cernuus L. – Lizard’s tail. Cypress swamp a nd ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 473, 529b. Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus L. – Common mullein. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer 547 Smilacaceae Smilax auriculata Walter – Earleaf greenbriar. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Common. All year. 12, 32, 50. Smilax bona-nox L. – Saw greenbriar. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Occasi onal. All year. 372. Smilax glauca Walter – Cat greenbriar; Wild sarsaparilla. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring. 49, 78. Smilax laurifolia L. – Laurel greenbriar; Bamboovine. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring through summer. 308, 449. Smilax smallii Morong – Jackson vine; Lanceleaf greenbriar. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer. 567. Smilax walteri Pursh – Coral greenbriar. C ypress swamp. Rare. Spring. 287. Solanaceae Physalis arenicola Kearney – Cypresshead groundcherry. Sandhill. Rare. Summer. 119. Solanum americanum Mill. – American black nightshade. Ruderal. Rare. All year. 499. Tetrachondraceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002) Polypremum procumbens L. – Rustweed; Juniperleaf. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 137.

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76 Theaceae Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis – Loblolly bay. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer. 469. Turneraceae Piriqueta caroliniana (Walter) Urb. – Pitted stripeseed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 17. Ulmaceae Ulmus alata Michx. – Winged elm. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Spring. 420. Urticaceae Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. – False nettle ; Bog hemp. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 140, 314. Parietaria praetermissa Hinton – Clustered pellitory. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Winter through spring. 440. Verbenaceae Lantana camara L. – Lantana; Shrubverbena. Ruderal. Rare. All year. 146. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene – Turkey tangle fogfruit; Capeweed. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 35, 144. Stylodon carneum (Medik.) Moldenke – Carolina false vervain. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 25, 490. Verbena brasiliensis Vell. – Brazilian vervain. Rude ral. Occasional. Spring through fall. 275. Violaceae Viola lanceolata L. – Bog white violet. Cypress sw amp. Occasional. Winter through spring. 445. Viola palmata L. – Early blue violet. Pine fl atwoods. Occasional. Winter through spring. 436, 464. Viola primulifolia L. – Primroseleaf violet. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 463.

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77 Viscaceae Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst. – Oak mistletoe. Parasite on Quercus sp. in Cypress swamp; also parasite on Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora in flatwoods depression. Rare. Fall through winter. 428, 618. Vitaceae Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne – Peppervine. R uderal. Common. Spring through summer. 565, 596. Parthenocissus quinquifolia (L.) Planch. – Virginia creep er; Woodbine. Ruderal. Common. Spring. 79. Vitis aestivalis Michx. – Summer grape. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 625. Vitis rotundifolia Michx. – Muscadine. Ruderal. Common. Spring. 47. Xyridaceae Xyris ambigua Beyr. ex Kunth – Coastalplain ye lloweyed grass. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring through fall. 234. Xyris brevifolia Michx. – Shortleaf yelloweyed grass. Cypress swamp. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 439. Xyris caroliniana Walter – Carolina yelloweyed grass. Pine flatwoods and flatwoods depressions. Frequent. Summer through fall. 103, 232. Xyris fimbriata Elliott – Fringed yelloweyed grass. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 581. Xyris platylepis Chapm. – Tall yelloweyed grass. Flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall. Abbott 9727. Xyris jupicai Rich. – Richard’s yelloweyed grass. Flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall. Abbott 9728.

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78 LIST OF REFERENCES Campbell, C. S. 1983. Systematics of the Andropogon virginicus complex (Gramineae). J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 171-254. Caulkins, D. B. and R. Wyatt. 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 117(4): 357-367. Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to the vascular pl ants of the Florida pa nhandle. Florida State University Press, Tallahassee, Florida. Coile, N. C. 2000. Florida’s endangered and threatened plants. Bureau of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology – Bota ny Section, contribution #38. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Servince, Divison of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida. Cooke, C. W. 1945. Geology of Florida. Florida geological survey. Tallahassee, Florida. Dahlgren, R. M. T., H. T. Clifford, and P. F. Yeo. 1985. The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Dohrenwend, R. E. 1978. The climate of Al achua County, Florida. IFAS Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 796. Univ ersity of Florida, Gainesville. Fay, M. F. and M. W. Chase. 1996. Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45:441-451. Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI). 2002. Plants and Lichens. Florida State University. Tallahassee, Flor ida. Accessed April 8, 2003 (http://www.fnai.org/plants_and_lichens.cfm). Hall, B. 1829. Travels in North Americ a, in the Years 1827 and 1828. Cadell & Co., Edinburgh. Hall, D. W. 1978. The grasses of Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ ersity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. University Mi crofilms International #7913279, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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79 Henry, J. A., Portier, K. M., and J. Coyne. 1994. The climate and weather of Florida. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida. Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, M. J. Donoghue, E. A. Kellogg, and P. F. Stevens. 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogeneti c Approach. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Judd, W. S., R. W. Sanders, and M. J. Donoghue. 1994. Angiosperm family pairs: preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard Pap. Bot. 5: 1-51. Luteyn, J. L., W. S. Judd, S. P. Vander Kloet, L. J. Dorr, G. D. Wallace, K. A. Kron, P. F. Stevens, and S. E. Clemants. 1996. Ericac eae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 61: 101-144. Muller, C. H. 1970. Quercus pp. 467-492. In : D. S. Correll and M. C. Johnston, eds., Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texa s. University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas. Myers, R. L., and J. J. Ewel, eds. 1990. Ec osystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, Florida. Pirkle, E. C. 1956. Notes on the physiograp hic features of Alac hua County, Florida. Quart. J. Florida Acad. Sci. 19: 168-182. Pryer, K. M., A. R. Smith, and L. E. Skog. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of extant ferns based on evidence from morphology and rbcL sequences. Am. Fern J. 85:203-282. Saulmon, J. G. 1971. A revision of the Pol ypodiaceae of the southeastern United States. West Virginia University. Univers ity Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Soil Conservation Service (USDA). 1985. So il survey of Alachua County, Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Stevens, P. F. 2001. Angiosperm phyloge ny website, version 3. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed April 8, 2003. (http://www.MOBOT.org/mobot/Res earch/APweb/welcome.html). Taylor, W. K. 1998. Florida wildflowers in their natural communities. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS). 2001. Preparation of Plant Specimens for Deposit as Herbarium Vouchers. Univer sity of Florida Herbarium and the Museum of Natural History. Gainesv ille, Florida. Accessed April 1, 2003 (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/voucher.htm) Uttal, L. J. 1987. The genus Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae) in Virginia. Castanea 52: 231255.

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80 Ward, D. B. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Ward, D. B. 2001. New combinations in the Florida flora. Novon 11: 360-365. Watson, F. D. 1993. Cupressaceae, pp. 399-404. In : Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Flora of North America, north of Mexico, Vol. 2: Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. Winsberg, M. D. 1990. Florida Weather. Un iversity of Central Florida Press, Orlando, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P. 1982. Guide to the vascular pl ants of central Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Wunderlin, R. P., B. F. Hansen. 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Flor ida, Tampa. Scientific name search page accessed April 8, 2003. (h ttp://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/).

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81 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Cathleen Ann Kabat was born on March 1, 1978, in St. Petersburg, Florida, to Colleen and Terrell Touchton. She became inte rested in plants helping her father landscape in their yard as a li ttle girl. She graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 1996 and began her undergraduate degree at the University of South Florida in Tampa. Here, while pursuing dentistry, her path crosse d that of a wonderful teacher who changed her life. She took her first botany class with Dr. Richard Mansell. His enthusiasm for plants sparked the beginning of a career in bo tany. His constant support of her botanical endeavors helped her enter the University of Florida where she continued her education with Dr. Walter Judd. She married Steven Matthew Kabat in July of 2000 at the beginning of her graduate education. Her husband also began a graduate degree in horticulture, which is unfolding a lifetime of botanical adventure for both of them.


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Copyright Date: 2008

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Material Information

Title: Floristic Inventory of Morningside Nature Center, Alachua County, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF MORNINGSIDE NATURE CENTER, ALACHUA
COUNTY, FLORIDA
















By

CATHLEEN KABAT


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003

































Copyright 2003

by

Cathleen Kabat















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First I thank Dr. Walter Judd, my supervisory committee chairman, for all of his

support and communication of valuable information. Much of the knowledge I have

gained during my graduate career has come from his teaching. He is a dedicated and

enthusiastic teacher who always strives to pass on the most valuable and current

information. In my opinion, he turns more minds on to plants than any other professor I

have known. Without his help and his confidence in me, I would not have been able to

complete this master's project, and for this I will always be grateful and appreciative.

Valuable assistance also came from my other committee members, Dr. David Hall and

Dr. Bijan Dehgan. They have both been outstanding in their support and communication

of knowledge. I thank Dr. Hall for his expertise in grass identifications and for all of his

time spent checking the identifications of all my other plants. Both of these teachers have

been extremely willing to help and have contributed to the success of my graduate career.

I would also like to thank Kent Perkins and Trudy Lindler, of the University of

Florida Herbarium, for all of their help. Denise Sauerbrey, Geoff Parks, Gary Paul, and

the staff at Morningside were a constant help, especially with locality of plants and

history of the park.

I also had the help of my fellow graduate students during the collecting and

identification processes. I am grateful to Kim Gullege for her help with collecting

Lechea specimens and her help with thesis "technicalities" and map creation. Katia

Silvera was always willing to go collecting and help with identifications.









I am so grateful to have the love and support of my family, especially my parents,

Terrell and Colleen Touchton. They have always given me the freedom to make my own

life decisions and have always supported me no matter what these decisions may have

been. Without their support, I would never have had the confidence in myself to come

this far in my education. I especially thank my dad for all of his weekends spent

collecting with me when no one else would brave the heat, rain, ticks, and chiggers! I am

also extremely lucky to have the love and support of my wonderful husband, Steven. He

was my constant field companion, my tower of strength, and my partner in learning. He

made my graduate career much easier and a lot more pleasant with his constant

companionship.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

L IST O F FIG U R E S .... ....... ................................................ .... ..... .. ............. vii

A B S T R A C T ......... .................................. ................................................... v iii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ............................................................. .. ......... ...... .....

Clim ate and W weather ....................... .................. .. ........... ......... 3
G eology of Florida.................................................. 9
The Florida Plateau....................................................9....
Topography .................. ...................................................... ......... 10
S o ils .................................................................................1 3

2 M E T H O D S ............................................................................................................ 2 0

3 PLAN T COM M U N ITIE S .................................................. .............................. 21

P in e F latw o o d s.............................. .................................................... ............... 2 1
Flatw oods D epression............. ...................................................... .. ...... 26
S a n d h ill ........................................................................................................2 6
C y press Sw am p ................................................................30
R u d e ra l ........................................................................................................ 3 1

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................3 4

5 ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES................................. .................. 38

F e rn s .............. ...................................................................3 9
C o n ife rs .........................................................................................3 9
A n g io sp e rm s .......................................................................................................... 4 0








V









L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................ .. ....................78

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................81
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 Trails at M orningside N ature Center..................................... ......................... 4

1-2 Soil types of Morningside Nature Center............... .............................. 19

3-1 Burn compartments at Morningside Nature Center ...........................................22

3.2 Morningside Nature Center, with delimited plant communities............................24

3-3 Plant comminites at Morningside Nature Center ...............................................33















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF MORNINGSIDE NATURE CENTER, ALACHUA
COUNTY, FLORIDA

By

Cathleen A. Kabat

May 2003

Chair: Walter S. Judd
Department: Botany

A floristic inventory of Morningside Nature Center in Alachua County, Florida,

was conducted from May 2001 to April 2003. From the 278-acre park, a total of 511

vascular plant species were collected. These included 9 ferns, 5 conifers, and 497

angiosperms (representing 107 families and 306 genera). Five plant communities are

recognized in the park: pine flatwoods, which cover 53.6% of the park; sandhills, which

cover 21.5% of the park; ruderal areas, which cover 20.1% of the park; cypress swamps,

which cover 4.4% of the park; and flatwoods depressions, which cover 0.4% of the park.

The plant families best represented at Morningside include the Asteraceae with 70

species, Poaceae with 60 species, Fabaceae with 42 species, Cyperaceae with 30 species,

and Ericaceae and Euphorbiaceae, with 15 species each. The largest genera at

Morningside include Quercus (11 species), Desmodium (9 spp.), Cyperus and Hypericum

(8 spp. each), and Asclepias and Rhynchospora (7 spp. each).














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The floristic study was conducted at Morningside Nature Center. This 278-acre

park is located at 3540 East University Avenue in Section 2, Township 10 south, Range

20 east, and Section 35, Township 9 south, Range 20 east, in Gainesville, Florida.

Morningside is bordered by state-owned lands to the north, the North Florida Evaluation

and Treatment Center to the east, University Avenue to the south, and the Loften Center

(part of Alachua County public school system) to the west. The living history farm uses

10 acres of the park (Johnson, L. and the Division of Recreation and Parks. 1998.

Morningside Nature Center work plan (fiscal year 1997-1998). Unpublished manuscript)

(Fig. 1-1).

The land that was to become Morningside Nature Center was first recorded as

being owned by Neamiah Brush in the early to mid-1800s. On November 13, 1848, the

heirs of Neamiah Brush were in circuit court regarding the disposition of the land; the

heirs sold many parcels. A large chunk of the land was sold to James Vidal. The first

recorded use of the land was for producing turpentine by tapping the numerous pines. In

1898, Padgett and Millicon (who bought the land from Vidal), were also extracting

turpentine. In 1903, A.R. Scruggs of Alachua County bought all of the land currently

forming Morningside Nature Center. During his ownership, the land was primarily used

for timber and turpentine operations. In 1909, J.D. Stringfellow, H.B. Coe, J. Ira Gore,

and D.P. Davis divided the land into 10-acre plots in anticipation of selling them to Lake

Forest Farms, a planned development. The development plan was abandoned; and in









1911, Alachua County received a right-of-way of 105 feet on the south side of the land

for the development of University Avenue. In 1910, the land was divided and sold to

individuals from Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Georgia; and during their ownership,

the land was not used or additionally developed. In 1920, parts of the land were

purchased by the county commission for a state institution for the feeble-minded. This

plan was also abandoned and the land was soon sold back to the previous owners. The

property changed hands many times during the 1920s, and continued to be used for

timber and turpentine; S.H. Colson, W.H. Waits, A.B. Swafford, D.P. McKenzie, E. Mize

and T.L. Parker all of Paradise Naval Stores participated in the timber and turpentine

operations. In 1948, the land was purchased by the federal government as a site of an

anticipated Veteran's Administration hospital. However, this plan was abandoned. The

hospital was built, instead, on Archer Road; and the future Morningside became surplus

land. In 1964, the City of Gainesville bought the land from the federal government for

$80,820 and reserved the land for outdoor activities and recreation. In 1967, the city

received a $24,000 grant from the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to help cover the costs

of the initial development of the park.

Morningside Nature Center was established in 1970, with much help from Marjorie

Carr and the Junior Welfare League (today's Junior League of Gainesville). Marjorie

Carr was a nationally recognized environmentalist who lived here in northern Florida.

She was also involved in the creation of Payne's Prairie State Preserve and helped to stop

the development of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. When she learned of the surplus land

the city had purchased, she urged the Junior Welfare League to adopt the project of

turning this land into a nature park. The design for the park was obtained from the









National Audubon Society's planning team. After the park was established, the Junior

Welfare League donated $15,000 and added the Nature Center. This money helped

operate the Center. In 1973, the Junior League joined the Florida State Museum, the

County Action '76 Committee, and the Alachua County Historic Commission in

recommending the addition of the living history farm (Fig. 1-1). These various

committees donated a total of about $35,000 to the project.

In 1976, a longleaf-pine cabin built in 1840 was moved from Micanopy to

Morningside (Fig. 1-1). Soon after, two 1880s twin-crib barns from Chiefland, a

split-rail fenced barnyard, farm animals, a vegetable and cash-crop garden were added

(Fig. 1.1). In 1990, a one-room schoolhouse was added to the farmstead. This

schoolhouse was previously on the adjacent property of the Loften Center, where it was

relocated in 1976. Since the addition of the farm, over 140,000 school children have

participated in the historical programs at Morningside.

Climate and Weather

Four major variables are responsible for Florida's climate and weather. These

variables include latitude; land and water distribution; ocean currents; and a combination

of winds, storms, and pressure systems. Florida and Texas are the closest one can get to

the equator in the continental United States. This means that when the sun is highest in

the sky, its rays strike here at a greater angle than anywhere else in the contiguous United

States. On the day of the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice (June 22), the sun's rays

hit Orlando at an angle of 85 and during the winter solstice at 380 (December 21). These

angles are larger in Florida and Texas than in any other state. This, in part, accounts for

the higher average summer and winter temperatures in these two states. Also, the sun is

above the horizon longer during winter in Florida than in northern states, such as New









York, where the duration of sunlight is about an hour less per day. The opposite is true

during the summer (Winsberg 1990).


Figure 1-1. Trails at Momingside Nature Center

The northern part of Florida is separated from the southern part by about 6.50

latitude. The input of the sun's energy varies greatly between these two points, as is most

commonly noticed during the winter. The average maximum temperature in January in









north Florida is 10F lower than in Key West, but there is only 1F difference between

the two during the summer (Winsberg 1990).

No place in Florida is farther than 80 miles from the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic

Ocean. Therefore, these water bodies play a role in the weather patterns and climate of

Florida, especially areas along the coast. Coastal communities have a lower average

maximum temperature during the summer and a higher average minimum temperature

during the winter. When exposed to the same angles of the sun's rays, the ocean heats up

much slower than the land, because the heat dissipates through the depths of water and

also evaporation helps to keep the water cooler. The land heats much faster because heat

concentrates in a narrow layer near the surface (Winsberg 1990). Therefore, inland

habitats in Florida are always a little bit warmer in the summer than the coastal areas.

The opposite is true during the winter. The water is warmer than the land and therefore

has warm air above it. This warm air then arrives on shore and acts as a warm blanket for

the coastal plant communities.

Ocean currents influence the weather when the air that is over it moves onto land.

The Gulf Stream helps to keep the east coast of Florida warm in winter. The Gulf Stream

is a warm current that moves from the tropics up the Atlantic coast. The Gulf of Mexico

exerts very little influence on the weather of Florida because its currents are very weak

(Winsberg 1990).

Air moves from areas of high pressure to low pressure. Air circulates when air

rises over the warm equator, and the earth's rotation causes pressure belts and prevailing

winds to form along certain latitudes. The westerly winds form between 300 and 600 and

the easterly winds form between the equator and 300. These two winds and the









high-pressure belt that separates them are the three prevailing patterns that influence the

weather and climate of north Florida (Winsberg 1990).

Florida is one of the wettest states in the nation on an annual basis (Henry et al.

1994). Convectional rainstorms are the most common type of precipitation in Florida.

These storms are caused when, during the summer months, the ground heats up, and in

turn heats up the layer of air directly above it. This air then becomes unstable and rises,

creating a convectional current. When the air rises high enough, the water vapor in it will

begin to condense into water droplets and clouds begin to form. When the droplets are

heavy enough, they fall from the clouds to the ground. These types of storms are usually

accompanied by thunder and lightning (Winsberg 1990).

Another common way precipitation forms in Florida is through frontal systems.

Air can be lifted when a mass of air with a high temperature meets a mass with a low

temperature. The warm air will rise over the cold since it is more buoyant and unstable.

The air rises high enough so that the water vapor condenses to liquid, and rain then falls

(Winsberg 1990). Such precipitation is common during the fall and winter months.

The last possibility for the formation of precipitation in Florida is through the

convergent movement of two air masses of the same temperature. Air becomes uplifted

due to crowding, and like the other two methods, air rises and cools, causing precipitation

(Winsberg 1990). This type of precipitation formation is not as common as the other

two.

Within the belts of winds, low-pressure storms develop and are known as

hurricanes. Hurricanes have a relatively small diameter, but have a very large difference

in pressure between their centers and peripheries (Winsberg 1990). The violent winds









and heavy rains can have catastrophic effects, as seen in Miami and Homestead during

Hurricane Andrew in 1992. When these storms hit land, they usually lose strength as

they travel greater distances. Therefore, the coastal communities are usually left with

much more damage than the inland areas, especially from the ocean swells produced by

the storm.

While northern Florida is geographically rather homogenous, Alachua County's

climate differs from that of other North Florida counties because of its unique latitudinal

location, distance from the sea, and the variety of surface features. Alachua County has

two major seasons, a warm rainy season and a cooler dry season. The warm rainy season

lasts from the middle of May to the end of September. About 60 percent of the

precipitation occurs in these warm months. Rainfall usually occurs as afternoon

thunderstorms, which are generated by surface heating and fed by the convergence of

breezes from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The most variable rain for the

county is produced by frontal passages during the winter months. An average of 38

frontal systems pass through North Florida during the winter season, 29 during spring, 19

during summer, and 41 during fall according to records kept for 1965 through 1967

(Dohrenwend 1978).

Most of the rainfall in Alachua County occurs in the four months of June, July,

August, and September. The most precipitation occurs in August with an average of 208

mm. The average annual rainfall for Gainesville is 1370 mm. November is the month

with the lowest amount of rainfall (44 mm). Precipitation is extremely variable from year

to year and may deviate from the mean by as much as 40%. Snow is infrequent, but









when it occurs, it is light and does not normally accumulate or remain in place

(Dohrenwend 1978).

The average annual pan evaporation for Gainesville is 1674 mm, although true

evaporative loss is less than that of pan evaporation. The average annual solar radiation

is 156,150 langleys. The greatest amount of solar radiation occurs in May and the least in

January. The greatest year-to-year variation occurs in June (Dohrenwend 1978).

The average range in monthly temperature is approximately 130C and the average

difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures is also 130C. The highest

maximum shade temperature recorded was 400C and the lowest winter temperature was

-90C. The average number of freezes per year is four. The average frost season is

70 days. The average annual soil temperature at a 10 cm depth is 230C. The warmest

month is July and the coldest is February, at that depth (Dohrenwend 1978).

The average monthly minimum humidity is almost always above 40 percent. There

are a few summer days where humidity remains above 70%. Alachua County usually has

light winds. Ninety-five percent of all winds are less than 12 knots, 78% less than 9

knots, 56% less than 6 knots, and there is no measurable wind 22% of the time. The

average wind speed for three years of recording was 3 knots. From October through

April, night winds are calm, with 90% of the winds that were less than three knots

occurring between 8 p.m. and 8 a.m. From May through September, there is a shorter

calm period, with 90 percent of the winds that were less than 3 knots occurring between

10 p.m. and 7 a.m. Year round, the winds usually come from the north during the night.

During the day, however, the wind can come from any direction (Dohrenwend 1978).









Geology of Florida

The Florida Plateau

The state of Florida sits on what is commonly called the Floridian Plateau. This

Plateau is a projection of the continent of North America that separates the Atlantic

Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico. The Plateau includes Florida and also an area that is as

large or larger, but is submerged below the water to a depth of 300 feet. The southern tip

of the Plateau ends in the Florida Keys where there is a steep drop into the Straits of

Florida, which separates the Plateau from Cuba. The Floridian Plateau is centered at 150

W, passing through Key West, Sarasota, Cedar Keys, and Madison. The state of Florida

lies almost entirely east of the middle of the Plateau (Cooke 1945).

During the Paleozoic era (approximately 600 million years ago), Florida was part

of "Africa" as part of Gondwanaland. The Osceola granite and high-feldspar volcanic

rocks that now compose Florida's basement rocks date back to the Cambrian period.

Early Paleozoic sediments that may be up to several kilometers thick overlie the

basement rocks. The oldest sediments are composed of quartz sandstones and

interbedded shales, and are in beds that contain Ordovician marine fossils. Above these

are dark shales with occasional thin sandstones, ranging in age from Silurian through

middle Devonian (Myers & Ewel 1990).

During the Mesozoic, Gondwanaland began to break up and Florida ultimately

became attached to North America. Early in this era, Florida experienced a round of

volcanic activity due to an oceanic hot spot located where the Bahamas are now. Later,

during the Jurassic, shallow marine carbonate sediments were deposited onto Florida.

Fossiliferous chalky limestones were typical deposits of the Cretaceous period (Myers &

Ewel 1990).









Shallow marine conditions continued to dominate during the early Cenozoic.

Carbonate marine fossils were constantly being deposited in the Paleocene through the

Oligocene. In the late Oligocene, the Appalachian Mountains went through a period of

uplift, creating a southward movement into Florida of plastic sediments such as sand, silt,

and clay (Myers & Ewel 1990).

Parts of Florida emerged from the sea approximately 30 million years ago during

the Oligocene. Florida's highest ridges were formed from coastal dunes and all rock

formations are formed from blankets of marine sediments. Terrestrial and marginal

marine sediments dominated the deposits of the middle Miocene. These included

phosphatic sands, clays, and lignitic deposits, which were interfaced with carbonate

facies. These deposits were of fluvial through estuarine to marine in origin. These

deposits are now what composes the Hawthorn formation. During the later part of the

Miocene, fluvial and estuarine deposits accumulated in the central and north peninsula.

Also, two major sea level drops occurred during this time. From the Miocene to present,

the sea level has been greatly fluctuating, leaving us with records of extremely differing

shorelines throughout Florida's history (Myers & Ewel 1990).

Topography

Florida consists of five natural topographic divisions: the Central Highlands,

Tallahassee Hills, Marianna Lowlands, Western Highlands, and Coastal Lowlands.

Alachua County lies within the Central Highlands. This area extends from the Georgia

state line south to Glades County and lies between the Withlacoochee and St. Mary's

Rivers. This region is physiographically diverse and includes swampy plains, thousands

of lakes, and hills. The soils are mostly sandy, the sand being derived from Pleistocene

marine terraces, the Miocene Hawthorne formation, and the Pliocene Citronelle









formation. The altitude varies from less than forty feet above sea level to the highest

point in the peninsula, 325 feet on the summit of Iron Mountain near Lake Wales. The

many lakes in this area indicate the occurrence of shallow, soluble limestone below the

surface (Cooke 1945).

Morningside is underlain by Ocala limestone. This limestone ranges from pure

white to yellow, and is commonly granular in texture, but in some places has become

compacted rock due to the deposition of travertine or calcite in its interspaces. In some

locations, it is extremely porous because it consists of a loose mass of foraminifers,

bryozoans, and other small organisms. The chemical composition of this limestone is

extremely uniform. It mostly consists of carbonate of lime and contains as little as two-

fifths of one percent of impurities. The thickness of this limestone layer has not been

determined due to the erosion of the surface and the inability to identify the bottom. The

Ocala limestone underlies all of Florida and comes near to the surface in two places -- the

eastern corer of Walton County to the Chattahoochee River, a length of 60 miles, and

from Marianna and Caryville to the Alabama line, a width of 16 miles. However, it is

sometimes covered by Pleistocene sand or by portions of other sediments, constituting

the Suwannee limestone, Hawthorne formation, or Alachua formation (Cooke 1945).

Alachua County is commonly divided into three major physiographic regions: "a

plateau-like region north of Gainesville and includes most of northeastern Alachua

County, a western plains region, and an area in the south-central and southeastern part

characterized by flat-bottomed lakes, prairies, and erosional remnants of the plateau"

(Pirkle 1956). Morningside is situated in the plateau area, which has a nearly level

topography and ranges in elevation from 150 to 200 feet above sea level. Loose sands at









the surface in these areas are underlain by an impermeable clay layer, resulting in a radial

pattern of drainage from the plateau to surrounding areas. It is thought that the higher

parts of the plateau were once a divide between drainage to the Gulf of Mexico and the

Atlantic Ocean. Some of the drainage does still reach the Gulf by way of the Suwannee

River, which is fed by the Santa Fe River. Drainage is also received by Newnan's Lake,

which is thought in the past to have drained into Orange Lake via the Prairie Creek, and

reached the Atlantic Ocean by way of Orange Creek and the St. Johns River. Presently,

due to the development of Payne's Prairie, drainage from Newnan's Lake has been

diverted from Payne's Prairie to Orange Lake (Pirkle 1956).

Many peaty swamps occur throughout the plateau area. These may have been

formed by the compaction of Pleistocene sediments, or by solution of underlying

calcareous rocks. Sinkholes are not common in this area, but a few can be found near its

margins, such as Devil's Millhopper (Pirkle 1956).

The western plains area is found in western Alachua County, and ranges in

elevation from 50 to 80 feet above sea level. Here, the limestone is close to the surface,

and is overlain by a thin layer of loose sand. It was formed from the breaching, by

erosion, of the Ocala arch and the work of the Pleistocene seas. The solvent action of

groundwater has been integral in the formation of solution depressions and small caves of

this region (Pirkle 1956).

The south-central and southeastern portions of Alachua County contain shallow

flat-bottomed lakes, prairies, disappearing streams, and erosional remnants of the plateau.

The water table in these areas is at the base to which the lake bottoms have been eroded.

The bottom of these lakes and prairies may be up to 60 feet above sea level. There are









three types of flat-bottomed depressions commonly recognized in this region: erosional

surfaces developed on the Ocala limestone, erosional surfaces developed on Hawthorne

sediments, and depositional sediments, which have developed from the filling of solution

areas (Pirkle 1956).

Soils

There are fourteen different soil types at Morningside Nature Center (Fig. 1-2).

These soil types are closely correlated with the various plant communities occurring at

Morningside. Candler fine sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 2B) is a soil that is excessively

drained and is found in deep, sandy uplands, supporting a sandhill community. There is a

thin belt of this soil type in the southeast area of the park. The surface layer of this soil

type is very dark grayish brown fine sand that is about six inches thick. The underlying

layers are also fine sand, extending to a depth of 82 inches or more. This soil has low

available water capacity and permeability is very fast. The soil is relatively low in

fertility and in organic matter. The water table is at a depth of 72 inches or more (Soil

Conservation Service 1985).

Millhopper sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 8B) is a moderately drained soil that is in

irregularly shaped areas in sandhill uplands and slightly rolling hills in pine flatwoods.

The surface layer of this soil type is dark grayish brown sand to about nine inches thick.

The underlying layers are also sand or fine sand to a depth of 89 inches. The soil has low

available water capacity in the surface and subsurface layers and is low to medium in the

subsoil. Permeability is fast in the upper layers and slower below. The soil is relatively

low in fertility and organic matter. The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for

one to four months, and at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for two to four months during the

year (SCS 1985).









Pelham sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 13) is a poorly drained soil in pine flatwoods. The

surface of this soil is about seven inches thick, with the upper four inches being very dark

gray and the lower three inches dark gray. The underlying layer of sand is up to 80

inches thick. The available water capacity is low in the upper and middle layers and

moderate in the bottom layer. Fertility is low in the upper 29 inches and moderate below

29 inches, and the fertility is moderately low. The surface runoff is relatively slow. The

water table is less than ten inches below the surface for one to four months in most years.

The water table may be at a depth of 40 inches in the dry season (SCS 1985).

Pomona sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 14) is a poorly drained soil indicative of level pine

flatwoods. The surface layer of this soil type is very dark gray sand to five inches thick.

The underlying layers of sand extend to about 84 inches. The soil has a low to medium

available water capacity in the surface and subsurface layers, and may be low or high in

the subsoil layers. Permeability is rapid in the upper and middle layers, and moderately

slow to moderate in the lower layer. Surface runoff is slow. The water table is usually

within ten inches of the surface for one to three months but may recede to more than 40

inches below the surface during dry periods. The soil is relatively low in fertility and

organic matter (SCS 1985).

Surrency sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 16) is very poorly drained and found in ponds

and in wet depressions in pine flatwoods. The surface layer of this soil type is black sand

that is about 15 inches thick. The underlying layers extend to a depth of 80 inches. The

soil has a low to high available water capacity throughout all layers. Permeability is

rapid in the upper two layers and slow to moderately slow in the loamy subsoil. The

water table is within ten inches of the surface for six or more months of the year, and









water is on the surface for usually four or more months. Fertility is medium in the

surface layer and low in the two lower layers. Organic matter is high or very high in the

surface layer (SCS 1985).

Wauchula sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 17) is a poorly drained soil dominant in pine

flatwoods. The surface layer is approximately eight inches thick. The upper five inches

is black sand, and the lower three inches is dark gray sand. This underlying soil extends

to a depth of 80 inches and is underlain by a hard claypan. The available water capacity

is low to medium in the surface layer, and is variable in the other layers. Permeability is

rapid in the upper two layers, and variable below. The fertility is low in the surface layer

and low to moderate in the subsurface layer. The soil is low in organic matter content.

The water table is at a depth of less than ten inches for one to four months of the year, ten

to 40 inches for about six months, and may even drop below 40 inches in the driest

months (SCS 1985).

Monteocha loamy sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 19) is very poorly drained soil that is

found in wet ponds and shallow depressions in pine flatwoods. The surface layer of this

soil type is black loamy sand, which is about twelve inches thick. The subsoil has a layer

that consists of fine, loamy sand, which is underlain by light gray sand to a depth of 94

inches. The available water capacity is high to very high in the surface layer and medium

in the lower layers. Permeability is rapid in the uppermost layers, but becomes slower

the deeper the sand. Fertility is medium in the surface layer and the organic matter is

high to very high in the surface layer. The water table is at a depth often inches or less

for more than six months of the year. Most areas are covered with water for at least four

months (SCS 1985).









Tavares sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 20B) is a deep and sandy soil that is moderately

well drained. This soil type may be found in pine flatwoods or sandhills. The surface

layer is about eight inches thick and consists of dark gray sand. The underlying layers

may reach a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil has very low to low available water

capacity and permeability is fast to very fast. Fertility is low and organic matter content

is low to moderately low in the surface layer. The water table is at a depth of 40 to 72

inches for six months or more during a normal year. It may recede to a depth of 72

inches or more during dry spells (SCS 1985).

Pomona sand, depressional (Fig. 1-2, soil type 25) is a very poorly drained soil in

pine flatwoods depressions and drainageways, usually dominated by species

characteristic of cypress swamps. The surface layer is about four inches thick and

consists of very dark gray sand. The underlying layers extend to a depth of 80 inches or

more. This soil type has a low available water capacity in the surface and subsurface

layers and has a low to high capacity in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid to very rapid in

the surface layer and becomes slower with increasing depth. Fertility is low and organic

matter content is moderately low in the surface layer. The water table is less than ten

inches below the surface for six months or more during a typical year. Water is usually

on the surface for four months or more (SCS 1985).

Chipley sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 28) is a poorly drained soil found in the flatwoods

and in transition zones between the flatwoods and sandhills. The surface layer is usually

twelve inches thick, with the upper six inches being very dark gray and the lower six

being dark grayish brown. The underlying layers may reach a depth of 81 inches or more.

This soil has a low available water capacity and the permeability is rapid. The fertility is









low and the organic matter content is moderate to moderately low in the surface layer.

The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for two to four months in a normal year.

It may be as shallow as 15 inches for a couple of weeks during an extremely wet period.

However, it may recede to a depth of 40 inches or more during dry periods (SCS 1985).

Placid sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 34) is a very poorly drained sand that is found in

flatwoods depressions and drainageways, and typically supports a cypress swamp

community. The surface layer of sand is about 15 inches thick. The upper eight inches is

black and the lower seven inches is very dark gray. The underlying layers of sand may

extend to 82 inches or more. This soil has a high available water capacity in the upper 15

inches, but low below this depth. Fertility and organic matter content is high in the upper

15 inches, but is very low beyond this depth. The water table is within ten inches of the

surface for six to twelve months during a typical year. The surface is usually covered

with water for six months or more (SCS 1985).

Myakka sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 48) is a poorly drained soil that is typical of pine

flatwoods. The surface layer is eight inches thick and is composed of dark grayish brown

sand. The underlying layers may reach a depth of 82 inches or more. The available

water capacity is greatest at a depth of 24 to 30 inches and decreases above and below

this depth. The permeability is rapid on the surface. Both fertility and organic matter

content are low. The water table is at a depth of less than ten inches for one to four

months, and ten to forty inches for two to four months during a typical year. It may

recede to a depth of 40 inches or more during a dry spell (SCS 1985).

Sparr fine sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 50) is a poorly drained soil that is found on rises

in pine flatwoods and on smooth or slightly convex slopes in sandhills. The surface layer









of sand is typically eight inches thick. The upper four inches is dark gray and the lower

four inches is dark grayish brown. The underlying layers extend to a depth of 84 inches

or more. The surface and subsurface layers are sandy, and the subsoil layer is loamy.

The available water capacity is medium in the surface and subsoil layers, and low in the

subsurface layer. Permeability rapid to very rapid in the upper two layers and gets slower

as the depth increases. Fertility is low to a depth of 48 inches, and becomes medium

below this depth. Organic matter content is low to moderately low. The water table is at

a depth of 20 to 30 inches for one to two months and is 30 to 40 inches deep for two to

three months. During the dry season, the water table may be 40 inches or more below the

surface (SCS 1985).

Plummer fine sand (Fig. 1-2, soil type 51) is a poorly drained soil in broad areas of

pine flatwoods. The surface layer is about six inches thick and consists of black fine

sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 81 inches or more, with the lowest layer

consisting of light gray sandy clay loam. The available water capacity is medium to high

in the surface and subsurface layers and is low to medium in the subsoil. The

permeability is more or less rapid in the upper two layers and moderate below. Fertility

is low and the organic matter content is moderately low. The water table is ten inches or

less for one to three months and is ten to forty inches for three to four months during

typical years. The water table may recede to a depth of more that forty inches during dry

periods (SCS 1985).












































Figure 1-2. Soil types of Morningside Nature Center; Soil type 2B, Candler fine sand,
8B, Millhopper sand; 13, Pelham sand; 14, Pomona sand; 16, Surrency sand;
17, Wauchula sand; 19, Monteocha sand; 20B, Tavares sand; 25, Pomona
sand, depressional; 28, Chipley sand; 34, Placid sand; 48, Myakka sand; 50,
Sparr fine sand; 51, Plummer fine sand (SCS 1985) (Soil Conservation
Service (USDA). 1985. Soil survey of Alachua County, Florida Gainesville,
Florida, sheet 69).














CHAPTER 2
METHODS

A floristic inventory of Morningside Nature Center was conducted from May 2001

to November 2002. Plants were collected by walking through all parts of the park. A

map of trails (Fig. 1.1) was used to determine which areas of the park had been

thoroughly sampled. Each area of the park was visited as often as possible to ensure

proper sampling. The shallow stream on the east side of the park was sampled by

walking in it as far as it extended on the Morningside property.

At least two voucher specimens of each species were collected, one being deposited

in the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) and the other in the Morningside

herbarium. The specimens were prepared following standard field and herbarium

techniques (Judd et al. 2002, U. F. Herbarium 2001).

The plant specimens were identified using mainly Wunderlin (1998), and often

referencing Wunderlin (1982), Campbell (1983), Clewell (1985), Hall (1978), and

Wunderlin & Hansen (2002).














CHAPTER 3
PLANT COMMUNITIES

There are four distinct plant communities at Morningside. These are pine

flatwoods, sandhills, cypress swamps, and various ruderal sites. These four ecosystems

are very common in Florida, and each has distinct species of plants and animals, as well

as characteristic soil and hydrologic conditions.

At Morningside, prescribed fire is an important management tool and is used on a

regular basis to maintain the health of the flatwoods and sandhills (Fig. 3-1). This fire

schedule keeps weedy species and fast-growing hammock shrubs and trees from invading

these plant communities.

Pine Flatwoods

Pine flatwoods are the most common plant community found in Florida, covering

approximately fifty percent of the land in the state. This percentage was probably greater

in the past, but due to habitat destruction, resulting from conversion of land to

agricultural purposes, forestry operations, and urban growth, the amount of land covered

by undisturbed flatwoods has been significantly reduced (Myers & Ewel 1990, Taylor

1998). This community is also the major constituent of Morningside Nature Center,

covering 149 acres, or 53.6% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3).

The occurrence of flatwoods in Florida can be explained by past changes in sea

level due to the repeated periods of glaciation that may have begun as early as the

Miocene period. When the polar ice caps advanced, large areas of the continental shelf












































Figure 3-1. Bum compartments at Momingside Nature Center

were exposed. Then when the ice caps receded, the sea levels rose and these exposed

areas were covered with water. During this time, sand was deposited on these shelves.

This sandy soil, along with the low elevation of the land and poor drainage, became the

necessary ingredients for the formation of today's flatwoods communities (Myers &

Ewel 1990).

Pine flatwoods are characterized by a low elevation and flat topography with

acidic, sandy soils that are poorly drained, often underlain by a clay hardpan. The sand is









underlain by a compressed organic layer formed by the downward movement of organic

as water percolates down through the surface. A hardpan, or a compressed layer of clay

often underlies this organic layer. The hardpan is formed in a similar fashion. As water

percolates through the soil surface, clay and other fine particles and minerals collect

beneath the compressed organic layer, forming the hardpan. The soil is usually fine

textured, contains few nutrients, and has very low amounts of clay and organic matter

(Myers & Ewel 1990).

During the rainy season, water sometimes stands in flatwoods if a hardpan is

present, and water depth exceeds the depth of the soil. In contrast, during the dry season,

the sandy soil remains extremely dry because not enough water is present so that it

reaches the surface. Therefore, a drought condition usually persists during such periods.

Any organic material that falls to the ground may lessen the effects of drought and high

temperatures. It has been found that moisture levels are much higher in areas that have

not been burned due to the higher amount of organic litter remaining on the ground

(Myers & Ewel 1990).

In the past, natural fires frequently burned flatwoods at one to four year intervals.

However, the early settlements of Spanish, followed by English and American

settlements in the area, led to a dramatic decrease in the frequency of natural fires.

Settlers began farming and also brought livestock to the land; the population increased,

which led to the need for roads. These roads and other human constructions acted as

barriers to the natural fires, thus causing a decrease in fire frequency. The lack of fire

changed the understory of the flatwoods ecosystem, reducing the abundance of herbs, and

increasing the dominance of shrubs. It is thought that today's flatwoods are quite














































Figure 3.2. Morningside Nature Center, with delimited plant communities

different than those of the past, although precise floristic changes are difficult to

determine (Myers & Ewel 1990).

The dominant tree species found in flatwoods in Florida are Pinuspalustris, Pinus

serotina, Pinus elliottii, Pinus taeda, Quercus virginiana, Quercus nigra, Liquidambar

styraciflua, and Acer rubrum. Depending on the topology of the area, only one of these

pine species may be dominant in any particular place. Pinuspalustris (longleaf pine) is









more fire tolerant than P. serotina and P. elliottii and is found in higher elevation areas,

where there is very rarely standing water at any time of the year. Pinus elliottii and P.

serotina are found in lower elevation areas where water is more prevalent during the

rainy season. Pinuspalustris historically dominated flatwoods, but commercial logging

has long since destroyed most of the virgin longleaf pine flatwoods. Because of this

logging and suppression of natural fires, all three species of pine are commonly found

coexisting in the same area (Myers & Ewel 1990). Commonly, a fourth species of pine,

P. taeda, also can be found dominating the canopy of the flatwoods. This pine is very

fast-growing (Taylor 1998) and quickly colonizes in areas that have been disturbed.

Pinuspalustris and P. elliottii are the two dominant pines in the flatwoods at

Morningside.

The shrub layer of the flatwoods at Morningside is dominated by Befaria

racemosa, Callicarpa americana, Gaylussacia dumosa, G. nana, Hypericum

hypericoides, H. tetrapetalum, Ilex coriacea, I. glabra, Kalmia hirsuta, Licania

michauxii, Lyonia lucida, Myrica cerifera, Quercus minima, Q. pumila, Rhus copallina,

Serenoa repens, and Vaccinium myrsinites.

The ground layer consists of a variety of wildflowers and herbaceous species.

Dominants include Aristida strict var. beyrichiana, Asclepias pedicellata, Carphephorus

paniculatus, Cirsium horridulum, Doellingeria reticulata, Elephantopus elatus,

Eupatorium mohrii, Eupatorium rotundifolium, Fuirena scirpoidea, Gamochaetafalcata,

Lachnocaulon anceps, Polygala nana, Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Pterocaulon

pycnostachyum, Smilax auriculata, and Symphyotrichum walteri.









Flatwoods Depression

The flatwoods depressions, also called flatwoods ponds, depression marshes, or

pineland depressions, comprise about 0.4% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3). These small,

shallow, rounded depressions support a unique assemblage of plants due to the ephemeral

presence of water. A depression marsh is usually formed when sand slumps over or

around a sinkhole and creates a conical depression, which becomes filled by direct

rainfall, runoff, or seepage from upland habitats. The soil in these marshes is usually

acidic and the center of the depression becomes filled with peat. Fire is important for

exclusion of shrubs and trees, and the maintenance of peat. The hydrology of these areas

is variable, with most of the depression marshes drying in most years. Cephalanthus

occidentalis and Myrica cerifera are common shrubs found in the depression marshes at

Morningside. Typical herbs found in this habitat include: Agalinis linifolia, Li / h/in/hel

caroliniana, Pluchea rosea, Sagittaria graminea, Woodwardia virginica, and Xyris

carolniana.

Sandhill

Sandhills, often called high pinelands, are another common type of community in

Florida. Sandhills compose 59.8 acres (21.5%) of Morningside (Figs. 3-2, 3-3).

Sandhills are characterized by an open canopy of Pinuspalustris on rolling sand hills

with an open, herb-dominated understory (Myers & Ewel 1990). Sandhills were once a

very common plant community stretching throughout the southeastern United States from

Virginia to eastern Texas. Historically, they provided a great highway through which the

early settlers could drive their wagons because of the open canopy and understory (Myers

& Ewel 1990).









Like flatwoods, sandhills are fire controlled. The life forms in this community are

adapted to low-intensity fires that usually occur every one to ten years. Sandhills often

grade into other community types such as flatwoods or scrub, and therefore often have

many species in common with other plant communities (Myers & Ewel 1990). In fact, it

has been hypothesized that presettlement longleaf pine forests occurred on both sandhills

and flatwoods. Pollen evidence has shown that the ratio of pines relative to hardwoods in

this community has varied over the past 20,000 years. The cause of this fluctuation,

however, is still unknown. The establishment of xeric, fire-adapted species is thought to

have greatly increased in the sandhill communities within the last several thousand years.

It may have been due to an increase in the frequency of fire, brought about by the

agriculture of the Native Americans or an increase in lighting-set fires (Myers & Ewel

1990).

Sandhill formation began as early as the Pleistocene, as ridges possessing coarse,

well-drained sands developed. There is much variation in texture, drainage, and fertility

of the soil, and because of this variation, it is thought that fire, rather than soil, has been

the greatest influence on the patterns of vegetation found in this community. The sand

has been derived from marine fluvial deposits and is very low in nutrients (Myers & Ewel

1990).

The vegetation of sandhills consists of a pine canopy, a deciduous oak canopy, and

a herbaceous ground cover. Longleaf pine, Pinuspalustris, is the major overstory species

of sandhills. Because of extensive misuse of the land, the virgin longleaf pine forests

have been virtually eradicated. This pine is extremely long-lived, reaching ages of more

than five hundred years. This species is highly fire-resistant and depends on low-









intensity fires for its success in the sandhill ecosystem. The trees depend on fire to clear

the herbaceous understory, providing bare soil needed for germination. Once the seed

germinates, the young tree begins its life as a "grass stage." At this stage, the sapling can

easily survive if a fire passes through the area. The apical meristem stays close to the

ground and is protected by long, moisture-filled needles. During this period, it builds a

long, thick taproot, which stores the water and nutrients the tree will need when it bolts

up as a single-stemmed young tree. It bolts very quickly in order to get its terminal bud

above the fire-level in case a fire passes through. When the tree is mature, the bark

consists of plates, which can flake off when heated in a fire. This dissipates the heat,

which protects the trunk from fire damage (Myers & Ewel 1990).

Other common trees found in the sandhill at Momingside include Quercus incana

and Q. laevis. As fire becomes more infrequent, Diospyros virginiana becomes frequent.

Common shrubs found in sandhills at Momingside include Asimina angustifolia, A.

incana, A. reticulata, Licania michauxii, Quercuspumila, Rhus copallina, Vaccinium

myrsinites, and V. stamineum. The understory of the sandhill at Momingside includes the

following herbaceous elements: Andropogon gyrans, Aristida strict var. beyrichiana,

Balduina angustifolia, Berlandiera subacaulis, Carphephorus corymbosus, Chrysopsis

scabrella, Cnidoscolus stimulosus, Crotolaria rotundifolia, Croton argyranthemus,

Cuthbertia ornata, Helianthemum corymbosum, Liatris gracilis, L. pauciflora, Opuntia

humifusa, Palafoxia integrifolia, Pityopsis graminifolia, Pteridium aquilinum,

Rhyncospora megalocarpa, Rubus cuneifolius, Solidago odora var. chapmanii,

Sorghastrum secundum, Sporobolusjunceus, and Stillingia sylvatica.









Wire grass, Aristida strict var. beyrichiana, is an indicator species. It is a bunch

grass that flourishes under the appropriate conditions and frequent fires. When these

conditions are met, the grass forms a dense, vast groundcover. However, many stands of

this grass have been eliminated since human settlement. Wire grass spreads very slowly

and has actually never been observed creeping into a cleared area, nor does it recolonize

an area after being removed. It is also very easily exterminated. It apparently does not

frequently grow from seed and often does not even flower. Controlled burning practices

are often limited to the winter months, and this fire regime always results in flowering

without the production of seed in the wiregrass. It has been found that if the land is

burned during the growing season, the grass flowers profusely and produces seed (Myers

& Ewel 1990). Therefore, burning regimes should be altered on public and private lands

to accommodate this ecologically significant and slowly reproducing species. Fire

frequency, intensity, and the season of the fire has profound effects on most species of

the sandhill ecosystem. Fire can stimulate seed germination and maintain the understory,

but, if not regular, it can also destroy pines and other important species.

Sandhills consist of a unique and varying balance of fire resistant species that have

adapted to the natural fires that sweep through the environment. The landscape is serene

and pleasurable. Hall (1829) best captured the essence of the ecosystem when he wrote,

"For five hundred miles, at least, we traveled, in different parts of the South, over a

country almost everywhere consisting of sand, feebly held together by a short wiry grass,

shaded by the endless forest. I don't know exactly what was the cause, but it was a long

time before I got quite tired of the scenery of these pine barrens. There was something, I

thought, very graceful in the millions upon millions of tall and slender columns, growing









up in solitude, not crowded upon one another, but gradually appearing to come closer and

closer, till they formed a compact mass, beyond which nothing was to be seen."

Cypress Swamp

Cypress swamps encompasses approximately 4.4% of the park (Figs. 3-2, 3-3).

This ecosystem is the most common type of stillwater swamp in Florida, and gets its

water supply from shallow, acid groundwater. Such swamps occur in depressions and are

usually scattered in poorly drained pine flatwoods. The impermeable clay that underlies

the pine flatwoods also underlies the swamp. The rate of decomposition in the swamp is

low, and peat accumulates in the depressions. The amount of accumulated organic matter

is usually greater than one meter. The water level in these swamps fluctuates greatly,

exposing the peat bottom for weeks or even months. Organic acids accumulate in the

water, giving it a reddish-brown color, making it impenetrable to light. As a result,

phytoplankton cannot survive, which causes the productivity and oxygen level of the

swamp to be very low. Fire frequency is moderate and occurs approximately five times

per century in a typical cypress swamp. It is thought that these fires bum accumulated

organic matter and keep the swamps from becoming mesic ecosystems (Myers & Ewel

1990).

Because of the effects of inundation of the land by water, the plants that grow in the

cypress swamps must be able to adapt to the low oxygen and high acid content. As a

result, the diversity of these ecosystems is somewhat lower than that of ecosystems that

do not have standing water. Also, the amount of time that an area is covered by water is

directly proportional to the diversity found in that area. The longer an area is submerged,

the fewer the number of species that can survive the length of time spent inundated.

Having thickened leaves and low transpiration rates are common adaptations for plants









living in this ecosystem (Myers & Ewel 1990). Common trees and shrubs found in the

cypress swamps at Morningside include: Acer rubrum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Ilex

cassine, Itea virginica, Lyonia lucida, Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, and Taxodium

ascendens. Common understory herbs are: Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum, Cladium

jamaicense, Eleocharis vivipara, Ljh I/u iu/he\ caroliana, Lycopus rubellus, Panicum

hemitomon, Rubus argutus, Saururus cernuus, and Woodwardia virginica.

Ruderal

The ruderal habitats roughly cover 20.1% of the park (Fig. 3-2). There are many

different disturbed areas at Morningside. For example, the garden near the homestead

provides an excellent opportunity for annual weedy species to thrive. The garden is

seasonally planted and lays fallow otherwise. Fast-growing species are able to colonize

the site. Also, there are many characteristic disturbed or "weedy" species found along the

trails, disturbed stream banks, University Avenue and the entrance road, the parking lots,

and along the southeast side of the park where the property is adjacent to a housing

community. Common trees, shrubs, and vines found in these ruderal areas include

Aleuritesfordii, Aralia spinosa, Cinnamomum camphora, Ligustrum lucidum, Prunus

serotina, Sapium sebiferum, and Vitis rotundifolia. Commonly found herbs are Allium

canadense, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Cenchrus echinatus, Chenopodium ambrosioides,

Conyza canadensis var. pusilla, Cyperus croceus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Dioscorea

bulbifera, Eremochloa ophiuroides, Erigeron quercifolius, Eupatorium compositifolium,

Euphorbia cyathophora, Paspalum notatum, Phytolacca americana var. rigida,

Richardia brasiliensis, Setariaparviflora, Sida rhombifolia, Sporobolus indicus var.

indicus, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Wisteria sinensis, and Youngiajaponica.






32


A creek runs along the west side of the park. This area is considered to be ruderal

because of constant disturbance caused by dredging the canal. This creek has many

dominant species that are unique to this area, including Cicuta maculata, Colocasia

esculenta, Ludwigia decurrens, L. peruviana, Lygodiumjaponicum, Sesbaniapunicea,

Thelypteris hispidula, and T. palustris.












1 i Ir f


l ;K,...-- -;- I

Figure 3-3. Plant comminites at Morningside Nature Center; A, pine flatwoods; B, cypress swamp; C, flatwoods depression; D,
sandhill














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

A total of 525 species were found in 316 genera, which were included in 107

families. The largest families, followed by number of species, are Asteraceae (70 spp.),

Poaceae (60), Fabaceae (42), Cyperaceae (32), Ericaceae (15), Lamiaceae (15),

Euphorbiaceae (14), Apiaceae (12), Fagaceae (11), Plantaginaceae (11), and Rubiaceae

(10). The largest genera are Quercus (11 spp.), Desmodium (9), Cyperus (8), Hypericum

(8), Asclepias (7), Rhynchospora (7), Andropogon (6), Dichanthelium (6), Ludwigia (6),

Polygala (6), and Smilax (6).

Twenty-two species are new records for Alachua County. These include Agalinis

purpurea, Aristida gyrans, Bulbostylis stenophylla, Cirsium nuttallii, Commelina

benghalensis, Dalea carnea var. carnea, Desmodium viridiflorum, Dicanthelium

strigosum var. leucoblepharis, Hypericum brachyphyllum, Juniperus virginiana, Liatris

tenuifolia var. tenuifolia, Ludwigia erecta, Ludwigia virgata, Lygodiumjaponicum,

Pogonia divaricata, Populus deltoides, Sabatia brevifolia, Sorghastrum secundum,

Symphyotrichum adnatum, Trichostema setaceum, Utriculariajuncea, and Yucca

aloifolia. Six Florida endemics were also found. There are Asimina reticulata,

Arnoglossum floridanum, Berlandiera subacaulis, Chrysopsis subulata, Cuthbertia

ornata, and Verbesina heterophylla.

Three species found at Morningside are listed as threatened by Coile (2000):

Pogonia divaricata, Sarracenia minor, and Z7 '/) i //Wit,\ treatiae. Ctenium floridanum

is listed as endangered (Coile 2000, FNAI 2002). Osmunda cinnamomea, 0. regalis, and









Rapidophyllum hystrix are listed as commercially exploited (Coile 2000). Ward (1979)

listed two of the species as threatened: Rapidophyllum hystrix and Smilax smallii. None

of the species found at Morningside are listed as threatened plants by the Florida Natural

Areas Inventory (2002), but two are listed as "U.S. management concerns:"

Pteroglossaspis ecristata and Verbesina heterophylla.

Nine species found at Morningside were found to be near or at the northern or

southern limits of their geographic range (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002). Two species were

found to be at their extreme southern limit in Alachua County. These include Pogonia

divaricata and Agalinispurpurea. Species that are near their southern limit are: Aleurites

fordii, Andropogon gerardii, and Pycnanthemum nudum. Aleuritesfordii is naturalized

and occurs randomly, but is near its southern limit except for a disjunct population in

Citrus County. Agalinis gerardii and Pycnanthemum nudum are at their southern limit in

Volusia County. Several species are near their northern limit in Alachua county:

Aristida gyrans, Asimina reticulata, Chrysopsis scabrella, and Solidago odora var.

chapmanii. Aristida gyrans is at its northern limit in Clay County, A. reticulata in

Bradford County, and C. scabrella and S. odora var. chapmanii in Columbia County.

Chrysopsis subulata and Callisia ornata are at their northern limit except for a disjunct

population of C. ornata that occurs in the panhandle (in Gulf County). Verbesina

heterophylla is at its western limit in Alachua County.

Many non-native plants that are considered to be naturalized in Florida were also

found at the park. These naturalized species are included in table 4-1, along with an

indication of their native range.









Table 4-1 Introduced plants in Florida and their native range (some botanists consider
species listed with an asterisk to be native).
Species Origin of nativity
Albiziajulibrissin Asia
Aleuritesfordii Central Asia
Alternanthera philoxeroides Tropical America
Amaranthus viridis Tropical America
Begonia cucullata South America
Broussonetia papyrifera Asia
Bulbostylis barbata Old World tropics
Chenopodium ambrosioidies Tropical America
Cinnamomum camphora Asia
Clerodendrum bungei China
Clerodendrum indicum East Indies
Colocasia esculenta Asia
Commelina benghalense Tropical Asia
Crotolaria pallida Africa
Cuphea carthegenensis South America
Cyclospermum leptophyllum Tropical America
Dactyloctenium aegyptium Old World
Desmodium triflorum Old World
Desmodium tortuosum Tropical America
Dioscorea bulbifera Tropical Asia
Echinochloa crusgalli Eurasia
Eleusine indica Old World
Eragrostis amabilis Old World
Eremochloa ophiuroides Asia
Eriobotryajaponica Asia
Hyptis mutabilis Tropical America
Indigofera hirsuta Africa
Indigofera spicata Africa
Ipomoea quamoclit Mexico
Kyllinga squamulata Asia
Lamium amplexicaule Europe
*Lantana camera West Indies
Ligustrum lucidum Asia
Ligustrum sinense China
Lolium perenne Europe
Lonicerajaponica Asia
*Ludwigia peruviana Tropical America
Lygodiumjaponicum Eastern Asia
Medicago lupulina Europe
Melilotus alba Eurasia
Merremia dissecta Tropical America
Mollugo verticillata Tropical America





Table 4.1 Continued
Species
Murdannia nudiflora
Oldenlandia corymbosa
Oxalis debilis
Panicum repens
Paspalum notatum var. saurae
Paspalum urvillei
Phyllanthus urinaria
Physostegia virginiana
Portulaca amilis
Raphanus raphanistrum
Richardia brasiliensis
Richardia scabra
Sapium sebiferum
Sesbania punicea
Sisyrinchium rosulatum
Sonchus oleraceus
Sorghum halepense
Sporobolis indicus var. indicus
Stellaria media
Urochloa racemosa
Verbascum i thp \i
Verbena bonariensis
Verbena brasiliensis
Veronica arvensis
Wahlenbergia marginata
Wisteria sinensis
Xyrisjupicai
Youngiajaponica
*Yucca aloifolia


Origin of nativity
Tropical Asia
Old World
Tropical America
South America
Tropical America
South America
Tropical East Asia
Northeast United States
South America
Eurasia
South America
South America
China and Japan
South America
South America
Europe
Mediterranean Region
Asia
Eurasia
Tropical Asia
Europe
Tropical Mexico
Tropical Mexico
Europe
Asia
China
Tropical America
Southeast Asia
West Indies and Mexico














CHAPTER 5
ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES

The species nomenclature follows Wunderlin (1998) and the ISB Atlas of Florida

Vascular Plants (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002). Nomenclature and circumscription of plant

families are based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (In press. An update of the

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering

plants: APG II. Kew Bulletin) and Judd et al. (2002). Recent taxonomic revisions were

also cited for several species. When these recent revisions differed from the taxonomy

and nomenclature of Wunderlin (1998), the most recent name was used, and the reference

is cited after the species listing.

The species list is arranged alphabetically by family, genus, and species within

larger monophyletic groups of ferns, conifers, and angiosperms. Each entry includes the

species name, followed by the author or authors (as taken from Wunderlin 1998,

Wunderlin & Hansen 2002), the common name of the plant, the habitat in which it was

found, its relative abundance, its flowering times, and the collection number. For

abundance, the following categories were used, and were based on the collector's

observations of the plants: rare (one or very few occurrences), occasional (sporadic

occurrence), frequent (widespread throughout study area or plant community), and

common dominantss in the plant community).

Cathleen Kabat made all of the collections unless indicated otherwise. Some

vouchers for plants, which were not collected as part of this study are also cited. Laura J.

Lehtonen made herbarium specimens of species at Morningside from 1982 through 1984,









and these have been deposited in the Morningside herbarium. Her vouchers document

several species in the following list. Also, Gary Place, M. S. Carrara, and Richard Abbott

collected and preserved a few specimens from the park, and these are referenced in the

species list for species that were not recollected as part of this investigation.

Ferns

Osmundaceae

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon fern. Cypress swamp. Common. Summer
through fall. 309.

Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray Royal fern. Cypress swamp and
disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring. 526.

Polypodiaceae (including Aspleniaceae, Blechnaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, and
Thelypteridaceae, etc.; Saulmon 1971, Pryer et al. 1995, Judd et al. 2002)

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Britton et al. Ebony spleenwort. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 369.

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller Bracken fern.
Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. 270.

Thelypteris hispidula (Decne.) C.F. Reed var. versicolor (R.P. St. John) Lellinger --
Hairy maiden fern. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer through fall. 371.

Thelypterispalustris Schott var. pubescens (G. Lawson) Fern. Marsh fern. Disturbed
creek bank. Occasional. 145.

Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore Netted chain fern. Cypress swamp, disturbed
creek bank, and flatwoods depression. Frequent. Summer through fall. 236.

Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. Virginia chain fern. Cypress swamp and flatwoods
depression. Frequent. Summer through fall. 204, 217, 245.

Schizaceae

Lygodiumjaponicum (Thunb.) Sw. Japanese climbing fern. Disturbed stream bank.
Frequent. Fall. 367.

Conifers

Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae; Watson 1993, Judd et al. 2002)










Juniperus virginiana L. Red cedar. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 289.

Taxodium ascendens Brongn. Pond-cypress. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring. 364,
626.

Pinaceae

Pinus elliottii Engelm. Slash pine. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring. 493.

Pinuspalustris Mill. -Longleaf pine. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 265.

Pinus taeda L. Loblolly pine. Ruderal and sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 220, 365.

Angiosperms

Acanthaceae

Dyschoriste oblongifolia (Michx.) Kuntze Oblongleaf twinflower; Oblong snakeherb.
Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through fall. 33, 489a.

Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. Carolina wild petunia. Ruderal. Rare.
Spring. 489b.

Adoxaceae (Including Sambucus and Viburnum, Stevens 2002; Judd et al. 2002)

Sambucus nigra L. subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli Elderberry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring
through fall. 465.

Viburnum nudum L. Possumhaw. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 354.

Agavaceae

Yucca aloifolia L. Spanish bayonet. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall. 538.

Alismataceae

Sagittaria graminea Michx. var. graminea Grassy arrowhead. Cypress swamp, pine
flatwoods, and flatwoods depression. Occasional. Spring through fall. 135, 239, 608.

Alliaceae (Stevens 2002, Fay and Chase 1996, Judd et al. 2002, Dahlgren et al. 1985)

Allium canadense L. var. canadense Meadow garlic. Disturbed creek bank. Frequent.
Spring. 523.

Altingiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)









Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sweetgum. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Common.
Spring. 485.

Amaranthaceae (including Chenopodiaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. Alligatorweed. Disturbed creek bank.
Locally common. All year. 142.

Amaranthus viridis L. Slender amaranth. Ruderal. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 456.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Mexican tea. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer
through fall. 254.

Amaryllidaceae (excluding Alliaceae and Hypoxidaceae; Dahlgren et al. 1985, Fay and
Chase 1996, Judd et al. 2002, Stevens 2002)

Zep7,1/i1inhe, atamasca (L.) Herb. var. treatiae (S. Watson) Meerow Treat's rainlily.
Cypress swamp. Occasional. Spring. 447.

Anacardiaceae

Rhus copallinum L. Winged sumac. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring
through summer. 148.

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Eastern poison ivy. Disturbed creek bank and
ruderal. Common. Spring through summer. 190.

Annonaceae

Asimina angustifolia Raf Slimleaf pawpaw. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common.
Spring through summer. 41, 59, 160.

Asimina angustifolia Raf x A. incana (W. Bartram) Exell. Sandhill. Occasional.

Asimina incana (W. Bartram) Exell. Wooly pawpaw; Polecat bush. Pine flatwoods
and sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 15.

Asiminapygmaea (W. Bartram) Dunal Dwarf pawpaw. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring.
161.

Asimina reticulata Shuttlew. ex Chapm. Netted pawpaw. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Spring. 285.

Apiaceae (including Araliaceae; Judd et al. 2002)

Aralia spinosa L. Devil's walkingstick. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer. 475.










Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Spadeleaf. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer. 472.

Cicuta maculata L. Spotted water hemlock. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 141.

Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson Marsh parsley.
Disturbed creek bank, ruderal. Frequent. Winter through spring. 423, 550.

Eryngium aromaticum Baldwin Fragrant eryngo. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 206.

Eryngium baldwinii Spreng. Baldwin's eryngo. Pine flatwoods and ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 80, 528.

Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. Button rattlesnakemaster; Button eryngo. Pine flatwoods
and sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 83.

Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Manyflower marshpennywort. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. Winter through spring. 442

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. Whorled marshpennywort. Ruderal. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 206.

Oxypolisfiliformis (Walter) Britton subsp.filiformis Water cowbane. Pine flatwoods.
Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 358.

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. Mock bishopsweed. Pine flatwoods. Rare.
Spring through summer. Lehtonen 280, 541.

Spermolepis divaricata (Walter) Raf. Roughfruit scaleseed. Ruderal. Frequent.
Spring. 488.

Apocynaceae (including Asclepidaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 1994, 2002)

Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. Clasping milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 498b.

Asclepias cinerea Walter Carolina milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 63.

Asclepias humistrata Walter Pinewoods milkweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 2, 498a.

Asclepias longifolia Michx. Longleaf milkweed. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 501,
552.










Asclepiaspedicellata Walter Savannah milkweed. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring
through summer. 180.

Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterflyweed; Butterfly milkweed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 37.

Asclepias verticillata L. Whorled milkweed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Occasional.
Spring through summer. 112, 150.

Aquifoliaceae

hex cassine L. Dahoon. Cypress swamp and pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 133.

Iex coriacea (Pursh) Chapm. Large gallberry; Sweet gallberry. Cypress swamp.
Occasional. Spring. 312.

Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray Inkberry; Gallberry. Pine flatwoods. Common. Winter
through spring. 44.

Ilex opaca var. opaca Aiton American holly. Cypress swamp, pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Spring. 215.

Ilex vomitoria Aiton Yaupon. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 340.

Araceae (including Lemnaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Wild taro. Disturbed creek bank. Common. Spring
through summer. 370.

Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. Lesser duckweed. Cypress swamp, flatwoods depression.
Locally common. Summer through fall. 410.

Arecaceae

Butia capitata Becc. Pindo palm. Ruderal. Rare. 500.

Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H. Wendl. & Drude ex Drude Needlepalm. Ruderal.
Only one found. Spring through summer. 337.

Sabalpalmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f Cabbage palm. Pine flatwoods,
sandhill, and ruderal. Occasional. Spring through summer. 444.

Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small Saw palmetto. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring
through summer. 87.









Asteraceae

Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K. Jansen var. repens (Walter) R.K. Jansen -
Oppositeleaf spotflower. Disturbed stream bank. Occasional. Fall. 404.

Ageratinajucundum (Greene) Clewell & Wooten Hammock snakeroot. Sandhill.
Common. Summer through fall. 382.

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through
fall. 392.

Arnoglossumfloridanum (A. Gray) H. Rob. Florida Indian plantain. Sandhill.
Frequent. Summer. 115.

Baccharis halimifolia L. Groundsel tree; Sea myrtle. Ruderal and sandhill.
Occasional. Fall. 293.

Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) B.L. Rob. Coastalplain honeycombhead. Sandhill.
Occasional. Spring through summer. 28, 130, 223.

Berlandiera subacaulis (Nutt.) Nutt. Florida greeneyes. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring
through summer. 27.

Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata (Sch. Bip.) R.E. Ballard ex Melchert. Beggarticks.
Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 54.

Bidens laevis (L.) Britton et al. Burrmarigold; Smooth beggarticks. Disturbed stream
bank. Occasional. Fall. 405.

Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff- Smallfruit beggarticks. Cypress swamp and ruderal.
Frequent. Spring through fall. 363, 377.

Carphephorus corymbosus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray Coastalplain chaffhead; Florida
paintbrush. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 250.

Carphephorus odoratissimus (J.F. Gmel.) H. Herbert Vanillaleaf. Pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Fall. 240.

Carphephoruspaniculatus (J. F. Gmel.) H. Herbert Hairy chaffhead. Pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Fall through winter. 386.

Chaptalia tomentosa Vent. Woolly sunbonnets; Pineland daisy. Pine flatwoods. Rare.
Fall through winter. 415.

Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Elliott Maryland goldenaster. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall.
101, 362.










Chrysopsis scabrella Torr. & A. Gray Coastalplain goldenaster. Sandhill. Common.
Fall. 251.

Chrysopsis subulata Small Scrubland goldenaster. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall.
247, 301.

Cirsium horridulum Michx. Yellow thistle. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Frequent.
Spring. 483.

Cirsium nuttallii DC. -Nuttall's thistle. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 77.

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronquist Dwarf Canadian
horseweed. Ruderal. Occasional. All year. 255, 276.

Doellingeria reticulata (Pursh) Greene Whitetop aster. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring
through fall. 502, 574 (Wunderlin & Hansen 2002).

Ecliptaprostrata (L.) L. False daisy. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 598.

Elephantopus elatus Bertol. Tall elephantsfoot. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal.
Common. Summer through fall. 172.

Elephantopus nudatus A. Gray Smooth elephantsfoot. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 366.

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. American burnweed; Fireweed. Cypress
swamp. Common. All year. 99.

Erigeron quercifolius Lam. Oakleaf fleabane. Ruderal. Common. Spring through
summer. 31, 431.

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. Prairie fleabane. Flatwoods depression and ruderal.
Rare. Spring through summer. 543.

Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray Early whitetop fleabane. Pine flatwoods and
ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 102, 619.

Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small Dogfennel. Ruderal and sandhill. Frequent.
Summer through fall. 281.

Eupatorium compositifolium Walter Yankeeweed. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and
ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 307.









Eupatorium mohrii Greene Mohr's thoroughwort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 76, 134, 177.

Eupatoriumpilosum Walter -Rough boneset. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 233.

Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Roundleaf thoroughwort; False horehound. Pine
flatwoods. Frequent. Summer through fall. 242.

Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton Slender goldenrod. Pine
flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal. Frquent. Summer through fall. 343.

Gamochaetafalcata (Lam.) Cabrera Narrowleaf purple everlasting. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Spring through summer. 486 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Gamochaeta pensylvatica (Willd.) Cabrera Pennsylvania everlasting. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 21 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Helianthus angustifolius L. Narrowleaf sunflower; Swamp sunflower. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 237, 590.

Helianthus radula (Pursh) Torr. and A. Gray Stiff sunflower. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer. 199.

Hieracium gronovii L. Queen-devil. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Summer
through fall. 192, 195.

Hieracium megacephalon Nash Coastalplain hawkweed. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 34, 108.

Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. Virginia dwarfdandelion. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring.
458.

Lactuca canadensis L. Canada lettuce. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall.
Lehtonen 390.

Lactuca graminifolia Michx. Grassleaf lettuce. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer. 114,
514.

Liatris gracilis Pursh Slender gayfeather. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall.
300.

Liatrispauciflora Pursh Fewflower gayfeather. Sandhill. Common. Summer through
fall. 225.









Liatris tenuifolia Nutt. var. tenuifolia- Shortleaf gayfeather. Sandhill. Common.
Summer through fall. 269.

Lygodesmia aphylla (Nutt.) DC. Rose-rush. Sandhills. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 24.

Melanthera nivea (L.) Small Snow squarestem. Ruderal. Only one found. Summer.
227.


Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Summer through fall. 368.


Climbing hempvine. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.


Palafoxia integrifolia (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray
Common. Fall. 249.


Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt.
Summer through fall. 197.


Coastalplain palafox. Sandhill.


Narrowleaf silkgrass. Sandhill. Common.


Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. Sweetscent. Flatwoods depression. Rare. Summer through
fall. Lehtonen 342.


Pluchea rosea R.K. Godfrey
Summer. 92, 246.


Rosy camphorweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare.


Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hillard & B.L. Burtt Sweet everlasting; Rabbit
tobacco. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 221 (Wunderlin and
Hansen 2002).

Pterocaulonpycnostachyum (Michx.) Elliott Blackroot. Pine flatwoods and ruderal.
Common. Spring through fall. 29.

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC. Carolina desertchicory. Ruderal. Frequent.
Spring through summer. 539, 544.

Rudbeckia hirta L. Blackeyed Susan. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen
308.

Sericocarpus tortifolius (Michx.) Nees Whitetop aster; Dixie aster. Pine flatwoods and
sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 241 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Solidagofistulosa Mill. Pinebarren goldenrod. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 375, 409.


Solidago odora Aiton var. chapmanii (Torr. & A. Gray) Cronquist
goldenrod. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 147, 193.


Chapman's









Solidago strict Aiton Wand goldenrod. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer through fall.
Lehtonen 393.

Solidago tortifolia Elliott Twistedleaf goldenrod. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer
through fall. 268.

Sonchus oleraceus L. Common sowthistle. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall.
422, 516.

Symphyotrichum adnatum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom Scaleleaf aster. Sandhill. Occasional.
Fall. 611 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G.L. Nesom Eastern silver aster. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 413 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom Rice button aster. Pine flatwoods,
sandhill, and ruderal. Common. Fall. 391 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Symphyotrichum walteri (Alex.) G.L. Nesom Walter's aster. Pine flatwoods. Frequent.
Fall. 243 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Verbesina heterophylla (Chapm.) A. Gray Diverseleaf crownbeard. Sandhill.
Occasional. Summer. 113, 579.

Vernonia angustifolia Michx. Tall ironweed. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall.
Lehtonen 310.

Youngiajaponica (L.) DC. -Oriental false hawksbeard. Ruderal. Occasional. All year.
381.

Begoniaceae

Begonia cucullata Willd. Wax begonia; Club begonia. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. All year. 139.

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans (L.) Seemann ex Bureau Trumpet creeper. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Spring through summer. 89.

Brassicaceae

Descurainiapinnata (Walter) Britton Western tansymustard. Ruderal. Locally
common. Winter through spring. 427.









Lepidium virginicum L. Virginia pepperweed. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 14.

Raphanus raphanistrum L. Wild radish. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 56.

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L. Ballmoss. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 278.

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. Spanish moss. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Common.
Spring through fall. 264.

Cactaceae

Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf Pricklypear. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 511.

Campanulaceae

Lobelia glandulosa Walt. Glade lobelia. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through
fall. 387.

Lobeliapaludosa Nutt. -White lobelia. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 45, 189.

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. Clasping Venus's Lookingglass. Ruderal.
Occasional. Winter through summer. 434.

Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC. Southern rockbell. Sandhill. Rare. Spring.
19, 105.

Cannabaceae (Stevens 2002; as Celtidaceae; Judd et al. 2002)

Celtis laevigata Willd. Sugarberry; Hackberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring.
346.

Cannaceae

Cannaflaccida Salisb. Bandana-of-the-Everglades. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring
through summer. 74, 577.

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicerajaponica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 283, 622.









Lonicera sempervirens L. Coral honeysuckle; Trumpet honeysuckle. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through summer. 482.

Caryophyllaceae

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. subsp. serpyllifolia Thymeleaf sandwort. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring. 457b.

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult. Drymary; West Indian chickweed. Ruderal.
Occasional. All year. 468.

Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy catchfly. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer.
545.

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Common chickweed. Ruderal. Frequent. Winter through
spring. 457a.

Chrysobalanaceae

Licania michauxii Prance Gopher apple. Sandhill. Common. Spring through summer.
51.

Cistaceae

Helianthemum carolinanum (Walter) Michx. Carolina frostweed. Pine flatwoods and
sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 649, Lehtonen 223a.

Helianthemum corymbosum Michx. Pinebarren frostweed. Sandhill. Occasional.
Spring though summer. 58.

Lechea minor L. Thumeleafpinweed. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 299.

Lechea mucronata Raf. -Hairy pinweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 127.

Lecheapulchella Raf. Leggett's pinweed. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer. Lehtonen
336.

Lechea sessiliflora Raf Pineland pinweed. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through
fall. 152, 459.

Lechea torreyi (Chapm.) Legg. ex Britton Piedmont pinweed. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 451.









Clusiaceae

Hypericum brachyphyllum (Spach) Steud. Coastalplain St. John's-wort. Flatwooods.
Rare. Summer through fall. 645.

Hypericum cistifolium Lam. Roundpod St. John's wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 376.

Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz St. Peter's-wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 201.

Hypericum gentianoides (L.) Britton et al. Pineweeds; Orangegrass. Sandhill. Rare.
Summer through fall. Lehtonen 309.

Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz St. Andrew's-Cross. Pine flatwoods. Frequent.
Summer through fall. 151, 174, 183.

Hypericum mutilum L. Dwarf St. John's wort. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 562.

Hypericum myrtifolium Lam. Myrtleleaf St. John's-wort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Spring through summer. 70.

Hypericum tetrapetalum Lam. Fourpetal St. John's-wort. Flatwoods depression and
pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring through fall. 187.

Commelinaceae

Callisia ornata (Small) G.C. Tucker Florida scrub roseling. Sandhill. Common.
Spring through summer. 40.

Commelina benghalensis L. Jio. Ruderal. Rare. Summer through fall. 257.

Commelina erecta L. Whitemouth dayflower. Sandhill and ruderal. Occasional.
Spring through fall. 36, 230.

Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan Nakedstem dewflower. Ruderal. Frequent. Fall.
594.

Tradescantia ohiensis Raf Bluejacket; Ohio spiderwort. Ruderal. Rare. Spring
through summer. 88, 229.

Convolvulaceae

Cuscuta compact Juss. ex Choisy Compact dodder. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 356.










Dichondra carolinensis Michx. Carolina ponysfoot. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 315.

Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennst. Tievine. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall.
274.

Ipomoeapandurata (L.) G. Meyer Man-of-the-earth. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer.
117.

Ipomoea quamoclit L. Cypressvine. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall. 252.

Ipomoea cf sagittata Poir. Saltmarsh momingglory. Ruderal. Rare. Summer through
fall. 643.

Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f. Noyau vine. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall.
121.

Stylismapatens (Desr.) Myint Coastalplain dawnflower. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 131.

Cornaceae (including Nyssaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Cornusflorida L. Flowering dogwood. Ruderal (possibly planted). Occasional.
Spring. 479.

Nyssa sylvatica Marshall var. biflora (Walter) Sarg. Swamp tupelo. Cypress swamp
and flatwoods depression. Common. Spring. 316, 606.

Cucurbitaceae

Melothriapendula L. Creeping cucumber. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall.
186.

Cyperaceae

Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke Watergrass. Ruderal. Common. Summer
through fall. 164.

Bulbostylis stenophylla (Elliott) C.B. Clarke Sandyfield hairsedge. Ruderal. Common.
Summer through fall. 157.

Bulbostylis warei (Torr.) C.B. Clarke Ware's hairsedge. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer
through fall. 129.

Carex elliottii Schwein. & Torr. Elliott's sedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 530.










Carex longii Mack. Long's sedge. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 437, 563.

Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. Hop sedge. Ruderal. Spring through summer.
Occasional. 525.

Carex verrucosa Muhl. Warty sedge. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 176.

Cladiumjamaicense Crantz Jamaica swamp sawgrass. Cypress swamp. Common.
Summer through fall. 553.

Cyperus compressus L. Poorland flatsedge. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer
through fall. 166, 212A.

Cyperus croceus Vahl -Baldwin's flatsedge. Ruderal. Common. Summer through fall.
23, 154, 208.

Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth- Coastalplain sedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Fall. 212B.

Cyperus distinctus Steud. Swamp flatsedge. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.
Summer through winter. 143.

Cyperusfiliculmis Vahl Wiry flatsedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall.
159B.

Cyperuspolystachyos Rottb. Manyspike flatsedge. Ruderal. Locally common.
Summer through fall. 162.

Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. Pinebarren flatsedge. Ruderal. Locally common. Summer
through fall. 104, 155, 159A, 211.

Cyperus strigosus L. Strawcolored flatsedge. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 402.

Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. Conecup spikerush. Ruderal.
Occasional. Summer. 529a.

Eleocharis vivipara Link Viviparous spikerush. Cypress swamp. Locally common.
Spring through summer. 101, 557.

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. Slender fimbry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring
through fall. 165.

Fimbristylis caroliniana (Lam.) Femald Carolina fimbry. Pine flatwoods. Rare.
Summer through fall. Lehtonen 260.










Fuirena scirpoidea Michx. Southern umbrellasedge. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 491.

Kyllinga odorata Vahl Fragrant spikesedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through fall.
167, 210.

Kyllinga squamulata Thonn. ex Vahl Asian spikesedge. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 644.

Rhynchospora cephalantha A. Gray Bunched beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Occasional.
Spring through fall. 519, 558a.

Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray Shortbristle horned beaksedge. Cypress
swamp. Spring through summer. 412.

Rhynchosporafascicularis (Michx.) Vahl Fascicled beaksedge. Cypress swamp.
Frequent. Spring through fall. 73, 188.

Rhynchospora megalocarpa A. Gray Sandyfield beaksedge. Sandhill. Frequent.
Spring. 495.

Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Gray Southern beaksedge. Cypress swamp.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 556.

Rhynchospora microcephala (Britton) Britton ex Small Bunched beaksedge. Ruderal.
Rare. Spring. 470.

Rhynchospora wrightiana Boeck. Wright's beaksedge. Cypress swamp. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 558b.

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Woolgrass. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Frequent.
Summer through fall. 280, 582.

Scleria triglomerata Michx. Tall nutgrass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 504.

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea bulbifera L. Air-potato. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through summer. 218.

Droseraceae

Drosera brevifolia Pursh Dwarf sundew. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring. 648.

Ebenaceae










Diospyros virginiana L. Common persimmon. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring. 271.

Ericaceae

Bejaria racemosa Vent. Tarflower. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Summer. 86.

Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) Torr. & A. Gray Dwarf huckleberry. Sandhill.
Frequent. Spring. 9, 48.

Gaylussacia nana (A. Gray) Small Blue huckleberry. Pine flatwoods. Frequent.
Spring. 492 (Luteyn et al. 1996).

Gaylussacia tomentosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr. Huckleberry. Pine flatwoods.
Common. Spring. 48 (Luteyn et al. 1996).

Kalmia hirsuta Walter Wicky; Hairy laurel. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 84.

Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray Swamp doghobble. Pine flatwoods and cypress
swamp. Occasional. Spring. 330a.

Lyoniafruticosa (Michx.) G.S. Torr. Coastalplain staggerbush. Pine flatwoods.
Common. Spring. 46.

Lyonia ligrustina (L.) DC. var.foliosiflora (Michx.) Fernald Maleberry. Pine
flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 559.

Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch Fetterbush. Cypress swamp and pine flatwoods.
Common. Spring. 43, 98, 331.

Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don Piedmont staggerbush. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring.
566.

Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr. Swamp azalea. Pine flatwoods. R are. Summer.
118.

Vaccinium arboreum Marshall Sparkleberry; Farkleberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Frequent. Spring. 11, 305, 466.

Vaccinium corymbosum L. Highbush blueberry. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring.
284, 330b, 450, 474, 560. Our material included both the V. fuscatum Ait. entity (330b,
474) and the V ashei (L.) Reade entity (284, 450, 560, 564) (Uttal 1987).

Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. Shiny blueberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Very
common. Spring. 426.










Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring.
6, 8, 16.

Eriocaulaceae

Eriocaulon decangulare L. Tenangle pipewort. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Summer.
71.

Lachnocaulon anceps (Walter) Morong Whitehead bogbutton. Pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Spring through summer. 448.

Sy) go,,n, 1/1 flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhland Yellow hatpins. Pine flatwoods. Frequent.
Spring. 67, 429.

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha gracilens A. Gray Slender threeseed mercury. Ruderal. Common. Summer
through fall. 311.

Aleuritesfordii Hemsl. Tungoil tree. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 533.

Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. Pillpod sandmat. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
fall. 332.

Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. Graceful sandmat. Ruderal. Rare. Fall. 407.

Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small Hyssopleaf sandmat. Ruderal. Frequent. All
year. 256, 334, 335.

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small Spotted sandmat. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 333.

Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engelm. & A. Gray Tread-softly. Ruderal and
sandhill. Common. All year. 477.

Croton argyranthemus Michx. Silver croton; Healing croton. Sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through summer. 5.

Croton glandulosus L. var. glandulosus Vente conmigo. Sandhill. Occasional. All
year. 350.

Croton michauxii G.L. Webster Rushfoil; Michaux's croton. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 327.









Euphorbia cyathophora (Murray) Bartl. Painted leaf; Fire-on-the-mountain. Ruderal.
Frequent. All year. 394.

Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. Chinese tallowtree. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 467.

Stillingia sylvatica L. Queen's delight. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. All
year. 13.

Tragia urens L. Wavyleaf noseburn. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through summer.
38.

Fabaceae

Aeschynomene viscidula Michx. -Sticky jointvetch. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 125.

Albiziajulibrissin Durazz. Silktree; Mimosa. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 401.

Baptisia alba (L.) Vent. White wild indigo. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 651.

Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. Spurred butterfly pea. Sandhill and ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 52.

Cercis canadensis L. Eastern Redbud. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 149.

Chamaecristafasciculata (Michx.) Greene Partridge pea. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 203.

Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench var. nictitans- Sensitive pea. Sandhill. Common.
Spring through fall. 194.

Clitoria mariana L. Atlantic pigeonwings. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through summer. Lehtonen 250.

Crotalariapallida Aiton var. obovata (G. Don) Polhill Smooth rattlebox. Ruderal.
Occasional. All year. 219.

Crotalaria rotundifolia J.F. Gmel. Rabbitbells. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal.
Common. All year. 3, 22, 66.

Dalea carnea (Michx.) Poir. var. albida (Torr. & A. Gray) Barneby Whitetassels.
Sandhill. Rare. Summer. D. and G. Place 380.

Dalea carnea (Michx.) Poir. var. carnea- Whitetassels. Sandhill. Rare. Summer. 326.









Daleapinnata (J.F. Gmel.) Bameby var. pinnata- Summer farewell. Sandhill.
Common. Summer through fall. 260.

Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. Hairy small-leaf ticktrefoil. Sandhill.
Occasional. Fall. 341.

Desmodiumfloridanum Chapm. -Florida ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 110, 355.

Desmodium incanum DC. Zarzabacoa comun. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall.
123, 329, 351b.

Desmodium lineatum DC. Sand ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall.
588.

Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. Panicledleaf ticktrefoil. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 351a.

Desmodium tenuifolium Torr. & A. Gray Slimleafticktrefoil. Pine flatwoods and
ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 198.

Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. Dixie ticktrefoil. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall.
Johnson 7 Sept. 1982.

Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Threeflower ticktrefoil. Ruderal. Frequent. All year.
548.

Desmodium viridiflorum (L.) DC. Velvetleaf ticktrefoil. Sandhill and ruderal.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 171.

Erythrina herbacea L. Coralbean; Cherokee bean. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 505.

Galactia regulars (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Pogg. Eastern milkpea. Sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through summer. 61, 116, 328.

Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton Downy milkpea. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall.
Lehtonen 320.

Indigofera hirsuta L. Hairy indigo. Ruderal. Frequent. All year. 258.

Indigofera spicata Forssk. Trailing indigo. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall.
361.

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. Hairy lespedeza. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall. 259.









Medicago lupulina L. Black medick. Ruderal. Occasional. Winter through summer.
461.

Melilotus albus Medik. White sweetclover. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 518.

Mimosa quadrivalvis L. var. angustata (Torr. & A. Gray) Barneby Sensitive brier.
Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 30.

Mimosa strigillosa Torr. & A. Gray Powderpuff. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall.
614.

Pediomelum canescens (Michx.) Rydb. Buckroot. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 7.

Rhynchosia difformis (Elliott) DC. Doubleform snoutbean. Sandhill. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 460.

Rhynchosia reniformis DC. Dollarleaf. Sandhill. Common. Spring through fall. 4b.

Rhynchosia tomentosa (L.) Hook. & Am. var. tomentosa Twining snoutbean. Pine
flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 4a, 512.

Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh Danglepod. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 397, 593.

Sesbaniapunicea (Cav.) Benth. Rattlebox. Disturbed creek bank. Frequent. Spring
through summer. 522.

.Styl,,,inhe\ biflora (L.) Britton, Stems, & Pogg. Sidebeak pencilflower. Sandhill.
Common. Summer. 109.

Tephrosia chrysophylla Pursh Scurf hoarypea. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 302.

Tephrosia hispidula (Michx.) Pers. Sprawling hoarypea. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 200, 513.

Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet Chinese wisteria. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 534.

Zornia bracteata J.F. Gmel. Viperina. Sandhill. Occasional. All year. 107, 196.

Fagaceae

Quercusfalcata Michx. Spanish oak; Southern red oak. Ruderal (planted?).
Occasional. Spring. 481.










Quercus geminata Small Sand live oak. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 224.

Quercus hemispherica W. Bartram ex Willd. Laurel oak. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring.
128, 222 (Muller 1970).

Quercus incana W. Bartram Bluejack oak. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 304, 380a.

Quercus x asheana Little (Q. incana x Q. laevis) Sandhill. Rare. 569.

Quercus laevis Walter Turkey oak. Sandhill. Common. Spring. 494.

Quercus laurifolia Michx. Laurel oak; Diamond oak. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring.
535.

Quercus minima (Sarg.) Small Dwarf live oak. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common.
Spring. 298.

Quercus myrtifolia Willd. Myrtle oak. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring. 303.

Quercus nigra L. Water oak. Cypress swamps and ruderal. Common. Spring. 277,
379.

Quercuspumila Walter Running oak. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring.
94.

Quercus virginiana Mill. Virginia live oak. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 476, 570.

Quercus x walteriana Ashe (Q. nigra x laevis) -Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 288.

Gelsemiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W.T. Aiton Carolina jessamine. Pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Winter through spring. 441.

Gentianaceae

Sabatia brevifolia Raf Shortleaf rosegentian. Sandhill. Spring through summer. 604.

Geraniaceae

Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina cranesbill. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring.
455.









Haemodoraceae

L, lu /inhei' caroliana (Lam.) Dandy Carolina redroot. Cypress swamp and flatwoods
depression. Common. Summer. 575. Lehtonen 366.

Haloragaceae

Proserpinacapalustris L. -Marsh mermaidweed. Disturbed creek. Rare. Spring
through fall. 650.

Proserpinacapectinata Lam. Combleaf mermaidweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare.
Spring through fall. Lehtonen 352.

Hypoxidaceae

Hypoxisjuncea Sm. Fringed yellow stargrass. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 65, 85, 181.

Iridaceae

Iris hexagona Walter Dixie iris; Prairie iris. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring. 647.

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Narrowleaf blueeyed grass. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Winter through summer. 446. (Systematics of this group is unclear, and
some systematists refer our plants to S. atlanticum E.P. Bicknell).

Sisyrinchium rosulatum E.P. Bicknell Annual blueeyed grass. Ruderal. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 446.

Iteaceae (Stevens 2002)

Itea virginica L. Virginia willow. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring. 97, 509.

Juglandaceae

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet -Pignut hickory. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 496.

Juncaceae

Juncus elliottii Chapm. Bog rush; Elliott's rush. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Occasional. Spring through summer. 75, 503.

Juncus marginatus Rostk. Shorerush; Grassleaf rush. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Fall. 126, 414.









Juncus megacephalus M.A. Curtis Bighead rush. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.
Summer. 421, 519c.

Juncus scirpoides Lam. Needlepod rush. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 185.

Krameriaceae

Krameria lanceolata Torr. Sandspur; Ratany. Sandhill. Rare. Spring. Lehtonen 447.

Lamiaceae

Callicarpa americana L. American beautyberry. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring
through summer. 90.

Clerodendrum bungei Steud. Rose glorybower. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 537.

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze Turk's turban; Skyrocket. Ruderal. Occasional.
All year. 532.

Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinners Clustered bushmint; Muskymint. Ruderal. Frequent.
Summer through fall. 228, 235.

Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. Tropical bushmint. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 226, 395, 424.

Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit deadnettle. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring.
454.

Lycopus rubellus Moench Taperleaf waterhorehound. Cypress swamp. Common.
Summer through fall. 214.

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. Obedientplant. Disturbed creek bank. Rare.
Summer through fall. 403.

Pycnanthemum nudum Nutt. Coastalplain mountainmint. Flatwoods. Rare. Fall. 607.

Salvia azurea Michx. ex Lam. Azure blue sage. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through
fall. 272.

Salvia lyrata L. Lyreleaf sage. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall. 310.

Scutellaria integrifolia L. Helmet skullcap. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through summer. 344.









Scutellaria multiglandulosa (Kearney) Small ex R.M. Harper Small's skullcap.
Sandhill. Rare. Spring. 42, 238.

Stachysfloridana Shuttlew. ex Benth. Florida hedgenettle; Florida bettony. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 400.

Trichostema setaceum Houtt. Narrowleafbluecurls. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 248.

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. Camphortree. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring.
373.

Perseapalustris (Raf.) Sarg. Swamp bay. Cypress swamp. Common. Spring. 96,
306, 589.

Lentibulariaceae

Pinguiculapumila Michx. Small butterwort. Pine flatwoods. Locally common.
Winter through spring. 388, 417.

Utriculariajuncea Vahl Southern bladderwort. Pine flatwoods. Common. Spring
through fall. 389.

Utriculariapurpurea Walter Eastern purple bladderwort. Flatwoods depression.
Occsional. All year. 617.

Utricularia subulata L. Zigzag bladderwort. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through
fall. Lehtonen 253.

Loganiaceae

Mitreola sessilifolia (J.F. Gmel.) G. Don Swamp hornpod. Flatwoods depression.
Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 335.

Lythraceae

Cuphea ca thi/,ge/ewii (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. Colombian waxweed. Flatwoods
depression. Rare. Summer through fall. Lehtonen 204.



Magnoliaceae

Magnolia grandiflora L. Southern magnolia. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Occasional.
Spring through summer. 279, 339.










Magnolia virginiana L. Sweetbay. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 573.

Malvaceae

Sida rhombifolia L. Cuban jute; Indian hemp. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
fall. 393.

Melanthiaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Schoenocaulon dubium (Michx.) Small Florida feathershank. Sandhill. Common.
Spring. 64.

Melastomataceae

Rhexia mariana L. Pale meadowbeauty; Maryland meadowbeauty. Pine flatwoods and
ruderal. Frequent. Spring through fall. 91, 95, 580.

Rhexia nuttallii C.W. James -Nuttall's meadowbeauty. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 324.

Rhexiapetiolata Walter Fringed meadowbeauty. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 314.

Molluginaceae

Mollugo verticillata L. Indian chickweed; Green carpetweed. Ruderal. Frequent.
Spring through fall. 549.

Moraceae

Broussonetiapapyrifera (L.) Vent. Paper mulberry. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 603.

Myricaceae

Myrica cerifera L. var. cerifera Southern bayberry; Wax myrtle. Cypress swamps, pine
flatwoods, and ruderal. Common. Summer through fall. 266 (Clewell 1985).

Myrica cerifera L. var. pumila Michx. Dwarf wax myrtle. Pine flatwoods. Frequent.
Spring through fall. 453 (Clewell 1985).

Nyctaginaceae

Boerhavia diffusa L. Red spiderling; Wineflower. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 396.











Oleaceae

Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton Glossy privet. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 425.

Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring.
419.

Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray Wild olive; American
devilwood. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 561, 616.

Onagraceae

Gaura angustifolia Michx. Southern beeblossom. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 520.

Ludwigia decurrens Walter Wingleaf primrosewillow. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 398, 399, 620.

Ludwigia erecta (L.) H. Hara Yerba dejicotea. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Spring
through fall. 599.

Ludwigia maritima R.M. Harper Seaside primrosewillow. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 231, 384, 578.

Ludwigiapalustris (L.) Elliott- Marsh seedbox. Flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall.
357, 487.

Ludwigiaperuviana (L.) H. Hara Peruvian primrosewillow. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. All year. 294.

Ludwigia suffruticosa Walter Shrubby primrosewillow. Ruderal. Spring through fall.
Lehtonen 334, 334a.

Oenothera laciniata Hill Cutleaf evening primrose. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring
through summer. 517.

Orchidaceae

Pogonia divaricata (L.) R. Br. Rosebud orchid. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through
summer. Lehtonen 264.

Pteroglossaspis ecristata (Fernald) Rolfe Giant Orchid. Sandhill. Occasional. Late
summer. 170.









.S'it1inhw, vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray Spring ladiestresses. Ruderal. Rare. Summer.
Lehtonen 274.

Orobanchaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Agalinisfasciculata (Ell.) Raf. Beach false foxglove. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Summer
through fall. Lehtonen 385.

Agalinisfilifolia (Nutt.) Raf Seminole false foxglove. Pine flatwoods. Rare.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 385.

Agalinis linifolia (Nutt.) Britton Flaxleaf false foxglove. Pine flatwoods and flatwoods
depression. Occasional. Summer through fall. 244.

Agalinispurpurea (L.) Pennell Purple false foxglove. Cypress swamp. Rare. Summer
through fall. Carrara 12, Lehtonen 409.

Aureolariapedicularia (L.) Raf. var. pectinata (Nutt.) Gleason Femleaf yellow false
foxglove. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer through spring. 10.

Buchnera americana L. American bluehearts. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 609, Lehtonen 239, 291.

Seymeria cassioides (G.F. Gmel.) S.F. Blake Yaupon blacksenna. Pine flatwoods and
sandhill. Frequent. Fall. 262.

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata L. Common yellow woodsorrel; Creeping woodsorrel. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 57, 624.

Oxalis debilis Kunth var. corymbosa (DC.) Lourteig Pink woodsorrel. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 480.

Papaveraceae (including Fumariaceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Corydalis micrantha (Engelm. ex. A. Gray) A. Gray Smallflower fumewort; Harlequin.
Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. Lehtonen 424.

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata L. Purple passionflower. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 527.









Phyllanthaceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Phyllanthus urinaria L. Chamber bitter. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall.
408.

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana L. var. rigida Caulkins & Wyatt American pokeweed. Ruderal.
Frequent. Spring through summer. 531 (Caulkins and Wyatt 1990).

Plantaginaceae (APG)

Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B.L. Rob. Lemon bacopa; Blue waterhyssop. Flatwoods
depression. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 354.

Gratiola hispida (Benth. ex Lindl.) Pollard Rough hedgehyssop. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 62, 313.

Gratiola pilosa Michx. Shaggy hedgehyssop. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through
fall. Lehtonen 321.

Gratiola virginiana L. Roundfruit hedgehyssop. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring
through summer. Lehtonen 435.

Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz. Canada toadflax. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring. 20,
484.

Linaria floridana Chapm. Apalachicola toadflax. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring.
Lehtonen 431.

Penstemon australis Small Eustis Lake beard tongue. Sandhill. Rare. Spring.
Lehtonen 219.

Plantago virginica L. Virginia plantain; Southern plantain. Disturbed creek bank.
Locally common. Winter through spring. 435.

Scoparia dulcis L. Sweetbroom; licorice weed. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. All year.
286, 591.

Veronica arvensis L. Corn speedwell. Ruderal. Rare. Winter through spring. 456.

Veronica peregrina L. Neckweed. Ruderal. Occasional. Winter through spring. 439.









Poaceae

Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum (Schult.) Hitchc. Blue maidencane. Cypress swamp.
Locally common. Fall. 510.

Andropogon brachystachyus Chapm. Shortspike bluestem. Pine flatwoods and ruderal.
Rare. Summer through fall. 317, 634.

Andropogon gerardii Vitman Big bluestem. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall. 347, 360.

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Stems & Pogg. var. glaucopsis (Elliott) C.
Mohr. Purple bluestem. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Summer through fall.
342.

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Stems & Pogg. var. glomeratus Bushy
bluestem. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. 636.

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Stems & Pogg. var. hirsutior Bushy
bluestem. Pine Flatwoods. Occasional. Summer through fall. 132, 631.

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Pogg. var. pumilus (Vasey) Vasey ex
L.H. Dewey Bushy bluestem. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall. 273, 627,
633.

Andropogon gyrans Ashe var. gyrans Elliott's bluestem. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer
through fall. 383b.

Andropogon ternarius Michx. Splitbeard bluestem. Sandhill. Common. Summer
through fall. 60, 106.

Andropogon virginicus L. var. glaucus Hack. Chalky bluestem. Pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Fall. 632.

Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus Broomsedge bluestem. Pine flatwoods,
ruderal, and sandhill. Frequent. Fall. 290, 635, 637, 639.

Anthaenantia villosa (Michx.) P. Beauv. Green silkyscale. Sandhill. Rare. Summer
through fall. Abbott 9721.

Aristida strict Michx. var. beyrichiana (Trin. & Rupr.) D.B. Ward Wiregrass. Pine
flatwoods and sandhill. Common. Spring through fall. 383a (Ward 2001).

Aristida gyrans Chapm. Corkscrew threeawn. Sandhill. Occasional. Fall through
winter. 318, 319.









Aristida purpurascens Poir. var. tenuispica (Hitchc.) Allred Hillsboro threeawn. Pine
flatwoods. Occasional. Fall. 629, 630.

Aristida spiciformis Elliott Bottlebrush threeawn. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Fall.
291.

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Walter ex Muhl. Switchcane. Ruderal. Occasional.
Spring. 613.

Axonopusfissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm. Common carpetgrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 153, 349.

Axonopus furcatus (Fliigge) Hitchc. Big carpetgrass. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 568.

Cenchrus echinatus L. Southern sandbur. Ruderal. Common. All year. 55.

Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis Coastal sandspur. Ruderal and sandhill. Frequent. All
year. 122.

Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates var. laxum -- Slender woodoats. Sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through summer. 352, 359.

Ctenium floridanum (Hichc.) Hichc. Florida toothachegrass. Sandhill. Rare. Spring
through fall. Abbott 9719.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. ex Asch and Schweinf Durban crowfootgrass.
Ruderal. Common. All year. 253.

Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark Narrowleaf panicum.
Sandhill. Common. All year. 507.

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. acuminatum Tapered
witchgrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 209.

Dichanthelium ensifolium (Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould var. ensifolium Pine flatwoods.
Rare. Spring through fall. 69.

Dichanthelium laxiflorum (Lam.) Gould Openflower panicum. Cypress swamp.
Frequent. All year. 380b, 508.

Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark Eggleaf witchgrass. Sandhill.
Frequent. Spring through summer. 1.









Dichanthelium strigosum (Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann var. leucoblepharis (Trin.)
Freckmann Fringed panicum. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Summer through fall.
100, 297.

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler Southern crabgrass. Ruderal. Frequent. All year.
292, 584.

Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv. Barnyardgrass. Ruderal. Frequent. All year.
406, 585, 592.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Indian goosegrass. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through
fall. 168, 586.

Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Am. Feather lovegrass. Ruderal. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 213.

Eragrostis elliottii S. Watson Elliott's lovegrass. Sandhill. Frequent. Summer through
fall. 261.

Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. Centipedegrass. Ruderal. Common. Summer
through fall. 207, 295.

Eustachys petraea (Sw.) Desv. Pinewoods fingergrass. Ruderal and sandhill.
Frequent. All year. 53B, 124.

Gymnopogon ambiguous (Michx.) Britton et al. Bearded skeletongrass. Sandhill.
Rare. Fall. Abbott 9722.

Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Benth. Sweet tanglehead. Ruderal.
Occasional. Fall. 597.

Loliumperenne L. Italian ryegrass. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 546.

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv. Woodsgrass; Basketgrass. Ruderal. Occasional.
All year. 642.

Panicum anceps Michx. Beaked panicum. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer through fall.
169, 182b, 324.

Panicum hemitomon Schult. Maidencane. Cypress swamp. Common. Spring through
fall. 554.

Panicum repens L. Torpedograss. Sandhill. Frequent. Spring through fall. 205.

Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees Redtop Panicum. Flatwoods depression. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 605.










Panicum verrucosum Muhl. Warty panicgrass. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 358.

Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi Bahiagrass. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 53a.

Paspalum praecox Walter Early paspalum. Pine flatwoods. Spring through fall.
Johnson 14.

Paspalum setaceum Michx. Thin paspalum. Pine flatwoods. Frequent. Spring through
fall. 182a, 321.

Paspalum urvillei Steud. Vaseygrass. Ruderal and sandhill. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 353, 521.

Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers. Sugarcane plumegrass. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Fall. 374.

Sacciolepis striata (L.) Nash American cupscale. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring
through fall. 216, 325.

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium Little bluestem. Pine
flatwoods and sandhill. Frequent. Summer through fall. 638.

Setaria corrugata (Elliott) Schult. Coastal bristlegrass; Coastal foxtail. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 178.

Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguelen Yellow bristlegrass; Knotroot foxtail. Ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 138, 202.

Sorghastrum secundum (Elliott) Nash Lopsided indian grass. Pine flatwoods and
sandhill. Common. Summer through fall. 267.

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnsongrass. Ruderal. Frequent. Summer through fall.
322, 540.

Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. Prairie wedgescale. Ruderal. Occasional.
Spring. 438.

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. indicus Smutgrass. Pine flatwoods and ruderal.
Common. All year. 120, 156, 348.

Sporobolus juncea (P. Beauv.) Kunth Pineywoods dropseed. Sandhill. Frequent.
Spring through fall. 506.









Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze St. Augustine grass. Ruderal. Common.
Spring through fall. 323.

Tridensflavus (L.) Hitchc. Tall redtop; Purpletop tridens. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 628.

Triplasis americana P. Beauv. Perennial sandgrass. Sandhill. Rare. Fall. Abbott
9720a.

Urochloa racemosa (L.) Nguyen -Browntop millet; Dixie signalgrass. Ruderal.
Occasional. Summer through fall. 583.

Polygalaceae

Polygala cymosa Walter Tall pinebarren milkwort. Flatwoods depressions. Rare.
Spring through fall. Lehtonen 359, 450.

Polygala grandiflora Walter Showy milkwort. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 26, 82.

Polygala incarnata L. Procession flower. Sandhill. Rare. Summer through fall. 587.

Polygala lutea L. Orange milkwort. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through summer.
68.

Polygala nana (Michx.) DC. Candyroot. Pine flatwoods. Rare. Spring through
summer. 184, 612.

Polygala setacea Michx. Coastalplain milkwort. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. All
year. 179.

Polygonaceae

Eriogonum tomentosum Michx. Dogtongue wild buckwheat. Sandhill. Occasional.
Summer through fall. 191.

Polygonella gracilis Meisn. Tall jointweed. Sandhill. Common. Summer through fall.
263.

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. Mild waterpepper; Swamp smartweed. Ruderal.
Locally common. Summer through fall. 411.

Polygonum punctatum Elliott Dotted smartweed. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through fall.
572.









Rumex verticillatus L. Swamp dock. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Winter through
spring. 433.

Pontederiaceae

Pontederia cordata L. Pickerelweed. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring through summer.
Carrara 28.

Portulacaceae

Portulaca amilis Speg. Paraguayan purslane. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring through
summer. 515.

Rhamnaceae

Berchemia scandens (J. Hill) K. Koch Alabama supplejack; Rattanvine. Pine
flatwoods. Rare. Spring. 282.

Ceanothus microphyllus Michx. Littleleaf buckbrush. Sandhill. Occasional. Spring.
336, 478.

Rosaceae

Eriobotryajaponica (Thunb.) Lindl. Loquat. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through summer.
640.

Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) K.R. Robertson & J.B. Phipps Red chokeberry. Pine
flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 345.

Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina Black cherry. Ruderal. Frequent. Spring. 536,
571, 646.

Prunus umbellata Elliott Pine flatwoods plum; Hog plum. Ruderal. Rare. Winter
through spring. 432.

Rubus argutus Link Sawtooth blackberry. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring. 338.

Rubus cuneifolius Pursh Sand blackberry. Pine flatwoods and sandhill. Common.
Spring. 39.

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Common buttonbush. Cypress swamp and flatwoods
depression. Occasional. Spring. 81.









Diodia teres Walter Poor Joe; Rough buttonweed. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 136, 175.

Diodia virginiana L. Virginia buttonweed. Flatwoods depression. Rare. All year.
542, Johnson s.n., 8 Sept 82.

Galium aparine L. Goosegrass; Spring cleavers; Stickywilly. Disturbed creek bank.
Occasional. Winter through spring. 443.

Galiumpilosum Aiton -Hairy bedstraw. Sandhill. Occasional. Summer. 111.

Houstonia procumbens (J.F. Gmel.) Standl. Innocence; Roundleaf bluet. Sandhill and
ruderal. Occasional. Winter through summer. 430 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Mitchella repens L. Partridgeberry; Twinberry. Cypress swamp and ruderal.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 471.

Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Flattop Mille Graines. Ruderal. Rare. Spring through
summer. 595 (Wunderlin and Hansen 2002).

Richardia brasiliensis Gomes Tropical Mexican clover. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through fall. 18.

Richardia scabra L. Rough Mexican clover. Ruderal. Rare. All year. Lehtonen 462.

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. Hercules'-club; Toothache tree. Ruderal. Rare. Spring.
497.

Salicaceae

Populus deltoids W. Bartram ex Marshall Eastern cottonwood. Cypress swamp. Rare.
Spring. 602.

Salix caroliniana Michx. Carolina willow. Cypress swamp. Frequent. Spring. 610.

Sapindaceae (including Aceraceae; Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Acer negundo L. Boxelder. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional. Spring. 524.

Acer rubrum L. Red maple. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Common. Winter through
spring. 296, 460.









Sarraceniaceae

Sarracenia minor Walter Hooded pitcherplant. Cypress swamps and pine flatwoods.
Frequent. Spring. 72.

Saururaceae

Saururus cernuus L. Lizard's tail. Cypress swamp and ruderal. Occasional. Spring
through summer. 473, 529b.

Scrophulariaceae

Verbascum /ithqit\ L. -Common mullein. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
summer. 547.

Smilacaceae

Smilax auriculata Walter Earleaf greenbriar. Pine flatwoods, sandhill, and ruderal.
Common. All year. 12, 32, 50.

Smilax bona-nox L. Saw greenbriar. Pine flatwoods and ruderal. Occasional. All year.
372.

Smilax glauca Walter Cat greenbriar; Wild sarsaparilla. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Common. Spring. 49, 78.

Smilax laurifolia L. Laurel greenbriar; Bamboovine. Cypress swamp. Occasional.
Spring through summer. 308, 449.

Smilax smallii Morong Jackson vine; Lanceleaf greenbriar. Pine flatwoods.
Occasional. Summer. 567.

Smilax walteri Pursh Coral greenbriar. Cypress swamp. Rare. Spring. 287.

Solanaceae

Physalis arenicola Keamey Cypresshead groundcherry. Sandhill. Rare. Summer.
119.

Solarium americanum Mill. American black nightshade. Ruderal. Rare. All year. 499.

Tetrachondraceae (Stevens 2002, Judd et al. 2002)

Polypremum procumbens L. Rustweed; Juniperleaf. Pine flatwoods. Occasional.
Spring through fall. 137.









Theaceae

Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis Loblolly bay. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer. 469.

Turneraceae

Piriqueta caroliniana (Walter) Urb. Pitted stripeseed. Pine flatwoods and sandhill.
Frequent. Spring through fall. 17.

Ulmaceae

Ulmus alata Michx. Winged elm. Disturbed creek bank. Rare. Spring. 420.

Urticaceae

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False nettle; Bog hemp. Ruderal. Occasional. Summer
through fall. 140, 314.

Parietariapraetermissa Hinton Clustered pellitory. Disturbed creek bank. Occasional.
Winter through spring. 440.

Verbenaceae

Lantana camera L. Lantana; Shrubverbena. Ruderal. Rare. All year. 146.

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene Turkey tangle fogfruit; Capeweed. Ruderal. Frequent.
All year. 35, 144.

Stylodon carneum (Medik.) Moldenke Carolina false vervain. Sandhill. Occasional.
Spring. 25, 490.

Verbena brasiliensis Vell. Brazilian vervain. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
fall. 275.

Violaceae

Viola lanceolata L. Bog white violet. Cypress swamp. Occasional. Winter through
spring. 445.

Viola palmata L. Early blue violet. Pine flatwoods. Occasional. Winter through
spring. 436, 464.

Viola primulifolia L. Primroseleaf violet. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 463.









Viscaceae

Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst. Oak mistletoe. Parasite on
Quercus sp. in Cypress swamp; also parasite on Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora in flatwoods
depression. Rare. Fall through winter. 428, 618.

Vitaceae

Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne Peppervine. Ruderal. Common. Spring through
summer. 565, 596.

Parthenocissus quinquifolia (L.) Planch. Virginia creeper; Woodbine. Ruderal.
Common. Spring. 79.

Vitis aestivalis Michx. Summer grape. Ruderal. Rare. Spring. 625.

Vitis rotundifolia Michx. -Muscadine. Ruderal. Common. Spring. 47.

Xyridaceae

Xyris ambigua Beyr. ex Kunth Coastalplain yelloweyed grass. Cypress swamp.
Occasional. Spring through fall. 234.

Xyris brevifolia Michx. Shortleafyelloweyed grass. Cypress swamp. Rare. All year.
Lehtonen 439.

Xyris caroliniana Walter Carolina yelloweyed grass. Pine flatwoods and flatwoods
depressions. Frequent. Summer through fall. 103, 232.

Xyrisfimbriata Elliott Fringed yelloweyed grass. Ruderal. Occasional. Spring through
fall. 581.

Xyrisplatylepis Chapm. Tall yelloweyed grass. Flatwoods. Rare. Summer through
fall. Abbott 9727.

Xyrisjupicai Rich. -Richard's yelloweyed grass. Flatwoods. Rare. Spring through fall.
Abbott 9728.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Cathleen Ann Kabat was born on March 1, 1978, in St. Petersburg, Florida, to

Colleen and Terrell Touchton. She became interested in plants helping her father

landscape in their yard as a little girl. She graduated from St. Petersburg High School in

1996 and began her undergraduate degree at the University of South Florida in Tampa.

Here, while pursuing dentistry, her path crossed that of a wonderful teacher who changed

her life. She took her first botany class with Dr. Richard Mansell. His enthusiasm for

plants sparked the beginning of a career in botany. His constant support of her botanical

endeavors helped her enter the University of Florida where she continued her education

with Dr. Walter Judd. She married Steven Matthew Kabat in July of 2000 at the

beginning of her graduate education. Her husband also began a graduate degree in

horticulture, which is unfolding a lifetime of botanical adventure for both of them.