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High pressure and temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties of model food solutions obtained from in situ ultra...

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MODEL FOOD SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM IN SITU ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS By ROGER DARROS BARBOSA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Roger Darros Barbosa

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To Neila who made me feel reborn, and To my dearly loved children Marina, Carolina and especially Artur, the youngest, with whom enjoyable times were shared through this journey

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Murat Balaban and Dr. Arthur A. Teixeira for their valuable advice, help, encouragement, support and guidance throughout my graduate studies at the University of Florida. Special thanks go to Dr. Murat Balaban for giving me the opportunity to work in his lab and study the interesting subject of this research. I would also like to thank my committee members Dr. Gary Ihas, Dr. D. Julian McClements and Dr. Robert J. Braddock for their help, suggestions, and words of encouragement along this research. A special thank goes to Dr. D. Julian McClements for his valuable assistance and for receiving me in his lab at the University of Massachusetts. I am grateful to the Foundation for Support of Research of the State of So Paulo (FAPESP 97/07546-4) for financially supporting most part of this project. I also gratefully acknowledge the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Research Dean, the chair of the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, the chair of Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the University of Florida, and the United States Department of Agriculture (through a research grant), for financially supporting parts of this research. I am thankful to Dr. Miriam D. Hubinger, Dr. Florencia C. Menegalli and Dr. Antonio J. A. Meirelles, for the use of their laboratories at the Department of Food Engineering, at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), where some of the experiments at atmospheric pressure were conducted. I am indebted iv

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to my colleagues at the Department of Food Engineering and Technology at Paulista State University (UNESP). My accomplishments could not have been achieved without their support. I would also like to thank the staff and faculty of the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department (FSHN) and of the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (AGEN), in particular the staff members of maintenance support (FSHN), and of the machine shop (AGEN), and the staff of the IFAS network computer office at the University of Florida for their help and support in many difficult situations. I am thankful to all my friends at the University of Florida, in special my friends at Dr. Balabans lab for their friendship, many helpful discussions, and cooperation. v

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................xi LIST OF SYMBOLS.........................................................................................................xv ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................xviii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1 2 BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................6 High-Pressure Food Processing and Technology.........................................................6 The Role of Water in Food Systems under Pressure..............................................8 High Pressure as a Preservation Process for Foods..............................................10 End Effects of High Pressure on Foods and Food Components...........................13 Thermodynamics of High Pressure.............................................................................18 Compressibility.....................................................................................................18 Adiabatic Thermal Pressure Coefficient...............................................................19 Isobaric Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient................................20 Speed of Sound.....................................................................................................21 Thermodynamics of Solutions..............................................................................25 Equilibrium and Rate Processes............................................................................33 Methods of Measuring Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressure........................35 Density or Specific Volume and Compressibility Measurements........................36 Sound Velocity Measurement...............................................................................38 Objectives...................................................................................................................43 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS.................................................................................44 Pressure-Generating System.......................................................................................44 Sound-Velocity Measurement at High Pressures.......................................................50 Procedure for Collecting High-Pressure Ultrasonic Data...........................................58 Preparation of Binary Aqueous Solutions...................................................................62 Density and Heat-Capacity Measurements at Atmospheric Pressure.........................63 vi

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Density Measurements..........................................................................................64 Heat-Capacity Measurements...............................................................................66 Summary of Conditions for the High-Pressure Experiments.....................................67 4 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS...................................................................68 Speed of Sound at High Pressures..............................................................................69 Density at Atmospheric Pressure................................................................................70 Isobaric Thermal-Expansion Coefficient at Atmospheric Pressure............................71 Isobaric Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure........................................................71 From Ultrasonic Data to Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures. Thermodynamic Approach.........................................................................................75 Mathematical Solution for the Set of Partial Differential Equations..........................77 Additional Thermodynamic Properties Derived.........................................................82 Thermodynamics of Solution: Mixing Scheme and Solute Effect.............................83 Partial Molar Volumes..........................................................................................83 Partial Compressibilities.......................................................................................87 Water Activity from Solvent Partial Molar Volume: Thermodynamic Approach.....88 Error Analysis.............................................................................................................91 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..................................................................................99 Sound Velocity at High Pressures...............................................................................99 Density at Atmospheric Pressure..............................................................................103 Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure....................................................................107 Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures Derived from Ultrasonic Data.........110 Thermodynamic Properties of Solution Components at High Pressures..................128 Partial Molar Volumes........................................................................................131 Partial Isentropic Compressibilities and Partial Specific Compressions............137 Water Activity at High Pressures..............................................................................150 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDY...155 APPENDIX A SELECTED THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS AND DERIVATIONS.....163 B HIGH PRESSURE ULTRASONIC EXPERIMENTAL DATA...............................170 C DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY EXPERIMENTAL DATA AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE..................................................................................176 D MATLAB PROGRAM FOR THE NUMERICAL ITERATIVE PROCEDURE TO COMPUTE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AT HIGH PRESSURE FROM ULTRASONIC DATA..............................................................................................186 E THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES DERIVED FROM HIGH PRESSURE ULTRASONIC DATA. NUMERICAL VALUES...................................................203 vii

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LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................221 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...........................................................................................247 viii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Results for the calibration of the density meter with pure water...............................65 3-2. Summary of the experimental range of the high-pressure experiments....................67 5-1. Coefficients a ij of Equation 4-3 for binary solutions in Pa m -i s i K -j .........................104 5-2. Coefficients a ij of Equation 4-4 for binary solutions in [kg (1-j) m -3(j-1) K (1-i) ]............106 5-3. Coefficients a ij of Equation 4-18 for binary solutions in [kg -j s -2 m (2+3j) K -i ].............110 5-4. Regression coefficients of the Equation 5-2 for binary aqueous solutions (a 1 in [K], a 2 in [K MPa -1 ], and a 3 in [K kg -2n m 3n ])..........................................................129 B-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data................170 B-2: Glucose aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data................172 B-3: Citric acid aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data............173 C-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure....176 C-2. Glucose aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure....178 C-3. Citric acid aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure...................................................................................................................179 C-4. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure...................................................................................................................180 C-5. Glucose aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure...................................................................................................................182 C-6. Citric Acid aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure...................................................................................................................184 E-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................203 ix

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E-2. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................205 E-3. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................207 E-4. Glucose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................209 E-5. Glucose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................211 E-6. Glucose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................213 E-7. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 1% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................215 E-8. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................217 E-9. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures...........................................................219 x

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1. Schematic of experimental setup...............................................................................45 3-2. High-pressure vessel bottom plug showing details of the electrical leads................47 3-3. Schematic of the ultrasonic high-pressure measurement cell....................................51 3-4. Frequency-domain transducer response....................................................................52 3-5. Time-domain input negative spike and transducer impulse response.......................53 3-6. Typical reflected (echo) signal waveform at high pressure.......................................56 3-7. Ambient temperature variation during 3 different days............................................59 3-8. Pressure fluctuation of selected experiments at 200, 400 and 600 MPa set points...61 4-1. Percentage deviation between the measured sound velocities in pure water and those of NIST........................................................................................................97 4-2. Percentage deviation between the calculated densities of pure water and those of NIST.......................................................................................................................97 4-3. Percentage deviation between the calculated compressibilities of pure water and those of NIST.........................................................................................................98 5-1. Experimental sound velocity in sucrose solutions...................................................101 5-2. Experimental sound velocity in glucose solutions..................................................101 5-3. Experimental sound velocity in citric acid solutions...............................................102 5-4. Experimental density of sucrose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration.........................................................................105 5-5. Experimental density of glucose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration........................................................................105 5-6. Experimental density of citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration.........................................................106 xi

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5-7. Experimental specific heat capacity of sucrose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration..................................................108 5-8. Experimental specific heat capacity of glucose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration..................................................108 5-9. Experimental specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration.....................................109 5-10. Calculated density of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................111 5-11. Calculated density of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................112 5-12. Calculated density of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................112 5-13. Calculated isentropic compressibility of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.........................................115 5-14. Calculated isentropic compressibility of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.........................................118 5-15. Calculated isentropic compressibility of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.........................................119 5-16. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different concentrations at 20 o C......................................119 5-17. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different concentrations at 20 o C......................................120 5-18. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different concentrations at 20 o C..................................120 5-19. Calculated heat capacity of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................121 5-20. Calculated heat capacity of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations...........................................................121 5-21. Calculated specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.........................................122 5-22. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and oncentrations...........................................122 xii

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5-23. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.........................................123 5-24. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations....................................123 5-25. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................125 5-26. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................126 5-27. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................126 5-28. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations............................................129 5-29. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations............................................130 5-30. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations.............................130 5-31. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................134 5-32. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................135 5-33. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................136 5.34. Chemical structures of sucrose [C 12 H 22 O 11 M w = 342.30], glucose [C 6 O 8 O 7 M w = 180.16] and citric acid [C 6 H 12 O 6 M w = 192.12] molecules......................143 5-35. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................................................................................................144 5-36. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................................................................................................145 5-37. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................................................................................................146 xiii

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5-38. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations......................................................................................................147 5-39. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.....................................................................................................148 5-40. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations.....................................................................................................149 5-41. Water activity of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................153 5-42. Water activity of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................153 5-43. Water activity of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations..........................................................................154 xiv

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xv LIST OF SYMBOLS aij Regression coefficients (units as stated) a1, 2, 3 Coefficients in Equation 5-2 (units as stated) A Specific Helmholtz free energy (J kg-1) Ai Activity of species i Aw Water activity C Solute concentration (kg-solute m-3) ci Regression coefficients (units as stated) Cp Isobaric specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1) CpE Excess molar heat capacity (J mol-1 oK-1) Cpm Molar heat capacity (J mol-1 oK-1) Cpref Specific heat capacity of reference material (J kg-1 K-1) Cpsa Specific heat capacity of sample (J kg-1 K-1) dH/dt Heat flow (J s-1) dT/dt Heating rate (oC min-1) f Frequency (Hz) G Specific Gibbs free energy (J kg-1) H Specific enthalpy (J kg-1) k Reaction rate (s-1) k Wave number K Reaction constant LP,T Acoustic path length as a function of P and T (m) LPo,To Acoustic path length at atmospheric pressure and 0oC (m) m Mass (g or kg) mS Solution molarity (mol kg-water-1) Mw Molecular weight (kg kmol-1) n Number of moles ni,j Number of moles of component i or j respectively n1,2 Number of moles of component 1 or 2 respectively P Pressure (Pa) Po Atmospheric pressure (Pa) o wP Water vapor pressure (Pa) Q General molar thermodynamic property ri Regression coefficients (units as stated) R Universal molar gas constant (8.315 J mol-1 K-1) S Specific entropy (J kg-1 K-1) XS Sample standard deviation t Time variable in wave Equation 2-11 (s) T Temperature (K, otherwise as stated)

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xvi T Period (s) u Sound velocity (m s-1) uo Sound velocity at atmospheric pressure and 0oC(m s-1) U Specific internal energy (J kg-1) V Volume (m3) V Specific volume (m3 kg-1) V Partial molar volume (m3 mol-1) Vapp Apparent molar volume (m3) VE Excess molar volume (m3) Vid Ideal solution volume (m3) Vm Solution molar volume (m3 mol-1) x Space variable in wave Equation 2-11 (m) xi,j Mole fraction of component i and j respectively XS Solute mole fraction Xw Water mole fraction in the liquid phase Yw Water mole fraction in the gas phase w1,2 Mass fraction of component 1 or 2 respectively Z Acoustical impedance (Pa s-1 m-1) Greek Letters Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (K-1) Linear thermal expansion coefficient (K-1) Coefficient of compressibility (Pa-1) Coefficient of linear compressibility (Pa-1) T, S Isothermal and isentropic compressibility respectively (Pa-1) S Isentropic compression (m3 kg-1 Pa-1) Partial compressibility (Pa-1) E Excess compressibility (Pa-1) id Ideal solution compressibility (Pa-1) G Specific Gibbs free en ergy variation (J kg-1) G Free energy of activation (J mol-1) V Partial molar volume variation (m3 mol-1) V Volume of activation (m3 mol-1) T Temperature interval in Equation 4-8 (0.1oC) t Transit time for the propagation of ultrasound (s) i,j Molar volume fraction of component i or j respectively S Adiabatic thermal pressure coefficient (Pa K-1) w Activity coefficient of water Latent heat of water (J kg-1) Wavelength (nm) i Chemical potential of species i (J mol-1) b Particle displacement in wave Equation 2-11 (m) t Angular frequency (rad) n Density (kg m-3)

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xvii Subscripts air Air evap Evaporated i,j Components i and j of a binary solution o Atmospheric pressure condition ref Reference state s Isentropic condition sa Sample property T Isothermal condition w Water 1,2 Components 1 or 2 of a binary solution Superscripts app Apparent property E Excess function id Ideal condition i,j Exponent of mathematical models m Molar property o Pure component property Indicates activation state Mathematical symbols Partial differential operator f Summation operator r Equivalent to or defined as operato r; used in a mathematical expression to define a property in terms of thermodynamic quantities rather than an equality

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xviii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MODEL FOOD SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM IN SITU ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS By Roger Darros Barbosa May 2003 Chair: Dr. Murat Balaban Cochair: Dr. Arthur A. Teixeira Department: Food Scie nce and Human Nutrition High-pressure treatment has been recogn ized for over a century as a potential food preservation technique because of its demonstrated ability to inactivate microorganisms without adverse effects on food quality. Recent developments in high pressure processing equipment technology ha ve already brought into practice a number of successful commercial applications. Process development efforts are currently based mainly on observation of end effects from tria l-and-error experimentation, and are further confounded by the inability to distinguish te mperature from pressure effects because of the thermodynamic temperature rise that accompanies pressurization. The ability to predict such effects is further hampered by the complex composition of foods and by the fact that thermodynamic and transport pr operties, which govern the reactions and transformations taking place, are highly sensitive to pressure, temperature and food composition. The purpose of this research was to develop methodology for measurement

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xix of sound velocity in liquid foods under high pressure treatments from which a number of important thermodynamic proper ties could be derived and de termined as a function of pressure, temperature and composition. An ultrasonic high-pressure measuremen t cell was developed and instrumented for use within the sample chamber of a pr ototype high-pressure treatment unit equipped with independent temperatureand pressure-monitoring a nd control instrumentation. Measurements were taken over a range of pressures up to 600 MPa and temperatures between 10o and 30oC with four different simulated liquid food systems (binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid at different concentrations, and pure water). The resulting sound velocity data along with atmospheric pressure data on density, specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient were used to derive the important thermodynamic properties of specific volume/density, isentropic and isothermal compressibility and isentropic pressure thermal coefficient at elevated pressures. These results also led to an inte rpretation of the pressu re-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence behavior of ea ch property, allowing prediction of each property as a function of temperature, pr essure and composition. The thermodynamic relationships of partial molar properties of so lute and solvent in each solution have also led to a better understanding of the interac tions between solute and solvent under the influence of pressure, temperature, concentr ation and solute type in model aqueous food systems. For predictive or numerical appli cation purposes, regression coefficients were determined by fitting data to the appropriate model.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION High-pressure treatment has been known as a potential food preservation technique for over a century. However prog ress has been relatively slow since Hites first report on the subject (Hite 1899b). Impor tant developments in high hydrostatic pressure equipment made it possible to s ubject foods to high-pressure treatments resulting in commercial success of the process, first in Japan in the early 1990s, then in Europe, and recently in North America. Despite the capability of high-pressure processing to preserve without compromisin g physical, nutritional, and sensory quality characteristics, predictions of the effects of high-pressure treatment are difficult. This also applies to generalizations for any particular type of food due to the complexity of foods and the possibility of changes and reac tions that can occur under pressure. Yet, mathematical models capable of such predictions are a necessary first step for process design, optimization and control. The ability of high-pressure treatment to kill vegetative microorganisms is widely known, even at low-temperature processing. The main advantages of high-pressure processing, when compared to other trad itional food processing technologies, are retention of flavor, nutrients, and color. This is true only if the process is not conducted at high temperatures. Other important attr ibutes are independence of product size and geometry, and instantaneous and uniform distribution of pressure, which reduces processing time, as opposed to conventional processes (e .g., thermal) where time/mass

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2 dependency for mass and heat transfer are critical process variables and pose limitations. Moreover, there is the possibility of high-pressure processing in low-temperature applications with the same or even enhanced pressure effects, which causes even less heat damage for temperature-sensitive materials. In addition, there is no need for extra energy to maintain pressure once the system reaches a given processing pressure. Negative aspects of high pressure include a poor understanding of the mechanisms and effects on foods and their cons tituents, and the generation of heat within the pressure vessel due to adiabatic heating upon pressure buildup. For example, in microorganisms, studies have shown that ther e is a change in the permeability of cell membranes, accompanied by a reduction in the liquid volume and consequently a decrease in the internal volume of the micr obial cell. The physicochemical environment can adversely change the resistance of the microorganisms to pressure; consequently the interactivity of components is of great impor tance to determine the pressure mechanism and the subsequent reduction of viable cells. Furthermore, despite the effectiveness of high pressure on the destruction of vegetative cells of bacteria, molds, and yeasts, some bacterial spores are strongly resistant to pressure. Also, the effects on enzymes in general are not conclusive. Enzyme activity may incr ease or decrease, depending on the enzyme, its source, physicochemistry of the environm ent, and treatment c onditions. Temperature variation within the food system during pre ssure treatment is non-isotropic because of pressure-induced adiabatic heating and de pends on pressure, composition, and other factors such as vessel volume and initial and boundary conditions. In many cases, researchers did not examine these issues, whic h may affect inactivation kinetics and other pressure effects significantly.

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3 Transformations in foods unde r high pressure can be i rreversible or reversible, depending on the process; involved substa nces; environmental conditions; and the combination of pressure, temperature, and time of exposure. High-pressure treatment effects on food systems are highly dependent on the primary effects of pressure and temperature on the thermodynamic and trans port properties of food systems, including their components and interactions. Some of the relevant thermo dynamic properties of high-pressure processing are density, compressibility, the adiabatic pressure thermal coefficient, phase transition properties (e.g., boiling and melting point), solubility, and their changes. Pressure is a fundamental state variable that influences the values of those properties. Pressure-dependence studies reveal info rmation on the volume profile of the process, in the same way that temperaturedependence studies tell us something about the energetics of a process. Applying high pre ssure hastens reactions that reduce volume (by Le Chateliers principle) and vice-versa. There is also a thermodynamic relation between volume changes and activation energy, due to changes in free energy. Change in volume for a given substance under an applied pressure depends on its compressibility. Since compressibility, like volume, is determined by the composite effect of intraand intermolecular interactions, its value can be used to gain insight into these interactions. Compressibility is a macroscopic property, which is sensitive to solute-solvent interactions, and therefore can help to char acterize hydration prope rties of solutes in solutions. In solute molecules, pressu re affects ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions. The mechanism of pressure denaturation of proteins, for example, involves ionization and precipitati on. However electrostri ction also occurs,

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4 corresponding to charge separation and dissocia tion of ionic interactions. Thus, solvation and electrostriction effects can be examined using volume-change studies of solutions under high pressure using models, and conse quently giving more insight into these phenomena. Compressibility is an important property determined by the balance between attractive and repulsive forces. It enters into many pressure-dependent thermodynamic expressions, and is an essen tial parameter for the design and use of any high-pressure equipment. In fact, the adiabatic thermal pressure coefficient derived from volumetric and heat-capacity data under pressure s upplies very useful information about the magnitude of adiabatic heating generated by the work of compression. Knowledge of this nonisotropic temperature rise is fundamental for optimizing high-pressure processing, especially if it is combined with thermal treatment to maximize safety and quality. Accurate data are needed of pressure and temperature dependence of thermodynamic and transport pr operties, coupled with relia ble kinetic parameters for destruction of microorganism s, enzyme inactivation, nutri ent retention or any other quality or safety attribute. The effect of high pressure in ther modynamic properties such as density, compressibility, and the adiaba tic-pressure thermal coefficient of food systems and their constituents are scarcely discussed in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop procedures and instrumentation for in situ measurements of thermodynamic properties during the pressurization process in an isostatic high-pressure unit. This study seeks to determine pressure and temperature dependence of thermodynamic expressions for specific volume (or density) and isentropic and isothermal compressibility of food-based mode l liquids and the effects of temperature

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5 and composition near ambient temperatur es. In addition, other thermodynamic expressions for isentropic thermal pressure coefficient, isobaric specific heat capacity, and isobaric expansivity are derived as a functi on of pressure and temperature. Research on high-pressure processing began as a qualitative trial-and-error process, focused on determining end effects in specific food pr oducts. Now it is evolving into a more systematic fundamental approach addressing pressure-dependence kinetics, thermodynamics, thermophysical properties, and modeling aspects, providing a basis for broadening its applicability. We hope that this study, together with numerous other in situ measurements, contributes to this endeavor.

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6 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW Research on high-pressure treatment of f oods has dealt almost exclusively with the effects on food systems after the pressure treatment. Ther e is a lack of experimental data and basic concepts involving in-situ effects on thermodynamic and transport properties. This study deals primarily w ith modeling the influence of pressure on thermodynamic properties of food components. Therefore, most of the background information focuses on the thermodynamics of high-pressure science and technology and its fundamentals. Moreover, much of the rese arch relevant to this field is related to nonfood systems, which brings about differen t approaches, equipment, and techniques sometimes difficult or impossible to apply to food materials. For this reason, some of the existing techniques and the fundamentals used to explore the effects of pressure on nonfood materials are highlighted. We also give a brief overview of some of the research on high-pressure technology for food processing and preservation to show some of the difficulties presented by the complexity of food materials. High-Pressure Food Processing and Technology Treatment of foods with hi gh pressure is generally accomplished by compressing the medium (usually water mixed with lubri cating oil) surrounding prepackaged foods in flexible or semi-rigid vacuum-sealed contai ners. In this manner, high hydrostatic pressure for food processing in the rang e of 100 to 1000 MPa (600-800 being considered the maximum for economic feasibility) is generated through direct or indirect

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7 compression (depending mainly on the maximu m operating pressure, vessel volume, and frequency of operation) of the pressure transmitting fluid in thick-walled, cylindrical vessels made of low-alloy steel ( Deplace a nd Mertens 1992; Hori et al. 1992; Kanda et al. 1992; Traff and Bergman 1992; Mert ens and Deplace 1993; Zimmerman and Bergman 1993; Mertens 1995; Ting and Farkas 1995; Olsson 1997; Vardag and Korner 1997; Freeman 1997, 1998). In the case of di rect, piston-type compression, the pressure medium is directly compressed by a lowpressure piston-driven pump at one end. According to the hydraulic principle, the desired high pressure results at the small diameter vessel end of the piston. The indir ect concept uses a high-pressure intensifier pump (using the same hydraulic principle) to pump the pressure medium into the closed vessel until the desired pressure is achieve d. The direct method delivers very fast compression (a few seconds), but is limited by the high-pressure dynamic seal between piston and internal vessel surface. The indi rect compression method requires only a static high-pressure seal in the vessel (Merte ns and Deplace 1993). Most industrial and laboratory-scale high-pressure systems use the indirect pressure-generation concept (Traff 1998). A production cycle includes loading the product into the chamber, pressurizing, dwell time (typical range 1 to 30 minutes), depressurizing, and product unloading (Deplace 1995). This proce ss can be made semicontinuous by using alternating cycles in a series of pressuriza tion chambers for greater capacities (Moreau 1995; Bignon and Lebas 1997; Morris 2000). Vessel volumes may vary from a few milliliters in laboratory units to several hundred liters in large commercial systems (Olsson 1995). Indirect heating and cooling capability through an external circulating jacket is possible, although slow thermal responses are expected because of vessel

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8 thermal inertia and the small heat-exchange su rface between vessel a nd pressure medium. Internal cooling/heating sources or conditioning of the pressure medium may be a choice, but sophisticated and complex solutions ar e more likely (Colman 1997). Only a few reports have been documented on conti nuous high-pressure systems as prototype equipment (Itoh et al. 1996a; Sionneau et al. 1997). Although high-pressure technique for food processing and preservation already has a number of commercial applications, limitations related to data comparison and complexity associated with understanding in teractive components of the process limit full acceptance of the method (Eley 1992; Mozh aev et al. 1994; Earnshaw et al. 1995; Hayashi 1995; De Cordt et al. 1997; Sme lt 1998; Knorr 1999a; Farkas and Hoover 2000; Linton and Patterson 2000; Tewari 2000; Dunne and Kluter 2001; Smelt et al. 2002). Furthermore, predictions of the effects of high pressure are difficult as are generalizations for any particular type of food (Palou et al 1999). Nevertheless, a considerable amount of information has been generated, and evidence exists on the end effects of high pressure on food systems, including microbial inactiva tion, chemical and enzymatic reactions, and the structure and functiona lity of food components. The Role of Water in Food Systems under Pressure Water is the major constituent of many f ood products, which can be described as aqueous solutions; dispersions; or suspensi ons of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic salts, organic acids (etc.) and their mixtures. The characteristics, behavior, and interaction of water with so lutes under pressure are very important (Fennema 1996; Palou et al. 1999). Water molecules, consisting of dipoles of two hydrogen atoms attached to an oxygen atom, form a unique, extensively hydrogen-bonded network with localized and structured clustering, with a number of anomalous propertie s. These anomalies have

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9 been explained by dynamic equilibrium of open low-density and condensed higherdensity structure bending, but not breaking, some of the hydrogen-bonds (Chaplin 1999; Symons 2001). This two-state structural model for water, with its interconverting mechanism between a cavity form capable of enclosing small solute molecules and another form able to collapse beca use of competition of bonded and nonbonded molecules, explains many of waters anom alous properties including its temperaturedensity and pressure-viscosity behavior; and the solvation and hydration properties of ions, hydrophobic molecules, carbohydrate s and macromolecules (Chaplin 1999). Functionality of water is attributed to its two prot on donor sites and two proton acceptor sites, while cooperativity is de termined by the strength of hydrogen bonds which depends on the number of such bonds (Symons 2001). Many properties of water change with pressure according to an initial breaking of hydrogen-bonded structures, reducing the structure (Bridgman 1931). Water influences the structure, appearance, and taste of foods and their susceptibility to spoilage. From a chemical and physical standpoint, water is an excellent solvent because of its polarity, high dielectric constant and small size; its behavior as a carrier of solutes, a reactant and reaction medium, a lubricant and plasticizer, a diffusion medium, a stabilizer of biopolymer conformation; and because it probably facilitates the dynamic behavior of macromolecules, including their catalytic (enzymatic) properties (Cheftel 1992; Tauscher 1995). Because of the complexity of foods and interactions between food com ponents and preservation or biophysicalchemical-transformation factors, the role of water may not be easily identified in some cases (Palou et al. 1999). Thus, in high-p ressure food processing if pressure and temperature affect water properties, changes in density, compressibility, surface tension,

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10 viscosity, thermal properties, dipole moment, dielectric constant (which are all solutesolvent sensitive) are expected with their related consequences on food structure and stability. The presence of different solutes has varying effects on physicochemical properties of the solution. Solutes interfere with cluster equilibrium by favoring either open or collapsed structures. Any of these effects, which are pressure and temperature sensitive, will cause the physical proper ties of the solution, such as density, compressibility or viscosity, to change. Also, water is a more reactive environment when the extent of hydrogen bonding is reduced by pressure toward unstructured water (Ludemann 1992). Local clustering will be af fected by the presence of solutes, thus changing the nature of water and making solu tions to behave non-ideally. However, the extension of these pressure effects on th e structure of aqueous solutions and its consequences to pressure processing of foods is still to be determined. High Pressure as a Preservation Process for Foods The ability of high pressure to inactivate microorganisms was first demonstrated more than 100 years ago by Roger (1895). A fe w years later, Hite and co-workers (Hite 1899a; Hite et al. 1914) demonstrated the micr obial shelf stability of milk, meat and fruit products by using high pressure as a f ood preservation method. As a preservation technique high-pressure processi ng is primarily based on reducing the microbial load to prevent growth in populations of food-spo ilage and pathogenic mic roorganisms. The preservation of other quality attributes is also a concern (Farr 1990; Cheftel 1991; Mertens and Knorr 1992; Tewari et al. 1999; Knorr 1999b; Cano et al. 1999; Palou 2000). Other important applica tions aim to improve quality and process efficiency by means of pressure-shifting phase transitions (Knorr et al. 1998; Hayashi et al. 1998).

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11 Researchers have shown that high pr essure inactivates microorganisms by inducing changes to the morphology, bioche mical reactions, genetic mechanisms, and cell membranes (Hoover et al. 1989; Earnshaw et al. 1995; Isaacs et al. 1995; Smelt 1998; Abe et al. 1999; Farkas and Hoover 2000; Smelt et al. 2002; Brul 2002). Resistance of microorganisms to high pressure varies greatly as shown by a number of experimental works, and reducti on of microbial loads is direct ly related to the level of hydrostatic pressure applied (as well as temp erature, which is also pressure-dependent due to adiabatic heating), ty pe and growth phase of mic roorganism, food matrix, and environmental conditions (e.g., physicochemical and synergistic factors) (Aleman et al. 1994; Arroyo et al. 1997; Linton and Patterson 2000; Farkas and Hoover 2000; Furukawa et al. 2002; He et al. 2002; Ludwig et al 2002). Kinetics of pressure inactivation observed with different microorganisms varies fro m first order, to a change in slope, to a two-phase pattern, to even more complex kinetics, de pending on the food system, microorganism, and experimental conditi ons (Earnshaw 1995; Heinz and Knorr 1996; Palou et al. 1997b; Ludwig and Schreck 1997; Br addock et al. 1998). Spores of bacteria have been identified as the most resistant form of microorganisms, requiring either higher pressures or combination with other treatment s, such as moderately high temperatures (Hayakawa et al. 1994b; Takeo et al. 1994; Balasubramaniam 1999), modified atmosphere containing CO2 (Enomoto et al. 1997a; Enomot o et al. 1997b; Ballestra and Cuq 1998; Park et al. 2002; Corwin and Sh ellhammer 2002), lytic enzymes such as lysozyme (Lechowich 1993), freezing pre-tr eatment, and gamma i rradiation (Gould and Sale 1972). These factors would sensitize bact erial spores by induced germination, cellwall weakening, internal vital solute ex traction, and pH decrease (caused by carbonic

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12 dissociation in the case of CO2), consequently reducing pre ssure resistance. Inactivation of bacterial spores is of special interest for the sterilization of low-acid foods, as opposed to acid foods (fruit juices and jams, yogurt, and acidified meats) where the low pH would act as inhibitor for bacterial growth. Studies have shown that some food cons tituents and their interactions have a positive baro-protective effects on natural micr obial flora, as opposed to studies using buffer solutions or laboratory media containing pure cultures (Calik et al. 2002; Castellari et al. 2000; Ganzle et al. 2001). In other studi es, substances such as trehalose, sucrose, glucose, and sodium chloride caused enhanced synergistic protective effects; while others like glycerol, citrate salts, and sorbic acid weakened the pressure inactivation of microorganisms (Ogawa et al. 1990; Hayakawa et al. 1994a; Tauscher 1995; Earnshaw et al. 1995; Iwahashi et al. 1997; Pa lou et al. 1997a). There is also experimental evidence that pressure sterilization cond itions can be improved further when processing is done at low temperature, including sub-zero temper atures (Hashizume et al. 1995, 1996; Hayashi et al. 1998). Pulsed pressure treatment ha s also been used to increase microbial inactivation (Aleman et al. 1996; Itoh 1996; Hayakawa et al. 1997; Yuste 2001). At present, it is difficult to see why and how all these synergistic effects of pressure, temperature, and component interactions may enhance or weaken the pressure inactivation of microorganisms. We lack pr imary knowledge of how pressure influences physical and chemical prope rties of food systems and their constituents. Earnshaw (1995) suggests that these compound effects c ould be partially expl ained in terms of modification of dissociation properties under pressure, sin ce volume reduction of water causes strong perturbation of electron cl oud distribution around ionized molecules (a

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13 phenomenon known as electrostriction). As wa ter is much more densely packed around the ions than around the corresponding undisso ciated molecules, weak acids ionize, increasing the number of formal charges. So when charges are created, substantial volume contraction occurs due to solvation e ffects or electrostriction of water molecules around the ions as pressure favors the ionized form (Hui Bon Hoa et al. 1992). This has profound effects on water hydration and ioniza tion. One consequence is a significant shift in pH equilibrium during pressu rization. Accurate models relating to microorganisms or other transf ormations in food systems are yet to be developed (Smelt et al. 2002). In addition, indirect pH measur ements reveal discorda nce in the magnitude of pH shift due to pressure, and direct m easurement under pressure presents a number of technical problems that currently prevent this approach (Hayert et al. 1999). For accurate control of the treatment inte nsity required for the desired microbial reduction, numerical models of heat transfer can be used that must consider the pressure and temperature dependence of thermophysi cal properties of foods. End Effects of High Pressure on Foods and Food Components The effect of high-pressure processing on food itself is another area of interest and concern. High pressure may modify st ructure/functionality of proteins and alter enzyme activity; induce changes in phase transitions (e.g., reversibly increase the melting point of lipids, or decrease melting point of ice); and break down biomembranes. The behavior of food systems under the influence of high pressure is governed by Le Chateliers principle, which predicts that the application of pressure shifts equilibrium toward the state that occupies a smaller volume, hence favoring processes associated with negative changes of volume.

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14 Proteins and macromolecules As early as the beginning of the twentieth century, Bridgman (1914) reported that egg-white albumen coagulated under high pressure just as by the application of heat. However, de naturation of proteins is understood to be distinctly different to that induced by heat treatment. Pressure is thought to break up mainly the hydrophobic and electrostatic (i on pair and polar-gro up bond) interactions; and hence, at sufficiently high pressure ca uses the unfolding, either completely or partially, of the proteins (Hayakawa et al. 1996; Mozhaev et al. 1996b; Iametti et al. 1998; Smith et al. 2000). In contrast, heat i nduced denaturation causes the formation and destruction of covalent bonds potentially producing off-flavors. The type of protein gelling and cross-linking of starches that hi gh-pressure treatment induces may make the process unsuitable for some types of food a lthough these same properties may also be used to enhance products, such as seafood and meat products, or alter macromolecule functionality (Galazka et al. 1995; Douzals et al. 1996; Messens et al. 1997; Hinrichs and Kessler 1997; Fernandes et al. 1998; Hayashi et al. 1998; Stolt et al. 1999; Heremans et al. 1999; Saldo et al. 2000; Lullien-Pelleri n et al. 2001). The interplay between macromolecules and high pressure has also driven research into whether it can be used to tenderize/enhance meat/muscle by accelerating reactions of naturally occurring proteases, along with noticeably cooked appearance and ot her side effects (Ko et al. 1991; Ohshima et al. 1992; Ashie and Simpson 1996; Dumou lin et al. 1998; Ashie and Lanier 1999; Ashie et al. 1999; Hsu and Ko 2001). Apart fro m a food constituent, the study of proteins under the influence of high pressure has become widespread from a structural and functional point of view, since pressure is c onsidered as an elegant and clever way to disturb their conformational equilibrium without breaking covalent bonds (Isaacs 1981;

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15 Masson 1992; Gekko 1992; Dumay et al. 1994; Funtenberger et al. 1995; Heremans 1995; Paci and Marchi 1996; Kharakoz 1997; Smeller and Heremans 1997b, 1997c; Prehoda et al. 1998; Pares et al. 2000). Enzymes Food enzymes may catalyze deterior ative reactions with subsequent loss of quality attributes, such as color (e.g., browning in fruits, vegetables and mushrooms, caused by polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), appearance (e.g., cloud loss in citrus juice by pectinesterase), nutritional (e.g., destruction of essential fatty acids and production of free radicals by lipoxygenase) and sensory (e.g., flavor and texture changes in meat products by transglutaminase) The effect of high pressure on enzymes and enzyme activity is more complex in that they can be completely and irreversibly inactivated, completely and reversibly inactivated, partially and irreversibly inactivated, and, partially and reversibly inactivated, depending on the enzyme, source, substrate, and environmental conditions such as pressure, te mperature, pH, physico-chemistry, presence of salts, sugars (Kunugi 1992; Asaka et al 1994; Anese et al. 1995; Mozhaev et al. 1996a; Seyderhelm et al. 1996; Cano et al. 1997; Hendrickx et al. 1998; Weemaes et al. 1998b; Indrawati et al. 2000). Only at sufficien tly elevated pressure, or combined with moderate temperature, are enzymes completely and irreversibly inactivated. Pressure dependence of enzyme activity differs significantly not only in barostability but also in susceptibility to protective effects (Weemaes et al. 1997; Athes et al. 1998; Ludikhuyze et al. 1998a; Weemaes et al. 1999b; Van den Broeck et al. 1999; Lee and Park 2002). These combined and synergistic effects are not accurately accounted for without the understanding of how pressure influences physical and chemical properties of food systems and their constituents. Kinetics of pressure-temperature enzyme inactivation can

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16 often be described by first or der (traditional single step re action), two or more isozymes (differing in their pressure or thermal resistance following different reaction steps), sometimes identified as biphasic behavior (labile and stable fraction but still first order for each step), consecutive steps (succession of irreversible reaction steps), or fractional conversion models (Ludikhuyze et al. 1997; Goodner et al. 1998; Weemaes et al. 1998a; Ludikhuyze et al. 1998b; Ludikhuyze et al. 1999; Indrawati et al. 1999; Weemaes et al. 1999a; Van den Broeck et al. 2000; Stoforos et al. 2002). The latter model is used when a resistant fraction remains after an inactivation process. There are also situations where antagonistic effects of pressu re and/or temperature reveal food quality related problems. In these cases, the remaining enzyme activity is the limiting preservation factor which defines whether refrigeration or other combined preservation technique would be needed. Kinetic parameters describing the pressure and temperature dependence of inactivation rate and constant are of key importance for design and optimization of combined highpressure/temperature processing for food preservation. Phase transitions Application of high pressure re sults in reversible crystallization of certain triglycerides and elevation of th e melting point of lipids. For instance, chocolate tempering would be favored by expl oiting this effect (Yasuda and Mochizuki 1992). The transition temperature of the lipid s depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain as well as the degree of unsaturation, wher eas the rate of change with pressure is almost independent of the length. The freezing and melting point of water can be lowered with increasing pressure to a minimum of -22oC at 207.5 MPa, given that pressure opposes the increase in volume (by th e Le Chatellier principle) occurring on the formation of type I ice (regular ice) (B ridgman 1912). At about 900 MPa water may

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17 freeze at room temperature (20oC), forming ice VI with density of approximately 1,310 kg m-3 (Wagner et al. 1994). The occurrence of other ice polymorphs involves a similar or smaller increase in density relative to the liquid state which is governed by pressure and temperature conditions along with the water phase diagram. It is possible to obtain certain ice forms with the aid of nucleating agents specific to each form, such as ice III or ice IV (Knorr et al. 1998). It is also important to mention that the presence of solutes in food materials will result in a melting point depression. In addition, high pressure facilitates supercooling, and promotes uniform and rapid ice nucleation and growth throughout the sample upon pressure release, pr oducing smaller ice crystals, rather than a stress-inducing ice moving front in heat tran sfer driven freezing processes (Kalichevsky et al. 1995). The interplay between the vari ous phase diagram pathways and different pressure and temperature comb inations has motivated research on high pressure-assisted freezing and thawing of foods (Deuchi a nd Hayashi 1992; Fuchigami and Teramoto 1996; Denys et al. 1997; Schlueter et al. 1998; Rouille et al. 2002; Li and Sun 2002). Because of the large heat of crystallization released as ice is formed, freezing has a warming effect, and therefore additional coo ling of the sample would be required to enable complete freezing to occur. The opposite effect is expected during decompression, which in turn requires heat supply to prevent recrystallization during pressure-assisted thawing pro cesses (Kalichevsky et al. 1995). Faster freezing and thawing rates are anticipated with the use of high pressure, along with energy savings and quality improvement, especially regarding solid foods for minimal tissue damage and drip loss, although side effects that are di fficult to control on certain food components may be of concern (see previous paragraphs ) (Fuchigami et al. 1996; Hayashi et al. 1998;

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18 Zhao et al. 1998; Otero et al. 2000; FernandezMartin et al. 2000). Better exploitation of phase transitions in high-pressu re food processing requires mo re studies on the kinetics of ice nucleation, crystal size, distribution a nd growth, recrystalliza tion, and changes of thermodynamic properties during phase transitions. Thermodynamics of High Pressure Pressure primarily affects the volume of a system in such a manner that all matter, regardless of its thermodynamic state, suff ers a reduction of volume upon application of pressure, even though the effect is much grea ter for gases than it is for condensed matter, liquids and solids (Bridgman 1931). Expr essing this change in volume using thermodynamic notation produces 0 < P V [2-1] Compressibility The amount of contraction is governed by the compressibility, which is dependent on the intermolecular forces acting within the substance, that is, it is the result of the balance between attractive and repulsive poten tials (Isaacs 1981). Compression results in decreasing the average intermolecular distance and reducing rotational and translational motion. Compressibility, an intrinsic physic al property of the material defined by Equation 2-2, decreases from gases (order of magnitude 10-5 10-6 Pa-1) to liquids (10-6 10-10 Pa-1) with the greatest variability, to solids (10-10 10-12 Pa-1). = r P P V Vn n 1 1 [2-2] Compressibility of liquids decreases with pressure, since the initial free volume has largely disappeared, and the repulsive potential is stronger than the attractive at high

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19 pressures. For most liquids compressibility increases with temperature given that thermal expansion increases the internuclear distances (increase in free volume). Once more, water is an exception and its isothermal compressibility decreases with temperature passing through a minimum around 46oC (Kell 1974). Adiabatic Thermal Pressure Coefficient Upon compression of a liquid, heat is e volved due to the work of compression against repulsive intermolecular forces. Once a substance experiences a positive thermal expansion, this temperature rise increas es the volume and affects the value of compressibility. Therefore, compressibility can be obtained either isothermally T or isentropically S, i.e. reversibly and adiabatically. The magnitude of this temperature rise is given by the adiabatic th ermal pressure coefficient (Rowlinson and Swinton 1981). Since the process is reversible and isentropic, it follows that: S ST P r [2-3] Expanding the expression above, since chan ge in entropy with temperature are related to heat capacity, and applying Ma xwells equation (see appendix A for details) and the definition of volumetric thermal coeffi cient, Equation 2-4 is obtained. Thus, by knowing the amount of compression, isobaric h eat capacity and thermal expansion as a function of pressure and temper ature, it is possible to quantify the adiabatic heating from a given starting temperature. This temperature rise is accompanied by a dissipation of heat within and through the pressure ve ssel, which is depende nt on the rate of compression, vessel size, initial and boundary conditions, and h eat transfer parameters.

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20 V T C P S T SP T P S = = [2-4] Isobaric Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient Equations 2-5 and 2-6 below represent the de finitions of the isobaric heat capacity and the coefficient of thermal expansion. P PT H C r [2-5] P PT T V V = rn n 1 1 [2-6] The pressure dependence of the isobaric he at capacity can be derived from basic thermodynamic relationships, differentiation ru les, and the definition of isobaric heat capacity; the end result is given by the fo llowing expression (see derivation on Appendix A), which can be further combined with th e definition of the coefficient of thermal expansion (Equation 2-6). + = = P P T PT T T V T P C n2 2 2 [2-7] The change of isobaric thermal expansion coefficient with pressure is the complement of the change of isothermal coefficient of compressibility with respect to temperature, and then Equation 2-8 is found (see derivation in Appendix A). P T TT P = [2-8] The complex variation of the pressure depe ndence of isobaric heat capacity is not easily interpreted in terms of physical changes in the liquid, where specific interactions

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21 may occur depending on the nature of the liqui d. For some organic liquids, specific heat capacity shows a decrease with pressure up to 200-300 MPa, and beyond this point it behaves erratically; water also behaves irre gularly (Isaacs 1981). Thermal expansion of liquids usually decreases with pressure, water below 40oC being an exception besides a very anomalous behavior in the pressu re range from atmospheric to 1,000 MPa (Bridgman 1931). The relationship between isentropic and isothermal compressibility is given by Equation 2-9; the derivation can be found in appendix A. Upon adiabatic compression, the temperature rises and the volume change for unit pressure increases, consequently the compressibility is less than that under isothermal condition. + =n P S TC T2 [2-9] Speed of Sound A key thermodynamic property for the present study is the speed of sound, which is linked to isentropic compressibility and density (or specific volume) by means of the Newton-Laplace1 Equation 2-10. Therefore, a numb er of thermodynamic functions can be derived by measuring the speed of sound ov er a range of pressures and temperatures, since it is a simple function of the derivative of density over pressure and, also the second derivative of the free energy over pressure. By measuring u(P,T), one can obtain (P,T), V(P,T), which allows calculation of any thermodynamic function. 1 Newton-Laplace equation This equation is also called the Wood equation since he first demonstrated in 1941 the independence of the sound velocity to frequency for homogeneous liquid and gases, while others just called it the Laplace equation (Povey 1997). The former is preferred in this text simply because they were the first to describe it (Newton 1686) and to show the adiabatic nature (Laplace 1816) of the relationship between sound velocity and density / compressibility.

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22 n nS S SV P V P u 12 2= = r [2-10] The study of sound waves and their propaga tion, and its prospective applications in food science and technology is still not well acknowledged, desp ite the effort of several scientists (Povey and McClements 1988; Povey 1989; Povey 1997; McClements 1997; Povey and Mason 1998). What has directed the present research on this subject is not the theory of sound propagation itself but the thermodynamic properties that can be derived from sound velocity and their interpretation. It should be emphasized that Equation 2-10 defines the speed of sound in terms of isentropic properties, although Newton (1686) in his classical analysis did not distinguish between isothermal and isentropic compressibility. The assertion that the propagation of sound waves was adiabatic (owed to the sma ll thermal dissipation) and reversible was made by Laplace (1816) more than one centur y later. Propagation of sound requires an elastic medium, so that a longitudinal or compression (contrasting to shear or surface waves) sound wave traveling through a fluid produces a series of compressions and rarefactions. Consequently, planes of mol ecules perpendicular to the direction of the sound waves are cyclically displaced (although there is no net moveme nt). The particle displacement, or pressure perturbation, depends upon position and time, which can be equated by means of the ma ss and momentum conservation laws of fluid mechanics yielding the so-called wave equation, expr essed below in terms of a one-dimensional, homogeneous, isotropic, non-dispersive propagation (Dowling and Ffwocs-Williams 1983). = 2 2 2 2 21 t u xb b [2-11]

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23 The solution for the wave equation include s a real and a complex part of waves propagating in the positive direction away from the origin and also in the negative direction. Pressure disturban ce or particle displacement as a result of the propagation of a sound wave reveals fundamental properties of the propagation of sound, either in terms of its energy content or in terms of the pressure or amplitude (Dowling and FfwocsWilliams 1983). The basic parameters of a continuous wave include the wavelength and the period of a complete cycle. The number of cycles completed in one second is called frequency and is measured in Hertz. The relation be tween sound velocity, frequency, wavelength and period in a continuous wave is given by the following equation. T u f u = = [2-12] The acoustic spectrum breaks down sound in to 3 ranges of frequencies, subsonic (< 20 Hz), audible (20 Hz to 20 kHz), and ultrasonic range (> 20 kHz). The ultrasonic range is then broken down further into 3 s ubsections (low frequency/airborne/high power, conventional/industrial, a nd high frequency/acoustic microsco py ranges). It is a common practice to express sound velocity in terms of the acoustic impedance Z of the medium, a characteristic property, which may give the i ntensity of the wave propagating through a given medium, expressed as the product of density and sound velocity (Povey 1997). The wave vector k that appears in Equation 2-13 is re lated to the angular frequency and speed of sound. k k f u Z = = = t n n n2 [2-13]

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24 A piezoelectric2 transducer, which converts an el ectric pulse into a sound wave, is needed to generate and detect ultrasonic vibr ations. The sound field of a transducer is divided into two zones; the near field and th e far field (O'Donnell et al. 1981). The near field is the region directly in front of the transducer where the echo amplitude goes through a series of maxima a nd minima and ends at the last maximum. The location of the last maximum is known as the near field distance and is the natural focus of the transducer. The far field is the area beyond th e natural focus of the transducer where the sound field pressure gradually drops to zero. Because of the variations within the near field it can be difficult to accurately evaluate the signal using amplitude based techniques. The near field distance is a function of the transducer frequency, element diameter, and the sound velocity of the propagation medi um. There are a number of sound field parameters that are useful in describing the characteristics of a transducer. In addition to the near field, knowledge of th e beam width and focal zone may be necessary in order to determine whether a particular transducer is appropriate for a given application. A transducers sensitivity is affected by the beam diameter at the point of interest. All ultrasonic beams diverge, or in other words, all transducers have beam spread. In the near field, the beam has a complex shape that narrows, while in the far field the beam diverges. Beam spread from a transducer can be reduced by selecting a transducer with a higher frequency or a larger element diameter or both. However, the smaller the beam diameter, the greater the am ount of energy reflected back when using pulse-echo techniques. 2 Piezoelectricity The prefix piezo is a Greek word for pressure. The piezoelectricity phenomenon, first discovered in 1880, is the direct result of applying a mechanical stress to most crystalline materials that brings about the appearance of electric charges or inversely strains are generated in certain faces of the crystal due to the application of an electrical field (Beyer and Letcher 1969).

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25 Finally, ultrasound attenuates as it progresses through a medium. Assuming no major reflections, there are three causes of attenuation: diffraction, scattering and absorption. The amount of attenuation through a material can play an important role in the selection of a transducer for a given app lication. In many liquids, the velocity of ultrasound is a function of frequency, and the li quid is said to be dispersive. If any dispersion occurs it will introduce a systema tic error into the velocity measurement (Povey 1997). An important distinction should be made between the use of sound propagation for material characterization, wh ich requires low-intensity (usually pulsed waves) ultrasound, and the use of high-power (> 10 kW m-2, < 100 Hz continuous wave) ultrasound for promoting physical and chemic al transformations (e.g., sonochemistry), since they involve different techniques and physical prin ciples, in spite of some similarities. Besides density/compressibility relations, there are a number of applications of low-power ultrasonics in foods taking advantage of its non-invasive, non-destructive and opaqueness-applicability nature, going from quality control (e.g., meat-fat inspection, egg-white quality and shell thickness, fruit ri peness); composition, concentration, and solids content determination; emulsions, disper sions, and particle size characterizations; to the processing plant fluid level and flow measurements, and extraneous matter detection (McClements 1997). Thermodynamics of Solutions So far we have treated all thermodynamic quantities as of those regarding pure substances. These expressions hold for so lutions since the extensive thermodynamic properties of a pure substance are determined by pressure, temperature and its amount; and its intensive properties by pressure a nd temperature alone; while for a solution, pressure, temperature, and the amount of each constituent define its extensive properties;

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26 and its intensive properties by pressure, temperature and composition. The question arises as how to separate the composite effect resulting from the combination of different substances as in a real food system, which very often is much more complex than just a solution (homogeneous single phase mixture). Most foods can be seen as dispersions (suspensions, emulsions, foams, colloids, gel, etc) of a dispersed phase (gas, liquid or solid) into a continuous phase, usually liquid, which, besides soluble components, may or may not contain insoluble components or me mbranes (Walstra 1996). We shall limit our discussion to homogeneous liquid solutions by which many food systems can be approximated (fruit juices, beverages and drinks, milk, liquid egg, etc.). What has driven studies dealing with thermodynamic propertie s of composite materials (or mixtures of pure substances) is either the simple departure from ideality due to mixing, the original matrix of the studied substances and its significance, or a specific application for the required property (Blandamer 1973; Franks and Reid 1973; Millero 1971; Millero 1980; Hoiland 1986). For instance, the study of prot eins in aqueous solutions by means of ultrasonic data is strongly based on the ther modynamics of hydration and its role in modulating structural stability and functiona l activity, which predominantly depends on the solute-solvent interactions, which in tu rn can be studied through some sort of apparent or partial thermo dynamic expression of deri ved properties of solution components (Gekko and Hasegawa 1986; Kh arakoz 1991; Gekko and Yamagami 1991; Kharakoz and Sarvazyan 1993; Chalikian et al. 1995; Chalikian and Breslauer 1996; Kharakoz 1997; Soto et al. 1998; Prehoda et al. 1998). There is a thermodynamic relationshi p between the speed of sound and the inverse of the square root of the product of density and compressibility given by the

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27 Newton-Laplace equation. The compressibility of a fluid is equal to the isothermal or isentropic pressure derivative of volume and, consequently, is a second derivative with respect to pressure of the Gibbs function as for Equation A.10 (refer to Appendix A). Since compressibility, like specific volume (or density), is determined by the composite effect of intraand intermolecular interactions, its value can be used to gain insight into these interactions (Sarvazyan 1991; Chalikian et al. 1994). It is well known that aqueous solutions of electrolyte and non-electrolyte so lutes do not behave ideally at atmospheric pressure since there is considerable interaction, and there is no reason to expect regular behavior of such solutions under elevated pr essures. When studying solute-solvent interactions it is convenient to deal not only with the overall compressibility of a solution, but rather with the apparent molar, partial molar, apparent specific, or partial specific compressibility of the solution constituents. For an aqueous solution, the apparent compressibility of a solute is determined by interatomic interactions within the solute molecule itself (intrinsic compressibility of a molecule), solute-solute interactions, and solute-solvent interactions (hydration) (Sarvazyan 1991) A substantial number of compressibility studies of mixtures of non-a queous systems can be found in the literature (Kiyohara et al. 1974; Kortbeek et al. 1988; Zhang et al. 1992; Nath 1998). The general aim has been to use the composition depe ndence of the apparent or partial (and sometimes excess as will be seen shortly) quantities as a means to understand the nature of the molecular scale processes within those mixtures, even without applying pressure to the system and simply looking into the properties derived from Newton-Laplace equation, since temperature also induces volume changes.

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28 For a binary solution prepared using ni moles of solute and nj moles of solvent, the volume of each component is treated as a partial molar property, rather than the volumes occupied by the separate component s at the same temperature and pressure before mixing, as follows (Sage 1965). jn P T i in V V, = [2-14] Hence, for compression of liquid mixtur es or solutions, the partial molar compressibility, since it involves volume, of each component can be expressed in terms of its partial molar volume by introducing the definition above into the thermodynamic definition of compressibility given by Equation 2-2; it follows for a given composition at constant temperature, T i i i TP V V = 1, [2-15] Partial molar properties are intensiv e properties which depend only on the pressure, temperature, and compositi on of the mixture. Thus if (ni + nj) moles of two substances are mixed, then the total volume is given by Equation 2-16, which holds either for number of moles or mo le fraction (Van Ness 1964). j j i i j j i iV x V x V n V n V + = + = [2-16] The isothermal coefficient of compressibility for a binary solution can be expressed as a combination of the vol ume fraction weighted partial molar compressibilities of the components (Moriyos hi and Inubushi 1977; Nakagawa et al. 1981), j T j i T i T , + = [2-17]

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29 This follows from the fact that the par tial molar volumes of each component are functions only of the relative composition of the mixture and not of its total amount. It is seen, therefore, that the partial molar properties of a system provide how much of an extensive property is to be ascribed to each component. However, partial molar volumes cannot be immediately calculat ed from the measured densit y (or specific volume) of the solution because both depend on the solution concentration. An alternative form of Equation 2-16 defines solution volume in terms of the apparent molar volume Vj app, according to Equation 2-18 (Blandamer 1998). app j j o i iV n V n V + = [2-18] The first term of the right hand side of Equation 2-18 is associated with the molar volume of the pure component (sol vent), as denoted by the superscript o. Similarly, Gucker (1933) defines an apparent molar co mpression (change of apparent molar volume with pressure) of a solute by the difference between the product of the measured compressibility of the solution and solution volume, and that of the solvent as expressed by Equation 2-19. o i o i app jV V P V = [2-19] Partial and apparent molar volumes are re lated by Equation 2-20. Apparent and partial molar thermodynamic properties are similar but only become identical at the limit of infinite dilution (Blandamer et al. 2001). P T j app j j i app j jx V x x V V, + = (2.20)

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30 Apparent molar volume is usually calculat ed using the density of the pure solvent and the density of the solution at the same pressure and temperature together with the composition of the solution, i.e. the solute concentration being known. It is not uncommon to express the apparent molar volum e for dilute solutions, containing neutral solutes as well as electrolyte solutes, by a linear function of the concentration, and using the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution (where solute-solute interactions vanish) as equal to the limiting partial molar volume of the solute (Hoiland and Holvik 1978; Reis 1998; Blandamer et al. 2001). In this cont ext, one approach assumes that the limiting partial molar volume of the solute is given by the sum of two contributions, the intrinsic volume of the solute, which will reflect the size of the solute molecule, and the volume of the co-sphere3, representing the solute-solvent in teractions (in case of aqueous solutions, hydration). Paljk et al. (1990), studying volumetric pr operties of aqueous solutions of simple sugars at atmospheri c pressure, found that the empty volume associated with the solute molecule was small and roughly the same as the empty volume associated with this molecule in the solid state. An alternative approach is the interpretation of volumetric properties of solutions or liquid mixtures in terms of departures from their ideal values, defined by excess functions. Excess thermodynamic quantities are usually obtained using the general Equation 2-21 for any particular molar thermodynamic property Q. id EQ Q Q = [2-21] This procedure implies prior knowledge or subsequent determination of the ideal quantity for the solution of the same composition as the reference state. To illustrate this, 3 Co-sphere concept : The general rule is as follows: Two solutes will attract each other if their structural influences, or their tendencies to orient water molecules, are compatible with each other; conversely, an incompatibility in these structural influences or tendencies will result in repulsive forces (Millero 1971).

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31 the case for the coefficient of compressibility is chosen since it is probably the most important property in view of the present re search and because different criteria and approaches have been used for calculating excess compressibilities in preceding works. According to Equations 2-2 and 2-21, Douh eret et al. (1985) suggested that the excess isentropic compressibility would be expressed as idS id id S id S S E SP V V P V V + = =1 1 [2-22] The ideal solution volume as well as ideal solution density is calculated using volumeand mole-fraction averaging, respec tively, of the pure component properties. The volume fraction is the mole fraction we ighted ratio of the volume of the pure component to the ideal solution volume. Hen ce, for a binary ideal system, the following set of equations in molar basis applies: o j j o i i idV x V x V + = [2-23] o j j o i i idn n n+ = [2-24] id o j i j i j i V V xor or or = [2-25] Prigogine (1957) equated excess compressi bility by Equation 2-26. It may be added that the condition of the process was not stated, althou gh later work by Prigogine (1965) explicitly referred to isothermal compressi bility. It can be seen that the previous rigorous thermodynamic expression (2.22) cannot be reduced to this si ngle term relation. T E T id T E TP V V P V V P V V = + =1 1 1 [2-26] By defining an excess volume compressibility implicitly in terms of excess volume, and then by expanding in Taylor se ries with only the first order term, Moelwyn-

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32 Hughes and Thorpe (1964) arrived at the following expression for the excess compressibility, taken to be valid for both isot hermal and isentropic conditions. Note that this relation has been adapted from its original form as to have the same notation used here. + =T id id T E E id E E TP V V P V V V V1 1 [2-27] Missen (1969) proposed a more rigorous thermodynamic expression for the isothermal excess compressibility by formulating the appropriated ideal mixing rule as expressed by Equations 2-19 to 2-21; resulting in the following expression, + =id T E T E E TV P V V 1 [2-28] Similarly, ultrasonic speeds in ideal binary solutions require the ideal isentropic compressibility, in this case using the term deviation (from the ideal value), which is preferable as opposed to excess ultrasonic speed (Douheret and Davis 1993). A number of thermodynamic-based attempts have been made to evaluate ultrasonic speed in a binary system. These proposals differ in comp lexity starting with so me sort of simple weighted average of the ultrasonic speed or density of the pure components, or by considering an intuitive model for the pa ssage of a sound wave through unmixed component layers, to more elaborate ones that take into account the ideal mixing rule (Douheret et al. 2001). It is clear though, that the use of inexact relationships may lead to discrepancies in the calculation of excess compressibilities as well as with other excess thermodynamic quantities. Douheret et al. (2001) pointed out that it is important to examine the consequences of changes in volumetric proper ties during the process of mixing and thus

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33 separating isentropic or isothermal cond itions as one goes from individual pure components to real and ideal solutions. What is desirable in this context is to define a reference state for a solution so that we may correlate the deviation of all thermodynamic quantities of real solution from those of a common model. One may define the reference state by generating a thermodynamically consis tent set of mixing rules. The choice of solution model is not as important as the in ternal consistency, so that real solution behavior relative to one acceptable model may be translated to give deviations from any other existing or future model. Equilibrium and Rate Processes Pressure effects on kinetics of reactions are not intentionally covered in this review. Nonetheless, a few concepts on the principles are given because kinetic parameters are affected by or in some cases can be derived from the properties being investigated in the present research. The same Le Chateliers principle governs reaction kinetics: a reaction associated with decrease in volume is favored by pressure and viceversa (Tauscher 1995). The pressure-dependenc e of the equilibrium constant of a given reaction can be derived from the difference in partial molar volumes of products and those of reactants at consta nt temperature in the form of Equation 2-29 (Butz and Tauscher 1998). Hence, reaction volumes can be determined provide d the density of all components involved is known. T TP K RT P G V = = ln [2-29] Pressure effects on the rate of a given elementary reaction is described by the thermodynamic concept of the transition state, which states that a reaction proceeds by a smooth and gradual rearrangement of molecules between those of reactants to those of

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34 products (Isaacs 1981). The energy of the system increases initially to a maximum before falling to that of products. This maximum corresponds to an intermediate known as the activation complex or transition state. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be the rate at which the transition state is convert ed to products, and its pressure-dependence may be derived from the differences in pa rtial molar volumes between reactants and transition state, known as the activation volume, given by, T TP k RT P G V = = ln [2-30] Since volumes of reactants and transition st ates change with pressure and there is no reason for them to have similar compressibilities, besides being temperature dependent, the activation volum e is pressure dependent as well. Usually activation volumes are derived from the slope of the logari thm plot of the ratio of reaction rates at different pressures versus pressu re (Cheftel 1992). High pressu re has long been used as a means to accelerate conversion rates of ch emical reactions; though depending on the mechanism a reaction velocity may be also retarded by pressure. As for the expressions given for the pressure-dependence on equilibrium constant K and reaction rate k, a rise in pressure from atmospheric to 100 MPa for a reaction with V of -16 ml mol-1 would lead to almost twofold increase in K; and a reaction with V of -16 ml mol-1, the same pressure increase results in a twofold increase of the reaction rate (Mozhaev et al. 1994). Extensive reviews on activation and reacti on volume for thousands of organic and inorganic reactions are given in a series of three papers (Asano and Le Noble 1978; Van Eldik et al. 1989; Drljaca et al. 1998), some of which may be applied for reactions occurring in food systems under the influence of high pressure.

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35 Methods of Measuring Thermodyna mic Properties at High Pressure Reports of development of in situ measurement techniques under pressure are almost nonexistent in the food science literature. Nevertheless, a heat source probe was developed to successfully me asure thermal conductivity of food materials under pressure (Denys & Hendrickx, 1999)4. In general, the thermal conductivity increases for ordinary liquids under a pressure of 1,200 MPa by a factor varying between 2 and 3 (Bridgman 1931). The effect on water is smaller; at 1,200 MPa the increase is only about 50 per cent. A remarkable link between this study and the present exists, since there is a close connection between the effect of pressure on thermal conductivity of normal liquids and the effect of pressure on the velocity of sound in the liquid (Isaacs 1981). That is, thermal conductivity in a liquid is primarily a mechanical process; heat is transferred by microscopic mechanical waves tr aveling with the velocity de termined in the conventional way by the compressibility. Shimada et al. (1996) developed a hot-wire probe to measure gel-setting and gel-melting temperatures of aqueous gelatin and agar solutions for assessing gelation and sol-gel behavior of proteins and polysaccharides under pressurized conditions. Measurements of pH under pressu re have been proposed by indirect means such as measuring emf, density and conductiv ity, optical density of indicators, and spectrofluorometry (Hayert et al. 1999). A lthough not restricted to non food systems, diamond anvil cell in combination with Four ier transform infra-red, Raman spectroscopy or NMR has been used for in situ observation of biomacromolecules (Gekko 1992; Taniguchi and Takeda 1992; Heremans 1995; Yamagushi et al. 1996; Heremans et al. 1996; Van Riel et al. 1997; Vermeulen a nd Heremans 1997; Smeller and Heremans 4 Thermal conductivity at high pressure Another probe for thermal conductivity measurement of foods under pressure was developed by Shariary et al. (2000), tho ugh the maximum pressure achieved in this case was only 10 MP, therefore the technique and results are applicable for processes at low pressures.

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36 1997a; Snauwaert et al. 1998). Most of these methods were only feasible because of the very small sample size in the L-range, and the presence of an optical window (typically sapphire). Therefore, the majority of the re search studies reviewed in this matter were dedicated to non food systems, and in partic ular those devoted to density (or specific volume), compressibility, and speed of sound me asurements. A distinction must be made between compression and compressibility in order to recognize that there are different techniques for each one, even though they are interdependent by way of Equation 2-2. The first can be seen as the change in volume as a result of application of pressure, and the second expresses how compressible a given material is. Because of this, these two properties, namely density (or specific volum e) and compressibility, were grouped to be reviewed co-dependently. Density or Specific Volume and Compressibility Measurements It is natural to think of volume compressi on as the simplest and most fundamental of all the effects of hydrostatic pressure, and for that reason it will be discussed first. It is not, however, the simplest to measure experimentally, because the measurements immediately obtained are relative to the vesse l, which is itself distorted. Elaborate procedures may be necessary to eliminate the effect of such distortion. Another complication in dealing with compressibility is that upon compression of a liquid, heat is evolved due to the work of compression, and this temperature rise increases the volume and affects the value of the coefficient of compressibility, which is also temperature dependent. Therefore, either the experiment is performed at c onstant (equilibrium) temperature to obtain the isot hermal compressibility, or the volume change produced by a sudden compression or expansion is measured at constant entrop y and the adiabatic-

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37 reversible compressibility is obtained. The isothermal condition is frequently sought in view of the methods described in this sequence, however, this mode is usually difficult to maintain, and early experimental estimates of compressions and compressibilities were often between the isentropic and isot hermal values (Douheret et al. 2001). One experimental approach to evaluate compressibility/density of liquids consists in measuring volume changes as a function of pressure. Various methods have been devised for this; length-measuring technique s such as piezometer (Diaz-Pena and McGlashan 1959; Millero et al. 1969; Mille t and Jenner 1970; Millero et al. 1974; Tanaka et al. 1977), piston-displacement method (Bridgman 1931; Levelt-Sengers 1965), syphon-bellows (Hayward 1971b), and hydromet er (Goldman 1958; Dymond et al. 1979; Dymond et al. 1982). Very often, these devices contain the test flui d inside a flexible surface (which can be a meniscus of an immiscible fluid of known density/compressibility), the volumetric deformation of which can be observed and related to the change in fluid density. Problems encountered with these techniques include the fact that the test fluid is cont ained within a sample volume whose magnitude is both vital to the measurement and depende nt on pressure in a manner not always readily predicted or reproducible. Another experimental approach makes direct measurement of density under pressure. Some of the techniques include oscillating U-tube densimeter5 (Malhotra et al. 1990; Malhotra and Woolf 1993; Chang and Mo ldover 1996), by means of measuring the resonant frequency, proporti onal to the mass/density, of a nominally-fixed volume tube; hydrostatic balance (Machado a nd Streett 1983; Lainez et al. 1987), which uses a directweighting apparatus; and vibrating wire (Dix et al. 1991) based on the relationship 5 Densimeter : This instrument is also referred to as densitometer or density meter.

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38 between the density of the fluid surrounding a magnetically-driven vibrating wire and the fluid motion around it. The same principle was applied by Bett et al. (1989) in the design of a vibrating-rod densimeter. In some of these methods, a negative aspect that has been mentioned is the partially in elastic deformation of the vol ume under the influence of an internal pressure that must be treated, and this is not an easy task. Most of these techniques described a bove are very difficult to implement, especially at higher pressures, and very dependent on the pressure-generating equipment design. For example, some are invasive or need an optical window, and for these reasons not always feasible. Some of them are onl y possible at low pressures, below 100 MPa. Because of these difficulties accurate experime nts are tedious and the literature on this subject is full of contradictory and low preci sion data (Hayward 1971a; Bett et al. 1989). Finding discrepancies of 5 to 10% is quite common between results on the same substance at the same conditions by different researchers, and may be as large as 20 to 30%. Anisotropic distortion of the measurement apparatus and air entrapment has been reported as the main sources of error. Sound Velocity Measurement An alternative approach, a non-invasive technique, inhere ntly capable of yielding higher accuracy, is to measure compressibility/density and their pressure-dependence by acoustic methods (Van Dael and Van Itte rbeek 1965). Newton-Laplace Equation 2-10 provides the basis for the experimental determination of isentropic compressibilities of solutions and liquid mixtures. However, the velocity of sound data obtained as such at high pressures must be combined with de nsity, isobaric heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data obtai ned at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature in order to compute the values of density and compressibility as a function of pressure

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39 and temperature by means of a thermody namic approach coupled with numerical techniques similar to that proposed by Da vis and Gordon (1967). Other significant thermodynamic properties can be deri ved from acoustic data as well. Sound velocity is measured using longit udinal or compression plane waves. Due to thermo-viscous losses in liquids, sonic me thods are only effective in the low frequency range (usually 1 to 10 MHz), because the attenuation coefficient varies with the square of the frequency (Kinsler and Frey 1962; Bernas coni 1986). In this context, no special attention will be paid to the absorption of sound. Sound velocity measurement involves generation of ultrasonic vibration, propagati on through the fluid sample, and detection either as a function of distance traveled, or by change in line widths (Breazeale and Cantrell Jr. 1981). A piezoelectric transducer generates and detects u ltrasonic vibrations. An ultrasonic transducer is made up of an active element, a piezoelectric or single crystal material which converts electrical energy to ultrasonic energy; a backing, a highly attenuated and very dens e material to control the vibration and absorbing the energy that radiates from the back of the piezoelectric element; and a wear plate to protect and to serve as an acoustic transformer between the piezoelectric element and the material under investigation (O'Donnell et al. 1981). By vary ing the backing material in order to vary the difference in impedance between the backing material and that of the piezoelectric element, different resolutions and sensitivities may be achieved. Because of the high characteristic acoustic impedance of liquids compared to air, the vibrating elements of transducers designed for liquids must be capable of producing large forces at small displacements to match the impedance of th e liquid efficiently (Van Itterbeek 1965). Commonly used transducers are made of quartz crystals (X-cut discs), inorganic crystals

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40 (such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate), ceramic ma terials (e.g., barium titanate), and polymers (usually referred to as PVDF or polyvinylidene fluoride) (O'Donnell et al. 1981). The latter carries certain interesting a dvantages such as short pulse duration and efficient transfer of energy from the transducer to water-like liquids due to the close impedance match between the polymer elemen t and the liquid (Beyer and Letcher 1969). The choice of a piezoelectric material is ultimately dictated by the specific application. In general, ceramics exhibit higher electromechanical coupling factors and lower mechanical Q-factor6 (i.e. higher mechanical losses) than crystalline piezoelements. Consequently, crystalline elements are frequently used in narrowband applications, that requires low ultrasonic losses in the transducer compared to the specimen and weakly coupled piezoelement (e.g., for mechanical properties measurements of the specimen), whereas ceramics are commonly used in broadband applications, which in turn requires high el ectromechanical convers ion efficiencies to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios, a nd short-duration pulses to meet satisfactory time-domain resolution (e.g., imaging and quantitative measurements of velocity and attenuation over a wide range of fr equencies) (O'Donnell et al. 1981). The experimental techniques used in velocity of sound measurements are the variable path length interferometry, the optic al diffraction, and the pulse methods. The latter is considered more suitable for hi gh-pressure measurements (Wilson 1959; Van Dael and Van Itterbeek 1965; Davis and Gordon 1967; Bobik 1978; Daridon 1994). The interferometer method is based upon the detection of the periodi c impedance variations of 6 Q-factor represents the mechanical resonance of the piezoelement. Transducers constructed for optimal impulse response usually consist of piezoelectric cer amics that are mechanically backed by high-loss materials exhibiting mechanical impedances approxim ately equal to that of the piezoelement. This approach yields broad bandwidth and a compact impulse response, but at the expense of sensitivity, which then requires electrical tuning for co mpensation (O'Donnell et al. 1981).

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41 vibrating piezoelement, when a reflector, pa rallel to the source, moves in a direction perpendicular to the crystal (Parbrook 1953). At high pressures there are important inconveniences inherent to the construction of this type of apparatus, and volume and pressure changes that accompany the displacement of the reflector and difficult tightening are some of the disadvantages. In the optical diffraction technique, a beam of monochromatic light passes perp endicularly through a sound wave traveling in a fluid; by the diffraction effect of light, the grating constant equals the ultrasonic wavelength (Nozdrev 1963). However, this techni que also requires an optical window. Pulse methods seem to be most suitable for the investigation attempted in this study. This method was first implemente d by Firestone and Frederick (1946) for detection of flaws in meta ls, followed by Lazarus (1949) benefited by the wartime development of pulsed circuits, who a few year s later, adapted its use in high-pressure environments to measure elastic properties of solid crystals. The measuring cell can be kept so small that high pressures present no major difficulties as far as the mechanical design is concerned. Further advantages are: no movable parts in the cell, a quasicontinuous reading of the sound velocity (o r other proportional output parameter), and a very low scattering level, mainly because fluc tuations in temperatur e and pressure can be avoided more easily than with the preceding techniques (Van Dael and Van Itterbeek 1965; Heydemann 1971). A number of pulse technique variations have been reported in the literature7, all of which are variations or combinations of the ones discussed: pul se-echo, sing-around, pulse superposition, gated double-pulse super position, echo-overlap, pulse-interferometer 7 Cited literature on pulse techniques Most of the literature cited in the sequence refers to pulse methods that were adapted to the high-pressure environment, while others were simply variations of the method.

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42 (or acoustic resonator), and long pulse buffer rod method (McSkimin 1957; Davis and Gordon 1967; Papadakis 1967; Pa padakis et al. 1972; Eggers and Funck 1973; Bobik 1978; Sarvazyan 1982; Muringer et al. 1985; Ta kagi and Teranishi 1986; Lainez et al. 1987; McClements and Fairley 1991; Eggers 1992; Daridon 1994; Horvath-Szabo et al. 1994). In the basic pulse-echo method, a pulsed radio frequency signal (s-s duration) of given frequency (usually 0.1-100 MHz, but can go up to 5-10 GHz) is converted into a pulsed ultrasonic wave by piezoelectric effect of the transducer, travels through the sample, is reflected between the sample boundaries successive ly, it develops a pulse-echo decay pattern with a small pulse length compared to a round trip transit time. The velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation is de termined by measuring transit time between the reflected pulses and the corresponding pulse propagation distance in a sample. In the case of acoustic resonators (inter ferometer), the sound velocity is obtained by measuring the pulse repetition frequency for standing wave formation at which maximum constructive interference occurs. Typically, the electrical signals are amplified, filtered and displayed on an oscilloscope, analyzed, digitized, and processed. The electronic procedure to measure the transit time between pulses, usually in the range of microseconds varies according to the sp ecific method, such as a variable time delay/expanded sweep, repetiti on rate of a continuous su ccession of pulses, and a frequency counter. Design vari ations using one transducer (acting as emitter/receiver) and one reflector or two reflect ors (Sun et al. 1987), or two transducers have also been reported (Eggers and Kaatze 1996).

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43 Objectives The purpose of this study was to devel op procedures and instrumentation to conduct experiments for measurements of s ound velocity in food-based model liquid solutions during the pressurization process in an isostatic high-pressure unit, as well the subsequent approach to analyze and interpret ultrasonic data and deri ved properties. This study seeks to determine pressure dependence of thermodynamic expressions for specific volume (or density) and isentropic and isothermal compressibility of model binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citr ic acid, and the effects of temperature and concentration near ambient temperatures. The interaction between solute molecules and water in solution were interpreted in terms of partial molar properties and the appropriate mixing scheme. In addition, other relevant thermodynamic properties were also derived as a function of pressure, temperature and con centration. Mathematical expressions were proposed for predictive or numerical app lication purposes by fitting data to the appropriate model.

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44 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS The sound velocity measurement technique through a fluid sample under high pressure using the pulse-echo ultrasonic me thod was considered as the appropriate method to determine pressure-dependence of density and compressibility of model liquid solutions and the effects of the components. Figure 3-1 illustrate s a schematic of the entire experimental setup. The approach to the proposed research work followed the methodology described below. The pressure generating equipment used to perform highpressure experiments is descri bed as well. Accordingly, since measurements of density and heat capacity at atmos pheric pressure were needed, the methodologies to perform these experiments are also described. Pressure-Generating System The high-pressure equipment consisted of a Stansted laboratory scale unit (Stansted Fluid Power, Stansted, Essex, UK) with a pressurization chamber of 114-mm diameter and 243-mm height, providing a usab le volume of approximately 2,480 ml. The pressure containment comprised a triplex pressure barrel havi ng stainless steel inner liner, top and bottom flanged end caps that delimit the working chamber, a nickel alloy steel main vessel body, and a ductile steel outer member, which provided protection and an annular cavity for heating or cooling capabilit y. The pressure was applied to the yoke type closure indirectly by the use of twin pressure intensifie rs, operating in opposite phase, driven by twin radial pumps that injected the working fluid into the pressurized chamber.

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45 Figure 3-1. Schematic of experimental setup

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46 The intensifiers were sequentially recharged with working fluid by a pre-charge pump which also performed the chamber pre-fill and first stage pressurization functions. The phasing cycle incorporated a short duration overlap on the drive pressure valves at the change over point; this feature allowed the hydraulic pressure driving the intensifier which has completed its stroke to cross flow which kick started the intensifier beginning its stroke. Four sequentially controlled valves backed by graduated capillaries (a Pan-Pipe arrangement) provided a st ep ramp approximation to a programmed decompression ramp rate. The pressure c ontroller allowed the high-pressure pumping system to step ramp to simulate any programmed ramp rate less than, or equal to, the maximum rate which the pumping system could achieve. The system could reach pressures up to 600 MPa, at rapid comp ression rates as well as programmable pressurization and decompression cycles throug h a computerized PLC controller. This system operated at above and belo w ambient temperatures (-20 to 90oC), by the use of a vessel jacket, with a circulating fluid from an external chiller/heater. The equipment was designed to operate with several pressure transmission fluids, including water; however, for the present investigation it was operated with a mixture of ethanol and castor oil (9:1 ratio), in view of its electri cal non-conductivity, since bare wi res were inside the pressure chamber immersed within the pressure transmitting fluid (see description below). A unique feature of this unit was the exis tence of electrical connections allowing communications between the interior within the pressurized chamber and the outside through electrical leads, which enabled the proposed in situ measurements. Originally, two single-wire lead-through connections were built in the bottom plug of the highpressure vessel, with Stansted proprietary sealing design; basically using a conical plug

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47 that sat in a sealing/insulating cone (pyrophylite ceramic material, Aluminum-hydrated silicate) between the conical plug terminal and the bottom plate of the vessel. The rest of the parallel section was insulated with a heat shrink sleeve; at the base there was a terminal studding and an insu lated retaining bush, a fitte d lock nut, washers, and a retaining nut for the power cable. After seve ral drawbacks and subs equent failures with the previous described single wires, an add itional 8 electrical leads were installed for low power/amperes applications. These were grouped in 4 wires in 2 cables, using Omegaclad 2.0-mm OD (30 AWG copper wires) and 2.35-mm OD (30 AWG K-type thermocouple extension wires) metal sheathed mineral insulated cables (Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT, USA). These cables were sealed with a conical hollow plug soldered outside of each metal 4-wire cable, which also sat in a conical cavity. Figure 32 shows details of the bottom plug of the high-pressure unit with the attached electrical leads as seen after modifications. Figure 3-2. High-pressure vessel bottom plug showing details of the electrical leads

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48 The design of this equipment was only su itable for experiments where the sample under investigation is restricted into a flexib le or semi-rigid contai ner able to transmit pressure from the pressure transmission flui d inside the working chamber with no other access to the exterior except through electrically communicating devices. The operation of the system was straightforward: by entering compression and decompression cycles setup parameters into the PLC controller with a computer program interface. The system allowed setup operatin g parameters to be chosen via software interface SCADA-SCAN 1000 (Hexatec Systems, Hexham, Northumberland, UK), or alternatively via PLC data access keypad, which was mainly used for diagnoses purposes or to change the settings of certain permitted timers, c ounters, and data registers. The pressure profile settings were divide d into six segments, each one comprised of a compression or decompression ramp rate (1 to 350 MPa min-1), a hold level or the pressure set point (up to 600 MPa), and dwell duration (1 s econd to several hours). All pressure data, supplied by a pressure transducer model HP28 (Barnbrook Systems, Fareham, HA, UK) connected to the high-pre ssure chamber inlet pipe, was logged and stored at a frequency of one data point every 15 seconds (not programmable) for the specific segment of interest for ultras ound measurements (stable pressure and temperature) for further retrieval in the com puter hard disk (refer to section concerning experimental procedure for collecting high-p ressure ultrasonic data). Gauge pressure data were converted into absolute pressure with the proper barometric pressure at the local altitude (75 ft eleva tion above sea level) using NOAA daily data as for the Gainesville meteorological station (NOAA 2002). A thermocouple probe provided temperature readings of the working fluid inside the pressure chamber; however our

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49 ultrasonic cell was designed to house a ther mocouple probe for temperature sensing within the sample as will be described in the sequence, since accurate temperature measurement is crucial for the ultrasonic data analysis. Although temperature is usually referred to as degrees Celsius [oC] in the text, absolute temperature Kelvin [K] was used throughout the computations. The reason for th at is because all expe rimental temperature data were collected using degrees Celsius. In spite of the easy operating scheme depicted above, frequent breakdowns and long stops for servicing caused unexpected de lays. The pressure generating system did not always deliver pressure as it should have. To list a few events: countless replacements of pressure seals at the top a nd bottom plugs due to leaks or other problems (aggravated by the not-so-user-friendly task implied); several times electrical leads became grounded (causing loss of electrica l communication and rendering impossible any in situ measurements; as a result leads had to be repaired, replaced or redesigned); many mechanical and electrical problems (e.g., malfunction of the pre-charge pump, valves, chiller, intensifier); and replacement of the controller computer. As a consequence the experiments to collect high-pressure data were delayed by more than one year, and part of the initially planned experiments had to be significantly reduced. It would have been more constructive to have the necessary time to digest/interpret the acquired data and eventually being able to go back and modify something in the experimental or theoretical approach as it is normally advisable in any research. As a sympathetic supervisor once said, often the biggest lesson from research is the perversity of nature and the value of diligence.

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50 Sound-Velocity Measurement at High Pressures The pulse technique was used to measure sound velocity since it is more suitable for high-pressure conditions. A device was c onstructed as an ultrasonic sample-holding cell to be inserted into the chamber of the hydrostatic high-pressure unit, containing an ultrasonic probe. Additionally, electronic in strumentation was provided to perform the experiments consisting of a pulser-receiver, a digital oscilloscope, and a signal analyzer. In the pulse technique, longitudinal (or compression) plane waves were generated at frequencies usually in the range of 0. 1 to 10 MHz. This involved power levels (miliwatt region) well below that at which the physical or chemical properties of the material might be altered. The principle is based on measuring the time between a pair of echoes of an ultrasonic wave propagating th rough the sample fluid in a known fixed acoustic path length. A schematic of the ultrasonic cell is show n in Figure 3-3. It comprises a Teflonmade semi-rigid container of approximatel y 300 ml volume capacity, an ultrasonic probe model MP-54 modified (Rhosonics Baarn, The Netherlands) attached to the top threaded cap of the container, and a type T thermo couple probe. All external parts of the ultrasonic probe were made of 316L stai nless steel. The thermocouple probe was positioned as close to the straight sound path as possible but not interfering with it, at mid-point in the vertical di rection. The transducer consisted of a highly damped broadband piezoelectric ceramic element, internally housed inside the probe, in such a way that only the stainless steel plate cover made contact with the sample fluid. The whole ultrasonic measurement cell was hermetically sealed to avoid exchange of fluids. Preliminary tests indicated that the pres ence of even small air bubbles where the electric circuitry and transducer were housed caused too much stress especially during the

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51 decompression cycle. The original ultrasoni c probe was modified in order to equalize pressure at front and rear of the sensor by drilling a hole where a flexible hose could be attached. Then the interior of the ultrasonic cell chamber and the hose were filled completely with glycerol and vacuum applied. In a first attempt a viscous mixture paste of epoxy resin and tungsten powder was used but did not work properly because of the presence of entrapped air. No major pressu re gradients were expected once pressure was equalized on both sides by the applied high hy drostatic pressure. Accordingly, maximum care was taken when filling/closing the measurement cell with sample fluid to avoid the presence of air bubbles in the system. This he lped to avoid pressure gradients within the container because of differences in compressibilities of air and liquid. Minor pressure gradients were absorbed by the flexible container walls. Figure 3-3. Schematic of the ultr asonic high-pressure measurement cell

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52 The transducer of the ultrasonic probe, containing a piezoelectric ceramic element, was excited with a square wave ex citation of 75 Volts nega tive spike short pulse at frequencies of 2 to 4 times per second. Through the piezoelectric effect, this energy was converted to a short sound pulse at the cen ter frequency of the transducer (2 MHz). The pulse duration was about 350 ns and wa s broadband with a frequency content of about 100 kHz to 10 MHz and a bandwidth aroun d 50% (Q-factor = 2). Figures 3-4 and 3-5 show, respectively, the frequency-domain (obtained by computing the FFT Fast Fourier Transform of the time-domain waveform ) of the transducer response expressed in terms of signal amplitude (dB1) versus frequencies, a nd the time-domain impulse response. Note that there is a decreas e in amplitude as frequency increases. Figure 3-4. Frequency-domain transducer response This sound pulse was coupled into the flui d sample and propagated through it at a velocity characteristic of the fluid. Ultr asound propagates through a material until the sound wave impinges on an impedance change; an amount of sound energy is reflected 1 Magnitude is expressed in dB (decibels) relative to 1 Volt (rms) where 0 dB = 1 Vrms -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 02468101214 Frequenc y ( MHz ) Amplitude (dB)

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53 dependent on the size of the interface and the relative impedance differences. The wave will continue until it reaches the re ar wall of the cell (reflector). Part of the energy of the ultrasound is absorbed and attenuated by the ma terial. Because the transducer is highly damped, the piezoelement can operate as receiver once the reflected waves (echoes) return, converting the wave into an analog signal, having a highly damped waveform with the above characteristics. The reflec ted signal (echo) was only about 100 to 700 mVolts. Figure 3-5. Time-domain input negativ e spike and transducer impulse response The electrical signal coming from the ultrasonic cell was then amplified and normalized by a signal analyzer model 8100 (Rhosonics, Baarn, The Netherlands). The normalized signal (about 2 Volt peak to peak ) was digitized with an 8-bit, 20 MHz A/D converter. A detection algo rithm based on the signal wa veform, amplitude, frequency content, and the presence of electronic noise, identified the first arrived signal eliminating unwanted signals. The algorithm allowe d a down-shift of frequency down to 800 MHz center frequency. In addition, it was possible to compensate the signal in a dynamic range of 60 dB (difference between the stro ngest and the weakest signal). Through a -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -5-4-3-2-1012345time ( s)Normalized Amplitude 400 s

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54 digital signal processing technique both sign als were analyzed to determine the delay time between the time the transducer was stimulated and the time when the resultant pulse (echo) was detected. The transit time was then diminished from the dead-time (the time through the cable, the probe material, and the delay through the analog electronics). Dead time was determined by calibration us ing the double/triple transit time method, using pure water at a very constant temperat ure as the propagation medium. By entering 2x or 3x the one-way sound path (acoustic path length = 2 x reflector distance), the double or triple transit time could be found. This calibration was done at 74oC, since for pure water at this temperature at atmospheric pressure the temperature has no effect on the transit time. At 74.4oC, the sound speed had reached a maximum, and at 74oC the transit time was minimal due to the expansi on effect of the reflector standoff. The magnitude of the dead time obtained in this manner was determined to be 1,097 nanoseconds. Using a standard RS-232 port, the sign al analyzer was connected to a PC computer with the primary function of creating a log file in which transit time values were recorded through an interface program. This computer program enabled changes in the settings of file logging, time-span, sample and recording frequency, and also to view the transducer echo in a dialog-box window. Because the wave analysis algorithm dealt with time interval for the measurement, and also because of the intermittent (pulsed) nature of the signal (see previous paragr aph), the RS 232 interface sometimes did not handle it correctly. The signal analyzer was primarily focused on measuring and while transferring data to the RS 232 port there were times when the transit time calculation window was too large, resulting in larger echoes, more data points, and longer

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55 calculations, and therefore less time to ha ndle the RS 232 output. For the recording function, the number of communication errors was considered acceptable since real-time measurements were conducted over periods long enough to accommodate eventual interruptions without interfering with the accu racy. Therefore, the interface program was primarily used for recording transit time at a programmable frequency, while the function of monitoring the signal waveform was left for the oscilloscope. A 400-MHz 2-channel digital oscillo scope model TDS-430A (Tektronix, Beaverton, OR, USA) was used to monitor the input signal and the signal that returned from the ultrasonic cell by using a high impedance x10 probe connected to the signal analyzer. There were important reasons that de termined the use of an oscilloscope. First, by monitoring the signal waveform coming from the ultrasonic cell, as the high-pressure experiments were performed, it was possible to verify the transducer response as well as the integrity of the ultrasonic sample-holdi ng cell under such extreme conditions. For instance, since signal strength is inversely proportional to the gain value, the scope was used to monitor attenuation effects to obser ve specific changes in the process or instabilities. Consequently, it was possible to discontinue the experi ment without causing any major irreversible damage, introduce remedies or eventually modify the ultrasonic cell depending on the particular situation. By taking advantage of the digital capability of the oscilloscope, it was also possible to record the signal waveform in a digital format for further analysis in order to test the accuracy of the transit time provided by the signal analyzer as described in the previous paragra ph. In this way, samples of waveforms were averaged over 20 readings (to minimize electronic noise), ac quired at frequency of 25 MS s-1, and recorded in DAT file format. From these files, data was read line by line and

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56 placed into variables, beginning with four values (header), containing record length, time per sample interval, trigger location, and trigger offset, followed by a linear array of ASCII floating-point amplitude/time values. A typical time-domain echo waveform is shown in Figure 3-6 as seen on the screen of the oscilloscope, shown together with the input signal. It should be mentioned though th at it was very difficult to find the returned signal (echo) because the signal amplitude wa s very small, also due to the presence of electronic noise, multiple reflected echoes (other than the direct one) and reverberations. A very fine tuning was necessary since at high sensitivity the oscilloscope amplifier became saturated. Figure 3-6. Typical reflected (echo) signal waveform at high pressure The data files containing samples of the waveform were then analyzed in Matlab version 5 (The Math Works, Natick, MA, USA) using a digital signal processing technique via auto-correlation function. With this procedure, only one waveform (i.e. average of 20 waveforms instantly acquired) was recorded each time. Therefore the transit time (or time delay between the input si gnal and returned echo) values obtained by this technique were only used for comparison purposes in order to evaluate the accuracy Insert -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 020406080100120 Time ( s)Normalized amplitud e -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 575961636567

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57 of the transit time obtained with the signal analyzer/interface program, by which any period of time of the experiment could be covered more efficiently with the same accuracy in addition to the inevitable varia tions due to pressure fluctuations. The accuracy on the transit time provided by the in strumental setup was considered about 1 nanosecond. The difference between the tran sit time determined from the waveform scope data and the transit time provided by signal analyzer oscillated from 2 to 5 nanoseconds. Considering that there was a tim e delay, impossible to overcome, between the exact times each datum was acquired, this comparison was deemed excellent. The time measured, divided by the distance traveled by the pulse gives the velocity of sound. The distance traveled by the sound wave was double the direct straight path since it was the resultant path of th e reflected wave. The sound path length measured at 0oC and atmospheric pressure was 10 7.98 mm. Pressure as well as temperature affected this distance because of compressibility and thermal expansivity of the construction material of th e ultrasonic probe. Therefore, the acoustic path length had to be corrected by the experimental conditions of the measurement. For 316L stainless steel the coefficient of linear compressibility and coefficient of thermal expansion were taken respectively as 1.9981 x1011 MPa and 1.602 x10-5 oC-1 (Davis 2000). A data logger model DAQ 56 (Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT, USA) was connected to the type-T thermocouple probe placed in the ultras onic cell (Figure 3-3) for temperature measurement. The thermocouple probe wa s calibrated using a standard reference thermistor temperature sensor model 5610 c onnected to a handheld thermometer model 1521, with 0.01oC uncertainty (Hart Scientific, American Fork, UT, USA) and a high precision thermostatic bath m odel 6035 (Hart Scientific, Amer ican Fork, UT, USA) or a

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58 thermostatic refrigerating circ ulator for low temperatures (m odel 900, Fisher Scientific), in the temperature range of 5 to 65oC. Temperature data were recorded during highpressure experiments through a PC com puter program at programmable sampling frequency (Balaban 2001). Procedure for Collecting High-Pressure Ultrasonic Data Experimental conditions to conduct ultrasonic high-pre ssure measurements were chosen based on pressure and temperature ra nges usually employed in high-pressure processing of foods, pressure generating e quipment capability, temperature conditioning availability, ultrasonic cell rest rictions, concentration range of major food constituents, as well as by performing preliminary experiments. Therefore, pressure ranged from atmospheric, 200; 400 and 600 MPa a nd temperatures at 10, 20 and 30oC. These values were taken as set points, but the actual m easurements were conducted at equilibrium conditions which are slightly diffe rent from the set point values. Although the high-pressure equipment wa s fully programmable, once a cycle was started there was no possibility to reset the r unning time during a cycle. Consequently a set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the time for thermal equilibration under acceptable limits. Complete thermal stabilization was not an option, since it was affected by the environmental conditions where the machine was located, which was not under control, and also becaus e only the lateral walls of the vessel were thermally insulated. To exemplify the variation of the ambient temperature, data recorded on selected days are shown in Figure 3-7. Also, there is the effect of adiabatic heating which is pressure as well as pressu rization rate dependent. Thus, a series of preliminary experiments was performed at varying conditi ons of final pressure and temperature, pressurization ra tes, and initial samp le temperature conditioning. It was

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59 concluded that, depending on the pressure/temperature combination after reaching the desired pressure, 2 to 5 hours were needed for thermal stabilization, with the lowest stabilization time at temperature near ambient and at lower pressures, as expected. Accordingly, pressurization rates were adjusted between 50 and 100 MPa min-1. Figure 3-7. Ambient temperature variation during 3 different days The upper temperature limit (30oC) was imposed since both the pressure generating system and the ultrasonic cell showed signs of weakness facing extreme conditions (pressure, temperat ure and medium). It should be remembered that, for example, at temperature conditioning of 40oC would result in a final temperature (at the end of pressurization step) over 65oC due to adiabatic heating effects. At this relatively high temperature combined with the effect of ethanol, a strong solvent used as the pressure transmitting fluid, parts such as electrical terminals insulation or epoxy resins which were used as sealant for parts of th e ultrasonic cell would not resist continuous exposure. Consider also that this temperature rise was not far from the boiling point of 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 050100150200 Time (min)Ambient Temperature (oC)Day 1 Day 2 Day 3

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60 ethanol, which at atmospheric pressure is around 77oC. Nonetheless vapor pressure of ethanol increases appreciably, which was of concern as well. The lower temperature limit (10oC) was dictated by the chiller capability and because of possible phase change and its associated volume expansion, which could bring irreversib le damage due to material stress. No information was available to attest safety related issues to work at very low temperatures regarding the pressure generating system, such as possible detrimental effects of crysta llization of the lubricating o il, although the manufacturer stated otherwise. Pressure stabilization was totally dependent on the PLC controller and the response of the pump system of the high-pressu re generating system as well as system sealing, which was acceptable between certain limits. There was an intrinsic pressure fluctuation around the set point which was pressure dependent, and not exactly invariable from one experiment to another consider ing experiments under similar conditions. Higher pressures produced larger fluctuations Care was taken to avoid collecting data during periods when the re-pressurizing process was in progress, even in a short pressure range, since, again, this would promote ad iabatic heating, distur b acoustical path, and consequently destabilize system equilibrium. Another important consequence was the disturbance caused by electrical/electronica lly actuated valves and pumps, which would create a noisy environment, produce interference and end up extremely difficult to analyze and process the signal coming from the ultrasonic measurement cell. Figure 3-8 shows experimental runs with examples of pressure fluctuations around the set point. Decompression rate was kept low (25 MPa min-1) to prevent sudden drop of pressure due to concerns related to the presence of micro pores in the cavity of the ultrasonic cell. In

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61 addition, temperature drop associated with decompression (expansion cooling, which is the reverse effect of adiabatic heating) c ould possibly cause problems related to phase change. Figure 3-8. Pressure fluctuation of se lected experiments at 200, 400 and 600 MPa set points. Because the effect of adiabatic heating due to compression during the initial pressurization phase and the intr insic pressure fluctuation wh ich brought about heating or cooling due to the same or reversed effects, changes of temperature were therefore so large that the greater part of the time in performing the experiments under high pressure was consumed in waiting for equalization of temperature after changes of pressure. In view of the preceding guidelines and observations, the basic procedure for collecting high-pressure ultrasonic data invol ved the following steps: [1] temperature conditioning of the high-pressure vessel, by setting up chiller or heater according to the desired temperature set point; [2] fluid sample preparation followed by filling up the ultrasonic cell container and its transfer to the high-pressure chamber; [3] set point 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 050100150200250 Time (min)P (MPa )

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62 configuration of the pressure cycle thro ugh PC controller; [4 ] configuration of temperature data-logger; [5] configuration of signal analyzer interface program for logging and recording transit time; [6] starting pressure cycle and recording all data through PC computer programs at lower da ta-sampling frequency; [7] pressure and temperature stabilization by monitoring over time; [8] oscilloscope onscreen monitoring and recording signal waveforms; [9] once pr essure and temperature reaches equilibrium, starting recording at higher data-sampling fre quency (e.g., every 3 seconds) for a 5 to 10 minutes time span. This procedure was app lied for collecting high-pressure ultrasonic data for pure water, binary aqueous model solutions, solute combinations, and a food material. Atmospheric pressure ultrasonic data were also collected for the same solutions at the same temperatures following this procedure. Preparation of Binary Aqueous Solutions Solutions were prepared with analytical grade reagents (>99% purity) from Fischer Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA) us ing deionized water, through ion exchange, activated carbon, and 2 micr on filter (USFilter, Warrendale, PA, USA), on a weight by volume of the solution basis, with .1 mg accuracy for mass. Binary solutions of sucrose, glucose, citric acid in water were pr epared. The concentrations were 2.5, 10, and 50% (w/v) for sugar solutions, and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) for organic acid solutions. Other combinations of these compounds in aqueous solutions were tested for component interaction and predictive analysis; simple carbohydrates only, and carbohydrates plus organic acids. This study intended to invest igate the concentration range of interest for food science and engineering app lications, rather than explore full concentration range as normally seen in physical chemistry studies. In addition, high-pressure ultrasonic measurements in a selected f ood system were performed in order to test the predictive

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63 ability of the proposed model (see Chapter 4) Pasteurized pulp free orange juice, purchased locally, was chosen for this purpos e, since its major components are simple sugars and organic acids, some of which co rresponding to the same compounds currently investigated. The major components of this juice were quantified in order to prepare a solution based on this composition (analysis conducted by ABC Research); both juice and emulated juice were then investigated ultrasonically under high pressure at selected conditions. Density and Heat-Capacity Measurements at Atmospheric Pressure As will be described in Chapter 4, density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature together with ultrasonic data at high pressures were combined to compute other thermodynamic properties as a function of pr essure and temperature. These included density and compressibility computed by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations and mathematical procedures. Accordingly, density, heat capacity and thermal expansivity data at atmospheric pressure were entered as initial input parameters in the numerical iterative procedure and because of the largely preponderant contribution of the former, in order to obtain reliable pressure dependent da ta, its accuracy had to be high as well. Accurate density data at atmospheric pressure was then considered the most crucial parameter for the mathematical procedure i nvolved in the calculations of thermodynamic properties at elevated pressures derived from ultrasonic data. Thus, the following sequence describes the experimental procedur e employed to determine density and heat capacity2 at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature for the same binary 2 Both density and heat-capacity measurements at atmospheric pressure were performed in the laboratories of Dr. Miriam D. Hubinger, Dr. Florencia C. Menegalli and Dr. Antonio J. A. Meirelles, at the Department

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64 solutions and other solute combinations as described previously. The coefficient of thermal expansion at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature is subsequently obtained indirectly from density data by ta king the first derivative of density with temperature according to Equation 2-6. Density Measurements Density measurements were performed using an oscillating tube density meter model DMA 58 from Anton Paar-GmbH (Graz, Au stria) coupled to a cooling system. This system measured the period of oscillation, which is dependent on the density of the sample. A hollow U-shaped tube, with calibrated volume (approximately 0.7 cm3), containing the sample was el ectro-magnetically excited to undamped oscillation. The calibration constants of the in strument, which comprised the spring constant of the oscillator, the mass of the empty tube, and the volume of the sample, could be calculated from two period measurements when the osc illator was filled with substances of known density. In this case, the instrument was calibrated with dry air and distilled, de-ionized water at the corresponding temperature. Th e calibration procedure was repeated every three days at each temperat ure. A semiconductor Peltier element and a resistance-based temperature sensor monitored and controlled the temperature of both sample and tube. An external chiller (Paar Physica-GmbH, Graz, Austria) was used for the low temperature experiments. All samples were thermally equilibrated to a temperature slightly above the instrument set point, in order to avoid form ation of water vapor bubbles inside the oscillating tube. After introducing the samples slowly (to avoid formation of invisible gas bubbles), using a plastic-tipped hypodermic glass syringe, of Food Engineering, at the State University of Campinas, SP Brazil; this author gratefully acknowledges their contributions.

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65 totally free of gas bubbles, time was allowe d for thermal equilibrium, typically 10-15 minutes. After each measurement, the os cillator was rinsed with water and acetone repeatedly, calibration checked, and dried by a filtered flow of air from a built-in pump. Density measurements were performed at temperatures of 10o, 20o, 40o, and 60oC. This system provided an accuracy of x10-5 g cm-3 and precision of .5 x10-5 g cm-3 on density measurements, and accuracy on temperature reading of .01oC, which could be controlled within .005oC. The accuracy of the density measurements was confirmed based on the measurement of the density of pure water. Results for three such runs and literature values are shown in Table 3-1. The averag e deviations between the three runs and from literature values were 2.7x10-5, and 4.0x10-5 g cm-3 respectively (Fine and Millero 1973; Wagner and Pru 1993). Thus, the measured density of pure water for temperatures from 10o to 60oC were in good agreement with the dens ity values of Fine & Milleto (1973) and Pruss & Wagner (1993), considered the most accurate data for pure water. Table 3-1. Results for the calibration of the density meter with pure water Density of Pure Water (g cm-3) T This work Fine and Millero Wagner and Pru (oC) Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Average S.D. (1973) (1993) 10 0.99969 0.99970 0.99965 0.99968 2.6x10-5 0.99969 0.99970 20 0.99831 0.99833 0.99836 0.99833 2.5x10-5 0.99805 0.99821 30 0.99565 0.99572 0.99568 0.99568 3.5x10-5 0.99557 0.99565 40 0.99231 0.99230 0.99226 0.99229 2.6x10-5 0.99227 0.99222 50 0.98806 0.98805 0.98800 0.98804 3.2x10-5 0.98816 0.98803 60 0.98319 0.98319 0.98322 0.98320 1.7x10-5 0.98326 0.98320

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66 Heat-Capacity Measurements Heat-capacity measurements were performed using a differential scanning calorimeter model DSC-2920 (TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) with cooling system. This system measured the differential heat flow between a sample and an inert reference. The sample and reference were s ubjected to controlled heating or cooling in a controlled atmosphere. The purge gas was helium with a flow rate of 93 ml min-1. By using the sample-encapsulating press, the liquid sample was prepared within a hermetic sample capsule. The sample mass was in the range 12-14 mg. Sealed capsules containing samples were weighe d before and after every run to assure capsule integrity. Based upon a series of preliminary runs, a me thod was created that held the sample isothermally at -12oC for 5 minutes without freezing the sample (to account for the transient period to reach the desired starting temperature, 5oC), and then heated at a rate of 7oC min-1 to 70oC. The DSC calibrations consisted of the baseline slope (heating an empty cell through the entire temperature range of the experiments), the cell constant and the temperature calibrations (from the run of a calibration material, in this case pure water, through its melting point). To obtain accurate results, the calibrations had to be checked and repeated periodically. The specific heat of a given sample was then determined by creating a baseline profile, a standard substance (pure sapphire-Al2O3) profile, and a sample profile using the same method described above. From the thermograms (resulting heat flow versus time or temperature recorded at 0.2 sec intervals), the heat capacity was calculated by using ONeills method (1966). The samp les were run in duplicates. The accuracy of the Cp

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67 measurements was estimated to be % on the basis of the measurement of the Cp of pure water. Summary of Conditions for the High-Pressure Experiments Table 3-2 shows the range of the ex perimental conditions of pressure, temperature, and concentration used for collecting ultrasonic high-pressure data for binary aqueous solutions of sucr ose, glucose, and citric acid. Table 3-2. Summary of the experimental range of the high-pressure experiments Variable Unit Experimental Range Pressure (MPa) 0.1 200 400 600 Temperature (K) 283.15 293.15 303.15 Concentration: Sugar Solutions (kg-solute m-3) 25 100 500 Citric Acid Solutions (kg-solute m-3) 10 50 100

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68 CHAPTER 4 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS This chapter presents a description of the procedures for processing and analyzing the data collected according to the experiment al methods described in Chapter 3. They included: [1] the procedure to calculate sp eed of sound from transit time data of a sound wave propagating through the fluid sample under elevated pressures at different temperatures; [2] the procedure to determine density and heat capacity as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure; [3] the procedure to compute thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure from density data as a function of temperature; [4] the thermodynami c and numerical approach to derive other thermodynamic properties, such as density and compressibility as a function of pressure and temperature, from speed of sound data as a function of pressure and temperature, and density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure as the initial values in an iterative manner. Predictive equations were also obtained by regression analysis for all thermodynamic properties derived as a means to conduct furt her mathematical analyses as well as to better interpret such data [5]. Up to this point all thermodynamic properties were derived from binary aqueous solutions pr operties data. Thus, in order to extend the analysis for multicomponent solutions, [6] a thermodynami c approach was developed to determine the effect and contribution of each component in the binary solutions using a mixing rule, and then this model was tested for combined solutes aqueous solutions and for a real food

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69 system. As a final point, [7] an error analysis was performed in order to estimate the accuracy of the measured experimental data and the subsequent derived properties. Speed of Sound at High Pressures From the transit time measurements, or th e time delay between the reference input signal and the first reflected echo received by the transducer, the speed of sound by which the ultrasound wave propagated thorough th e fluid sample at a given condition was determined. The transit time measured in these experiments was in the range of 45,000 to 75,000 nanoseconds at nominal temperatures from 10o to 30oC at pressures from atmospheric up to 600 MPa. The sound velocity was given by the ratio of the known acoustic path length to the transit time. To carry out this calculation Equation 4-1 below was used, where acoustic path length was double the direct path length, since the reflected echo traveled twice the distance of the direct acoustic path. Since the acoustic path length varied with pre ssure and temperature, correction to account for the change in this distance was introduced using the thermal linear-expansion coefficient and the coefficient of linear compressibility for the construction material of the ultrasonic probe. Therefore, the acoustic path length had to be corrected by the experimental conditions of the measurement according to Equation 4-2, where LPo,To is the acoustic path length at reference pressure and temperature, 107.98 x 10-3 m measured at 0oC and atmospheric pressure, and T and P are respectively the actual measured absolute temperature and absolute pressure of the experiment, respectively in Pascal (Pa) and Kelvin (K). For 316L stainless steel the coefficient of linear compressibility and coefficient of thermal expansion were taken respectively as 1.9981 x1011 MPa and 1.602 x10-5 oC-1 (Davis 2000)

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70 t L uT P =, [4-1] ()[]()[]P T L Lo oT P T P + + = 1 1, [4-2] For prediction purposes as well as for easier and direct use in numerical computations, sound velocity data for each bina ry solution as a function of pressure P and temperature T at any given concentration were fitted to the following double polynomial model, where uo is the speed of sound at atmospheric pressure Po taken as the reference pressure, and aijs are regression coefficients of the continuous surface. == = 3 1 2 0) (ij j i o ij oT u u a P P [4-3] Density at Atmospheric Pressure Density of binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid at atmospheric pressure and concentration we re experimentally obtained from vibrating tube density meter measurements in the temperature range of 5 to 65oC. A total of 74 data points for sucrose solutions were obtained, 60 data points for glucose and citric acid solutions. Again, for prediction purposes as we ll as for easier and direct use in numerical applications, density data at atmospheric pressure Po for each binary solution as a function of temperature and concentration were fitted to the following second order model on temperature T and concentration C, where aijs are regression coefficients of the continuous surface. = = =3 1 1 2 0i i j j ij PT C aon [4-4]

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71 Isobaric Thermal-Expansion Coefficient at Atmospheric Pressure Coefficient of thermal expansion at atmospheric pressure was derived from measured density data at atmospheric pre ssure as a function of temperature using Equation 2-6 rewritten below. The approach included taking the first derivative of density (Equation 4-4) with respect to temper ature, through an analytical procedure since not enough experimental data were available to perform th is differentiation numerically without loosing precision. Also, the experime ntal data were not equally spaced with respect to temperature which made the numerical differentiation even more uncertain. The thermal-expansion coefficient for each bi nary aqueous solution was then obtained by dividing the resulting value by the density at any given temperature and concentration. MPa 1 01= =P P PTo on n [2-6] () = = = = = = =3 2 2 2 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 01 1 1i i j j ij P MPa P i i j j ij P PT C a i T C a To o on n [4-5] Isobaric thermal-expansion coefficients at atmospheric pressure Po, determined as above, for each binary solution as a function of temperature T at any given concentration were fitted to the following model. 1 3 1 ==i i i PT ao [4-6] Isobaric Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure Heat capacity measured with the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was derived from the measured sample and refere nce heat flow using Equation 4-7, in the temperature range from 5oC to 65oC, calculated at each 0.1oC temperature interval, with a total of 615 data points for each sample, even though the sampling rate used allowed for a

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72 shorter temperature interval. The Cp values were further averaged for two replication runs. ref sa sa ref ref sadt dH dt dH m m Cp Cp = [4-7] A correction factor has been proposed to account for the effect of water that evaporates into the headspace of the sample capsule due to the exponential increase of water vapor pressure with temperature. By assuming equilibrium between liquid phase and the gas phase (headspace) inside the DSC-capsule, the equilibrium relationship derived from Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations for a binary system could be used. The assumptions are as follows: The liquid phase consists of a non-ideal bi nary solution (solute + water) and the gas phase consists of an ideal mixture of dry air and water vapor, with the equilibrium given by: o w w o w w w wP A P X P Y = = [4-8] Water activity of solution was considered a function of solute and water concentrations and activity coefficient, using selected models according to the component (Norrish 1966; Miyawaki et al. 1997; Chen 1989); The driving force for water to evaporate was given by the temperature increase, and was computed for each temperature interval; The volume of gas phase present inside th e capsule was determined by means of an air comparison pycnometer (Multi-Pycnometer, model MVP-5DC, QuantaChrome, Boynton Beach, FL, USA); The amount of solution (liquid phase ) changed over time (as temperature increases) in direct proportion to the amount of water evaporated;

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73 Enthalpy changes of the liquid solution (as measured by DSC in terms of specific heat flow) were determined by the latent heat of water in proportion to the water evaporated (going to the gas phase); Vapor pressure and latent heat of wa ter were functions of temperature; There was negligible effect of sensible heat of the evaporated water in the gas phase. Simulation has show n a deviation of less than 0.007% on Cp values. The correction term that was applied fo r heat capacity followed Equation 4-9 below: = T dt dT m H m m dt dH m dt dH msample evap sample original D S C original corrected sample1 1 1 [4-9] The changing in sample mass due to evaporation is given by: evap original samplem m m = [4-10] Mass of water evaporated by using water mole fraction Yw calculated using Equation 4-8, was computed with the following expression: air w w w air evapMw Mw Y Y m m =1 [4-11] Water activity of solution as a functi on of composition in Equation 4-8 was calculated using models from Norrish (1966) and Miyawaki et al. (1997) both given by Equation 4-12, and Chen (1989) given by E quation 4-13. Note that Norrishs model differs from that of Miyawaki only by the absence of the cubic term in Equation 4-12. () ( ) 3 21S SX X S we X A + = [4-12] () S n S e wm Bm A + + =018 0 1 1 [4-13]

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74 Enthalpy carried by water evaporated was determined by multiplying it by the latent heat of water as a function of temperature using Wagner and Pru s expression (1993): evap evapm H = [4-14] 20008 0 3293 2 8 2500 T T = [4-15] The effect of the variation of the total pressure of the biphasic system along a DSC run, as a function of temperature at constant volume, was computed using: + + = 15 273 15 2731 2 1 2T T P P [4-16] The Antoine equation was used to determin e water vapor pressure as a function of temperature: () () () + = 13 46 15 273 44 3816 3036 18 exp T mmHg Po w [4-17] An example of an outcome by applying th e proposed approach for one particular DSC run (heating rate of 7oC min-1, temperature range of 5 to 65oC, for approx. sample mass of 12.000 mg) for 1%-sucrose solution, the calculated amount of water evaporated over the entire run was 0.0115 mg. For this pa rticular run, the calculated amount of water evaporated over each 0.1oC temperature increase was in the range from 2.4 x10-6 to 3.7 x10-5 mg. This represents about 0.1% of water being evaporated for the entire run relative to the initial sample mass. After applying Equation 4-9, the difference in the heat capacity calculated using Equation 4-7 ranged approximately from 1 to 3% depending on the solute, concentration, and temperature. The greater the concentration of the solution the smaller the deviation due to the effect of solute, which causes a decrease in vapor

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75 pressure of the solution as would be expected. All heat-capacity data presented in this report included the above correction. The complete set of experimental data of heat capacity determined as indicated above for each binary solution as a function of temperature T and concentration C were then fitted to the following second order model. = = =3 1 1 2 0 i i j j ij PT C a Cpo [4-18] From Ultrasonic Data to Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures. Thermodynamic Approach Ultrasonic data at high pressures were combined with density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data at atmos pheric pressure (all func tions of temperature as well) to compute other thermodynamic properties as functions of pressure and temperature, including density and compressibility. The latter two properties were the main focus of this research. The work of Davis and Gordon (1967) was taken as reference, and similarities and differences are highlighted where appropriate. In order to establish the set of thermodynamic expressions to compute these target properties work began with the so-called Newton-Laplace Equation 2-10 together with the definition of compressibility, given by Equation 2-2 expressed isothermically. The relationship between isentropic and isothermal compressibility was also needed since the Newton-Laplace equation defines speed of sound in terms of isentropic compressibility, which has been derived in appe ndix A, given by Equation 2-9. These three equations are rewritten here for clarity. n Su12= [2-10]

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76 T TP rn n 1 [2-2] + =n P S TC T2 [2-9] These equations were combined to obtain the following first order partial differential equation that expre ssed the variation of density w ith respect to pressure at a given constant temperature as being a func tion of speed of sound, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity and temperature. Cp T u PT 2 21 n+ = [4-19] Apart from temperature and pressure whic h were varied independently, it is recognized that none of the properties inco rporated in the right hand side of the expression above, namely spee d of sound, thermal expansion coefficient, or heat capacity, can be seen as independent of eith er pressure or temperature. Consequently, their pressure as well as temperature depende nce had to be addressed. The pressure dependence of speed of sound was experimental ly determined; therefore it entered into this approach as prior defined as the coefficients of the fitted Equation 4-3. The pressure dependence of the isobaric heat capacity is obaric and thermal expansion coefficient were given by Equations 2-7 and 2-8 (please refer to Appendix A). + = = P P T PT T T V T P C n2 2 2 [2-7] P T TT P = [2-8]

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77 The right hand side of Equation 28 above contains the isothermal compressibility, which can be obtained by combining Equations 2-9 and 2-10 to give: + =P TC T u2 21 1 n [4-20] Mathematical Solution for the Set of Partial Differential Equations An iterative simultaneous step-by-step num erical procedure based on the RungeKutta 4,5th order, explicit 4,5 pair formula, usin g an interpolant of order 4 (Shampine and Reichelt 1997), was employed for the solution of the set of partial differential equations proposed above with initial values represente d by the properties at atmospheric pressure. The numerical procedure was applied to the pressure range starting from 0.1 MPa up to 600 MPa at pressure step intervals of 2 MPa, which satisfied the experimental conditions of the available ultr asonic data. This pressure in terval was chosen only as a means of balancing an acceptable output accuracy range of values with the program running time, since the precision of the numer ical method was internally controlled by convergence criteria. At each pressure interv al, the values of density, isobaric heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were computed at elevated pressures for each isotherm in the temperature range of 278.15 to 303.15 K, with temperature step interval of 5 K. The numerical method used variab le step size for the iteration which was controlled by convergence, by taking the relative tolerance error of 1 x10-6 as the convergence criterion. As a result, the maximu m step size for the numerical iteration was 0.2 MPa. The mathematical procedure was implem ented in Matlab version 5 (The Math Works, Natick, MA, USA). All experimental data and derived i nput properties were entered in the computer program as coefficients of the fitted equations from which

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78 smoothed values were retrieved; hence no instability other than the ones conveyed by the numerical method itself was noti ceable. Accordingly, the number of figures presented in the coefficients of those equations ended up pl aying a major role in the precision of the outcome. The calculations were carried out in the following sequence of operations: [A] Compute density at atmospheric pressure Po and temperature T using Equation 4-4, thermal expansion coefficient at Po and T using Equation 2-6 and 4-5, heat capacity Cp at Po and T using Equation 4-17, and sound velocity u at Po and T using Equation 4-3. [B] By using the numerical procedure described as above (Runge-Kutta 4,5th order), estimate density at higher pressure P1+P at temperature T, by solving for the right hand side of Equation 4-19 with initial values as determined from previous step [A]. [C] Repeat steps [A] and [B] for each isotherm for the entire temperature range. At this point, there is a set of density values at higher pressure P1 as a function of temperature. [D] Fit the densities ()TP1n at higher pressure P1 as a function of temperature to a 2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-21 below, and find the coefficients ri(P) ()==2 0 i i i PT P rn [4-21] [E] Compute thermal expansion coefficient at higher pressure P1 for each isotherm for the entire temperature range, by taking the first derivative of the expression just determined above with respect to temperature ()1PT n at P1 and with the help of Equation 2-6.

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79 [F] Fit the thermal expansion coefficient ()TP1 at higher pressure P1 as a function of temperature to a 2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-22 below, and find the coefficients ai(P) ()==2 01i i i PT P a [4-22] [G] Compute the first derivative of thermal expansion coefficient ()1PT at higher pressure P1 with respect to temperature. [H] Compute isobaric heat capacity Cp at higher pressure P1 for each isotherm for the entire temperature range, with the help of Equation 2-7, the expression just determined above ()1PT density ()TP1n and thermal expansion coefficient ()TP1. [I] Fit heat capacity ()T CpP1 at higher pressure P1 as a function of temperature to a 2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-23 below, and find thus the coefficients ci(P) ()==2 01i i i PT P c Cp [4-23] [J] Repeat step [B] taking however, the values of thermal expansion coefficient ()TP1, first derivative of thermal expansion coefficient with respect to temperature ()1PT and heat capacity ()T CpP1 just calculated in steps [E]-[F], [G], [H]-[I].respectively, and thus obtaining new, somewhat different values for density for each isotherm for the entire range of temperature ()TP1n which are taken as the final ones.

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80 [K] Repeat steps [C]-[I] taking these new values of ()TP1n, thus determining new final values for thermal expansion coefficient ()TP1 and heat capacity()T CpP1, as well as the new coefficients for the fitted equations. [L] Repeat steps [B] to [K] for the subs equent pressure intervals until the entire pressure range has been computed. Once the procedure is completed, it is apparent that in the course of calculating density, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient values were obtained as a function of pressure and temperature for th e entire range covered for the independent variables. It should be reca lled that besides pressure a nd temperature the independent variables also included solute type and solute concentrati on; consequently this whole calculation process was repeated for each binary solution at different concentrations. The output of this Matlab program was a series of files containing calculated values in binary format for further retrieval. This method of computation differs fro m the method of Davis and Gordon (1967) where the pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient is determined by using the additional thermodynamic relation (E quation 2-8), and which therefore requires an additional assumption that the isothermal compressibility is a polynomial function of temperature. In the present method, howev er, the thermal expansion coefficient is calculated directly from successive density versus temperature isobars, which are found to be described precisely by second degree polyn omials in temperature. In addition, the procedure of Davis and Gordon employs th e simpler Euler numerical method for the solution of the differential equation, in contrast to the more accurate Runge-Kutta 4,5th order method used in the present procedure.

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81 It should be pointed out that the major contribution to the density increment due to pressure actually comes from the term that contains the reciprocal of the square speed of sound in Equation 4-19 since the differen ce between the isentropic and isothermal compressibility of the studied solutions is expected to be small, which is the basic source of difference if considering the other te rm involved according to Equation 2-9. Therefore, the accuracy of speed of sound data plays a major role in the accuracy of the result. As anticipated before, density data at atmospheric pressure has a large influence on the final accuracy of derived properties unde r high pressure. By running these codes with input thermodynamic prope rties as those of pure water and then analyzing and interpreting the outcome, it was possible to address these issues. For instance, an uncertainty of 0.1 percent in the density of pure water at atmospheric pressure introduces an error as large as 10 percent in the th ermal expansion coeffi cient at 280 MPa and 20 percent in isobaric heat capacity at 600 MPa. This is because the computation starts at atmospheric pressure and include s calculations of first and sec ond derivatives of density. Furthermore, since the density derivative with respect to temperature is involved in the calculation, the accuracy of the change in density with temperature is more important than that of the density itself. Accordingly, the accuracy of thermal expansion coefficient at atmospheric pressure played a crucial role in the process calculation as well. Generally, at lower and higher temperatures the situation is less satisfactory. Thus, to achieve high accuracy for derived thermodynamic properties at high pressure, it is prudent to carefully examine all atmospheric-pressure measurements for possible systematic errors associated with the results and make all efforts to eliminate them as far as possible.

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82 Additional Thermodynami c Properties Derived Other thermodynamic properties were co mputed as well during the calculation process, namely isentropic S and isothermal T compressibility, isentropic pressure thermal coefficient S as a function of pressure and te mperature. The latter property was used to determine and predict the effect of each compound investigated on temperature rise due to adiabatic heating. Isentropic compressibility was calculated directly from the Newton-Laplace Equation 2-10 at any given pressure and temperature. Isothermal compressibility was evaluated using Equation 4-20. Equation 2-4, rewritten here, was used to compute adiabatic pressure thermal coefficient1 as a function of pressure and temperature (see derivation in the A ppendix A, refer to Equation A-10). n T C T PP S S= = [2-4] Many other properties can be derive d from sound velocity, density, and compressibility data as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition/concentration, for example the ratio between isothermal and adiabatic compressibility and the ratio between heat capacity at constant pressure and heat capacity at constant volume, or even more fundamental thermodynamic properties such as specific entropy or enthalpy, and Gibbs or Helmholtz specific functions (also called free energies). Although these properties may be of interest in other research works at a purely physical chemical level where the entire range of concentrations are usually investigated, they were considered non applicable in the present context. 1 Adiabatic pressure th ermal coefficient measures the temperature change produced by an isentropic change of pressure, thus a reversible process; while the so-called Joule-Thomson coefficient is a measure of the temperature change during a throttling (expansion) isenthalpic process, and therefore irreversible.

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83 Thermodynamics of Solution: Mi xing Scheme and Solute Effect The determination of the thermodynamic properties derived fro m ultrasonic data of dissolved components of solutions must acc ount for every interaction due to the added substance(s). When a solute is introduced into a solvent, it usually reacts in some way resulting in changes in its molar volume (e.g., hydration in the case of aqueous solutions), compressibility, and heat capacity among others. The contributions made by solute and solvent are not promptly identifiable through space occupancy; instead volumetric properties of a solution can be interpreted in terms of partial or partial molar properties from solution density or specific volume. A thermodynamic approach based on the concept of partial properties a nd their respective summation rule was proposed in order to determine the effect of each component (solut e and solvent) and solute concentration on volumetric thermodynamic properties of binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid as a function of pressure, temperature and concentration. Partial Molar Volumes The volume of a binary aqueous solution, a dependent variable, is described by the set of independent variables given by two intensive variables, pressure and temperature, and the composition variable, solu te concentration, ex pressed in terms of, for example, mole fraction. The procedure st arts by defining a solution molar volume, an intensive property, given by the following equation at fixed pressure, temperature and composition, which relates the experimentally obtained solution density, derived from ultrasonic experimental data, and mo le fractions of solvent and solute2. ()2 2 1 11w w mM x M x V + =n [4-24] 2 As a reminder of our notation along this work: subscript 1 is ascribed to solvent and subscript 2 to solute.

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84 The change in volume by mixing of a multicomponent solution, which is not the sum of the volumes of the individual volum es, can be described by the independent variables temperature, pressure, and the am ount of each component. In the case of a binary solution, this change is expressed by 2 2 1 1 ,1 2dn n V dn n V dP P V dT T V dVn P n P n T n P + + + = [4-25] The subscript n in the first two partial derivatives indicates that the number of moles for all the components is held constant. The partial molar volumes of each component in solution were then defined as partial derivatives of solution volume and consequently depend on th e same variables as V and could be expr essed in terms of either number of mole s or mole fraction. 2 2, 1 , 1 1 n P T m n P T mn nV n V V = = [4-26] 1 1, 2 , 2 2 n P T m n P T mn nV n V V = == [4-27] Using the partial molar volumes as defined by Equation 4-26 and 4-27, dV becomes =+ + =2 1 , i i i n T n Pdn V dP P V dT T V dV [4-28] Equation 4-28 describes how change in the volume of the solution is related to the partial molar volumes of the individual com ponents. But more useful for the present investigation are the expressions for the thermodynamic properties of the solution rather than only the changes in these properties. With this, we recall that partial molar property quantities obey the summation rule as long as the independent thermal and mechanical

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85 variables of the system are intensive proper ties of the system (Reis 1982); in this case temperature and pressure are verified. m m mV x V x V2 2 1 1+ = [4-29] As seen from Equation 4-29 the solution molar volume is the mole fraction average of the individual compone nts partial molar volumes, in other words, the values of each member on the right hand side of this relationship will provide the answer on how much of the solution molar volume is to be ascribed to each component. Partial molar volumes cannot be obtai ned directly from the solution molar volume, using Equation 4-29, because it is not possible to identify the contributions made by the solute and solvent in geometric (i.e. space occupancy) terms since both are concentration dependent and do not change independently as the composition of the solution is changed. Therefore, for the present investigation, these contributions were computed based upon the variation of the solution molar volume with solute mole fraction, since the concentration dependence of solution density and derived volumetric properties can be readily determined. Di fferentiation of solution molar volume with respect to n1, as Equation 4-26 suggests, while holding T P and n2 constant gives 2 2, 1 , 1 n P T m m n P T mn V n V n nV + = [4-30] By making use of the chain rule of differe ntiation, for the second term of the right hand side of Equation 4-30 becomes, () P T m P T m n P T n P T mx V n n n x V n x n V, 2 2 2 1 2 2 , 1 2 , 12 2 + = = [4-31]

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86 Combining Equations 4-30 and 4-31 the fi nal equation used to determine the partial molar volume of solvent in solution becomes, () P T m m mx V x V V, 2 2 1 = [4-32] Similarly, it can be shown that the partial molar volume of the solute in solution can be obtained by the following relationship. () P T m m mx V x V V, 2 2 21 + = [4-33] Use has been made here of the fact that x1 + x2 = 1. Hence, x2 may be regarded as the only independent variable at constant T a nd P, and the partial de rivatives could have been replaced by total derivatives specifically for this analysis, even though the partial derivative notation was kept in regard of the other variables T and P despite the fact that they were held constant in th e differentiation. Furthermore, dx1 = dx2. It is possible then, to fit the data of solution molar volume mVwith an appropriate power series in x2, and differentiate this math ematical representation dir ectly. A second degree was employed, since the concentration dependence was represented by only three different concentration levels. It is evident that if gram was chosen instead of the mole as unit amount of a substance, the equations would all have been of the same form. Mole fraction would then be replaced by mass fraction, and, in place of the partial molar volume, partial specific volume of a component could be defined as the change in volume of the solution per gram of that component. Thus, in this case, direct differentiation of the specific volume of the solution, which is the reciprocal of solution density, with respect to weight fraction could be performed. This enabled using the data directly as obtained. The results of partial specific volumes multiplied by the molecular weights

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87 give the corresponding partial molar quantities. The equations for the summation rule and partial specific volumes of solute and solvent in solution, respectively, are given by the following expressions. 2 2 1 1V w V w V + = [4-34] () P T m P Tdw dV w V m mV V, 2 2 , 2 211 + = = [4-35] () P T m P Tdw dV w V m mV V, 2 2 , 1 11 = = [4-36] Partial Compressibilities In common with conventiona l partial molar qua ntities, partial volume-specific quantities obey the summation rule as well, although because partial isentropic compressibility, like solution isentropic compressibility, has the dimensions of the inverse of pressure, it shoul d not be qualified as a molar quantity; it follows then, 2 2 1 1S S Sx x + = [4-37] Similarly with the development describe d above for partial molar volumes in conformity with Equations 4-32 and 4-33, it is possible also to compute partial isentropic compressibility from the concentration dependence of solution isentropic compressibility as follows: () P T S S n P T S Sx x n n, 2 2 , 2 2 ,11 + = = [4-38] () P T S S n P T S Sx x n n, 2 2 , 1 1 ,2 = = [4-39]

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88 In a similar way, since the concentration dependence was represented by three concentration levels, data of solution isentropic compressibility were fitted to a second degree polynomial in x2, and differentiated directly with respect to x2. Based on the fact that the definition of compressibility involves volume according to Equation 2-2, it is esse ntial to account for changes in molar volume in partial compressibility determination. Following many published works on thermodynamic of solutions (Reis 1998; Blandamer et al. 2001), an alternative approach would be by defining a solution isentropic compression, ha ving dimensions of specific-volume times the inverse of pressure (m3kg-1MPa-1). This s determined simply by dividing the solution isentropic compressibility by the solution density, according to Equation 4-40. n S S SV = = [4-40] The summation rule and the partial specific isentropic compressions can be expressed in terms of mass fr actions of the components. 2 2 1 1S S Sw w + = [4-41] () P T S S m P T S Sw w m m, 2 2 , 2 2 ,11 + = = [4-42] () P T S S m P T S Sw w m m, 2 2 , 1 1 ,2 = = [4-43] Water Activity from Solvent Partial Molar Volume: Thermodynamic Approach The pressure dependence of the Gibbs free energy for a homogeneous material at constant temperature and composition is sole ly given by the volume (see Appendix A for derivation):

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89 V P Gcomp T= [4-44] By differentiation with respect to the amount of component 1 n1, gives 2 2 2, 1 , , 1 n P T n P T n P Tn V P G n = [4-45] Recognizing the definition of partial molar volume of the solvent in solution in the above equation, and rearranging by making use of the chain rule of differentiation, we obtain m n P T n P T n P T n P T n P T n P TV n V P G n G P P G n1 , 1 , 1 , , 1 , , 12 2 2 2 2 2= = = = [4-46] Partial molar free Gibbs energy is identical to the chemical potential of component 1. m comp T comp TV P P G1 1 1= = [4-47] Moreover, chemical potential of solven t (component 1 in solution) can be expressed in terms of activity of this component in the form of Equation 4-48. 1 1ln A RTd d = [4-48] Assuming the chemical potential of the pure component at the highest concentration (water) at the temperature and pressure of the system as the reference standard state (Acree 1984)3, it follows: []m o m oV V RT P P RT P A, 1 1 1 1 11 1 ln = = [4-49] 3 Acree argues that for unsymmetrical reference systems, where there is a distinction between solvent and solute molecules, the standard state for the solvent, the component at the highest concentration, is the same as in symmetrical reference systems, meaning the state of the pure component (Acree 1984).

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90 Integrating with respect to pressure at constant temperature T, from Pref (atmospheric pressure 0. 1 MPa) to pressure P for the activity of the component water in solution, and substituting with the usual notation for water activity A1 = Aw () =P P m o m A A wref T P w T ef wdP V V RT A d, 1 11 ln, , Pr [4-50] The function ( ) m o mV V, 1 1, which is the difference between the partial molar volume of component water (solvent) in solution, determined as described in the previous section, and the molar volume of pure water (independently determined from experimental sound velocity data), both at th e same temperature, can be fitted to a 3rd degree polynomial in P Ascribing letters for polynomial coefficients A, B, C, and D, which are temperature and concen tration dependent we may write. ()+ + + =P P w wref T ref P T PdP D CP BP AP RT A A2 31 ln, [4-51] The integral above can be solved analytically to obtain the final expression for water activity as a function of pressure (from atmospheric to 600 MPa) at a given temperature T, which can be computed for any temperature within the range investigated. () () ()() + + + =ref ref ref ref w wP P D P P C P P B P P A RT A AT ref P T P2 3 42 3 4 1 exp, ,[4-52] Water activity of the reference state ( Aw, Pref,T) is taken as that of the solution, which is solute-type and solute-concentrati on dependent, at atmospheric pressure at a given temperature calculated using the same model mentioned previously in the text, in conformity with Equa tions 4-12 and 4-13.

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91 Error Analysis It has been recognized that a detailed uncertainty analysis of the experimental data obtained for the speed of sound at high pre ssures is extremely difficult for the present investigation since many of the uncertainties involved in the measurements are unknown. Nonetheless, a qualitative error analysis was given and a quantitative deviation comparison with literature data for pure water was performed which in fact, could be seen as the ultimate figures for the deviations encountered as far as the end results were concerned. The total errors associated with the measured variables were combinations of systematic (or bias) and random (or precision or repeatability) errors (Coleman and Steele 1999; Bevington 1969), although the ISO Guide ca tegorizes type A uncertainty as those evaluated by statistical analysis of a series of observations, and ty pe B uncertainties as those evaluated by means other than statis tical analysis (ISO 1993). The errors associated with the sound velocity measurements were due to the several variables (pressure, temperature, acoustic path length, propagation time, solution concentration and solvent purity). The uncertainties of the variable pressure, the most important variable in this investigation, were not known; however pressure error was estimated to be as large as 1 to 4 times the magnitude of the atmospheric pressure in absolute terms (up to 4x105 Pa). No direct way to check the pressure readings was available, although indirect methods such as comparison-calibration procedures with similar measurements for pure substances, contrasted with literature data, could be a choice, although discrepancies in the literature data at high pressure have also been reported (Hayward 1971b). Moreover, what was considered aggravating, pressure fluctuations, already referred to in the

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92 previous chapter, and made pressure readings even less reliable either in terms of recorded values or for the required process steadiness. For n number of observations, the so-called sample st andard deviation XS of the mean value X was calculated using Equation 4-53 (Coleman and Steele 1999). During the data acquisition period, considered to be the state of thermodynamic equilibrium, the overall average standard deviation for pressure was calcu lated as 0.29 for all experime nts. The highest pressure level, around 600MPa, provided the highest av erage deviation (0.34 MPa). We recall that the sample standard deviation, as obtained, multiplied by the t-value (which approaches 1.96 as n approaches infinity), considering these observations to follow the tdistribution at a certain confidence interval (e.g., 95%), it will give the random uncertainty for this measurement. () () 2 1 21 1 =X X n n SX [4-53] Temperature equilibration was also greatly influenced by the latter issues, due to adiabatic heating of compression affected by pr essure fluctuations. As described in the preceding chapter, although temperature calibration was conducte d against standard reference temperature sensor devices, it was performed under atmospheric conditions; consequently no pressure effects were anticipated in this case. Again, similar comparison-calibration procedures, as sugges ted for pressure measurements, could be performed in the case of temperature. The overall average sample standard deviation for all experiments, calculated using Equati on 4-53, was 0.11 K for the temperature measurements. Again, this value multiplied by the t-value gives the random uncertainty for this measurement.

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93 The systematic errors associated to the aco ustic path length were tied to pressure and temperature measurements, since it was computed indirectly through ultrasonic measurements conducted at at mospheric pressure in pure water (refer to previous chapter), and then corrected to the increased pressure and temperature effects carried throughout investigation. The errors associat ed with the determination of the transit time were those resulting from digitizing, sampling, and from the algorithm used for the detection and analysis of the digitized signals, which summed up to 1 ns absolute accuracy. The random uncertainty associat ed with the transit time measurement, computed using the same Equation 4-53, was ca lculated to be 1.8 ns expressed in terms of the overall average sample standard devia tion for the acquisition period considered as that of the thermodynamic equilibrium state. Solution preparation also contributed to uncertainties as for the purity of the substances involved, water and the various solutes studied (e.g., sugars are highly hygroscopic, absorb moisture from the envir onment, nonetheless they were used with no further purification), volumetri c flasks, balance, which all together may account for less than 0.01% to the overall uncertainty. Besides the accuracy required for the ultrasonic experimental data at elevated pressures, density, heat capacity and therma l expansivity data at atmospheric pressure, entered as initial input parameters in the numerical itera tive procedure and because of the largely preponderant contribution of the form er, in order to obtain reliable pressure dependent data, its accuracy had to be attain ed as well. Accurate density data at atmospheric pressure was then considered the most crucial parameter for the mathematical procedure involved in the cal culations of thermodynamic properties at

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94 elevated pressures derived from ultrasonic data. The accuracy of the density measurements, estimated to be better than 0.02%, was confirmed based on the measurement of the density of pure water at atmospheric pressure. The measured densities of pure water in the temperature range studied were in close agreement with literature values (Fine and Millero 1973; Wagner and Pru 1993), considered the most accurate data for pure water (see Table 3-1 for details). The accuracy of the heat-capacity measurements was estimated to be % on the basis of the measurement of the Cp of pure water. Since thermal expansion coefficient was determined based on the temperature dependence of solution densities, its contribution to the overall uncertainty followed that of density measurements added to the statistical error of the polynomial fitting and of the first derivative taken of density with respect to temperature. In addition, the errors due to the numerical iterative procedure carried out to determine density, compressibility, and other thermodynamic properties at high pressures from ultrasonic data at high pressure and density, isobaric specific heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient at atmospheric pressure, could not be estimated easily because some of the errors at both atmosphe ric and high pressure were not known. All these quantities have both random and systematic errors as me ntioned before. The error in these calculated values of derived thermo dynamic properties could, in principle, be estimated by introducing appropriate perturba tions on the input data and recording their effects on the final results. Accordingly, the major contribution to the density increment due to pressure came from the term 1/u2 in Equation 4-19, since the difference between the isentropic and isothermal compressibility wa s small (comprised by the second term in the right hand side of the same equation). Although a systema tic error in the density data

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95 at atmospheric pressure only introduced an error of the same magnitude to the density at higher pressures, a random error may affect the precision of all the quantities at higher pressures considerably. The combined contri bution of isobaric specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient to the ove rall uncertainty on derived thermodynamic properties from ultrasonic data was estimated as less than 10%. The influence of a systematic error in the sound velocity data on the calculated values of density and isobaric thermal-expansion coefficient was found to be small. For instance, a systematic error of 0.1% in the sound velocity can introduce a maximum error of 0.02% in the calculated values for density and 0.1% for compressibility at high pressures. Part of these errors may be caused by the fitting processes, extensively used; on the other hand this procedure can be adva ntageous for data smoothing, therefore minimizing associated random errors. The st andard deviations betw een the experimental and fitted values were found to be in the or der of the accuracy of the measurements showing the validity of the measurements. Many of the errors were possibly eliminated or reduced by the appropriate calibration procedure as described in the experimental section. Quantitative deviation comparisons with literature data for pure water was conducted for the most representative thermo dynamic properties investigated in this study, sound velocity, density and isentropi c compressibility, in order to give an estimation of how bad or good were the data produced. The expression given below, for a general thermodynamic property Q, was used to determine the percentage deviation between the present thermodynamic property, experimentally obtained or calculated, and

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96 those of NIST (National Institute of Sta ndards and Technology), using internationally accepted data and expressions from Sa ul and Wagner (1989), for pure water. ( ) () 100 or 100 %exp expx Q Q Q x Q Q Q Deviationcalc Lit calc Lit = [4-54] Figures 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3 present the pe rcentage deviation between the measured sound velocities (after smoothed out by fitting experimental data of sound velocity in P and T to Equation 4-3), calculated density and isentropic compressibility for pure water and those of NIST, data from Saul and Wagn er (1989), plotted as a function of pressure in the temperature range covered in this study. Although a qualitative error analysis a nd quantitative deviations from literature data were offered, the lack of information regarding the uncertainties in the measurement of certain variables were used as an excuse for not presenting a detailed uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, the many thermodynamic properties, experimentally determined or calculated, were in close proximity to their true values, as shown by the comparisons made with trusted lite rature values, although data for pure water were the only possible data available.

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97 Figure 4-1. Percentage deviation between the measured4 sound velocities in pure water and those of NIST, data from Saul a nd Wagner (1989), plotted as a function of pressure at several temperatures Figure 4-2. Percentage deviation between the calculated densities of pure water and those of NIST, data from Saul and Wa gner (1989), plotted as a function of pressure at several temperatures 4 After smoothed out by fitting experimental data of sound velocity in P and T to Equation 4-3 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0100200300400500600P (MPa)% ( uexp uLit)/ uexp 10 C 20 C 30 C -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0100200300400500600P (MPa)% (ncalc nLit)/ncalc 10 C 20 C 30 C

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98 Figure 4-3. Percentage deviation between the calculated compressibilities of pure water and those of NIST, data from Saul a nd Wagner (1989), plotted as a function of pressure at several temperatures -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0100200300400500600P (MPa)% (S calc S Lit)/S calc 10 C 20 C 30 C

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99 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents and discusses the results of the experiments conducted to collect ultrasonic data at elevated pressures and then the calculated properties derived from them as described in the previous ch apter. The experimental results of sound velocity as a function of pressure, temperatur e, and concentration for each binary solution of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid ar e presented. A brief overview of the thermodynamic properties experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure will be shown as well. In the sequence, thermody namic properties of de nsity, isentropic and isothermal coefficient of compressibility, and the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient derived from ultrasonic data at elevated pressu re combined with density, isobaric specific heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration for each binary solution of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid are presented as a result of the application of the numerical iterative procedure. Also presented are the findings of applying the thermodynamic approach proposed for the mixing scheme in terms of partial properties and partial molar volumes of solute and solvent. This section ends with the calculated values of water activity derived from the solvent partial molar volume as a function of pressu re, temperature, and concentration for each binary solution of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid. Sound Velocity at High Pressures Experimental sound-velocity data for sucr ose, glucose, and citric acid aqueous solutions along with that of pure water at different pressures, temperatures, and

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100 concentrations are shown in Figures 5-1 to 53. Tables with the numerical values are presented in Appendix B. As described in previous chapters, it should be stressed that these values were obtained at equilibrium c onditions of pressure and temperature for each binary solution, which was unique for each experiment. Therefore, each data point, at a given P and T, is the result of the average of a series of measurements of pressure, temperature and transit time over the acquisition period considered as close as possible to the thermodynamic equilibrium state, given the experimental setup available. A total of 36 data points for each binary solution were obtained. It can be observed from these plots that the sound velocity increases as pressure as well as temperature increases, although the effect of temperature is less pr onounced in the restricted temperature range investigated. This behavior is expected if we look at Equation 2-10, since it is the result of the balance between the effect of pressure and temperature on both compressibility and density. As pressure increases, the liquid becomes compressed resulting in a volume decrease or an increase in density, but there is thermal expansion associated with temperature rise. Moreover, the liquid becomes less compressible at higher pressures. It is also apparent, from these plots, the se nsitivity of the speed of sound with solute concentration, although the sma ller concentration range adopted in the case of citric acid solutions makes it not as easy to recognize as it is for sugar solutions. In this regard, as this analysis proceeds a clearer and definite pattern shall be observe d for the behavior of other derived thermo dynamic properties. These experimental data were fitted to a double poly nomial model expressed by Equation 4-3, rewritten here, for each binary solution as a function of pressure P and temperature T at any given concentration.

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101 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 u ( m s1)T (oC )P ( M P a ) Figure 5-1. Experimental sound ve locity in sucrose solutions 2.5% 10% and 50% ; and in pure water 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 u ( m s1)T (oC )P ( M P a ) Figure 5-2. Experimental sound ve locity in glucose solutions 2.5% 10% and 50% ; and in pure water

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102 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 c ( m s1)T (oC )P ( M P a ) Figure 5-3. Experimental sound velo city in citric acid solutions 1% 5% and 10% ; and in pure water The resulting regression coefficients of the model aijs for the continuous surface are presented in Table 5-1. The average deviation between the best fit and the experimental values was found to be 0.06 ms-1 for sucrose solutions, and less than 0.001 ms-1 for glucose and citric acid solutions, with a correlation coefficient better than 0.999 for all solutions. These figures confirm our prior error analysis (refer to Chapter 4), which states that the smoothing procedure carried out by fitting experimental data did not increase the error associated with the measurements. On the contrary, it helped to smooth the associated random errors. The standard deviations between the experimental and fitted values are found to be less than the accuracy of the measurements, showing the validity of the procedure. It should be point ed out that the number of significant figures given for the coefficients does not indicate the accuracy, but extra figures are retained in order to accurately calculate the pressure a nd temperature dependence of this and derived quantities.

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103 == = 3 1 2 0) (ij j i o ij oT u u a P P [4-3] Density at Atmospheric Pressure Measured density at atmospheric pressure of binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid as a function of temperature and con centration, together with the surface model are presented in Figures 5-4, 55, and 5-6. A total of 74 data points for sucrose solutions were obtained and 60 data points for glucose and citric acid and solutions. Literature values, where available, agreed well with experimental data. Density of all solutions studied showed a quadratic dependence to temperature and concentration, but a weaker quadratic-dependence to the latter. Coefficients of predictive equations were determined by fitting the experimental data. Table 5-2 shows the parameters for the predictive equations obt ained by regression analysis by adjusting experimental data to the mathematical model, given by Equation 4-4 rewritten here. All binary solutions fitted well into the proposed model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. Using these equations, the densit y can be predicted with accuracy better than 5x10-5 g cm-3. The standard errors of all fitted predictive equations were in the range from 0.238 to 0.953. The densities obtained in this study are of acceptable accuracy for engineering-design calculations and describe well the temperature and concentration dependence of the solutes investigated. Agai n, the number of significant figures given for the coefficients does not indicate the accuracy, but extra figures are retained in order to calculate the temperature and concentration dependence of this and derived quantities. = = =3 1 1 2 0 i i j j ij PT C aon [4-4]

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104 Table 5-1. Coefficients aij of Equation 4-3 for binary solutions in Pa m-isiK-j i 1 2 3 j 2.5% Sucrose Solutions 0 3.466360000 x107 -1.022377250 x105 7.353611539 x10 1 -2.345944600 x105 7.008568023 x102 -5.045654200 x10-1 2 4.032456583 x102 -1.200105120 8.665580000 x10-4 10% Sucrose Solutions 0 -8.834300000 x106 2.986176444 x104 -3.04915402 x10 1 6.323019296 x104 -2.038644640 x102 2.06151548 x10-1 2 -1.062631260 x102 3.485954560 x10-1 -3.47150000 x10-4 50% Sucrose Solutions 0 1.501890000 x107 -5.463748860 x104 4.544403267 x10 1 -9.816235600 x104 3.701555794 x102 -3.077574600 x10-1 2 1.665946678 x102 -6.245977000 x10-1 5.215380000 x10-4 2.5% Glucose Solutions 0 -1.599000000 x107 7.005462431 x104 -5.06869120 x10 1 1.195014643 x105 -4.959631700 x102 3.58318789 x10-1 2 -2.147794090 x102 8.766108510 x10-1 -6.30770000 x10-4 10% Glucose Solutions 0 -1.0592000000 x107 4.105776503 x104 -2.50614788 x10 1 7.8321602172 x104 -2.884169740 x102 1.77027337 x10-1 2 -1.3710340700 x102 5.063545360 x10-1 -3.10670000 x10-4 50% Glucose Solutions 0 7.45898000 x107 -1.947963860 x105 1.342149209 x102 1 -5.06552635 x105 1.331881389 x103 -9.168321600 x10-1 2 8.66213236 x102 -2.272779830 1.565501000 x10-3 1% Citric Acid Solutions 0 3.382720000 x106 1.38540610 x104 -1.80410091 x10 1 -2.721487240 x104 -8.39536063 x10 1.16948515 x10-1 2 6.009647687 x10 1.25506041 x10-1 -1.87500000 x10-4 5% Citric Acid Solutions 0 4.711240000 x107 -1.444064020 x105 1.310305315 x102 1 -3.234463040 x105 9.958327126 x102 -9.041403200 x10-1 2 5.608955607 x102 -1.714321740 1.559776000 x10-3 10% Citric Acid Solutions 0 7.879600000 x107 -1.867349890 x105 1.373337113 x102 1 -5.342976490 x105 1.267277732 x103 -9.305151700 x10-1 2 9.115903125 x102 -2.148021210 1.576701000 x10-3

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105 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0C ( k g m 3 ) 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300n (kg m-3) Figure 5-4. Experimental density of sucr ose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0C ( k g m 3 ) 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250n (kg m-3) Figure 5-5. Experimental density of gluc ose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration

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106 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0C ( k g m 3 ) 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050n (Kg m-3) Figure 5-6. Experimental de nsity of citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration Table 5-2. Coefficients aij of Equation 4-4 for binary solutions in [kg(1-j)m-3(j-1)K(1-i)] i 1 23 J Sucrose Solutions 0 6.543902625 x1021.705422513-3.03738000 x10-3 1 2.535927166 -8.184200000 x10-3 1.92817000 x10-52 -4.646200000 x10-3 1.254230000 x10-7-3.04250000 x10-8 Glucose Solutions 0 7.084363996 x1022.09934391-1.88660000 x10-4 1 2.188908665 1.38762100 x10-3 9.63030000 x10-72 -4.096960000 x10-3 -2.62940000 x10-6-1.42150000 x10-9 Citric Acid Solutions 0 6.670313285 x1023.755891564 -3.36218800 x10-2 1 2.453599632 -2.051211000 x10-2 2.12820000 x10-42 -4.515580000 x10-3 3.134140000 x10-5-3.36780000 x10-7

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107 Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure Experimental results of is obaric specific heat capacity of binary solutions of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid as a function of temperature and concentration, together with the heat capacity of pure water, are presen ted in Figures 5-7, 5-8, and 5-9. Tables with the numerical values are presented in Appendix C. Heat capacity increased with increasing water content and increasing temperature for all compounds, with more pronounced effect of temperature for the more concentrated solutions. At low concentrations, heat capacity approached that of pure water, with less pronounced effect of temperature, and simila r abnormal behavior of pure water with a minimum around 30o40oC. The proposed correction factor in DSC meas urements to account for the effect of evaporation of water at higher temperatures appeared to be a reasonable approach for applications on high moisture content samp les, such as most food systems. At temperatures above 35o-40oC, the deviation becomes significant, as a consequence of the exponential increase in the water vapor pre ssure. As stated before, at higher concentrations the deviation becomes smaller due to the effect of solutes lowering the vapor pressure of the solution. For a total of 1,230 data points for each solution, the results showed an average standard devi ation of 0.058 for specific heat capacity. Heat capacity of all solutions showed a quadratic dependence with concentration and temperature. Table 5-3 shows the para meters for the predictive equations obtained by regression analysis by fitting experimental data to the mathematical model, according to Equation 4-18 rewritten below. The fitted surfaces are shown along with experimental results in Figures 5-7, 5-8, and 5-9.

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108 2 7 0 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 7 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0C ( k g m 3 ) 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5Cp (J kg-1 K-1) Figure 5-7. Experimental specific heat capacity of sucrose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration 2 7 0 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 7 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0C ( k g m 3 ) 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5Cp (J kg-1 K-1) Figure 5-8. Experimental specific heat cap acity of glucose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration

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109 2 7 0 2 8 0 2 9 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 3 2 0 3 3 0T ( K ) 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0C ( k g m 3 ) 3.8 3.85 3.9 3.95 4 4.05 4.1 4.15 4.2 4.25Cp (J kg-1 K-1) Figure 5-9. Experimental specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration Binary aqueous solutions of all com pounds investigated fitted well into the proposed model with correlation coefficients great er than 0.98. The standard errors of all fitted equations were from 0.016 to 0.027. Th e largest deviations from the model occur at lower concentrations, where the uncertainties in experimental measurements of heat capacity with DSC are greater. This corresponds to smaller differences between the heat capacity of pure water and that of the solution. The relatively high experimental error intrinsic to DSC measurement on heat capacity is because of the notably small changes in heat flow associated with changes in sensible heat as temperature scanning proceeds in contrast with higher heat flow experienced in phase transition studies. Once more, the number of significant figures given for the co efficients does not indicate the accuracy, but extra figures are retained in order to calculate the temperature and concentration dependence of this and derived quantities.

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110 = = =3 1 1 2 0 i i j j ij PT C a Cpo [4-18] Table 5-3. Coefficients aij of Equation 4-18 for binary solutions in [kg-js-2m(2+3j)K-i] i 1 23 j Sucrose Solutions 0 5.996787722-1.200795 x10-2 1.96714 x10-5 1 -1.750330000 x10-28.689670 x10-5-1.18740 x10-72 1.248620000 x10-5-6.861200 x10-8 9.44495 x10-11 Glucose Solutions 0 5.741613076-1.056499 x10-2 1.73814 x10-5 1 -1.856913000 x10-29.202260 x10-5-1.31860 x10-72 1.546130000 x10-5-8.437300 x10-8 1.28382 x10-10 Citric Acid Solutions 0 5.916940728-1.1149346 x10-2 1.89890 x10-5 1 -4.169422000 x10-22.4369400 x10-4-4.12240 x10-72 1.309310000 x10-4-8.4344000 x10-7 1.66411 x10-9 Thermodynamic Properties at High Pr essures Derived from Ultrasonic Data Solving the set of thermodynamic equations starting with the Newton-Laplace expression and Equations that follow 2-7 to 2-10, 4-19 and 4-20, using the numerical procedure described in the previous chapter, density at high pressures was obtained as a function of temperature and concentration for each binary aqueous solution. The input parameters were given by the regression coef ficients of equations as presented above (Table 5-1), obtained by fitting experimental da ta of speed of sound at elevated pressures as a function of temperature and concentration, and the initial values given by the regression coefficients of equations, also pr esented above (Tables 5-2 and 5-3), obtained by fitting experimental data of density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient (derived from density measurements) at atmospheric pressure and also as a function of

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111 temperature and concentration for each binary solution. The calculated values of the density for each binary solution as a functi on of pressure, temperat ure and concentration are presented in Figures 5-10 to 5-12. The data are given at round values of pressures between 0.1 and 600 MPa in intervals of 100 MPa and at temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15 and 303.15 K), which covers the experimental range investigated, although the numerical solution was perform ed in pressure steps of 2 MPa and temperature steps of 5oC (5 K). Also, smoothed lines ar e shown simply to help pattern recognition. Tables with numerical values of thermodynamic properties derived from ultrasonic high-pressure data are presented in Appendix E. 0100200300400500600 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% water n (kg m3)P (MPa) Figure 5-10. Calculated density of sucrose so lutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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112 0100200300400500600 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% water n (kg m3)P (MPa) Figure 5-11. Calculated density of glucose so lutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 10% 5% 1% water n (kg m3)P (MPa) Figure 5-12. Calculated dens ity of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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113 These plots confirm that the liquid becomes compressed resulting in a smooth increase in density as pressure increases. On the other hand, the effect of the temperature is the reverse because there is thermal expansion associated with temperature rise. Apparently, the concentration dependence of density follows the same behavior as in atmospheric pressure; although a closer look at the concentration dependence of other derived thermodynamic properties shall give more insight on this issue. The effect of pressure on the different solu tes in water is not clearly interpreted without separating what is due to the bulk solvent and what is owed to the solute in solution, in other words accounting for solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. This topic will be discussed later when interpreting the results from the proposed mixing scheme. Other relevant thermodyna mic properties were derive d from ultrasonic data at high pressure. Figures 5-13 to 5-27 present the calculated values of the isentropic and isothermal compressibility, isobaric specific heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isentropic pressure thermal coefficient for each binary solution as a function of pressure, temperature and concentration. In th ese graphs, the data are given at values of pressures between 0.1 and 600 MPa in interv als of 50 MPa and at temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15, 303,15 K). Besides the smaller pressure interval used, an extra point at 10 MPa was added in order to accommodate the observed sharper variation at low pressures for most of these properties. Again, smooth lines are shown simply to help pattern reading. It is clear from these plots that the isentropic (as well as isothermal) coefficients of compressibility decrease throughout with increased pressure, temperature, and concentration. Another remarkable observation is that the compressibility drops faster at

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114 low pressures than it does at higher pressures. The natural explanation for this is that at low pressures the molecules fit loosely together with considerable free space between them, and the major part of the compressibility at low pressure arises from the occupancy of this free space; whereas as pressure increases, the free space has become limited, the compressibility that remains is that provided by the molecules themselves, which persists with smaller change over comparatively wide ranges of pressure. It is likely becoming asymptotical in the limit at very high pressure. A striking behavior of these aqueous sy stems is the effect of temperature on compressibility. For most liquids compressibility increases with temperature since thermal expansion increases the internuc lear distance (Bridgman 1931; Isaacs 1981), however for water and aqueous solutions compressibility decreases with temperature as it can be observed from these results within the experimental temperature range investigated1. It is likely that temperature affects the nature of structured units present. Breaking of hydrogen bonds on compressi on results in an unfavorable enthalpy component although this is in part compen sated by the entropy. Furthermore, the hydrophilic groups of the solutes investigat ed match and mismatch into the three dimensionally hydrogen-bonded structure of li quid water. The effect of temperature on compressibility is less pronounced at higher pres sures near the limit of our pressure range (600 MPa). This temperature effect can be re asoned by using Bridgmans arguments that at higher pressures, the associated mo lecules may be thought to be abnormally compressible, in such a way that the volume difference between molecules with different 1 We recall the fact that the compressibility of pure water at atmospheric pressure passes through a minimum at temperatures about 46.5oC and 64oC for the isothermal and isentropic compressibility respectively (Kell 1974).

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115 degrees of association turns out to be sm aller, and the whole effect less pronounced, eventually disappearing at high enough pressures (Bridgman 1931). 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% S (MPa-1)P ( MPa ) Figure 5-13. Calculated isentropic compressibility of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations It is unambiguous the more sensitivity presented by compressibility (as well as speed of sound) to solute type, concentration and temperature than density with respect to change in pressure. This behavior is attested by the linearity (or parallelism) of the density curves and non-linearity, on the other hand, for the compressibility plots. Similar interpretation was reached by other researcher s when analyzing ultrasonic data of sugar solutions, although at atmospheric pressure (Smith and Winder 1983; Contreras et al. 1992). As the density is not markedly affect ed as compressibility by solute type and concentration with changes in pressure or temperature, it can be inferred that the compressibility is the parameter which is governing the changes in the speed of sound with pressure. The grounds for this are that with increasing pressure and increasing

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116 concentration of solute, sound velocity increases and the product of density and compressibility must decrease to satisfy th e inverse in sound velocity relationship (Equation 2-10). Density increases with an in crease in pressure and solute concentration (which should decrease sound velocity valu es according to Equation 2-10), while compressibility decreases to satisfy the inverse relationship. Also, compressibility decreases at a steadily decreasing rate. Thus, compressibility must be more important than density in defining solution sound ve locity characteristics with pressure and concentration changes. It is a well-known fact that even a small amount of a solute decreases compressibility of water, regardless of the solute being more or less compressible than water (Gibson 1937; Newitt a nd Weale 1951; Moriyoshi and Inubushi 1977; Kubota et al. 1987). This effect can be attributed to th e solid-like structure of bound water in such a manner that it loses freedom of mobility, and the free volume contained in the free water is decreased; then the compressibility of bound water is considerably smaller than in normal state causing a net decrease in the compressibility of the solution (Shiio 1958). This is also the case for all solutions investig ated here. However, at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) all solutions have a much lower compressibility than pure water (for example, 4.764 x10-4 MPa-1 for pure water against 2.945 x10-4 MPa-1 for 50% glucose solution at 10oC), but at high pressures the differences ar e not so great, the corresponding values at pressure of 600 MPa being 1.565 x10-4 MPa-1 and 1.236 x10-4 MPa-1, respectively. Also, this may be taken as evidence that in aqueous solutions it is the free water, unaffected by the proximity of the solute molecules, which is undergoing compression and not the solute molecules themselves which have a much lower intrinsic compressibility. This

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117 effect was correlated by Ta mmann and Schwarzkopf (1928) who proposed a theory for solutions on which adding a small quantity of solute increases the internal pressure in the water by chemical affinity (or attraction), in order that the physical properties of the solution at atmospheric pressure, including its compressibility, are the same as the properties of pure water under an external pressure higher than atmospheric by the pressure of chemical affinity. Richards a nd Chadwell (1925) also correlated this effect with the view that adding a solute to a solvent in which the molecules exist in different states of association (hydroge n bonded structure of clusters in the case of water) changes the equilibrium distribution between the different molecules, in other words, a combination of factors such as affinity, hydration, and the combined effect of several compressibilities of the species is involved. Figures 5-16 to 5-18 present a comparison between the calculated values of the isentropic compressibility and that of the isothermal compressibility for each binary solution as a function of pre ssure and concentration at 20oC (293.15 K). Isothermal compressibility data at temperatures other than 20oC are presented in Appendix E. It is interesting to note that the isothermal compressibility is always greater than its isentropic counterpart which is due to the term on the right hand side of Equation 2-9 being proportional to the absolute temp erature and the square of th ermal expansion coefficient, and the reciprocal of the product of heat capacity and density. Physically, under isentropic (adiabatic2) compression, the temperature rises and the volume change for unit pressure rises, consequently the compressib ility is less than under isothermal conditions. 2 The isentropic and the adiabatic conditions can be equated provided that the compression and relaxation process is microscopically reversible (Blandamer et al. 2001).

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118 It can be seen from these plots that this difference is not as significant as it would be expected for other substances, since a queous solutions present comparatively large values of specific heat capacity and small value of thermal expansion coefficient. In addition, these results show that the increase in density with pressure would be rather compensated by the decrease in specific heat capacity, while the coefficient of thermal expansion does not vary to a great extent w ith pressure within the temperature range studied (refer to Figures 5-19 to 5-24). As demonstrated from our results, the isentropic and isothermal compressibilities are different numerically; however, when looking for trends the use of either of them is acceptabl e. Nevertheless, thei r inter-convertibility was demonstrated by using the pressure dependen ce of heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient (Equation 2-9). 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% S (MPa-1)P ( MPa ) Figure 5-14. Calculated isentropic compressibility of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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119 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 1% 5% 10% S (MPa-1)P ( MPa ) Figure 5-15. Calculated isentropic compressibility of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend TSwater 2.5% 10% 50% S or T (MPa-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-16. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at di fferent concentrations at 20oC

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120 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend TSwater 2.5% 10% 50% S or T (MPa-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-17. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at di fferent concentrations at 20oC 0100200300400500600 2x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend TSwater 1% 5% 10% S or T (MPa-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-18. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different concentrations at 20oC

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121 0100200300400500600 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% Cp (J kg-1K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-19. Calculated heat capacity of su crose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% Cp (J kg-1K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-20. Calculated heat capacity of gl ucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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122 0100200300400500600 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 1% 5% 10% Cp (J kg-1K-1)P ( MPa ) Figure 5-21. Calculated specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 0 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% (K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-22. Calculated thermal expansion co efficient of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and oncentrations

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123 0100200300400500600 0 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 2.5% 10% 50% (K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-23. Calculated thermal expansion co efficient of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 0 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-4 5 x 10 4 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC water 1% 5% 10% (K-1)P ( MPa ) Figure 5-24. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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124 The thermal expansion of all solutions predominantly increases with increasing pressure up to about 200-300 MPa at least fo r the low concentration range within the limits of temperature studied, but by an am ount materially less than the decrease of compressibility. Again, this can be cons idered an abnormal be havior, since thermal expansion is expected to decline with pr essure (Isaacs 1981). Beyond this pressure threshold, the thermal expansion becomes cons istently invariable. Only for the highly concentrated sugar solutions, after a slight increase at low pressures, a certain decrease in the thermal expansion is noted. A mathematical consequence of a decrease of thermal expansion with increasing pressure is an increase of compressibility with increasing temperature, or a decline in the rate of decrease in the compressibility with increasing pressure which is more likely what Figures 5-13 and 5-14 show. As expected, the values of thermal expansion coefficient are positively affected by temperature. Figures 5-25 to 5-27 show the dependen ce of the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient on pressure, temperature and concentration for each binary solution. A remarkable feature in these figures is the very sharp decrease in the pressure thermal coefficient with pressure especially pronoun ced at low pressures and concentrations, meaning that the change in temperature produced by an isentropic (adiabatic) change of pressure is significantly greater in the low pressure range and without the influence of solute. The importance of this property in the analysis of the effects of high-pressure processing on food materials because it reveal s the temperature change accompanied with the rapid compression or release of pressure wa rrants further discussion. As stressed in the literature review section, many researchers have often neglected this temperature rise

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125 or made precipitated inferences from their results. To better interpret the results reported here, the fact that the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient is a relative (not absolute) expression of the reversible change in temperature as a result of adiabatic compression of the medium must be kept in mind. Therefore, in order to convert these data to a more convenient parameter, the analysis needs to be redirected toward the work done by Rodriguez (1988) with ad iabatic heating of some polymers at elevated pressures, and to the classical material science text book of Swa lin (1972). The scheme starts by deriving a relationship derived from the Thomson equa tion, obtained by applying hydrostatic (elastically strained, not plastically) pressure adiabatically to a system, which is equivalent to the reciprocal of the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient as given by Equation 2-4, which was then called thermoelastic coefficient since it calls for a phenomenon that relates temperature change of a system to mechanical stress. 0100200300400500600 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% water S (MPa K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-25. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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126 0100200300400500600 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% water S (MPa K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-26. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 0100200300400500600 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 10% 5% 1% water S (MPa K-1)P (MPa) Figure 5-27. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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127 P S SC T P Tn = =1 [5-1] A curve fitting analysis has shown that the values calculated by applying this coefficient, as defined by Equation 5-1 above could be best described through the semiempirical expression in the fo rm of Equation 5-2, where a1, a2 and a3 are the regression coefficients, T = (T To) and P = (P Po), where To is the reference temperature, Po is the atmospheric pressure, C is the solution concentration, and n = 1, 2 or 3 depending on the solute and reference temperature. ()()nC a a P a T3 1exp2 = [5-2] The thermoelastic coefficient, as defined by Equation 5-1 can then be obtained by differentiating both sides of th e above semi-empirical equati on with respect to pressure, to give ()()1 3 2 12exp = a P C a a a P Tn S [5-3] Table 5-4 shows the results of the curve-fitting analysis and the numerical expressions for the thermoelastic coefficient for each binary solution at reference temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15, and 303.15 K). These numerical expressions can be used to predict the e ffect of adiabatic heating upon compression for pure water and aqueous solutions of sucrose, gl ucose, and citric acid in the concentration range investigated. A simulation of the temperature rise due to adiabatic compression, based on the model just proposed, is shown in Figures 5-28 to 5-30 for each binary aqueous solution at two different concentrations and at reference initial temperatures of 10oC and 30oC.

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128 A comparison of these results with data published in the literature for the effect of the adiabatic heating upon compression for pure water have shown that there is a satisfactory agreement, although no direct numerical comparison was possible since published data were presente d only graphically (Makita 1992; Knorr 1999; Ting et al. 2002). Data from the first artic le mentioned, reported adia batic heating effects obtained from the equation of state for pure water. Data for aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid were not found in the literature. Since water is the main ingredient in most food systems, the compression of these foods exhibits temperature changes upon compression similar to that of pure water. However, as it can be seen from these results, depending on the concentration of the different solutes in the food, the temperature rise can be very dissimilar for that of water. It would be extremely desirable to extend the present data set to other food ingredient s, such as proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates. Since compressibility and heat capacity are the main contributing properties to the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient (or derived properties), it is likely that systems with lipids for example, which happen to have higher compressibility and lower heat capacity than water, would have several times larger temperature rise than water and solutions as those studied here. Thermodynamic Properties of Soluti on Components at High Pressures Each type of solute molecule affects the structure of water differently. The mode of action of different classes of solutes on water depends on a series of parameters associated with the chemical structure, polarizing and charge effects, water binding and holding capacity, presence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, packing arrangement of solvent structure around solute molecule, and stereochemistry of the structure, among others. Since most of these parameters ar e influenced by pressure, temperature and

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129 Table 5-4. Regression coefficients of the Equation 5-2 for binary aqueous solutions (a1 in [K], a2 in [K MPa-1], and a3 in [K kg-2nm3n]) Reference Temperature a1 a2 a3 (K) n Sucrose Solutions r2 283.15 31.9877013 x10-2 1.027912256-4.3021 x10-9 0.994 293.15 23.2461409 x10-29.729497310 x10-1-1.8280 x10-6 0.993303.15 24.7432288 x10-29.320487490 x10-1-1.4366 x10-6 0.991 Glucose Solutions 283.15 21.3794026 x10-2 1.082385459-2.7440 x10-6 0.991 293.15 22.5502266 x10-2 1.007975485-2.0714 x10-6 0.987303.15 14.2175855 x10-29.537546670 x10-1-9.4451 x10-4 0.989 Citric Acid Solutions 283.15 32.8157127 x10-29.75742884 x10-1-1.1517 x10-7 0.961 293.15 34.0005153 x10-29.41458597 x10-1-1.1675 x10-7 0.970303.15 35.4292011 x10-29.12213777 x10-1-1.1478 x10-7 0.975 0100200300400500600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 10oC 10oC 30oC 10oC 30oC 30oCLegend water 2.5% 50% T (K)P (MPa) Figure 5-28. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations. Temperatures on each curve denotes the reference initial temperatures before compression

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130 0100200300400500600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 10oC 10oC 10oC 30oC 30oC 30oCLegend water 2.5% 50% T (K)P (MPa) Figure 5-29. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations. Temperatures on each curve denotes the reference initial temperatures before compression 0100200300400500600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 10oC 10oC 10oC 30oC 30oC 30oCLegend water 1% 10% T (K)P (MPa) Figure 5-30. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations. Temperatures on each curve denotes the reference initial temperatures before compression

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131 concentration, the overall solution structure will be a function of solute type and changes related to these parameters. It is also possible that the phenomena described hereafter may correlate with other physical and func tional properties of si mple solutions and complex systems in foods under the influence of pressure. Therefore, this section attempts to interpret the cont ributions made by the dissolved components of the binary solutions investigated to take into account the interactions between solvent and solute molecules through the concept of partial thermodynamic properties of the solutions. Pressure is the main depe ndent variable to be explored throughout. However, temperature and concentration dependence are al so used as convenient, even though their dependence will not be highlighted. Partial Molar Volumes Partial molar volumes we re obtained by solving Equations 4-32 and 4-33, respectively for the solvent and solute in so lution, with the help of the solution molar volume as defined by Equation 4-24 and its concentration dependen ce with respect to solute mole fraction. Solution molar volumes were calculated from density data as a function of pressure and temperature which in turn were derived from experimental ultrasonic data. Data were treated at constant pressure and temperature for each binary aqueous solution as imposed by the thermodynamic relationships. Calculated values of partial molar volumes of solute and solvent for each binary solution as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations are shown in Figures 5-31 to 5-33. As in the case of ot her properties, data ar e given at values of pressures between 0.1 and 600 MPa at interv als of 100 MPa and at temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15 and 303.15 K), covering the experimental range

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132 investigated, also with the help of smooth lines connecting data points for easier pattern recognition. An analysis of the partial molar volumes of sucrose, glucose, citric acid and those of water in the respective solu tions under pressure reveals many interesting features. As the pressure is increased, the partial molar volume of water in solution of any concentration at any temperature decreases by an amount not very different from the decrease in the molar volume of pure water at the same condition (data not shown for clarity: pure water molar volume data are very close to the most dilute solution). In the limit, this would be the behavior of the pa rtial molar volumes of all components in solution if the solution behaves ideally3. Considering the partial molar volume of solute in solution under pressure, there is a small incr ease in the partial molar volumes of solute up to pressures of 100-200 MPa in the low c oncentration range. The volume increase can be attributed to void space packing of solvent around the solute rather than increase in the size of the solute, since the intrinsic volume of a dissolved solute can be defined as the volume of the cavity in the solvent which accommodates the solute. Above this pressure partial molar volume of solute decreases, and thus at high pressures it behaves as would be expected at all pressures in more normal, and certainly in ideal solutions. There is also a tendency for a less significant temperature effect near the highest pressure limit for the low concentration of sugar solutions. For the most concentrated sugar solutions, it is more likely to decrease regularly with increasing pressure as for glucose solutions, and more or less invariable in the case 3 In a solution that at all pressures is ideal in accordance with the well-known thermodynamic definition, it can easily be shown that the components mixture without change of volume; in an ideal solution, therefore, each partial molar volume at any pressure is equa l to the molar volume (at that pressure) of the corresponding pure component.

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133 of sucrose solutions. There is also a reversal effect of temperature in the case of sucrose solutions in the sense of a denser packing of sucrose molecules at high temperatures, while for glucose solutions this effect takes place but with the help of increasing pressure. This behavior suggests that the packing of water molecules around a solute molecule leads to an association which is more pressure and thermally stable than the association with water molecules themse lves, strengthening the indication that hydrogen bonds between water and the hydroxyl groups of the solute molecules are stronger than waterwater hydrogen bonds. At atmospheric pressu re, the strength of this association can apparently compensate for the larger numbe r of potentially hydrogen-bonding groups and the larger size of the sucrose molecule than glucose. Partial molar volumes can also be used to determine the extent of a given reaction. The pressure-dependence of the equilibrium constant of a reaction can be derived from the difference in partial molar vol umes of products and those of reactants at constant temperature in the form of Equation 2-28 as mentioned before (refer to Chapter 2). Le Chateliers principle described previously governs reaction kinetics; accordingly a reaction associated with decrease in volume is favored by pressure and vice-versa. Accordingly, the rate of reaction will be the ra te at which the transition state is converted to products, and its pressure-dependence may be derived from the differences in partial molar volumes between reactants and transiti on state, known as the activation volume, given by Equation 2-29. As seen from the re sults of the present investigation, since partial molar volumes change with pressure and as will be seen shortly their partial compressibilities are pressure dependent as well, besides both being temperature dependent, the activation volume is pressure dependent as well.

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134 0100200300400500600 200 205 210 215 220 SucrosePartial Molar Volume (10-3 m3 kmol-1) 0100200300400500600 15 16 17 18 WaterLegend o 2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oCP (MPa) Figure 5-31. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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135 0100200300400500600 100 105 110 115 120 GlucosePartial Molar Volume (10-3 m3 kmol-1) 0100200300400500600 15 16 17 18 WaterLegend o 2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oCP (MPa) Figure 5-32. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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136 0100200300400500600 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Citric AcidPartial Molar Volume (10-3 m3 kmol-1) 0100200300400500600 15 16 17 18 WaterLegend o 1% 5% 10% 10oC 20oC 30oCP (MPa) Figure 5-33. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at differe nt temperatures and concentrations A B

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137 Presented next are the results of the pressure-dependence of partial compressibilities of solute and solvent in solution, and the discussion that follows combined with partial molar volume results already shown, since both properties are interconnected. Partial compressibilities are more sensitive than partial molar volumes to solute-solvent interactions; since they are s econd derivatives of free energy with respect to pressure (refer to Equations 2-2 and A-10). The rationale for this statement is that as the intrinsic volume of the solute molecules can be regarded as almost incompressible comparing with the bulk solvent, the partia l compressibility will thus reflect mostly solute-solvent (interand not intramolecular ) interac tions (Banipal et al. 1997). Partial Isentropic Compressibilities and Partial Specific Compressions Partial isentropic compressibility and partial specific compression were obtained by solving Equations 4-38 and 4-39, and Equa tions 4-42 and 4-43, respectively, for solute and solvent in solution, with the help of the solution isentropic compressibility, as derived from ultrasonic data, and its concentr ation dependence with respect to solute mole fraction. Data were treated at constant pressure and temperature for each binary aqueous solution as imposed by the thermody namic relationships. In order to simplify the notation from this point on the term isentropic maybe omitted, even though these partial properties were derived from the isentropic compressibility values (not isothermal). Calculated values of partial isentropic compressibilities and partial specific compressions of solute and solvent for each bi nary solution as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations are shown in Figures 5-35 to 5-40. Again, data are given at values of pressures between 0. 1 and 600 MPa in intervals of 100 MPa and at

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138 temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15 and 303.15 K). Smooth lines were drawn connecting data points to facilitate pattern recognition. The increase in partial molar volume of solute in solution, mentioned above for the low concentration range, obviously means that the partial isentropic compressibility or the partial specific compression of solute is negative in the same pressure range. In dilute solutions, partial compressibility and partial specific compression have a large negative value comparable in magnitude with the compressibility of water, but of the opposite sign. It is apparent from these plot s that partial specific compression evidences this behavior more clearly than does partial compressibility property. It can be seen from the former property plots that there is a change in sign at pressures around 100-150 MPa after a sharp increase for sucrose solutions, and a more gradual increase with a change of sign around 200 MPa in the case of glucose soluti ons, both in the low concentrated range. In the case of citric acid, only near the uppe r end of pressure does it change sign and acquire a slowly changing positive value. One of most important characteristic of all solutes investigated is the preponderance of polyhydroxy functional groups in their molecular structure conferring high hydrophilic potential. These are polar gr oups capable of direct interaction with the solvent water. Different hydration models ha ve been proposed to describe the behavior of hydrophilic solutes in aqueous solutions. In the first approach, by Stokes and Robinson (1966), that of a semi-ideal soluti on, it is proposed that the solute forms hydrogen-bonded complexes with water mol ecules, and that each individual complex then behaves ideally in solution, in such a way that the solution properties are explained in terms of a series of well-defined solute-solvent equilibria, and thus no solute-solute

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139 interactions are anticipated. This model provides a useful first approximation when considering simpler thermodynamic functions, but the inadequacies of this theory become important when studying for example derivatives of Gibbs free energy such as partial molar volumes (Franks and Reid 1973). A second appr oach essentially describes the solution in terms of solute-solute interactions based on the activity concept; which claims a direct relationship between solute functional groups and the extension of the interactions, though failing to accommodate properly the diffe rences in hydrations found in similar solute structures (Kozak et al. 1968). One of the most widely accepted hydration models for hydrophilic solutes is the specific site hydration model which seems to provide a better description of such solu tions (Tait et al. 1972). In this model, supported by spectroscopy (magnetic resonanc e and dielectric relaxa tion) measurements in aqueous solutions of simple sugars, the absence of long-range interactions in solution is a consequence of an assumed equilibrium between hydration water and the lattice (or bulky) structured solvent water, as the solute will not perturb the solvent water at a distance beyond the hydration layer. Sucrose and glucose are sugar molecules with hydroxyl and carbonyl groups capable of directly interacting with the solv ent by the formation of hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Figure 5.34 shows the chemical structure of these molecules. Sucrose is a nonreducing sugar composed of two monosaccharides-hexoses (6 carbon sugar) units, glucose (-D-glucopyranosyl) and fructose (-D-fructofuranosyl), chemically classified, respectively, as aldose (polyhydroxy + aldehyde) and ketose (polyhydroxy + ketone) (BeMiller and Whistler 1996). The effe ct of hydration can be viewed as the resulting effect of hydrogen bonding of water molecules to specific groups of the solute

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140 molecules. The hydrations of disaccharides (sucrose) are generally smaller than those of monosaccharides as is the case of glucose st udied here, because th e molecular structure of sucrose is considered to decrease the number of free hydroxyl radicals caused by intramolecular hydrogen bonding and steric hindrance between the two monomers (Shiio 1958). The hydration of both sucrose and gl ucose decreases as temperature increases since hydrogen bonds are very sensitive to chan ges in temperature. The higher strength of hydrogen bonding of water molecules w ith hydrophilic groups of solute molecules than water-water interactions has been demonstrated. Furthermore, there is the effect of the hydrophobic nature of the methyl radicals acting as repulsive forces, but possibly with significantly less influence on the overall solution structure. The partial compressibility of water in solution shows that the state of association of water molecules is effectively nearly the same as in pure water. This may presumably be due to the fact that the effect of hydration on compressibility nearly compensates the effect of the partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds of the associated water molecules by the influence of solute. Different isomeric forms of sugar molecule s in aqueous solution seem not be a major effect, since earlier studies have shown that the equilibrium composition of a carbohydrate in water is not strongly affected by pressure (O'Connor et al. 1983). On the other hand, studies have shown that stereo chemistry has great influence on hydration properties of the different sugar molecules at atmospheric pressure (Galema and Hoiland 1991). Since partial compressibility is a m easure of the protection against compression which the solute molecule imparts to water, the relatively large negative values obtained for sugar molecules, with many hydroxyl groups, would suggest they act as structure preservers. In the case of the most concentrated solutions, it is more likely that the

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141 limiting glassy state4 of the saccharide is reached, and the probability of water hydrogen-bonded to itself is smaller than wa ter being hydrogen bonded to the hydroxyl groups on the sugar molecules, owed to the higher strength of the former. Citric acid is chemically classified as hydroxy-tricarboxylic acid with its technical nomenclature being 1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy(see chemical structure in Figure 5.34). The behavior of citric acid is even more complex in the sense that its chemical structure ha s several functional groups with different properties, hydrophilic hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic methyl groups, and charged carboxylic acid groups. Accordingly, it can be assumed that three limiting types of local water structure near the solute molecule can be distinguished: (i) a solid-like bound water, less compressible than bulk water, (ii) an unbound water, with a high er compressibility, and (iii) electrostricted water, with compressibility lower than (i). At this point, the electrostriction effect of ions in aqueous solutions may need to be clarified even though this effect is much more pronounced in solutions of strong electrolyte solutes than the weak citric acid currently studied. When ionized, or charged, groups are introduced into water they usually break the water structure by electrostriction. The electric field produced by the ions orientates the water molecules and causes the volume of the water to decreas e. It enhances the hydration of ions, principally by increasing the dielectric cons tant of the solution. The water around these groups is dense and less compressible than bulk water, leading to relatively large negative partial compressibilities depending on the ionic strength. Thus the electrostriction effect 4 Glassy state is a non-equilibrium quasi-stabilized amorphous structure that some aqueous carbohydrate solutions may exhibit at the appropriate condition. It is characterized by very long relaxation times, reduced molecular mobility and if kept at a suitable temperature may remain almost indefinitely in a metastable state. There are also time dependent changes in thermodynamic and physico-mechanical properties associated with this transition state (Kauzmann 1948; Gibbs 1971; Urbani et al. 1997).

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142 of the charged groups of citric acid make s water less compressible around them, leading to partial compressib ility less negative than that of the sugar molecules although the number of hydroxyl groups, able to make st ronger hydrogen bonds with water molecules than water-water bonds, are very different. Th e electrostriction effect is evidenced from the partial molar volume and partial compressibility plots of citric acid at high concentration, especially in the higher pressure range (refer to Figure 5-33 and 5-40). The partial compressibility becomes less negative as the concentration increases. The change in volume that is observed when a carboxylic acid molecule dissociates in aqueous solution is mainly a solvent eff ect (Hoiland 1973). The carboxylic groups become charged causing some water molecules to interact with them, whereas there is little or no interacti on with the unchanged acid molecule. The undissociated acid molecules have a lower (intrinsic) compressibility than bulk water, and the ionized molecules tend to behave more or less as water molecules. As the concentration increases, more ionized molecules are formed. Hence, both the partial compressibility and the partial specific compression of solute molecules in solution tend to the values of those of the solvent. Besides being positively affected by pressure, it is also apparent that temperature favors this effect at higher concentration. Th is evidence seems to support the idea that any weak electrolyte will become strong at sufficiently high pressure. In the case of partial specific compression of citric acid in solution, we have to consider that it refers to a hypothetical state of a purely undissociated acid molecule in solution. The calculated values include dissociative effect s which were not taken into account, since degree of dissociation that can be obtained from equilibrium constant, was not available.

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143 Figure 5.34. Chemical structures of sucrose [C12H22O11, Mw = 342.30], glucose [C6O8O7, Mw = 180.16] and citric acid [C6H12O6, Mw = 192.12] molecules

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144 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -8x10-3-6x10-3-4x10-3-2x10-30 P (MPa) Legendo2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oC SucrosePartial Compressibility (MPa-1) Figure 5-35. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations B A

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145 0100200300400500600 2x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -5x10-3-4x10-3-3x10-3-2x10-3-1x10-30 P (MPa) o2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oCLegend GlucosePartial Compressibility (MPa-1) Figure 5-36. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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146 0100200300400500600 2x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -8x10-3-6x10-3-4x10-3-2x10-30 P (MPa) oLegend1% 5% 10% 10oC 20oC 30oC Citric AcidPartial Compressibility (MPa-1) Figure 5-37. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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147 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -1.5x10-4-1.0x10-4-5.0x10-50.0 5.0x10-5 P (MPa) Legendo2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oC SucrosePartial Specific Compression (10-3 m3 kg-1 MPa-1) Figure 5-38. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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148 0100200300400500600 1x10-42x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -2.0x10-4-1.5x10-4-1.0x10-4-5.0x10-50.0 5.0x10-5 P ( MPa ) o2.5% 10% 50% 10oC 20oC 30oCLegend GlucosePartial Specific Compression (10-3 m3 kg-1 MPa-1) Figure 5-39. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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149 0100200300400500600 2x10-43x10-44x10-45x10-4 Water 0100200300400500600 -8x10-4-6x10-4-4x10-4-2x10-40 2x10-4 P (MPa) oLegend1% 5% 10% 10oC 20oC 30oC Citric AcidPartial Specific Compression (10-3 m3 kg-1 MPa-1) Figure 5-40. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations A B

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150 Water Activity at High Pressures Water activity of each binary solution was obtained from the difference between the partial molar volume of co mponent water in solution, as presented in the previous section, and the molar volume of pure water, both at the same temperature. From the regression coefficients obtained by fitting ( ) m o mV V, 1 1 to a 3rd degree polynomial in P, at a given constant temperature, and then in serting these values in to Equation 4-52, water activity data were obtained for the experime ntal range investigated, from atmospheric pressure to 600 MPa at thr ee different temperatures 10o, 20o and 30oC, and at varying concentrations of the solute. Calculated values of water activity for each binary solution as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concen trations are shown in Figures 5-41 to 5-43. Again, data are given at values of pressu res between 0.1 and 600 MPa in intervals of 100 MPa and at temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC (283.15, 293.15 and 303.15 K) with the help of smooth lines connecting data points for easier pattern recognition. Overall the results show a decrease in water activity with increasing pressure, with a more pronounced effect for the high c oncentrated solutions in the low temperature range. The exceptions for this trend are the most concentrated sucrose and citric acid solutions at the highest temperature (30oC), which show a slight increase in water activity in the low pressure range. The dilute solutions of glucose and citric acid also show a slight increase in water activit y with pressure. It is known that at atmospheric pressure, an increase in temperature generally represents a concomitant increase in water activity (an increase in temperature causes a decrease in the amount of adsorbed water); however for sugars and other low molecular weight constituents the effect observed is the

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151 opposite, since these solutes become more hygr oscopic at higher temperatures (Kapsalis 1987). Dissolution, an endotherm ic process, of such solute s uses large amounts of water and is favored by the higher temperature. When these solutes are dissolved in water entropy is reduced as water molecules become organized under the effect of the solute. Our results show that pressure enhances this increasing hygroscopic effect with increasing temperature in the low concentration range. However, for the most concentrated solutions the effect is reversed, i e, the temperature effect of enhancing the hygroscopic potential of these molecules is absent at the elevated pressure; that is, temperature rise becomes unfavorable to water sorption at elevated pressures for low molecular weight solutes in aqueous solu tions. Furthermore, pressure enhances temperature effects at high concentration by reversing the hygroscopic potential. It can also be observed from these plots that glucos e lowered the water activity of the solution to a greater extent than the other solutions at all pressures, which is consistent with preceding properties results. In addition, when comparing with sucrose solutions at the same concentration (e.g., in units of weight per volume), glucose solution has a greater molar concentration of sugar molecules per weight, thus the lowering effect on water activity. The reason for this resides on the fact that colligative properties are affected by the number of molecules present in a given quantity rather than by the weight of the quantity (Rosenbaum 1970). It is not clear how ever, if this hypothesis holds true for both dilute (where the solution becomes more nearly ideal) and concentrated solutions. Water activity itself is not considered a colligative property, although it can be derived from colligative properties like vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure. Definitions of colligative5 properties include those 5 Colligative : from Latin, co-, together, + ligare, to bind.

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152 properties that are dependent on the properties of the solvent and the total mole fraction of all solutes, but are indepe ndent of any particular phys ico-chemical property of the solutes (Kaufman 2002). From the definition given by Equation 4-8, it can be seen that activity is equal to the mole fraction multiplied by the coefficient of activity that shows how much more or less chemically active the species is than it would be in an ideal solution. From this definition it is clear that for a pure species in an ideal solution the activity coefficient is identically 1 and the activity is equal to the mole fraction. Thus, activity or activity coefficient is a simple dimensionless measure of the departure of the species fugacity6 (or chemical potential) from ideal solution behavi or. Accordingly from the results presented here, all solutions at all pressures have positive deviations from ideality. Except for the data at atmospheric pressure (which are in satisfactory agreement with literature values), the pr essure dependence of water activity cannot be compared or verified because no report was found of any prior measurements7 (of related properties), description or predictive theoretical appro ach on this thermodynamic property under the experimental conditions researched, therefore, any attempt at a more detailed interpretation of these results does not a ppear to be profitable at the moment. 6 Fugacity was introduced to overcome the counterintuitive behavior of the chemical potential, which makes it approach minus infinity as the concentration a pproaches zero. For pure ideal gases the fugacity is the same as pressure, and for ideal gas mixtures the fugacity of one species is equal to that species partial pressure. Accordingly, activity of a species in a mixt ure can be defined as the ratio between fugacity of solvent in solution and that of the pure liquid at atmospheric pressure, o i i if f A =(Lewis and Randall 1923). 7 Activity like fugacity or activity coefficient is a computed or estimated quantity; none of them can be measured directly (De Nevers 2002).

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153 0100200300400500600 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% AwP (MPa) Figure 5-41. Water activity of sucrose soluti ons as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations 010020030040050060 0 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 50% 10% 2.5% AwP ( MPa ) Figure 5-42. Water activity of glucose soluti ons as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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154 0100200300400500600 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 Legend 10oC 20oC 30oC 10% 5% 1% AwP (MPa) Figure 5-43. Water activity of citric acid solu tions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations

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155 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDY Experimental in situ measurements of sound velocity as a function of pressure, temperature, and concentration for binary a queous solutions of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid were performed at pressures fro m atmospheric pressure up to 600 MPa, at temperatures of 10o, 20o and 30oC, and at concentrations of 2.5, 10 and 50% (w/v) for sugar solutions, and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) for c itric acid solutions. An increase of sound velocity as pressure increases was observed as well as an increase with increasing temperature and concentration. Thermodyna mic properties of density, isentropic and isothermal coefficient of compressibility, and the isentropic pressure thermal coefficient were determined. They were derived from ultrasonic data at elevated pressure combined with density, isobaric specific heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient experimental data at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature and concentration for each binary solution as a result of the application of a numerical iterative procedure. Pressuretemperatureand concentrationdependence behavior of each property was interpreted accordingly. Predictive equations were proposed for the adiabatic heating effect upon compression for aqueous soluti ons within the experimental range investigated. A thermodynamic approach wa s proposed for the mixing scheme in terms of partial properties, partial molar volumes, and partial compressibility of solute and solvent. The findings of applying this approach revealed some of the intricacies of describing the interactions between solute and solvent unde r the influence of pressure,

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156 temperature, concentration and solute-type. In addition, water activity values were obtained from the partial molar volume of the component water (solvent) in solution as a function of pressure, temperature, and concen tration for each solution investigated. For predictive or numerical application purposes, where applicable, regression coefficients were determined by fitting experimental or calculated data to the appropriate model. A qualitative error analysis was given and a quantitative deviation comparison with literature data for pure water was performed. We believe that the many thermodynamic properties, experimentally determined or calculated, are close to their true values, as demonstrated by comparisons with literature valu es, although data for pure water was the only one available. The developed high-pressure ultrasonic measurement cell, associated electronics, and the pulse-echo technique have s hown to be appropriate choices for in situ measurements of sound velocity in a liqui d sample during compression. The main advantages of ultrasound are that it is nonde structive, noninvasive, can be applied to systems that are concentrated and optically opaque, and can provide valuable information about fundamental physical and chemical properties of food ma terials that are difficult to obtain using other techniques. However, a lo t of information about the thermophysical properties of the solution components is n eeded to interpret ultrasonic data using thermodynamic theories. Especially to interpret ultrasonic data at high pressures, since the properties related to the speed of sound, through Newton-Laplace equation, are also pressure dependent, a numerical -iterative procedure with in itial value was necessary to solve the partial differential equation set to determine other thermodynamic properties at high pressure. We found a ppropriate the proposed proce dure based on Runge-Kutta 4,5th

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157 order, coupled with properties (density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient) determined at atmos pheric pressure as initial input values. The present investigation demonstrated that thermodynamics is a powerful tool for the study of the physical and chemical interactions between solutes and water in aqueous solutions under high pr essure, and provides many insi ghts into the nature of these interactions. However, the methods of thermodynamics have an intrinsic limitation. Due to the average nature at the macroscopic level the information provided by thermodynamic properties derived, they are una ble to give any direct information on the microscopic structure and properties of the sy stems. Thus, their interpretation must be consistent with the microscopic behavior of these systems in cases any is available; otherwise a consistent model must be accounted for. On the other hand, a thorough understanding of the behavior of such aqueous solutions unde r the influence of pressure, temperature, composition, and concentration must be based on information gained from a broader variety of experimental techniques before an assessment can be attempted. The availability of experimental techniques that can be applied at high pressures is still in its infancy. Therefore the development of other experiment al techniques for in situ measurements under elevated pressures is desi rable. For instance, the use of ultrasonic spectroscopy, which combines velocimetry with attenuation measurements as a function of frequency, would be very useful to obtai n information about relaxation mechanisms. Measurements of the frequency dependent of the absorption of ultrasound have been used to study a number of important relaxation phenomena such as proton transfer equilibria (e.g., electrostriction effect s), hydration equilibria (e.g ., equilibria between bound and unbound water), and conformationa l equilibria (e.g., aggrega tion of macromolecules).

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158 Moreover, it would be extremel y advantageous to develop such devices such as for viscosity measurements, since studies on pr essure dependence of viscosity, as a reversible process in the same way as the ones investigated presently may reveal important aspects of physical chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic mechanisms of pressure-induced transformations experienced by food components during high-pressure food processing. This would also contribute to help quantitatively interpret the cause and effect relationship between pr essure and physicochemical a nd structural properties, and mobility of fluid particles and molecules and thus complementing the present study. The overall expectations of high-pressure proce ssing as an alternative technology for food processing will not be sati sfied without the basic concepts and the knowledge of thermodynamic and transport pr operties of foods and their c onstituents under pressure as those determined in the present investigation. The thermodynamic properties determined, experimental or calculated and their pressure, temperature and concentration dependence are considered as the first step toward an accurate evaluation of the effects of pressure applied during conventional batch high-pressure processing of foods. Obviously experiments with other materials, their combinations, extended condition ranges, a nd broader scope of properties should be performed to cover the various food materials of interest for high-pressure processing. Besides pressure dependence, it was consider ed important to determine the temperature dependence as well, since high-pressure processing does not escape the classical limitations imposed by heat transfer, either because the pressure process is intrinsically accompanied by adiabatic heating or simply because of process combination with mild heat. This has been recognized to be useful in several applications where pressure is not

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159 enough to inactivate some baroresistant spores of microorganisms or certain enzymes. Heat transfer is then caused by the resulting temperature gradients and can lead to large temperature differences, esp ecially in large-volume industrial vessels, with the consequent non-uniform distribu tion of the desired pressure/temperature effect. In every case, pressure process design, modeling and optimization must rely on pressuretemperature dependence data of nonlinear and non-isotropic food material properties coupled with kinetic pa rameters of safetyor quality-re lated component. The effects of adiabatic heating can be now pr edicted and introduced in ki netic studies as far as the components presently studied are concerned. Despite the fact that most of the literature dealing with thermodynamics of solutions and their components uses the appr oach based on the calc ulation of apparent (molar) properties, it was instead more appropriate to employ a thermodynamic treatment in terms of partial (molar) properties to th e high-pressure data. Apparent properties, which attribute all the changes, upon mixing, to the solute species, are calculated directly from the experimental data on a point-by-point basis, and are usually more suitable to determine properties at infinite dilution using extrapolating procedures. On the other hand, the partial properties have to be obtained by some sort of fitting procedure that give estimates of the mole fraction derivatives, which indeed concurred with the mathematical treatment and experimental data in this study. In addition, the treatment involving calculation of apparent properties requires co mbining with data for pure components and more refined experimental data at low concentrations which were not entirely available in this case. Moreover, the formulation usually employed to derive apparent properties of

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160 the components in solution suffers from inaccu racies due to the mathematical operations involving large quantities. The features discussed in this dissertation regarding the effects of high pressure in these binary solutions are certainly not small scale effects since the arguments went to broader physicochemical proper ties and their interpretation. But superposed to these effects there are other features concerning the complexity and irregularities of such molecules in solution. Examples of virtuall y every conceivable type of behavior may be found; the compressibility, heat capacity, thermal expansion, thermal pressure coefficient, and partial properties may increase or decrease with increasing pressure or temperature, and the curves for different temperatures or concentration may cross and recross in the most confounding way. The reason doubtless is that the different molecules, especially water with solutes, are very complicated structures when details of their behavior and interacting forces are taken into account and the nature of the complications are not the same for any two kinds of molecule, even considering two similar simple sugars such as sucrose and glucose. Additionally, the effect of these local complexities at the molecular level may be expected to become important when molecules are forced into close proximity by high pressure, but is comparatively less important when the molecules are free to move as they please at low pressures. The thermodynamic relationships and equations have illustrated the power of thermodynamics in drawing together the pr operties of solutions and their components, and in particular of aqueous systems under the influence of high pressure. It can be inferred from the results that the effect s of each compound on acoustic and derived properties are a combination of the hydrogen -bonded structure of the bulk water, the

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161 solute ability in alter this structure, intermolecular forces, and property relationships. A convincing argument can be made that the c ontinuation of the present study would gain considerably from the determination of mixi ng properties of aqueous solutions, such as partial properties of solutes other than sugars and organic acids, for example macromolecules (proteins, starch, pectin, etc.) and strong electrolyte compounds (inorganic salts) and their combinations, by more closely emulating food systems, and their pressure, temperature and concentration dependence. In fact, experimental data have also been collected of different combinations of some of these solutes as well as other binary solutions and combined solutions and are still under investigation. However, because of time constraints due to difficulties in keeping the high-pressure unit operating, these data could not be included in this disse rtation. Interesting patterns would emerge pointing to the complexity of both solute-solve nt and solute-solute interactions of these systems. Many of the solutes evoked may ha ve limited solubility in water, and therefore phase change may take place in these solutions depending on the combination of pressure, temperature and concentration used Crystallization and metastable states resulting from supersaturation or supercooling may occur due to pressure shift freezing point effects. The key to describing the wa ter relations in these materials under elevated pressures will depend on the availability of a reasonable model that reflects our understanding of the interac tion of water with soluble components, on which some insight were brought from the present investigation. Water and aqueous solutions of carbohydrates and organic acids, as studied in the present research, and other food constituents (e.g ., proteins, lipids, and minerals), are the most important chemical compounds and the mo st fascinating substances not only in the

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162 food science and technology field but also in sc ientific research in biophysical-chemistry and other areas. It is hoped that beside s reporting many important thermodynamic properties of these systems under high-pressure conditions, some add itional facets have also been presented in this research. Research on water and aqueous solutions at high pressure will remain of primary interest and importance in the future. It will continue and develop in many directions because of the primary importance of water for nature, life, biology, medicine, biochemistry, oceanograph y, meteorology, envi ronmental problems, technological processes, etc. Along the deve lopment of this research, in every phase of it, we acknowledge the use of theories, a pproaches, and ideas from many distinct disciplines. And so, it is reasonable to believe that some barriers which often arise between different fields of knowledge due to otherwise converging approaches must be overcome. Such barriers are wasteful and can no longer be afforded since traditional boundaries between disciplines no longer have much meaning and the understanding of a given phenomenon will be nefit from and involve the participation of scientists of many different types of background.

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163 APPENDIX A SELECTED THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS AND DERIVATIONS Basic thermodynamic functions. By using Legendre differential transformations,21 change of variables of thermody namic state functions, yield other fundamentally important thermodynamic stat e functions in more convenient forms, according to any preferred particular situation. Starting with the first law of thermodynamics (dU = dW + dQ) for a closed (constant mass) hydrostatic system with heat expressed in terms of temperature and entropy. TdS PdV dU + = [A.1] This equation is convenient for situations involving variations in internal energy U, with changes in volume V and entropy S. Now, from that we can define a new characteristic function enthalpy H, using the Legendre transformation, giving: PV U H + r [A.2] In differential form, TdS VdP dH + = [A.3] Enthalpy is a convenient function for probl ems involving heat quantities, such as heat capacities, latent heat, and heats of reac tions, when pressure is the variable being controlled. 21 Legendre transformation : If the state of a system is described by a function of two variables f(x,y), which satisfies df=udx+vdy, and we wish to change the description to one involving a new function g(u,y), satisfying a similar equation in terms of du and dy, then we must define the Legendre transform as g r f-ux, which satisfies dg = -xdu+vdy.

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164 Similarly relationships can be derived fo r other state functions, namely Helmholtz A and Gibbs G functions. TS U A r [A.4] PdV SdT dA = [A.5] TS H G r [A.6] SdT VdP dG = [A.7] The latter is of special interest in the context of the present work since G is a state function characterized by situations where pressure and temperature are the convenient independent variables. All these characteristic state functions U, H, A, and G are known as thermodynamic potential functions, because they have the property that if the functions are expressed in terms of the appropriate thermodynamic variables, then all the thermodynamic properties of a system can be calculated by differentiation only. Pressure dependence of isobaric heat capacity. Based on the previous statements and relations, for instance, if the enthalpy function H is known as a function of P and T for a system, then we can calculate all the other thermodynamic properties of the system by differentiation, and no new constants or functions appear in the calculation. Therefore, we may write, dP P H dT T H dHT P + = [A.8] The first partial derivative of the righthand side of Equation [A.8] is promptly identified as the isobaric heat capacity, wher eas the second partial derivative deserves extra attention. If we derive Equation [A .6] with respect to pressure at constant temperature and solving for the enthalpy term, we have,

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165 T T TP S T P G P H + = [A.9] From Equation [A.7], solving for Gibbs function, both at constant temperature and at constant pressure, we obtain V P GT= [A.10] S T GP = [A.11] By taking the second derivative with re spect to temperatur e and pressure, of Equation [A.10] and [A.11] respectively, and using the cross partial differentiation rule,22 it follows T P T P TT G P P S T V P G TP = r = [A.12] Combining Equations [A.9] and [A.12], we obtain P TT V T V P H = [A.13] By introducing the definition of isobaric h eat capacity and Equation [A.13] into Equation [A.8], becomes dP T V T V dT C dHP P + = [A.14] 22 Cross partial di fferentiation rule : If x and y are independent variables, and u = u(x,y) is a singlevalued function, then () ()dy y u dx x u dux y + = and () [ ] () [ ] y x x yx y u y x u =

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166 Since dH is an exact differential,23 we may directly write ()[] P P T PT T V T V P C = [A.14] Or, the final format of the pressure dependence of isobaric heat capacity. P T PT V T P C = 2 2 [A.15] Maxwells relations. As the enthalpy function H, U, A, and G are actual functions of S, V, T and P, th eir differentials are exact differe ntials as pointed out before. Therefore, we can apply the same conditi on to obtain the Maxwells relations, shown below. These equations do not refer to a pr ocess but express relations that hold at any equilibrium state of a hydrostatic system. The reciprocals of Maxwells relations are also valid equations. TdS PdV dU + = V SS P V T = [A.16] TdS VdP dH + = P SS V P T = [A.17] PdV SdT dA = V TT P V S = [A.18] SdT VdP dG = P TT V P S = [A.19] 23 Condition for an exact differential : If a relation exists among x, y, and z, then we may imagine z expressed as a function of x and y; whence, () ()dy y z dx x z dzx y + =. If we let ()yx z M =and ()xy z N =, thenNdy Mdx dz + =, where z, M, and N are all functions of x and y. Partially differentiating M with respect to y, and N with respect to x, we get () y x z y Mx = 2 and () x y z x Ny = 2. Since the two second derivatives of the right-hand terms are equal, it follows that () ()y xx N y M =

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167 Maxwells relations as well as other ther modynamic expressions derived here are very useful, because they provide relations hips between measurable quantities and those which either cannot be measured or are difficu lt to measure. In particular, it should be noted that pressure, temperature, and specific volume (or density, indirectly calculated through measured speed of sound as in the present study) can be measured by experimental techniques. Pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient. The change of isobaric thermal expansion coefficient with pressure is the complement of the change of isothermal coefficient of compressibility with respect of temperature. Hence, P T T PP V T T V P = [A.20] By applying the cross differentiation ru le mentioned before, we then obtain, P T TT P = [A.21] Relationship between isentropic and isothermal compressibility. We now seek the difference between isentropic and isothermal compressibility. Starting with their thermodynamic definitions ()SP V and ()TP V respectively, and by applying the rule of partial differentiation for changing variable held constant, 24 we find, + = S P T T S TP T T V P V P V P V P V [A.22] 24 Rule of partial differentiation fo r change variable held constant : If u = u(x,y,z), then the complete differential of u is () () ()dz z u dy y u dx x u duy x z x z y , + + =, and () () () ()z x y zx y y u x u x u + =

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168 If we apply the minus 1 rule25 of partial differentiation to the isentropic pressure dependence on temperature (last) term of th e right-hand side of the equation above, we find, S P SP S S T P T = [A.23] Equation [A.22] becomes, T P P S TP S S T T V P V P V = [A.24] Now, combining Equations [A.06] and [A.11], we get, PT G T G H = [A.25] By differentiating above expression with respect to temperature at constant pressure, P PT G T T H = 2 2 [A.26] By differentiating the expression for Gi bbs function at constant pressure (Equation [A.11]) with respect to temperature at constant pressure, and then combining the result with Equati on [A.26], we have, T C T H T T G T SP P P P= = = 12 2 [A.27] 25 Minus 1 partial di fferentiation rule : If x and y are independent variables, and u = u(x,y) is a singlevalued function, then () () ()1 = x u yu y y x x u or () () ()u x yx y y u x u =

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169 Now, introducing the above expressi on (Equation [A.27]) and one of the Maxwells relations (Equation [A19]) into Equation [A.24], after rearrangement becomes, 2 = P P S TT V C T P V P V [A.28] And finally, after reintroducing the de finitions of isentropic and isothermal compressibility, and the coefficient of thermal expansion, we obtain the final relationship: + =n P S TC T2 [A.29]

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170 APPENDIX B HIGH PRESSURE ULTRASONIC EXPERIMENTAL DATA Table B-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: high -pressure ultrasonic experimental data Sucrose Aqueous Solutions Concentration Pressure Te mperature Speed of Sound kg m-3 MPa K m s-1 25 0.1013 279.17 1434.68 25 0.1014 291.64 1482.87 25 0.1018 302.70 1511.19 25 202.5013 284.33 1804.29 25 199.8426 293.66 1829.76 25 200.1959 301.85 1841.23 25 395.3876 284.12 2090.51 25 400.9563 293.25 2117.87 25 399.5765 302.00 2128.13 25 572.1584 284.04 2311.15 25 590.3524 292.79 2346.30 25 596.7295 303.23 2358.63 100 0.1014 279.06 1460.85 100 0.1018 290.88 1503.36 100 0.1014 302.88 1537.24 100 196.3602 284.09 1815.14 100 194.7986 292.66 1834.16 100 200.9490 301.88 1864.12 100 396.8465 284.15 2113.98 100 401.6077 292.44 2130.74 100 400.1490 302.38 2140.63 100 582.3053 283.98 2354.85 100 591.9920 292.13 2361.09 100 591.7018 302.25 2363.61 500 0.1020 278.15 1632.40 500 0.1020 290.96 1657.93

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171 Table B-1. Continued Sucrose Aqueous Solutions Concentration Pressure Te mperature Speed of Sound kg m-3 MPa K m s-1 500 0.1020 302.65 1675.17 500 196.0863 284.00 1959.74 500 195.7490 293.87 1975.41 500 197.5608 302.17 1986.95 500 397.0275 283.96 2230.38 500 395.3334 292.11 2235.60 500 397.6000 302.07 2246.24 500 586.3765 283.82 2444.74 500 593.7568 293.81 2458.87 500 592.5020 302.47 2460.08

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172 Table B-2: Glucose aqueous solutions: high -pressure ultrasonic experimental data Glucose Aqueous Solutions Concentration Pressure Te mperature Speed of Sound kg m-3 MPa K m s-1 25 0.1020 284.42 1478.56 25 0.1018 292.78 1489.42 25 0.1020 304.69 1519.26 25 197.3020 283.70 1797.99 25 203.1293 295.08 1833.67 25 196.0466 302.12 1846.00 25 400.6745 284.25 2100.75 25 399.7253 294.04 2115.86 25 402.5098 301.55 2130.63 25 590.9098 283.88 2333.44 25 592.5096 294.55 2350.12 25 592.5093 302.46 2359.53 100 0.1014 282.12 1495.70 100 0.1014 293.44 1519.18 100 0.1009 304.47 1554.61 100 196.0814 284.60 1823.07 100 200.7212 294.93 1852.82 100 199.9846 302.21 1874.37 100 399.0739 284.42 2117.14 100 398.4938 294.64 2132.89 100 400.9336 302.87 2150.77 100 590.2661 284.05 2346.87 100 597.7094 294.96 2370.17 100 596.4081 302.87 2378.11 500 0.1017 278.34 1684.41 500 0.1014 294.65 1701.80 500 0.1009 302.28 1714.67 500 200.7919 284.51 1999.77 500 198.0151 292.67 2011.23 500 199.2082 300.98 2013.85 500 396.1644 284.11 2249.21 500 396.8681 294.88 2258.73 500 398.1415 302.10 2262.34 500 593.9919 283.86 2463.11 500 592.0730 292.02 2464.53 500 594.4823 302.39 2470.03

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173 Table B-3: Citric acid aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data Citric Acid Aqueous Solutions Concentration Pressure Te mperature Speed of Sound kg m-3 MPa K m s-1 10 0.1020 280.61 1441.52 10 0.1020 293.79 1483.44 10 0.1010 296.67 1498.05 10 196.7451 284.05 1803.03 10 201.5992 288.87 1813.97 10 198.9010 302.28 1839.39 10 395.7639 284.44 2098.32 10 397.3718 292.17 2103.03 10 395.7559 302.66 2118.65 10 552.1508 283.39 2298.53 10 590.9326 293.21 2338.47 10 581.7268 302.30 2341.59 50 0.1018 279.35 1445.47 50 0.1018 292.91 1492.35 50 0.1016 302.22 1537.05 50 195.7332 284.74 1816.57 50 197.3645 293.64 1842.09 50 198.1173 302.69 1863.54 50 395.4116 284.45 2108.78 50 397.9842 293.92 2125.37 50 398.1173 302.92 2137.97 50 585.9763 284.15 2342.64 50 590.5175 294.57 2354.46 50 587.1999 302.50 2341.97 100 0.1014 281.20 1469.51 100 0.1014 294.07 1507.60 100 0.1013 300.27 1526.88 100 200.0543 284.64 1824.70 100 198.9015 290.71 1846.63 100 198.1170 302.33 1853.81 100 400.0936 284.54 2117.20 100 395.3015 292.08 2127.60 100 398.6033 302.78 2129.28 100 587.3093 284.25 2333.38 100 580.9015 292.99 2349.06 100 580.7366 302.82 2339.60

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176 APPENDIX C DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY EXPERIMENTAL DATA AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Table C-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experime ntal density data at atmospheric pressure Sucrose Aqueous Solutions Temperature Concentration Density K kg-solute m-3 kg m-3 283.15 10 1003.99 283.15 20 1007.10 283.15 50 1019.94 283.15 100 1038.80 283.15 250 1096.97 283.15 500 1191.86 283.15 650 1247.32 293.15 10 1002.52 293.15 20 1006.19 293.15 50 1018.25 293.15 100 1038.25 293.15 250 1094.31 293.15 500 1192.24 293.15 650 1250.65 303.15 10 999.80 303.15 50 1015.39 303.15 250 1090.63 313.15 10 996.37 313.15 20 1000.03 313.15 50 1011.82 313.15 100 1031.50 313.15 250 1086.46 313.15 500 1183.00 313.15 650 1240.58 323.15 10 992.07

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177 Table C-1. Continued Sucrose Aqueous Solutions Temperature Concentration Density K kg-solute m-3 kg m-3 323.15 50 1007.43 323.15 250 1081.55 333.15 10 987.19 333.15 20 990.86 333.15 50 1002.41 333.15 100 1021.95 333.15 250 1076.25 333.15 500 1172.03 333.15 650 1229.04

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178 Table C-2. Glucose aqueous solutions: experime ntal density data at atmospheric pressure Glucose Aqueous Solutions Temperature Concentration Density K kg-solute m-3 kg m-3 283.15 10 1003.65 283.15 20 1007.46 283.15 50 1018.92 283.15 100 1038.26 283.15 250 1095.49 283.15 500 1187.68 283.15 650 1241.24 293.15 10 1002.41 293.15 20 1006.24 293.15 50 1017.80 293.15 100 1036.55 293.15 250 1096.06 293.15 500 1186.45 293.15 650 1241.67 313.15 10 996.22 313.15 20 999.95 313.15 50 1011.28 313.15 100 1028.06 313.15 250 1088.23 313.15 500 1177.18 313.15 650 1231.73 333.15 10 986.96 333.15 20 990.63 333.15 50 1001.82 333.15 100 1020.11 333.15 250 1077.86 333.15 500 1165.94 333.15 650 1220.10

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179 Table C-3. Citric acid aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure Citric Acid Aqueous Solutions Temperature Concentration Density K kg-solute m-3 kg m-3 283.15 1 1000.18 283.15 2 1000.72 283.15 5 1002.03 283.15 10 1004.32 283.15 20 1008.25 283.15 50 1022.09 283.15 100 1041.88 293.15 1 998.74 293.15 2 999.40 293.15 5 1000.59 293.15 10 1002.62 293.15 20 1006.89 293.15 50 1019.79 293.15 100 1040.56 313.15 1 992.89 313.15 2 993.53 313.15 5 994.61 313.15 10 996.48 313.15 20 1000.51 313.15 50 1012.86 313.15 100 1032.81 333.15 1 983.65 333.15 2 984.20 333.15 5 985.38 333.15 10 987.21 333.15 20 991.19 333.15 50 1003.14 333.15 100 1022.44

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180 Table C-4. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure Sucrose Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 278.15 50 4.0518 00.283.15 50 4.0552 288.15 50 4.0472 293.15 50 4.0508 298.15 50 4.0531 303.15 50 4.0671 308.15 50 4.0745 313.15 50 4.0854 318.15 50 4.0817 323.15 50 4.0844 328.15 50 4.0991 333.15 50 4.1107 338.15 50 4.1235 278.15 100 3.9116 283.15 100 3.9159 288.15 100 3.9105 293.15 100 3.9206 298.15 100 3.9175 303.15 100 3.9298 308.15 100 3.9267 313.15 100 3.9321 318.15 100 3.9394 323.15 100 3.9360 328.15 100 3.9522 333.15 100 3.9588 338.15 100 3.9709 278.15 250 3.6074 283.15 250 3.6267 288.15 250 3.6412 293.15 250 3.6606 298.15 250 3.6751

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181 Table C-4. Continued Sucrose Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 303.15 250 3.6929 308.15 250 3.7047 313.15 250 3.7184 318.15 250 3.7285 323.15 250 3.7440 328.15 250 3.7639 333.15 250 3.7731 338.15 250 3.7964 278.15 500 3.0920 283.15 500 3.1239 288.15 500 3.1476 293.15 500 3.1712 298.15 500 3.1946 303.15 500 3.2240 308.15 500 3.2377 313.15 500 3.2590 318.15 500 3.2790 323.15 500 3.2907 328.15 500 3.3178 333.15 500 3.3390 338.15 500 3.3626 278.15 650 2.8396 283.15 650 2.8732 288.15 650 2.8928 293.15 650 2.9172 298.15 650 2.9438 303.15 650 2.9699 308.15 650 2.9939 313.15 650 3.0158 318.15 650 3.0352 323.15 650 3.0576 328.15 650 3.0774 333.15 650 3.0985 338.15 650 3.1238 Note: Heat-capacity data were presented at temperatures between 5 and 65oC in intervals of 5oC, even though the experimental data were recorded in temperature intervals of 0.1oC.

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182 Table C-5. Glucose aqueous solutions: ex perimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure Glucose Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 278.15 50 3.9502 283.15 50 3.9543 288.15 50 3.9460 293.15 50 3.9481 298.15 50 3.9622 303.15 50 3.9670 308.15 50 3.9674 313.15 50 3.9705 318.15 50 3.9715 323.15 50 3.9746 328.15 50 3.9860 333.15 50 3.9902 338.15 50 4.0061 278.15 100 3.8190 283.15 100 3.8312 288.15 100 3.8239 293.15 100 3.8347 298.15 100 3.8473 303.15 100 3.8540 308.15 100 3.8535 313.15 100 3.8627 318.15 100 3.8633 323.15 100 3.8660 328.15 100 3.8801 333.15 100 3.8833 338.15 100 3.8981 278.15 250 3.4841 283.15 250 3.5084 288.15 250 3.5170 293.15 250 3.5324 298.15 250 3.5511

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183 Table C-5. Continued Glucose Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 303.15 250 3.5652 308.15 250 3.5782 313.15 250 3.5899 318.15 250 3.5993 323.15 250 3.6093 328.15 250 3.6233 333.15 250 3.6366 338.15 250 3.6550 278.15 500 3.0531 283.15 500 3.0829 288.15 500 3.1000 293.15 500 3.1304 298.15 500 3.1482 303.15 500 3.1720 308.15 500 3.1884 313.15 500 3.2084 318.15 500 3.2260 323.15 500 3.2404 328.15 500 3.2611 333.15 500 3.2756 338.15 500 3.2976 278.15 650 2.8844 283.15 650 2.9164 288.15 650 2.9425 293.15 650 2.9756 298.15 650 3.0003 303.15 650 3.0272 308.15 650 3.0527 313.15 650 3.0742 318.15 650 3.0977 323.15 650 3.1167 328.15 650 3.1461 333.15 650 3.1668 338.15 650 3.1919 Note: Heat-capacity data were presented at temperatures between 5 and 65oC in intervals of 5oC, even though the experimental data were recorded in temperature intervals of 0.1oC.

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184 Table C-6. Citric acid aqueous solutions: ex perimental heat capacity at atmospheric pressure Citric Acid Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 278.15 10 4.1259 283.15 10 4.1379 288.15 10 4.1242 293.15 10 4.1271 298.15 10 4.1316 303.15 10 4.1401 308.15 10 4.1402 313.15 10 4.1468 318.15 10 4.1443 323.15 10 4.1521 328.15 10 4.1629 333.15 10 4.1598 338.15 10 4.1798 278.15 20 4.0640 283.15 20 4.0667 288.15 20 4.0583 293.15 20 4.0530 298.15 20 4.0540 303.15 20 4.0539 308.15 20 4.0514 313.15 20 4.0542 318.15 20 4.0492 323.15 20 4.0416 328.15 20 4.0450 333.15 20 4.0479 338.15 20 4.0509 278.15 50 3.9635 283.15 50 3.9772 288.15 50 3.9756 293.15 50 3.9692 298.15 50 3.9772 303.15 50 3.9767

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185 Table C-6. Continued Citric Acid Aqueous Solutions T Concentration Heat Capacity K kg-solute m-3 kJ kg-1 K-1 308.15 50 3.9735 313.15 50 3.9776 318.15 50 3.9680 323.15 50 3.9696 328.15 50 3.9719 333.15 50 3.9761 338.15 50 3.9829 278.15 100 3.8489 283.15 100 3.8653 288.15 100 3.8676 293.15 100 3.8737 298.15 100 3.8872 303.15 100 3.8882 308.15 100 3.8940 313.15 100 3.8963 318.15 100 3.8996 323.15 100 3.9000 328.15 100 3.9010 333.15 100 3.9130 338.15 100 3.9219 Note: Heat capacity-data were presented at temperatures between 5 and 65oC in intervals of 5oC, even though the experimental data were recorded in temperature intervals of 0.1oC.

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186 APPENDIX D MATLAB PROGRAM FOR THE NUMERICAL ITERATIVE PROCEDURE TO COMPUTE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AT HIGH PRESSURE FROM ULTRASONIC DATA This program solves the partial differen tial equation set given by Equations 2-7, 2-8, 4-19, and 4-20. The input values are give n by the coefficients of Equations 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, and 4-18. Auxiliary coefficients of equations 4-6, 4-21, 4-22, and 4-23 were also determined and used during the computation. Notation and range of the variables, specifically for this program: T or Temp = temperature (K), Rang e: 278.15 to 303.15 K, Interval: 5 K p = pressure (Pa), Range: 0.1 to 600 MPa, Interval: 2 MPa conc = solute concentration (x10-1 kg-solute m-3) (Range: vary with solute type, refer to Chapter 3) y or rho = density (kg m-3) u = sound velocity (m s-1) alpha or alphaTemp = thermal expansion coefficient (K-1) Cp or CpTemp = isobaric heat capacity (J kg-1K-1) betaS = isentropic compressibility (MPa-1) betaT = isothermal compressibility (MPa-1) This program involves an implicit soluti on of the 3 sub-routines given below together with other built-in routines of MatLab: 1. A subroutine that defines the input para meters, range of variables, the first and subsequent iteration procedures, intermediate computations, fitting procedures, and output files: function binarysolution_RK45args (parameters) 2. A subroutine that defines the ma in differential equation arguments: function dydp= drhodp_binarysolution (p ,y, flag,Temp,alphaTemp,CpTemp)

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187 3. A subroutine that performs the numer ical procedure based on Runge-Kutta 4,5th order: function [tout,yout,varargout] = RK45_modified 2 (odefile,tspan,y0,options,varargin) *********************************************************************** function binarysolution_RK45args (parameters) clear all; close all; % Initial value first step deltaP=1000000; pn0 = 2000000; pfinal=pn0; Conc=input(Enter concentration ); fid=fopen(rhocoefatm.dat,r); rhocoefatm=fread(fid); fid=fopen(ucoefatm.dat,r); ucoefatm=fread(fid); fid=fopen(Cpcoefatm.dat,r); Cpcoefatm=fread(fid); fid=fopen(alphacoefatm.dat,r); alphacoefatm=fread(fid); for Temp=(278.15:5:303.15) y0 = (AY10+AY11*conc+AY12*conc.^2) + (AY20+AY21*conc+AY22*conc.^2)*Temp+ (AY30+AY31*conc+AY32*conc.^2)*Tem p.^2; % Initial condition u0 = (AU10+AU11*Temp) + (AU20+AU21*Temp)*1e5 + (AU30+AU31*Temp) ((1e5)^2); alphaTemp = -(((AA10+AA11*conc+AA12*conc.^2) + 2*(AA20+AA21*conc+AA22*c onc.^2)*Temp)/y0); CpTemp=(ACP10+ACP11*conc+ACP12*c onc.^2)+(ACP20+ACP21*conc+ACP 22*conc.^2)*Temp+(ACP30+ACP31*c onc+ACP32*conc.^2)*Temp.^2; betaS = 1/(y0*(u0.^2)); betaT = betaS + ((Temp*alphaTemp.^2)/(y0*CpTemp)); fprintf('\n Temp Cp al pha betaS betaT at Patm\n'); fprintf(' %5.2f %8.4f %8.5e %8.5e %8.5e', Temp, CpTemp alphaTemp, betaS, betaT); fprintf('\n Temp P rho\n'); [p,y] = RK45_modified ('drhodp_binarysolution', pn0, y0, [], Temp, alphaTemp, CpTemp); for k=(1:40:length(p)) fprintf(' %5.2f %3.2e %12.4f\n',Temp, p(k),y(k)); end if Temp==278.15

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188 y278=y(max(k)); y0278=y0; deltarho278=y278-y0278; elseif Temp==283.15 y283=y(max(k)); y0283=y0; deltarho283=y283-y0283; elseif Temp==288.15 y288=y(max(k)); y0288=y0; deltarho288=y288-y0288; elseif Temp==293.15 y293=y(max(k)); y0293=y0; deltarho293=y293-y0293; elseif Temp==298.15 y298=y(max(k)); y0298=y0; deltarho298=y298-y0298; elseif Temp==303.15 y303=y(max(k)); y0303=y0; deltarho303=y303-y0303; end; end; end y1=[y278,y283,y288,y293,y298,y303]; Temprange=[278.15,283.15,288.15,293.15,298.15,303.15]; rhopoly1=polyfit(Temprange,y1,3); derivrhopoly1=polyder(rhopoly1); deltarho=[deltarho278,de ltarho283,deltarho288,deltar ho293,deltarho298,deltarho 303]; deltarhopoly=polyfit(Temp range,deltarho,2); T=278.15; for k=(1:1:6) alpha1=-(1/polyval(rhopoly1,T))*polyval(derivrhopoly1,T); alpha(k)=alpha1; T=T+5; end alphapoly1=polyfit(Temprange,alpha,3); alphaderiv1=polyder(alphapoly1); T=278.15; for k=(1:1:6) y0 = (AY10+AY11*conc+AY12*conc.^2) + (AY20+AY21*conc+AY22*conc.^2)*T + (AY30+ AY31*conc+AY32*conc.^2)*T.^2;

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189 alphaTemp=-(((AA10+AA11*conc+AA12*conc.^2) + 2*(AA20+AA21*conc+AA22*conc.^2)*T)/y0); Cp0 = (ACP10+ACP11*c onc+ACP12*conc.^2) + (ACP20+ACP21*conc+ACP22*c onc.^2)*T+(ACP30+ACP 31*conc+ACP32*conc.^2)* T.^2; Cp1 = Cp0+((((-T*((deltaP-1e5) / (polyval(deltarhopoly,T)))*log((polyval(r hopoly1,T)+polyval(deltarhopoly,T))/polyval(r hopoly1,T))))*(((alphaTemp+(polyval(alphapoly1 ,T)/2)).^2)+polyval(a lphaderiv1,T)))); Cp(k)=Cp1; if T==278.15 Cp278=Cp(k); elseif T==283.15 Cp283=Cp(k); elseif T==288.15 Cp288=Cp(k); elseif T==293.15 Cp293=Cp(k); elseif T==298.15 Cp298=Cp(k); elseif T==303.15 Cp303=Cp(k); end; T=T+5; end Cp=[Cp278,Cp283,Cp288,Cp293,Cp298,Cp303]; Cp1poly=polyfit(Temprange,Cp,3); % Iteration for the initial value for Temp=(278.15:5:303.15) y1 = polyval(rhopoly1,Temp); y0=y1; alphaTemp=polyval(alphapoly1,Temp); CpTemp=polyval(Cp1poly,Temp); pn0 = 2000000; pfinal=pn0; [p,y] = RK45_modified('drhodp_binarysolution', pn0,y0,[],Temp,alphaTemp,CpTemp); for k=(1:40:length(p)) fid=fopen('binarysolution_results_600MPa_PT','a+'); fprintf(fid,'%5.2f %3.2e %12.4f %8.4f %8.5e \n',Temp,t(max(k)), y(max(k)), CpTemp,alphaTemp); end if Temp==278.15 y278=y(max(k)); y0278=y0; deltarho278=y278-y0278; elseif Temp==283.15

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190 y283=y(max(k)); y0283=y0; deltarho283=y283-y0283; elseif Temp==288.15 y288=y(max(k)); y0288=y0; deltarho288=y288-y0288; elseif Temp==293.15 y293=y(max(k)); y0293=y0; deltarho293=y293-y0293; elseif Temp==298.15 y298=y(max(k)); y0298=y0; deltarho298=y298-y0298; elseif Temp==303.15 y303=y(max(k)); y0303=y0; deltarho303=y303-y0303; end; end y1=[y278,y283,y288,y293,y298,y303]; Temprange=[278.15,283.15,288.15,293.15,298.15,303.15]; rhopoly1=polyfit(Temprange,y1,3); derivrhopoly1=polyder(rhopoly1); deltarho=[deltarho278,de ltarho283,deltarho288,deltar ho293,deltarho298,deltarho 303]; deltarhopoly=polyfit(Temp range,deltarho,2); % iteration for the subsequent steps for finalpressure=(4000000:deltaP:600000000) T=278.15; for k=(1:1:6) alpha1=-(1/polyval(rhopoly1,T))*polyval(derivrhopoly1,T); alpha(k)=alpha1; T=T+5; end alphapoly1=polyfit(Temprange,alpha,3); alphaderiv1=polyder(alphapoly1); T=278.15; for k=(1:1:6) Cp0=polyval(Cp1poly,T); Cp1=Cp0+((((-T*((deltaP5.5e5)/(polyval(deltarhopoly,T)))*log((polyval(rhopoly1,T)+polyval(deltarhopoly,T))/pol yval(rhopoly1,T))))*(((polyval(alphapol y1,T)).^2)+polyval(alphaderiv1,T)))); Cp(k)=Cp1; if T==278.15

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191 Cp278=Cp(k); elseif T==283.15 Cp283=Cp(k); elseif T==288.15 Cp288=Cp(k); elseif T==293.15 Cp293=Cp(k); elseif T==298.15 Cp298=Cp(k); elseif T==303.15 Cp303=Cp(k); end; T=T+5; end Cp=[Cp278,Cp283,Cp288,Cp293,Cp298,Cp303]; Cp1poly=polyfit(Temprange,Cp,3); % subsequent pressure interval % Iteration for the subsequent pressure interval for Temp=(278.15:5:303.15) y1 = polyval(rhopoly1,Temp); y0=y1; alphaTemp=polyval(alphapoly1,Temp); CpTemp=polyval(Cp1poly,Temp); pn=finalpressure; pfinal=pn; [p,y] = RK45_modified2('drhodp_binarysolution', pn,y0,[],Temp,alphaTemp,CpTemp); for k=(1:40:length(p)) fid=fopen('binarysolution_results_600MPa_PT','a+'); fprintf(fid,'%5.2f %3.2e %12.4f %8.4f %8.5e \n', Temp, p(max(k)), y(max(k)), CpTemp,alphaTemp); end if Temp==278.15 y278=y(max(k)); y0278=y0; deltarho278=y278-y0278; elseif Temp==283.15 y283=y(max(k)); y0283=y0; deltarho283=y283-y0283; elseif Temp==288.15 y288=y(max(k)); y0288=y0; deltarho288=y288-y0288; elseif Temp==293.15 y293=y(max(k));

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192 y0293=y0; deltarho293=y293-y0293; elseif Temp==298.15 y298=y(max(k)); y0298=y0; deltarho298=y298-y0298; elseif Temp==303.15 y303=y(max(k)); y0303=y0; deltarho303=y303-y0303; end; end y1=[y278,y283,y288,y293,y298,y303]; Temprange=[278.15,283.15,288.15,293.15,298.15,303.15]; rhopoly1=polyfit(Temprange,y1,3); derivrhopoly1=polyder(rhopoly1); deltarho=[deltarho278,de ltarho283,deltarho288,deltar ho293,deltarho298,deltarho 303]; deltarhopoly=polyfit(Temp range,deltarho,2); end st=fclose('all') function dydp= drhodp_binarysolution (p ,y, flag,Temp,alphaTemp,CpTemp) % drhodp_each_binary_solution Eval uate right hand side of dy/dp fid=fopen(upcoef.dat,r); upcoef=fread(fid); dydp=((1/(((AUP10+AUP11*Temp)+( AUP20+AUP21*Temp)*p+(AUP30+AUP 31*Temp)*p.^2).^2))+((alpha Temp.^2)*Temp/CpTemp)); function [tout,yout,varargout] = RK45_modified 2 (odefile,tspan,y0,options,varargin) % Solve differential equation true = 1; false = ~true; nsteps = 0; nfailed = 0; nfevals = 0; npds = 0; ndecomps = 0; nsolves = 0; if nargin == 0 error('Not enough input arguments. See ODE45.'); elseif ~isstr(odefile) & ~isa(odefile, 'inline') error('First argument must be a single-quoted string. See ODE45.');

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193 end if nargin == 1 tspan = []; y0 = []; options = []; elseif nargin == 2 y0 = []; options = []; elseif nargin == 3 options = []; elseif ~isempty(options) & ~isa(options,'struct') if (length(tspan) == 1) & (length(y0) == 1) & (min(size(options)) == 1) tspan = [tspan; y0]; y0 = options; options = []; varargin = (Millero 1971); msg = sprintf('Use ode45(''%s'',tspan,y0,...) instead.',odefile); warning(['Obsolete syntax. msg]); else error('Correct syntax is ode45(''odefile'',tspan,y0,options).'); end end % Get tspan and y0 from odefile if isempty(tspan) | isempty(y0) if (nargout(odefile) < 3) & (nargout(odefile) ~= -1) msg = sprintf('Use ode45(''%s'',tspan,y0,...) instead.',odefile); error(['No default parameters in upper(odefile) '. msg]); end [def_tspan,def_y0,def_options] = fe val(odefile,[],[],'init',varargin{:}); if isempty(tspan) tspan = def_tspan; end if isempty(y0) y0 = def_y0; end if isempty(options) options = def_options; else options = odeset('RelTol',1e10,'AbsTol',[1e-10 1e-10 1e-12]); end end tspan = tspan(:); ntspan = length(tspan); if ntspan == 1 next = 1; else p0 = tspan(1); next = 2; end

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194 pfinal = tspan(ntspan); p0=pfinal-1000000; if p0 == pfinal error('The last entry in tspan must be different from the first entry.'); end tdir = sign(pfinal p0); if any(tdir (tspan(2:ntspan) tspan(1:ntspan-1)) <= 0) error('The entries in tspan must strictly increase or decrease.'); end p= p0; y = y0(:); neq = length(y); % Get options rtol = odeget(options,'RelTol',1e-10); if (length(rtol) ~= 1) | (rtol <= 0) error('RelTol must be a positive scalar.'); end if rtol < 100 eps rtol = 100 eps; warning(['RelTol has been increased to num2str(rtol) '.']); end atol = odeget(options,'AbsTol',1e-12); if any(atol <= 0) error('AbsTol must be positive.'); end normcontrol = strcmp(odeget(options ,'NormControl','off'),'on'); if normcontrol if length(atol) ~= 1 error('Solving with NormControl ''on'' requires a scalar AbsTol.'); end normy = norm(y); else if (length(atol) ~= 1) & (length(atol) ~= neq) error(sprintf(['Solving %s requires a scalar AbsTol, ... 'or a vector AbsTol of length %d'],upper(odefile),neq)); end atol = atol(:); end threshold = atol / rtol; % hmax is 1/10 of the interval. hmax = min(abs(pfinal-p), abs(odeget( options,'MaxStep',0.1*(pfinal-p)))); if hmax <= 0 error('Option ''MaxStep'' must be greater than zero.'); end htry = abs(odeget(options,'InitialStep')); if htry <= 0

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195 error('Option ''InitialStep'' must be greater than zero.'); end haveeventfun = strcmp(odeget(options,'Events','off'),'on'); if haveeventfun valt = feval(odefile,p,y,'events',varargin{:}); teout = []; yeout = []; ieout = []; end if nargout > 0 outfun = odeget(options,'OutputFcn'); else outfun = odeget(options,'OutputFcn','odeplot'); end if isempty(outfun) haveoutfun = false; else haveoutfun = true; outputs = odeget(options,'OutputSel',1:neq); end refine = odeget(options,'Refine',4); printstats = strcmp(odeget(options,'Stats','off'),'on'); mass = lower(odeget(options,'Mass','none')); switch(mass) case 'none', Mtype = 0; case 'm', Mtype = 1; case 'm(p)', Mtype = 2; case 'm(p,y)', Mtype = 3; otherwise, error('Unrecognized Mass property value. See ODESET.'); end Msingular = odeget(options,'MassSingular'); if strcmp(Msingular,'maybe') warning(['This solver assumes MassSingular is ''no''. See ODE15S or ... 'ODE23T.']); elseif strcmp(Msingular,'yes') error(['MassSingular cannot be ''yes'' for this solver. See ODE15S or ... 'ODE23T.']); end if Mtype == 1 M = feval(odefile,p,y,'mass',varargin{:}); [L,U] = lu(M); else L = []; U = []; end % Set the output flag.

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196 if ntspan > 2 outflag = 1; elseif refine <= 1 outflag = 2; else outflag = 3; S = (1:refine-1)' / refine; end if nargout > 0 if ntspan > 2 tout = zeros(ntspan,1); yout = zeros(ntspan,neq); else chunk = max(ce il(128 / neq),refine); tout = zeros(chunk,1); yout = zeros(chunk,neq); end nout = 1; tout(nout) = p; yout(nout,:) = y.'; end % Initialize method parameters. pow = 1/5; A = [1/5; 3/10; 4/5; 8/9; 1; 1]; B = [ 1/5 3/40 44/45 19372/6561 9017/3168 35/384 0 9/40 -56/15 -25360/2187 -355/33 0 0 0 32/9 64448/6561 46732/5247 500/1113 0 0 0 -212/729 49/176 125/192 0 0 0 0 -5103/18656 -2187/6784 0 0 0 0 0 11/84 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]; E = [71/57600; 0; -71/16695; 71/ 1920; -17253/339200; 22/525; -1/40]; f = zeros(neq,7); % The input arguments of odefile determin e the args to use to evaluate % f. if (exist(odefile) == 3) | (nargin(odefile) == 2) args = {}; else args = [{''} varargin]; end f0 = evalODEfile(odefile,p,y,Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); nfevals = nfevals + 1; [m,n] = size(f0); if n > 1 error([upper(odefile) must return a column vector.'])

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197 elseif m ~= neq msg = sprintf('an initial condition vector of length %d.',m); error(['Solving upper(odefile) requires msg]); end hmin = 16*eps*abs(p); if isempty(htry) % Compute an initial step size h using y'(p). absh = min(hmax, abs(tspan(next) p)); if normcontrol rh = (norm(f0) / max(normy,threshold)) / (0.8 rtol^pow); else rh = norm(f0 ./ max(abs(y),t hreshold),inf) / (0.8 rtol^pow); end if absh rh > 1 absh = 1 / rh; end absh = max(absh, hmin); else absh = min(hmax, max(hmin, htry)); end f(:,1) = f0; % Initialize the output function. if haveoutfun feval(outfun,[p pfinal],y(outputs),'init'); end % THE MAIN LOOP done = false; while ~done hmin = 16*eps*abs(p); absh = min(hmax, max(hmin, absh)); h = tdir absh; if 1.1*absh >= abs(pfinal p) h = pfinal p; absh = abs(h); done = true; end % LOOP FOR ADVANCING ONE STEP. nofailed = true; while true hA = h A; hB = h B; f(:,2) = evalODEfile(odefile,p+hA(1),y+f*hB(:,1),Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); f(:,3) = evalODEfile(odefile,p+hA(2),y+f*hB(:,2),Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); f(:,4) = evalODEfile(odefile,p+hA(3),y+f*hB(:,3),Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); f(:,5) = evalODEfile(odefile,p+hA(4),y+f*hB(:,4),Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); f(:,6) = evalODEfile(odefile,p+hA(5),y+f*hB(:,5),Mtype,L,U,varargin,args);

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198 pnew = p+ hA(6); ynew = y + f*hB(:,6); f(:,7) = evalODEfile(odefile,pnew,ynew,Mtype,L,U,varargin,args); nfevals = nfevals + 6; % Estimate the error. if normcontrol normynew = norm(ynew); err = absh (norm(f E) / max(max(normy,normynew),threshold)); else err = absh norm((f E) ./ max(max(abs(y),abs(ynew)),threshold),inf); end % Accept the solution only if the weighted error is no more than % the tolerance rtol. Estimate an h that will yield an error of % rtol on if err > rtol nfailed = nfailed + 1; if absh <= hmin msg = sprintf(['Failure at p=%e. Unable to meet integration ... 'tolerances without reducing the step size below ... 'the smallest value allowed (%e) at p.\n'],p,hmin); warning(msg); if haveoutfun feval(outfun,[],[],'done'); end if printstats fprintf('%g successful steps\n', nsteps); fprintf('%g failed attempts\n', nfailed); fprintf('%g function evaluations\n', nfevals); fprintf('%g partial derivatives\n', npds); fprintf('%g LU decompositions\n', ndecomps); fprintf('%g solutions of linear systems\n', nsolves); end if nargout > 0 tout = tout(1:nout); yout = yout(1:nout,:); if haveeventfun varargout{1} = teout; varargout{2} = yeout; varargout{3} = ieout; varargout{4} = [nsteps; nfailed; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; else varargout{1} = [nsteps; nfailed; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; end end return; end

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199 if nofailed nofailed = false; absh = max(hmin, absh max(0.1, 0.8*(rtol/err)^pow)); else absh = max(hmin, 0.5 absh); end h = tdir absh; done = false; else break; end end nsteps = nsteps + 1; if haveeventfun [te,ye,ie,valt,stop] = ... odezero('ntrp45',odefile ,valt,p,y,pnew,ynew,p0,varargin,h,f); nte = length(te); if nte > 0 if nargout > 2 teout = [teout; te]; yeout = [yeout; ye.']; ieout = [ieout; ie]; end if stop pnew = te(nte); ynew = ye(:,nte); done = true; end end end if nargout > 0 oldnout = nout; if outflag == 3 nout = nout + refine; if nout > length(tout) tout = [tout; zeros(chunk,1)]; yout = [yout; zeros(chunk,neq)]; end i = oldnout+1:nout-1; tout(i) = p+ (pnew-p)*S; yout(i,:) = ntrp45(tout(i),p,y,[],[],h,f).'; tout(nout) = pnew; yout(nout,:) = ynew.'; elseif outflag == 2 nout = nout + 1; if nout > length(tout)

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200 tout = [tout; zeros(chunk,1)]; yout = [yout; zeros(chunk,neq)]; end tout(nout) = pnew; yout(nout,:) = ynew.'; elseif outflag == 1 while next <= ntspan if tdir (pnew tspan(next)) < 0 if haveeventfun & done nout = nout + 1; tout(nout) = pnew; yout(nout,:) = ynew.'; end break; elseif pnew == tspan(next) nout = nout + 1; tout(nout) = pnew; yout(nout,:) = ynew.'; next = next + 1; break; end nout = nout + 1; tout(nout) = tspan(next); yout(nout,:) = ntrp45(tspan(next),p,y,[],[],h,f).'; next = next + 1; end end if haveoutfun i = oldnout+1:nout; if ~isempty(i) & (feval( outfun,tout(i),yout(i ,outputs).') == 1) tout = tout(1:nout); yout = yout(1:nout,:); if haveeventfun varargout{1} = teout; varargout{2} = yeout; varargout{3} = ieout; varargout{4} = [nsteps; nf ailed; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; else varargout{1} = [nsteps; nf ailed; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; end return; end end elseif haveoutfun if outflag == 3 tinterp = p+ (pnew-p)*S;

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201 yinterp = ntrp45(tinterp,p,y,[],[],h,f); if feval(outfun,[tinterp; pnew] ,[yinterp(outputs,:), ynew(outputs)]) == 1 return; end elseif outflag == 2 if feval(outfun,pnew,ynew(outputs)) == 1 return; end elseif outflag == 1 ninterp = 0; while next <= ntspan if tdir (pnew tspan(next)) < 0 if haveeventfun & done ninterp = ninterp + 1; tinterp(ninterp,1) = pnew; yinterp(:,ninterp) = ynew; end break; elseif pnew == tspan(next) ninterp = ninterp + 1; tinterp(ninterp,1) = pnew; yinterp(:,ninterp) = ynew; next = next + 1; break; end ninterp = ninterp + 1; tinterp(ninterp,1) = tspan(next); yinterp(:,ninterp) = ntrp45(tspan(next),p,y,[],[],h,f); next = next + 1; end if ninterp > 0 if feval(outfun,tinterp(1:ninterp),yinterp(outputs,1:ninterp)) == 1 return; end end end end % If there were no failures compute a new h. if nofailed temp = 1.25*(err/rtol)^pow; if temp > 0.2 absh = absh / temp; else absh = 5.0*absh; end end

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202 % Advance the integration one step. p = pnew; y = ynew; if normcontrol normy = normynew; end f(:,1) = f(:,7); end if haveoutfun feval(outfun,[],[],'done'); end if printstats fprintf('%g successful steps\n', nsteps); fprintf('%g failed attempts\n', nfailed); fprintf('%g function evaluations\n', nfevals); fprintf('%g partial derivatives\n', npds); fprintf('%g LU decompositions\n', ndecomps); fprintf('%g solutions of linear systems\n', nsolves); end if nargout > 0 tout = tout(1:nout); yout = yout(1:nout,:); if haveeventfun varargout{1} = teout; varargout{2} = yeout; varargout{3} = ieout; varargout{4} = [nsteps; nfaile d; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; else varargout{1} = [nsteps; nfaile d; nfevals; npds; ndecomps; nsolves]; end end function f = evalODEfile(odefile,p,y,Mtype,L,U,args1,args2) if Mtype == 0 f = feval(odefile,p,y,args2{:}); elseif Mtype == 1 f = U \ (L \ feval(odefile,p,y,args2{:})); else M = feval(odefile,p ,y,'mass',args1{:}); f = M \ feval(odefile,p,y,args2{:}); end

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203 APPENDIX E THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES DERIVED FROM HIGH PRESSURE ULTRASONIC DATA. NUMERICAL VALUES Table E-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1450.21 1009.764107.67 1.198 4.709 4.719 122.275 0.1 293.15 1482.64 1008.124105.93 2.063 4.512 4.543 68.434 0.1 303.15 1515.08 1005.604107.66 2.934 4.332 4.395 46.442 10 283.15 1468.69 1014.854098.06 1.379 4.568 4.581 106.512 10 293.15 1500.72 1013.014095.87 2.217 4.383 4.418 63.847 10 303.15 1532.74 1010.334097.07 3.060 4.213 4.282 44.622 50 283.15 1542.09 1032.594058.84 1.994 4.072 4.099 74.214 50 293.15 1572.48 1030.144054.78 2.737 3.926 3.978 52.067 50 303.15 1602.87 1026.934053.88 3.484 3.790 3.879 39.418 100 283.15 1630.95 1052.654016.26 2.549 3.571 3.615 58.584 100 293.15 1659.33 1049.624010.11 3.199 3.460 3.531 44.880 100 303.15 1687.71 1045.924006.88 3.854 3.357 3.464 35.874 150 283.15 1716.61 1070.773979.06 2.934 3.169 3.226 51.293 150 293.15 1743.01 1067.323971.09 3.514 3.084 3.169 41.143 150 303.15 1769.41 1063.263965.87 4.097 3.004 3.125 33.952 200 283.15 1799.06 1087.303945.96 3.199 2.842 2.909 47.367 200 293.15 1823.52 1083.543936.43 3.724 2.775 2.871 39.065 200 303.15 1847.98 1079.223929.49 4.251 2.713 2.842 32.911 250 283.15 1878.31 1102.483916.09 3.378 2.571 2.646 45.138 250 293.15 1900.87 1098.503905.22 3.859 2.519 2.621 37.919 250 303.15 1923.43 1094.003896.81 4.339 2.471 2.605 32.407 300 283.15 1954.36 1116.533888.83 3.494 2.345 2.424 43.892 300 293.15 1975.05 1112.393876.79 3.938 2.305 2.410 37.353 300 303.15 1995.74 1107.773867.14 4.381 2.266 2.402 32.256 350 283.15 2027.20 1129.603863.73 3.562 2.154 2.237 43.270

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204 Table E-1. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa K-1] 350 293.15 2046.06 1125.353850.68 3.976 2.123 2.230 37.174 350 303.15 2064.91 1120.653839.95 4.387 2.093 2.228 32.354 400 283.15 2096.83 1141.833840.43 3.595 1.992 2.075 43.075 400 293.15 2113.90 1137.513826.51 3.984 1.967 2.074 37.274 400 303.15 2130.96 1132.773814.85 4.368 1.944 2.078 32.636 450 283.15 2163.27 1153.333818.68 3.601 1.853 1.936 43.189 450 293.15 2178.57 1148.983804.00 3.967 1.834 1.939 37.580 450 303.15 2193.87 1144.223791.53 4.329 1.816 1.947 33.061 500 283.15 2226.49 1164.193798.28 3.587 1.733 1.815 43.537 500 293.15 2240.08 1159.823782.92 3.933 1.718 1.822 38.050 500 303.15 2253.66 1155.073769.76 4.275 1.705 1.832 33.602 550 283.15 2286.52 1174.493779.04 3.557 1.629 1.709 44.071 550 293.15 2298.41 1170.133763.10 3.886 1.618 1.718 38.653 550 303.15 2310.31 1165.403749.33 4.210 1.608 1.731 34.239 600 283.15 2343.34 1184.293760.85 3.514 1.538 1.616 44.758 600 293.15 2353.58 1179.953744.40 3.828 1.530 1.627 39.367 600 303.15 2363.82 1175.263730.09 4.136 1.523 1.641 34.960

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205 Table E-2. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1475.70 1039.133935.45 1.760 4.419 4.441 82.079 0.1 293.15 1507.82 1036.933946.00 2.476 4.242 4.286 56.367 0.1 303.15 1539.94 1033.993958.34 3.198 4.078 4.154 42.215 10 283.15 1493.70 1044.063927.69 1.918 4.293 4.318 75.508 10 293.15 1525.45 1041.683937.84 2.613 4.125 4.174 53.561 10 303.15 1557.20 1038.593949.74 3.313 3.971 4.052 40.850 50 283.15 1565.35 1061.303895.94 2.461 3.845 3.887 59.336 50 293.15 1595.53 1058.363904.47 3.078 3.712 3.779 45.796 50 303.15 1625.70 1054.773914.57 3.701 3.587 3.688 36.803 100 283.15 1652.47 1080.903861.31 2.954 3.388 3.447 49.899 100 293.15 1680.53 1077.413867.97 3.497 3.286 3.372 40.657 100 303.15 1708.59 1073.353876.03 4.044 3.191 3.311 33.933 150 283.15 1736.86 1098.683830.89 3.295 3.017 3.090 45.112 150 293.15 1762.65 1094.793835.91 3.781 2.940 3.040 37.890 150 303.15 1788.45 1090.393842.17 4.271 2.867 2.999 32.360 200 283.15 1818.53 1114.943803.70 3.524 2.712 2.795 42.501 200 293.15 1841.90 1110.773807.26 3.966 2.654 2.763 36.379 200 303.15 1865.27 1106.133811.95 4.410 2.598 2.738 31.541 250 283.15 1897.48 1129.913779.01 3.669 2.458 2.547 41.104 250 293.15 1918.27 1125.543781.30 4.075 2.414 2.529 35.628 250 303.15 1939.05 1120.743784.62 4.483 2.373 2.517 31.212 300 283.15 1973.70 1143.783756.33 3.749 2.244 2.337 40.475 300 293.15 1991.75 1139.283757.51 4.126 2.213 2.329 35.389 300 303.15 2009.80 1134.383759.64 4.504 2.182 2.327 31.232 350 283.15 2047.21 1156.693735.31 3.779 2.063 2.156 40.382 350 293.15 2062.36 1152.123735.51 4.133 2.041 2.157 35.525 350 303.15 2077.51 1147.173736.60 4.486 2.020 2.162 31.520 400 283.15 2118.00 1168.763715.67 3.769 1.907 2.000 40.695 400 293.15 2130.09 1164.173715.01 4.103 1.893 2.007 35.958 400 303.15 2142.19 1159.213715.19 4.435 1.880 2.018 32.030 450 283.15 2186.06 1180.093697.22 3.727 1.773 1.863 41.341

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206 Table E-2. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa-1] (x10-4) [MPa K-1] 450 293.15 2194.94 1175.523695.80 4.044 1.766 1.876 36.644 450 303.15 2203.83 1170.593695.18 4.359 1.759 1.892 32.734 500 283.15 2251.40 1190.773679.79 3.660 1.657 1.743 42.280 500 293.15 2256.92 1186.243677.71 3.962 1.655 1.760 37.559 500 303.15 2262.43 1181.383676.39 4.261 1.654 1.780 33.620 550 283.15 2314.02 1200.873663.28 3.572 1.555 1.637 43.493 550 293.15 2316.01 1196.423660.60 3.861 1.558 1.658 38.694 550 303.15 2318.00 1191.643658.67 4.146 1.562 1.681 34.685 600 283.15 2373.93 1210.453647.59 3.467 1.466 1.543 44.977 600 293.15 2372.23 1206.103644.40 3.744 1.473 1.567 40.052 600 303.15 2370.53 1201.433641.92 4.017 1.481 1.593 35.935

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207 Table E-3. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1642.70 1192.483124.45 1.031 3.108 3.116 127.616 0.1 293.15 1660.49 1190.663174.45 2.037 3.046 3.078 63.283 0.1 303.15 1678.28 1187.633221.20 3.050 2.989 3.063 41.377 10 283.15 1659.73 1196.463114.91 1.077 3.034 3.043 122.220 10 293.15 1677.30 1194.583164.48 2.062 2.976 3.009 62.527 10 303.15 1694.87 1191.533210.72 3.053 2.922 2.995 41.339 50 283.15 1727.31 1210.463074.85 1.232 2.769 2.780 106.704 50 293.15 1744.00 1208.423122.74 2.141 2.721 2.756 60.134 50 303.15 1760.68 1205.283167.03 3.050 2.676 2.750 41.280 100 283.15 1809.04 1226.533029.38 1.368 2.491 2.506 95.918 100 293.15 1824.62 1224.353075.54 2.197 2.453 2.491 58.470 100 303.15 1840.19 1221.163117.84 3.023 2.418 2.491 41.549 150 283.15 1887.71 1241.272988.15 1.457 2.261 2.277 89.876 150 293.15 1902.18 1238.993032.89 2.220 2.231 2.269 57.747 150 303.15 1916.65 1235.773073.58 2.976 2.203 2.274 42.095 200 283.15 1963.32 1254.862950.43 1.513 2.067 2.085 86.428 200 293.15 1976.69 1252.522994.02 2.219 2.043 2.082 57.650 200 303.15 1990.06 1249.313033.39 2.918 2.021 2.089 42.847 250 283.15 2035.86 1267.482915.68 1.543 1.904 1.922 84.572 250 293.15 2048.14 1265.112958.31 2.201 1.884 1.922 57.997 250 303.15 2060.41 1261.922996.59 2.850 1.867 1.932 43.762 300 283.15 2105.35 1279.262883.47 1.555 1.764 1.782 83.779 300 293.15 2116.53 1276.882925.29 2.171 1.748 1.785 58.680 300 303.15 2127.71 1273.722962.67 2.778 1.734 1.796 44.812 350 283.15 2171.77 1290.312853.45 1.553 1.643 1.662 83.748 350 293.15 2181.86 1287.932894.60 2.133 1.631 1.667 59.630 350 303.15 2191.95 1284.832931.23 2.702 1.620 1.679 45.977 400 283.15 2235.14 1300.732825.35 1.540 1.539 1.557 84.295 400 293.15 2244.14 1298.372865.92 2.088 1.529 1.564 60.802 400 303.15 2253.14 1295.322901.92 2.624 1.521 1.576 47.247 450 283.15 2295.44 1310.592798.94 1.519 1.448 1.466 85.306

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208 Table E-3. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [MPa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2303.35 1308.262839.02 2.038 1.441 1.474 62.167 450 303.15 2311.27 1305.272874.48 2.546 1.434 1.487 48.614 500 283.15 2352.68 1319.962774.02 1.491 1.369 1.386 86.707 500 293.15 2359.51 1317.672813.69 1.985 1.363 1.394 63.707 500 303.15 2366.34 1314.742848.70 2.467 1.358 1.408 50.074 550 283.15 2406.86 1328.902750.45 1.459 1.299 1.315 88.451 550 293.15 2412.61 1326.652789.76 1.930 1.295 1.325 65.411 550 303.15 2418.37 1323.792824.39 2.389 1.292 1.338 51.625 600 283.15 2457.98 1337.462728.08 1.424 1.238 1.253 90.511 600 293.15 2462.66 1335.252767.09 1.874 1.235 1.263 67.273 600 303.15 2467.33 1332.462801.39 2.311 1.233 1.276 53.270

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209 Table E-4. Glucose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1472.58 1009.544051.39 1.324 4.568 4.580 109.121 0.1 293.15 1493.98 1007.794050.70 2.152 4.446 4.479 64.700 0.1 303.15 1515.38 1005.204052.79 2.986 4.332 4.398 45.001 10 283.15 1489.91 1014.484042.12 1.431 4.441 4.455 101.239 10 293.15 1511.53 1012.614041.00 2.240 4.322 4.358 62.326 10 303.15 1533.15 1009.934042.60 3.053 4.213 4.282 44.108 50 283.15 1558.93 1031.784003.62 1.819 3.988 4.011 80.216 50 293.15 1581.29 1029.514000.77 2.556 3.885 3.931 54.972 50 303.15 1603.65 1026.504000.43 3.295 3.788 3.868 41.109 100 283.15 1642.94 1051.443960.70 2.212 3.524 3.557 66.477 100 293.15 1665.93 1048.763956.02 2.874 3.436 3.494 49.244 100 303.15 1688.93 1045.403953.63 3.535 3.353 3.445 38.566 150 283.15 1724.42 1069.293922.53 2.524 3.145 3.188 58.692 150 293.15 1747.74 1066.273916.30 3.123 3.070 3.139 45.618 150 303.15 1771.05 1062.623912.20 3.719 3.000 3.101 36.871 200 283.15 1803.40 1085.623888.24 2.769 2.832 2.884 53.846 200 293.15 1826.69 1082.313880.69 3.315 2.769 2.846 43.225 200 303.15 1849.99 1078.443875.14 3.857 2.709 2.817 35.740 250 283.15 1879.85 1100.663857.16 2.958 2.571 2.629 50.683 250 293.15 1902.81 1097.133848.48 3.460 2.517 2.601 41.629 250 303.15 1925.76 1093.073841.70 3.957 2.467 2.580 35.006 300 283.15 1953.79 1114.613828.76 3.102 2.350 2.414 48.586 300 293.15 1976.08 1110.903819.11 3.566 2.305 2.393 40.586 300 303.15 1998.37 1106.693811.28 4.025 2.263 2.379 34.572 350 283.15 2025.21 1127.623802.63 3.207 2.162 2.230 47.222 350 293.15 2046.51 1123.763792.12 3.639 2.125 2.216 39.953 350 303.15 2067.81 1119.443783.39 4.064 2.089 2.207 34.375 400 283.15 2094.12 1139.803778.41 3.278 2.001 2.071 46.397 400 293.15 2114.10 1135.843767.17 3.682 1.970 2.063 39.640 400 303.15 2134.08 1131.433757.65 4.080 1.941 2.059 34.376 450 283.15 2160.51 1151.263755.83 3.320 1.861 1.933 45.991

PAGE 227

210 Table E-4. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2178.84 1147.223743.95 3.701 1.836 1.930 39.592 450 303.15 2197.18 1142.773733.75 4.074 1.813 1.931 34.548 500 283.15 2224.38 1162.083734.68 3.337 1.739 1.812 45.930 500 293.15 2240.75 1158.003722.23 3.697 1.720 1.813 39.774 500 303.15 2257.11 1153.523711.45 4.049 1.702 1.818 34.878 550 283.15 2285.74 1172.333714.75 3.331 1.633 1.705 46.169 550 293.15 2299.81 1168.233701.81 3.673 1.618 1.710 40.165 550 303.15 2313.88 1163.763690.51 4.007 1.605 1.718 35.357 600 283.15 2344.58 1182.083695.91 3.305 1.539 1.610 46.683 600 293.15 2356.02 1177.993682.53 3.631 1.529 1.618 40.755 600 303.15 2367.47 1173.533670.79 3.949 1.520 1.630 35.983

PAGE 228

211 Table E-5. Glucose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1495.87 1038.663847.75 1.346 4.303 4.316 104.895 0.1 293.15 1522.59 1036.833857.68 2.192 4.160 4.196 62.253 0.1 303.15 1549.32 1034.123868.74 3.043 4.029 4.099 43.363 10 283.15 1513.27 1043.453838.57 1.471 4.185 4.200 96.160 10 293.15 1539.88 1041.483848.07 2.295 4.049 4.088 59.564 10 303.15 1566.48 1038.653858.63 3.124 3.924 3.997 42.314 50 283.15 1582.51 1060.243800.59 1.910 3.766 3.792 74.517 50 293.15 1608.58 1057.813808.35 2.655 3.653 3.705 51.768 50 303.15 1634.65 1054.613816.95 3.402 3.549 3.636 39.027 100 283.15 1666.60 1079.363758.52 2.325 3.336 3.373 61.612 100 293.15 1691.91 1076.493764.40 2.990 3.245 3.310 46.233 100 303.15 1717.23 1072.913770.90 3.655 3.161 3.261 36.512 150 283.15 1747.96 1096.763721.21 2.631 2.984 3.032 54.776 150 293.15 1772.42 1093.543725.49 3.231 2.911 2.986 43.008 150 303.15 1796.89 1089.683730.23 3.830 2.842 2.952 35.007 200 283.15 1826.59 1112.703687.71 2.856 2.694 2.750 50.744 200 293.15 1850.10 1109.223690.63 3.403 2.634 2.717 41.037 200 303.15 1873.61 1105.153693.88 3.947 2.578 2.693 34.114 250 283.15 1902.50 1127.423657.30 3.018 2.451 2.513 48.246 250 293.15 1924.96 1123.743659.06 3.522 2.402 2.490 39.830 250 303.15 1947.41 1119.513661.05 4.021 2.355 2.475 33.625 300 283.15 1975.68 1141.093629.46 3.133 2.245 2.312 46.686 300 293.15 1996.99 1137.253630.23 3.599 2.205 2.297 39.128 300 303.15 2018.29 1132.903631.15 4.061 2.167 2.288 33.418 350 283.15 2046.14 1153.853603.76 3.210 2.070 2.140 45.749 350 293.15 2066.19 1149.903603.68 3.645 2.037 2.131 38.782 350 303.15 2086.24 1145.473603.69 4.074 2.006 2.128 33.423 400 283.15 2113.86 1165.823579.90 3.257 1.920 1.992 45.253 400 293.15 2132.56 1161.793579.08 3.665 1.893 1.987 38.701 400 303.15 2151.26 1157.313578.31 4.067 1.867 1.988 33.592 450 283.15 2178.86 1177.103557.61 3.280 1.789 1.862 45.089

PAGE 229

212 Table E-5. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2196.11 1173.023556.15 3.665 1.768 1.862 38.829 450 303.15 2213.35 1168.513554.71 4.042 1.747 1.866 33.896 500 283.15 2241.13 1187.773536.68 3.283 1.676 1.749 45.185 500 293.15 2256.83 1183.663534.67 3.647 1.659 1.752 39.128 500 303.15 2272.52 1179.143532.65 4.004 1.642 1.759 34.315 550 283.15 2300.68 1197.893516.96 3.270 1.577 1.649 45.497 550 293.15 2314.72 1193.773514.47 3.616 1.563 1.655 39.574 550 303.15 2328.76 1189.263511.95 3.955 1.550 1.664 34.836 600 283.15 2357.49 1207.543498.29 3.244 1.490 1.561 45.996 600 293.15 2369.79 1203.433495.38 3.574 1.480 1.569 40.151 600 303.15 2382.08 1198.943492.43 3.896 1.470 1.580 35.452

PAGE 230

213 Table E-6. Glucose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1690.49 1188.283075.28 1.198 2.945 2.956 107.699 0.1 293.15 1703.01 1186.283132.73 2.173 2.907 2.944 58.349 0.1 303.15 1715.52 1183.133169.00 3.153 2.872 2.952 39.222 10 283.15 1706.82 1192.053066.00 1.219 2.880 2.891 105.894 10 293.15 1719.17 1190.023114.03 2.174 2.843 2.881 58.142 10 303.15 1731.52 1186.873158.79 3.135 2.810 2.890 39.454 50 283.15 1771.61 1205.333026.92 1.286 2.643 2.656 100.207 50 293.15 1783.29 1203.253073.29 2.171 2.613 2.651 58.112 50 303.15 1794.97 1200.113116.14 3.056 2.586 2.662 40.364 100 283.15 1849.89 1220.662982.33 1.339 2.394 2.408 96.044 100 293.15 1860.74 1218.543027.02 2.149 2.370 2.407 58.546 100 303.15 1871.60 1215.433067.95 2.956 2.349 2.420 41.606 150 283.15 1925.17 1234.792941.72 1.366 2.185 2.200 93.883 150 293.15 1935.21 1232.642985.06 2.114 2.166 2.202 59.361 150 303.15 1945.26 1229.583024.44 2.856 2.149 2.216 42.945 200 283.15 1997.46 1247.882904.45 1.376 2.009 2.023 93.006 200 293.15 2006.70 1245.732946.69 2.071 1.993 2.028 60.462 200 303.15 2015.94 1242.732984.83 2.758 1.980 2.042 44.368 250 283.15 2066.75 1260.082870.04 1.373 1.858 1.873 93.018 250 293.15 2075.19 1257.942911.37 2.022 1.846 1.879 61.790 250 303.15 2083.64 1255.002948.48 2.661 1.835 1.893 45.866 300 283.15 2133.04 1271.512838.08 1.360 1.729 1.743 93.684 300 293.15 2140.71 1269.402878.66 1.969 1.719 1.750 63.305 300 303.15 2148.37 1266.522914.92 2.567 1.711 1.765 47.433 350 283.15 2196.33 1282.272808.25 1.341 1.617 1.631 94.855 350 293.15 2203.23 1280.192848.20 1.914 1.609 1.639 64.981 350 303.15 2210.13 1277.382883.76 2.477 1.603 1.653 49.065 400 283.15 2256.62 1292.452780.30 1.316 1.519 1.533 96.439 400 293.15 2262.77 1290.402819.72 1.858 1.514 1.541 66.801 400 303.15 2268.91 1287.662854.69 2.389 1.509 1.556 50.760 450 283.15 2313.92 1302.112754.01 1.287 1.434 1.447 98.371

PAGE 231

214 Table E-6. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2319.32 1300.102792.98 1.802 1.430 1.456 68.754 450 303.15 2324.71 1297.432827.46 2.304 1.426 1.470 52.519 500 283.15 2368.22 1311.312729.21 1.256 1.360 1.372 100.612 500 293.15 2372.88 1309.352767.79 1.745 1.356 1.381 70.833 500 303.15 2377.54 1306.752801.85 2.222 1.354 1.395 54.343 550 283.15 2419.52 1320.122705.73 1.223 1.294 1.306 103.136 550 293.15 2423.45 1318.202743.98 1.689 1.292 1.315 73.037 550 303.15 2427.39 1315.672777.69 2.144 1.290 1.328 56.232 600 283.15 2467.82 1328.572683.45 1.189 1.236 1.247 105.928 600 293.15 2471.04 1326.692721.42 1.634 1.234 1.256 75.364 600 303.15 2474.26 1324.242754.83 2.068 1.234 1.269 58.190

PAGE 232

215 Table E-7. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 1% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1450.00 1004.314128.00 1.295 4.736 4.747 113.047 0.1 293.15 1483.95 1002.594123.95 2.135 4.529 4.562 66.059 0.1 303.15 1517.90 1000.034122.96 2.980 4.340 4.405 45.635 10 283.15 1468.75 1009.404118.62 1.485 4.592 4.607 98.904 10 293.15 1501.87 1007.484114.13 2.296 4.400 4.438 61.569 10 303.15 1534.99 1004.744112.63 3.114 4.224 4.295 43.771 50 283.15 1543.17 1027.144080.47 2.106 4.088 4.118 70.278 50 293.15 1573.06 1024.604074.11 2.824 3.944 4.000 50.428 50 303.15 1602.95 1021.334070.53 3.547 3.811 3.902 38.666 100 283.15 1633.16 1047.174039.00 2.626 3.580 3.627 56.884 100 293.15 1659.29 1044.094030.57 3.257 3.479 3.553 44.071 100 303.15 1685.42 1040.354024.68 3.893 3.384 3.493 35.483 150 283.15 1719.79 1065.244002.54 2.951 3.174 3.232 51.028 150 293.15 1742.47 1061.803992.34 3.519 3.102 3.188 41.094 150 303.15 1765.14 1057.763984.50 4.088 3.034 3.154 34.005 200 283.15 1803.07 1081.693969.83 3.145 2.844 2.909 48.223 200 293.15 1822.59 1078.023958.11 3.664 2.793 2.885 39.727 200 303.15 1842.11 1073.793948.62 4.183 2.744 2.869 33.439 250 283.15 1882.98 1096.783940.03 3.249 2.572 2.641 46.967 250 293.15 1899.66 1092.963927.03 3.730 2.535 2.630 39.258 250 303.15 1916.34 1088.633916.15 4.208 2.501 2.627 33.423 300 283.15 1959.53 1110.723912.59 3.293 2.345 2.415 46.608 300 293.15 1973.67 1106.823898.50 3.741 2.319 2.414 39.347 300 303.15 1987.81 1102.443886.45 4.185 2.296 2.420 33.768 350 283.15 2032.72 1123.663887.11 3.295 2.154 2.224 46.818 350 293.15 2044.63 1119.733872.10 3.716 2.136 2.230 39.805 350 303.15 2056.54 1115.353859.06 4.132 2.120 2.240 34.362 400 283.15 2102.54 1135.753863.31 3.269 1.992 2.061 47.409 400 293.15 2112.53 1131.823847.51 3.666 1.980 2.070 40.520 400 303.15 2122.52 1127.463833.64 4.058 1.969 2.084 35.134 450 283.15 2169.01 1147.103840.96 3.224 1.853 1.920 48.264

PAGE 233

216 Table E-7. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2177.38 1143.193824.49 3.601 1.845 1.932 41.417 450 303.15 2185.75 1138.883809.90 3.972 1.838 1.948 36.036 500 283.15 2232.12 1157.803819.90 3.168 1.734 1.798 49.304 500 293.15 2239.17 1153.943802.84 3.527 1.728 1.811 42.443 500 303.15 2246.22 1149.673787.64 3.879 1.724 1.829 37.031 550 283.15 2291.86 1167.943799.96 3.106 1.630 1.692 50.468 550 293.15 2297.91 1164.123782.40 3.448 1.627 1.706 43.558 550 303.15 2303.95 1159.923766.69 3.784 1.624 1.723 38.090 600 283.15 2348.24 1177.583781.05 3.041 1.540 1.599 51.712 600 293.15 2353.59 1173.813763.06 3.369 1.538 1.613 44.729 600 303.15 2358.93 1169.683746.90 3.689 1.536 1.631 39.189

PAGE 234

217 Table E-8. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 5% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1459.30 1021.873962.96 1.841 4.595 4.619 77.681 0.1 293.15 1498.75 1019.613962.96 2.578 4.366 4.414 53.472 0.1 303.15 1538.20 1016.613963.43 3.320 4.157 4.240 40.033 10 283.15 1478.36 1026.913954.88 2.050 4.456 4.485 69.969 10 293.15 1517.11 1024.423954.47 2.757 4.241 4.296 50.121 10 303.15 1555.86 1021.223954.47 3.471 4.045 4.136 38.379 50 283.15 1553.91 1044.493922.59 2.750 3.965 4.017 52.608 50 293.15 1589.84 1041.293920.38 3.358 3.799 3.880 41.464 50 303.15 1625.78 1037.463918.40 3.975 3.647 3.765 33.733 100 283.15 1645.10 1064.383888.44 3.362 3.471 3.549 43.471 100 293.15 1677.55 1060.533884.14 3.881 3.351 3.458 36.208 100 303.15 1709.99 1056.133879.86 4.408 3.238 3.382 30.664 150 283.15 1732.70 1082.393859.19 3.768 3.077 3.174 39.150 150 293.15 1761.68 1078.073853.03 4.222 2.989 3.115 33.562 150 303.15 1790.66 1073.273846.72 4.683 2.906 3.067 29.080 200 283.15 1816.69 1098.833833.48 4.029 2.757 2.867 36.928 200 293.15 1842.24 1094.193825.68 4.434 2.693 2.831 32.203 200 303.15 1867.78 1089.123817.62 4.846 2.632 2.803 28.304 250 283.15 1897.09 1113.963810.41 4.184 2.494 2.611 35.825 250 293.15 1919.22 1109.103801.21 4.553 2.448 2.592 31.586 250 303.15 1941.36 1103.863791.63 4.926 2.404 2.579 28.028 300 283.15 1973.88 1127.983789.41 4.264 2.275 2.396 35.407 300 293.15 1992.64 1122.993779.00 4.603 2.243 2.389 31.450 300 303.15 2011.39 1117.643768.12 4.945 2.212 2.388 28.092 350 283.15 2047.07 1141.033770.07 4.286 2.091 2.212 35.450 350 293.15 2062.48 1135.973758.60 4.602 2.069 2.215 31.652 350 303.15 2077.88 1130.583746.61 4.919 2.049 2.222 28.407 400 283.15 2116.67 1153.263752.09 4.265 1.935 2.054 35.831 400 293.15 2128.74 1148.183739.72 4.561 1.922 2.064 32.112 400 303.15 2140.82 1142.793726.77 4.858 1.909 2.077 28.920 450 283.15 2182.66 1164.763735.28 4.212 1.802 1.918 36.480

PAGE 235

218 Table E-8. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2191.44 1159.703722.12 4.492 1.796 1.933 32.782 450 303.15 2200.22 1154.343708.35 4.770 1.790 1.951 29.601 500 283.15 2245.05 1175.623719.47 4.134 1.688 1.798 37.354 500 293.15 2250.56 1170.623705.64 4.399 1.687 1.817 33.635 500 303.15 2256.07 1165.333691.15 4.663 1.686 1.839 30.429 550 283.15 2303.84 1185.923704.56 4.037 1.589 1.694 38.430 550 293.15 2306.11 1181.003690.13 4.290 1.592 1.716 34.654 550 303.15 2308.38 1175.803675.03 4.540 1.596 1.741 31.397 600 283.15 2359.03 1195.733690.44 3.926 1.503 1.602 39.696 600 293.15 2358.08 1190.903675.51 4.167 1.510 1.626 35.834 600 303.15 2357.14 1185.813659.88 4.405 1.518 1.653 32.502

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219 Table E-9. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of thermodynamic properties at high pressures P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 0.1 283.15 1475.13 1042.243865.68 1.813 4.409 4.432 78.471 0.1 293.15 1505.42 1039.983877.95 2.534 4.243 4.290 54.291 0.1 303.15 1535.72 1036.973889.11 3.260 4.089 4.169 40.805 10 283.15 1494.04 1047.183857.89 1.959 4.278 4.305 72.850 10 293.15 1523.45 1044.753869.76 2.658 4.124 4.175 51.883 10 303.15 1552.87 1041.603880.48 3.363 3.981 4.066 39.643 50 283.15 1568.93 1064.383825.82 2.427 3.817 3.858 59.262 50 293.15 1594.94 1061.463836.10 3.055 3.703 3.771 45.465 50 303.15 1620.95 1057.883845.03 3.688 3.598 3.699 36.383 100 283.15 1659.11 1083.843790.32 2.801 3.352 3.406 51.789 100 293.15 1681.25 1080.503798.83 3.364 3.274 3.355 41.622 100 303.15 1703.38 1076.563805.82 3.929 3.201 3.316 34.397 150 283.15 1745.48 1101.423758.58 3.019 2.980 3.042 48.429 150 293.15 1764.16 1097.823765.58 3.532 2.927 3.015 39.922 150 303.15 1782.84 1093.663770.93 4.046 2.877 2.997 33.622 200 283.15 1828.03 1117.443729.70 3.133 2.678 2.745 46.981 200 293.15 1843.68 1113.683735.43 3.608 2.642 2.733 39.334 200 303.15 1859.33 1109.413739.40 4.081 2.607 2.729 33.530 250 283.15 1906.76 1132.173703.11 3.179 2.429 2.498 46.578 250 293.15 1919.81 1128.323707.76 3.622 2.405 2.497 39.399 250 303.15 1932.86 1123.993710.58 4.063 2.381 2.501 33.864 300 283.15 1981.68 1145.783678.41 3.180 2.222 2.290 46.804 300 293.15 1992.54 1141.913682.16 3.597 2.206 2.296 39.874 300 303.15 2003.41 1137.573684.01 4.010 2.190 2.306 34.476 350 283.15 2052.78 1158.463655.32 3.153 2.048 2.115 47.427 350 293.15 2061.89 1154.583658.30 3.547 2.037 2.125 40.617 350 303.15 2071.00 1150.273659.33 3.936 2.027 2.139 35.275 400 283.15 2120.07 1170.323633.63 3.109 1.901 1.965 48.305 400 293.15 2127.84 1166.473635.96 3.483 1.893 1.977 41.535 400 303.15 2135.61 1162.203636.30 3.851 1.887 1.993 36.197 450 283.15 2183.54 1181.493613.16 3.056 1.775 1.837 49.336

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220 Table E-9. Continued P T u n Cp S T S [Mpa] [K] [m s-1] [kg m-3][J kg-1K-1][K-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa-1] (x10-4) [Mpa K-1] 450 293.15 2190.40 1177.683614.93 3.412 1.770 1.850 42.559 450 303.15 2197.26 1173.463614.70 3.762 1.765 1.866 37.193 500 283.15 2243.19 1192.063593.79 2.999 1.667 1.727 50.447 500 293.15 2249.56 1188.293595.08 3.340 1.663 1.739 43.635 500 303.15 2255.94 1184.133594.36 3.673 1.659 1.755 38.225 550 283.15 2299.03 1202.103575.39 2.943 1.574 1.631 51.577 550 293.15 2305.34 1198.373576.28 3.269 1.570 1.643 44.720 550 303.15 2311.65 1194.273575.14 3.588 1.567 1.658 39.259 600 283.15 2351.05 1211.683557.87 2.890 1.493 1.548 52.674 600 293.15 2357.72 1208.003558.41 3.203 1.489 1.559 45.773 600 303.15 2364.39 1203.953556.92 3.509 1.486 1.573 40.263

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247 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Roger Darros Barbosa was born in Campinas, State of So Paulo, Brazil on April 04, 1957. He received his bachelor’s degree in food engineering at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in 1979. After a 5-year period working for the food industry, including the cereal, candy and chocolate sectors, he returned to academics and completed his master’s degree in food engin eering at UNICAMP. He was then appointed at Paulista State University (UNESP) in the city of So Jos do Rio Preto, State of So Paulo, Brazil, as Teaching Assistant in 1987; and then in 1993 as Assistant Professor at the same university, where he taught food engineering-related courses such as Unit Operations for the Food Industry and Industria l Plant Design. In 1998, Roger came to the University of Florida to pursue a doctoral degree in food science with emphasis in food engineering. Roger joined Dr. Balaban and Dr. Teixeira’s research group to work with the ‘hidden’ fundamentals of high-pressure food processing. After earning his doctoral degree at UF he will rejoin the teaching and research team in food engineering at UNESP.


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Title: High pressure and temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties of model food solutions obtained from in situ ultrasonic measurements
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Creator: Barbosa, Roger Darros ( Author, Primary )
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

Record Information

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HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMODYNAMIC
PROPERTIES OF MODEL FOOD SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM IN SITU
ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS













By

ROGER DARROS BARBOSA


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003




























Copyright 2003

by

Roger Darros Barbosa




























To Neila who made me feel reborn, and
To my dearly loved children Marina, Carolina and
especially Artur, the youngest, with whom
enjoyable times were shared through this journey















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Murat 0. Balaban and Dr.

Arthur A. Teixeira for their valuable advice, help, encouragement, support and guidance

throughout my graduate studies at the University of Florida. Special thanks go to Dr.

Murat 0. Balaban for giving me the opportunity to work in his lab and study the

interesting subject of this research.

I would also like to thank my committee members Dr. Gary Ihas, Dr. D. Julian

McClements and Dr. Robert J. Braddock for their help, suggestions, and words of

encouragement along this research. A special thank goes to Dr. D. Julian McClements

for his valuable assistance and for receiving me in his lab at the University of

Massachusetts.

I am grateful to the Foundation for Support of Research of the State of So Paulo

(FAPESP 97/07546-4) for financially supporting most part of this project. I also

gratefully acknowledge the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Research

Dean, the chair of the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, the chair of

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the University of Florida, and

the United States Department of Agriculture (through a research grant), for financially

supporting parts of this research. I am thankful to Dr. Miriam D. Hubinger, Dr. Florencia

C. Menegalli and Dr. Antonio J. A. Meirelles, for the use of their laboratories at the

Department of Food Engineering, at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP),

where some of the experiments at atmospheric pressure were conducted. I am indebted









to my colleagues at the Department of Food Engineering and Technology at Paulista

State University (UNESP). My accomplishments could not have been achieved without

their support.

I would also like to thank the staff and faculty of the Food Science and Human

Nutrition Department (FSHN) and of the Department of Agricultural and Biological

Engineering (AGEN), in particular the staff members of maintenance support (FSHN),

and of the machine shop (AGEN), and the staff of the IFAS network computer office at

the University of Florida for their help and support in many difficult situations. I am

thankful to all my friends at the University of Florida, in special my friends at Dr.

Balaban's lab for their friendship, many helpful discussions, and cooperation.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

L IST O F T A B L E S ........................................................................... ........... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ........................................... ............ xi

LIST O F SY M B O L S ............................................ ..... .. ...... .... .. .....xv

A B STR A C T ................................................. ............ ....................... .. xviii

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N .............................................................................. .......... .. .. ... 1

2 BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................. 6

High-Pressure Food Processing and Technology ...................................................... 6
The Role of Water in Food Systems under Pressure ............................................. 8
High Pressure as a Preservation Process for Foods ......................................... 10
End Effects of High Pressure on Foods and Food Components........................... 13
Therm odynam ics of H igh Pressure..................................... ... .............. 18
Compressibility .................................. .......................... .... ........ 18
Adiabatic Thermal Pressure Coefficient ............................... ............... 19
Isobaric Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient............................. 20
S p eed of S ou n d ................. ......................................................... 2 1
Therm odynam ics of Solutions .................................... .......................... .. ....... 25
Equilibrium and Rate Processes..................... ........................... 33
Methods of Measuring Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressure........................ 35
Density or Specific Volume and Compressibility Measurements........................ 36
Sound V elocity M easurem ent....................................................... .............. 38
O bj e ctiv e s ................................................................... 4 3

3 M ATERIALS AND M ETHOD S........................................... .......................... 44

Pressure-G enerating System ................................................................... .............. 44
Sound-Velocity Measurement at High Pressures ............................................... 50
Procedure for Collecting High-Pressure Ultrasonic Data................ .................... 58
Preparation of Binary Aqueous Solutions............... ...... .............. 62
Density and Heat-Capacity Measurements at Atmospheric Pressure......................... 63









D ensity M easurem ents.......................................................... ........... ..... 64
H eat-Capacity M easurem ents ..................................................... ................ 66
Summary of Conditions for the High-Pressure Experiments ................................... 67

4 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS....................... ...... ..............68

Speed of Sound at H igh Pressures ..................................... ........................ .......... 69
D ensity at A tm ospheric Pressure .................... ...... ........ ......................... ......... 70
Isobaric Thermal-Expansion Coefficient at Atmospheric Pressure............................ 71
Isobaric Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure ........................................... 71
From Ultrasonic Data to Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures.
T herm odynam ic A approach ................................................ ................................... 75
Mathematical Solution for the Set of Partial Differential Equations.......................... 77
Additional Thermodynamic Properties Derived....................................................... 82
Thermodynamics of Solution: Mixing Scheme and Solute Effect ............................. 83
Partial M olar V olum es .......................................................... ........... ..... 83
P artial C om pressibilities ................................................................. ............... ... 87
Water Activity from Solvent Partial Molar Volume: Thermodynamic Approach..... 88
Error Analysis ...................................... ................................ ......... 91

5 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION ........................................................ ............... 99

Sound V elocity at H igh Pressures..................................................... ... ................. 99
D ensity at A tm ospheric Pressure..................................... ............................ ....... 103
Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure.............................................................. 107
Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures Derived from Ultrasonic Data......... 110
Thermodynamic Properties of Solution Components at High Pressures................ 128
P artial M olar V olum es .................................................................. ............... ... 13 1
Partial Isentropic Compressibilities and Partial Specific Compressions............ 137
Water Activity at High Pressures............................. .............. 150

6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDY ...155

APPENDIX

A SELECTED THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS AND DERIVATIONS.....163

B HIGH PRESSURE ULTRASONIC EXPERIMENTAL DATA..............................170

C DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY EXPERIMENTAL DATA AT
A TM O SPHERIC PRESSURE ............................................ .......................... 176

D MATLAB PROGRAM FOR THE NUMERICAL ITERATIVE PROCEDURE TO
COMPUTE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AT HIGH PRESSURE FROM
U L T R A SO N IC D A T A ................................................................... ..................... 186

E THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES DERIVED FROM HIGH PRESSURE
ULTRASONIC DATA. NUMERICAL VALUES................................................203










L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................... ........ .......... 22 1

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................ ............................................247






















































viii















LIST OF TABLES


Tablege

3-1. Results for the calibration of the density meter with pure water ............................65

3-2. Summary of the experimental range of the high-pressure experiments ....................67

5-1. Coefficients a, of Equation 4-3 for binary solutions in Pa ms'K-j .........................104

5-2. Coefficients a,j of Equation 4-4 for binary solutions in [kg(1)m-30-1)K(1-i)] ............106

5-3. Coefficients a,j of Equation 4-18 for binary solutions in [kg-s-2m(2+3j)K-i] .............110

5-4. Regression coefficients of the Equation 5-2 for binary aqueous solutions (al in
[K ], a2 in [K M Pa-1], and a3 in [K kg-2nm 3n])......................................................... 129

B-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data................170

B-2: Glucose aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data..............172

B-3: Citric acid aqueous solutions: high-pressure ultrasonic experimental data............173

C-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure ....176

C-2. Glucose aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric pressure.... 178

C-3. Citric acid aqueous solutions: experimental density data at atmospheric
p ressu re ............................... ........... .......................................... 17 9

C-4. Sucrose aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric
p re ssu re ........................... ........... ............................ ................ 1 8 0

C-5. Glucose aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric
pressure ............................... ................. ................ .......... 182

C-6. Citric Acid aqueous solutions: experimental heat capacity at atmospheric
pressure ............................... ................. ................ .......... 184

E-1. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 203









E-2. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 205

E-3. Sucrose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 207

E-4. Glucose aqueous solutions at 2.5% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 209

E-5. Glucose aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures ................................................... 211

E-6. Glucose aqueous solutions at 50% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 213

E-7. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 1% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 215

E-8. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 5% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 217

E-9. Citric acid aqueous solutions at 10% concentration: numerical values of
thermodynamic properties at high pressures............................... ............... 219
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

3-1. Schematic of experimental setup.......... ......... ... ............ ............... 45

3-2. High-pressure vessel bottom plug showing details of the electrical leads ................47

3-3. Schematic of the ultrasonic high-pressure measurement cell..............................51

3-4. Frequency-domain transducer response ........................................ ............... 52

3-5. Time-domain input negative spike and transducer impulse response ..................53

3-6. Typical reflected (echo) signal waveform at high pressure....................................56

3-7. Ambient temperature variation during 3 different days ........................................59

3-8. Pressure fluctuation of selected experiments at 200, 400 and 600 MPa set points...61

4-1. Percentage deviation between the measured sound velocities in pure water and
those of NIST .................................... ............................... .........97

4-2. Percentage deviation between the calculated densities of pure water and those of
N IS T ............................................................................. 9 7

4-3. Percentage deviation between the calculated compressibilities of pure water and
those of N IST .................................................................... .........98

5-1. Experimental sound velocity in sucrose solutions..........................................101

5-2. Experimental sound velocity in glucose solutions ...............................................101

5-3. Experimental sound velocity in citric acid solutions.........................................102

5-4. Experimental density of sucrose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function
of temperature and concentration...................... .... ........................... 105

5-5. Experimental density of glucose solutions at atmospheric pressure as a function
of temperature and concentration.............................................. ...............105

5-6. Experimental density of citric acid solutions at atmospheric pressure as a
function of tem perature and concentration ........................................................ 106









5-7. Experimental specific heat capacity of sucrose solutions at atmospheric pressure
as a function of temperature and concentration............................108

5-8. Experimental specific heat capacity of glucose solutions at atmospheric pressure
as a function of temperature and concentration..............................108

5-9. Experimental specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions at atmospheric
pressure as a function of temperature and concentration ................ .......... 109

5-10. Calculated density of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different
tem peratures and concentrations........... .. ......................................................111

5-11. Calculated density of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different
tem peratures and concentrations........... .. ...................................................... 112

5-12. Calculated density of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different
tem peratures and concentrations........... .. ...................................................... 112

5-13. Calculated isentropic compressibility of sucrose solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and concentrations .............. ... ...............115

5-14. Calculated isentropic compressibility of glucose solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and concentrations .............. ...............118

5-15. Calculated isentropic compressibility of citric acid solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and concentrations .............. ... .................119

5-16. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of sucrose solutions as a
function of pressure at different concentrations at 20C ............... ............... 119

5-17. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of glucose solutions as a
function of pressure at different concentrations at 20C ............... ...............120

5-18. Calculated isentropic and isothermal compressibility of citric acid solutions as
a function of pressure at different concentrations at 20C ..............................120

5-19. Calculated heat capacity of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at
different temperatures and concentrations ................ ............. ............... 121

5-20. Calculated heat capacity of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at
different tem peratures and concentrations...................................... .................121

5-21. Calculated specific heat capacity of citric acid solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and concentrations .............. ............... 122

5-22. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of sucrose solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and oncentrations...............................122









5-23. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of glucose solutions as a function of
pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ............. ... ..................123

5-24. Calculated thermal expansion coefficient of citric acid solutions as a function
of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations .............................. 123

5-25. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of sucrose solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................125

5-26. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of glucose solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................126

5-27. Calculated isentropic pressure thermal coefficient of citric acid solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................126

5-28. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of sucrose solutions
as a function of pressure at selected concentrations .........................129

5-29. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of glucose solutions
as a function of pressure at selected concentrations .........................130

5-30. Calculated temperature rise by the adiabatic compression of citric acid
solutions as a function of pressure at selected concentrations........................... 130

5-31. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in sucrose solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................134

5-32. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in glucose solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................135

5-33. Partial molar volumes of solute (A) and solvent (B) in citric acid solutions as a
function of pressure at different temperatures and concentrations ......................136

5.34. Chemical structures of sucrose [C12H22011, Mw = 342.30], glucose [C60807,
M, = 180.16] and citric acid [C6H1206, Mw = 192.12] molecules ......................143

5-35. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
con centration s ................................................................... 14 4

5-36. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
co n cen tratio n s ................................................................... 14 5

5-37. Partial isentropic compressibility of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
co n cen tratio n s ................................................................... 14 6









5-38. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in sucrose
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
co n cen tratio n s ................................................................... 14 7

5-39. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in glucose
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
concentrations .....................................................................148

5-40. Partial specific compression of solvent (A) and solute (B) in citric acid
solutions as a function of pressure at different temperatures and
concentrations .....................................................................149

5-41. Water activity of sucrose solutions as a function of pressure at different
tem peratures and concentrations....................................................................... 153

5-42. Water activity of glucose solutions as a function of pressure at different
temperatures and concentrations............... .............. ......... ............... 153

5-43. Water activity of citric acid solutions as a function of pressure at different
tem peratures and concentrations........... ......................................................... 154















LIST OF SYMBOLS

all Regression coefficients (units as stated)
al, 2,3 Coefficients in Equation 5-2 (units as stated)
A Specific Helmholtz free energy (J kg-1)
A, Activity of species i
Aw Water activity
C Solute concentration (kg-solute m3)
c, Regression coefficients (units as stated)
Cp Isobaric specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K1)
CpE Excess molar heat capacity (J mol-1 oK1)
Cpm Molar heat capacity (J mol-1 K)
Cpref Specific heat capacity of reference material (J kg' K1)
Cpsa Specific heat capacity of sample (J kg'1 K-1)
dH/dt Heat flow (J s-')
dT/dt Heating rate (C min1)
f Frequency (Hz)
G Specific Gibbs free energy (J kg-1)
H Specific enthalpy (J kg1)
k Reaction rate (s )
k' Wave number
K Reaction constant
LpT Acoustic path length as a function of P and T (m)
Lpo,To Acoustic path length at atmospheric pressure and 0C (m)
m Mass (g or kg)
ms Solution molarity (mol kg-water-1)
Mw Molecular weight (kg kmol')
n Number of moles
n Number of moles of component i orj respectively
n1,2 Number of moles of component 1 or 2 respectively
P Pressure (Pa)
Po Atmospheric pressure (Pa)
P0 Water vapor pressure (Pa)
Q General molar thermodynamic property
r, Regression coefficients (units as stated)
R Universal molar gas constant (8.315 J mol-1 K-1)
S Specific entropy (J kg-' K-1)
S- Sample standard deviation
t Time variable in wave Equation 2-11 (s)
T Temperature (K, otherwise as stated)









T' Period (s)
u Sound velocity (m s1)
uo Sound velocity at atmospheric pressure and 0C(m s1)
U Specific internal energy (J kg-1)
V Volume (m3)
V Specific volume (m3 kg-1)
V Partial molar volume (m3 mol1)
Vpp Apparent molar volume (m3)
VE Excess molar volume (m )
Vd Ideal solution volume (m3)
r Solution molar volume (mi3 mol1)
x Space variable in wave Equation 2-11 (m)
X,1 Mole fraction of component i andj respectively
Xs Solute mole fraction
Xw Water mole fraction in the liquid phase
Y, Water mole fraction in the gas phase
wl,2 Mass fraction of component 1 or 2 respectively
Z Acoustical impedance (Pa s-i m-1)

Greek Letters
a Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (K-1)
a' Linear thermal expansion coefficient (K-1)
f3 Coefficient of compressibility (Pa-1)
16' Coefficient of linear compressibility (Pa-1)
PT, #P Isothermal and isentropic compressibility respectively (Pa')
fly's Isentropic compression (m3 kg-1 Pa-1)
/6 Partial compressibility (Pa-1)
#f Excess compressibility (Pa-)
jd Ideal solution compressibility (Pa-1)
AG Specific Gibbs free energy variation (J kg-1)
AG' Free energy of activation (J mol1)
AV Partial molar volume variation (m3 mol1)
AVt Volume of activation (m3 mo-1)
AT Temperature interval in Equation 4-8 (0.10C)
At Transit time for the propagation of ultrasound (s)
2, Molar volume fraction of component i orj respectively
yS Adiabatic thermal pressure coefficient (Pa K-1)
7Y Activity coefficient of water
, Latent heat of water (J kg-1)
A,' Wavelength (nm)
Ali Chemical potential of species i (J mol1)
j Particle displacement in wave Equation 2-11 (m)
CO Angular frequency (rad)
p Density (kg m3)









Subscripts

air Air
evap Evaporated
2 Components i andj of a binary solution
o Atmospheric pressure condition
ref Reference state
s Isentropic condition
sa Sample property
T Isothermal condition
w Water
1,2 Components 1 or 2 of a binary solution

Superscripts
app Apparent property
E Excess function
id Ideal condition
1, Exponent of mathematical models
m Molar property
o Pure component property
# Indicates activation state

Mathematical symbols

d Partial differential operator
r Summation operator
= 'Equivalent to' or 'defined as' operator; used in a mathematical expression
to define a property in terms of thermodynamic quantities rather than an
equality















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMODYNAMIC
PROPERTIES OF MODEL FOOD SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM IN SITU
ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS

By

Roger Darros Barbosa

May 2003


Chair: Dr. Murat 0. Balaban
Cochair: Dr. Arthur A. Teixeira
Department: Food Science and Human Nutrition

High-pressure treatment has been recognized for over a century as a potential

food preservation technique because of its demonstrated ability to inactivate

microorganisms without adverse effects on food quality. Recent developments in high

pressure processing equipment technology have already brought into practice a number

of successful commercial applications. Process development efforts are currently based

mainly on observation of end effects from trial-and-error experimentation, and are further

confounded by the inability to distinguish temperature from pressure effects because of

the thermodynamic temperature rise that accompanies pressurization. The ability to

predict such effects is further hampered by the complex composition of foods and by the

fact that thermodynamic and transport properties, which govern the reactions and

transformations taking place, are highly sensitive to pressure, temperature and food

composition. The purpose of this research was to develop methodology for measurement


xviii









of sound velocity in liquid foods under high pressure treatments from which a number of

important thermodynamic properties could be derived and determined as a function of

pressure, temperature and composition.

An ultrasonic high-pressure measurement cell was developed and instrumented

for use within the sample chamber of a prototype high-pressure treatment unit equipped

with independent temperature- and pressure-monitoring and control instrumentation.

Measurements were taken over a range of pressures up to 600 MPa and temperatures

between 100 and 300C with four different simulated liquid food systems (binary aqueous

solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid at different concentrations, and pure water).

The resulting sound velocity data along with atmospheric pressure data on density,

specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient were used to derive the

important thermodynamic properties of specific volume/density, isentropic and

isothermal compressibility and isentropic pressure thermal coefficient at elevated

pressures. These results also led to an interpretation of the pressure-, temperature-, and

concentration-dependence behavior of each property, allowing prediction of each

property as a function of temperature, pressure and composition. The thermodynamic

relationships of partial molar properties of solute and solvent in each solution have also

led to a better understanding of the interactions between solute and solvent under the

influence of pressure, temperature, concentration and solute type in model aqueous food

systems. For predictive or numerical application purposes, regression coefficients were

determined by fitting data to the appropriate model.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

High-pressure treatment has been known as a potential food preservation

technique for over a century. However progress has been relatively slow since Hite's

first report on the subject (Hite 1899b). Important developments in high hydrostatic

pressure equipment made it possible to subject foods to high-pressure treatments

resulting in commercial success of the process, first in Japan in the early 1990s, then in

Europe, and recently in North America. Despite the capability of high-pressure

processing to preserve without compromising physical, nutritional, and sensory quality

characteristics, predictions of the effects of high-pressure treatment are difficult. This

also applies to generalizations for any particular type of food due to the complexity of

foods and the possibility of changes and reactions that can occur under pressure. Yet,

mathematical models capable of such predictions are a necessary first step for process

design, optimization and control.

The ability of high-pressure treatment to kill vegetative microorganisms is widely

known, even at low-temperature processing. The main advantages of high-pressure

processing, when compared to other traditional food processing technologies, are

retention of flavor, nutrients, and color. This is true only if the process is not conducted

at high temperatures. Other important attributes are independence of product size and

geometry, and instantaneous and uniform distribution of pressure, which reduces

processing time, as opposed to conventional processes (e.g., thermal) where time/mass









dependency for mass and heat transfer are critical process variables and pose limitations.

Moreover, there is the possibility of high-pressure processing in low-temperature

applications with the same or even enhanced pressure effects, which causes even less heat

damage for temperature-sensitive materials. In addition, there is no need for extra energy

to maintain pressure once the system reaches a given processing pressure.

Negative aspects of high pressure include a poor understanding of the

mechanisms and effects on foods and their constituents, and the generation of heat within

the pressure vessel due to adiabatic heating upon pressure buildup. For example, in

microorganisms, studies have shown that there is a change in the permeability of cell

membranes, accompanied by a reduction in the liquid volume and consequently a

decrease in the internal volume of the microbial cell. The physicochemical environment

can adversely change the resistance of the microorganisms to pressure; consequently the

interactivity of components is of great importance to determine the pressure mechanism

and the subsequent reduction of viable cells. Furthermore, despite the effectiveness of

high pressure on the destruction of vegetative cells of bacteria, molds, and yeasts, some

bacterial spores are strongly resistant to pressure. Also, the effects on enzymes in general

are not conclusive. Enzyme activity may increase or decrease, depending on the enzyme,

its source, physicochemistry of the environment, and treatment conditions. Temperature

variation within the food system during pressure treatment is non-isotropic because of

pressure-induced adiabatic heating and depends on pressure, composition, and other

factors such as vessel volume and initial and boundary conditions. In many cases,

researchers did not examine these issues, which may affect inactivation kinetics and other

pressure effects significantly.









Transformations in foods under high pressure can be irreversible or reversible,

depending on the process; involved substances; environmental conditions; and the

combination of pressure, temperature, and time of exposure. High-pressure treatment

effects on food systems are highly dependent on the primary effects of pressure and

temperature on the thermodynamic and transport properties of food systems, including

their components and interactions. Some of the relevant thermodynamic properties of

high-pressure processing are density, compressibility, the adiabatic pressure thermal

coefficient, phase transition properties (e.g., boiling and melting point), solubility, and

their changes. Pressure is a fundamental state variable that influences the values of those

properties.

Pressure-dependence studies reveal information on the volume profile of the

process, in the same way that temperature-dependence studies tell us something about the

energetic of a process. Applying high pressure hastens reactions that reduce volume (by

Le Chatelier's principle) and vice-versa. There is also a thermodynamic relation between

volume changes and activation energy, due to changes in free energy. Change in volume

for a given substance under an applied pressure depends on its compressibility. Since

compressibility, like volume, is determined by the composite effect of intra- and

intermolecular interactions, its value can be used to gain insight into these interactions.

Compressibility is a macroscopic property, which is sensitive to solute-solvent

interactions, and therefore can help to characterize hydration properties of solutes in

solutions. In solute molecules, pressure affects ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and

hydrophobic interactions. The mechanism of pressure denaturation of proteins, for

example, involves ionization and precipitation. However electrostriction also occurs,









corresponding to charge separation and dissociation of ionic interactions. Thus, solvation

and electrostriction effects can be examined using volume-change studies of solutions

under high pressure using models, and consequently giving more insight into these

phenomena. Compressibility is an important property determined by the balance between

attractive and repulsive forces. It enters into many pressure-dependent thermodynamic

expressions, and is an essential parameter for the design and use of any high-pressure

equipment. In fact, the adiabatic thermal pressure coefficient derived from volumetric

and heat-capacity data under pressure supplies very useful information about the

magnitude of adiabatic heating generated by the work of compression. Knowledge of

this nonisotropic temperature rise is fundamental for optimizing high-pressure

processing, especially if it is combined with thermal treatment to maximize safety and

quality. Accurate data are needed of pressure and temperature dependence of

thermodynamic and transport properties, coupled with reliable kinetic parameters for

destruction of microorganisms, enzyme inactivation, nutrient retention or any other

quality or safety attribute.

The effect of high pressure in thermodynamic properties such as density,

compressibility, and the adiabatic-pressure thermal coefficient of food systems and their

constituents are scarcely discussed in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study

was to develop procedures and instrumentation for in situ measurements of

thermodynamic properties during the pressurization process in an isostatic high-pressure

unit. This study seeks to determine pressure and temperature dependence of

thermodynamic expressions for specific volume (or density) and isentropic and

isothermal compressibility of food-based model liquids and the effects of temperature









and composition near ambient temperatures. In addition, other thermodynamic

expressions for isentropic thermal pressure coefficient, isobaric specific heat capacity,

and isobaric expansivity are derived as a function of pressure and temperature. Research

on high-pressure processing began as a qualitative trial-and-error process, focused on

determining end effects in specific food products. Now it is evolving into a more

systematic fundamental approach addressing pressure-dependence kinetics,

thermodynamics, thermophysical properties, and modeling aspects, providing a basis for

broadening its applicability. We hope that this study, together with numerous other in

situ measurements, contributes to this endeavor.















CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Research on high-pressure treatment of foods has dealt almost exclusively with

the effects on food systems after the pressure treatment. There is a lack of experimental

data and basic concepts involving in-situ effects on thermodynamic and transport

properties. This study deals primarily with modeling the influence of pressure on

thermodynamic properties of food components. Therefore, most of the background

information focuses on the thermodynamics of high-pressure science and technology and

its fundamentals. Moreover, much of the research relevant to this field is related to

nonfood systems, which brings about different approaches, equipment, and techniques

sometimes difficult or impossible to apply to food materials. For this reason, some of the

existing techniques and the fundamentals used to explore the effects of pressure on

nonfood materials are highlighted. We also give a brief overview of some of the research

on high-pressure technology for food processing and preservation to show some of the

difficulties presented by the complexity of food materials.

High-Pressure Food Processing and Technology

Treatment of foods with high pressure is generally accomplished by compressing

the medium (usually water mixed with lubricating oil) surrounding prepackaged foods in

flexible or semi-rigid vacuum-sealed containers. In this manner, high hydrostatic

pressure for food processing in the range of 100 to 1000 MPa (600-800 being considered

the maximum for economic feasibility) is generated through direct or indirect









compression (depending mainly on the maximum operating pressure, vessel volume, and

frequency of operation) of the pressure transmitting fluid in thick-walled, cylindrical

vessels made of low-alloy steel (Deplace and Mertens 1992; Hori et al. 1992; Kanda et

al. 1992; Traff and Bergman 1992; Mertens and Deplace 1993; Zimmerman and

Bergman 1993; Mertens 1995; Ting and Farkas 1995; Olsson 1997; Vardag and Korner

1997; Freeman 1997, 1998). In the case of direct, piston-type compression, the pressure

medium is directly compressed by a low-pressure piston-driven pump at one end.

According to the hydraulic principle, the desired high pressure results at the small

diameter vessel end of the piston. The indirect concept uses a high-pressure intensifier

pump (using the same hydraulic principle) to pump the pressure medium into the closed

vessel until the desired pressure is achieved. The direct method delivers very fast

compression (a few seconds), but is limited by the high-pressure dynamic seal between

piston and internal vessel surface. The indirect compression method requires only a static

high-pressure seal in the vessel (Mertens and Deplace 1993). Most industrial and

laboratory-scale high-pressure systems use the indirect pressure-generation concept

(Traff 1998). A production cycle includes loading the product into the chamber,

pressurizing, dwell time (typical range 1 to 30 minutes), depressurizing, and product

unloading (Deplace 1995). This process can be made semicontinuous by using

alternating cycles in a series of pressurization chambers for greater capacities (Moreau

1995; Bignon and Lebas 1997; Morris 2000). Vessel volumes may vary from a few

milliliters in laboratory units to several hundred liters in large commercial systems

(Olsson 1995). Indirect heating and cooling capability through an external circulating

jacket is possible, although slow thermal responses are expected because of vessel









thermal inertia and the small heat-exchange surface between vessel and pressure medium.

Internal cooling/heating sources or conditioning of the pressure medium may be a choice,

but sophisticated and complex solutions are more likely (Colman 1997). Only a few

reports have been documented on continuous high-pressure systems as prototype

equipment (Itoh et al. 1996a; Sionneau et al. 1997).

Although high-pressure technique for food processing and preservation already

has a number of commercial applications, limitations related to data comparison and

complexity associated with understanding interactive components of the process limit full

acceptance of the method (Eley 1992; Mozhaev et al. 1994; Earnshaw et al. 1995;

Hayashi 1995; De Cordt et al. 1997; Smelt 1998; Knorr 1999a; Farkas and Hoover 2000;

Linton and Patterson 2000; Tewari 2000; Dunne and Kluter 2001; Smelt et al. 2002).

Furthermore, predictions of the effects of high pressure are difficult as are generalizations

for any particular type of food (Palou et al. 1999). Nevertheless, a considerable amount

of information has been generated, and evidence exists on the end effects of high pressure

on food systems, including microbial inactivation, chemical and enzymatic reactions, and

the structure and functionality of food components.

The Role of Water in Food Systems under Pressure

Water is the major constituent of many food products, which can be described as

aqueous solutions; dispersions; or suspensions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,

inorganic salts, organic acids (etc.) and their mixtures. The characteristics, behavior, and

interaction of water with solutes under pressure are very important (Fennema 1996; Palou

et al. 1999). Water molecules, consisting of dipoles of two hydrogen atoms attached to

an oxygen atom, form a unique, extensively hydrogen-bonded network with localized and

structured clustering, with a number of anomalous properties. These anomalies have









been explained by dynamic equilibrium of open low-density and condensed higher-

density structure bending, but not breaking, some of the hydrogen-bonds (Chaplin 1999;

Symons 2001). This two-state structural model for water, with its interconverting

mechanism between a cavity form capable of enclosing small solute molecules and

another form able to collapse because of competition of bonded and nonbonded

molecules, explains many of water's anomalous properties including its temperature-

density and pressure-viscosity behavior; and the solvation and hydration properties of

ions, hydrophobic molecules, carbohydrates and macromolecules (Chaplin 1999).

Functionality of water is attributed to its two proton donor sites and two proton acceptor

sites, while cooperativity is determined by the strength of hydrogen bonds which depends

on the number of such bonds (Symons 2001). Many properties of water change with

pressure according to an initial breaking of hydrogen-bonded structures, reducing the

structure (Bridgman 1931). Water influences the structure, appearance, and taste of

foods and their susceptibility to spoilage. From a chemical and physical standpoint,

water is an excellent solvent because of its polarity, high dielectric constant and small

size; its behavior as a carrier of solutes, a reactant and reaction medium, a lubricant and

plasticizer, a diffusion medium, a stabilizer of biopolymer conformation; and because it

probably facilitates the dynamic behavior of macromolecules, including their catalytic

(enzymatic) properties (Cheftel 1992; Tauscher 1995). Because of the complexity of

foods and interactions between food components and preservation or biophysical-

chemical-transformation factors, the role of water may not be easily identified in some

cases (Palou et al. 1999). Thus, in high-pressure food processing, if pressure and

temperature affect water properties, changes in density, compressibility, surface tension,









viscosity, thermal properties, dipole moment, dielectric constant (which are all solute-

solvent sensitive) are expected with their related consequences on food structure and

stability. The presence of different solutes has varying effects on physicochemical

properties of the solution. Solutes interfere with cluster equilibrium by favoring either

open or collapsed structures. Any of these effects, which are pressure and temperature

sensitive, will cause the physical properties of the solution, such as density,

compressibility or viscosity, to change. Also, water is a more reactive environment when

the extent of hydrogen bonding is reduced by pressure toward unstructured water

(Ludemann 1992). Local clustering will be affected by the presence of solutes, thus

changing the nature of water and making solutions to behave non-ideally. However, the

extension of these pressure effects on the structure of aqueous solutions and its

consequences to pressure processing of foods is still to be determined.

High Pressure as a Preservation Process for Foods

The ability of high pressure to inactivate microorganisms was first demonstrated

more than 100 years ago by Roger (1895). A few years later, Hite and co-workers (Hite

1899a; Hite et al. 1914) demonstrated the microbial shelf stability of milk, meat and fruit

products by using high pressure as a food preservation method. As a preservation

technique high-pressure processing is primarily based on reducing the microbial load to

prevent growth in populations of food-spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The

preservation of other quality attributes is also a concern (Farr 1990; Cheftel 1991;

Mertens and Knorr 1992; Tewari et al. 1999; Knorr 1999b; Cano et al. 1999; Palou

2000). Other important applications aim to improve quality and process efficiency by

means of pressure-shifting phase transitions (Knorr et al. 1998; Hayashi et al. 1998).









Researchers have shown that high pressure inactivates microorganisms by

inducing changes to the morphology, biochemical reactions, genetic mechanisms, and

cell membranes (Hoover et al. 1989; Earnshaw et al. 1995; Isaacs et al. 1995; Smelt

1998; Abe et al. 1999; Farkas and Hoover 2000; Smelt et al. 2002; Brul 2002).

Resistance of microorganisms to high pressure varies greatly as shown by a number of

experimental works, and reduction of microbial loads is directly related to the level of

hydrostatic pressure applied (as well as temperature, which is also pressure-dependent

due to adiabatic heating), type and growth phase of microorganism, food matrix, and

environmental conditions (e.g., physicochemical and synergistic factors) (Aleman et al.

1994; Arroyo et al. 1997; Linton and Patterson 2000; Farkas and Hoover 2000; Furukawa

et al. 2002; He et al. 2002; Ludwig et al. 2002). Kinetics of pressure inactivation

observed with different microorganisms varies from first order, to a change in slope, to a

two-phase pattern, to even more complex kinetics, depending on the food system,

microorganism, and experimental conditions (Earnshaw 1995; Heinz and Knorr 1996;

Palou et al. 1997b; Ludwig and Schreck 1997; Braddock et al. 1998). Spores of bacteria

have been identified as the most resistant form of microorganisms, requiring either higher

pressures or combination with other treatments, such as moderately high temperatures

(Hayakawa et al. 1994b; Takeo et al. 1994; Balasubramaniam 1999), modified

atmosphere containing CO2 (Enomoto et al. 1997a; Enomoto et al. 1997b; Ballestra and

Cuq 1998; Park et al. 2002; Corwin and Shellhammer 2002), lytic enzymes such as

lysozyme (Lechowich 1993), freezing pre-treatment, and gamma irradiation (Gould and

Sale 1972). These factors would sensitize bacterial spores by induced germination, cell-

wall weakening, internal vital solute extraction, and pH decrease (caused by carbonic









dissociation in the case of C02), consequently reducing pressure resistance. Inactivation

of bacterial spores is of special interest for the sterilization of low-acid foods, as opposed

to acid foods (fruit juices and jams, yogurt, and acidified meats) where the low pH would

act as inhibitor for bacterial growth.

Studies have shown that some food constituents and their interactions have a

positive baro-protective effects on natural microbial flora, as opposed to studies using

buffer solutions or laboratory media containing pure cultures (Calik et al. 2002; Castellari

et al. 2000; Ganzle et al. 2001). In other studies, substances such as trehalose, sucrose,

glucose, and sodium chloride caused enhanced synergistic protective effects; while others

like glycerol, citrate salts, and sorbic acid weakened the pressure inactivation of

microorganisms (Ogawa et al. 1990; Hayakawa et al. 1994a; Tauscher 1995; Earnshaw et

al. 1995; Iwahashi et al. 1997; Palou et al. 1997a). There is also experimental evidence

that pressure sterilization conditions can be improved further when processing is done at

low temperature, including sub-zero temperatures (Hashizume et al. 1995, 1996; Hayashi

et al. 1998). Pulsed pressure treatment has also been used to increase microbial

inactivation (Aleman et al. 1996; Itoh 1996; Hayakawa et al. 1997; Yuste 2001). At

present, it is difficult to see why and how all these synergistic effects of pressure,

temperature, and component interactions may enhance or weaken the pressure

inactivation of microorganisms. We lack primary knowledge of how pressure influences

physical and chemical properties of food systems and their constituents. Earnshaw

(1995) suggests that these compound effects could be partially explained in terms of

modification of dissociation properties under pressure, since volume reduction of water

causes strong perturbation of electron cloud distribution around ionized molecules (a









phenomenon known as electrostriction). As water is much more densely packed around

the ions than around the corresponding undissociated molecules, weak acids ionize,

increasing the number of formal charges. So when charges are created, substantial

volume contraction occurs due to solvation effects or electrostriction of water molecules

around the ions as pressure favors the ionized form (Hui Bon Hoa et al. 1992). This has

profound effects on water hydration and ionization. One consequence is a significant

shift in pH equilibrium during pressurization. Accurate models relating to

microorganisms or other transformations in food systems are yet to be developed (Smelt

et al. 2002). In addition, indirect pH measurements reveal discordance in the magnitude

of pH shift due to pressure, and direct measurement under pressure presents a number of

technical problems that currently prevent this approach (Hayert et al. 1999). For accurate

control of the treatment intensity required for the desired microbial reduction, numerical

models of heat transfer can be used that must consider the pressure and temperature

dependence of thermophysical properties of foods.

End Effects of High Pressure on Foods and Food Components

The effect of high-pressure processing on food itself is another area of interest

and concern. High pressure may modify structure/functionality of proteins and alter

enzyme activity; induce changes in phase transitions (e.g., reversibly increase the melting

point of lipids, or decrease melting point of ice); and break down biomembranes. The

behavior of food systems under the influence of high pressure is governed by Le

Chatelier's principle, which predicts that the application of pressure shifts equilibrium

toward the state that occupies a smaller volume, hence favoring processes associated with

negative changes of volume.









Proteins and macromolecules. As early as the beginning of the twentieth century,

Bridgman (1914) reported that egg-white albumen coagulated under high pressure just as

by the application of heat. However, denaturation of proteins is understood to be

distinctly different to that induced by heat treatment. Pressure is thought to break up

mainly the hydrophobic and electrostatic (ion pair and polar-group bond) interactions;

and hence, at sufficiently high pressure causes the unfolding, either completely or

partially, of the proteins (Hayakawa et al. 1996; Mozhaev et al. 1996b; lametti et al.

1998; Smith et al. 2000). In contrast, heat induced denaturation causes the formation and

destruction of covalent bonds potentially producing off-flavors. The type of protein

gelling and cross-linking of starches that high-pressure treatment induces may make the

process unsuitable for some types of food although these same properties may also be

used to enhance products, such as seafood and meat products, or alter macromolecule

functionality (Galazka et al. 1995; Douzals et al. 1996; Messens et al. 1997; Hinrichs and

Kessler 1997; Fernandes et al. 1998; Hayashi et al. 1998; Stolt et al. 1999; Heremans et

al. 1999; Saldo et al. 2000; Lullien-Pellerin et al. 2001). The interplay between

macromolecules and high pressure has also driven research into whether it can be used to

tenderize/enhance meat/muscle by accelerating reactions of naturally occurring proteases,

along with noticeably cooked appearance and other side effects (Ko et al. 1991; Ohshima

et al. 1992; Ashie and Simpson 1996; Dumoulin et al. 1998; Ashie and Lanier 1999;

Ashie et al. 1999; Hsu and Ko 2001). Apart from a food constituent, the study of proteins

under the influence of high pressure has become widespread from a structural and

functional point of view, since pressure is considered as an elegant and clever way to

disturb their conformational equilibrium without breaking covalent bonds (Isaacs 1981;









Masson 1992; Gekko 1992; Dumay et al. 1994; Funtenberger et al. 1995; Heremans

1995; Paci and Marchi 1996; Kharakoz 1997; Smeller and Heremans 1997b, 1997c;

Prehoda et al. 1998; Pares et al. 2000).

Enzymes. Food enzymes may catalyze deteriorative reactions with subsequent

loss of quality attributes, such as color (e.g., browning in fruits, vegetables and

mushrooms, caused by polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), appearance (e.g., cloud loss

in citrus juice by pectinesterase), nutritional (e.g., destruction of essential fatty acids and

production of free radicals by lipoxygenase), and sensory (e.g., flavor and texture

changes in meat products by transglutaminase). The effect of high pressure on enzymes

and enzyme activity is more complex in that they can be completely and irreversibly

inactivated, completely and reversibly inactivated, partially and irreversibly inactivated,

and, partially and reversibly inactivated, depending on the enzyme, source, substrate, and

environmental conditions such as pressure, temperature, pH, physico-chemistry, presence

of salts, sugars (Kunugi 1992; Asaka et al. 1994; Anese et al. 1995; Mozhaev et al.

1996a; Seyderhelm et al. 1996; Cano et al. 1997; Hendrickx et al. 1998; Weemaes et al.

1998b; Indrawati et al. 2000). Only at sufficiently elevated pressure, or combined with

moderate temperature, are enzymes completely and irreversibly inactivated. Pressure

dependence of enzyme activity differs significantly not only in barostability but also in

susceptibility to protective effects (Weemaes et al. 1997; Athes et al. 1998; Ludikhuyze

et al. 1998a; Weemaes et al. 1999b; Van den Broeck et al. 1999; Lee and Park 2002).

These combined and synergistic effects are not accurately accounted for without the

understanding of how pressure influences physical and chemical properties of food

systems and their constituents. Kinetics of pressure-temperature enzyme inactivation can









often be described by first order (traditional single step reaction), two or more isozymes

(differing in their pressure or thermal resistance following different reaction steps),

sometimes identified as biphasic behavior (labile and stable fraction but still first order

for each step), consecutive steps (succession of irreversible reaction steps), or fractional

conversion models (Ludikhuyze et al. 1997; Goodner et al. 1998; Weemaes et al. 1998a;

Ludikhuyze et al. 1998b; Ludikhuyze et al. 1999; Indrawati et al. 1999; Weemaes et al.

1999a; Van den Broeck et al. 2000; Stoforos et al. 2002). The latter model is used when

a resistant fraction remains after an inactivation process. There are also situations where

antagonistic effects of pressure and/or temperature reveal food quality related problems.

In these cases, the remaining enzyme activity is the limiting preservation factor which

defines whether refrigeration or other combined preservation technique would be needed.

Kinetic parameters describing the pressure and temperature dependence of inactivation

rate and constant are of key importance for design and optimization of combined high-

pressure/temperature processing for food preservation.

Phase transitions. Application of high pressure results in reversible crystallization

of certain triglycerides and elevation of the melting point of lipids. For instance,

chocolate tempering would be favored by exploiting this effect (Yasuda and Mochizuki

1992). The transition temperature of the lipids depends on the length of the hydrocarbon

chain as well as the degree of unsaturation, whereas the rate of change with pressure is

almost independent of the length. The freezing and melting point of water can be

lowered with increasing pressure to a minimum of-220C at 207.5 MPa, given that

pressure opposes the increase in volume (by the Le Chatellier principle) occurring on the

formation of type I ice (regular ice) (Bridgman 1912). At about 900 MPa water may









freeze at room temperature (200C), forming ice VI with density of approximately 1,310

kg m-3 (Wagner et al. 1994). The occurrence of other ice polymorphs involves a similar

or smaller increase in density relative to the liquid state which is governed by pressure

and temperature conditions along with the water phase diagram. It is possible to obtain

certain ice forms with the aid of nucleating agents specific to each form, such as ice III or

ice IV (Knorr et al. 1998). It is also important to mention that the presence of solutes in

food materials will result in a melting point depression. In addition, high pressure

facilitates supercooling, and promotes uniform and rapid ice nucleation and growth

throughout the sample upon pressure release, producing smaller ice crystals, rather than a

stress-inducing ice moving front in heat transfer driven freezing processes (Kalichevsky

et al. 1995). The interplay between the various phase diagram pathways and different

pressure and temperature combinations has motivated research on high pressure-assisted

freezing and thawing of foods (Deuchi and Hayashi 1992; Fuchigami and Teramoto

1996; Denys et al. 1997; Schlueter et al. 1998; Rouille et al. 2002; Li and Sun 2002).

Because of the large heat of crystallization released as ice is formed, freezing has a

warming effect, and therefore additional cooling of the sample would be required to

enable complete freezing to occur. The opposite effect is expected during

decompression, which in turn requires heat supply to prevent recrystallization during

pressure-assisted thawing processes (Kalichevsky et al. 1995). Faster freezing and

thawing rates are anticipated with the use of high pressure, along with energy savings and

quality improvement, especially regarding solid foods for minimal tissue damage and

drip loss, although side effects that are difficult to control on certain food components

may be of concern (see previous paragraphs) (Fuchigami et al. 1996; Hayashi et al. 1998;









Zhao et al. 1998; Otero et al. 2000; Fernandez-Martin et al. 2000). Better exploitation of

phase transitions in high-pressure food processing requires more studies on the kinetics of

ice nucleation, crystal size, distribution and growth, recrystallization, and changes of

thermodynamic properties during phase transitions.

Thermodynamics of High Pressure

Pressure primarily affects the volume of a system in such a manner that all matter,

regardless of its thermodynamic state, suffers a reduction of volume upon application of

pressure, even though the effect is much greater for gases than it is for condensed matter,

liquids and solids (Bridgman 1931). Expressing this change in volume using

thermodynamic notation produces

vI aP)

Compressibility

The amount of contraction is governed by the compressibility, which is dependent

on the intermolecular forces acting within the substance, that is, it is the result of the

balance between attractive and repulsive potentials (Isaacs 1981). Compression results in

decreasing the average intermolecular distance and reducing rotational and translational

motion. Compressibility, an intrinsic physical property of the material defined by

Equation 2-2, decreases from gases (order of magnitude 10-5 10-6 Pa-1) to liquids (106 -

10-10 Pa-1) with the greatest variability, to solids (10-10 10-12 Pa-1).

1 v pap [2-2]
f- i = -)| [2-2]


Compressibility of liquids decreases with pressure, since the initial 'free volume'

has largely disappeared, and the repulsive potential is stronger than the attractive at high









pressures. For most liquids compressibility increases with temperature given that thermal

expansion increases the internuclear distances (increase in 'free' volume). Once more,

water is an exception and its isothermal compressibility decreases with temperature

passing through a minimum around 46C (Kell 1974).

Adiabatic Thermal Pressure Coefficient

Upon compression of a liquid, heat is evolved due to the work of compression

against repulsive intermolecular forces. Once a substance experiences a positive thermal

expansion, this temperature rise increases the volume and affects the value of

compressibility. Therefore, compressibility can be obtained either isothermally fi or

isentropically fs, i.e. reversibly and adiabatically. The magnitude of this temperature rise

is given by the adiabatic thermal pressure coefficient (Rowlinson and Swinton 1981).

Since the process is reversible and isentropic, it follows that:


s- -f [2-3]


Expanding the expression above, since change in entropy with temperature are

related to heat capacity, and applying Maxwell's equation (see appendix A for details)

and the definition of volumetric thermal coefficient, Equation 2-4 is obtained. Thus, by

knowing the amount of compression, isobaric heat capacity and thermal expansion as a

function of pressure and temperature, it is possible to quantify the adiabatic heating from

a given starting temperature. This temperature rise is accompanied by a dissipation of

heat within and through the pressure vessel, which is dependent on the rate of

compression, vessel size, initial and boundary conditions, and heat transfer parameters.










YS CP [2-4]
IS T~a


Isobaric Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient
Equations 2-5 and 2-6 below represent the definitions of the isobaric heat capacity

and the coefficient of thermal expansion.

C- P [2-5]


a- P -~j [2-6]
V aT P P

The pressure dependence of the isobaric heat capacity can be derived from basic

thermodynamic relationships, differentiation rules, and the definition of isobaric heat

capacity; the end result is given by the following expression (see derivation on Appendix

A), which can be further combined with the definition of the coefficient of thermal

expansion (Equation 2-6).

P -Ta2 + -aa [2-7]
ap J, T2 P T)

The change of isobaric thermal expansion coefficient with pressure is the

complement of the change of isothermal coefficient of compressibility with respect to

temperature, and then Equation 2-8 is found (see derivation in Appendix A).

Sa ia [2-8]
)TP T )P

The complex variation of the pressure dependence of isobaric heat capacity is not

easily interpreted in terms of physical changes in the liquid, where specific interactions









may occur depending on the nature of the liquid. For some organic liquids, specific heat

capacity shows a decrease with pressure up to 200-300 MPa, and beyond this point it

behaves erratically; water also behaves irregularly (Isaacs 1981). Thermal expansion of

liquids usually decreases with pressure, water below 40C being an exception besides a

very anomalous behavior in the pressure range from atmospheric to 1,000 MPa

(Bridgman 1931).

The relationship between isentropic and isothermal compressibility is given by

Equation 2-9; the derivation can be found in appendix A. Upon adiabatic compression,

the temperature rises and the volume change for unit pressure increases, consequently the

compressibility is less than that under isothermal condition.


A = + # 2T [2-9]
CPp)

Speed of Sound

A key thermodynamic property for the present study is the speed of sound, which

is linked to isentropic compressibility and density (or specific volume) by means of the

Newton-Laplace1 Equation 2-10. Therefore, a number of thermodynamic functions can

be derived by measuring the speed of sound over a range of pressures and temperatures,

since it is a simple function of the derivative of density over pressure and, also the second

derivative of the free energy over pressure. By measuring u(P, T), one can obtain p(P, T),

V(P, T), which allows calculation of any thermodynamic function.




1 Newton-Laplace equation. This equation is also called the Wood equation since he first demonstrated in
1941 the independence of the sound velocity to frequency for homogeneous liquid and gases, while others
just called it the Laplace equation (Povey 1997). The former is preferred in this text simply because they
were the first to describe it (Newton 1686) and to show the adiabatic nature (Laplace 1816) of the
relationship between sound velocity and density / compressibility.










u2 = -V2 =- [2-10]
Sp) av S AO?

The study of sound waves and their propagation, and its prospective applications

in food science and technology is still not well acknowledged, despite the effort of

several scientists (Povey and McClements 1988; Povey 1989; Povey 1997; McClements

1997; Povey and Mason 1998). What has directed the present research on this subject is

not the theory of sound propagation itself but the thermodynamic properties that can be

derived from sound velocity and their interpretation.

It should be emphasized that Equation 2-10 defines the speed of sound in terms of

isentropic properties, although Newton (1686) in his classical analysis did not distinguish

between isothermal and isentropic compressibility. The assertion that the propagation of

sound waves was adiabatic (owed to the small thermal dissipation) and reversible was

made by Laplace (1816) more than one century later. Propagation of sound requires an

elastic medium, so that a longitudinal or compression (contrasting to shear or surface

waves) sound wave traveling through a fluid produces a series of compressions and

rarefactions. Consequently, planes of molecules perpendicular to the direction of the

sound waves are cyclically displaced (although there is no net movement). The particle

displacement, or pressure perturbation, depends upon position and time, which can be

equated by means of the mass and momentum conservation laws of fluid mechanics

yielding the so-called wave equation, expressed below in terms of a one-dimensional,

homogeneous, isotropic, non-dispersive propagation (Dowling and Ffwocs-Williams

1983).


-x= J [2-11]
ax2 u2 at2









The solution for the wave equation includes a real and a complex part of waves

propagating in the positive direction away from the origin and also in the negative

direction. Pressure disturbance or particle displacement as a result of the propagation of

a sound wave reveals fundamental properties of the propagation of sound, either in terms

of its energy content or in terms of the pressure or amplitude (Dowling and Ffwocs-

Williams 1983).

The basic parameters of a continuous wave include the wavelength and the period

of a complete cycle. The number of cycles completed in one second is called frequency

and is measured in Hertz. The relation between sound velocity, frequency, wavelength

and period in a continuous wave is given by the following equation.


=- = uT' [2-12]


The acoustic spectrum breaks down sound into 3 ranges of frequencies, subsonic

(< 20 Hz), audible (20 Hz to 20 kHz), and ultrasonic range (> 20 kHz). The ultrasonic

range is then broken down further into 3 subsections (low frequency/airborne/high power,

conventional/industrial, and high frequency/acoustic microscopy ranges). It is a common

practice to express sound velocity in terms of the acoustic impedance Z of the medium, a

characteristic property, which may give the 'intensity' of the wave propagating through a

given medium, expressed as the product of density and sound velocity (Povey 1997).

The wave vector k' that appears in Equation 2-13 is related to the angular frequency and

speed of sound.

27rf co
Z=pu=p ,=p
k k [2-13]









A piezoelectric2 transducer, which converts an electric pulse into a sound wave, is

needed to generate and detect ultrasonic vibrations. The sound field of a transducer is

divided into two zones; the near field and the far field (O'Donnell et al. 1981). The near

field is the region directly in front of the transducer where the echo amplitude goes

through a series of maxima and minima and ends at the last maximum. The location of

the last maximum is known as the near field distance and is the natural focus of the

transducer. The far field is the area beyond the natural focus of the transducer where the

sound field pressure gradually drops to zero. Because of the variations within the near

field it can be difficult to accurately evaluate the signal using amplitude based techniques.

The near field distance is a function of the transducer frequency, element diameter, and

the sound velocity of the propagation medium. There are a number of sound field

parameters that are useful in describing the characteristics of a transducer. In addition to

the near field, knowledge of the beam width and focal zone may be necessary in order to

determine whether a particular transducer is appropriate for a given application. A

transducer's sensitivity is affected by the beam diameter at the point of interest. All

ultrasonic beams diverge, or in other words, all transducers have beam spread. In the

near field, the beam has a complex shape that narrows, while in the far field the beam

diverges. Beam spread from a transducer can be reduced by selecting a transducer with a

higher frequency or a larger element diameter or both. However, the smaller the beam

diameter, the greater the amount of energy reflected back when using pulse-echo

techniques.



2 Piezoelectricity. The prefix piezo is a Greek word for pressure. The piezoelectricity phenomenon, first
discovered in 1880, is the direct result of applying a mechanical stress to most crystalline materials that
brings about the appearance of electric charges or inversely strains are generated in certain faces of the
crystal due to the application of an electrical field (Beyer and Letcher 1969).









Finally, ultrasound attenuates as it progresses through a medium. Assuming no

major reflections, there are three causes of attenuation: diffraction, scattering and

absorption. The amount of attenuation through a material can play an important role in

the selection of a transducer for a given application. In many liquids, the velocity of

ultrasound is a function of frequency, and the liquid is said to be dispersive. If any

dispersion occurs it will introduce a systematic error into the velocity measurement

(Povey 1997). An important distinction should be made between the use of sound

propagation for material characterization, which requires low-intensity (usually pulsed

waves) ultrasound, and the use of high-power (> 10 kW m-2, < 100 Hz continuous wave)

ultrasound for promoting physical and chemical transformations (e.g., sonochemistry),

since they involve different techniques and physical principles, in spite of some

similarities. Besides density/compressibility relations, there are a number of applications

of low-power ultrasonics in foods taking advantage of its non-invasive, non-destructive

and opaqueness-applicability nature, going from quality control (e.g., meat-fat inspection,

egg-white quality and shell thickness, fruit ripeness); composition, concentration, and

solids content determination; emulsions, dispersions, and particle size characterizations;

to the processing plant fluid level and flow measurements, and extraneous matter

detection (McClements 1997).

Thermodynamics of Solutions

So far we have treated all thermodynamic quantities as of those regarding pure

substances. These expressions hold for solutions since the extensive thermodynamic

properties of a pure substance are determined by pressure, temperature and its amount;

and its intensive properties by pressure and temperature alone; while for a solution,

pressure, temperature, and the amount of each constituent define its extensive properties;









and its intensive properties by pressure, temperature and composition. The question

arises as how to separate the composite effect resulting from the combination of different

substances as in a real food system, which very often is much more complex than just a

solution (homogeneous single phase mixture). Most foods can be seen as dispersions

(suspensions, emulsions, foams, colloids, gel, etc) of a dispersed phase (gas, liquid or

solid) into a continuous phase, usually liquid, which, besides soluble components, may or

may not contain insoluble components or membranes (Walstra 1996). We shall limit our

discussion to homogeneous liquid solutions by which many food systems can be

approximated (fruit juices, beverages and drinks, milk, liquid egg, etc.). What has driven

studies dealing with thermodynamic properties of composite materials (or mixtures of

pure substances) is either the 'simple' departure from ideality due to mixing, the original

matrix of the studied substances and its significance, or a specific application for the

required property (Blandamer 1973; Franks and Reid 1973; Millero 1971; Millero 1980;

Holland 1986). For instance, the study of proteins in aqueous solutions by means of

ultrasonic data is strongly based on the thermodynamics of hydration and its role in

modulating structural stability and functional activity, which predominantly depends on

the solute-solvent interactions, which in turn can be studied through some sort of

apparent or partial thermodynamic expression of derived properties of solution

components (Gekko and Hasegawa 1986; Kharakoz 1991; Gekko and Yamagami 1991;

Kharakoz and Sarvazyan 1993; Chalikian et al. 1995; Chalikian and Breslauer 1996;

Kharakoz 1997; Soto et al. 1998; Prehoda et al. 1998).

There is a thermodynamic relationship between the speed of sound and the

inverse of the square root of the product of density and compressibility given by the









Newton-Laplace equation. The compressibility of a fluid is equal to the isothermal or

isentropic pressure derivative of volume and, consequently, is a second derivative with

respect to pressure of the Gibbs function as for Equation A. 10 (refer to Appendix A).

Since compressibility, like specific volume (or density), is determined by the composite

effect of intra- and intermolecular interactions, its value can be used to gain insight into

these interactions (Sarvazyan 1991; Chalikian et al. 1994). It is well known that aqueous

solutions of electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutes do not behave ideally at atmospheric

pressure since there is considerable interaction, and there is no reason to expect regular

behavior of such solutions under elevated pressures. When studying solute-solvent

interactions it is convenient to deal not only with the overall compressibility of a solution,

but rather with the apparent molar, partial molar, apparent specific, or partial specific

compressibility of the solution constituents. For an aqueous solution, the apparent

compressibility of a solute is determined by interatomic interactions within the solute

molecule itself (intrinsic compressibility of a molecule), solute-solute interactions, and

solute-solvent interactions (hydration) (Sarvazyan 1991). A substantial number of

compressibility studies of mixtures of non-aqueous systems can be found in the literature

(Kiyohara et al. 1974; Kortbeek et al. 1988; Zhang et al. 1992; Nath 1998). The general

aim has been to use the composition dependence of the apparent or partial (and

sometimes 'excess' as will be seen shortly) quantities as a means to understand the nature

of the molecular scale processes within those mixtures, even without applying pressure to

the system and simply looking into the properties derived from Newton-Laplace

equation, since temperature also induces volume changes.









For a binary solution prepared using n, moles of solute and n, moles of solvent,

the volume of each component is treated as a partial molar property, rather than the

volumes occupied by the separate components at the same temperature and pressure

before mixing, as follows (Sage 1965).


an, [2-14]
T,P,nj

Hence, for compression of liquid mixtures or solutions, the partial molar

compressibility, since it involves volume, of each component can be expressed in terms

of its partial molar volume by introducing the definition above into the thermodynamic

definition of compressibility given by Equation 2-2; it follows for a given composition at

constant temperature,


A,- f [2-15]


Partial molar properties are intensive properties which depend only on the

pressure, temperature, and composition of the mixture. Thus if (n, + n,) moles of two

substances are mixed, then the total volume is given by Equation 2-16, which holds either

for number of moles or mole fraction (Van Ness 1964).

V=n, +n, = x, + x [2-16]

The isothermal coefficient of compressibility for a binary solution can be

expressed as a combination of the volume fraction weighted partial molar

compressibilities of the components (Moriyoshi and Inubushi 1977; Nakagawa et al.

1981),


I0 = fA,1 + A,7,


[2-17]









This follows from the fact that the partial molar volumes of each component are

functions only of the relative composition of the mixture and not of its total amount. It is

seen, therefore, that the partial molar properties of a system provide how much of an

extensive property is to be ascribed to each component. However, partial molar volumes

cannot be immediately calculated from the measured density (or specific volume) of the

solution because both depend on the solution concentration. An alternative form of

Equation 2-16 defines solution volume in terms of the apparent molar volume VyPP,

according to Equation 2-18 (Blandamer 1998).

V = n,Vo + n, V [2-18]

The first term of the right hand side of Equation 2-18 is associated with the molar

volume of the pure component (solvent), as denoted by the superscript 'o'. Similarly,

Gucker (1933) defines an apparent molar compression (change of apparent molar volume

with pressure) of a solute by the difference between the product of the measured

compressibility of the solution and solution volume, and that of the solvent as expressed

by Equation 2-19.


p = P V- fl, [2-19]


Partial and apparent molar volumes are related by Equation 2-20. Apparent and

partial molar thermodynamic properties are similar but only become identical at the limit

of infinite dilution (Blandamer et al. 2001).


V = Vja +xx (2.20)
T x])P









Apparent molar volume is usually calculated using the density of the pure solvent

and the density of the solution at the same pressure and temperature together with the

composition of the solution, i.e. the solute concentration being known. It is not

uncommon to express the apparent molar volume for dilute solutions, containing neutral

solutes as well as electrolyte solutes, by a linear function of the concentration, and using

the apparent molar volume at infinite dilution (where solute-solute interactions vanish) as

equal to the limiting partial molar volume of the solute (Hoiland and Holvik 1978; Reis

1998; Blandamer et al. 2001). In this context, one approach assumes that the limiting

partial molar volume of the solute is given by the sum of two contributions, the intrinsic

volume of the solute, which will reflect the 'size' of the solute molecule, and the volume

of the co-sphere3, representing the solute-solvent interactions (in case of aqueous

solutions, hydration). Paljk et al. (1990), studying volumetric properties of aqueous

solutions of simple sugars at atmospheric pressure, found that the 'empty' volume

associated with the solute molecule was small and roughly the same as the empty volume

associated with this molecule in the solid state.

An alternative approach is the interpretation of volumetric properties of solutions

or liquid mixtures in terms of departures from their ideal values, defined by excess

functions. Excess thermodynamic quantities are usually obtained using the general

Equation 2-21 for any particular molar thermodynamic property Q.

QE =QQd [2-21]

This procedure implies prior knowledge or subsequent determination of the ideal

quantity for the solution of the same composition as the reference state. To illustrate this,

3 Co-sphere concept: The general rule is as follows: "Two solutes will attract each other if their structural
influences, or their tendencies to orient water molecules, are compatible with each other; conversely, an
incompatibility in these structural influences or tendencies will result in repulsive forces" (Millero 1971).









the case for the coefficient of compressibility is chosen since it is probably the most

important property in view of the present research and because different criteria and

approaches have been used for calculating excess compressibilities in preceding works.

According to Equations 2-2 and 2-21, Douheret et al. (1985) suggested that the

excess isentropic compressibility would be expressed as


S = l-- ap [2-22]
V Ps Vd )P sd

The ideal solution volume as well as ideal solution density is calculated using

volume- and mole-fraction averaging, respectively, of the pure component properties.

The volume fraction is the mole fraction weighted ratio of the volume of the pure

component to the ideal solution volume. Hence, for a binary ideal system, the following

set of equations in molar basis applies:

V =d = Xo + x V [2-23]

pid =P, +p [2-24]


or j = x~or vor, [2-25]

Prigogine (1957) equated excess compressibility by Equation 2-26. It may be

added that the condition of the process was not stated, although later work by Prigogine

(1965) explicitly referred to isothermal compressibility. It can be seen that the previous

rigorous thermodynamic expression (2.22) cannot be reduced to this single term relation.

1 (V\J 1 VTd' 1 _VE
f,=--- + = [2-26]
V P V yP V V P

By defining an 'excess volume compressibility' implicitly in terms of excess

volume, and then by expanding in Taylor series with only the first order term, Moelwyn-









Hughes and Thorpe (1964) arrived at the following expression for the excess

compressibility, taken to be valid for both isothermal and isentropic conditions. Note that

this relation has been adapted from its original form as to have the same notation used

here.

E VE 1 VE\ 1 aVJd
E Fi = _(E + 1 d [2-27]
VT d [ IVE TP )TP

Missen (1969) proposed a more rigorous thermodynamic expression for the

isothermal excess compressibility by formulating the appropriated ideal mixing rule as

expressed by Equations 2-19 to 2-21; resulting in the following expression,


HfE= I- +VE d; [2-28]


Similarly, ultrasonic speeds in ideal binary solutions require the ideal isentropic

compressibility, in this case using the term deviation (from the ideal value), which is

preferable as opposed to excess ultrasonic speed (Douheret and Davis 1993). A number

of thermodynamic-based attempts have been made to evaluate ultrasonic speed in a

binary system. These proposals differ in complexity starting with some sort of simple

weighted average of the ultrasonic speed or density of the pure components, or by

considering an intuitive model for the passage of a sound wave through unmixed

component layers, to more elaborate ones that take into account the ideal mixing rule

(Douheret et al. 2001).

It is clear though, that the use of inexact relationships may lead to discrepancies in

the calculation of excess compressibilities as well as with other excess thermodynamic

quantities. Douheret et al. (2001) pointed out that it is important to examine the

consequences of changes in volumetric properties during the process of mixing and thus









separating isentropic or isothermal conditions as one goes from individual pure

components to real and ideal solutions. What is desirable in this context is to define a

reference state for a solution so that we may correlate the deviation of all thermodynamic

quantities of real solution from those of a common model. One may define the reference

state by generating a thermodynamically consistent set of mixing rules. The choice of

solution model is not as important as the internal consistency, so that real solution

behavior relative to one acceptable model may be translated to give deviations from any

other existing or future model.

Equilibrium and Rate Processes

Pressure effects on kinetics of reactions are not intentionally covered in this

review. Nonetheless, a few concepts on the principles are given because kinetic

parameters are affected by or in some cases can be derived from the properties being

investigated in the present research. The same Le Chatelier's principle governs reaction

kinetics: a reaction associated with decrease in volume is favored by pressure and vice-

versa (Tauscher 1995). The pressure-dependence of the equilibrium constant of a given

reaction can be derived from the difference in partial molar volumes of products and

those of reactants at constant temperature in the form of Equation 2-29 (Butz and

Tauscher 1998). Hence, reaction volumes can be determined provided the density of all

components involved is known.


AF AGP =-RT 1Jn [2-29]
BIJP IP ,

Pressure effects on the rate of a given elementary reaction is described by the

thermodynamic concept of the transition state, which states that a reaction proceeds by a

smooth and gradual rearrangement of molecules between those of reactants to those of









products (Isaacs 1981). The energy of the system increases initially to a maximum

before falling to that of products. This maximum corresponds to an intermediate known

as the activation complex or transition state. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be the

rate at which the transition state is converted to products, and its pressure-dependence

may be derived from the differences in partial molar volumes between reactants and

transition state, known as the 'activation volume', given by,

AV (AG( R lnk
AF = -RT [2-30]
aP aP I

Since volumes of reactants and transition states change with pressure and there is

no reason for them to have similar compressibilities, besides being temperature

dependent, the activation volume is pressure dependent as well. Usually activation

volumes are derived from the slope of the logarithm plot of the ratio of reaction rates at

different pressures versus pressure (Cheftel 1992). High pressure has long been used as a

means to accelerate conversion rates of chemical reactions; though depending on the

mechanism a reaction velocity may be also retarded by pressure. As for the expressions

given for the pressure-dependence on equilibrium constant K and reaction rate k, a rise in

pressure from atmospheric to 100 MPa for a reaction with AV of-16 ml mol- would lead

to almost twofold increase in K; and a reaction with AV' of-16 ml mol-1, the same

pressure increase results in a twofold increase of the reaction rate (Mozhaev et al. 1994).

Extensive reviews on activation and reaction volume for thousands of organic and

inorganic reactions are given in a series of three papers (Asano and Le Noble 1978; Van

Eldik et al. 1989; Drljaca et al. 1998), some of which may be applied for reactions

occurring in food systems under the influence of high pressure.









Methods of Measuring Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressure

Reports of development of in situ measurement techniques under pressure are

almost nonexistent in the food science literature. Nevertheless, a heat source probe was

developed to successfully measure thermal conductivity of food materials under pressure

(Denys & Hendrickx, 1999)4. In general, the thermal conductivity increases for ordinary

liquids under a pressure of 1,200 MPa by a factor varying between 2 and 3 (Bridgman

1931). The effect on water is smaller; at 1,200 MPa the increase is only about 50 per

cent. A remarkable link between this study and the present exists, since there is a close

connection between the effect of pressure on thermal conductivity of normal liquids and

the effect of pressure on the velocity of sound in the liquid (Isaacs 1981). That is,

thermal conductivity in a liquid is primarily a mechanical process; heat is transferred by

microscopic mechanical waves traveling with the velocity determined in the conventional

way by the compressibility. Shimada et al. (1996) developed a hot-wire probe to measure

gel-setting and gel-melting temperatures of aqueous gelatin and agar solutions for

assessing gelation and sol-gel behavior of proteins and polysaccharides under pressurized

conditions. Measurements of pH under pressure have been proposed by indirect means

such as measuring emf, density and conductivity, optical density of indicators, and

spectrofluorometry (Hayert et al. 1999). Although not restricted to non food systems,

diamond anvil cell in combination with Fourier transform infra-red, Raman spectroscopy

or NMR has been used for in situ observation of biomacromolecules (Gekko 1992;

Taniguchi and Takeda 1992; Heremans 1995; Yamagushi et al. 1996; Heremans et al.

1996; Van Riel et al. 1997; Vermeulen and Heremans 1997; Smeller and Heremans

4 Thermal conductivity at high pressure. Another probe for thermal conductivity measurement of foods
under pressure was developed by Shariary et al. (2000), though the maximum pressure achieved in this case
was only 10 MP, therefore the technique and results are applicable for processes at low pressures.









1997a; Snauwaert et al. 1998). Most of these methods were only feasible because of the

very small sample size in the pjL-range, and the presence of an optical window (typically

sapphire). Therefore, the majority of the research studies reviewed in this matter were

dedicated to non food systems, and in particular those devoted to density (or specific

volume), compressibility, and speed of sound measurements. A distinction must be made

between compression and compressibility in order to recognize that there are different

techniques for each one, even though they are interdependent by way of Equation 2-2.

The first can be seen as the change in volume as a result of application of pressure, and

the second expresses how compressible a given material is. Because of this, these two

properties, namely density (or specific volume) and compressibility, were grouped to be

reviewed co-dependently.

Density or Specific Volume and Compressibility Measurements

It is natural to think of volume compression as the simplest and most fundamental

of all the effects of hydrostatic pressure, and for that reason it will be discussed first. It is

not, however, the simplest to measure experimentally, because the measurements

immediately obtained are relative to the vessel, which is itself distorted. Elaborate

procedures may be necessary to eliminate the effect of such distortion. Another

complication in dealing with compressibility is that upon compression of a liquid, heat is

evolved due to the work of compression, and this temperature rise increases the volume

and affects the value of the coefficient of compressibility, which is also temperature

dependent. Therefore, either the experiment is performed at constant (equilibrium)

temperature to obtain the isothermal compressibility, or the volume change produced by a

sudden compression or expansion is measured at constant entropy and the adiabatic-









reversible compressibility is obtained. The isothermal condition is frequently sought in

view of the methods described in this sequence, however, this mode is usually difficult to

maintain, and early experimental estimates of compressions and compressibilities were

often between the isentropic and isothermal values (Douheret et al. 2001).

One experimental approach to evaluate compressibility/density of liquids consists

in measuring volume changes as a function of pressure. Various methods have been

devised for this; length-measuring techniques such as piezometer (Diaz-Pena and

McGlashan 1959; Millero et al. 1969; Millet and Jenner 1970; Millero et al. 1974;

Tanaka et al. 1977), piston-displacement method (Bridgman 1931; Levelt-Sengers 1965),

syphon-bellows (Hayward 1971b), and hydrometer (Goldman 1958; Dymond et al. 1979;

Dymond et al. 1982). Very often, these devices contain the test fluid inside a flexible

surface (which can be a meniscus of an immiscible fluid of known

density/compressibility), the volumetric deformation of which can be observed and

related to the change in fluid density. Problems encountered with these techniques

include the fact that the test fluid is contained within a sample volume whose magnitude

is both vital to the measurement and dependent on pressure in a manner not always

readily predicted or reproducible.

Another experimental approach makes direct measurement of density under

pressure. Some of the techniques include oscillating U-tube densimeter5 (Malhotra et al.

1990; Malhotra and Woolf 1993; Chang and Moldover 1996), by means of measuring the

resonant frequency, proportional to the mass/density, of a nominally-fixed volume tube;

hydrostatic balance (Machado and Streett 1983; Lainez et al. 1987), which uses a direct-

weighting apparatus; and vibrating wire (Dix et al. 1991) based on the relationship

5 Densimeter: This instrument is also referred to as densitometer or density meter.









between the density of the fluid surrounding a magnetically-driven vibrating wire and the

fluid motion around it. The same principle was applied by Bett et al. (1989) in the design

of a vibrating-rod densimeter. In some of these methods, a negative aspect that has been

mentioned is the partially inelastic deformation of the volume under the influence of an

internal pressure that must be treated, and this is not an easy task.

Most of these techniques described above are very difficult to implement,

especially at higher pressures, and very dependent on the pressure-generating equipment

design. For example, some are invasive or need an optical window, and for these reasons

not always feasible. Some of them are only possible at low pressures, below 100 MPa.

Because of these difficulties accurate experiments are tedious and the literature on this

subject is full of contradictory and low precision data (Hayward 1971a; Bett et al. 1989).

Finding discrepancies of 5 to 10% is quite common between results on the same

substance at the same conditions by different researchers, and may be as large as 20 to

30%. Anisotropic distortion of the measurement apparatus and air entrapment has been

reported as the main sources of error.

Sound Velocity Measurement

An alternative approach, a non-invasive technique, inherently capable of yielding

higher accuracy, is to measure compressibility/density and their pressure-dependence by

acoustic methods (Van Dael and Van Itterbeek 1965). Newton-Laplace Equation 2-10

provides the basis for the experimental determination of isentropic compressibilities of

solutions and liquid mixtures. However, the velocity of sound data obtained as such at

high pressures must be combined with density, isobaric heat capacity, and thermal

expansion coefficient data obtained at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature

in order to compute the values of density and compressibility as a function of pressure









and temperature by means of a thermodynamic approach coupled with numerical

techniques similar to that proposed by Davis and Gordon (1967). Other significant

thermodynamic properties can be derived from acoustic data as well.

Sound velocity is measured using longitudinal or compression plane waves. Due

to thermo-viscous losses in liquids, sonic methods are only effective in the low frequency

range (usually 1 to 10 MHz), because the attenuation coefficient varies with the square of

the frequency (Kinsler and Frey 1962; Bemasconi 1986). In this context, no special

attention will be paid to the absorption of sound. Sound velocity measurement involves

generation of ultrasonic vibration, propagation through the fluid sample, and detection

either as a function of distance traveled, or by change in line widths (Breazeale and

Cantrell Jr. 1981). A piezoelectric transducer generates and detects ultrasonic vibrations.

An ultrasonic transducer is made up of an active element, a piezoelectric or single crystal

material which converts electrical energy to ultrasonic energy; a backing, a highly

attenuated and very dense material to control the vibration and absorbing the energy that

radiates from the back of the piezoelectric element; and a wear plate to protect and to

serve as an acoustic transformer between the piezoelectric element and the material under

investigation (O'Donnell et al. 1981). By varying the backing material in order to vary

the difference in impedance between the backing material and that of the piezoelectric

element, different resolutions and sensitivities may be achieved. Because of the high

characteristic acoustic impedance of liquids compared to air, the vibrating elements of

transducers designed for liquids must be capable of producing large forces at small

displacements to match the impedance of the liquid efficiently (Van Itterbeek 1965).

Commonly used transducers are made of quartz crystals (X-cut discs), inorganic crystals









(such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate), ceramic materials (e.g., barium titanate), and

polymers (usually referred to as PVDF or polyvinylidene fluoride) (O'Donnell et al.

1981). The latter carries certain interesting advantages such as short pulse duration and

efficient transfer of energy from the transducer to water-like liquids due to the close

impedance match between the polymer element and the liquid (Beyer and Letcher 1969).


The choice of a piezoelectric material is ultimately dictated by the specific

application. In general, ceramics exhibit higher electromechanical coupling factors and

lower mechanical Q-factor6 (i.e. higher mechanical losses) than crystalline

piezoelements. Consequently, crystalline elements are frequently used in narrowband

applications, that requires low ultrasonic losses in the transducer compared to the

specimen and weakly coupled piezoelement (e.g., for mechanical properties

measurements of the specimen), whereas ceramics are commonly used in broadband

applications, which in turn requires high electromechanical conversion efficiencies to

achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios, and short-duration pulses to meet satisfactory

time-domain resolution (e.g., imaging and quantitative measurements of velocity and

attenuation over a wide range of frequencies) (O'Donnell et al. 1981).

The experimental techniques used in velocity of sound measurements are the

variable path length interferometry, the optical diffraction, and the pulse methods. The

latter is considered more suitable for high-pressure measurements (Wilson 1959; Van

Dael and Van Itterbeek 1965; Davis and Gordon 1967; Bobik 1978; Daridon 1994). The

interferometer method is based upon the detection of the periodic impedance variations of

6 Q-factor represents the mechanical resonance of the piezoelement. Transducers constructed for optimal
impulse response usually consist of piezoelectric ceramics that are mechanically backed by high-loss
materials exhibiting mechanical impedances approximately equal to that of the piezoelement. This
approach yields broad bandwidth and a compact impulse response, but at the expense of sensitivity, which
then requires electrical tuning for compensation (O'Donnell et al. 1981).









vibrating piezoelement, when a reflector, parallel to the source, moves in a direction

perpendicular to the crystal (Parbrook 1953). At high pressures there are important

inconveniences inherent to the construction of this type of apparatus, and volume and

pressure changes that accompany the displacement of the reflector and difficult

tightening are some of the disadvantages. In the optical diffraction technique, a beam of

monochromatic light passes perpendicularly through a sound wave traveling in a fluid; by

the diffraction effect of light, the grating constant equals the ultrasonic wavelength

(Nozdrev 1963). However, this technique also requires an optical window.

Pulse methods seem to be most suitable for the investigation attempted in this

study. This method was first implemented by Firestone and Frederick (1946) for

detection of flaws in metals, followed by Lazarus (1949), benefited by the wartime

development of pulsed circuits, who a few years later, adapted its use in high-pressure

environments to measure elastic properties of solid crystals. The measuring cell can be

kept so small that high pressures present no major difficulties as far as the mechanical

design is concerned. Further advantages are: no movable parts in the cell, a quasi-

continuous reading of the sound velocity (or other proportional output parameter), and a

very low scattering level, mainly because fluctuations in temperature and pressure can be

avoided more easily than with the preceding techniques (Van Dael and Van Itterbeek

1965; Heydemann 1971).

A number of pulse technique variations have been reported in the literature7, all of

which are variations or combinations of the ones discussed: pulse-echo, sing-around,

pulse superposition, gated double-pulse superposition, echo-overlap, pulse-interferometer


7 Cited literature on pulse techniques. Most of the literature cited in the sequence refers to pulse methods
that were adapted to the high-pressure environment, while others were simply variations of the method.









(or acoustic resonator), and long pulse buffer rod method (McSkimin 1957; Davis and

Gordon 1967; Papadakis 1967; Papadakis et al. 1972; Eggers and Funck 1973; Bobik

1978; Sarvazyan 1982; Muringer et al. 1985; Takagi and Teranishi 1986; Lainez et al.

1987; McClements and Fairley 1991; Eggers 1992; Daridon 1994; Horvath-Szabo et al.

1994). In the basic pulse-echo method, a pulsed radio frequency signal (rls-ps duration)

of given frequency (usually 0.1-100 MHz, but can go up to 5-10 GHz) is converted into a

pulsed ultrasonic wave by piezoelectric effect of the transducer, travels through the

sample, is reflected between the sample boundaries successively, it develops a pulse-echo

decay pattern with a small pulse length compared to a round trip transit time. The

velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation is determined by measuring transit time between

the reflected pulses and the corresponding pulse propagation distance in a sample.

In the case of acoustic resonators (interferometer), the sound velocity is obtained

by measuring the pulse repetition frequency for standing wave formation at which

maximum constructive interference occurs. Typically, the electrical signals are

amplified, filtered and displayed on an oscilloscope, analyzed, digitized, and processed.

The electronic procedure to measure the transit time between pulses, usually in the range

of microseconds varies according to the specific method, such as a variable time

delay/expanded sweep, repetition rate of a continuous succession of pulses, and a

frequency counter. Design variations using one transducer (acting as emitter/receiver)

and one reflector or two reflectors (Sun et al. 1987), or two transducers have also been

reported (Eggers and Kaatze 1996).









Objectives

The purpose of this study was to develop procedures and instrumentation to

conduct experiments for measurements of sound velocity in food-based model liquid

solutions during the pressurization process in an isostatic high-pressure unit, as well the

subsequent approach to analyze and interpret ultrasonic data and derived properties. This

study seeks to determine pressure dependence of thermodynamic expressions for specific

volume (or density) and isentropic and isothermal compressibility of model binary

aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid, and the effects of temperature and

concentration near ambient temperatures. The interaction between solute molecules and

water in solution were interpreted in terms of partial molar properties and the appropriate

mixing scheme. In addition, other relevant thermodynamic properties were also derived

as a function of pressure, temperature and concentration. Mathematical expressions were

proposed for predictive or numerical application purposes by fitting data to the

appropriate model.














CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The sound velocity measurement technique through a fluid sample under high

pressure using the pulse-echo ultrasonic method was considered as the appropriate

method to determine pressure-dependence of density and compressibility of model liquid

solutions and the effects of the components. Figure 3-1 illustrates a schematic of the

entire experimental setup. The approach to the proposed research work followed the

methodology described below. The pressure generating equipment used to perform high-

pressure experiments is described as well. Accordingly, since measurements of density

and heat capacity at atmospheric pressure were needed, the methodologies to perform

these experiments are also described.

Pressure-Generating System

The high-pressure equipment consisted of a Stansted laboratory scale unit

(Stansted Fluid Power, Stansted, Essex, UK) with a pressurization chamber of 114-mm

diameter and 243-mm height, providing a usable volume of approximately 2,480 ml. The

pressure containment comprised a triplex pressure barrel having stainless steel inner liner,

top and bottom flanged end caps that delimit the working chamber, a nickel alloy steel

main vessel body, and a ductile steel outer member, which provided protection and an

annular cavity for heating or cooling capability. The pressure was applied to the yoke

type closure indirectly by the use of twin pressure intensifiers, operating in opposite

phase, driven by twin radial pumps that injected the working fluid into the pressurized

chamber.













High Pressure Unit
Control Panel


High pressure
vessel & Ultrasonic
measurement cell


Digital Oscilloscope


X
Y


Figure 3-1. Schematic of experimental setup


RS 232 port









The intensifiers were sequentially recharged with working fluid by a pre-charge

pump which also performed the chamber pre-fill and first stage pressurization functions.

The phasing cycle incorporated a short duration overlap on the drive pressure valves at

the change over point; this feature allowed the hydraulic pressure driving the intensifier

which has completed its stroke to cross flow which 'kick started' the intensifier

beginning its stroke. Four sequentially controlled valves backed by graduated capillaries

(a Pan-Pipe arrangement) provided a step ramp approximation to a programmed

decompression ramp rate. The pressure controller allowed the high-pressure pumping

system to step ramp to simulate any programmed ramp rate less than, or equal to, the

maximum rate which the pumping system could achieve. The system could reach

pressures up to 600 MPa, at rapid compression rates as well as programmable

pressurization and decompression cycles through a computerized PLC controller. This

system operated at above and below ambient temperatures (-20 to 90C), by the use of a

vessel jacket, with a circulating fluid from an external chiller/heater. The equipment was

designed to operate with several pressure transmission fluids, including water; however,

for the present investigation it was operated with a mixture of ethanol and castor oil (9:1

ratio), in view of its electrical non-conductivity, since bare wires were inside the pressure

chamber immersed within the pressure transmitting fluid (see description below).

A unique feature of this unit was the existence of electrical connections allowing

communications between the interior within the pressurized chamber and the outside

through electrical leads, which enabled the proposed in situ measurements. Originally,

two single-wire lead-through connections were built in the bottom plug of the high-

pressure vessel, with Stansted proprietary sealing design; basically using a conical plug









that sat in a sealing/insulating cone (pyrophylite ceramic material, Aluminum-hydrated

silicate) between the conical plug terminal and the bottom plate of the vessel. The rest of

the parallel section was insulated with a heat shrink sleeve; at the base there was a

terminal studding and an insulated retaining bush, a fitted lock nut, washers, and a

retaining nut for the power cable. After several drawbacks and subsequent failures with

the previous described single wires, an additional 8 electrical leads were installed for low

power/amperes applications. These were grouped in 4 wires in 2 cables, using

Omegaclad 2.0-mm OD (30 AWG copper wires) and 2.35-mm OD (30 AWG K-type

thermocouple extension wires) metal sheathed mineral insulated cables (Omega

Engineering, Stamford, CT, USA). These cables were sealed with a conical hollow plug

soldered outside of each metal 4-wire cable, which also sat in a conical cavity. Figure 3-

2 shows details of the bottom plug of the high-pressure unit with the attached electrical

leads as seen after modifications.




4-wire
connectors












S- .e v Single wire i,
Sperminal / pressure
iA 1i40t1f Tnn nxriW \ fluid inlet


Figure 3-2. High-pressure vessel bottom plug showing details of the electrical leads


kv. v* /r


p









The design of this equipment was only suitable for experiments where the sample

under investigation is restricted into a flexible or semi-rigid container able to transmit

pressure from the pressure transmission fluid inside the working chamber with no other

access to the exterior except through electrically communicating devices. The operation

of the system was straightforward: by entering compression and decompression cycles

setup parameters into the PLC controller with a computer program interface. The system

allowed setup operating parameters to be chosen via software interface SCADA-SCAN

1000 (Hexatec Systems, Hexham, Northumberland, UK), or alternatively via PLC data

access keypad, which was mainly used for diagnoses purposes or to change the settings

of certain permitted timers, counters, and data registers.

The pressure profile settings were divided into six segments, each one comprised

of a compression or decompression ramp rate (1 to 350 MPa min'1), a hold level or the

pressure set point (up to 600 MPa), and dwell duration (1 second to several hours). All

pressure data, supplied by a pressure transducer model HP28 (Barnbrook Systems,

Fareham, HA, UK) connected to the high-pressure chamber inlet pipe, was logged and

stored at a frequency of one data point every 15 seconds (not programmable) for the

specific segment of interest for ultrasound measurements ("stable" pressure and

temperature) for further retrieval in the computer hard disk (refer to section concerning

experimental procedure for collecting high-pressure ultrasonic data). Gauge pressure

data were converted into absolute pressure with the proper barometric pressure at the

local altitude (75 ft elevation above sea level) using NOAA daily data as for the

Gainesville meteorological station (NOAA 2002). A thermocouple probe provided

temperature readings of the working fluid inside the pressure chamber; however our









ultrasonic cell was designed to house a thermocouple probe for temperature sensing

within the sample as will be described in the sequence, since accurate temperature

measurement is crucial for the ultrasonic data analysis. Although temperature is usually

referred to as degrees Celsius [C] in the text, absolute temperature Kelvin [K] was used

throughout the computations. The reason for that is because all experimental temperature

data were collected using degrees Celsius.

In spite of the easy operating scheme depicted above, frequent breakdowns and

long stops for servicing caused unexpected delays. The pressure generating system did

not always deliver pressure as it should have. To list a few events: countless

replacements of pressure seals at the top and bottom plugs due to leaks or other problems

(aggravated by the not-so-user-friendly task implied); several times electrical leads

became grounded (causing loss of electrical communication and rendering impossible

any in situ measurements; as a result leads had to be repaired, replaced or redesigned);

many mechanical and electrical problems (e.g., malfunction of the pre-charge pump,

valves, chiller, intensifier); and replacement of the controller computer. As a

consequence the experiments to collect high-pressure data were delayed by more than

one year, and part of the initially planned experiments had to be significantly reduced. It

would have been more constructive to have the necessary time to digest/interpret the

acquired data and eventually being able to go back and modify something in the

experimental or theoretical approach as it is normally advisable in any research. As a

sympathetic supervisor once said, "often the biggest lesson from research is the

perversity of nature and the value of diligence."









Sound-Velocity Measurement at High Pressures

The pulse technique was used to measure sound velocity since it is more suitable

for high-pressure conditions. A device was constructed as an ultrasonic sample-holding

cell to be inserted into the chamber of the hydrostatic high-pressure unit, containing an

ultrasonic probe. Additionally, electronic instrumentation was provided to perform the

experiments consisting of a pulser-receiver, a digital oscilloscope, and a signal analyzer.

In the pulse technique, longitudinal (or compression) plane waves were generated

at frequencies usually in the range of 0.1 to 10 MHz. This involved power levels

(miliwatt region) well below that at which the physical or chemical properties of the

material might be altered. The principle is based on measuring the time between a pair of

echoes of an ultrasonic wave propagating through the sample fluid in a known fixed

acoustic path length.

A schematic of the ultrasonic cell is shown in Figure 3-3. It comprises a Teflon-

made semi-rigid container of approximately 300 ml volume capacity, an ultrasonic probe

model MP-54 modified (Rhosonics, Baarn, The Netherlands) attached to the top threaded

cap of the container, and a type T thermocouple probe. All external parts of the

ultrasonic probe were made of 316L stainless steel. The thermocouple probe was

positioned as close to the straight sound path as possible but not interfering with it, at

mid-point in the vertical direction. The transducer consisted of a highly damped

broadband piezoelectric ceramic element, internally housed inside the probe, in such a

way that only the stainless steel plate cover made contact with the sample fluid. The

whole ultrasonic measurement cell was hermetically sealed to avoid exchange of fluids.

Preliminary tests indicated that the presence of even small air bubbles where the

electric circuitry and transducer were housed caused too much stress especially during the










decompression cycle. The original ultrasonic probe was modified in order to equalize

pressure at front and rear of the sensor by drilling a hole where a flexible hose could be

attached. Then the interior of the ultrasonic cell chamber and the hose were filled

completely with glycerol and vacuum applied. In a first attempt a viscous mixture paste

of epoxy resin and tungsten powder was used but did not work properly because of the

presence of entrapped air. No major pressure gradients were expected once pressure was

equalized on both sides by the applied high hydrostatic pressure. Accordingly, maximum

care was taken when filling/closing the measurement cell with sample fluid to avoid the

presence of air bubbles in the system. This helped to avoid pressure gradients within the

container because of differences in compressibilities of air and liquid. Minor pressure

gradients were absorbed by the flexible container walls.

-*---- Transducer
coaxial cable,
Supporting shielded, PFA
rods outer isolation


S Pressure
Thermocouple \ equalizer
extension cable

\ Transducer



-. acoustic
path length,
53.99 mm
(at OC/atm
pressure)



Thermocouple --

S---- Semi-rigid
Teflon
Reflecor plaie container

Figure 3-3. Schematic of the ultrasonic high-pressure measurement cell










The transducer of the ultrasonic probe, containing a piezoelectric ceramic

element, was excited with a square wave excitation of 75 Volts negative spike short pulse

at frequencies of 2 to 4 times per second. Through the piezoelectric effect, this energy

was converted to a short sound pulse at the center frequency of the transducer (2 MHz).

The pulse duration was about 350 ns and was broadband with a frequency content of

about 100 kHz to 10 MHz and a bandwidth around 50% (Q-factor = 2). Figures 3-4 and

3-5 show, respectively, the frequency-domain (obtained by computing the FFT Fast

Fourier Transform of the time-domain waveform) of the transducer response expressed in

terms of signal amplitude (dB') versus frequencies, and the time-domain impulse

response. Note that there is a decrease in amplitude as frequency increases.



0

-10

-20

o -30

S-40

E -50
-60

-70

-80
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency (IVz)

Figure 3-4. Frequency-domain transducer response

This sound pulse was coupled into the fluid sample and propagated through it at a

velocity characteristic of the fluid. Ultrasound propagates through a material until the

sound wave impinges on an impedance change; an amount of sound energy is reflected

1 Magnitude is expressed in dB (decibels) relative to 1 Volt (rms) where 0 dB = 1 Vs.










dependent on the size of the interface and the relative impedance differences. The wave

will continue until it reaches the rear wall of the cell (reflector). Part of the energy of the

ultrasound is absorbed and attenuated by the material. Because the transducer is highly

damped, the piezoelement can operate as receiver once the reflected waves (echoes)

return, converting the wave into an analog signal, having a highly damped waveform

with the above characteristics. The reflected signal (echo) was only about 100 to 700

mVolts.

6




4 400 qs






-2
0a
o
z
-4

6 . . . .
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
time (Ls)

Figure 3-5. Time-domain input negative spike and transducer impulse response

The electrical signal coming from the ultrasonic cell was then amplified and

normalized by a signal analyzer model 8100 (Rhosonics, Baarn, The Netherlands). The

normalized signal (about 2 Volt peak to peak) was digitized with an 8-bit, 20 MHz A/D

converter. A detection algorithm based on the signal waveform, amplitude, frequency

content, and the presence of electronic noise, identified the first arrived signal eliminating

unwanted signals. The algorithm allowed a down-shift of frequency down to 800 MHz

center frequency. In addition, it was possible to compensate the signal in a dynamic

range of 60 dB (difference between the strongest and the weakest signal). Through a









digital signal processing technique both signals were analyzed to determine the delay

time between the time the transducer was stimulated and the time when the resultant

pulse (echo) was detected. The transit time was then diminished from the dead-time (the

time through the cable, the probe material, and the delay through the analog electronics).

Dead time was determined by calibration using the double/triple transit time method,

using pure water at a very constant temperature as the propagation medium. By entering

2x or 3x the one-way sound path (acoustic path length = 2 x reflector distance), the

double or triple transit time could be found. This calibration was done at 740C, since for

pure water at this temperature at atmospheric pressure the temperature has no effect on

the transit time. At 74.4C, the sound speed had reached a maximum, and at 740C the

transit time was minimal due to the expansion effect of the reflector standoff The

magnitude of the dead time obtained in this manner was determined to be 1,097

nanoseconds.

Using a standard RS-232 port, the signal analyzer was connected to a PC

computer with the primary function of creating a log file in which transit time values

were recorded through an interface program. This computer program enabled changes in

the settings of file logging, time-span, sample and recording frequency, and also to view

the transducer echo in a dialog-box window. Because the wave analysis algorithm dealt

with time interval for the measurement, and also because of the intermittent (pulsed)

nature of the signal (see previous paragraph), the RS 232 interface sometimes did not

handle it correctly. The signal analyzer was primarily focused on measuring and while

transferring data to the RS 232 port there were times when the transit time calculation

window was too large, resulting in larger echoes, more data points, and longer









calculations, and therefore less time to handle the RS 232 output. For the recording

function, the number of communication errors was considered acceptable since real-time

measurements were conducted over periods long enough to accommodate eventual

interruptions without interfering with the accuracy. Therefore, the interface program was

primarily used for recording transit time at a programmable frequency, while the function

of monitoring the signal waveform was left for the oscilloscope.

A 400-MHz 2-channel digital oscilloscope model TDS-430A (Tektronix,

Beaverton, OR, USA) was used to monitor the input signal and the signal that returned

from the ultrasonic cell by using a high impedance x10 probe connected to the signal

analyzer. There were important reasons that determined the use of an oscilloscope. First,

by monitoring the signal waveform coming from the ultrasonic cell, as the high-pressure

experiments were performed, it was possible to verify the transducer response as well as

the integrity of the ultrasonic sample-holding cell under such extreme conditions. For

instance, since signal strength is inversely proportional to the gain value, the scope was

used to monitor attenuation effects to observe specific changes in the process or

instabilities. Consequently, it was possible to discontinue the experiment without causing

any major irreversible damage, introduce remedies or eventually modify the ultrasonic

cell depending on the particular situation. By taking advantage of the digital capability of

the oscilloscope, it was also possible to record the signal waveform in a digital format for

further analysis in order to test the accuracy of the transit time provided by the signal

analyzer as described in the previous paragraph. In this way, samples of waveforms were

averaged over 20 readings (to minimize electronic noise), acquired at frequency of 25 MS

s', and recorded in DAT file format. From these files, data was read line by line and











placed into variables, beginning with four values (header), containing record length, time

per sample interval, trigger location, and trigger offset, followed by a linear array of

ASCII floating-point amplitude/time values. A typical time-domain echo waveform is

shown in Figure 3-6 as seen on the screen of the oscilloscope, shown together with the

input signal. It should be mentioned though that it was very difficult to find the returned

signal (echo) because the signal amplitude was very small, also due to the presence of

electronic noise, multiple reflected echoes (other than the direct one) and reverberations.

A very fine tuning was necessary since at high sensitivity the oscilloscope amplifier

became saturated.




S Insert
4 015
E 010 -
-o o
E 005
0 000
-005
-2" -o l
Z
-0 15
-4 57 59 61 63 65 67

-6 ... .. ....... .........I
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (,s)



Figure 3-6. Typical reflected (echo) signal waveform at high pressure

The data files containing samples of the waveform were then analyzed in Matlab

version 5 (The Math Works, Natick, MA, USA) using a digital signal processing

technique via auto-correlation function. With this procedure, only one waveform (i.e.

average of 20 waveforms instantly acquired) was recorded each time. Therefore the

transit time (or time delay between the input signal and returned echo) values obtained by

this technique were only used for comparison purposes in order to evaluate the accuracy









of the transit time obtained with the signal analyzer/interface program, by which any

period of time of the experiment could be covered more efficiently with the same

accuracy in addition to the inevitable variations due to pressure fluctuations. The

accuracy on the transit time provided by the instrumental setup was considered about 1

nanosecond. The difference between the transit time determined from the waveform

scope data and the transit time provided by signal analyzer oscillated from 2 to 5

nanoseconds. Considering that there was a time delay, impossible to overcome, between

the exact times each datum was acquired, this comparison was deemed excellent.

The time measured, divided by the distance traveled by the pulse gives the

velocity of sound. The distance traveled by the sound wave was double the direct straight

path since it was the resultant path of the reflected wave. The sound path length

measured at 0C and atmospheric pressure was 107.98 mm. Pressure as well as

temperature affected this distance because of compressibility and thermal expansivity of

the construction material of the ultrasonic probe. Therefore, the acoustic path length had

to be corrected by the experimental conditions of the measurement. For 316L stainless

steel the coefficient of linear compressibility and coefficient of thermal expansion were

taken respectively as 1.9981 x1011 MPa and 1.602 x105 oC-1 (Davis 2000). A data logger

model DAQ 56 (Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT, USA) was connected to the type-T

thermocouple probe placed in the ultrasonic cell (Figure 3-3) for temperature

measurement. The thermocouple probe was calibrated using a standard reference

thermistor temperature sensor model 5610 connected to a handheld thermometer model

1521, with 0.010C uncertainty (Hart Scientific, American Fork, UT, USA) and a high

precision thermostatic bath model 6035 (Hart Scientific, American Fork, UT, USA) or a









thermostatic refrigerating circulator for low temperatures (model 900, Fisher Scientific),

in the temperature range of 5 to 650C. Temperature data were recorded during high-

pressure experiments through a PC computer program at programmable sampling

frequency (Balaban 2001).

Procedure for Collecting High-Pressure Ultrasonic Data

Experimental conditions to conduct ultrasonic high-pressure measurements were

chosen based on pressure and temperature ranges usually employed in high-pressure

processing of foods, pressure generating equipment capability, temperature conditioning

availability, ultrasonic cell restrictions, concentration range of major food constituents, as

well as by performing preliminary experiments. Therefore, pressure ranged from

atmospheric, 200; 400 and 600 MPa and temperatures at 10, 20 and 300C. These values

were taken as set points, but the actual measurements were conducted at equilibrium

conditions which are slightly different from the set point values.

Although the high-pressure equipment was fully programmable, once a cycle was

started there was no possibility to reset the running time during a cycle. Consequently a

set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the time for thermal

equilibration under acceptable limits. Complete thermal stabilization was not an option,

since it was affected by the environmental conditions where the machine was located,

which was not under control, and also because only the lateral walls of the vessel were

thermally insulated. To exemplify the variation of the ambient temperature, data

recorded on selected days are shown in Figure 3-7. Also, there is the effect of adiabatic

heating which is pressure as well as pressurization rate dependent. Thus, a series of

preliminary experiments was performed at varying conditions of final pressure and

temperature, pressurization rates, and initial sample temperature conditioning. It was






59


concluded that, depending on the pressure/temperature combination after reaching the

desired pressure, 2 to 5 hours were needed for thermal stabilization, with the lowest

stabilization time at temperature near ambient and at lower pressures, as expected.

Accordingly, pressurization rates were adjusted between 50 and 100 MPa min1.


25

S24 Day 1

2 23 Day 2

8 22
E 2j Day 3

L. 20
E
< 19

1 8 . .
0 50 100 150 200
Time (rrin)



Figure 3-7. Ambient temperature variation during 3 different days

The upper temperature limit (300C) was imposed since both the pressure

generating system and the ultrasonic cell showed signs of weakness facing extreme

conditions (pressure, temperature and medium). It should be remembered that, for

example, at temperature conditioning of 40C would result in a final temperature (at the

end of pressurization step) over 65C due to adiabatic heating effects. At this relatively

high temperature combined with the effect of ethanol, a strong solvent used as the

pressure transmitting fluid, parts such as electrical terminal's insulation or epoxy resins

which were used as sealant for parts of the ultrasonic cell would not resist continuous

exposure. Consider also that this temperature rise was not far from the boiling point of









ethanol, which at atmospheric pressure is around 770C. Nonetheless vapor pressure of

ethanol increases appreciably, which was of concern as well. The lower temperature

limit (10C) was dictated by the chiller capability and because of possible phase change

and its associated volume expansion, which could bring irreversible damage due to

material stress. No information was available to attest safety related issues to work at

very low temperatures regarding the pressure generating system, such as possible

detrimental effects of crystallization of the lubricating oil, although the manufacturer

stated otherwise.

Pressure stabilization was totally dependent on the PLC controller and the

response of the pump system of the high-pressure generating system as well as system

sealing, which was acceptable between certain limits. There was an intrinsic pressure

fluctuation around the set point which was pressure dependent, and not exactly invariable

from one experiment to another considering experiments under similar conditions.

Higher pressures produced larger fluctuations. Care was taken to avoid collecting data

during periods when the re-pressurizing process was in progress, even in a short pressure

range, since, again, this would promote adiabatic heating, disturb acoustical path, and

consequently destabilize system equilibrium. Another important consequence was the

disturbance caused by electrical/electronically actuated valves and pumps, which would

create a 'noisy' environment, produce interference and end up extremely difficult to

analyze and process the signal coming from the ultrasonic measurement cell. Figure 3-8

shows experimental runs with examples of pressure fluctuations around the set point.

Decompression rate was kept low (25 MPa min') to prevent sudden drop of pressure due

to concerns related to the presence of micro pores in the cavity of the ultrasonic cell. In










addition, temperature drop associated with decompression (expansion cooling, which is

the reverse effect of adiabatic heating) could possibly cause problems related to phase

change.



700

600 A

500 2

cl" 400


**
200 r 1'

100

0 5 0 5 0-
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (rrin)


Figure 3-8. Pressure fluctuation of selected experiments at 200, 400 and 600 MPa set
points.

Because the effect of adiabatic heating due to compression during the initial

pressurization phase and the intrinsic pressure fluctuation which brought about heating or

cooling due to the same or reversed effects, changes of temperature were therefore so

large that the greater part of the time in performing the experiments under high pressure

was consumed in waiting for equalization of temperature after changes of pressure.

In view of the preceding guidelines and observations, the basic procedure for

collecting high-pressure ultrasonic data involved the following steps: [1] temperature

conditioning of the high-pressure vessel, by setting up chiller or heater according to the

desired temperature set point; [2] fluid sample preparation followed by filling up the

ultrasonic cell container and its transfer to the high-pressure chamber; [3] set point









configuration of the pressure cycle through PC controller; [4] configuration of

temperature data-logger; [5] configuration of signal analyzer interface program for

logging and recording transit time; [6] starting pressure cycle and recording all data

through PC computer programs at lower data-sampling frequency; [7] pressure and

temperature stabilization by monitoring over time; [8] oscilloscope onscreen monitoring

and recording signal waveforms; [9] once pressure and temperature reaches equilibrium,

starting recording at higher data-sampling frequency (e.g., every 3 seconds) for a 5 to 10

minutes time span. This procedure was applied for collecting high-pressure ultrasonic

data for pure water, binary aqueous model solutions, solute combinations, and a food

material. Atmospheric pressure ultrasonic data were also collected for the same solutions

at the same temperatures following this procedure.

Preparation of Binary Aqueous Solutions

Solutions were prepared with analytical grade reagents (>99% purity) from

Fischer Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA) using deionized water, through ion exchange,

activated carbon, and 2 micron filter (USFilter, Warrendale, PA, USA), on a weight by

volume of the solution basis, with +0.1 mg accuracy for mass. Binary solutions of

sucrose, glucose, citric acid in water were prepared. The concentrations were 2.5, 10, and

50% (w/v) for sugar solutions, and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) for organic acid solutions. Other

combinations of these compounds in aqueous solutions were tested for component

interaction and predictive analysis; simple carbohydrates only, and carbohydrates plus

organic acids. This study intended to investigate the concentration range of interest for

food science and engineering applications, rather than explore full concentration range as

normally seen in physical chemistry studies. In addition, high-pressure ultrasonic

measurements in a selected food system were performed in order to test the predictive









ability of the proposed model (see Chapter 4). Pasteurized pulp free orange juice,

purchased locally, was chosen for this purpose, since its major components are simple

sugars and organic acids, some of which corresponding to the same compounds currently

investigated. The major components of this juice were quantified in order to prepare a

solution based on this composition (analysis conducted by ABC Research); both juice

and emulated juice were then investigated ultrasonically under high pressure at selected

conditions.

Density and Heat-Capacity Measurements at Atmospheric Pressure

As will be described in Chapter 4, density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion

coefficient data at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature together with

ultrasonic data at high pressures were combined to compute other thermodynamic

properties as a function of pressure and temperature. These included density and

compressibility computed by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations and

mathematical procedures. Accordingly, density, heat capacity and thermal expansivity

data at atmospheric pressure were entered as initial input parameters in the numerical

iterative procedure and because of the largely preponderant contribution of the former, in

order to obtain reliable pressure dependent data, its accuracy had to be high as well.

Accurate density data at atmospheric pressure was then considered the most crucial

parameter for the mathematical procedure involved in the calculations of thermodynamic

properties at elevated pressures derived from ultrasonic data. Thus, the following

sequence describes the experimental procedure employed to determine density and heat

capacity2 at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature for the same binary


2 Both density and heat-capacity measurements at atmospheric pressure were performed in the laboratories
of Dr. Miriam D. Hubinger, Dr. Florencia C. Menegalli and Dr. Antonio J. A. Meirelles, at the Department









solutions and other solute combinations as described previously. The coefficient of

thermal expansion at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature is subsequently

obtained indirectly from density data by taking the first derivative of density with

temperature according to Equation 2-6.

Density Measurements

Density measurements were performed using an oscillating tube density meter

model DMA 58 from Anton Paar-GmbH (Graz, Austria) coupled to a cooling system.

This system measured the period of oscillation, which is dependent on the density of the

sample. A hollow U-shaped tube, with calibrated volume (approximately 0.7 cm3),

containing the sample was electro-magnetically excited to undamped oscillation. The

calibration constants of the instrument, which comprised the spring constant of the

oscillator, the mass of the empty tube, and the volume of the sample, could be calculated

from two period measurements when the oscillator was filled with substances of known

density. In this case, the instrument was calibrated with dry air and distilled, de-ionized

water at the corresponding temperature. The calibration procedure was repeated every

three days at each temperature. A semiconductor Peltier element and a resistance-based

temperature sensor monitored and controlled the temperature of both sample and tube.

An external chiller (Paar Physica-GmbH, Graz, Austria) was used for the low

temperature experiments. All samples were thermally equilibrated to a temperature

slightly above the instrument set point, in order to avoid formation of water vapor

bubbles inside the oscillating tube. After introducing the samples slowly (to avoid

formation of invisible gas bubbles), using a plastic-tipped hypodermic glass syringe,


of Food Engineering, at the State University of Campinas, SP Brazil; this author gratefully acknowledges
their contributions.









totally free of gas bubbles, time was allowed for thermal equilibrium, typically 10-15

minutes. After each measurement, the oscillator was rinsed with water and acetone

repeatedly, calibration checked, and dried by a filtered flow of air from a built-in pump.

Density measurements were performed at temperatures of 100, 200, 400, and 600C.

This system provided an accuracy of 2 x105 g cm-3 and precision of 0.5 x105 g cm-3

on density measurements, and accuracy on temperature reading of +0.010C, which could

be controlled within 0.0050C.

The accuracy of the density measurements was confirmed based on the

measurement of the density of pure water. Results for three such runs and literature

values are shown in Table 3-1. The average deviations between the three runs and from

literature values were 2.7x105, and 4.0x105 g cm-3 respectively (Fine and Millero 1973;

Wagner and Pru3 1993). Thus, the measured density of pure water for temperatures from

100 to 600C were in good agreement with the density values of Fine & Milleto (1973) and

Pruss & Wagner (1993), considered the most accurate data for pure water.

Table 3-1. Results for the calibration of the density meter with pure water
Density of Pure Water (g cm' )

T This work Fine and Millero Wagner and Pru3
(C) Run Run 2 Run 3 Average S.D. (1973) (1993)
10 0.99969 0.99970 0.99965 0.99968 2.6x105- 0.99969 0.99970
20 0.99831 0.99833 0.99836 0.99833 2.5x105- 0.99805 0.99821
30 0.99565 0.99572 0.99568 0.99568 3.5x10-' 0.99557 0.99565
40 0.99231 0.99230 0.99226 0.99229 2.6x105- 0.99227 0.99222
50 0.98806 0.98805 0.98800 0.98804 3.2x105- 0.98816 0.98803
60 0.98319 0.98319 0.98322 0.98320 1.7x105- 0.98326 0.98320









Heat-Capacity Measurements

Heat-capacity measurements were performed using a differential scanning

calorimeter model DSC-2920 (TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) with cooling

system. This system measured the differential heat flow between a sample and an inert

reference. The sample and reference were subjected to controlled heating or cooling in a

controlled atmosphere. The purge gas was helium with a flow rate of 93 ml min- By

using the sample-encapsulating press, the liquid sample was prepared within a hermetic

sample capsule. The sample mass was in the range 12-14 mg. Sealed capsules

containing samples were weighed before and after every run to assure capsule integrity.

Based upon a series of preliminary runs, a method was created that held the sample

isothermally at -120C for 5 minutes without freezing the sample (to account for the

transient period to reach the desired starting temperature, 50C), and then heated at a rate

of 70C min1 to 700C.

The DSC calibrations consisted of the baseline slope (heating an empty cell

through the entire temperature range of the experiments), the cell constant and the

temperature calibrations (from the run of a calibration material, in this case pure water,

through its melting point). To obtain accurate results, the calibrations had to be checked

and repeated periodically.

The specific heat of a given sample was then determined by creating a baseline

profile, a standard substance (pure sapphire-A1203) profile, and a sample profile using the

same method described above. From the thermograms (resulting heat flow versus time or

temperature recorded at 0.2 sec intervals), the heat capacity was calculated by using

O'Neill's method (1966). The samples were run in duplicates. The accuracy of the Cp









measurements was estimated to be +3% on the basis of the measurement of the Cp of

pure water.

Summary of Conditions for the High-Pressure Experiments

Table 3-2 shows the range of the experimental conditions of pressure,

temperature, and concentration used for collecting ultrasonic high-pressure data for

binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose, and citric acid.

Table 3-2. Summary of the experimental range of the high-pressure experiments
Variable Unit Experimental Range

Pressure (MPa) 0.1 200 400 600
Temperature (K) 283.15 293.15 303.15

Concentration:
Sugar Solutions (kg-solute m3) 25 100 500

Citric Acid Solutions (kg-solute m3) 10 50 100















CHAPTER 4
DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

This chapter presents a description of the procedures for processing and analyzing

the data collected according to the experimental methods described in Chapter 3. They

included: [1] the procedure to calculate speed of sound from transit time data of a sound

wave propagating through the fluid sample under elevated pressures at different

temperatures; [2] the procedure to determine density and heat capacity as a function of

temperature at atmospheric pressure; [3] the procedure to compute thermal expansion

coefficient as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure from density data as a

function of temperature; [4] the thermodynamic and numerical approach to derive other

thermodynamic properties, such as density and compressibility as a function of pressure

and temperature, from speed of sound data as a function of pressure and temperature, and

density, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient data as a function of

temperature at atmospheric pressure as the initial values in an iterative manner.

Predictive equations were also obtained by regression analysis for all thermodynamic

properties derived as a means to conduct further mathematical analyses as well as to

better interpret such data [5]. Up to this point all thermodynamic properties were derived

from binary aqueous solutions properties data. Thus, in order to extend the analysis for

multicomponent solutions, [6] a thermodynamic approach was developed to determine

the effect and contribution of each component in the binary solutions using a mixing rule,

and then this model was tested for combined solutes aqueous solutions and for a real food









system. As a final point, [7] an error analysis was performed in order to estimate the

accuracy of the measured experimental data and the subsequent derived properties.

Speed of Sound at High Pressures

From the transit time measurements, or the time delay between the reference input

signal and the first reflected echo received by the transducer, the speed of sound by which

the ultrasound wave propagated thorough the fluid sample at a given condition was

determined. The transit time measured in these experiments was in the range of 45,000

to 75,000 nanoseconds at nominal temperatures from 100 to 300C at pressures from

atmospheric up to 600 MPa. The sound velocity was given by the ratio of the known

acoustic path length to the transit time. To carry out this calculation Equation 4-1 below

was used, where acoustic path length was double the direct path length, since the

reflected echo traveled twice the distance of the direct acoustic path. Since the acoustic

path length varied with pressure and temperature, correction to account for the change in

this distance was introduced using the thermal linear-expansion coefficient and the

coefficient of linear compressibility for the construction material of the ultrasonic probe.

Therefore, the acoustic path length had to be corrected by the experimental conditions of

the measurement according to Equation 4-2, where Lo,,To is the acoustic path length at

reference pressure and temperature, 107.98 x 10-3 m measured at 0C and atmospheric

pressure, and T and P are respectively the actual measured absolute temperature and

absolute pressure of the experiment, respectively in Pascal (Pa) and Kelvin (K). For

316L stainless steel the coefficient of linear compressibility and coefficient of thermal

expansion were taken respectively as 1.9981 xl011 MPa and 1.602 x105 oC-1 (Davis

2000)










u = P [4-1]
At

LP, = LPo, [1+ a'(T)][1+ +/(P)] [4-2]

For prediction purposes as well as for easier and direct use in numerical

computations, sound velocity data for each binary solution as a function of pressure P and

temperature T at any given concentration were fitted to the following double polynomial

model, where uo is the speed of sound at atmospheric pressure Po taken as the reference

pressure, and ay's are regression coefficients of the continuous surface.

3 2
P-Po = Y_ a,, (u-uo)T' [4-3]
1=1 J=O

Density at Atmospheric Pressure

Density of binary aqueous solutions of sucrose, glucose and citric acid at

atmospheric pressure and concentration were experimentally obtained from vibrating

tube density meter measurements in the temperature range of 5 to 650C. A total of 74

data points for sucrose solutions were obtained, 60 data points for glucose and citric acid

solutions. Again, for prediction purposes as well as for easier and direct use in numerical

applications, density data at atmospheric pressure Po for each binary solution as a

function of temperature and concentration were fitted to the following second order

model on temperature T and concentration C, where ay's are regression coefficients of

the continuous surface.

3(24
ppo YC} T'-1 [4-4]
1=1 j=0









Isobaric Thermal-Expansion Coefficient at Atmospheric Pressure

Coefficient of thermal expansion at atmospheric pressure was derived from

measured density data at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature using

Equation 2-6 rewritten below. The approach included taking the first derivative of

density (Equation 4-4) with respect to temperature, through an analytical procedure since

not enough experimental data were available to perform this differentiation numerically

without loosing precision. Also, the experimental data were not equally spaced with

respect to temperature which made the numerical differentiation even more uncertain.

The thermal-expansion coefficient for each binary aqueous solution was then obtained by

dividing the resulting value by the density at any given temperature and concentration.

1 (p
ap, =O- [2-6]
Ppo T )P=0 IMPa

I a 3 2 1z3 2 -2
=- jaJC I (i- acj [4-5]
Ppo I0 =1 =0 =oP=0 =MPa Ppo =2 J=0

Isobaric thermal-expansion coefficients at atmospheric pressure Po, determined as

above, for each binary solution as a function of temperature T at any given concentration

were fitted to the following model.

3
a = aT-1 [4-6]


Isobaric Heat Capacity at Atmospheric Pressure

Heat capacity measured with the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was

derived from the measured sample and reference heat flow using Equation 4-7, in the

temperature range from 50C to 650C, calculated at each 0.1 C temperature interval, with a

total of 615 data points for each sample, even though the sampling rate used allowed for a









shorter temperature interval. The Cp values were further averaged for two replication

runs.

dH


CPref m,, dH
dt

A correction factor has been proposed to account for the effect of water that

evaporates into the headspace of the sample capsule due to the exponential increase of

water vapor pressure with temperature. By assuming equilibrium between liquid phase

and the gas phase headspacee) inside the DSC-capsule, the equilibrium relationship

derived from Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations for a binary system could be

used.

The assumptions are as follows:

* The liquid phase consists of a non-ideal binary solution solutee + water) and the
gas phase consists of an ideal mixture of dry air and water vapor, with the
equilibrium given by:

YP = XyP = AP [4-8]

* Water activity of solution was considered a function of solute and water
concentrations and activity coefficient, using selected models according to the
component (Norrish 1966; Miyawaki et al. 1997; Chen 1989);

* The driving force for water to evaporate was given by the temperature increase,
and was computed for each temperature interval;

* The volume of gas phase present inside the capsule was determined by means of
an air comparison pycnometer (Multi-Pycnometer, model MVP-5DC, Quanta-
Chrome, Boynton Beach, FL, USA);

* The amount of solution (liquid phase) changed over time (as temperature
increases) in direct proportion to the amount of water evaporated;









Enthalpy changes of the liquid solution (as measured by DSC in terms of specific
heat flow) were determined by the latent heat of water in proportion to the water
evaporated (going to the gas phase);

Vapor pressure and latent heat of water were functions of temperature;

There was negligible effect of sensible heat of the evaporated water in the gas
phase. Simulation has shown a deviation of less than 0.007% on Cp values.

The correction term that was applied for heat capacity followed Equation 4-9

below:

1 dH 1 dH m original evap dT 1 [4-9]
H I [4-9]ample maple t AT
n sample dt corrected original dt DSC sample sample dt AT

The changing in sample mass due to evaporation is given by:

sample = original mevap [4-10]

Mass of water evaporated by using water mole fraction Yw calculated using

Equation 4-8, was computed with the following expression:


mevap = mair "[4-11]
1 Yw Mwair

Water activity of solution as a function of composition in Equation 4-8 was

calculated using models from Norrish (1966) and Miyawaki et al. (1997) both given by

Equation 4-12, and Chen (1989) given by Equation 4-13. Note that Norrish's model

differs from that of Miyawaki only by the absence of the cubic term in Equation 4-12.

Aw = (I- Xs)e( +x) [4-12]


Aw 1=- I+ n [4-13]
1+0.0180e +Bmn )as









Enthalpy carried by water evaporated was determined by multiplying it by the

latent heat of water as a function of temperature using Wagner and Prup's expression

(1993):

AHevap =mevapA [4-14]

S= 2500.8 2.3293T 0.0008T2 [4-15]

The effect of the variation of the total pressure of the biphasic system along a

DSC run, as a function of temperature at constant volume, was computed using:

P2=P7 +273.15 [4-16]
T, +273.15

The Antoine equation was used to determine water vapor pressure as a function of

temperature:

3816.44
P(mmHg)=exp 18.3036 (T+273.15)46.13)44[4-17]
w v / _((T + 273.15)- 46.13)]

An example of an outcome by applying the proposed approach for one particular

DSC run (heating rate of 70C min-1, temperature range of 5 to 650C, for approx. sample

mass of 12.000 mg) for l%-sucrose solution, the calculated amount of water evaporated

over the entire run was 0.0115 mg. For this particular run, the calculated amount of

water evaporated over each 0. 1C temperature increase was in the range from 2.4 x10-6 to

3.7 x10-5 mg. This represents about 0.1% of water being evaporated for the entire run

relative to the initial sample mass. After applying Equation 4-9, the difference in the heat

capacity calculated using Equation 4-7 ranged approximately from 1 to 3% depending on

the solute, concentration, and temperature. The greater the concentration of the solution

the smaller the deviation due to the effect of solute, which causes a decrease in vapor









pressure of the solution as would be expected. All heat-capacity data presented in this

report included the above correction.

The complete set of experimental data of heat capacity determined as indicated

above for each binary solution as a function of temperature T and concentration C were

then fitted to the following second order model.

3 2
Cp' =3 T2-1 [4-18]
,=1 ]=0O

From Ultrasonic Data to Thermodynamic Properties at High Pressures.
Thermodynamic Approach

Ultrasonic data at high pressures were combined with density, heat capacity, and

thermal expansion coefficient data at atmospheric pressure (all functions of temperature

as well) to compute other thermodynamic properties as functions of pressure and

temperature, including density and compressibility. The latter two properties were the

main focus of this research. The work of Davis and Gordon (1967) was taken as

reference, and similarities and differences are highlighted where appropriate.

In order to establish the set of thermodynamic expressions to compute these target

properties work began with the so-called Newton-Laplace Equation 2-10 together with

the definition of compressibility, given by Equation 2-2 expressed isothermically. The

relationship between isentropic and isothermal compressibility was also needed since the

Newton-Laplace equation defines speed of sound in terms of isentropic compressibility,

which has been derived in appendix A, given by Equation 2-9. These three equations are

rewritten here for clarity.

2 1
u = [2-10]
PsP









f, I- [2-2]
A 7 P


A =s + a21 [2-9]
CPp

These equations were combined to obtain the following first order partial

differential equation that expressed the variation of density with respect to pressure at a

given constant temperature as being a function of speed of sound, thermal expansion

coefficient, heat capacity and temperature.

p I a2T
+1 T [4-19]
-P u-2 Cp

Apart from temperature and pressure which were varied independently, it is

recognized that none of the properties incorporated in the right hand side of the

expression above, namely speed of sound, thermal expansion coefficient, or heat

capacity, can be seen as independent of either pressure or temperature. Consequently,

their pressure as well as temperature dependence had to be addressed. The pressure

dependence of speed of sound was experimentally determined; therefore it entered into

this approach as prior defined as the coefficients of the fitted Equation 4-3. The pressure

dependence of the isobaric heat capacity isobaric and thermal expansion coefficient were

given by Equations 2-7 and 2-8 (please refer to Appendix A).

ac =- = a2 + [2-7]
-ap arT2 P

fa) O= [2-8]
{jTPj1 PdT )









The right hand side of Equation 2-8 above contains the isothermal

compressibility, which can be obtained by combining Equations 2-9 and 2-10 to give:

1 I TacP [4-20]
P# = + [2


Mathematical Solution for the Set of Partial Differential Equations

An iterative simultaneous step-by-step numerical procedure based on the Runge-

Kutta 4,5th order, explicit 4,5 pair formula, using an interpolant of order 4 (Shampine and

Reichelt 1997), was employed for the solution of the set of partial differential equations

proposed above with initial values represented by the properties at atmospheric pressure.

The numerical procedure was applied to the pressure range starting from 0.1 MPa

up to 600 MPa at pressure step intervals of 2 MPa, which satisfied the experimental

conditions of the available ultrasonic data. This pressure interval was chosen only as a

means of balancing an acceptable output accuracy range of values with the program

running time, since the precision of the numerical method was internally controlled by

convergence criteria. At each pressure interval, the values of density, isobaric heat

capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were computed at elevated pressures for each

isotherm in the temperature range of 278.15 to 303.15 K, with temperature step interval

of 5 K. The numerical method used variable step size for the iteration which was

controlled by convergence, by taking the relative tolerance error of 1 x10-6 as the

convergence criterion. As a result, the maximum step size for the numerical iteration was

0.2 MPa.

The mathematical procedure was implemented in Matlab version 5 (The Math

Works, Natick, MA, USA). All experimental data and derived input properties were

entered in the computer program as coefficients of the fitted equations from which









smoothed values were retrieved; hence no instability other than the ones conveyed by the

numerical method itself was noticeable. Accordingly, the number of figures presented in

the coefficients of those equations ended up playing a major role in the precision of the

outcome. The calculations were carried out in the following sequence of operations:

[A] Compute density p at atmospheric pressure Po and temperature Tusing

Equation 4-4, thermal expansion coefficient a at Po and Tusing Equation 2-6 and 4-5,

heat capacity Cp at Po and Tusing Equation 4-17, and sound velocity u at Po and Tusing

Equation 4-3.

[B] By using the numerical procedure described as above (Runge-Kutta 4,5th

order), estimate density p at higher pressure Pi+AP at temperature T, by solving for the

right hand side of Equation 4-19 with initial values as determined from previous step [A].

[C] Repeat steps [A] and [B] for each isotherm for the entire temperature range.

At this point, there is a set of density values at higher pressure P1 as a function of

temperature.

[D] Fit the densities pP (T) at higher pressure PI as a function of temperature to a

2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-21 below, and find the coefficients rz(P).

2
pP = (P)T' [4-21]
I=0

[E] Compute thermal expansion coefficient a at higher pressure P1 for each

isotherm for the entire temperature range, by taking the first derivative of the expression

just determined above with respect to temperature (ap/lT)P, at PI and with the help of


Equation 2-6.









[F] Fit the thermal expansion coefficient ap (T) at higher pressure PI as a

function of temperature to a 2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-22 below,

and find the coefficients a,(P).

2
aP = a,(P)T' [4-22]
1=0

[G] Compute the first derivative of thermal expansion coefficient (aa/oT)p at

higher pressure P1 with respect to temperature.

[H] Compute isobaric heat capacity Cp at higher pressure P1 for each isotherm for

the entire temperature range, with the help of Equation 2-7, the expression just

determined above (ao/lT)p1, density pp, (T) and thermal expansion coefficient aPl (T).

[I] Fit heat capacity Cpp1 (T) at higher pressure PI as a function of temperature to

a 2nd degree polynomial according to Equation 4-23 below, and find thus the coefficients

Cz(P).

2
CpP =c (P)T' [4-23]
1=0

[J] Repeat step [B] taking however, the values of thermal expansion coefficient

ap, (T), first derivative of thermal expansion coefficient with respect to

temperature (aa/lT)p and heat capacity Cpp (T) just calculated in steps [E]-[F], [G],

[H]-[I].respectively, and thus obtaining new, somewhat different values for density for

each isotherm for the entire range of temperature pp (T) which are taken as the final

ones.









[K] Repeat steps [C]-[I] taking these new values of pP (T), thus determining new

final values for thermal expansion coefficient ap (T) and heat capacity Cpp (T), as well

as the new coefficients for the fitted equations.

[L] Repeat steps [B] to [K] for the subsequent pressure intervals until the entire

pressure range has been computed.

Once the procedure is completed, it is apparent that in the course of calculating

density, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient values were obtained as a

function of pressure and temperature for the entire range covered for the independent

variables. It should be recalled that besides pressure and temperature the independent

variables also included solute type and solute concentration; consequently this whole

calculation process was repeated for each binary solution at different concentrations. The

output of this Matlab program was a series of files containing calculated values in binary

format for further retrieval.

This method of computation differs from the method of Davis and Gordon (1967)

where the pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient is determined by

using the additional thermodynamic relation (Equation 2-8), and which therefore requires

an additional assumption that the isothermal compressibility is a polynomial function of

temperature. In the present method, however, the thermal expansion coefficient is

calculated directly from successive density versus temperature isobars, which are found

to be described precisely by second degree polynomials in temperature. In addition, the

procedure of Davis and Gordon employs the simpler Euler numerical method for the

solution of the differential equation, in contrast to the more accurate Runge-Kutta 4,5th

order method used in the present procedure.









It should be pointed out that the major contribution to the density increment due

to pressure actually comes from the term that contains the reciprocal of the square speed

of sound in Equation 4-19 since the difference between the isentropic and isothermal

compressibility of the studied solutions is expected to be small, which is the basic source

of difference if considering the other term involved according to Equation 2-9.

Therefore, the accuracy of speed of sound data plays a major role in the accuracy of the

result. As anticipated before, density data at atmospheric pressure has a large influence

on the final accuracy of derived properties under high pressure. By running these codes

with input thermodynamic properties as those of pure water and then analyzing and

interpreting the outcome, it was possible to address these issues. For instance, an

uncertainty of 0.1 percent in the density of pure water at atmospheric pressure introduces

an error as large as 10 percent in the thermal expansion coefficient at 280 MPa and 20

percent in isobaric heat capacity at 600 MPa. This is because the computation starts at

atmospheric pressure and includes calculations of first and second derivatives of density.

Furthermore, since the density derivative with respect to temperature is involved in the

calculation, the accuracy of the change in density with temperature is more important

than that of the density itself. Accordingly, the accuracy of thermal expansion coefficient

at atmospheric pressure played a crucial role in the process calculation as well.

Generally, at lower and higher temperatures the situation is less satisfactory. Thus, to

achieve high accuracy for derived thermodynamic properties at high pressure, it is

prudent to carefully examine all atmospheric-pressure measurements for possible

systematic errors associated with the results and make all efforts to eliminate them as far

as possible.