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Placement of brands of alcohol in 'teen' movies: a qualitative analysis of perceptions and attitudes of high school students

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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PRODUCT PLACEMENT OF ALCOHOL IN TEEN MOVIES: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS By AMY BELLIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Amy Bellin

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest thanks to my committee chairperson, Dr. Debbie Treise, and my committee members, Dr. Cynthia Morton and Dr. Michael Weigold. Dr. Treise provided constant support, guidance and encouragement, even when I wasnt really sure what I was doing. Dr. Morton and Dr. Weigold provided guidance and knowledge in their areas of expertise. Also, I would like to thank the staff, faculty, students and parents at Boca Raton High School. They were extremely accommodating and helpful. I also want to thank my parents, Marshall and Patricia Bellin. Without their constant support, both emotional and financial, none of this would have been possible. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................iii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................1 The MPAA Rating System.............................................................................................4 Teens as Moviegoers.......................................................................................................5 Importance of Study........................................................................................................7 Organization of Thesis....................................................................................................8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................................9 Alcohol Advertising........................................................................................................9 History and Current Trends in Alcohol Advertising................................................9 Teens and Alcohol Advertising..............................................................................11 Product Placement........................................................................................................13 Background of Product Placement.........................................................................13 Product Placements in Movies...............................................................................16 Pros and Cons of Product Placement.....................................................................18 Ethical Implications of Alcohol Product Placements.............................................20 Social Learning Theory.................................................................................................22 Research Questions.......................................................................................................28 3 METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................30 Rationale and Strengths of Focus Groups.....................................................................30 Visual Stimuli...............................................................................................................31 Researcher Involvement................................................................................................33 Focus Group Participants..............................................................................................33 Pilot Study.....................................................................................................................35 Data Collection and Analysis........................................................................................35 4 RESULTS......................................................................................................................37 Questionnaire Results...................................................................................................37 Analysis of Written Summaries....................................................................................38 iv

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Analysis of Focus Group Discussions..........................................................................39 Remembering Context and Usage Verbal Mentions and Humor Are Important.................................................................................................40 Thoughts on Character Usage................................................................................41 Brand Names vs. Generics.....................................................................................42 Does It Make Them Want To Drink?....................................................................43 Advertising Alcohol: Traditional vs. Product Placement......................................43 Do Movies Influence Teens?.................................................................................45 Attitudes Toward Product Placements...................................................................46 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................48 Discussion.....................................................................................................................48 Implications...................................................................................................................55 Limitations....................................................................................................................55 Suggestions for Future Research..................................................................................56 APPENDIX A SCREENING QUESTIONS.........................................................................................58 B FOCUS GROUP QUESTION GUIDE.........................................................................59 C QUESTIONNAIRE.......................................................................................................61 D IRB AND CONSENT FORMS.....................................................................................64 E SAMPLE FOCUS GROUP TRANSCRIPT.................................................................70 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................102 v

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication PLACEMENT OF BRANDS OF ALCOHOL IN TEEN MOVIES: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS By Amy Bellin May 2003 Chair: Dr. Deborah Treise Department: Mass Communication Product placement is the placing of a brand name product, package, sign or logo into a movie or television program for a fee or by donation. The alcohol industry has used this nontraditional form of advertising to market its products to audiences of all ages. Research has already been done on teenagers and the effects of alcohol advertising and alcohol use in movies. Because of the rising concern over teens and alcohol use, as well as the ethical and psychological implications associated with teens and alcohol advertising, teen movies were the focus of this study. Qualitative research explored the ways in which high school students notice and recall brands of alcohol in teen movies, as well as their evaluations of the brands based on the context or scene in which they appeared. Six focus groups were conducted, three all-male and three all-female groups. Overall, the participants were able to correctly recall the scene and character using the brand in two of the three movie clips. A major finding in this study was that teens vi

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were much more likely to recall traditional advertisements for brands of alcohol than they were to recall placements of brands of alcohol in movies; they also were more likely to recognize and recall brands in movies if they had seen them advertised. The implications for product placement practitioners are discussed. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In 1998, more than $1.2 billion was spent on alcohol advertising in print, outdoor, radio and television. Additionally, over $600 billion was spent on other forms of promotion, including sponsorships, couponing and direct mail (Saffer 2002). Although alcohol advertising decreased by 34% between 1987 and 1996, it has been increasing since 1997 (Saffer 2002). By 18 years of age, the average American teen will have seen 10,000 beer commercials on television. Experts believe that advertisements for alcohol encourage underage drinking, establish brand loyalty at an early age, and have contributed to the rise in teen alcoholism (Monroe 1994). In highly concentrated industries such as the alcohol industry, competition through advertising, rather than price, is often preferred. In 1999, the advertising-to-sales ratio for the alcohol industry was about 9%, whereas the average industry advertising-to-sales ratio was about 3% (Saffer 2002). While alcohol companies hold that they advertise simply to encourage adult drinkers to switch brands or to continue drinking their current brand, many critics feel that they are targeting teenagers. One of those critics, Dr. Jean Kilbourne, former adviser to the U.S. Surgeon General, believes that Americans are drinking at increasingly younger ages because of alcohol advertising aimed at teens. Some of the ways critics feel alcohol companies target teens are through sponsorships of sporting events and concerts, t-shirt and hat give-aways; and by running ads during television programs that are likely 1

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2 to have a large teenage audience (Monroe 1994). While counter-advertising efforts could help discourage underage drinking, many believe that as long as alcohol consumption is socially accepted by a teens peer group and societal messages reinforce its use, teen drinking will remain at high levels (Abrams and Niaura 1987, Christiansen et al. 1989, Kelly and Edwards 1998). Alcohol has been appearing in movies since at least 1945, when Joan Crawford was shown drinking Jack Daniels in the movie Mildred Pierce (Nebenzahl and Secunda 1993). Since then, Gordons gin was Humphrey Bogarts drink of choice in the movie The African Queen (DeLorme and Reid 1999), John Belushi chugged an entire bottle of Jack Daniels in Animal House, and Tom Cruise drank Red Stripe beer in The Firm (Marshall and Ayers 1998). These are only a few examples of how the alcohol industry has marketed its product through a nontraditional form of advertising. Product placement is a relatively new way for companies to advertise. Companies place their brands of products in movies or on television shows to be used as props for a contractual fee or by donation (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Babin and Carder (1996) defined product or brand placement as using a brand-name product, package, sign, or other display of the brands name or logo in a motion picture to influence audiences. According to the Entertainment Resources Marketing Association, there may be an occasional payment by the advertiser for a key placement in a television program or motion picture, but most deals do not involve cash payments. Instead, the company usually supplies goods or equipment for use in filming, or includes some extra product for the crew (Entertainment Resources Marketing Association [ERMA] 2002). When placements do involve a direct payment, fees are often based on how the brand is placed

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3 in the scene. Character use is the most expensive, verbal mentions are moderately priced, and visual exposure is the least expensive. There are three types of visual exposure: the product itself is shown, the brands logo is displayed, or an advertisement for the product is placed as a background prop (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Product placement was originally created as a means of reducing production costs for the filmmakers, but it also helps add a sense of realism to the films (ERMA 2002). Product placements benefit advertisers by showing the product used in a realistic setting, providing greater reach than traditional forms of advertising, and by offering an alternative media for products restricted from television, such as cigarettes and liquor (DeLorme and Reid 1999). While there are many advantages to companies whose products appear in movies, there can also be negative consequences. Most companies dont want their products associated with an unfavorable character or context. On the other hand, many studios do not want to associate a socially stigmatized product, like handguns or cigarettes, with a likeable character because, while they may need the products for realism, studios do not want to be seen as endorsing them (Palmer 1998). Teenagers today have grown up with product placements in movies. Because they have become so accustomed to them, teenagers feel that they are immune to the placements persuasive powers (DeLorme and Reid 1999). There is no existing research on the effects of alcohol placements on teenagers, but there have been studies on another stigmatized product cigarettes. Evidence of a strong association between high exposure to tobacco use in films and smoking in adolescents suggests that influence from films is as strong as other kinds of social influence, such as smoking by a parent or sibling

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4 (Sargent et al. 2001). This study seeks to explore teens attitudes and perceptions of alcohol product placements in movies. The MPAA Rating System The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) serves as the voice of the American motion picture, home video and television industries. It was founded in 1922 as the trade association of the American film industry and has since broadened its authority to include the other areas of the expanding industry (MPAA 2002). In 1968, the voluntary film-rating system of the motion picture industry was created, with NATO, MPAA, and IFIDA, as its supervisory groups. There were initially four rating categories: G for general audiences, all ages admitted; M for mature audiences, parental guidance suggested, but all ages admitted; R for restricted, children under 16 years old (later raised to 17 years old) admitted only with accompanying parent or adult guardian; and X for no one under 17 admitted. A year later, the rating M was changed to its current label, PG: Parental Guidance Suggested, because many parents perceived the M rating to be more severe than the R rating. In 1984, the PG category was split into two groups, PG and PG-13. The PG-13 rating meant the film contained a higher level of intensity than a PG-rated film (MPAA 2002). In 1990, two more revisions were announced. First, the MPAA introduced brief explanations of why films received R ratings. The Ratings Board believed that since an R-rated film contains adult material, it would be helpful for parents to know a little more about the films content before allowing their children to see it with them. Later the MPAA began applying explanations to the PG, PG-13 and NC-17 categories as well. These explanations are available to parents at the theater, in some media reviews and listings, and on the MPAAs website, www.mpaa.org (MPAA 2002).

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5 The other name change was from X to NC-17, which meant that no one under 17 would be admitted. The members of the MPAA believed that over the years the X rating had taken on a surly meaning in the minds of many people, so the MPAA felt that by changing the name it would better describe an adults only category of movies that most parents would want to have forbidden to viewing by their children (MPAA 2002). In 2001, PG-13 movies represented over 20% of all rated films, a 3% increase from the previous year. Movies rated PG accounted for 7%, movies rated G for 4%, and movies rated R (though decreased from the previous year) made up the largest percentage of rated films at 67%. No movies were rated NC-17. Since 1968, 2% of reviewed films have been rated NC-17, 7% have been rated G, 23% have been rated PG, 11% have been rated PG-13, and 57% have been rated R (MPAA 2002). Teens as Moviegoers The U.S. box office gross reached an all-time high in 2001 at $8.4 billion, a 9.8% increase from the previous year, and a 75% increase since 1991. Box office admissions in the U.S. were 1.49 billion in 2001, an increase of 78 million people, or 5% from the previous year. In 2001 frequent moviegoers, or those who attend at least one movie a month, tended to be younger than frequent moviegoers in 2000, with 12to 24-year-olds accounting for 40% of total frequent moviegoers (MPAA 2002). Teen movie attendance is steadily increasing, with teens accounting for more movie admissions in 2001 than in past years. In 2001, 54% of teen moviegoers went to the movies frequently, compared to 45% in 1996 (MPAA 2002). While 12to 17-year-olds accounted for 11% of the total U.S. population in 2001, they accounted for 19% of total movie admissions. Twelveto 24-year-olds increased

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6 their share of total moviegoers to 30% in 2001. Fifty-nine percent of this age group is considered either frequent or occasional viewers (MPAA 2002). Half the film going audience is under the age of 25. This group sees three to four films a month (Klady 1999), which makes them frequent moviegoers. Teenagers are more likely to report being frequent moviegoers than adults. Fifty-one percent of 12to 17-year-olds said they were frequent moviegoers, compared to 24% of adults age 18 and over (MPAA 2002). According to Leff (1999), teenagers hit their peak as moviegoers between the ages of 15 and 17. When a sample of teenagers was asked what they had done during the previous week, 54% of 12to 15-year-olds said they had been to the movies. The number increased to 59% for 16to 17-year-olds and declined to 50% for 18to 19-year-olds. The teenage boy demographic sees more movies than any other demographic, and if they really like a movie, will see it two or more times. Moviegoers ages 12 to 24 made up 38% of theater ticket sales in 1998, compared to 25to 39-year-olds, who accounted for 27% of sales. The 12to 24-year-old group accounted for $1.48 billion of 1998s $3.9 billion domestic box office (Leff 1999). Going to the movies is teens second-favorite leisure activity, after listening to music (Ebenkamp 2001). What is considered a teen movie? Films with young main characters tend to be the most appealing to audiences under 20, as do most horror films and lowbrow comedies (Klady 1999). Not only do these movies entertain, they also influence. According to the teen research newsletter Beats Per Minute, 56% of teens got an idea for a future career after seeing an occupation in a movie, 38% reported discovering a new role model after

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7 watching a film, and 30% have modeled their hairstyle after a character in a movie. At the same time, teens are not likely to take up a new hobby, such as playing a sport, just because they saw it in a movie (Ebenkamp 2001). Movies were also found to influence behaviors like childhood play, imitations of adult behavior, daydreaming, emotional experiences and lifestyles (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Sixty-one percent of teenagers said they planned to spend more money on going to the movies in 1999 than they did the year before, which may explain the increase in the number of teen movies (Berman 1999). Also, teen movies cost less to produce and are easier and cheaper to market (Klady 1999). This increase in the number of teen movies gives advertisers even more ways to reach the teen segment, because a popular movie could help a company sell millions of dollars of merchandise. Marketers are taking advantage of this with promotional tie-ins and cross-promotions. For example, the cast of The Faculty was dressed in Tommy Hilfiger clothes while Mod Squad promoted Levis (Berman 1999). Importance of Study Over the past few years, universities across the country have reported a steady increase in the percentage of their students who are drinkers, as well as an increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by these students. It has been suggested that this increase is due to the fact that more students are already drinkers when they get to college, which means they started drinking when they were in high school (Wechsler 1996). Teens and adolescents may be receiving mixed messages about alcohol use and abuse, not only from the traditional forms of advertising like commercials and print ads, but also from the brands they see being used by characters in television programs and movies. To date,

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8 there are no existing studies on teens and alcohol product placements in movies created specifically for teens. This study is important from an ethical and psychological standpoint because critics believe that product placements condition children at a young age to be brand loyal consumers, even before they are ready to make marketplace decisions (M. Friedman 2001). This notion also can be applied to teenagers, since they are at the age when many will start drinking alcohol and will develop brand loyalty. The brands that appear in these movies may be influencing individuals future brand choices. Organization of Thesis Chapter 2, the Literature Review, provides a summary of current research of advertising, including alcohol advertising and the effects of advertising on teenagers, the product placement industry, teenagers and movies, and social learning theory. Chapter 3, Methodology, explains the research design and rationale and discusses the experimental procedures. Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the data and Chapter 5 discusses the conclusions, limitations and recommendations for future research.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter is divided into three main sections based on the topic of discussion: (1) alcohol advertising, including the recent history and current trends, its effects on teenagers and ethical implications; (2) product placement, including background information, product placements on television and in movies, pros and cons and ethical implications; and (3) social learning theory as it relates to alcohol consumption and media influences. Alcohol Advertising History and Current Trends in Alcohol Advertising Over the past decade there has been an increase in concern over alcohol advertising, particularly because the distilled spirits industry had been discussing putting an end to its decades-long voluntary ban on television advertising. In February of 1997, hearings were held to discuss the benefits and consequences of alcohol advertising on television, and to gauge the public interest in keeping hard liquor ads off the air. The Commerce Committee of the Federal Communications Commission did not want this debate to include the beer industry and its advertisements, because they did not want to upset the financial relationship between beer advertising and the broadcasting of sporting events (Mundy 1997). The goal was to encourage liquor distributors to continue their voluntary ban on television advertising. In the last few months of 2001, NBC confirmed rumors that it would begin airing liquor advertisements during prime time. While this was a first for network television, 9

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10 some cable networks and local stations had been airing liquor commercials since the mid-1990s. Since NBCs announcement, liquor spending on television jumped to $18.1 million, up from $469,500 in 1995. NBC did offer some restrictions, though, such as requiring each liquor advertiser to sponsor social responsibility messages for four months before their ads could be shown. Spokespeople for ABC, CBS and FOX all said they did not plan to accept liquor advertisements (Callahan 2002). By the middle of March 2002, NBC had reversed its decision to accept hard liquor advertisements. They did, however, agree to show ads for brands associated with hard liquor, such as Smirnoff Ice and Bacardi Silver, which fall under the alternative malt beverage category. These beverages are reported to contain roughly the same amount of alcohol as beer. CBSs sports division revised its policy on liquor advertising to include this category (Goetzl 2002). In 1998 the FTC prohibited Becks beer from airing one of its commercials that depicted young adults on a boat, some of them holding bottles of beer. Regulators said the spot may have violated federal and state boating safety laws, and forbade the company from running commercials that depicted people consuming alcohol on a boat because these activities posed a safety risk (McConnell 1998). In 1999 the FTC issued a report that urged the alcohol industry to make an effort to limit its messages impact on children. The report suggested that the alcohol industry should limit alcohol ads to programming where most of the audience is adults and prohibit ads that appeal to kids even if they are targeted to adults over 25 (AdAge 1999). Ambler (1996) contends that since advertising attempts to build profit through increased volume and higher prices, the purpose of alcohol advertising is mainly to

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11 persuade consumers to trade up to more expensive, higher quality brands. He also believed that a ban on alcohol advertising would lead to a price war, and that a drop in alcohol prices could lead to a marginal increase in consumption. Teens and Alcohol Advertising There are currently 31 million people in the United States between the ages of 12 and 19, a number that will grow to 35 million by 2010, making it the largest teen population in U.S. history. In 1999, this age group spent $153 billion, an 8.5% increase from the previous year (Bao and Shao 2002). Teenagers are often described as heavy media users and as greatly influenced by images in the media, making them an appealing market to advertisers and marketers (LaFerle et al. 2000). While the information they acquire from the media makes them more attuned to purchasing, it also makes them very skilled at recognizing blatant persuasion attempts. This ultimately makes them more difficult to market to than past generations (Bao and Shao 2002, LaFerle et al. 2000). Anti-alcohol groups fear that more television exposure will lead to more underage drinking and argue that any encouragement of alcohol consumption is wrong. Grube (1993) studied the influence of alcohol advertising on youth. He found that adolescents who were exposed to heavy alcohol advertisements were more likely to believe that drinkers possess valued characteristics, such as being attractive, athletic, or successful. They also held more favorable beliefs about drinking, such as that it was acceptable for teenagers to become intoxicated. Adolescents who were more knowledgeable of beer brands and slogans were also more aware of television beer commercials, which suggests that children who are curious about drinking seek out information about alcohol. Grube believes that they may get this information from advertisements. The results also suggest

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12 that alcohol advertising may predispose adolescents toward drinking. He suggested restricting alcohol advertisements on television during times when children may be watching and limiting sponsorships of concerts and other events that young people might attend. Many critics have suggested that alcohol companies target young people through image advertising, which focuses on the lifestyle of the user of the product, rather than product advertising, which focuses on the value of the product itself. Kelly and Edwards (1998) studied ad preference and intent to consume alcohol among 7 th 9 th and 11 th grade students. They hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between preference for image advertising and intent to consume alcohol. The students were shown sets of ads for a number of different alcoholic beverages, with each set containing both an image advertisement and a product advertisement, and were asked to compare the two. Image ads were preferred overall, and while there was no significant difference between the no intent and the intent to drink groups as far as preference for image ads, those who intended to drink exhibited stronger positive feelings towards the image ads. Since alcohol advertisers claim they are not trying to reach this market, Kelly and Edwards suggested they should use more product, rather than image advertisements. They added, however, that it would be unlikely that banning image advertisements for alcohol would affect alcohol consumption among youth. Other critics suggest that the fantastic imagery and appeals used by alcohol advertisers may have serious and unwanted consequences, especially on teenagers and young adults. Parker (1998) studied drinking behavior and the role of alcohol advertising in the lives of college students to show that the targets of alcohol ads identify and relate

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13 to powerful consumer myths. Her first research question was designed to gauge whether informants life experiences were revealed in their interpretations of alcohol advertisements. The second research question was to find whether the informants would suggest any alcohol-related myths in their ad interpretations. Informants were first shown a number of different alcohol ads and were asked to respond to a series of questions about their feelings toward the ads. Then they were given a life story interview that asked about their background, family history, interests, and drinking behavior. The findings provided insight as to what the informants did with alcohol advertisements, rather than what alcohol advertising was doing to them. Informants were shown to use the advertising medium as a projective device to transfer meanings to themselves. The meanings, along with their pre-existing self-concepts, created a unique ad experience for each individual. Findings with life themes suggested that people make connections between advertisements and the issues in their lives, allowing them to make connections between the ads and themselves because of the personal salience of the messages. Themes, characters, and myths in alcohol ads are attractive and entertaining to this age group and are often consistent with their life themes and self-concepts, such as comfort, control, or rebellion. Parker also noted that marketers of alcoholic drinks targeted at college-age students often use themes that imply danger, mystery, or intrigue to position their products. Product Placement Background of Product Placement Companies will spend millions of dollars to be associated with a film. Burger King typically spends $20 to 25 million in paid media toward a summer movie. Cadillac has already provided several million dollars worth of prototypes to be used in the upcoming

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14 Matrix 2. Meanwhile, Lucasfilm has signed a collective $16 million deal with General Mills and Frito-Lay for the next Star Wars movie and Spider-Man had at least four major corporate sponsors, which amounted to approximately $40 million in additional paid media for the film (W. Friedman 2001). The technique of placing branded products in motion pictures was used as early as 1945 when Joan Crawford was shown drinking Jack Daniels in the movie Mildred Pierce (Nebenzahl and Secunda 1993). In that early stage of movie product placement, marketers made deals with either studio prop masters or with film studio management to negotiate a bartered arrangement. It was not uncommon for companies to offer a years supply of their product to production company executives or prop masters in exchange for placement of that brand in their film. Similarly, now rather than paying cash for the placements, most advertising companies will usually supply goods or equipment for use in filming, or include some extra product for the crew (ERMA 2002). Each studio has a Production Resources Department that deals with product placements. Among other factors, this department considers issues such as the films target audience and the means by which placements may decrease the films production cost. The production team usually makes a wish list of specific products that are defined by brand name and are given top priority because they relate to the creative aspect of the film. If the team feels a placement will jeopardize the films creative integrity in any way, it will be rejected (ERMA 2002). Product Placements on Television Many critics contend that product placements on television raise regulatory and ethical concerns. Some believe brands appearing in scripted television programs border

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15 on blatant commercial intent. Others believe the constant repetition and exposure in television viewing is troublesome because brand loyalty, or preference for a particular brand, is related to frequency of brand exposure (Avery and Ferraro 2000). It could also be said that since the product is portrayed as part of the characters lifestyle, the placement could be considered image advertising. Monitoring television-programming content is important because of its potential influence on consumers through messages about alcohol and behavior. Mathios et al. (1998) sampled 276 prime-time programs on four major television networks and gathered information about food and beverage episodes embedded in the content of the program. They looked at the particular food or beverage being portrayed, the characters using the items, and the context in which they were used. Alcoholic beverages were the most frequently shown food or drink, averaging approximately two placements per program. Most of the alcoholic beverages were shown on situation comedies, movies, dramas, and adult cartoons. Over 7% of alcohol incidents involved adolescents, although they were usually portrayed as having negative personality characteristics. Adult characters portraying alcohol were found, for the most part, to have positive personality characteristics, especially if they are shown drinking wine. While many argue that beliefs and behaviors can be shaped by exposure to alcohol on television programs and in advertisements, Grube (1993) points out that there is little real evidence to suggest that exposure to alcohol portrayals on television influences young people to drink. Critics fear that showing characters consuming alcohol will set a bad example for children, however, research has shown that characters on television programs are usually of a legal age and usually portrayed drinking in moderation.

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16 Product Placements in Movies McIntosh et al. (1999) rated characters from 100 popular films and compared the ratings of drinkers and non-drinkers to determine what messages popular movies send about alcohol. They found that drinkers tend to be portrayed as being upper class, more attractive, more romantically/sexually active, and more aggressive. Based on statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau, McIntosh et al. determined that the characteristics associated with drinkers in films are reasonably close to the characteristics of drinkers in society. While it should be noted that movies fail to depict some of the negative consequences of drinking, in general, the depiction of alcohol use in movies is fairly representative of its use in society. DeLorme and Reids (1999) study of product placement found three themes related to movie centrality: appreciating realism, noticing the familiar, and relating to characters. To many, branded props were significant because they added realism to the movie scenery. Informants said they were impressed when brands were used appropriately and considered to be a part of the story. Branded props were also judged to add authenticity to movies when associated with a particular setting, time period, or context. One informant particularly noticed the old-fashioned brands of beer in Forrest Gump. Informants also felt irritated and insulted by generic product props that were judged to interfere with movie realism and to interrupt the movie viewing experience. Moviegoers were particularly attuned to familiar branded products and services that they themselves had previously purchased and consumed in their everyday lives. Informants indicated that the relationship with characters strengthened, and the involvement in and enjoyment of the movie increased, when they noticed their brands being used by a character or featured in a scene. Brand placement was also seen as significant because it

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17 provided relevant information about the characters personality, lifestyle, and role in the movie plot. DeLorme and Reid (1999) found four themes that were related to consumer behavior: tools for purchasing decisions, tools for identity and aspirations, change and discomfort, and belonging and security. These themes represent interpretations that are linked to movie-specific aspects of brand prop exposure, and how they extend beyond the movie viewing experience to consumption-specific aspects of everyday life. One informant in this study pointed out the impact of an alcohol placement on one of his friends. He mentioned that his friend switched brands of gin, from Tanqueray to Gordons, because his idol, Humphrey Bogart, drank Gordons gin in the movie The African Queen. Branded props were also thought to perform such everyday marketing-related functions as reinforcing consumer confidence, reducing cognitive dissonance, and standing as symbols of distrust. The informants judged branded props as tools that allow the reliving of past events and the vicarious experience of living others experiences. Brands were also seen as significant in that they enabled further understanding of the informants social worlds (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Nebenzahl and Secunda (1993) studied college students feelings toward product placements in movies. A majority of the students, speaking as consumers, did not object to product placement and viewed it as an effective marketing communication medium that should be allowed. The participants reported that they were tired of traditional commercials and would rather be exposed to less obtrusive forms of marketing communications, such as product placements. Those who objected to the other forms of

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18 marketing communications did so because they felt these tactics were time consuming and/or annoying. A small minority who objected to product placements did so based on ethics. They perceived product placements as a concealed attempt to delude the consumer. Younger informants in DeLorme and Reids (1999) study associated branded props with an invitation to cultural belonging and feelings of emotional security. These younger moviegoers, ages 18 to 21, had grown up with brands in movies and were accustomed to the practice. They reported that when a brand is present in a movie, they usually take it for granted and overlook it because its so common. Ultimately, the informants considered themselves immune to the persuasive power of brands encountered in films and believe that the appearance of brand props in movies is neither deceptive, manipulative, nor harmful. Babin and Carder (1996) studied college students recognition, or familiarity with brands placed in movies, and recollection, or remembering the brands that appeared in movies. Their results suggest that audiences will recognize more brands appearing in a film with several product placements than they will actually recall. Pros and Cons of Product Placement Product placement has a number of advantages for marketers and moviemakers. It is the only form of advertising with a diminishing cost per thousand (Marshall and Ayers 1998). Cost per thousand is the cost of exposing 1,000 members of the target audience to the message. When the products are donated, the only cost to the marketer is whatever the products normally cost and any extra donations to the studio executives or prop masters. Even when the marketer actually pays the studio to use their products, the return on investment is much greater than any cost to him, for two reasons. First, the marketer

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19 is reaching a captive audience the people watching the movie cant just change the channel, as is the case with television commercials. One production company president said that movies are better than any magazine or television commercial at promoting a product because the audience is unaware of any sponsor involvement (Glantz 2001). Additionally, when the movie comes out on video, not only are the advertising companies reaching those who didnt see the movie when it was in the theater, but they are also achieving frequency, by reaching those who will have seen the movie more than once. In addition to being cost-effective, allowing advertisers to reach captive audiences and providing greater reach than traditional advertising, product placements benefit the advertisers by demonstrating brand usage in realistic settings and offering an alternative advertising media option for liquor and tobacco products, which are restricted from broadcast television. Product placements also benefit the filmmakers by offsetting movie production costs and creating more natural movie settings (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Marshall and Ayers (1998) commented on a column Philip Van Munching wrote in Brandweek about product placement in movies. In his column, Van Munching said he thought product placement advertising was a scam. In his section of the commentary, Marshall stated that brands include product placement in their marketing mix to achieve reach and cost effectiveness. Additionally, product placements can provide opportunity for trade or consumer promotions, such as tie-ins with fast food restaurants. Ayers added that sales of Red Stripe beer went up after Tom Cruise drank it in The Firm, which substantiated his point that product placements are suited to increasing brand awareness, or the prominence of a brand in ones mind, and enhancing a brands image or status.

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20 While there are a number of advantages to companies whose products appear in films, there can also be disadvantages. Most companies dont want their products associated with an unfavorable character or context, so they may choose to keep their product out of a film, a practice known as product displacement. Todd Solondz, director of the movie Happiness, which is about a pedophile, said that not many companies tried to get their products placed in his movie. While there were companies that received thanks in the credits, their products did not actually appear in the film (Palmer 1998). One example of a company that practiced product displacement is Kraft Foods. Kraft wanted to make sure its products werent mentioned anywhere in the movie Jello Shots, which was about people getting drunk from the title concoction, because Kraft was aware that it would look bad for the Jell-O brand name (Palmer 1998). Another company that practiced product displacement is Chivas Regal. The producers of the movie Dolores Claiborne were asked to substitute another brand for Chivas Regal when a seedy, alcoholic character was to mix Chivas with Coca-Cola (Karrh 1998, p. 37). Ethical Implications of Alcohol Product Placements Consumer advocacy groups argue that product placements are deceptive and cause moviegoers, unaware of their persuasive intent, to engage in purchase behaviors. Many groups have attempted to have product placements banned or at least regulated; they have remained unsuccessful in influencing formal public policy. There has been an ongoing legal debate about whether product placements are considered commercial speech, which would make it subject to government regulation. Critics believe that placements of unhealthy products like cigarettes and alcohol should be restricted. On the other hand, proponents of product placements argue that they are not forms of commercial speech

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21 and that filmmakers, not government regulation, should determine when and how product should be placed (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Surveys have found that 73% of the general public believes that alcohol advertising is a major contributor to underage drinking. Studies have found that alcohol advertising may predispose adolescents toward drinking, because it seems to increase their positive attitudes toward drinking and their likelihood to drink (Grube 1993). According to the Advertising and Marketing Code of the Beer Institute, advertising or marketing material should not use any material that would appeal to people under the legal drinking age, including language, music, or any entertainment figure or group that is intended to appeal to minors. Actors should be at least 25 years old, and should appear to be at least 21. Additionally, beer advertising and marketing materials should not be placed in any medium or at any event where most of the audience is likely to be under the legal drinking age (Beer Institute 2002). According to the Entertainment Resources Marketing Association (ERMA), If you are supplying an alcoholic beverage, you do not want minors consuming it onscreen (ERMA 2002). In 1998 the FTC ordered eight alcoholic beverage companies to supply information about their efforts to ensure that product placements in movies and television are directed to an adult audience (McConnell 1998). In 1999 the FTC added that alcohol companies should limit placements to R and NC-17 films (AdAge 1999). The problem with alcohol placements in movies and television programs is that young people can see these products being used even though they are not supposed to see such advertising. Alcohol portrayals on television provide messages about drinking that may encourage young people to drink, for example, underage drinking is often treated

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22 humorously, and the seriousness of problematic drinking is often overlooked (Grube 1993). Social Learning Theory Social-learning theory proposes that people observe the behaviors, attitudes and emotional reactions of others and learn to model those behaviors when faced with similar situations. According to the founder of social learning theory, Albert Bandura, Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action (1977, p. 22). Social learning theory attempts to explain human behavior in terms of the constant interaction of cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences, while focusing on the person factors in explaining learning and behavior. The individual is both an instrument and a recipient of behavior patterns. There is a pattern of four processes that facilitate social learning: attention, when the individual takes notice of something in the environment; retention, the individual remembers what they noticed; reproduction, the individual copies the noticed action; and motivation, the environment delivers a consequence that either reinforces or punishes the action, thereby affecting the likelihood that the individual will repeat that action in the future (Bandura 1977). According to Abrams and Niaura (1987), behaviors and environments are thought to interact with some of the main cognitive capabilities: symbolizing, forethought, self-regulatory, self-reflective and vicarious capabilities. Symbolizing refers to an individuals ability to build cognitive models of experience that guide future decisions

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23 and actions. Forethought refers to an individuals ability to anticipate the outcomes of actions and set goals. Self-regulatory capability refers to an individuals ability to control their behaviors through internal standards and evaluating their own reactions. Self-reflective capability refers to an individuals ability to reflect upon his/her thoughts and monitor his/her ideas. Vicarious capability refers to the assumption that individuals learn by observing others behaviors and the outcomes of those behaviors (Abrams and Niaura 1987). Bandura (1977) suggested that by showing attractive, sophisticated characters engaging in health-risking behaviors, movies glamorize those behaviors. The concern is that these portrayals influence moviegoers future behaviors, especially those of impressionable children and teens, who are likely to model characters who are likeable, popular and seem to be similar to them (Bandura 1977). Attitudes toward alcohol use have been proven to be influenced by observing the drinking behavior of role models, including those observed in films (Room 1988). The tenets of social learning theory would suggest that drinking alcohol, as a social behavior, is acquired and maintained by modeling, social reinforcement, expectancies of the effects of alcohol, and personal experience with the effects of alcohol consumption, either positive or negative. One of the major principles of social learning theory regarding alcohol use is that learning to drink alcohol is an important part of psychosocial development and socialization within a culture. According to Abrams and Niaura (1987), adolescent drinking behaviors, attitudes, and expectancies of alcohol are derived from social influences within their culture, family and peers. A great deal of learning takes place before the child has consumed any alcohol. Influence is indirectly exerted by

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24 attitudes, expectancies, and beliefs, and directly by modeling alcohol consumption, media portrayals of drinking, and social reinforcement for drinking. Family and peers can influence both the onset and continuance of drinking behaviors among adolescents by affecting their attitudes and modeling drinking behaviors in social situations (Abrams and Niaura 1987). Beliefs and behaviors may be shaped by exposure to alcohol in television programs (Grube 1993). Television programs tend to portray alcohol consumption as a way to enhance the enjoyment of a social situation, reduce social tension and escape stress. Alcohol consumption on television programs tends to be socially reinforced and has few negative consequences (Abrams and Niaura 1987). The social reinforcement may influence others to model this behavior because they are expecting the same positive outcomes from consuming alcohol. Dramatic portrayals of alcohol have been studied in movies to test the impact on young adults. When looking at the absence or presence of negative consequences of drinking alcohol, the absence of negative consequences in a film led to the most favorable attitudes toward drinking. Exposure to negative consequences of drinking in the movies led to the least favorable attitudes. These findings indicate that showing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption could influence attitudes towards drinking (Bahk 1997). A study of 18and 19-year-old college students was designed to test the influence of movie portrayals of drinking liquor. Participants viewed either films clips with positive portrayals of drinking, negative portrayals of drinking, or film portrayals of no drinking. While participants in the positive condition reported more positive feelings

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25 toward alcohol than did participants in the negative group, the difference was small. Meanwhile, those who watched both positive and negative portrayals reported higher negative expectancies than those in the control condition. The suggested explanation for this result is that portrayals of drinking, regardless of the outcome, cause anticipation of negative consequences in young drinkers, perhaps by bringing up memories of bad past experiences with liquor. The findings were interpreted to mean that even relatively short (under one hour) exposure to film portrayals of liquor can have an immediate impact on older adolescents expectancies of drinking alcohol, but that effect is not strong (Kulick and Rosenberg 2001). This suggests that showing negative outcomes of alcohol consumption may have a stronger effect on social learning than showing positive outcomes. According to Earleywine (1995), people are more likely to face a decision to drink in a setting where they are expecting more positive effects of drinking, like at a party. While drinkers may decide to decrease future consumption in settings associated with negative effects, such as when experiencing a hang over, these negative expectancies may not be as accessible the next time they have the opportunity to drink. Positive expectancies of the effects of alcohol use were related to intentions to drink when they were primed. Negative expectancies did not have a significant correlation with intentions to drink when they were primed, which suggests that manipulating negative expectancies may have little impact on intentions to drink (Earleywine 1995). Social learning theory suggests that experimental substance use stems from the attitudes and behaviors of those who serve as an adolescents role models. Adolescents involvement with substance-using role models is likely to have three consequences. First

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26 they will observe and imitate the substance-specific behaviors; second, they will likely experience social reinforcement for substance use; and third, they will expect positive social and physiological effects from future use. Observing role models experimenting with substances can directly shape an adolescents expectations of the social, personal and physiological effects. Social learning theory suggests that making substance-using role models less salient and making non-using role models more salient would help prevent experimental substance use among adolescents (Petraitis et al. 1995). Because social learning theory suggests that behavior is directed by specific environmental influences, including learning by direct observation, or modeling, it could be assumed that peer behavior would have a direct effect on childrens behavior. Iannotti and Bush (1992) tested urban fourth and fifth grade students to see which had more influence, the childs perceptions of their peers behaviors and attitudes regarding substance use or the actual behaviors and attitudes of peers. It was found that perception of peers use is more likely to influence behaviors than actual use. It was concluded that while modeling, as suggested by social learning theory, may account for the effect of classroom use, it would not predict the weak effect of friends use (Iannotti and Bush 1992). Lipsitz et al. (1993) tested alcohol expectancies between fifth and eighth grade students using beer and soft drink commercials. They found no difference between the effects of exposure to beer commercials and exposure to anti-drinking messages neither affected alcohol expectancies. One of the main differences in the way fifth and eighth grade students thought about alcohol was that eighth grade students did not find the alcohol ads novel or surprising. The differences in thinking tended to occur on the

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27 social/emotional expectancy scale, rather than the cognitive/motor expectancy scale. This suggests that while drug or alcohol education may convince children of the cognitive/motor problems caused by alcohol use, it may fail to discredit the social and emotional benefits of alcohol use. One possible explanation they mentioned for these results is that alcohol advertising does not affect alcohol expectancies, and that the results reflect the reality that television ads have little or no impact on adolescents feelings about alcohol. Lipsitz et al. were not able to find any strong evidence to the contrary. Slater et al. (1996) found that many junior high school students perceive characters in beer commercials to be under 21. This is troubling because it is in junior high that many will make their first decisions about experimenting with alcohol. The concern is that they may be influenced by their perceptions that people in the commercials appear to be underage. Slater et al. found a positive correlation between the number of students who perceived the drinkers to be underage and the number of students who were already drinking alcohol. This finding is consistent with the idea that the influence of potential role models, such as the persons shown in advertisements, may influence adolescents at a time in their lives when they are starting to make decisions about themselves. Alcohol expectancies connect past experiences regarding alcohol use with an actual decision to drink at a later point in time. It has been found that well-developed expectancies exist before young people have had substantial drinking experience. It is apparent that social learning processes, including parental modeling, mass media, and peer group influence must play a substantial role (Christiansen et al. 1989). Christiansen et al. (1982) found two processes that are responsible for producing alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents. One is that relatively well-developed

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28 expectancies exist before they start drinking. These expectancies are expressed by family, peers, and the media, and by observing others drinking. It was also found that these expectancies from social learning tend to change with age and drinking experience. Specifically, an increase in age and in drinking experience led to more permanent expectancy factors. These findings show that while alcohol expectancies are related to drinking experience, they also exist in very young people without any prior drinking experience. It appears that the preconditions for positive reinforcement of alcohol use exists in adolescents the very first time they drink (Christiansen et al. 1982, p. 343). Research Questions The field of product placement advertising has been expanding rapidly. The motion picture industry is becoming a valuable medium in advertising and marketing to consumers, as evidence has shown that product placements increase sales and brand recognition. Numerous studies have been conducted on product placements and adult moviegoers; however, research has not focused on teenagers as a viewing audience. Movies directed toward teenagers were the focus of this study. Teens make up the largest percentage of the American movie going audience, and a majority of these teens see at least one movie a month. Alcohol advertising is a relatively controversial issue. Critics believe that alcohol advertising may be among the leading reasons for the increase in teen alcohol consumption and abuse. While a number of studies have focused on teens perceptions of alcohol in print advertisements and television commercials, no studies to date have focused on product placements as a means of advertising alcoholic beverages.

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29 This study uses qualitative research to explore whether high school students notice and recall placements of brands of alcohol in teen movies. This study also explored how teens evaluated alcohol product placements based on the context of their usage and their attitudes toward alcohol product placements as a whole. The research questions are as follows: Research Question 1: Do teens notice the specific brands of alcohol that have been placed in these teen movies? Research Question 2: Do teens have different evaluations of brands based on the context or scene in which they appear?

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study seeks to explore, rather than explain, teens attitudes and perceptions of alcohol product placements. Qualitative, rather than quantitative research, is better suited for this type of study because it allows for a deeper understanding of each participants attitudes and perceptions of the topics of alcohol advertising and product placements in movies. Focus groups were selected as the primary method of research because they allowed the researcher to gather information from small group discussions of the topics of interest (Morgan 1997). The focus groups provided a relaxed setting in which participants could feel comfortable discussing the topics of alcohol advertising and product placements. The teenage participants felt more comfortable talking to the researcher in same-gender groups rather than individually or in mixed-gender groups. Rationale and Strengths of Focus Groups Focus groups were selected as the means of gathering information because they allowed the researcher to lead guided discussions of the topics of alcohol advertising, alcohol usage in movies and product placements. Focus groups were preferred to in-depth interviews because it was assumed that the group dynamic of a focus group would help to bring out unanticipated aspects of the discussion topics and may not have emerged during an individual interview (Babbie 2001). In addition, the subject of product placement is primarily based on movie recall, which can be prompted by others in the group, rather than individual interviews with the researcher (M. Friedman 2001). 30

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31 Visual Stimuli Visual stimuli in the form of movie clips were used during the focus groups. The movie clips, which were shown at the beginning of the focus groups, were used as an autodriving technique to stimulate discussion (McCracken 1988). Movies were selected from the Top 120 grossing movies of 2000 and 2001, as listed on www.BoxOfficeReport.com. From those movies, 30 were identified as teen movies. A movie was considered a teen movie if a majority of the main characters were teenagers or young adults. PG-13 movies were selected from these 30 because R-rated movies contain material that may be inappropriate for teens under 17 and it was assumed that PG-13 movies were appropriate for this age group. The MPAA rating system was used as a guideline. Then www.screenit.com was used to determine whether or not there was alcohol use in each film. Films with at least a mild or moderate amount of alcohol use and that were available on video at the time of the content analysis were then analyzed. A total of 10 films were analyzed by the researcher to determine if there were substantial alcohol product placements in each film. A placement was considered substantial if the product was either given a verbal mention or was shown on the screen for at least two seconds. Two seconds is considered the industry average for the amount of time a product remains on the screen (Troup 1991). Three films were selected for the study, The Fast and The Furious, Loser and Summer Catch. A 5to 7-minute clip from each film was selected, totaling approximately 15 to 20 minutes of clips. Two films contained both verbal mentions and visual placements, and one was visual only. After each clip was shown, participants were given about two minutes to write a brief summary of the clip before the next clip was shown. The Fast and The Furious was

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32 selected because it contained a prominent placement of Corona beer. Corona was given a verbal mention and was shown being directly consumed by one of the main characters. The Fast and The Furious is about an undercover cop, Brian (played by Paul Walker), investigating a string of truck robberies. One of the prime suspects is Dominic (played by Vin Diesel), who is the leader of a team of street racers. In this clip the two are walking to Dominics house after a street race. Brian kept Dominic from getting in trouble by helping him flee the police. Dominics friends, one in particular named Vince, were not happy about him bringing a new person into their group of friends. There was obvious tension between Brian and Vince. Dominic took Vinces beer away from him and then said to Brian You can have any beer you want, as long as its a Corona. He then gave Brian Vinces beer, and before Brian drank out of it, the camera focused on him wiping the mouth of the bottle with his shirt. Loser was selected because Sam Adams beer was prominently placed in a number of scenes throughout the movie. This movie is about a college freshman named Paul (played by Jason Biggs) and his experiences during his first year in college. In this clip, his friend Dora (played by Mena Suvari) is applying for a job in a convenience store. A guy walks in and buys two 12-packs of Sam Adams and invites her to a party. At the party, another guy puts some type of drug in her drink and she ends up getting sick. Summer Catch was selected because Sam Adams beer was given both verbal and visual placements and there were signs in the background for Guinness, Dos Equis, and Bass beers. Summer Catch is about a landscaper named Ryan (played by Freddie Prinze Jr.) who joins the Cape Cod summer baseball league, where many baseball players get discovered. He becomes friends with the teams catcher, Billy (played by Matthew

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33 Lillard) and gets involved with Tenley, a rich girl played by Jessica Biel. This clip takes place in the bar Ryans brother runs. He orders three Sam Adams and sits down at a table with his teammates. One of his teammates says something that makes him angry and Billy prevents them from fighting by asking Ryan to come with him to talk to some girls, which is how he meets Tenley. Then a waitress (played by Brittany Murphy) walks by the table and makes a funny comment about Ryan, which makes Billy laugh and spit out his mouthful of beer. Researcher Involvement Initially, there was a low level of moderator involvement, as the participants were asked to write a brief summary of each clip, including anything that stood out to them or what they liked or didnt like in each clip. The purpose of this was to gain an understanding of the participants first impressions of each clip, what caught their attention, and to see if they would mention the alcohol brands before they were directly asked about them. After the clips were shown and the summaries were completed, the researcher began the discussion. Due to the strong, pre-existing agenda of the research, a high level of moderator involvement was needed during the discussion to ensure that all groups would discuss the same issues in a comparable fashion, and to keep the discussion focused on the topics (Morgan 1997). After the discussion, each participant filled out a questionnaire, which provided the researcher with background information about participants current alcohol use and intended future use (see Appendix C). Focus Group Participants Six focus groups were conducted, three comprised of all males and three comprised of all females. There were either five or six participants in each group. There were three

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34 focus groups for each gender because according to Morgan (1997), more than three to five groups seldom provide meaningful new insights. The researcher also chose to use small-sized groups because they allowed more time for each participant to talk, which provided a clearer sense of each participants reaction to the topics (Morgan 1997). Edmunds (1999) also recommended using five to six participants per group because smaller groups allow for interaction among the participants without requiring each individual to constantly speak. This would provide a greater comfort level among participants, which is more conducive to successful discussions. The focus groups were conducted on the Boca Raton High School campus and lasted about an hour. Parental consent was acquired for each participant prior the focus group sessions (see Appendix D). Boca Raton High School was selected because the researcher was familiar with the campus and the faculty, and was able to secure their cooperation with the study. Participants were selected based on their familiarity with the topic (Babbie 2001). Students were given a screening questionnaire, which asked how many movies they typically watched each month, including in the movie theater, on video or DVD, and on cable television. Frequent moviegoers were best suited as participants in this study. According to the MPAA, a frequent moviegoer is one who sees at least one film each month or 12 films a year. Because a majority of the students had seen at least one movie in the theater in the past month, the researcher included video/DVD and cable movie-watching get a better idea of each students average monthly movie consumption. Students who reported watching at least six movies a month on average, with a breakdown of at least one movie in the theater, one on video or DVD, and two on cable

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35 each month, were asked to participate in a focus group. The screening questionnaire can be found in Appendix A. Pilot Study The pilot study used two focus groups with high school students; one with females ages 14 to 17, and one with males ages 14 to 18. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the focus group question guide (see Appendix B), to provide the researcher with familiarity in moderating a discussion, and to test the effectiveness of showing each movie clip in the focus group setting (M. Friedman 2001). The focus groups were conducted at Boca Raton High School and were moderated by the primary researcher. The focus groups were conducted in a classroom with a round table, television and VCR. Data Collection and Analysis The focus group sessions were tape recorded so that they could later be transcribed. Transcription helps to facilitate analysis as well as establish a permanent written record of each focus group (Stewart and Shamdasani 1990). Audiotaping was preferred to videotaping because videotaping does not provide the researcher with much more information than does audiotaping. While videotaping allows the researcher to see facial expressions and group dynamics, several cameras and additional lighting would be required to allow for detailed observations. Also, most data analyses are based on transcripts from audio, not video recordings (Morgan 1997). Audio recording was also assumed to be less intrusive and protected the participants privacy. After conducting the focus groups, the tapes were transcribed by the researcher. The researcher then read each script, while listening to the tape, to check for accuracy. If any words or phrases were inaudible during the first hearing, the researcher listened to

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36 the tape three more times in an attempt to decipher the words. If after three times the word or phrase was still unclear, the word or phrase was labeled inaudible. Analytic induction (Glaser and Strauss 1967) was used to analyze the data. First the researcher read through each transcript to identify the sections of conversation that were relevant to the research questions. After the initial reading of each transcript, the researcher devised a classification system for major topics or issues that came up in the focus group discussions, and items from each transcript that related to the topics were identified. The items highlighted in the transcripts were then used as supporting materials and included as part of the analysis.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Focus groups were conducted with teenagers, ages 14 to 19. The participants were in ninth through 12 th grades at Boca Raton High School. In total, there were 16 male and 16 female participants. The mean age for participants was 15.56 for females and 15.25 for males. Five of the males were 14 years old, six were 15, three were 16, one was 17 and one was 19. Five of the females were 14 years old, three were 15, four were 16, three were 17 and one was 19. The pilot study indicated that the focus group question guide and movie clips selected were appropriate for this age group. Six focus groups were conducted, three all-male groups and three all-female groups, with five to six participants in each group. The groups were segmented by gender because the researcher assumed that the teenage participants would feel more comfortable talking to the researcher in same-gender groups rather than in mixed-gender groups. Questionnaire Results Twenty-one of the 32 participants currently drink or have at some point consumed alcohol. Almost all reported that they only drink every once in a while, which suggests that they are social, rather than habitual drinkers, although a few reported drinking once a week. The participants usually drink either at parties, a friends house or at home. Eighteen of the 21 are usually with friends (including a boyfriend or girlfriend) when they drink. The heavy preference was malt beverages or wine coolers, then liquor, then beer. The brands they most often drink are Smirnoff Ice, Mikes Hard Lemonade, Budweiser and Skyy Blue. Other brands they mentioned drinking were Corona, Captain 37

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38 Morgan, Crown Royale, Busch, Icehouse, Coors and Cooks. When they drink, about two-thirds (n=7) of the male participants tend to have between two and three drinks, while the other one-third (n=4) have one drink. Almost two-thirds (n=6) of the female participants have one drink, while almost one-third (n=3) have between four and six drinks. The age at which participants began drinking varied a great deal. One male reported that he had his first drink when he was eight years old. Three males reported that they had their first drink at age 13, while the other males reported drinking at 11, 12, 15 and 16. Females reported that they began drinking between the ages of 14 and 16. Fourteen of the 21 participants who drink have been drunk at least once. Most of those 14 have been drunk at least twice in the past six months. Almost all were with a friend at least one of those times, at the friends house. In order, they mentioned liquor, beer and malt beverages as the types of alcohol they were drinking. The favored brands were Mikes, Smirnoff Ice and Corona. Other brands mentioned were Budweiser, Skyy Blue, Absolut, Kalik, Jack Daniels, Busch, Coors Light and moonshine. Of those who do not drink alcohol, about half plan to do so in the future, but they do not know when. Over one-third plan to drink beer, while the rest were divided among wine, liquor, malt beverages and I dont know. None of the participants mentioned any specific brands that they planned to consume. Seventy-five percent of the participants friends drink. Slightly less than 75% think alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students. Analysis of Written Summaries After each 5to 7-minute movie clip was shown, the participants were asked to write a brief summary of the clip, including anything that stood out to them or what they liked or did not like about each scene. The major themes that emerged from the

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39 summaries were: the party or bar setting, the presence of alcohol, tension or anger between male characters and references to sex. About half of the participants mentioned the party scene and/or that the characters were drinking in The Fast and The Furious. Almost half mentioned the tension, anger or potential fight, and the sexually suggestive nature of the females. One-quarter mentioned that it portrayed typical teen life, and about one-fifth specifically mentioned Vin Diesel, who was one of the main characters. Almost all of the participants mentioned either the party scene, drinking alcohol or both in Loser. Two-thirds mentioned that a female character had taken some sort of drug or that a male character drugged her with the intention of having sex with her. A quarter of the participants commented that they thought this was objectionable. Half the participants mentioned alcohol use or that the characters were in a bar in Summer Catch. One-third of the participants, mostly male, mentioned that they thought the scene was funny, while one-quarter, mostly female, mentioned that the main character met a girl. Four participants mentioned the films main character, Freddie Prinze Jr. and three noticed that he ordered Sam Adams at the bar. Analysis of Focus Group Discussions Almost all the participants had seen The Fast and The Furious at least once, slightly less than half had seen Loser and slightly more than half had seen Summer Catch. Of those who had seen The Fast and The Furious, slightly more than half had seen it in the theater, while the rest had rented it. Most of those who had seen Loser watched it at home, either on video, cable, or pay-per-view. Most of those who had seen Summer Catch watched it at home on cable or pay-per-view. A majority watched the movies with friends or family members and had seen each movie between two and three times.

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40 The males cited the action or excitement and the entertaining plot as reasons for watching The Fast and The Furious more than once, while the females cited the male actors and the cars as their reasons. Most participants had seen Loser more than once because there was nothing else to do or nothing else on television at the time. The females watched Summer Catch more than once because they liked the story, whereas the males watched it because there was nothing else on television. When asked what, if anything, stood out to the participants in the clips, most of the females said the male actors (particularly in The Fast and The Furious), and that each scene depicted typical teen life. One added that she felt the females in each scene were being disrespected. The males mentioned the female characters, drinking, the bar scene, tension between characters, Corona, Sam Adams, the party scenes and the music. Remembering Context and Usage Verbal Mentions and Humor Are Important Overall, the participants correctly recalled the scene and the characters using the products. Many pointed out the exact moment when the Corona was consumed in The Fast and The Furious. According to one participant, He gave it to him, he looked at it, wiped it off and drank it. Some also pointed out that they might not have noticed the product placement if the brand name had not been mentioned. Others felt that they might have noticed it, but after the verbal mention it was hard to ignore. According to one participant, because he said it [Corona], it made it stick out even more. Many also remembered that Paul Walker took another characters beer and wiped the rim of the bottle with his shirt before drinking out of it, which they thought was funny. Most participants did not remember seeing any brand names in Loser, which contained a placement of Sam Adams beer. While many noticed the beer, they did not notice what brand it was. A few participants also mentioned that one character bought

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41 boxes of beer and carried them down the street, but no one recalled seeing it being directly consumed. While a few participants correctly recalled that Sam Adams was being directly consumed in Summer Catch, most only remembered that they were drinking beer of some type. More participants recalled Matthew Lillard laughing and spitting it out all over someone else than Freddie Prinze Jr. ordering three Sam Adams from the bar. About a quarter of the participants added that they noticed signs in the background for other brands of beer, but could not tell what brands they were. One participant pointed out, All bars have thatyou dont notice things like that because thats something normal if you go to a bar or anywhere that sells alcohol. Another participant added that since the signs in the background were hard to read, those beer companies probably didnt pay as much as the other ones to get in there. The low recall of Sam Adams could be due to the participants low level of familiarity with the brand. Many pointed out that they hadnt seen very much advertising for Sam Adams, especially when compared to Corona, with which they were more familiar. Participants perceived Corona to be a well-liked brand and mentioned seeing a lot of advertisements for it. Many had never heard of Sam Adams or considered it a cheaper brand. In addition, a few participants thought they saw Budweiser in the clips from The Fast and The Furious and Summer Catch, when actually it was not in either clip. Thoughts on Character Usage In general, the participants viewed the brands separately from the characters using them. While most participants did not feel that the brand usage said anything about the characters, a few either thought that it was the characters preference or that it showed

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42 that they liked to party. Others added that a brand is more likely to stand out to someone who likes that brand, because they would think thats what I drinkhe got good taste. Participants also did not think that character usage said anything about the brand. A few added that they thought the brands, especially Corona, were trying to appeal to a younger (18 and up) audience. Most participants didnt seem to mind that the characters were drinking in these clips, even though they thought some of the characters appeared to be under 21. Others thought the characters did look old enough to drink. Overall, the participants perceived the characters in the clips to be between 20 and 30 years old. Most thought that the characters in The Fast and The Furious were in their midto late-20s, the characters in Loser were between 17 and 20, or in college, and the characters in Summer Catch were thought to be between 20 and 25. A few participants thought that some of the characters in each clip were supposed to be in high school. Brand Names vs. Generics In general, about half of the participants said they preferred seeing brand name products instead of generics in movies, and the other half said they didnt really care. Participants recalled seeing both generics and brand names in movies, such as soda and cola, as well as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Some other specific brands that were mentioned were Jeep in Clueless, Tide in The Sixth Sense, Starbucks in Austin Powers II, Faygo in Big Money Hustlers, and Reeses Pieces in E.T. Participants also mentioned Nike, Adidas, Gucci and Mercedes, although they could not recall in which movies they had seen the brands. In addition, one participant mentioned that the characters were drinking fake Budweiser in The Replacements. Those who preferred seeing brand name products felt that generics made the film look cheap. Participants also felt that seeing

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43 characters drinking out of cans or bottles looked more realistic than cups, unless a keg was present in the scene. Does It Make Them Want To Drink? Participants did not feel that seeing the characters drinking made them want to drink, although a few pointed out that they already drink or plan to do so in the future, so seeing film characters drinking wouldnt affect them anyway. A majority of the participants did think that others might be influenced. Some females felt that males might be more influenced to at least try a brand they saw in a movie, especially if a favorite actor consumed the brand. Many participants also felt that while alcohol placements wouldnt completely influence ones preference, they may get people to try the brand, and if they liked it and their peers started drinking it, they might continue to drink it. Advertising Alcohol: Traditional vs. Product Placement Participants easily recalled a number of brands of alcohol they had seen advertised lately. One quarter of the participants mentioned television commercials for Corona as well as Budweiser or Bud Light. Other brands for which the participants remembered seeing television advertising include Smirnoff Ice, Mikes Hard Lemonade, Skyy Blue, Miller or Miller Lite, Captain Morgan Gold, Fosters and Coors Light. Participants also mentioned that they saw a lot of beer commercials during Monday Night Football and the SuperBowl, especially for Budweiser; another participant pointed out that Miller Lite is a sponsor of NASCAR. Interestingly, the male participants in one group said they liked the commercials for Mikes Hard Lemonade and would consider trying it after seeing the commercials. One participant said, Its so funny, that like, you want to try it.

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44 Participants recalled hearing radio commercials for Mikes Hard Lemonade, Skyy Blue, Coors Light, Kahlua, Captain Morgan Gold, and Bud Light. They recalled seeing billboards for Budweiser or Bud Light, Mikes, Smirnoff Ice, Corona, Heineken, Miller Light, and Captain Morgan. Brands they recalled seeing advertised in magazines the most include Skyy Blue, Corona, Captain Morgan and Absolut. Other brands they mentioned were Bacardi O, Crown Royale, Budweiser, Smirnoff Ice, Mikes, Heineken, B&J and Hennessey. A majority of the magazine advertisements were mentioned by the males, who listed Source, Details, Vibe and Rolling Stone as magazines they read regularly. Over three-quarters of the participants thought that alcohol advertisements are directed toward their age group. Some think alcohol companies are going after a target audience of 17to 20-year-olds, while others think they are trying to reach 17to 30-year-olds. Those who didnt think advertising was directed toward them felt the ads were going after those at least 21 or between 20 and 30. In general, the participants felt that alcohol companies are not concerned about underage drinking and only care about selling their products and making money. Participants felt that alcohol was being used or at least shown in almost every movie theyve seen, including most teen movies, such as Varsity Blues, American Pie (I and II), Never Been Kissed, Van Wilder, A Walk to Remember and Save the Last Dance. Beer was the most prominent drink. Participants recalled seeing both Budweiser and Heineken, though they could not recall in which films they had seen them. They also pointed out that there are kegs in many teen movies, so the characters are often shown drinking from cups, as opposed to bottles or cans. They felt this was more acceptable

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45 than showing generic brands. One participant thought that some films had to use generics in scenes that depicted negative consequences of alcohol use because the alcohol companies dont want their products associated with unfavorable or dangerous situations. He added, Usually, if its a fake brand, theyre going to jump off a bridge or do something dumb. Participants also recalled seeing alcohol in Triple X, Coyote Ugly, Disappearing Acts and Waiting to Exhale. While participants could not recall any specific brands shown in films, they did remember what they were drinking, especially when it was verbalized. They specifically remembered that in The Replacements the characters were drinking beer, in Blow they were drinking whiskey, in Rollerball they were drinking martinis, and one participant even remembered seeing alcohol in Shrek, when the king was drinking wine. A few of the female participants also recalled that in Save the Last Dance, one character ordered a rum and coke, no ice. It is interesting to note that it is important to some of the participants that the characters consuming alcohol in films look at least 21. Teens know theyre not old enough to drink, but many do and they feel like it is their little secret. They dont like the feeling that alcohol companies are already targeting them. They also dont like when movies show out-of-control parties with teens getting drunk. Many teens parents see these movies and think thats what all teen parties are like, so they set restrictions on their childrens social lives. The teens object to this because not all parties are out-of-control and not all teens drink at parties. Do Movies Influence Teens? Movies have influenced the participants in a number of ways, from hobbies to language to clothing and hairstyles. Hobbies or activities they have become interested in

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46 include dancing or cheerleading, cars and/or racing, basketball and martial arts. One participant mentioned seeing a movie (could not recall the title) in which the characters played a game called Pass the Pigs. He said when he saw it in a store, he recalled the characters playing it and that it looked like fun, so he bought it. Participants have also picked up on some of the language used in movies, most of which becomes inside jokes with friends. Females mentioned copying the hairstyles of Cameron Diaz (couldnt remember what movie) and Rachel Leigh Cook in Shes All That and the makeup of one of the characters in Clueless and Jennifer Lopez in all of her movies. Males mentioned copying hairstyles from music videos and television programs, but not from movies. Attitudes Toward Product Placements Overall, the participants realize that companies put their products in movies to advertise them or so that people will buy them, although some believe that the companies get paid for allowing their brands to appear in movies. Many participants have seen products in movies that they have wanted to buy or actually bought, including clothes and shoes, make-up, and as previously mentioned, the game Pass the Pigs. A few added that they have either bought cars like those in The Fast and The Furious or added accessories to their cars to make them more like the cars in The Fast and The Furious. Most think others would be influenced to purchase items seen in movies, for example males think females would be influenced to purchase clothes, and females think males would be influenced to purchase shoes. This provides evidence of third person effects, which will be discussed in Chapter 5. When they see things they use on a daily basis in movies, participants either feel that it is not a big deal because the actors are told to use them, they feel happy or excited

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47 that an actor/actress is using the same brand that they use, or they just think it is a coincidence. As one participant mentioned, Ive seen a couple of my outfits in movies and stuff, but its not like they only made one of them, so its not that big of a deal. Another said he noticed a faucet that he had in his home, but said, They dont zoom in on the name, like Delta . but you do notice it cause . you have it or use it. He added that he didnt think Delta paid for the placement because people arent going to really pay attention to it unless they already have it . and then they already bought it. Other items participants own or use that they have seen in movies include Coca-Cola, clothes and shoes (no specific brands were mentioned), Faygo soda, Cover Girl make-up, Tide detergent and Old Spice deodorant. The participants have mixed feelings about placing brands of alcohol in teen movies. Many dont care or feel that it wont affect anyone because so many teens drink already, others feel the companies are trying to persuade them and/or show off their brand. Many added that the presence of brand name products shows real life or adds realism to the scenes. Others felt that the placements do not affect them but may be bad for others and perhaps should not be there. Very few actually thought it was a good idea or ethical.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Discussion In order for alcohol companies to use product placements successfully to increase brand image, they must understand who each movies target audience is and their current level of familiarity with the product. While existing research has studied alcohol use in movies and teens perceptions of traditional forms of alcohol advertising, to date there have not been any studies on teens perceptions of alcohol use in teen movies or product placements in teen movies, including the attitudes and beliefs of teen audiences. Overall, the participants were able to correctly recall the scene and character using the brand in two of the three movie clips. One important factor in the recall of the placements was the prominence of the product in each scene. The fact that none of the participants recalled the brand in Loser suggests that its placement was not prominent enough. It may also suggest that the brand would have to be consumed or mentioned in order to gain recall among this age group, since they remembered seeing Corona in The Fast and The Furious and Sam Adams in Summer Catch after they were both mentioned and being directly consumed. Participants also tended to notice the brand more if it was associated with humor in the scene, though it did not improve the brands image. A major finding in this study was that teens were much more likely to recall traditional advertisements for brands of alcohol than they were to recall placements of brands of alcohol in movies; they also were more likely to recognize and recall brands in movies if they had seen them advertised. The participants may remember the traditional 48

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49 forms of advertising before product placements because of the repetition or frequency of commercials and print ads, and the fact they said they would need to see a movie many times in order to notice all the props and everything in the background in a scene. It may also be because, as one participant mentioned, brands tend to blend into the background of the scene, especially if it is a setting in which the brand would normally appear, such as a bar. It is interesting to note that the brands the participants reported drinking the most often, Smirnoff Ice, Mikes Hard Lemonade, Skyy Blue, Corona and Budweiser were also among the brands they had seen advertised the most lately. In order for placements to be successful, they must be a part of a larger marketing plan. Sam Adams went unnoticed by many participants because they were unfamiliar with the brand, as a result of not seeing it advertised very much, if at all. Corona was noticed by many of the participants, who also mentioned seeing a good amount of television commercials for it. Interestingly, about three weeks after the focus groups were conducted, commercials for Sam Adams Light started appearing on television. It is possible that if the focus groups had been conducted at least a month or two after the commercials aired, the participants might have taken more notice of Sam Adams in the clips. This study also found that the effects of product placements on teens are not immediate. Teens rarely go shopping with the intention of purchasing a product they saw in a movie; however, if they see a product in the store and remember it from a movie, they may buy it. This may also apply to their current feelings about brands of alcohol. While they cannot legally purchase alcohol, many of the participants mentioned that if they were given the opportunity, they might try a brand that they had seen in a movie, but

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50 probably would not consciously seek out the brand. They added that their friends approval was a big determinant in whether or not they would continue using the brand. Those who do not drink but plan to in the future did not mention any brands that they plan to consume, which suggests that alcohol advertisements do not resonate with those who are not currently interested in alcohol. This may support the alcohol industrys claim that they are targeting current drinkers, and trying to get them to switch brands or continue drinking their same brand, rather than trying to get those who do not drink to start. For the most part, the participants were aware that companies pay to have their products placed in movies and that the actors may not use those products in real life. Because they attributed the motive for placing products in movies as being to advertise, they are not likely to blindly accept the products shown in films. Teens do not have a problem with seeing brands in movies because they have always been there and they are used to them. The participants felt that brand name products added realism to films and most would rather see a brand name product than a generic product, because generics detract from the scene and make the movie look cheap. However, while companies use product placement to increase brand image, when the participants encountered an unfamiliar brand (Sam Adams), they either thought it was a cheaper product or mistook it for another brand (Budweiser). In addition, in scenes with alcohol use, they felt that it looked fake when the characters were shown drinking out of cups, unless there was a keg present. The fact that a few participants thought they saw Budweiser in two of the clips has some interesting implications. It suggests that when an unfamiliar product is present or

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51 when they cant tell what brand it is (as in the case with Sam Adams), they may think it is a different brand, one with which they are more familiar. It may also imply that when characters are drinking any brand of beer, participants may associate beer in general with a popular brand. This may mean that when one company places its product in a movie, other better-known companies in the industry could benefit. Teens believe they are being targeted, which may be another reason why they do not feel like product placements affect them. Many of the participants have watched teen movies with family members and expressed concern that younger audiences, particularly their younger siblings, might be influenced by alcohol placements in movies. Many believed that the alcohol usage is unnecessary, not only in these clips but in teen movies in general. Some even thought it was unethical and should only be used in R-rated movies. Others pointed out that the context of usage determines if the placement is ethical. For example, one participant pointed out that the characters appeared to be 21 and they were not being irresponsible or getting drunk or sick, so they just seemed like social drinkers and the placements werent a problem. It is important to note the presence of third-person effects among participants. Although many mentioned that they had purchased or wanted to purchase items they had seen in movies, they did not believe that the placement of brands in movies influences their purchase decisions. They did, however, believe that the presence of brands in movies might influence others to purchase those items. The group dynamic seemed to be a powerful stimulus in participants exhibiting third person effects. For example, as soon as one participant said he/she thought others would be influenced, everyone else seemed to agree. There were also some interesting differences between males and females.

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52 Females thought that males might be influenced to purchase shoes and males thought females might be influenced to purchase clothes they had seen in movies. In general, the participants did not think showing alcohol in movies has any effect on them, but they did think it might influence some of their peers and younger audiences to drink. They also thought that showing brands of alcohol might influence others to seek out those brands. Some of the females added that they thought males might be more influenced to try a brand of alcohol after seeing it consumed by a favorite actor in a movie. In addition, participants thought alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students. The fact that most of the participants friends drink offered a possible explanation for their strong tendency to exhibit third-person effects. Participants exhibited evidence of social learning with respect to alcohol consumption, though it is difficult to tell whether they were modeling their peers behaviors or using them as reinforcements. Teens may model some of the behaviors and preferences of characters in movies, but they need their peers approval to continue the behaviors. On the other hand, all of the participants who drink reported that their friends drink, so their alcohol consumption habits may be a product of peer influence, and movies may just reinforce the behavior. The fact that the participants who drink are almost always with friends when they do so suggests that drinking is seen as a social activity. Many mentioned that when characters in teen movies are shown drinking, they are always with friends, and are often at a party, which may reinforce drinking as a group activity or as normal social behavior. Many added that the party scenes in each of the movie clips portrayed typical teen life, which suggests that the movies reinforce, rather that motivate, the drinking behavior.

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53 Males seemed to be the focus of each of the three movie clips, and while they were interacting with females in each of the clips, it was mostly males that were shown drinking alcohol, specifically beer. This may be sending a message to both males and females, as far as social interaction and alcohol use. Females may perceive drinking alcohol, or at least drinking beer, to be a masculine activity, while males may associate it with male bonding. The role of the alcohol in each scene may also have contributed to social learning. Many participants pointed out that in The Fast and The Furious Dominic took a Corona away from another male character who was trying to cause trouble, and gave it to his new friend Brian. In doing this, he punished the one character by taking the Corona away from him, and made it seem like a reward for Brian, who had helped him. The positive portrayal of Corona in this scene may cause teenagers to believe that a Corona is an appropriate reward in a social situation. The positive associations with alcohol in these scenes stood out to participants more than did the negative associations. After the participants were informed that the brand shown in Loser was Sam Adams, they did not associate it with the unfavorable characters or references to date rape drugs in the clip. In the clip from Summer Catch, Ryan ordered three Sam Adams and was shown giving them to two of his new friends. Through this action, teens may associate making new friends with consuming alcohol. Also in this clip, Billy started laughing and spit his beer out. While spitting something out is usually a bad sign, in this scene it was related to humor, so teens may also associated drinking with laughter and having a good time.

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54 As previously mentioned, participants said they might try a brand that they had seen in a movie, and would continue using the brand if their friends used it too. This suggests that their brand choices are also a product of social learning. The participants notice the brand, remember seeing it, reproduce the behavior and then, based on peer approval, either stop using the brand or continue to use it. It is interesting to note that the brands the participants drink most often are also the brands they recalled seeing advertised the most lately. While it may be because the ads influence which brands they choose to drink, it may also be because of their heavy preference for malt beverages and the large volume of ads for this category. It is possible that the advertisements are the main source of influence, and that peer approval and movie portrayals may serve as reinforcements for consuming specific brands. Those who do not currently drink, including those who plan to drink in the future and those who do not, may have received strong anti-drinking messages through school programs, parents or the media, which may be reinforced by their peers who also do not drink. While it is highly likely that those who drink have also received these anti-drinking messages, many anti-drinking messages only address the cognitive or motor problems associated with alcohol use and fail to discredit the social and emotional benefits of alcohol use (Lipsitz et al. 1993). Based on the fact that the participants who drink think of drinking as a social activity, which is reinforced by their peers who also drink, peer influence again seems to be the most important factor in social learning. With regard to this study, social learning theory suggests that peers influence the onset and continuance of drinking, while media portrayals may reinforce it. Alcohol advertising may influence brand choice and lead to brand loyalty at an early age;

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55 however, the fact that the participants could not recall many alcohol brands from movies suggests that product placements do not influence teens brand preferences, though they may reinforce them. Implications The results of this study suggest that in order for product placements to be successful, they must be part of a larger advertising or marketing campaign. The participants did notice the specific brands of alcohol in two of the three movie clips; however, they were more likely to notice the brands if they had already seen them advertised. The participants did not have different evaluations of the brands based on the context or scene in which they appeared. Previous exposure to the brands through advertising messages and peer usage (or lack thereof) seemed to have the largest effect on their evaluations of Corona and Sam Adams. Placements will not be effective if younger participants have not seen the product previously advertised, so a company should not rely on product placements to introduce a brand to the public. Brands shown in movies should be part of a campaign that includes traditional advertising. Critics of product placement advertising should take note that teens do not believe that placements are deceptive or that they are influenced by the placements. However, critics of alcohol advertising may be justified in their beliefs that alcohol advertising is targeting teens and that these ads may influence teens to drink. Limitations While this study adds to the body of literature on teens and alcohol advertising, as well as product placement, there were some weaknesses in the methodology. Because of

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56 time constraints, the researcher was not able to show the participants a full-length film. This might have allowed the participants to see placements for some non-alcoholic products as well as alcoholic beverages and compare the two. The participants might not have been able to recall the alcohol placements as easily after sitting through the entire movie. Also, showing the three brief clips in a classroom did not compare to the experience teens would normally have if watching it at home or in the movie theater. The placement of the questionnaire during the focus group session may also be a limitation. The questionnaires were given to the participants after the focus group discussion, so the participants may have experienced priming effects after discussing alcohol portrayals and alcohol advertising. Some of the participants may have reported drinking more or less than they normally do, or drinking brands that they normally do not drink. There were also limitations in conducting a study with teenagers. They are more likely to either conform, or agree with others in order to avoid standing out; they may also express more extreme views than they normally would (Edmunds 1999). Suggestions for Future Research Alcohol use in teen movies can be studies in a number of other ways. This study could be expanded by comparing the alcohol placements in teen movies to placements for other general products. This would gauge teens recall of placements in general and suggest which types of products are most likely to get their attention. Another possibility in studying alcohol placements would be to show participants clips with either no brands (just cups) or both brands and cups, to see if they notice the brands or if they think they see brands in scenes with just cups.

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57 The effectiveness of product placements versus traditional advertising can also be studied using teenage participants and showing them both television commercials and clips from television programs or movies. This could be used to gauge recall as well as determine which type of message is more effective. Many of the participants mentioned the music industrys influence on their personal style. Many also mentioned alcohols prevalence in music, including brands that were mentioned in songs or shown in music videos. Music videos should be studied to gauge teens attitudes and perceptions of the brands, both alcohol and general products, mentioned in songs or shown in videos. In conclusion, the knowledge gained from this research can be used as a base for additional research on teens and alcohol advertising and alcohol placements in movies. It provides a base of information on the ways teenagers notice and evaluate alcohol advertising, product placements and alcohol placements, and how they view the alcohol industry.

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APPENDIX A SCREENING QUESTIONS Name: ______________________________________________________ Age: _____________________ Gender: Female Male How many movies do you typically see in the theater each month? __________ How many movies do you typically rent each month? __________ How many movies do you typically watch on cable television each month? _________ 58

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APPENDIX B FOCUS GROUP QUESTION GUIDE 1. What do you like to do in your free time (activities, hobbies)? 2. How many of you have seen the first movie (name)? a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)? b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)? c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)? 3. How many of you have seen the second movie (name)? a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)? b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)? c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)? 4. How many of you have seen the third movie (name)? a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)? b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)? c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)? 5. Is there anything in these clips that stands out to you? 6. When you watch movies, do you notice if there are brand names or generic products being used? a. Which movies? Which products? b. How do you feel about seeing brand names in movies? 7. Did you notice any brand name products being used in these clips? a. describe the scene b. character(s) using them i. how old do you think the characters are supposed to be? ii. do you like the characters? c. how are the products placed in each scene (mentioned, consumed, purchased)? 8. Does usage of alcohol in these clips say anything about the characters (brand and type of alcohol)? a. First movie b. Second movie c. Third movie 59

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60 9. How do you feel about seeing the characters in these clips drinking alcohol? Does it make you want to drink? 10. Do you think others are influenced to drink by seeing these characters drinking? Do you think it influences what they drink? 11. Have you noticed alcohol use in other movies? a. What movies? b. Specific brands? 12. What types and brands of alcohol have you seen advertised the most lately? a. Through what media (tv, radio, outdoor, magazine)? b. Do you feel alcohol advertisements are directed towards you? 13. Have characters in other movies ever influenced your: a. Activities/interests/hobbies? b. Support of social causes/issues? c. Clothing or hairstyles? d. Language? e. Other behaviors (smoking, using condoms?) 14. Why do you think a company would put its products in a movie? a. Have you ever seen a product in a movie and wanted to buy it or actually bought it? b. Do you think others are influenced to purchase items theyve seen in movies? c. Have you seen products you use in movies? How does it make you feel? 15. How do you feel about placements of brands of alcohol in movies? a. Persuaded? Manipulated? Subliminal? b. Good idea? c. Ethical?

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APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRE ***DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ON THIS!!!*** 1. How many movies do you typically see in the theater each month? ____________ 2. How many videos do you typically rent each month? ____________ 3. Over the past month I have done the following with my friends (please check all that apply): ___ Gone to the movies ___ Rented a movie ___ Attended a sporting event ___ Consumed alcohol ___ Attended a concert ___ Gone to the beach ___ Smoked cigarettes ___ Attended a party ___ Consumed alcohol at a party ___ Gone shopping 4. Do you ever consume alcoholic beverages (including beer, wine, liquor or malt beverages)? (circle one) YES NO 5. If you answered YES to question 4, please answer the following, if not, continue to question 8. A. When did you start drinking alcoholic beverages (at what age)?_________ B. How often do you drink alcohol? ___ Every day ___ Once a week ___ Once a month ___ Every few months ___ Other (explain) __________________________________________ C. Where do you usually drink alcohol?____________________________ D. When you drink, who are you usually with? ___ A friend/friends ___ A parent/parents ___ A brother/sister/cousin ___ Other (explain) ________________________________________ 61

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62 E. What kind of alcoholic beverage do you usually drink? ___ Beer ___ Wine ___ Liquor ___ Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.) F. What brand(s) do you usually drink? ______________________________ G. How much do you usually drink? ___ 1 serving (bottle/can of beer, glass of wine, shot of liquor) ___ 2-3 servings ___ 4-6 servings ___ more than 6 servings 6. Have you ever been drunk? (circle one) YES NO 7. If you answered YES to question 6, please answer the following, if not, continue to question 8. A. How many times in the past six months? _____________________ *Now think of one time when you were drunk and answer the following: B. Where were you? ________________________________________ C. Who were you with? (check all that apply) ___ A friend/friends ___ A parent/parents ___ A brother/sister/cousin ___ Other D. What kind of alcohol was it? (check all that apply) ___ Beer ___ Wine ___ Liquor ___ Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.) E. What brand(s)? ______________________________________________ 8. If you do not currently drink alcoholic beverages, do you plan to in the future? YES NO

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63 9. If you answered YES to question 8, please answer the following, if not, continue to question 10. A. When? ___ Within the next month ___ Within the next year ___ When I am in college ___ After I turn 21 ___ I dont know B. What type(s) of alcohol do you plan to consume? (check all that apply) ___ Beer ___ Wine ___ Liquor ___ Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.) ___ I dont know C. What brands, if any, do you plan to consume? ______________________ 10. Do your friends drink alcohol? YES NO 11. Do you think alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students? YES NO 12. Age: ___ 16 ___ 17 ___ 18 13. Gender: MALE FEMALE 14. What are your plans after high school? ___ Attend community college ___ Get a job ___ Join the military ___ Attend a university ___ Other (explain) _____________________________________

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APPENDIX D IRB AND CONSENT FORMS 64

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65 Institutional Review Board Form for study with teenagers UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 1. TITLE OF PROJECT: Thesis on Product Placement of Brands of Alcohol in Teen Movies 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amy Bellin, Masters Student 700 SW 62 Blvd., Apt. B-24 Gainesville, FL 32607 (352) 379-5718 abellin@ufl.edu 3. SUPERVISOR: Debbie Treise, Ph.D., Associate Professor Department of Advertising, 2084 Weimer Hall 392-9755 dtreise@jou.ufl.edu 4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: August 1, 2002 July 31, 2003 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: N/A 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATOR: I have developed a focus group study with a brief questionnaire and question guide. The results will serve as data for a masters thesis. The focus groups seek to determine the attitudes and opinions of high school students on product placement advertising, specifically the placement of brands of alcohol in PG-13 movies. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE: Six or seven focus groups will be conducted at Atlantic High School in Delray Beach and Boca Raton High School in Boca Raton to determine the attitudes and opinions of high school students concerning the placement of brands of alcohol in teen movies as a form of advertising. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: There are no risks involved to participants. Participants will benefit by receiving extra credit.

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66 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTIPANTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): Participants will be recruited through various classes at Atlantic High School and Boca Raton High School. Prior to the focus groups, parental consent forms will be signed by each participants parent/guardian. The researcher will be available to answer any questions via phone or e-mail. After parental consent is obtained, focus groups will be conducted after school. Participants will be males and females, 15-18 years old. Approximately 36 students will participate in one of seven focus groups. Each focus group will contain 5-6 participants. The students will receive extra credit for participation. 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT. For participants under the age of 18, the informed consent process will consist of informed consent of the participants parent or guardian, as well as oral assent of the participant. The parents form is the standard IRB form attached. The participants form is written in slightly simpler language to ensure that each participant understands the information. (see the attached consent script and informed consent form) ____________________________ Principal Investigator Signature __________ Date ____________________________ Supervisors Signature __________ Date I approve this protocol for submission to UFIRB: ________________________________ Department Chair/Center Director _________________ Date

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67 Parental Informed Consent Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a graduate student in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida, conducting research on teenagers perspectives on product placement advertising. Product placement advertising is the practice of placing branded products in movies or television programs as a way to advertise those products. The purpose of this study is to determine if teens notice product placements in movies and gain an understanding of how they feel about them. The focus of this study will be placement of brands of alcohol in movies directed toward teenagers. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. If you agree that you would like your child to participate in this study, he/she will be asked to participate in a focus group asking about their perceptions of product placement advertising in general, alcohol advertising, and placement of brands of alcohol in movies. Short clips from PG-13 rated movies (The Fast and the Furious, Loser, and Summer Catch) will be shown and a discussion on product placement will follow. This discussion will take place after school and will last approximately an hour to an hour and a half. With your permission, your child will be audio taped during the focus group discussion. The audiotapes will be kept in a locked cabinet in a faculty members office until they have been transcribed, and then they will be destroyed. Your child will not be identified in any way, as no identifying information will be solicited from them. Only the faculty member, the transcriber and the primary investigator will have access to the transcripts. The results of this research will be used in a masters thesis. You may request a copy of the final thesis. After completion of the thesis all requested copies will be given to the high schools administration office by May 2003. All of the participants answers will be confidential to the extent provided by law. They will not be identified in any way. We are not asking for their name or any identifying information. They do not have to answer any questions that they do not wish to answer. They may stop at any time without consequence. Your child has the right to withdraw at any time during this study. There are no anticipated risks for completing this study, but their participation will be beneficial in providing the academic community with data on teenagers perspectives about alcohol product placement. I will be providing refreshments for them during the focus group session. This focus group research is being supervised by Dr. Debbie Treise, Associate Professor in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida, College of Journalism and Communications. If you have any questions about this focus group, she can be reached at 392-9755. If you have any questions or concerns about the research participants' rights, they can be directed to the UFIRB office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph (352) 392-0433.

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68 [ ] I voluntarily agree to allow my child, ______________________________________, to participate in a focus group on alcohol product placement in teen movies. [ ] I do not wish for my child, _______________________________________________, to participate in a focus group on alcohol product placement in teen movies. [ ] I request a copy of the final thesis. I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to allow my child, ___________________________________________, to participate in Amy Bellins study on alcohol product placement in teen movies, and I have received a copy of this description. ________________________ Parent/Guardian Signature ____________ Date

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69 Child Assent Script I am a student at the University of Florida and I am writing my masters thesis about high school students. To write this paper, I need to talk to you about movies. If you or your parents have any questions, you can call my supervisor, Dr. Debbie Treise, at 352-392-9755. If you agree to participate in this study, I will show you scenes from three PG-13 rated movies: The Fast and the Furious, Loser and Summer Catch. Then I will talk to you about those movies and any other movies that come to mind. You do not have to tell me your name. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not want to and you may leave at any time. This will take about an hour to an hour and a half. I am tape recording this conversation so that I can listen to it again. You will not be identified on this tape. The only people that will listen to this are the transcriber, my supervisor and myself.

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APPENDIX E SAMPLE FOCUS GROUP TRANSCRIPT 70

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71 Transcription of focus group with high school students at Boca Raton High School. This focus group consisted 6 males. Q: Before we get started, I have to read this to you. I am a student at the University of Florida and I am writing my masters thesis about high school students. To write this paper, I need to talk to you about movies. If you or your parents have any questions, you can call my supervisor, Dr. Debbie Treise, at 352-392-9755. If you agree to participate in this study, I will show you scenes from three PG-13 rated movies: The Fast and the Furious, Loser and Summer Catch. Then I will talk to you about those movies and any other movies that come to mind. You do not have to tell me your name. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not want to and you may leave at any time. This will take about an hour to an hour and a half. I am tape recording this conversation so that I can listen to it again. You will not be identified on this tape. The only people that will listen to this are the transcriber, my supervisor and myself. Does anyone have any questions before we get started? Okay. Well first of all, what do you like to do in your free time? Ill start with you and go around the table. A: I wish I had free time. A: Yeah. A: I play football and everything. Free time I try to rest. A: Rest and talk on the phone. A: Four-wheeling. A: I just go around with friends, hang out, when I have free time. A: I like to rest, tooto hang out with friends. A: Hang out with my friends and girlfriend, find trouble. A: I like to, you know, hang out with my friends, like everyone else, and I like to, um, stay home and play video gamesand thats pretty much it. Q: How many of you have seen the first movie? Fast and The Furious? A: I did. A: Yes maam. A: Yes. A: Yes.

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72 A: Yes. A: Yes. Q: And where did you see it the first time? In the theater, on TV, video? A: Seen it in the theater, when the first Friday it came out. Q: And who did you go see it with? A: Withthe football team. Q: How about you? A: In the movie theater, with, uh, my girlfriend. A: In the movie theater with my parents. A: Movie theater with my friends. A: On video with my girlfriend. A: On video with my family. My mom, and my dad, and my brother. Q: How many times have you seen it? A: Oh Lord. Umwould you count renting it, watching it over and over? Q: Yeah, every time youve watched it. A: In between 20 and 50 times, probably. Q: And why have you watched it more that once? A: I seen it in movie theaters three times with the football team, twice with my girlfriend, then when I rented it on DVD, since I have a Playstation 2, I kept watching it and watching it when I was bored. Q: So why did you want to watch it more than once? A: It was exciting. A: I saw it, about times. Q: And why did you watch it more than once?

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73 A: Cause I learn something new about the cars every time. A: (INAUDIBLE) Q: Okay, and why have you watched it more than once? A: The action. A: Like, three times. It waslike, exciting to watch. A: I watched it just once. I liked itits a lot of excitement. And the girls, man. Shes hot. A: I watched it, like, three times. I rented it. And um, I liked it because it was, like, entertaining. It was, umlike it was a good movie. It was likeI cant (INAUDIBLE). Q: And how many of you have seen Loser, the second movie? A: I havent seen it. A: Nope. A: I did. A: I havent seen it. A: Ive seen it. A: Ive seen it. Q: Okay, so just the three of you? And the first time you saw it, where were you? A: UmI saw it on, like, pay-per-view or something. Q: And whod you watch it with? A: My cousin. A: My girlfriend. Q: Was it in the theater or? A: No. Video. A: Home, pay-per-view.

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74 Q: How many times have all of you seen it? A: A couple. A: Once. A: Two or three. Q: Why did you guys watch it more than once? A: Nothing else to do. A: Yeah. And its like, a teen movie, so you got nothing else to do, put it in Q: Did you like it? A: It was all right. A: Not compared to the Fast and the Furious. A: I didnt really like it, like the first time I saw it, I didnt really like it, but like, I had, like, there was nothing else on TV, so I just watched it again, cause, like, they play the movies over and over. Q: Okay, and what about the third movie, Summer Catch? How many of you guys have seen that? A: I saw it. A: I saw it. A: I saw it. A: I havent seen it. A: I havent either. A: No. Q: Where did you see it? A: Ive seen it once, on pay-per-view. Q: Who did you watch it with?

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75 A: Myself. A: Pay-per-view. Q: How many times have you watched it? A: Like twice. Q: And who did you watch it with? A: My brothers. Q: And why did you watch it more than once? A: Nothing else to do. Q: Did you like it? A: Not really. Q: What about you? Did you like it? A: At first it was boring, until towards the middleI got into it. Q: And how about you? A: Um, the first time I saw it, I thought, like scenes were funny, like parts of it were funny. And then I saw it, like, a couple more times, and like once was just because I had nothing else to do. And, like, the third time, that girl, she gets in the swimming pool in, like, her underwear. Like, just her underwear and her braand shes really hot. A: Yeah. Q: Was there anything in these clips particularly that stood out to you or that really caught your attention? A: Girls. A: Girls. A: I watch movies just because I hear theres, like, a hot girl in it. A: Yeah. Or theres some (INAUDIBLE). A: Ill go along with him. Q: Girls and parties and stuff?

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76 A: Yeah, cause, you know, (INAUDIBLE). A: (INAUDIBLE), action, (INAUDIBLE) A: I would say the action, yeah. A: The action stands out. Also, like, the tension that builds up the movie. Like in Fast and the Furious, there was tension because the new kid was trying to fit in and the old people, friends, didnt like it. The girls, the alcohol. Most all three movies had all the same stuff. Q: Okay. When you watch movies, do you notice if there are brands names, as opposed to generic products being used by the characters? A: I do. Like, when they get up in the morning to, like, brush their teeth, like I notice the mouthwash that they use isnt Scope, it says like Schope or something Q: Okay, so you have noticed that? Are there any specific movies you can remember seeing that in? A: Um, in like some of them, they, likelike, they walk out of the refrigerator and they, like, grab the milk. I cant remember what movies Q: But you do remember seeing that. Okay. Yeah, basically with generics, like instead of seeing a can of Coke or Pepsi, it will just say Soda. A: Oh, they do that so they dont have to pay the company. If you show them, their name and their brand. Q: Something like that. Have you noticed any brands in particular? A: Yeah. A: Like, the shoes that the guys wear. Like, if theyre not wearing, like boots or something, theyre likeif theyre wearing sports shoes theyre, like, Nikes or Adidas or something. A: Yeah, Nikes. Q: Any brands or generics that youve noticed in any other movies? A: Cars. A: Yeah, they always have nice cars. Mercedes

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77 A: Mercedes. A: No. A: No, not really. A: Like in the Fast and The Furious, um, the engines, like, once I would see, like, an air filter say, like, Canon (sp?) and on somebody elses car it wouldnt. A: To me, well them three movies, I didnt see nothing that stood out, but it depends on the movie. Q: Are there any movies that youve seen, that you can think of, that you remember seeing a brand? A: Yeah, some movies, most females try to wear Gucci. It be funny. Um, they try to get the most expensive things. Q: How do you feel about seeing brand name products in movies? A: I like it, because, like, normally, like, most movies I see, the dont have the brand name, its just, like, cheap stuff A: Yeah. A: And, like, if theyre making a movie, they should try to make it, like, to the best of their ability, so they put, like, get, like, the good stuff instead of generic. A: I dont care if a guys wearing Nikes or Kicks, Wal-mart walkings. It doesnt make a difference to me. It has nothing to do with the movie. A: Yeah, same with him. Like, just the gist of the movieit doesnt matter. A: Yeah. A: I would say the same thing. A: Yeah, pretty much the same thing because it doesnt matter. They dont have no impact on the movie, long as its got action and point and interesting. Doesnt change the person. Q: Did you notice any brand name products being used in these clips? A: Beer. Corona. A: Yeah.

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78 A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Yeah, thats what I was going to say. A: Yeah. Q: Did you all notice the Corona? A: Yeah (all). A: Corona and (INAUDIBLE) Q: What? A: He gave him a choice of either Corona or Bud? A: Mm mm. A: No, they both were Corona. A: (INAUDIBLE) Q: Did you notice brands in Loser or Summer Catch? A: No, well, he bought some kind of beer. A: He bought some kind of beer, but A: I think it might have been Captain Morgan or something. A: No, Samuel Adams. Q: Which clip? A: The last one. A: Loser. A: Nooh yeah. A: Summer Catch.

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79 A: In, uh, Summer Catch, yeah, Samuel Adams, and LoserI dont know what he had but it was two cases. A: In all three movies the clothing was like, almost, on the females it was almost the same. Its just thatbut it didnt say no name brand. It was just a particular style. It was all the same. Q: Okay. I want to go back to Loser for a minute. Did you notice a brand at all in there? A: No. A: No. A: No. Q: You said you noticed the boxes that he was carrying A: Oh, I saw them, but, like, I didnt know what they were. Q: Okay. It was actually Sam Adams. A: Yeah, thats what I thought it was. Q: How old do you think the characters in each of these clips were supposed to be? A: About 20 A: In their teenage years. Like, 17 to 25. Q: In all of them? A: Yeah. A: In Fast and The Furious they seemed to bein their mid-30s. A: Theyre older than 17like in their 20s. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Fast in the Furious, like I think they were 30, 28, 29, yeah. A: In the Fast and The Furious I think they were supposed to be, like, 25 or 26 or something. And in Loser they were in college, so they were probably supposed to be, like, 20, I guess. And in Summer Catch, they played for the baseball team, so, like, they

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80 cant be too oldand they still hadnt gone off to play in the majors or anything, so they had to be, like, 22 or something. A: To me, all the characters ranged from 21 to 25, cause you gotta at least be 21 to drink, so A: Yeah. A:all of em were ranged from 21 to 25. I dont think theyd be older. A: Yeah, the drinking and then driving, you cant have, like all the sports and all that other (INAUDIBLE). A: Yeah. Q: Do you think theres any chance that they were under 21? A: Yeah, the guy that bought it inSummer Catch? A: yeah, that guy they called Einstein in Fast and The Furious, where he was like, hey Einstein, A: That Summer Catch guy A: He was about 20 A: the one that bought the beerhe doesnt look ithe looked underage. Q: You dont think he was 21? A: Yeah. Just, like, the guy didnt care. A: He was his brother. Q: Did you like the characters in the clips that were shown? Well start with Fast and The Furious. A: The bald A: Yes. A: Yes. A: Yeah. A: yes.

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81 A: yes. Q: What about Loser? Did you like those characters? A: The girls. A: (INAUDIBLE) A: The girls. A: Even though in Loser, I didnt see it, the clip that you showed got me interested, like I wanted to see it, so yeah. A: No, I dont like them. A: Yeah, they looked kind-of funny. Q: What didnt you like about the characters in Loser? A: They were just stupid. A: They try too hard. A: Yeah. Q: What about the characters in Summer Catch? A: No. A: Yeah, they were ok. They, like, they act stupid, but it was comedy and action mixed together, so A: Yeah, I would say the same thing as him. A: Yeah. A: (INAUDIBLE) A: I liked the characters in Summer Catch. They were funny. Q: Do you think the usage of alcohol in these clips says anything particular about the characters? Specifically, the brands that they were drinking or what it was? A: They like to party and get drunk.

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82 A: Party and get drunk. A: Yeah, in that age, you see that they like to drink and stuff, or like its the thing to do in that age. A: Yeah. A: 21 to 25, thats pretty much what they live to do, to go clubbing and partying and stuff like that. Like, right now, as teenagers, we try to do it, but were not allowed to, so we cant do most things, but once you hit 21, or in between 21 and 25, thats your life right there. Its going to be nothing but memories, so they do as much as they can. It doesnt depend on the character. It doesnt say nothing because in none of those scenes you havent seen anybody get drunk to the point where theyre going to throw up or something like that. Like, in I think it was Loser, the girl tried a drug or something A: They spiked her drink. A: Like, see, she didnt know that, so she got sick. Them other people, they wouldnt do that to themselves, to like, take a overdose and hurt themselves. Q: Well, you all noticed that Vin Diesel was drinking Corona. Do you think that says anything about his character in the movie? Or the facts that he was drinking beer instead of, say, liquor? A: Thats Mexican beer. A: Thats just his choice. A: He justit doesnt really matter, as long as its alcohol. A: No, cause he said you can drink Corona, thats it. A: Cause all he had was Corona. A: To me, throughout the movie, even though you just showed a clip, since Ive watched the movie so many times, thats probably one out of two scenes that you only caught him drinking, so basically he was just a social drinker, so it wasnt nothing heavy, so it doesnt change nothing about him. Q: Okay. Do you think the fact his character was using it says anything about the brand, as opposed to the brand saying something about him? A: Oh, hes Mexican, maybe. A: No, like since the movie was a hit, some people may go, be like, oh, he drunk Corona, let me drink Corona. Just like, after The Fast and The Furious came out, so

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83 many people, were like, trying to their cars all hooked up and theres so many people that end up dying, this and that. So movies do have a impact on teenagers. A: Yeah. Q: Does anyone want to add anything? Q: Okay, what about the Sam Adams? I know in Loser it wasnt as prominent, but how about in Summer Catch? They were all sitting around, you know, drinking Sam Adams. Do you think that says anything about the characters? Or does it say anything about the brand that those types of characters were drinking it? A: No, I dont know why that guy liked Corona and (INAUDIBLE). Maybe it just tastes better than other beers. I dontit doesnt put together why. A: I dont understand it either, because Im not a drinker, so I dont know the difference. A: Id prefer Corona. A: Corona, you see commercials about it. Sam Adams, youre saying it now, I still dont know what youre talking about. A: The guy with the brown hair A: No, I understand that. But Sam Adams, the drink, I never heard of that. Never seen a commercial or no one drinking it or nothing like that. Q: Actually, have any of you guys noticed or seen ads for Sam Adams? A: I have. A: No. A: No. A: Nope. A: Sam Adams? Yeah, theyre on. A: Oh yeah, Ive seen, maybe, one, two. A: Theyre rare, but A: They cant advertise it as much unless they make a lot of money on it. A: You dont see as much as, like, Heineken and Bud Light. A: Budweiser stinksits going down.

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84 A: Its like Corona and Heineken are up there now. I see a lot of them commercials. I dont see no more Budweiser. Q: How do you feel about the seeing the characters in these clips drinking alcohol? A: We know were going to do it between 21 and 25. A: You might. A: Youre not? Youre not going to go to parties? A: I go to parties now and I dont. Q: Does it make you want to drink? Like maybe in the future or even right now? A: Its so people do. A: No, thats not an impact on us. We alreadyknow were going to drink by ourselves. A: Seriously. A: Like, if you want to drink right now, you can drink. You just do it behind (INAUDIBLE). A: Yeah. Long as you dont do it heavily or and stuff like that where you hurt yourself, become drunk, pass outlike, Im a sports player, I play football. I know when we go out we see some of the other sports players drinking and we just knock the beer out their hand to get them mad cause its football season, youre not supposed to be doing that. Like, off season, see, I cant say that Im not going to drink when I grow up, but I dont know the future. But it wont be nothing, like, other than social events. A: Yeah. Q: What about the brands that they were drinking? Would this make you want to drink those brands more than anything else? A: Pass the Couvassier. A: Not really. A: Yeah. A: No.

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85 A: No. A: No. A: Oh, thats probably whywhy they hadCorona probably had something to do with that. Q: So how do you feel about that? A: No, its all about taste. They might want you to try and taste it. A: I dont know. I dont think it would have an effect on someone and change their taste in beer. Q: So you wouldnt go out and buy Corona because you thought Vin Diesel was cool? A: No. A: No, not really. A: I think it would. Notit wouldnt make them go change their taste, but I think, if they see him in the movies and more commercials of it, theyll go out and get it, just to taste it, and like, if they see more people like it, theyll just switch over as peer pressure, and stuff like that. Q: So you think other people would be influenced by this? A: Yeah. But that doesnt stand out. You gotta watch a movie, like, a million times to catch the little things, cause I know when I watch a movie once, and then when I watch it again, Im like I didnt see that the first time. Q: Have you noticed alcohol being used in other movies? A: Yeah, a lot of movies. A: Yeah. A: Everything, everything. A: Yeah. A: Most movies have drinking in them. A: Yeah. Q: Can you think of any specific ones?

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86 A: Umall movies. I cant think of one right now. A: American Pie. A: Budweiser. A: Yeah, American Pie. A: American Pie. A: American Pie, American Pie 2 and all them. A: Like, all the comedy movies and stuff. A: Yeah, like teen movies and that kind of stuff. Q: Teen movies in general? A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Not really, not all teen movies. A: Yeah, not all teen movies, just like, some of them. A: Like Varsity Blues. A: Varsity Blues was awesome. A: Some of the teen movies thats rated PG-13 that should be rated R, most of them, yeah. Q: Okay. Have you noticed brands in any of those movies that specifically come to mind? I know in American Pie there was a lot of drinking, but, were there any brands that you noticed them drinking? A: What brand is a 40? I see that in a lot of movies. What is that? A: Budweiser. A: I dont know, I think I see them drinking out of, like, cups a lot. Not really cans or bottles. A: Yeah.

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87 A: Yeah, they dont really have anything in cups. Well, sometimes, at like a party there, in the movie, theyre having like bottles or red cups A: Cause they dont want to show its off the tap. A: They use a lot more kegs. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. Q: Okay, so you were saying that there are a lot of PG-13 movies that you think should be rated R. How do you feel about the fact that a lot of these teen movies have drinking in them? A: They dont need it so much. It doesnt really matter. A: To me, since Im older now, I really dont care, but like I got a lot of siblings. I know if they would go out to watch it, I wouldnt want them to. Even though I know theyre not going to do nothing cause Ill kill them, but, I wouldnt want them to, causebut like theres laws that say youre supposed to be a certain age to watch a movie. Most movie theaters dont even do that, they just let anybody go in now, so it really doesnt matter. A: Except for R, and like, they just dont let you buy the ticket, but its not like theyre standing there guarding the door. You can just go in. A: Yeah. Q: What do you guys think? A: Like, if my brothers watched that, I dont really care in general, cause theyre gonna eventually find out about all that grown-up stuff, butI dont know. Q: You think its maybe a little too much? A: But the movies shouldnt help them learn that. A: Some, yeah. A: My brothers are both older than me, so I dont have to worry about it.

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88 A: It should show both side effects. There is no both side effects. It should show what happens when you get addicted to it. A: The same. Q: I know you guys were just talking about this a couple of minutes agoyou mentioned some kinds of brands of alcohol that youve seen advertised a lot lately. You mentioned Heineken A: And, uh, Corona. A: Heineken, Corona, Budweiser. A: Corona, Captain Morgans has a lot of ads. A: Skyy Blue, Skyy Blue. Q: In magazines? A: No, Skyy Blues got a commercial Ive seen. A: Yeah, Skyy Blue. A: I havent seen that. Q: What about radio? Have you heard any radio commercials lately for any alcoholic products? A: Um, no. A: Mikes Hard Lemonade. A: Yeah, Mikes Hard Lemonade. A: Oh yeah, yeah. A: Thats, like, always on, so A: Spiked, Spiked Lemonade. A: Ive heard, like, a couple Captain Morgan commercials on the radio. Q: What about billboards? A: Mikes Lemonade, Captain Morgan has a lot of billboards, with the Captain was here.

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89 A: On the way to Miami, theres, uh, a Heineken one, its, like, its a six-pack of Heineken and it says, like, I dont know, it says, like people like our six-pack better or something and it has the six kegs. A: Mikes Lemonade. A: Mikes Hard Lemonade. A: I dont see them as much as they used to be advertised. Q: What about magazine ads? A: Skyy Blue. A: Yeah, I can go get a magazine in the classroom right now, youll see about four different pages and three different alcohols. Q: Do you remember any specifically? A: There was Skyy Blue in there, Corona, those were the only two that Ive seen. A: I like, rarely see beers in magazines, but, like, when I do, its either Corona or some kind-of, like, Crown Royale or liquor or something. Not beers. A: Yeah, like he said, it wont be beers. Itll be the popular ones, like the ones that stand out, but most of them is hard liquor. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: And they use it with sexual ads. A: yeah, the put, like girls in them. Q: What magazines do you read that youve seen those ads in? A: I got Source in the classroom. Source, Double X, L. Its another hip-hop magazine. Q: Any of you guys want to add any other ones youve seen? Do you feel that these advertisements are directed towards your age group? A: Yes. A: Yeah.

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90 A: Yes. A: They dont really put them in, like, teen magazines, but like, magazines that kids read, like them put them in People and stuff. I rarely see them in People, but sometimes they will, and like, other magazines. But theyre not really directed at us, I guess, but sort-of, like, everybody. A: Yeah, they aim for, to me, they aim for 17, 18, and up, because they know thats the next generation thats gonna be using their stuff. They dont care the side effects or whats gonna happened to them, so they know that were starting to have parties, especially when certain times of year come around, they advertise more, try to get people to do more things, so their product can go up. A: During the SuperBowl theres always at least one alcohol. A: One? One? A: More than one. A: Yeah, like Budweiser always has one on the SuperBowl. A: But thats the SuperBowl, soits only once a year, you know what Im saying? Q: What about, um, do you think theyre trying to reach anything older? You said 17 and older, you dont think theyre maybe aiming for a 25 and older crowd? A: Yeah, like to 30, but, like, they kind-of just want whatever money comes, theyll take. A: Not really because once they hit you when youre 17, each generation when theyre 17, 18, 19, and 20, they know that once they get used to it, and they like it, theyre gonna always use it throughout their life, no matter what. So they dont aim as much toward the higher ages. Q: Have characters in movies ever influenced any of your interests or hobbies or outside activities? A: Yeah. cause, like, before I saw fast and The Furious, I liked going fast, and then I saw The Fast and The Furious, and I just wanted me to go out and buy a car and do all that other stuff and then go out and race for money. Now, everybodys starting to do that, and its just getting stupid. A: Yeah. Q: Okay. What about you?

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91 A: None. A: No. A: Actually, I just got this new game, its called Pass the Pigs, its not, like a, its not like a Playstation game or anything, its like, like you rol the pigs and however they land, like, thats how many points you get. Like, they showed it in a movie. I cant remember what it was called, but it was this one whereMark Paul Gosselar, they guy who played Zack in Saved By The Bell, him and two of his friends were sitting around a campfire playing, and like, it looked really fun, and they were, like, making bets about it. So I got that and its fun. A: To me, yeah, I think so cause a lot of people change. Like, certain music videos, movies and stuff like that. That makes a person dress a certain way, talk a certain way and all that other stuff. Im not gonna say I dont do it because I probably did throughout my life so far. I did probably change cause a movie, but I dont think thats good cause it hurts people. Q: What about clothing or hairstyles? A: Yeah, a lot of people, like, will go after, like the actresses hairstyles, like, the girls. A: The clothing. A: I remember when, like A: Now music videos and movies, I dont know about the rest of yall, a lot of, um, Asian people, Caucasian, whatever, Im not trying to be racist, they get their hair colored now. African Americans and stuff like that, they get their hair braided. A lot of people. I dont see why. It dont do nothing. A: Well, uh, I forgot what I was going to say. Q: Okay. Ill come back to you. Have any of you seen a style a specific style in a movie and said I want to get my hair cut like this or I want to wear this type of clothes. A: No. A: Um, I got my hair braided for a year of my life. Q: What were you modeling that after? A: Ooh Lord. I dont thinkI dont remember. I think Bone Thugs N Harmony. A: Yeah.

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92 A: Um, it was a music video if Mudvein and he had blue hair and it was in a surfer cut and I said mom, Im gonna go dye my hair, and she said okay. Then I went to the barber shop and I cut my hair the certain way that he had it and I dyed it. A: No. A: No. A: When Buffy the Vampire Slayer first came out, I was in, like, fifth grade or something and I was looking for a hairstyle, and it had that guy on there, Angel. And like, he put his hair up in the front, and like I started doing that, cause my cousin thought it would be a good idea, and thats when it, like, started getting popular, and then, like, everybody put their hair up in the front. A: Also, with that, I recall when I was in sixth gradewhen I was in fifth, sixth and seventh grade, I used tonow I only wear one chain, but back then I used to wear, like, 8, 9 different chains. Now its like its whyI dont even know why I used to do that. Q: Is there any language from other movie that you guys have picked up on that you use around your friends? A: Slang, a lot of slang. Q: Anything specific from a movie? A: Yeah, I know, like some people use, like, uh, to like, make fun of someone in a movie, if, like they made fun of them that way, theyll use that same line to make fun of someone. Q: Can you think of anything specific? A: I dont remember, no. A: I can think of one, even though its a long time ago. Little Rascals, when Alfalfa said You sissified tweety bird. I said that to someone when I was little. Q: What about behavior that they show in movies, like drinking or smoking, or even messages against that? Have you noticed anything like that? A: That really doesnt affect me. Like, I dont care what theyre doing. It doesnt rub off on me. A: Its just a movie. A: Well thats cool, like Cheech and Chong. Thats funny.

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93 A: I havent seen anything, like, against it. I havent seen any movies that are against certain things. I just think they all promote it, which, yeah, there should be some against it, but it doesnt rub off on me either. A: Yeah. It doesnt affect me. A: Not me neither. Q: Okay. Why do you think a company would put its products in a movie? A: So they can advertise it. A: Yeah. A: Yeah, advertising. A: More advertising, and the know, like more people go to see movies and stuff, so, like, if theyre a certain age, theyll put that certain product on, like if they know someone will watch it. Like, if its a teenager movie, like theyll put something in there to, like get teenagers to want to do that, to make money off of it. A: To me, I dont think they specifically put it in certain movies. I think they go along with the character, cause I dont think they see the movies when they allow the people to use their product. Like, say if Lil Bow Wow is to go into a movie, they wouldnt put that stuff in there cause they know hes a kid and hes nothing but 12, so therell be little kids watching his movie. But if it was someone, like, popular where they know a lot of teens see that persons movie just because of that person, theyll put it in there, yeah. A: Probably, like, the new Eminem movie will come out. Theyll have a lot of stuff in there, cause everyones gonna see that movie. Q: Have you ever seen a product in a movie and wanted to buy it or actually gone out and bought it? A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Um, my sister, we saw The Fast and The Furious and we went out, like, the next week and we did, like, all that stuff that was on the Honda, and we did it to my sisters car. A: No, not me. A: I probably have but I dont remember.

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94 A: In commercials, not in movies. A: Yeah, like that Pass the Pigs game that I was talking about, I got that. Thats, like, all I can remember. A: To me, yeah because I know, cause me, Im notI dont know why, but to me, if I need to dress a certain way, I dont know why, but I see thats the dress code in movies, the slang, the jewelry they wear and stuff like that. So a lot of people, thats what they do. Q: Do you think other people are influenced to buy things they see used in movies? A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. A: Yeah, cause movies predict society, cause once a movie comes out, youll see everybody do that one thing and stuff like that. A: Yeah. A: Yeah. Q: Have you ever noticed products that you use on a daily basis in movies? A: I cant think of any right now. A: No. A: I havent seen nothing because I believe if most of us could afford half the stuff the put in movies, we would, but, no, not really. Q: How do you feel about the placements, in general, of the brands of alcohol in movies? A: It..itI dont know. They, cause, they dont, like moviescertain movies theyll show a brand name, other movies theyll just show a cup of something with it in it, so you never can tell, until after, like, the side effect or if they talk about it or something like that. But other than that, theres no impact or nothing. A: Yeah. Q: Okay, cause you were saying that you all know that they put products in movies to advertise them, and you were saying before that a lot of the teen movies have alcohol in

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95 them. Do you think thats going to have any effect on, like you were saying, your brothers and sisters? A: Yeah, cause my little brother, hes what, 14 now, he lives in Hollywood. I know hes been bad, hes changed like this. Hes starting to run away, trying to sneak out and stuff like that. I dont know if its cause his friends, movies, music videos or something like that, but I dont know. Like, that freshman year, that eighth grade and freshman yea of high school, that when a lot of people change, and then, once again, when they see how stupid theyre acting, they change at the end of their sophomore year. Cause Im not gonna lie, my freshman year I got in two fights at Boca High, got kicked out, my GPA, my sophomore year I entered with a .8, and I couldnt play football I was so mad, I had to raise all that back up and earn it. Q: Okay. What do you think? Any problems with alcohol brands in movies, especially teen movies? A: Well, I think, like, some kids, it might have an effect on them, but some other kids are, like smart enough and theyve, like, matured enough to, like, notice and know, like, reality and just a movie. A: Pretty much (INAUDIBLE) to his quote. Dont go and do it. Its just a movie. A: Yeah, I think people just watch movies for them. I dont know of a lot of them go out and do what they do in movies, cause they know its probably pretty much just for entertainment. A: To add on what hes saying, yeah, us teenagers, we know not to go out and do that, cause we know movies are fake, but like, little kids, they dont know that. Like, I remember, PowerRangers came out. Little kids used to always run around Im a Power Ranger. And they actthey do stupid things, like they really can fight. Q: So you think that even though these movies are targeting your age group and you can differentiate that, if younger people saw them they might be a little more influenced? A: I dont thinkI dont thinktheres alreadyme at, melike, seventh graders, sixth graders, little girlsthey watch the movies, they seen the short short people, in videos, they wear them short stuff. Them little kids be acting too grown right now. A: Mm hm. Q: Okay, what do you guys think? Any problems with alcohol advertising in teen movies? A: Not really. Like, if a younger kid sees it, like, maybe, like a elementary student or something, like they dont know much better, so theyd probably try it or something, like

PAGE 103

96 he was saying, but, like, since we know its just a movie and its just for entertainment purposes, that, like, we wouldnt go out and try that. Q: Okay. Does anyone have anything else theyd like to add? A: No maam. A: Nope. A: No. Q: Okay. The last thing I need you to do is fill out this questionnaire.

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98 Christiansen, Bruce A., Mark S. Goldman, and Andres Inn (1982), Development of Alcohol-Related Expectancies in Adolescents: Separating Pharmacological From Social-Learning Influences, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (3), 336-344. Christiansen, Bruce A., Greg T. Smith, Patrick V. Roehling, and Mark S. Goldman (1989), Using Alcohol Expectancies to Predict Adolescent Drinking Behavior After One Year, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57 (1), 93-99. DeLorme, Denise E. and Leonard N. Reid (1999), Moviegoers Experiences and Interpretations of Brands in Films Revisited, Journal of Advertising, 28 (2), 71-89. Earleywine, Mitchell (1995), Expectancy Accessibility, Alcohol Expectancies, and Intentions to Consume Alcohol, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25 (11), 933-943. Ebenkamp, Becky (2001), Try This At Home (Teens Model Lives After Movies), Brandweek, (May 20), [ http://www.findarticles.com/m0BDW/ 28_42/76700478/p1/article.jhtml ]. Edmunds, Holly (1999), The Focus Group Research Handbook, Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group. Entertainment Resources and Marketing Association (2002), Home Page, Entertainment Resources and Marketing Association, (August 1), [http://www.erma.org/nav/frame.html]. Friedman, Meredith (2001), Product Placement in PG-rated Movies: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions and Attitudes of Child and Adult Audiences, Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. Friedman, Wayne (2001), Spider-Man Nets Big Bucks Tie-Ins, AdAge, (April 23), [ www.adage.com/news.cms?newsId=32432 ]. Glantz, Stanton A. (2001), Smoking in Teenagers and Watching Films Showing Smoking: Hollywood Needs to Stop Promoting Smoking Worldwide, British Medical Journal, 323 (7326), 1378-1380. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm L. Strauss (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Chicago: Aldine. Goetzl, David (2002), Hard Liquor Retreats, Malternatives Charge Forward: TV Sports Shows Expect to Reap Bonanza of Ads, AdAge, (March 25), [http://www.adage.com/news.cms?newsId=34289]. Grube, Joel W. (1993), Alcohol Portrayals and Alcohol Advertising on Television, Alcohol Health & Research World, 17 (1), 61-66.

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99 Iannotti, Ronald J. and Patricia P. Bush (1992), Perceived vs. Actual Friends Use of Alcohol, Cigarettes, Marijuana, and Cocaine: Which Has the Most Influence?, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21 (3), 375-389. Karrh, James A. (1998), Brand Placement: A Review, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 20 (2), 31-49. Kelly, Kathleen J. and Ruth W. Edwards (1998), Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated With Adolescents Intentions to Consumer Alcohol?, Adolescence, 33 (129), 47-59. Klady, Leonard (1999), Media Taps Into Zit-Geist, Variety, (May 20),[ http://www.findarticles.com/m1312/1_374/53985729/p1/article.jhtml ]. Kulick, Alexis D. and Harold Rosenberg (2001), Influence of Positive and Negative Film Portrayals of Drinking on Older Adolescents Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31 (7), 1492-1499. LaFerle, Carrie, Steven M. Edwards, and Wei-Na Lee (2000), Teens Use of Traditional Media and the Internet, Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (3), 55. Leff, Lisa (1999), The Boys of Summer (Teenagers Attend Many Movies, and Movie Industry Wants to Find Out Which Movies They Like), Los Angeles Magazine. (May 20), [ http://www.findarticles.com/m1346/7_44/54902235/p1/article.jhtml ]. Lipsitz, Angela, Greg Brake, Eric John Vincent, and Mark Winters (1993), Another Round for the Brewers: Television Ads and Childrens Alcohol Expectancies, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23 (6) 439-450. Marshall, Norm and Dean Ayers (1998), Product Placement Worth More Than Its Weight, Brandweek, 39 (6), 16-17. Mathios, Alan, Rosemary Avery, Carol Bisogni and James Shanahan (1998), Alcohol Portrayal on Prime-Time Television: Manifest and Latent Messages, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59 (3), 305-310. McConnell, Chris (1998), FTC Bars Two Alcohol Ads, Broadcasting & Cable, 128 (33), 12. McCracken, Grant (1988), The Long Interview, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. McIntosh, William D., Stephen M. Smith, Doris G. Bazzini, and Penny S. Mills (1999), Alcohol in the Movies: Characteristics of Drinkers and Nondrinkers in Films From 1940 to 1989, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29 (6), 1191-1199. Monroe, Judy (1994), Alcohol and Ads: What Effect Do They Have on You?, Current Health 2, 21 (3), 24-26.

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100 Morgan, D.L. (1997), Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Motion Picture Association of America (2002), Home Page, Motion Picture Association of America, (July 30), [http:// www.mpaa.org /about/index.html]. Mundy, Alicia (1997), The Bar Will Soon Be Open: Liquor, Beer, and Ad Lobbyists Will Storm The Hill Next Month to Debate the Future of Alcohol Ads on TV, Mediaweek, 7 (4), 26-28. Nebenzahl, Israel D. and Eugene Secunda (1993), Consumers Attitudes Toward Product Placement in Movies, International Journal of Advertising, 12 (1), 1-11. Palmer, Brian (1998), When Product Placement Goes Horribly, Horribly Wrong, Fortune, (Dec. 21), 48. Parker, Betty J. (1998), Exploring Life Themes and Myths in Alcohol Advertisements Through a Meaning-Based Model of Advertising Experiences, Journal of Advertising, 27 (1), 97-112. Petraitis, John, Brian R. Flay, and Todd Q. Miller (1995), Reviewing Theories of Adolescent Substance Use: Organizing Pieces in the Puzzle, PsychologicalBulletin, 117 (1), 67-86. Room, Robin (1988), The Movies and the Wettening of America: The Media as Amplifiers of Cultural Change, British Journal of Addiction, 83, 11-18. Saffer, Henry (2002), Alcohol Advertising and Youth, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63 (2), 173-181. Sargent, J.D., Beach, M.L., Dalton, M.A., Mott, L.A., Tickle, J.J. Ahrens, M.B., & Heatherton, T.F. (2001), Effect of Seeing Tobacco Use in Films on Trying Smoking Among Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study. British Medical Journal, 323 (7326), 1394-1397. Slater, Michael D., Donna Rouner, Frederick Beauvais, Kevin Murphy, Melanie Domenech Rodriguez, and James Van Leuven (1996), Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in Beer Ads, Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 42 (1), 43-56. Stewart, David W. and Prem N. Shamdasani (1990), Focus Groups: Theory and Practice, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Troup, M.L. (1991), The Captive Audience: A Content Analysis of Product Placements in Motion Pictures, Unpublished masters thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

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101 Wechsler, Henry (1996), Alcohol and the American College Campus: A Report from the Harvard School of Public Health, Change, 28 (4), 20-26.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amy Bellin was raised in Boca Raton, Florida. She graduated from the University of Florida in 2000 with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology and a Bachelor of Arts degree in business administration. She graduated in May 2003 with a Master of Arts in Mass Communication, with a specialization in advertising. 102


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Creator: Bellin, Amy ( Author, Primary )
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2003

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PRODUCT PLACEMENT OF ALCOHOL IN TEEN MOVIES:
A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES
OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS












By

AMY BELLIN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003




























Copyright 2003
by

Amy Bellin















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my deepest thanks to my committee chairperson, Dr.

Debbie Treise, and my committee members, Dr. Cynthia Morton and Dr. Michael

Weigold. Dr. Treise provided constant support, guidance and encouragement, even when

I wasn't really sure what I was doing. Dr. Morton and Dr. Weigold provided guidance

and knowledge in their areas of expertise. Also, I would like to thank the staff, faculty,

students and parents at Boca Raton High School. They were extremely accommodating

and helpful. I also want to thank my parents, Marshall and Patricia Bellin. Without their

constant support, both emotional and financial, none of this would have been possible.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A CK N O W LED G EM EN T S ......... .. ........................................................... .............. iii

ABSTRACT ............... .......................................... vi

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION .......................................... .... ............. .............. ..

T he M P A A R ating System .................................. ..................................................... 4
Teens as Moviegoers................................... 5
Im portance of Study ................................................. .. ........ .. .......... .. 7
O organization of Thesis .................. ..................................... .. .......... .. 8

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IEW ....................................................................... ...................9

Alcohol Advertising...................................... .... ........ 9
History and Current Trends in Alcohol Advertising.............................................. 9
Teens and A alcohol A dvertising......................................... ......................... 11
Product Placem ent .......... ............... .................. 13
B background of Product Placem ent................................... ................................... 13
Product Placem ents in M ovies ................................................... ................. 16
Pros and Cons of Product Placement ............. ....................................................... 18
Ethical Implications of Alcohol Product Placements........................................... 20
Social L earning Theory.................... ......... .......... ............ .................... .. ................ 22
R research Q questions .................. ............................ ............ ..... ........ .. 28

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ...................................................................................... ...........30

R rationale and Strengths of Focus G roups................................................ ... ................. 30
Visual Stimuli ................................................ .......... 31
R researcher Inv olv em ent...................................................................................... 33
Focus G group Participants .......................................................................... .............. 33
Pilot Study................. .................. ........ .............. 35
D ata Collection and A nalysis..................................................... .......................... 35

4 R E S U L T S ................................................................................................................ 3 7

Q questionnaire R results .... ............................ .... ............................ .............. 37
Analysis of W written Sum m aries ........................................................ ......... ..... 38









A analysis of Focus G roup D discussions ........................................................ ................ 39
Remembering Context and Usage Verbal Mentions and Humor Are
Im portant .................................... .......................... .... ...... 40
Thoughts on Character U sage ....................................................... .... ........ .. 41
B rand N am es vs. G enerics ................................................................. .............. 42
Does It Make Them Want To Drink? ............................................................. 43
Advertising Alcohol: Traditional vs. Product Placement .............. ................... 43
Do Movies Influence Teens? .................................................. 45
Attitudes Tow ard Product Placem ents ............................................................... 46

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................48

D iscu ssio n ..................................................... 4 8
Im plications....................... ............... ..... ............. 55
L im station s ........................ ........................................................................ 5 5
Suggestions for Future R research .............. ......................................................... 56

APPENDIX

A SC R EEN IN G Q U E STIO N S .............................................................. .....................58

B FOCUS GROUP QUESTION GUIDE.......................................................................59

C QUESTIONN AIRE .......... .. ................................. ........ .... ................. 61

D IRB AND CON SEN T FORM S.......................................................... ............... 64

E SAMPLE FOCUS GROUP TRANSCRIPT ...................................... ............... 70

REFERENCES ................... ......... .. ...... ... ..................97

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH ........... ..................................................... .....................102




















v















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

PLACEMENT OF BRANDS OF ALCOHOL IN "TEEN" MOVIES: A QUALITATIVE
ANALYSIS OF PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

By

Amy Bellin

May 2003

Chair: Dr. Deborah Treise
Department: Mass Communication

Product placement is the placing of a brand name product, package, sign or logo

into a movie or television program for a fee or by donation. The alcohol industry has

used this nontraditional form of advertising to market its products to audiences of all

ages. Research has already been done on teenagers and the effects of alcohol advertising

and alcohol use in movies. Because of the rising concern over teens and alcohol use, as

well as the ethical and psychological implications associated with teens and alcohol

advertising, "teen" movies were the focus of this study.

Qualitative research explored the ways in which high school students notice and

recall brands of alcohol in teen movies, as well as their evaluations of the brands based

on the context or scene in which they appeared. Six focus groups were conducted, three

all-male and three all-female groups.

Overall, the participants were able to correctly recall the scene and character using

the brand in two of the three movie clips. A major finding in this study was that teens









were much more likely to recall traditional advertisements for brands of alcohol than they

were to recall placements of brands of alcohol in movies; they also were more likely to

recognize and recall brands in movies if they had seen them advertised. The implications

for product placement practitioners are discussed.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In 1998, more than $1.2 billion was spent on alcohol advertising in print, outdoor,

radio and television. Additionally, over $600 billion was spent on other forms of

promotion, including sponsorships, couponing and direct mail (Saffer 2002). Although

alcohol advertising decreased by 34% between 1987 and 1996, it has been increasing

since 1997 (Saffer 2002).

By 18 years of age, the average American teen will have seen 10,000 beer

commercials on television. Experts believe that advertisements for alcohol encourage

underage drinking, establish brand loyalty at an early age, and have contributed to the rise

in teen alcoholism (Monroe 1994).

In highly concentrated industries such as the alcohol industry, competition through

advertising, rather than price, is often preferred. In 1999, the advertising-to-sales ratio

for the alcohol industry was about 9%, whereas the average industry advertising-to-sales

ratio was about 3% (Saffer 2002).

While alcohol companies hold that they advertise simply to encourage adult

drinkers to switch brands or to continue drinking their current brand, many critics feel

that they are targeting teenagers. One of those critics, Dr. Jean Kilbourne, former adviser

to the U.S. Surgeon General, believes that Americans are drinking at increasingly

younger ages because of alcohol advertising aimed at teens. Some of the ways critics feel

alcohol companies target teens are through sponsorships of sporting events and concerts,

t-shirt and hat give-aways; and by running ads during television programs that are likely









to have a large teenage audience (Monroe 1994). While counter-advertising efforts could

help discourage underage drinking, many believe that as long as alcohol consumption is

socially accepted by a teen's peer group and societal messages reinforce its use, teen

drinking will remain at high levels (Abrams and Niaura 1987, Christiansen et al. 1989,

Kelly and Edwards 1998).

Alcohol has been appearing in movies since at least 1945, when Joan Crawford

was shown drinking Jack Daniels in the movie Mildred Pierce (Nebenzahl and Secunda

1993). Since then, Gordon's gin was Humphrey Bogart's drink of choice in the movie

The African Queen (DeLorme and Reid 1999), John Belushi chugged an entire bottle of

Jack Daniels in Animal House, and Tom Cruise drank Red Stripe beer in The Firm

(Marshall and Ayers 1998). These are only a few examples of how the alcohol industry

has marketed its product through a nontraditional form of advertising.

Product placement is a relatively new way for companies to advertise.

Companies place their brands of products in movies or on television shows to be used as

props for a contractual fee or by donation (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Babin and Carder

(1996) defined product or brand placement as using a brand-name product, package, sign,

or other display of the brand's name or logo in a motion picture to influence audiences.

According to the Entertainment Resources Marketing Association, there may be an

occasional payment by the advertiser for a "key" placement in a television program or

motion picture, but most deals do not involve cash payments. Instead, the company

usually supplies goods or equipment for use in filming, or includes some extra product

for the crew (Entertainment Resources Marketing Association [ERMA] 2002). When

placements do involve a direct payment, fees are often based on how the brand is placed









in the scene. Character use is the most expensive, verbal mentions are moderately priced,

and visual exposure is the least expensive. There are three types of visual exposure: the

product itself is shown, the brand's logo is displayed, or an advertisement for the product

is placed as a background prop (DeLorme and Reid 1999).

Product placement was originally created as a means of reducing production costs

for the filmmakers, but it also helps add a sense of realism to the films (ERMA 2002).

Product placements benefit advertisers by showing the product used in a realistic setting,

providing greater reach than traditional forms of advertising, and by offering an

alternative media for products restricted from television, such as cigarettes and liquor

(DeLorme and Reid 1999).

While there are many advantages to companies whose products appear in movies,

there can also be negative consequences. Most companies don't want their products

associated with an unfavorable character or context. On the other hand, many studios do

not want to associate a socially stigmatized product, like handguns or cigarettes, with a

likeable character because, while they may need the products for realism, studios do not

want to be seen as endorsing them (Palmer 1998).

Teenagers today have grown up with product placements in movies. Because

they have become so accustomed to them, teenagers feel that they are immune to the

placements' persuasive powers (DeLorme and Reid 1999). There is no existing research

on the effects of alcohol placements on teenagers, but there have been studies on another

stigmatized product cigarettes. Evidence of a strong association between high exposure

to tobacco use in films and smoking in adolescents suggests that influence from films is

as strong as other kinds of social influence, such as smoking by a parent or sibling









(Sargent et al. 2001). This study seeks to explore teens' attitudes and perceptions of

alcohol product placements in movies.

The MPAA Rating System

The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) serves as the voice of the

American motion picture, home video and television industries. It was founded in 1922

as the trade association of the American film industry and has since broadened its

authority to include the other areas of the expanding industry (MPAA 2002).

In 1968, the voluntary film-rating system of the motion picture industry was

created, with NATO, MPAA, and IFIDA, as its supervisory groups. There were initially

four rating categories: G for general audiences, all ages admitted; M for mature

audiences, parental guidance suggested, but all ages admitted; R for restricted, children

under 16 years old (later raised to 17 years old) admitted only with accompanying parent

or adult guardian; and X for no one under 17 admitted. A year later, the rating M was

changed to its current label, "PG: Parental Guidance Suggested," because many parents

perceived the M rating to be more severe than the R rating. In 1984, the PG category was

split into two groups, PG and PG-13. The PG-13 rating meant the film contained a

higher level of intensity than a PG-rated film (MPAA 2002).

In 1990, two more revisions were announced. First, the MPAA introduced brief

explanations of why films received R ratings. The Ratings Board believed that since an

R-rated film contains adult material, it would be helpful for parents to know a little more

about the film's content before allowing their children to see it with them. Later the

MPAA began applying explanations to the PG, PG-13 and NC-17 categories as well.

These explanations are available to parents at the theater, in some media reviews and

listings, and on the MPAA's website, www.mpaa.org (MPAA 2002).









The other name change was from X to NC-17, which meant that no one under 17

would be admitted. The members of the MPAA believed that over the years the X rating

had taken on a "surly" meaning in the minds of many people, so the MPAA felt that by

changing the name it would better describe an "adults only" category of movies that most

parents would want to have forbidden to viewing by their children (MPAA 2002).

In 2001, PG-13 movies represented over 20% of all rated films, a 3% increase

from the previous year. Movies rated PG accounted for 7%, movies rated G for 4%, and

movies rated R (though decreased from the previous year) made up the largest percentage

of rated films at 67%. No movies were rated NC-17. Since 1968, 2% of reviewed films

have been rated NC-17, 7% have been rated G, 23% have been rated PG, 11% have been

rated PG-13, and 57% have been rated R (MPAA 2002).

Teens as Moviegoers

The U.S. box office gross reached an all-time high in 2001 at $8.4 billion, a 9.8%

increase from the previous year, and a 75% increase since 1991. Box office admissions

in the U.S. were 1.49 billion in 2001, an increase of 78 million people, or 5% from the

previous year. In 2001 frequent moviegoers, or those who attend at least one movie a

month, tended to be younger than frequent moviegoers in 2000, with 12- to 24-year-olds

accounting for 40% of total frequent moviegoers (MPAA 2002).

Teen movie attendance is steadily increasing, with teens accounting for more movie

admissions in 2001 than in past years. In 2001, 54% of teen moviegoers went to the

movies frequently, compared to 45% in 1996 (MPAA 2002).

While 12- to 17-year-olds accounted for 11% of the total U.S. population in 2001,

they accounted for 19% of total movie admissions. Twelve- to 24-year-olds increased









their share of total moviegoers to 30% in 2001. Fifty-nine percent of this age group is

considered either frequent or occasional viewers (MPAA 2002).

Half the film going audience is under the age of 25. This group sees three to four

films a month (Klady 1999), which makes them frequent moviegoers. Teenagers are

more likely to report being frequent moviegoers than adults. Fifty-one percent of 12- to

17-year-olds said they were frequent moviegoers, compared to 24% of adults age 18 and

over (MPAA 2002).

According to Leff (1999), teenagers hit their peak as moviegoers between the ages

of 15 and 17. When a sample of teenagers was asked what they had done during the

previous week, 54% of 12- to 15-year-olds said they had been to the movies. The

number increased to 59% for 16- to 17-year-olds and declined to 50% for 18- to

19-year-olds. The teenage boy demographic sees more movies than any other

demographic, and if they really like a movie, will see it two or more times. Moviegoers

ages 12 to 24 made up 38% of theater ticket sales in 1998, compared to 25- to

39-year-olds, who accounted for 27% of sales. The 12- to 24-year-old group accounted

for $1.48 billion of 1998's $3.9 billion domestic box office (Leff 1999). Going to the

movies is teens' second-favorite leisure activity, after listening to music (Ebenkamp

2001).

What is considered a teen movie? Films with young main characters tend to be the

most appealing to audiences under 20, as do most horror films and lowbrow comedies

(Klady 1999). Not only do these movies entertain, they also influence. According to the

teen research newsletter Beats Per Minute, 56% of teens got an idea for a future career

after seeing an occupation in a movie, 38% reported discovering a new role model after









watching a film, and 30% have modeled their hairstyle after a character in a movie. At

the same time, teens are not likely to take up a new hobby, such as playing a sport, just

because they saw it in a movie (Ebenkamp 2001). Movies were also found to influence

behaviors like childhood play, imitations of adult behavior, daydreaming, emotional

experiences and lifestyles (DeLorme and Reid 1999).

Sixty-one percent of teenagers said they planned to spend more money on going to

the movies in 1999 than they did the year before, which may explain the increase in the

number of teen movies (Berman 1999). Also, teen movies cost less to produce and are

easier and cheaper to market (Klady 1999). This increase in the number of teen movies

gives advertisers even more ways to reach the teen segment, because a popular movie

could help a company sell millions of dollars of merchandise. Marketers are taking

advantage of this with promotional tie-ins and cross-promotions. For example, the cast

of The Faculty was dressed in Tommy Hilfiger clothes while Mod Squad promoted

Levi's (Berman 1999).

Importance of Study

Over the past few years, universities across the country have reported a steady

increase in the percentage of their students who are drinkers, as well as an increase in the

amount of alcohol consumed by these students. It has been suggested that this increase is

due to the fact that more students are already drinkers when they get to college, which

means they started drinking when they were in high school (Wechsler 1996). Teens and

adolescents may be receiving mixed messages about alcohol use and abuse, not only from

the traditional forms of advertising like commercials and print ads, but also from the

brands they see being used by characters in television programs and movies. To date,









there are no existing studies on teens and alcohol product placements in movies created

specifically for teens.

This study is important from an ethical and psychological standpoint because critics

believe that product placements condition children at a young age to be brand loyal

consumers, even before they are ready to make marketplace decisions (M. Friedman

2001). This notion also can be applied to teenagers, since they are at the age when many

will start drinking alcohol and will develop brand loyalty. The brands that appear in

these movies may be influencing individuals' future brand choices.

Organization of Thesis

Chapter 2, the Literature Review, provides a summary of current research of

advertising, including alcohol advertising and the effects of advertising on teenagers, the

product placement industry, teenagers and movies, and social learning theory. Chapter 3,

Methodology, explains the research design and rationale and discusses the experimental

procedures. Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the data and Chapter 5 discusses the

conclusions, limitations and recommendations for future research.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter is divided into three main sections based on the topic of discussion:

(1) alcohol advertising, including the recent history and current trends, its effects on

teenagers and ethical implications; (2) product placement, including background

information, product placements on television and in movies, pros and cons and ethical

implications; and (3) social learning theory as it relates to alcohol consumption and

media influences.

Alcohol Advertising

History and Current Trends in Alcohol Advertising

Over the past decade there has been an increase in concern over alcohol

advertising, particularly because the distilled spirits industry had been discussing putting

an end to its decades-long voluntary ban on television advertising. In February of 1997,

hearings were held to discuss the benefits and consequences of alcohol advertising on

television, and to gauge the public interest in keeping hard liquor ads off the air. The

Commerce Committee of the Federal Communications Commission did not want this

debate to include the beer industry and its advertisements, because they did not want to

upset the financial relationship between beer advertising and the broadcasting of sporting

events (Mundy 1997). The goal was to encourage liquor distributors to continue their

voluntary ban on television advertising.

In the last few months of 2001, NBC confirmed rumors that it would begin airing

liquor advertisements during prime time. While this was a first for network television,









some cable networks and local stations had been airing liquor commercials since the mid-

1990s. Since NBC's announcement, liquor spending on television jumped to $18.1

million, up from $469,500 in 1995. NBC did offer some restrictions, though, such as

requiring each liquor advertiser to sponsor social responsibility messages for four months

before their ads could be shown. Spokespeople for ABC, CBS and FOX all said they did

not plan to accept liquor advertisements (Callahan 2002).

By the middle of March 2002, NBC had reversed its decision to accept hard liquor

advertisements. They did, however, agree to show ads for brands associated with hard

liquor, such as Smirnoff Ice and Bacardi Silver, which fall under the alternative malt

beverage category. These beverages are reported to contain roughly the same amount of

alcohol as beer. CBS's sports division revised its policy on liquor advertising to include

this category (Goetzl 2002).

In 1998 the FTC prohibited Beck's beer from airing one of its commercials that

depicted young adults on a boat, some of them holding bottles of beer. Regulators said

the spot may have violated federal and state boating safety laws, and forbade the

company from running commercials that depicted people consuming alcohol on a boat

because these activities posed a safety risk (McConnell 1998).

In 1999 the FTC issued a report that urged the alcohol industry to make an effort to

limit its messages' impact on children. The report suggested that the alcohol industry

should limit alcohol ads to programming where most of the audience is adults and

prohibit ads that appeal to kids even if they are targeted to adults over 25 (AdAge 1999).

Ambler (1996) contends that since advertising attempts to build profit through

increased volume and higher prices, the purpose of alcohol advertising is mainly to









persuade consumers to trade up to more expensive, higher quality brands. He also

believed that a ban on alcohol advertising would lead to a price war, and that a drop in

alcohol prices could lead to a marginal increase in consumption.

Teens and Alcohol Advertising

There are currently 31 million people in the United States between the ages of 12

and 19, a number that will grow to 35 million by 2010, making it the largest teen

population in U.S. history. In 1999, this age group spent $153 billion, an 8.5% increase

from the previous year (Bao and Shao 2002).

Teenagers are often described as heavy media users and as greatly influenced by

images in the media, making them an appealing market to advertisers and marketers

(LaFerle et al. 2000). While the information they acquire from the media makes them

more attuned to purchasing, it also makes them very skilled at recognizing blatant

persuasion attempts. This ultimately makes them more difficult to market to than past

generations (Bao and Shao 2002, LaFerle et al. 2000).

Anti-alcohol groups fear that more television exposure will lead to more underage

drinking and argue that any encouragement of alcohol consumption is wrong. Grube

(1993) studied the influence of alcohol advertising on youth. He found that adolescents

who were exposed to heavy alcohol advertisements were more likely to believe that

drinkers possess valued characteristics, such as being attractive, athletic, or successful.

They also held more favorable beliefs about drinking, such as that it was acceptable for

teenagers to become intoxicated. Adolescents who were more knowledgeable of beer

brands and slogans were also more aware of television beer commercials, which suggests

that children who are curious about drinking seek out information about alcohol. Grube

believes that they may get this information from advertisements. The results also suggest









that alcohol advertising may predispose adolescents toward drinking. He suggested

restricting alcohol advertisements on television during times when children may be

watching and limiting sponsorships of concerts and other events that young people might

attend.

Many critics have suggested that alcohol companies target young people through

image advertising, which focuses on the lifestyle of the user of the product, rather than

product advertising, which focuses on the value of the product itself. Kelly and Edwards

(1998) studied ad preference and intent to consume alcohol among 7t, 9th, and 11th grade

students. They hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between

preference for image advertising and intent to consume alcohol. The students were

shown sets of ads for a number of different alcoholic beverages, with each set containing

both an image advertisement and a product advertisement, and were asked to compare the

two. Image ads were preferred overall, and while there was no significant difference

between the "no intent" and the "intent to drink" groups as far as preference for image

ads, those who intended to drink exhibited stronger positive feelings towards the image

ads. Since alcohol advertisers claim they are not trying to reach this market, Kelly and

Edwards suggested they should use more product, rather than image advertisements.

They added, however, that it would be unlikely that banning image advertisements for

alcohol would affect alcohol consumption among youth.

Other critics suggest that the fantastic imagery and appeals used by alcohol

advertisers may have serious and unwanted consequences, especially on teenagers and

young adults. Parker (1998) studied drinking behavior and the role of alcohol advertising

in the lives of college students to show that the targets of alcohol ads identify and relate









to powerful consumer myths. Her first research question was designed to gauge whether

informants' life experiences were revealed in their interpretations of alcohol

advertisements. The second research question was to find whether the informants would

suggest any alcohol-related myths in their ad interpretations. Informants were first

shown a number of different alcohol ads and were asked to respond to a series of

questions about their feelings toward the ads. Then they were given a life story interview

that asked about their background, family history, interests, and drinking behavior. The

findings provided insight as to what the informants did with alcohol advertisements,

rather than what alcohol advertising was doing to them. Informants were shown to use

the advertising medium as a projective device to transfer meanings to themselves. The

meanings, along with their pre-existing self-concepts, created a unique ad experience for

each individual. Findings with life themes suggested that people make connections

between advertisements and the issues in their lives, allowing them to make connections

between the ads and themselves because of the personal salience of the messages.

Themes, characters, and myths in alcohol ads are attractive and entertaining to this age

group and are often consistent with their life themes and self-concepts, such as comfort,

control, or rebellion. Parker also noted that marketers of alcoholic drinks targeted at

college-age students often use themes that imply danger, mystery, or intrigue to position

their products.

Product Placement

Background of Product Placement

Companies will spend millions of dollars to be associated with a film. Burger King

typically spends $20 to 25 million in paid media toward a summer movie. Cadillac has

already provided several million dollars worth of prototypes to be used in the upcoming









Matrix 2. Meanwhile, Lucasfilm has signed a collective $16 million deal with General

Mills and Frito-Lay for the next Star Wars movie and Spider-Man had at least four major

corporate sponsors, which amounted to approximately $40 million in additional paid

media for the film (W. Friedman 2001).

The technique of placing branded products in motion pictures was used as early as

1945 when Joan Crawford was shown drinking Jack Daniels in the movie Mildred Pierce

(Nebenzahl and Secunda 1993). In that early stage of movie product placement,

marketers made deals with either studio prop masters or with film studio management to

negotiate a bartered arrangement. It was not uncommon for companies to offer a year's

supply of their product to production company executives or prop masters in exchange

for placement of that brand in their film. Similarly, now rather than paying cash for the

placements, most advertising companies will usually supply goods or equipment for use

in filming, or include some extra product for the crew (ERMA 2002).

Each studio has a Production Resources Department that deals with product

placements. Among other factors, this department considers issues such as the film's

target audience and the means by which placements may decrease the film's production

cost. The production team usually makes a "wish list" of specific products that are

defined by brand name and are given top priority because they relate to the "creative

aspect" of the film. If the team feels a placement will jeopardize the film's creative

integrity in any way, it will be rejected (ERMA 2002).

Product Placements on Television

Many critics contend that product placements on television raise regulatory and

ethical concerns. Some believe brands appearing in scripted television programs border









on blatant commercial intent. Others believe the constant repetition and exposure in

television viewing is troublesome because brand loyalty, or preference for a particular

brand, is related to frequency of brand exposure (Avery and Ferraro 2000). It could also

be said that since the product is portrayed as part of the character's lifestyle, the

placement could be considered image advertising.

Monitoring television-programming content is important because of its potential

influence on consumers through messages about alcohol and behavior. Mathios et al.

(1998) sampled 276 prime-time programs on four major television networks and gathered

information about food and beverage episodes embedded in the content of the program.

They looked at the particular food or beverage being portrayed, the characters using the

items, and the context in which they were used. Alcoholic beverages were the most

frequently shown food or drink, averaging approximately two placements per program.

Most of the alcoholic beverages were shown on situation comedies, movies, dramas, and

adult cartoons. Over 7% of alcohol incidents involved adolescents, although they were

usually portrayed as having negative personality characteristics. Adult characters

portraying alcohol were found, for the most part, to have positive personality

characteristics, especially if they are shown drinking wine.

While many argue that beliefs and behaviors can be shaped by exposure to alcohol

on television programs and in advertisements, Grube (1993) points out that there is little

real evidence to suggest that exposure to alcohol portrayals on television influences

young people to drink. Critics fear that showing characters consuming alcohol will set a

bad example for children, however, research has shown that characters on television

programs are usually of a legal age and usually portrayed drinking in moderation.









Product Placements in Movies

McIntosh et al. (1999) rated characters from 100 popular films and compared the

ratings of drinkers and non-drinkers to determine what messages popular movies send

about alcohol. They found that drinkers tend to be portrayed as being upper class, more

attractive, more romantically/sexually active, and more aggressive. Based on statistics

from the U.S. Census Bureau, McIntosh et al. determined that the characteristics

associated with drinkers in films are reasonably close to the characteristics of drinkers in

society. While it should be noted that movies fail to depict some of the negative

consequences of drinking, in general, the depiction of alcohol use in movies is fairly

representative of its use in society.

DeLorme and Reid's (1999) study of product placement found three themes related

to "movie centrality": appreciating realism, noticing the familiar, and relating to

characters. To many, branded props were significant because they added realism to the

movie scenery. Informants said they were impressed when brands were used

appropriately and considered to be a part of the story. Branded props were also judged to

add authenticity to movies when associated with a particular setting, time period, or

context. One informant particularly noticed the "old-fashioned" brands of beer in Forrest

Gump. Informants also felt irritated and insulted by generic product props that were

judged to interfere with movie realism and to interrupt the movie viewing experience.

Moviegoers were particularly attuned to familiar branded products and services that they

themselves had previously purchased and consumed in their everyday lives. Informants

indicated that the relationship with characters strengthened, and the involvement in and

enjoyment of the movie increased, when they noticed "their brands" being used by a

character or featured in a scene. Brand placement was also seen as significant because it









provided relevant information about the character's personality, lifestyle, and role in the

movie plot.

DeLorme and Reid (1999) found four themes that were related to consumer

behavior: tools for purchasing decisions, tools for identity and aspirations, change and

discomfort, and belonging and security. These themes represent interpretations that are

linked to movie-specific aspects of brand prop exposure, and how they extend beyond the

movie viewing experience to consumption-specific aspects of everyday life. One

informant in this study pointed out the impact of an alcohol placement on one of his

friends. He mentioned that his friend switched brands of gin, from Tanqueray to

Gordon's, because his idol, Humphrey Bogart, drank Gordon's gin in the movie The

African Queen.

Branded props were also thought to perform such everyday marketing-related

functions as reinforcing consumer confidence, reducing cognitive dissonance, and

standing as symbols of distrust. The informants judged branded props as tools that allow

the reliving of past events and the vicarious experience of living others' experiences.

Brands were also seen as significant in that they enabled further understanding of the

informants' social worlds (DeLorme and Reid 1999).

Nebenzahl and Secunda (1993) studied college students' feelings toward product

placements in movies. A majority of the students, speaking as consumers, did not object

to product placement and viewed it as an effective marketing communication medium

that should be allowed. The participants reported that they were tired of traditional

commercials and would rather be exposed to less obtrusive forms of marketing

communications, such as product placements. Those who objected to the other forms of









marketing communications did so because they felt these tactics were time consuming

and/or annoying. A small minority who objected to product placements did so based on

ethics. They perceived product placements as a concealed attempt to delude the

consumer.

Younger informants in DeLorme and Reid's (1999) study associated branded props

with an invitation to cultural belonging and feelings of emotional security. These younger

moviegoers, ages 18 to 21, had grown up with brands in movies and were accustomed to

the practice. They reported that when a brand is present in a movie, they usually take it

for granted and overlook it because it's so common. Ultimately, the informants

considered themselves immune to the persuasive power of brands encountered in films

and believe that the appearance of brand props in movies is neither deceptive,

manipulative, nor harmful.

Babin and Carder (1996) studied college students' recognition, or familiarity with

brands placed in movies, and recollection, or remembering the brands that appeared in

movies. Their results suggest that audiences will recognize more brands appearing in a

film with several product placements than they will actually recall.

Pros and Cons of Product Placement

Product placement has a number of advantages for marketers and moviemakers. It

is the only form of advertising with a diminishing cost per thousand (Marshall and Ayers

1998). Cost per thousand is the cost of exposing 1,000 members of the target audience to

the message. When the products are donated, the only cost to the marketer is whatever

the products normally cost and any extra "donations" to the studio executives or prop

masters. Even when the marketer actually pays the studio to use their products, the return

on investment is much greater than any cost to him, for two reasons. First, the marketer









is reaching a captive audience the people watching the movie can't just change the

channel, as is the case with television commercials. One production company president

said that movies are better than any magazine or television commercial at promoting a

product because the audience is unaware of any sponsor involvement (Glantz 2001).

Additionally, when the movie comes out on video, not only are the advertising companies

reaching those who didn't see the movie when it was in the theater, but they are also

achieving frequency, by reaching those who will have seen the movie more than once.

In addition to being cost-effective, allowing advertisers to reach captive audiences

and providing greater reach than traditional advertising, product placements benefit the

advertisers by demonstrating brand usage in realistic settings and offering an alternative

advertising media option for liquor and tobacco products, which are restricted from

broadcast television. Product placements also benefit the filmmakers by offsetting movie

production costs and creating more natural movie settings (DeLorme and Reid 1999).

Marshall and Ayers (1998) commented on a column Philip Van Munching wrote in

Brandweek about product placement in movies. In his column, Van Munching said he

thought product placement advertising was a scam. In his section of the commentary,

Marshall stated that brands include product placement in their marketing mix to achieve

reach and cost effectiveness. Additionally, product placements can provide opportunity

for trade or consumer promotions, such as tie-ins with fast food restaurants. Ayers added

that sales of Red Stripe beer went up after Tom Cruise drank it in The Firm, which

substantiated his point that product placements are suited to increasing brand awareness,

or the prominence of a brand in one's mind, and enhancing a brand's image or status.









While there are a number of advantages to companies whose products appear in

films, there can also be disadvantages. Most companies don't want their products

associated with an unfavorable character or context, so they may choose to keep their

product out of a film, a practice known as product displacement. Todd Solondz, director

of the movie Happiness, which is about a pedophile, said that not many companies tried

to get their products placed in his movie. While there were companies that received

thanks in the credits, their products did not actually appear in the film (Palmer 1998).

One example of a company that practiced product displacement is Kraft Foods.

Kraft wanted to make sure its products weren't mentioned anywhere in the movie Jello

Shots, which was about people getting drunk from the title concoction, because Kraft was

aware that it would look bad for the Jell-O brand name (Palmer 1998). Another company

that practiced product displacement is Chivas Regal. The producers of the movie

Dolores Claiborne were asked to substitute another brand for Chivas Regal when a

"seedy, alcoholic character was to mix Chivas with Coca-Cola" (Karrh 1998, p. 37).

Ethical Implications of Alcohol Product Placements

Consumer advocacy groups argue that product placements are deceptive and cause

moviegoers, unaware of their persuasive intent, to engage in purchase behaviors. Many

groups have attempted to have product placements banned or at least regulated; they have

remained unsuccessful in influencing formal public policy. There has been an ongoing

legal debate about whether product placements are considered commercial speech, which

would make it subject to government regulation. Critics believe that placements of

unhealthy products like cigarettes and alcohol should be restricted. On the other hand,

proponents of product placements argue that they are not forms of commercial speech









and that filmmakers, not government regulation, should determine when and how product

should be placed (DeLorme and Reid 1999).

Surveys have found that 73% of the general public believes that alcohol advertising

is a major contributor to underage drinking. Studies have found that alcohol advertising

may predispose adolescents toward drinking, because it seems to increase their positive

attitudes toward drinking and their likelihood to drink (Grube 1993).

According to the Advertising and Marketing Code of the Beer Institute, advertising

or marketing material should not use any material that would appeal to people under the

legal drinking age, including language, music, or any entertainment figure or group that is

intended to appeal to minors. Actors should be at least 25 years old, and should appear to

be at least 21. Additionally, beer advertising and marketing materials should not be

placed in any medium or at any event where most of the audience is likely to be under the

legal drinking age (Beer Institute 2002).

According to the Entertainment Resources Marketing Association (ERMA), "If you

are supplying an alcoholic beverage, you do not want minors consuming it onscreen"

(ERMA 2002). In 1998 the FTC ordered eight alcoholic beverage companies to supply

information about their efforts to ensure that product placements in movies and television

are directed to an adult audience (McConnell 1998). In 1999 the FTC added that alcohol

companies should limit placements to R and NC-17 films (AdAge 1999).

The problem with alcohol placements in movies and television programs is that

young people can see these products being used even though they are not supposed to see

such advertising. Alcohol portrayals on television provide messages about drinking that

may encourage young people to drink, for example, underage drinking is often treated









humorously, and the seriousness of problematic drinking is often overlooked (Grube

1993).

Social Learning Theory

Social-learning theory proposes that people observe the behaviors, attitudes and

emotional reactions of others and learn to model those behaviors when faced with similar

situations. According to the founder of social learning theory, Albert Bandura, "Learning

would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on

the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human

behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms

an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded

information serves as a guide for action" (1977, p. 22).

Social learning theory attempts to explain human behavior in terms of the constant

interaction of cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences, while focusing on the

"person factors" in explaining learning and behavior. The individual is both an

instrument and a recipient of behavior patterns. There is a pattern of four processes that

facilitate social learning: attention, when the individual takes notice of something in the

environment; retention, the individual remembers what they noticed; reproduction, the

individual copies the noticed action; and motivation, the environment delivers a

consequence that either reinforces or punishes the action, thereby affecting the likelihood

that the individual will repeat that action in the future (Bandura 1977).

According to Abrams and Niaura (1987), behaviors and environments are thought

to interact with some of the main cognitive capabilities: symbolizing, forethought,

self-regulatory, self-reflective and vicarious capabilities. Symbolizing refers to an

individual's ability to build cognitive models of experience that guide future decisions









and actions. Forethought refers to an individual's ability to anticipate the outcomes of

actions and set goals. Self-regulatory capability refers to an individual's ability to control

their behaviors through internal standards and evaluating their own reactions.

Self-reflective capability refers to an individual's ability to reflect upon his/her thoughts

and monitor his/her ideas. Vicarious capability refers to the assumption that individuals

learn by observing others' behaviors and the outcomes of those behaviors (Abrams and

Niaura 1987).

Bandura (1977) suggested that by showing attractive, sophisticated characters

engaging in health-risking behaviors, movies glamorize those behaviors. The concern is

that these portrayals influence moviegoers' future behaviors, especially those of

impressionable children and teens, who are likely to model characters who are likeable,

popular and seem to be similar to them (Bandura 1977). Attitudes toward alcohol use

have been proven to be influenced by observing the drinking behavior of role models,

including those observed in films (Room 1988).

The tenets of social learning theory would suggest that drinking alcohol, as a social

behavior, is acquired and maintained by modeling, social reinforcement, expectancies of

the effects of alcohol, and personal experience with the effects of alcohol consumption,

either positive or negative. One of the major principles of social learning theory

regarding alcohol use is that learning to drink alcohol is an important part of psychosocial

development and socialization within a culture. According to Abrams and Niaura (1987),

adolescent drinking behaviors, attitudes, and expectancies of alcohol are derived from

social influences within their culture, family and peers. A great deal of learning takes

place before the child has consumed any alcohol. Influence is indirectly exerted by









attitudes, expectancies, and beliefs, and directly by modeling alcohol consumption, media

portrayals of drinking, and social reinforcement for drinking. Family and peers can

influence both the onset and continuance of drinking behaviors among adolescents by

affecting their attitudes and modeling drinking behaviors in social situations (Abrams and

Niaura 1987).

Beliefs and behaviors may be shaped by exposure to alcohol in television programs

(Grube 1993). Television programs tend to portray alcohol consumption as a way to

enhance the enjoyment of a social situation, reduce social tension and escape stress.

Alcohol consumption on television programs tends to be socially reinforced and has few

negative consequences (Abrams and Niaura 1987). The social reinforcement may

influence others to model this behavior because they are expecting the same positive

outcomes from consuming alcohol.

Dramatic portrayals of alcohol have been studied in movies to test the impact on

young adults. When looking at the absence or presence of negative consequences of

drinking alcohol, the absence of negative consequences in a film led to the most

favorable attitudes toward drinking. Exposure to negative consequences of drinking in

the movies led to the least favorable attitudes. These findings indicate that showing

negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption could influence attitudes

towards drinking (Bahk 1997).

A study of 18- and 19-year-old college students was designed to test the influence

of movie portrayals of drinking liquor. Participants viewed either films clips with

positive portrayals of drinking, negative portrayals of drinking, or film portrayals of no

drinking. While participants in the positive condition reported more positive feelings









toward alcohol than did participants in the negative group, the difference was small.

Meanwhile, those who watched both positive and negative portrayals reported higher

negative expectancies than those in the control condition. The suggested explanation for

this result is that portrayals of drinking, regardless of the outcome, cause anticipation of

negative consequences in young drinkers, perhaps by bringing up memories of bad past

experiences with liquor. The findings were interpreted to mean that even relatively short

(under one hour) exposure to film portrayals of liquor can have an immediate impact on

older adolescents' expectancies of drinking alcohol, but that effect is not strong (Kulick

and Rosenberg 2001). This suggests that showing negative outcomes of alcohol

consumption may have a stronger effect on social learning than showing positive

outcomes.

According to Earleywine (1995), people are more likely to face a decision to drink

in a setting where they are expecting more positive effects of drinking, like at a party.

While drinkers may decide to decrease future consumption in settings associated with

negative effects, such as when experiencing a hang over, these negative expectancies may

not be as accessible the next time they have the opportunity to drink. Positive

expectancies of the effects of alcohol use were related to intentions to drink when they

were primed. Negative expectancies did not have a significant correlation with intentions

to drink when they were primed, which suggests that manipulating negative expectancies

may have little impact on intentions to drink (Earleywine 1995).

Social learning theory suggests that experimental substance use stems from the

attitudes and behaviors of those who serve as an adolescent's role models. Adolescents'

involvement with substance-using role models is likely to have three consequences. First









they will observe and imitate the substance-specific behaviors; second, they will likely

experience social reinforcement for substance use; and third, they will expect positive

social and physiological effects from future use. Observing role models experimenting

with substances can directly shape an adolescent's expectations of the social, personal

and physiological effects. Social learning theory suggests that making substance-using

role models less salient and making non-using role models more salient would help

prevent experimental substance use among adolescents (Petraitis et al. 1995).

Because social learning theory suggests that behavior is directed by specific

environmental influences, including learning by direct observation, or modeling, it could

be assumed that peer behavior would have a direct effect on children's behavior. Iannotti

and Bush (1992) tested urban fourth and fifth grade students to see which had more

influence, the child's perceptions of their peers' behaviors and attitudes regarding

substance use or the actual behaviors and attitudes of peers. It was found that perception

of peers' use is more likely to influence behaviors than actual use. It was concluded that

while modeling, as suggested by social learning theory, may account for the effect of

classroom use, it would not predict the weak effect of friends' use (lannotti and Bush

1992).

Lipsitz et al. (1993) tested alcohol expectancies between fifth and eighth grade

students using beer and soft drink commercials. They found no difference between the

effects of exposure to beer commercials and exposure to anti-drinking messages neither

affected alcohol expectancies. One of the main differences in the way fifth and eighth

grade students thought about alcohol was that eighth grade students did not find the

alcohol ads novel or surprising. The differences in thinking tended to occur on the









social/emotional expectancy scale, rather than the cognitive/motor expectancy scale.

This suggests that while drug or alcohol education may convince children of the

cognitive/motor problems caused by alcohol use, it may "fail to discredit" the social and

emotional benefits of alcohol use. One possible explanation they mentioned for these

results is that alcohol advertising does not affect alcohol expectancies, and that the results

reflect the reality that television ads have little or no impact on adolescents' feelings

about alcohol. Lipsitz et al. were not able to find any strong evidence to the contrary.

Slater et al. (1996) found that many junior high school students perceive characters

in beer commercials to be under 21. This is troubling because it is in junior high that

many will make their first decisions about experimenting with alcohol. The concern is

that they may be influenced by their perceptions that people in the commercials appear to

be underage. Slater et al. found a positive correlation between the number of students

who perceived the drinkers to be underage and the number of students who were already

drinking alcohol. This finding is consistent with the idea that the influence of potential

role models, such as the persons shown in advertisements, may influence adolescents at a

time in their lives when they are starting to make decisions about themselves.

Alcohol expectancies connect past experiences regarding alcohol use with an actual

decision to drink at a later point in time. It has been found that well-developed

expectancies exist before young people have had substantial drinking experience. It is

apparent that social learning processes, including parental modeling, mass media, and

peer group influence must play a substantial role (Christiansen et al. 1989).

Christiansen et al. (1982) found two processes that are responsible for producing

alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents. One is that relatively well-developed









expectancies exist before they start drinking. These expectancies are expressed by

family, peers, and the media, and by observing others drinking. It was also found that

these expectancies from social learning tend to change with age and drinking experience.

Specifically, an increase in age and in drinking experience led to more permanent

expectancy factors. These findings show that while alcohol expectancies are related to

drinking experience, they also exist in very young people without any prior drinking

experience. "It appears that the preconditions for positive reinforcement of alcohol use

exists in adolescents the very first time they drink" (Christiansen et al. 1982, p. 343).

Research Questions

The field of product placement advertising has been expanding rapidly. The

motion picture industry is becoming a valuable medium in advertising and marketing to

consumers, as evidence has shown that product placements increase sales and brand

recognition.

Numerous studies have been conducted on product placements and adult

moviegoers; however, research has not focused on teenagers as a viewing audience.

Movies directed toward teenagers were the focus of this study. Teens make up the largest

percentage of the American movie going audience, and a majority of these teens see at

least one movie a month.

Alcohol advertising is a relatively controversial issue. Critics believe that alcohol

advertising may be among the leading reasons for the increase in teen alcohol

consumption and abuse. While a number of studies have focused on teens' perceptions

of alcohol in print advertisements and television commercials, no studies to date have

focused on product placements as a means of advertising alcoholic beverages.









This study uses qualitative research to explore whether high school students notice

and recall placements of brands of alcohol in teen movies. This study also explored how

teens evaluated alcohol product placements based on the context of their usage and their

attitudes toward alcohol product placements as a whole. The research questions are as

follows:

Research Question 1: Do teens notice the specific brands of alcohol that have been

placed in these "teen" movies?

Research Question 2: Do teens have different evaluations of brands based on the

context or scene in which they appear?














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This study seeks to explore, rather than explain, teens' attitudes and perceptions of

alcohol product placements. Qualitative, rather than quantitative research, is better suited

for this type of study because it allows for a deeper understanding of each participant's

attitudes and perceptions of the topics of alcohol advertising and product placements in

movies. Focus groups were selected as the primary method of research because they

allowed the researcher to gather information from small group discussions of the topics

of interest (Morgan 1997). The focus groups provided a relaxed setting in which

participants could feel comfortable discussing the topics of alcohol advertising and

product placements. The teenage participants felt more comfortable talking to the

researcher in same-gender groups rather than individually or in mixed-gender groups.

Rationale and Strengths of Focus Groups

Focus groups were selected as the means of gathering information because they

allowed the researcher to lead guided discussions of the topics of alcohol advertising,

alcohol usage in movies and product placements. Focus groups were preferred to

in-depth interviews because it was assumed that the group dynamic of a focus group

would help to bring out unanticipated aspects of the discussion topics and may not have

emerged during an individual interview (Babbie 2001). In addition, the subject of

product placement is primarily based on movie recall, which can be prompted by others

in the group, rather than individual interviews with the researcher (M. Friedman 2001).









Visual Stimuli

Visual stimuli in the form of movie clips were used during the focus groups. The

movie clips, which were shown at the beginning of the focus groups, were used as an

autodriving technique to stimulate discussion (McCracken 1988). Movies were selected

from the Top 120 grossing movies of 2000 and 2001, as listed on

www.BoxOfficeReport.com. From those movies, 30 were identified as "teen" movies.

A movie was considered a "teen" movie if a majority of the main characters were

teenagers or young adults. PG-13 movies were selected from these 30 because R-rated

movies contain material that may be inappropriate for teens under 17 and it was assumed

that PG-13 movies were appropriate for this age group. The MPAA rating system was

used as a guideline. Then www.screenit.com was used to determine whether or not there

was alcohol use in each film. Films with at least a mild or moderate amount of alcohol

use and that were available on video at the time of the content analysis were then

analyzed. A total of 10 films were analyzed by the researcher to determine if there were

substantial alcohol product placements in each film. A placement was considered

substantial if the product was either given a verbal mention or was shown on the screen

for at least two seconds. Two seconds is considered the industry average for the amount

of time a product remains on the screen (Troup 1991).

Three films were selected for the study, The Fast and The Furious, Loser and

Summer Catch. A 5- to 7-minute clip from each film was selected, totaling

approximately 15 to 20 minutes of clips. Two films contained both verbal mentions and

visual placements, and one was visual only.

After each clip was shown, participants were given about two minutes to write a

brief summary of the clip before the next clip was shown. The Fast and The Furious was









selected because it contained a prominent placement of Corona beer. Corona was given a

verbal mention and was shown being directly consumed by one of the main characters.

The Fast and The Furious is about an undercover cop, Brian (played by Paul Walker),

investigating a string of truck robberies. One of the prime suspects is Dominic (played

by Vin Diesel), who is the leader of a team of street racers. In this clip the two are

walking to Dominic's house after a street race. Brian kept Dominic from getting in

trouble by helping him flee the police. Dominic's friends, one in particular named Vince,

were not happy about him bringing a new person into their group of friends. There was

obvious tension between Brian and Vince. Dominic took Vince's beer away from him

and then said to Brian "You can have any beer you want, as long as it's a Corona." He

then gave Brian Vince's beer, and before Brian drank out of it, the camera focused on

him wiping the mouth of the bottle with his shirt.

Loser was selected because Sam Adams beer was prominently placed in a number

of scenes throughout the movie. This movie is about a college freshman named Paul

(played by Jason Biggs) and his experiences during his first year in college. In this clip,

his friend Dora (played by Mena Suvari) is applying for a job in a convenience store. A

guy walks in and buys two 12-packs of Sam Adams and invites her to a party. At the

party, another guy puts some type of drug in her drink and she ends up getting sick.

Summer Catch was selected because Sam Adams beer was given both verbal and

visual placements and there were signs in the background for Guinness, Dos Equis, and

Bass beers. Summer Catch is about a landscaper named Ryan (played by Freddie Prinze

Jr.) who joins the Cape Cod summer baseball league, where many baseball players "get

discovered." He becomes friends with the team's catcher, Billy (played by Matthew









Lillard) and gets involved with Tenley, a "rich girl" played by Jessica Biel. This clip

takes place in the bar Ryan's brother runs. He orders three Sam Adams and sits down at

a table with his teammates. One of his teammates says something that makes him angry

and Billy prevents them from fighting by asking Ryan to come with him to talk to some

girls, which is how he meets Tenley. Then a waitress (played by Brittany Murphy)

walks by the table and makes a funny comment about Ryan, which makes Billy laugh and

spit out his mouthful of beer.

Researcher Involvement

Initially, there was a low level of moderator involvement, as the participants were

asked to write a brief summary of each clip, including anything that stood out to them or

what they liked or didn't like in each clip. The purpose of this was to gain an

understanding of the participants' first impressions of each clip, what caught their

attention, and to see if they would mention the alcohol brands before they were directly

asked about them.

After the clips were shown and the summaries were completed, the researcher

began the discussion. Due to the strong, pre-existing agenda of the research, a high level

of moderator involvement was needed during the discussion to ensure that all groups

would discuss the same issues in a comparable fashion, and to keep the discussion

focused on the topics (Morgan 1997). After the discussion, each participant filled out a

questionnaire, which provided the researcher with background information about

participants' current alcohol use and intended future use (see Appendix C).

Focus Group Participants

Six focus groups were conducted, three comprised of all males and three comprised

of all females. There were either five or six participants in each group. There were three









focus groups for each gender because according to Morgan (1997), more than three to

five groups seldom provide meaningful new insights. The researcher also chose to use

small-sized groups because they allowed more time for each participant to talk, which

provided a clearer sense of each participant's reaction to the topics (Morgan 1997).

Edmunds (1999) also recommended using five to six participants per group because

smaller groups allow for interaction among the participants without requiring each

individual to constantly speak. This would provide a greater comfort level among

participants, which is more conducive to successful discussions. The focus groups were

conducted on the Boca Raton High School campus and lasted about an hour. Parental

consent was acquired for each participant prior the focus group sessions (see Appendix

D). Boca Raton High School was selected because the researcher was familiar with the

campus and the faculty, and was able to secure their cooperation with the study.

Participants were selected based on their familiarity with the topic (Babbie 2001).

Students were given a screening questionnaire, which asked how many movies they

typically watched each month, including in the movie theater, on video or DVD, and on

cable television. Frequent moviegoers were best suited as participants in this study.

According to the MPAA, a "frequent" moviegoer is one who sees at least one film each

month or 12 films a year. Because a majority of the students had seen at least one movie

in the theater in the past month, the researcher included video/DVD and cable movie-

watching get a better idea of each student's average monthly movie consumption.

Students who reported watching at least six movies a month on average, with a

breakdown of at least one movie in the theater, one on video or DVD, and two on cable









each month, were asked to participate in a focus group. The screening questionnaire can

be found in Appendix A.

Pilot Study

The pilot study used two focus groups with high school students; one with females

ages 14 to 17, and one with males ages 14 to 18. The purpose of the pilot study was to

test the focus group question guide (see Appendix B), to provide the researcher with

familiarity in moderating a discussion, and to test the effectiveness of showing each

movie clip in the focus group setting (M. Friedman 2001). The focus groups were

conducted at Boca Raton High School and were moderated by the primary researcher.

The focus groups were conducted in a classroom with a round table, television and VCR.

Data Collection and Analysis

The focus group sessions were tape recorded so that they could later be transcribed.

Transcription helps to facilitate analysis as well as establish a permanent written record

of each focus group (Stewart and Shamdasani 1990). Audiotaping was preferred to

videotaping because videotaping does not provide the researcher with much more

information than does audiotaping. While videotaping allows the researcher to see facial

expressions and group dynamics, several cameras and additional lighting would be

required to allow for detailed observations. Also, most data analyses are based on

transcripts from audio, not video recordings (Morgan 1997). Audio recording was also

assumed to be less intrusive and protected the participants' privacy.

After conducting the focus groups, the tapes were transcribed by the researcher.

The researcher then read each script, while listening to the tape, to check for accuracy. If

any words or phrases were inaudible during the first hearing, the researcher listened to









the tape three more times in an attempt to decipher the words. If after three times the

word or phrase was still unclear, the word or phrase was labeled inaudible.

Analytic induction (Glaser and Strauss 1967) was used to analyze the data. First

the researcher read through each transcript to identify the sections of conversation that

were relevant to the research questions. After the initial reading of each transcript, the

researcher devised a classification system for major topics or issues that came up in the

focus group discussions, and items from each transcript that related to the topics were

identified. The items highlighted in the transcripts were then used as supporting

materials and included as part of the analysis.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Focus groups were conducted with teenagers, ages 14 to 19. The participants were

in ninth through 12th grades at Boca Raton High School. In total, there were 16 male and

16 female participants. The mean age for participants was 15.56 for females and 15.25

for males. Five of the males were 14 years old, six were 15, three were 16, one was 17

and one was 19. Five of the females were 14 years old, three were 15, four were 16,

three were 17 and one was 19. The pilot study indicated that the focus group question

guide and movie clips selected were appropriate for this age group. Six focus groups

were conducted, three all-male groups and three all-female groups, with five to six

participants in each group. The groups were segmented by gender because the researcher

assumed that the teenage participants would feel more comfortable talking to the

researcher in same-gender groups rather than in mixed-gender groups.

Questionnaire Results

Twenty-one of the 32 participants currently drink or have at some point consumed

alcohol. Almost all reported that they only drink "every once in a while," which suggests

that they are social, rather than habitual drinkers, although a few reported drinking once a

week. The participants usually drink either at parties, a friend's house or at home.

Eighteen of the 21 are usually with friends (including a boyfriend or girlfriend) when

they drink. The heavy preference was malt beverages or wine coolers, then liquor, then

beer. The brands they most often drink are Smimoff Ice, Mike's Hard Lemonade,

Budweiser and Skyy Blue. Other brands they mentioned drinking were Corona, Captain









Morgan, Crown Royale, Busch, Icehouse, Coors and Cook's. When they drink, about

two-thirds (n=7) of the male participants tend to have between two and three drinks,

while the other one-third (n=4) have one drink. Almost two-thirds (n=6) of the female

participants have one drink, while almost one-third (n=3) have between four and six

drinks. The age at which participants began drinking varied a great deal. One male

reported that he had his first drink when he was eight years old. Three males reported

that they had their first drink at age 13, while the other males reported drinking at 11, 12,

15 and 16. Females reported that they began drinking between the ages of 14 and 16.

Fourteen of the 21 participants who drink have been drunk at least once. Most of

those 14 have been drunk at least twice in the past six months. Almost all were with a

friend at least one of those times, at the friend's house. In order, they mentioned liquor,

beer and malt beverages as the types of alcohol they were drinking. The favored brands

were Mike's, Smimoff Ice and Corona. Other brands mentioned were Budweiser, Skyy

Blue, Absolut, Kalik, Jack Daniels, Busch, Coors Light and moonshine.

Of those who do not drink alcohol, about half plan to do so in the future, but they

do not know when. Over one-third plan to drink beer, while the rest were divided among

wine, liquor, malt beverages and "I don't know." None of the participants mentioned any

specific brands that they planned to consume.

Seventy-five percent of the participants' friends drink. Slightly less than 75% think

alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students.

Analysis of Written Summaries

After each 5- to 7-minute movie clip was shown, the participants were asked to

write a brief summary of the clip, including anything that stood out to them or what they

liked or did not like about each scene. The major themes that emerged from the









summaries were: the party or bar setting, the presence of alcohol, tension or anger

between male characters and references to sex.

About half of the participants mentioned the party scene and/or that the characters

were drinking in The Fast and The Furious. Almost half mentioned the tension, anger or

potential fight, and the sexually suggestive nature of the females. One-quarter mentioned

that it portrayed typical teen life, and about one-fifth specifically mentioned Vin Diesel,

who was one of the main characters.

Almost all of the participants mentioned either the party scene, drinking alcohol or

both in Loser. Two-thirds mentioned that a female character had taken some sort of drug

or that a male character drugged her with the intention of having sex with her. A quarter

of the participants commented that they thought this was objectionable.

Half the participants mentioned alcohol use or that the characters were in a bar in

Summer Catch. One-third of the participants, mostly male, mentioned that they thought

the scene was funny, while one-quarter, mostly female, mentioned that the main character

met a girl. Four participants mentioned the film's main character, Freddie Prinze Jr. and

three noticed that he ordered Sam Adams at the bar.

Analysis of Focus Group Discussions

Almost all the participants had seen The Fast and The Furious at least once,

slightly less than half had seen Loser and slightly more than half had seen Summer Catch.

Of those who had seen The Fast and The Furious, slightly more than half had seen it in

the theater, while the rest had rented it. Most of those who had seen Loser watched it at

home, either on video, cable, or pay-per-view. Most of those who had seen Summer

Catch watched it at home on cable or pay-per-view. A majority watched the movies with

friends or family members and had seen each movie between two and three times.









The males cited the action or excitement and the entertaining plot as reasons for

watching The Fast and The Furious more than once, while the females cited the male

actors and the cars as their reasons. Most participants had seen Loser more than once

because there was "nothing else to do" or nothing else on television at the time. The

females watched Summer Catch more than once because they liked the story, whereas the

males watched it because there was nothing else on television.

When asked what, if anything, stood out to the participants in the clips, most of the

females said the male actors (particularly in The Fast and The Furious), and that each

scene depicted typical teen life. One added that she felt the females in each scene were

being disrespected. The males mentioned the female characters, drinking, the bar scene,

tension between characters, Corona, Sam Adams, the party scenes and the music.

Remembering Context and Usage Verbal Mentions and Humor Are Important

Overall, the participants correctly recalled the scene and the characters using the

products. Many pointed out the exact moment when the Corona was consumed in The

Fast and The Furious. According to one participant, "He gave it to him, he looked at it,

wiped it off and drank it." Some also pointed out that they might not have noticed the

product placement if the brand name had not been mentioned. Others felt that they might

have noticed it, but after the verbal mention it was hard to ignore. According to one

participant, "because he said it [Corona], it made it stick out even more." Many also

remembered that Paul Walker took another character's beer and wiped the rim of the

bottle with his shirt before drinking out of it, which they thought was funny.

Most participants did not remember seeing any brand names in Loser, which

contained a placement of Sam Adams beer. While many noticed the beer, they did not

notice what brand it was. A few participants also mentioned that one character bought









boxes of beer and carried them down the street, but no one recalled seeing it being

directly consumed.

While a few participants correctly recalled that Sam Adams was being directly

consumed in Summer Catch, most only remembered that they were drinking beer of some

type. More participants recalled Matthew Lillard laughing and spitting it out all over

someone else than Freddie Prinze Jr. ordering three Sam Adams from the bar. About a

quarter of the participants added that they noticed signs in the background for other

brands of beer, but could not tell what brands they were. One participant pointed out,

"All bars have that...you don't notice things like that because that's something normal if

you go to a bar or anywhere that sells alcohol." Another participant added that since the

signs in the background were hard to read, those beer companies "...probably didn't pay

as much as the other ones to get in there."

The low recall of Sam Adams could be due to the participants' low level of

familiarity with the brand. Many pointed out that they hadn't seen very much advertising

for Sam Adams, especially when compared to Corona, with which they were more

familiar. Participants perceived Corona to be a well-liked brand and mentioned seeing a

lot of advertisements for it. Many had never heard of Sam Adams or considered it a

"cheaper" brand. In addition, a few participants thought they saw Budweiser in the clips

from The Fast and The Furious and Summer Catch, when actually it was not in either

clip.

Thoughts on Character Usage

In general, the participants viewed the brands separately from the characters using

them. While most participants did not feel that the brand usage said anything about the

characters, a few either thought that it was the character's preference or that it showed









that they liked to party. Others added that a brand is more likely to stand out to someone

who likes that brand, because they would think "that's what I drink.., he got good taste."

Participants also did not think that character usage said anything about the brand. A few

added that they thought the brands, especially Corona, were trying to appeal to a younger

(18 and up) audience.

Most participants didn't seem to mind that the characters were drinking in these

clips, even though they thought some of the characters appeared to be under 21. Others

thought the characters did look old enough to drink. Overall, the participants perceived

the characters in the clips to be between 20 and 30 years old. Most thought that the

characters in The Fast and The Furious were in their mid- to late-20s, the characters in

Loser were between 17 and 20, or in college, and the characters in Summer Catch were

thought to be between 20 and 25. A few participants thought that some of the characters

in each clip were supposed to be in high school.

Brand Names vs. Generics

In general, about half of the participants said they preferred seeing brand name

products instead of generics in movies, and the other half said they didn't really care.

Participants recalled seeing both generics and brand names in movies, such as "soda" and

"cola," as well as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Some other specific brands that were mentioned

were Jeep in Clueless, Tide in The Sii\hl Sense, Starbuck's in Austin Powers II, Faygo in

Big Money Hustlers, and Reese's Pieces in E. T Participants also mentioned Nike,

Adidas, Gucci and Mercedes, although they could not recall in which movies they had

seen the brands. In addition, one participant mentioned that the characters were drinking

"fake Budweiser" in The Replacements. Those who preferred seeing brand name

products felt that generics made the film look cheap. Participants also felt that seeing









characters drinking out of cans or bottles looked more realistic than cups, unless a keg

was present in the scene.

Does It Make Them Want To Drink?

Participants did not feel that seeing the characters drinking made them want to

drink, although a few pointed out that they already drink or plan to do so in the future, so

seeing film characters drinking wouldn't affect them anyway. A majority of the

participants did think that others might be influenced. Some females felt that males

might be more influenced to at least try a brand they saw in a movie, especially if a

favorite actor consumed the brand. Many participants also felt that while alcohol

placements wouldn't completely influence one's preference, they may get people to try

the brand, and if they liked it and their peers started drinking it, they might continue to

drink it.

Advertising Alcohol: Traditional vs. Product Placement

Participants easily recalled a number of brands of alcohol they had seen advertised

lately. One quarter of the participants mentioned television commercials for Corona as

well as Budweiser or Bud Light. Other brands for which the participants remembered

seeing television advertising include Smirnoff Ice, Mike's Hard Lemonade, Skyy Blue,

Miller or Miller Lite, Captain Morgan Gold, Foster's and Coors Light. Participants also

mentioned that they saw a lot of beer commercials during Monday Night Football and the

SuperBowl, especially for Budweiser; another participant pointed out that Miller Lite is a

sponsor of NASCAR. Interestingly, the male participants in one group said they liked the

commercials for Mike's Hard Lemonade and would consider trying it after seeing the

commercials. One participant said, "It's so funny, that like, you want to try it."









Participants recalled hearing radio commercials for Mike's Hard Lemonade, Skyy

Blue, Coors Light, Kahlua, Captain Morgan Gold, and Bud Light. They recalled seeing

billboards for Budweiser or Bud Light, Mike's, Smirnoff Ice, Corona, Heineken, Miller

Light, and Captain Morgan. Brands they recalled seeing advertised in magazines the

most include Skyy Blue, Corona, Captain Morgan and Absolut. Other brands they

mentioned were Bacardi O, Crown Royale, Budweiser, Smirnoff Ice, Mike's, Heineken,

B&J and Hennessey. A majority of the magazine advertisements were mentioned by the

males, who listed Source, Details, Vibe and Rolling Stone as magazines they read

regularly.

Over three-quarters of the participants thought that alcohol advertisements are

directed toward their age group. Some think alcohol companies are going after a target

audience of 17- to 20-year-olds, while others think they are trying to reach 17- to

30-year-olds. Those who didn't think advertising was directed toward them felt the ads

were going after those at least 21 or between 20 and 30. In general, the participants felt

that alcohol companies are not concerned about underage drinking and only care about

selling their products and making money.

Participants felt that alcohol was being used or at least shown in almost every

movie they've seen, including most teen movies, such as Varsity Blues, American Pie (I

and II), Never Been Kissed, Van Wilder, A Walk to Remember and Save the Last Dance.

Beer was the most prominent drink. Participants recalled seeing both Budweiser and

Heineken, though they could not recall in which films they had seen them. They also

pointed out that there are kegs in many teen movies, so the characters are often shown

drinking from cups, as opposed to bottles or cans. They felt this was more acceptable









than showing generic brands. One participant thought that some films had to use

generics in scenes that depicted negative consequences of alcohol use because the alcohol

companies don't want their products associated with unfavorable or dangerous situations.

He added, "Usually, if it's a fake brand, they're going to jump off a bridge or do

something dumb."

Participants also recalled seeing alcohol in Triple X, Coyote Ugly, Disappearing

Acts and Waiting to Exhale. While participants could not recall any specific brands

shown in films, they did remember what they were drinking, especially when it was

verbalized. They specifically remembered that in The Replacements the characters were

drinking beer, in Blow they were drinking whiskey, in Rollerball they were drinking

martinis, and one participant even remembered seeing alcohol in .\l/ ek, when the king

was drinking wine. A few of the female participants also recalled that in Save the Last

Dance, one character ordered a "rum and coke, no ice."

It is interesting to note that it is important to some of the participants that the

characters consuming alcohol in films look at least 21. Teens know they're not old

enough to drink, but many do and they feel like it is their little secret. They don't like the

feeling that alcohol companies are already targeting them. They also don't like when

movies show out-of-control parties with teens getting drunk. Many teens' parents see

these movies and think that's what all teen parties are like, so they set restrictions on their

children's social lives. The teens object to this because not all parties are out-of-control

and not all teens drink at parties.

Do Movies Influence Teens?

Movies have influenced the participants in a number of ways, from hobbies to

language to clothing and hairstyles. Hobbies or activities they have become interested in









include dancing or cheerleading, cars and/or racing, basketball and martial arts. One

participant mentioned seeing a movie (could not recall the title) in which the characters

played a game called Pass the Pigs. He said when he saw it in a store, he recalled the

characters playing it and that it looked like fun, so he bought it. Participants have also

picked up on some of the language used in movies, most of which becomes inside jokes

with friends.

Females mentioned copying the hairstyles of Cameron Diaz (couldn't remember

what movie) and Rachel Leigh Cook in She 's All That and the makeup of one of the

characters in Clueless and Jennifer Lopez in all of her movies. Males mentioned copying

hairstyles from music videos and television programs, but not from movies.

Attitudes Toward Product Placements

Overall, the participants realize that companies put their products in movies to

advertise them or so that people will buy them, although some believe that the companies

get paid for allowing their brands to appear in movies. Many participants have seen

products in movies that they have wanted to buy or actually bought, including clothes and

shoes, make-up, and as previously mentioned, the game Pass the Pigs. A few added that

they have either bought cars like those in The Fast and The Furious or added accessories

to their cars to make them more like the cars in The Fast and The Furious. Most think

others would be influenced to purchase items seen in movies, for example males think

females would be influenced to purchase clothes, and females think males would be

influenced to purchase shoes. This provides evidence of third person effects, which will

be discussed in Chapter 5.

When they see things they use on a daily basis in movies, participants either feel

that it is not a big deal because the actors are told to use them, they feel happy or excited









that an actor/actress is using the same brand that they use, or they just think it is a

coincidence. As one participant mentioned, "I've seen a couple of my outfits in movies

and stuff, but it's not like they only made one of them, so it's not that big of a deal."

Another said he noticed a faucet that he had in his home, but said, "They don't zoom in

on the name, like Delta ... but you do notice it 'cause ... you have it or use it." He

added that he didn't think Delta paid for the placement because "people aren't going to

really pay attention to it unless they already have it... and then they already bought it."

Other items participants own or use that they have seen in movies include Coca-Cola,

clothes and shoes (no specific brands were mentioned), Faygo soda, Cover Girl make-up,

Tide detergent and Old Spice deodorant.

The participants have mixed feelings about placing brands of alcohol in teen

movies. Many don't care or feel that it won't affect anyone because so many teens drink

already, others feel the companies are trying to persuade them and/or show off their

brand. Many added that the presence of brand name products shows real life or adds

realism to the scenes. Others felt that the placements do not affect them but may be bad

for others and perhaps should not be there. Very few actually thought it was a good idea

or ethical.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Discussion

In order for alcohol companies to use product placements successfully to increase

brand image, they must understand who each movie's target audience is and their current

level of familiarity with the product. While existing research has studied alcohol use in

movies and teens' perceptions of traditional forms of alcohol advertising, to date there

have not been any studies on teens' perceptions of alcohol use in teen movies or product

placements in teen movies, including the attitudes and beliefs of teen audiences.

Overall, the participants were able to correctly recall the scene and character using

the brand in two of the three movie clips. One important factor in the recall of the

placements was the prominence of the product in each scene. The fact that none of the

participants recalled the brand in Loser suggests that its placement was not prominent

enough. It may also suggest that the brand would have to be consumed or mentioned in

order to gain recall among this age group, since they remembered seeing Corona in The

Fast and The Furious and Sam Adams in Summer Catch after they were both mentioned

and being directly consumed. Participants also tended to notice the brand more if it was

associated with humor in the scene, though it did not improve the brand's image.

A major finding in this study was that teens were much more likely to recall

traditional advertisements for brands of alcohol than they were to recall placements of

brands of alcohol in movies; they also were more likely to recognize and recall brands in

movies if they had seen them advertised. The participants may remember the traditional









forms of advertising before product placements because of the repetition or frequency of

commercials and print ads, and the fact they said they would need to see a movie many

times in order to notice all the props and everything in the background in a scene. It may

also be because, as one participant mentioned, brands tend to blend into the background

of the scene, especially if it is a setting in which the brand would normally appear, such

as a bar. It is interesting to note that the brands the participants reported drinking the

most often, Smirnoff Ice, Mike's Hard Lemonade, Skyy Blue, Corona and Budweiser

were also among the brands they had seen advertised the most lately.

In order for placements to be successful, they must be a part of a larger marketing

plan. Sam Adams went unnoticed by many participants because they were unfamiliar

with the brand, as a result of not seeing it advertised very much, if at all. Corona was

noticed by many of the participants, who also mentioned seeing a good amount of

television commercials for it. Interestingly, about three weeks after the focus groups

were conducted, commercials for Sam Adams Light started appearing on television. It is

possible that if the focus groups had been conducted at least a month or two after the

commercials aired, the participants might have taken more notice of Sam Adams in the

clips.

This study also found that the effects of product placements on teens are not

immediate. Teens rarely go shopping with the intention of purchasing a product they saw

in a movie; however, if they see a product in the store and remember it from a movie,

they may buy it. This may also apply to their current feelings about brands of alcohol.

While they cannot legally purchase alcohol, many of the participants mentioned that if

they were given the opportunity, they might try a brand that they had seen in a movie, but









probably would not consciously seek out the brand. They added that their friends'

approval was a big determinant in whether or not they would continue using the brand.

Those who do not drink but plan to in the future did not mention any brands that

they plan to consume, which suggests that alcohol advertisements do not resonate with

those who are not currently interested in alcohol. This may support the alcohol industry's

claim that they are targeting current drinkers, and trying to get them to switch brands or

continue drinking their same brand, rather than trying to get those who do not drink to

start.

For the most part, the participants were aware that companies pay to have their

products placed in movies and that the actors may not use those products in real life.

Because they attributed the motive for placing products in movies as being to advertise,

they are not likely to blindly accept the products shown in films.

Teens do not have a problem with seeing brands in movies because they have

always been there and they are used to them. The participants felt that brand name

products added realism to films and most would rather see a brand name product than a

generic product, because generics detract from the scene and make the movie look cheap.

However, while companies use product placement to increase brand image, when the

participants encountered an unfamiliar brand (Sam Adams), they either thought it was a

cheaper product or mistook it for another brand (Budweiser). In addition, in scenes with

alcohol use, they felt that it looked "fake" when the characters were shown drinking out

of cups, unless there was a keg present.

The fact that a few participants thought they saw Budweiser in two of the clips has

some interesting implications. It suggests that when an unfamiliar product is present or









when they can't tell what brand it is (as in the case with Sam Adams), they may think it is

a different brand, one with which they are more familiar. It may also imply that when

characters are drinking any brand of beer, participants may associate beer in general with

a popular brand. This may mean that when one company places its product in a movie,

other better-known companies in the industry could benefit.

Teens believe they are being targeted, which may be another reason why they do

not feel like product placements affect them. Many of the participants have watched teen

movies with family members and expressed concern that younger audiences, particularly

their younger siblings, might be influenced by alcohol placements in movies.

Many believed that the alcohol usage is unnecessary, not only in these clips but in

teen movies in general. Some even thought it was unethical and should only be used in

R-rated movies. Others pointed out that the context of usage determines if the placement

is ethical. For example, one participant pointed out that the characters appeared to be 21

and they were not being irresponsible or getting drunk or sick, so they just seemed like

social drinkers and the placements weren't a problem.

It is important to note the presence of third-person effects among participants.

Although many mentioned that they had purchased or wanted to purchase items they had

seen in movies, they did not believe that the placement of brands in movies influences

their purchase decisions. They did, however, believe that the presence of brands in

movies might influence others to purchase those items. The group dynamic seemed to be

a powerful stimulus in participants' exhibiting third person effects. For example, as soon

as one participant said he/she thought others would be influenced, everyone else seemed

to agree. There were also some interesting differences between males and females.









Females thought that males might be influenced to purchase shoes and males thought

females might be influenced to purchase clothes they had seen in movies. In general, the

participants did not think showing alcohol in movies has any effect on them, but they did

think it might influence some of their peers and younger audiences to drink. They also

thought that showing brands of alcohol might influence others to seek out those brands.

Some of the females added that they thought males might be more influenced to try a

brand of alcohol after seeing it consumed by a favorite actor in a movie. In addition,

participants thought alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students. The fact

that most of the participants' friends drink offered a possible explanation for their strong

tendency to exhibit third-person effects.

Participants exhibited evidence of social learning with respect to alcohol

consumption, though it is difficult to tell whether they were modeling their peers'

behaviors or using them as reinforcements. Teens may model some of the behaviors and

preferences of characters in movies, but they need their peers' approval to continue the

behaviors. On the other hand, all of the participants who drink reported that their friends

drink, so their alcohol consumption habits may be a product of peer influence, and

movies may just reinforce the behavior.

The fact that the participants who drink are almost always with friends when they

do so suggests that drinking is seen as a social activity. Many mentioned that when

characters in teen movies are shown drinking, they are always with friends, and are often

at a party, which may reinforce drinking as a group activity or as normal social behavior.

Many added that the party scenes in each of the movie clips portrayed "typical teen life,"

which suggests that the movies reinforce, rather that motivate, the drinking behavior.









Males seemed to be the focus of each of the three movie clips, and while they were

interacting with females in each of the clips, it was mostly males that were shown

drinking alcohol, specifically beer. This may be sending a message to both males and

females, as far as social interaction and alcohol use. Females may perceive drinking

alcohol, or at least drinking beer, to be a masculine activity, while males may associate it

with "male bonding."

The role of the alcohol in each scene may also have contributed to social learning.

Many participants pointed out that in The Fast and The Furious Dominic took a Corona

away from another male character who was trying to cause trouble, and gave it to his new

friend Brian. In doing this, he punished the one character by taking the Corona away

from him, and made it seem like a reward for Brian, who had helped him. The positive

portrayal of Corona in this scene may cause teenagers to believe that a Corona is an

appropriate reward in a social situation.

The positive associations with alcohol in these scenes stood out to participants

more than did the negative associations. After the participants were informed that the

brand shown in Loser was Sam Adams, they did not associate it with the unfavorable

characters or references to date rape drugs in the clip. In the clip from Summer Catch,

Ryan ordered three Sam Adams and was shown giving them to two of his new friends.

Through this action, teens may associate making new friends with consuming alcohol.

Also in this clip, Billy started laughing and spit his beer out. While spitting something

out is usually a bad sign, in this scene it was related to humor, so teens may also

associated drinking with laughter and having a good time.









As previously mentioned, participants said they might try a brand that they had

seen in a movie, and would continue using the brand if their friends used it too. This

suggests that their brand choices are also a product of social learning. The participants

notice the brand, remember seeing it, reproduce the behavior and then, based on peer

approval, either stop using the brand or continue to use it.

It is interesting to note that the brands the participants drink most often are also the

brands they recalled seeing advertised the most lately. While it may be because the ads

influence which brands they choose to drink, it may also be because of their heavy

preference for malt beverages and the large volume of ads for this category. It is possible

that the advertisements are the main source of influence, and that peer approval and

movie portrayals may serve as reinforcements for consuming specific brands.

Those who do not currently drink, including those who plan to drink in the future

and those who do not, may have received strong anti-drinking messages through school

programs, parents or the media, which may be reinforced by their peers who also do not

drink. While it is highly likely that those who drink have also received these anti-

drinking messages, many anti-drinking messages only address the cognitive or motor

problems associated with alcohol use and "fail to discredit" the social and emotional

benefits of alcohol use (Lipsitz et al. 1993). Based on the fact that the participants who

drink think of drinking as a social activity, which is reinforced by their peers who also

drink, peer influence again seems to be the most important factor in social learning.

With regard to this study, social learning theory suggests that peers influence the

onset and continuance of drinking, while media portrayals may reinforce it. Alcohol

advertising may influence brand choice and lead to brand loyalty at an early age;









however, the fact that the participants could not recall many alcohol brands from movies

suggests that product placements do not influence teens' brand preferences, though they

may reinforce them.

Implications

The results of this study suggest that in order for product placements to be

successful, they must be part of a larger advertising or marketing campaign. The

participants did notice the specific brands of alcohol in two of the three movie clips;

however, they were more likely to notice the brands if they had already seen them

advertised.

The participants did not have different evaluations of the brands based on the

context or scene in which they appeared. Previous exposure to the brands through

advertising messages and peer usage (or lack thereof) seemed to have the largest effect on

their evaluations of Corona and Sam Adams.

Placements will not be effective if younger participants have not seen the product

previously advertised, so a company should not rely on product placements to introduce a

brand to the public. Brands shown in movies should be part of a campaign that includes

traditional advertising.

Critics of product placement advertising should take note that teens do not believe

that placements are deceptive or that they are influenced by the placements. However,

critics of alcohol advertising may be justified in their beliefs that alcohol advertising is

targeting teens and that these ads may influence teens to drink.

Limitations

While this study adds to the body of literature on teens and alcohol advertising, as

well as product placement, there were some weaknesses in the methodology. Because of









time constraints, the researcher was not able to show the participants a full-length film.

This might have allowed the participants to see placements for some non-alcoholic

products as well as alcoholic beverages and compare the two. The participants might not

have been able to recall the alcohol placements as easily after sitting through the entire

movie. Also, showing the three brief clips in a classroom did not compare to the

experience teens would normally have if watching it at home or in the movie theater.

The placement of the questionnaire during the focus group session may also be a

limitation. The questionnaires were given to the participants after the focus group

discussion, so the participants may have experienced priming effects after discussing

alcohol portrayals and alcohol advertising. Some of the participants may have reported

drinking more or less than they normally do, or drinking brands that they normally do not

drink.

There were also limitations in conducting a study with teenagers. They are more

likely to either conform, or agree with others in order to avoid standing out; they may

also express more extreme views than they normally would (Edmunds 1999).

Suggestions for Future Research

Alcohol use in teen movies can be studies in a number of other ways. This study

could be expanded by comparing the alcohol placements in teen movies to placements for

other general products. This would gauge teens' recall of placements in general and

suggest which types of products are most likely to get their attention. Another possibility

in studying alcohol placements would be to show participants clips with either no brands

(just cups) or both brands and cups, to see if they notice the brands or if they think they

see brands in scenes with just cups.









The effectiveness of product placements versus traditional advertising can also be

studied using teenage participants and showing them both television commercials and

clips from television programs or movies. This could be used to gauge recall as well as

determine which type of message is more effective.

Many of the participants mentioned the music industry's influence on their personal

style. Many also mentioned alcohol's prevalence in music, including brands that were

mentioned in songs or shown in music videos. Music videos should be studied to gauge

teens' attitudes and perceptions of the brands, both alcohol and general products,

mentioned in songs or shown in videos.

In conclusion, the knowledge gained from this research can be used as a base for

additional research on teens and alcohol advertising and alcohol placements in movies. It

provides a base of information on the ways teenagers notice and evaluate alcohol

advertising, product placements and alcohol placements, and how they view the alcohol

industry.















APPENDIX A
SCREENING QUESTIONS



Name:

Age:

Gender: Female Male

How many movies do you typically see in the theater each month?

How many movies do you typically rent each month?

How many movies do you typically watch on cable television each month?














APPENDIX B
FOCUS GROUP QUESTION GUIDE

1. What do you like to do in your free time (activities, hobbies)?

2. How many of you have seen the first movie (name)?
a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)?
b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)?
c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)?

3. How many of you have seen the second movie (name)?
a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)?
b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)?
c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)?

4. How many of you have seen the third movie (name)?
a. Where did you see it (in the theater, on video, on cable TV)?
b. Who did you see them with (friend, sibling)?
c. How many times have you seen this movie (why if more than once)?

5. Is there anything in these clips that stands out to you?

6. When you watch movies, do you notice if there are brand names or generic
products being used?
a. Which movies? Which products?
b. How do you feel about seeing brand names in movies?

7. Did you notice any brand name products being used in these clips?
a. describe the scene
b. characters) using them
i. how old do you think the characters are supposed to be?
ii. do you like the characters?
c. how are the products placed in each scene (mentioned, consumed,
purchased)?

8. Does usage of alcohol in these clips say anything about the characters (brand and
type of alcohol)?
a. First movie
b. Second movie
c. Third movie









9. How do you feel about seeing the characters in these clips drinking alcohol?
Does it make you want to drink?

10. Do you think others are influenced to drink by seeing these characters drinking?
Do you think it influences what they drink?

11. Have you noticed alcohol use in other movies?
a. What movies?
b. Specific brands?

12. What types and brands of alcohol have you seen advertised the most lately?
a. Through what media (tv, radio, outdoor, magazine)?
b. Do you feel alcohol advertisements are directed towards you?

13. Have characters in other movies ever influenced your:
a. Activities/interests/hobbies?
b. Support of social causes/issues?
c. Clothing or hairstyles?
d. Language?
e. Other behaviors (smoking, using condoms?)

14. Why do you think a company would put its products in a movie?
a. Have you ever seen a product in a movie and wanted to buy it or actually
bought it?
b. Do you think others are influenced to purchase items they've seen in
movies?
c. Have you seen products you use in movies? How does it make you feel?

15. How do you feel about placements of brands of alcohol in movies?
a. Persuaded? Manipulated? Subliminal?
b. Good idea?
c. Ethical?















APPENDIX C
QUESTIONNAIRE

***DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ON THIS!!!***

1. How many movies do you typically see in the theater each month?
2. How many videos do you typically rent each month?

3. Over the past month I have done the following with my friends (please check all
that apply):
Gone to the movies
Rented a movie
Attended a sporting event
Consumed alcohol
Attended a concert
Gone to the beach
Smoked cigarettes
Attended a party
Consumed alcohol at a party
Gone shopping

4. Do you ever consume alcoholic beverages (including beer, wine, liquor or malt
beverages)? (circle one)
YES NO

5. If you answered "YES" to question 4, please answer the following, if not,
continue to question 8.
A. When did you start drinking alcoholic beverages (at what age)?
B. How often do you drink alcohol?
Every day
Once a week
Once a month
Every few months
Other (explain)

C. Where do you usually drink alcohol?
D. When you drink, who are you usually with?
A friend/friends
A parent/parents
A brother/sister/cousin
Other (explain)










E. What kind of alcoholic beverage do you usually drink?
Beer
Wine
Liquor
Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.)

F. What brand(s) do you usually drink?

G. How much do you usually drink?
1 serving (bottle/can of beer, glass of wine, shot of liquor)
2-3 servings
4-6 servings
more than 6 servings

6. Have you ever been drunk? (circle one) YES NO

7. If you answered "YES" to question 6, please answer the following, if not,
continue to question 8.

A. How many times in the past six months?

*Now think of one time when you were drunk and answer the following:

B. Where were you?

C. Who were you with? (check all that apply)
A friend/friends
A parent/parents
A brother/sister/cousin
Other

D. What kind of alcohol was it? (check all that apply)
Beer
Wine
Liquor
Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.)

E. What brand(s)?


8. If you do not currently drink alcoholic beverages, do you plan to in the future?

YES NO









9. If you answered "YES" to question 8, please answer the following, if not,
continue to question 10.
A. When?
Within the next month
Within the next year
When I am in college
After I turn 21
I don't know

B. What type(s) of alcohol do you plan to consume? (check all that apply)
Beer
Wine
Liquor
Other (wine coolers, malt beverages, etc.)
I don't know

C. What brands, if any, do you plan to consume?


10. Do your friends drink alcohol? YES NO

11. Do you think alcohol abuse is a big problem among high school students?

YES NO


12. Age: 16
17
18


13. Gender: MALE FEMALE


14. What are your plans after high school?
Attend community college
Get a job
Join the military
Attend a university
Other (explain)















APPENDIX D
IRB AND CONSENT FORMS











Institutional Review Board Form for study with teenagers

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

1. TITLE OF PROJECT: Thesis on Product Placement of Brands of Alcohol in
"Teen" Movies

2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amy Bellin, Masters Student
700 SW 62 Blvd., Apt. B-24
Gainesville, FL 32607
(352) 379-5718
abellin@ufl.edu

3. SUPERVISOR: Debbie Treise, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Department of Advertising, 2084 Weimer Hall
392-9755
dtreise@jou.ufl.edu

4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: August 1, 2002 July 31, 2003

5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: N/A

6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATOR:

I have developed a focus group study with a brief questionnaire and question
guide. The results will serve as data for a master's thesis. The focus groups seek
to determine the attitudes and opinions of high school students on product
placement advertising, specifically the placement of brands of alcohol in PG-13
movies.

7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL
LANGUAGE:

Six or seven focus groups will be conducted at Atlantic High School in Delray
Beach and Boca Raton High School in Boca Raton to determine the attitudes and
opinions of high school students concerning the placement of brands of alcohol in
"teen" movies as a form of advertising.

8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK:

There are no risks involved to participants. Participants will benefit by receiving
extra credit.









9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTIPANTS WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER
AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if
any):

Participants will be recruited through various classes at Atlantic High School and
Boca Raton High School. Prior to the focus groups, parental consent forms will be
signed by each participant's parent/guardian. The researcher will be available to
answer any questions via phone or e-mail. After parental consent is obtained,
focus groups will be conducted after school. Participants will be males and
females, 15-18 years old. Approximately 36 students will participate in one of
seven focus groups. Each focus group will contain 5-6 participants. The students
will receive extra credit for participation.

10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY
OF THE INFORMED CONSENT.

For participants under the age of 18, the informed consent process will consist of
informed consent of the participant's parent or guardian, as well as oral assent of
the participant. The parent's form is the standard IRB form attached. The
participant's form is written in slightly simpler language to ensure that each
participant understands the information.

(see the attached consent script and informed consent form)

Principal Investigator Signature Date

Supervisor's Signature Date



I approve this protocol for submission to UFIRB:

Department Chair/Center Director


Date









Parental Informed Consent

Dear Parent/Guardian,

I am a graduate student in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida,
conducting research on teenagers' perspectives on product placement advertising.
Product placement advertising is the practice of placing branded products in movies or
television programs as a way to advertise those products. The purpose of this study is to
determine if teens notice product placements in movies and gain an understanding of how
they feel about them. The focus of this study will be placement of brands of alcohol in
movies directed toward teenagers. With your permission, I would like to ask your child
to volunteer for this research.

If you agree that you would like your child to participate in this study, he/she will be
asked to participate in a focus group asking about their perceptions of product placement
advertising in general, alcohol advertising, and placement of brands of alcohol in movies.
Short clips from PG-13 rated movies (The Fast and the Furious, Loser, and Summer
Catch) will be shown and a discussion on product placement will follow. This discussion
will take place after school and will last approximately an hour to an hour and a half.
With your permission, your child will be audio taped during the focus group discussion.
The audiotapes will be kept in a locked cabinet in a faculty member's office until they
have been transcribed, and then they will be destroyed. Your child will not be identified
in any way, as no identifying information will be solicited from them. Only the faculty
member, the transcriber and the primary investigator will have access to the transcripts.
The results of this research will be used in a master's thesis. You may request a copy of
the final thesis. After completion of the thesis all requested copies will be given to the
high school's administration office by May 2003.

All of the participants' answers will be confidential to the extent provided by law. They
will not be identified in any way. We are not asking for their name or any identifying
information. They do not have to answer any questions that they do not wish to answer.
They may stop at any time without consequence. Your child has the right to withdraw at
any time during this study. There are no anticipated risks for completing this study, but
their participation will be beneficial in providing the academic community with data on
teenagers' perspectives about alcohol product placement.

I will be providing refreshments for them during the focus group session.

This focus group research is being supervised by Dr. Debbie Treise, Associate Professor
in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida, College of Journalism and
Communications. If you have any questions about this focus group, she can be reached at
392-9755. If you have any questions or concerns about the research participants' rights,
they can be directed to the UFIRB office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph (352) 392-0433.













[ ] I voluntarily agree to allow my child,
to participate in a focus group on alcohol product placement in "teen" movies.

[ ] I do not wish for my child,
to participate in a focus group on alcohol product placement in "teen" movies.

[ ] I request a copy of the final thesis.






I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to allow my child,
to participate in Amy Bellin's
study on alcohol product placement in "teen" movies, and I have received a copy of this
description.


Parent/Guardian Signature


Date















Child Assent Script

I am a student at the University of Florida and I am writing my master's thesis about high
school students. To write this paper, I need to talk to you about movies. If you or your
parents have any questions, you can call my supervisor, Dr. Debbie Treise, at 352-392-
9755.

If you agree to participate in this study, I will show you scenes from three PG-13 rated
movies: The Fast and the Furious, Loser and Summer Catch. Then I will talk to you
about those movies and any other movies that come to mind.

You do not have to tell me your name. You do not have to answer any questions that you
do not want to and you may leave at any time. This will take about an hour to an hour
and a half.

I am tape recording this conversation so that I can listen to it again. You will not be
identified on this tape. The only people that will listen to this are the transcriber, my
supervisor and myself.















APPENDIX E
SAMPLE FOCUS GROUP TRANSCRIPT











Transcription of focus group with high school students at Boca Raton High School. This
focus group consisted 6 males.

Q: Before we get started, I have to read this to you. I am a student at the University of
Florida and I am writing my master's thesis about high school students. To write this
paper, I need to talk to you about movies. If you or your parents have any questions, you
can call my supervisor, Dr. Debbie Treise, at 352-392-9755. If you agree to participate in
this study, I will show you scenes from three PG-13 rated movies: The Fast and the
Furious, Loser and Summer Catch. Then I will talk to you about those movies and any
other movies that come to mind. You do not have to tell me your name. You do not have
to answer any questions that you do not want to and you may leave at any time. This will
take about an hour to an hour and a half. I am tape recording this conversation so that I
can listen to it again. You will not be identified on this tape. The only people that will
listen to this are the transcriber, my supervisor and myself.
Does anyone have any questions before we get started? Okay. Well first of all, what do
you like to do in your free time? I'll start with you and go around the table.

A: I wish I had free time.

A: Yeah.

A: I play football and everything. Free time I try to rest.

A: Rest and talk on the phone.

A: Four-wheeling.

A: I just go around with friends, hang out, when I have free time.

A: I like to rest, too...to hang out with friends.

A: Hang out with my friends and girlfriend, find trouble.

A: I like to, you know, hang out with my friends, like everyone else, and I like to, um,
stay home and play video games... and that's pretty much it.

Q: How many of you have seen the first movie? Fast and The Furious?

A: I did.

A: Yes ma'am.

A: Yes.


A: Yes.










A: Yes.

A: Yes.

Q: And where did you see it the first time? In the theater, on TV, video...?

A: Seen it in the theater, when the first Friday it came out.

Q: And who did you go see it with?

A: With...the football team.

Q: How about you?

A: In the movie theater, with, uh, my girlfriend.

A: In the movie theater with my parents.

A: Movie theater with my friends.

A: On video with my girlfriend.

A: On video with my family. My mom, and my dad, and my brother.

Q: How many times have you seen it?

A: Oh Lord. Um...would you count renting it, watching it over and over?

Q: Yeah, every time you've watched it.

A: In between 20 and 50 times, probably.

Q: And why have you watched it more that once?

A: I seen it in movie theaters three times with the football team, twice with my
girlfriend, then when I rented it on DVD, since I have a Playstation 2, I kept watching it
and watching it when I was bored.

Q: So why did you want to watch it more than once?

A: It was exciting.

A: I saw it, about... 50 times.

Q: And why did you watch it more than once?










A: 'Cause I learn something new about the cars every time.

A: (INAUDIBLE)

Q: Okay, and why have you watched it more than once?

A: The action.

A: Like, three times. It was...like, exciting to watch.

A: I watched it just once. I liked it...it's a lot of excitement. And the girls, man. She's
hot.

A: I watched it, like, three times. I rented it. And um, I liked it because it was, like,
entertaining. It was, um...like it was a good movie. It was like...I can't (INAUDIBLE).

Q: And how many of you have seen Loser, the second movie?

A: I haven't seen it.

A: Nope.

A: I did.

A: I haven't seen it.

A: I've seen it.

A: I've seen it.

Q: Okay, so just the three of you? And the first time you saw it, where were you?

A: Um...I saw it on, like, pay-per-view or something.

Q: And who'd you watch it with?

A: My cousin.

A: My girlfriend.

Q: Was it in the theater or...?

A: No. Video.

A: Home, pay-per-view.










Q: How many times have all of you seen it?

A: A couple.

A: Once.

A: Two or three.

Q: Why did you guys watch it more than once?

A: Nothing else to do.

A: Yeah. And it's like, a teen movie, so you got nothing else to do, put it in...

Q: Did you like it?

A: It was all right.

A: Not compared to the Fast and the Furious.

A: I didn't really like it, like the first time I saw it, I didn't really like it, but like, I had,
like, there was nothing else on TV, so I just watched it again, 'cause, like, they play the
movies over and over.

Q: Okay, and what about the third movie, Summer Catch? How many of you guys have
seen that?

A: I saw it.

A: I saw it.

A: I saw it.

A: I haven't seen it.

A: I haven't either.

A: No.

Q: Where did you see it?

A: I've seen it once, on pay-per-view.

Q: Who did you watch it with?









A: Myself.

A: Pay-per-view.

Q: How many times have you watched it?

A: Like twice.

Q: And who did you watch it with?
A: My brothers.

Q: And why did you watch it more than once?

A: Nothing else to do.

Q: Did you like it?

A: Not really.

Q: What about you? Did you like it?

A: At first it was boring, until towards the middle... I got into it.

Q: And how about you?

A: Um, the first time I saw it, I thought, like scenes were funny, like parts of it were
funny. And then I saw it, like, a couple more times, and like once was just because I had
nothing else to do. And, like, the third time, that girl, she gets in the swimming pool in,
like, her underwear. Like, just her underwear and her bra... and she's really hot.

A: Yeah.

Q: Was there anything in these clips particularly that stood out to you or that really
caught your attention?

A: Girls.

A: Girls.


A: I watch movies just because I hear there's, like, a hot girl in it.

A: Yeah. Or there's some (INAUDIBLE).

A: I'll go along with him.


Q: Girls and parties and stuff?










A: Yeah, 'cause, you know, (INAUDIBLE).

A: (INAUDIBLE), action, (INAUDIBLE)

A: I would say the action, yeah.

A: The action stands out. Also, like, the tension that builds up the movie. Like in Fast
and the Furious, there was tension because the new kid was trying to fit in and the old
people, friends, didn't like it. The girls, the alcohol. Most all three movies had all the
same stuff.

Q: Okay. When you watch movies, do you notice if there are brands names, as opposed
to generic products being used by the characters?

A: I do. Like, when they get up in the morning to, like, brush their teeth, like I notice the
mouthwash that they use isn't Scope, it says like Schope or something...

Q: Okay, so you have noticed that? Are there any specific movies you can remember
seeing that in?

A: Um, in like some of them, they, like... like, they walk out of the refrigerator and they,
like, grab the milk. I can't remember what movies...

Q: But you do remember seeing that. Okay. Yeah, basically with generics, like instead
of seeing a can of Coke or Pepsi, it will just say "Soda."

A: Oh, they do that so they don't have to pay the company. If you show them, their
name and their brand.

Q: Something like that. Have you noticed any brands in particular?

A: Yeah.

A: Like, the shoes that the guys wear. Like, if they're not wearing, like boots or
something, they're like...if they're wearing sports shoes they're, like, Nikes or Adidas or
something.

A: Yeah, Nikes.

Q: Any brands or generics that you've noticed in any other movies?

A: Cars.


A: Yeah, they always have nice cars. Mercedes...









A: Mercedes.

A: No.

A: No, not really.

A: Like in the Fast and The Furious, um, the engines, like, once I would see, like, an air
filter say, like, Canon (sp?) and on somebody else's car it wouldn't.

A: To me, well them three movies, I didn't see nothing that stood out, but it depends on
the movie.

Q: Are there any movies that you've seen, that you can think of, that you remember
seeing a brand?

A: Yeah, some movies, most females try to wear Gucci. It be funny. Um, they try to get
the most expensive things.

Q: How do you feel about seeing brand name products in movies?

A: I like it, because, like, normally, like, most movies I see, the don't have the brand
name, it's just, like, cheap stuff...

A: Yeah.

A: ...And, like, if they're making a movie, they should try to make it, like, to the best of
their ability, so they put, like, get, like, the good stuff instead of generic.

A: I don't care if a guy's wearing Nike's or Kicks, Wal-mart walking. It doesn't make
a difference to me. It has nothing to do with the movie.

A: Yeah, same with him. Like, just the gist of the movie...it doesn't matter.

A: Yeah.

A: I would say the same thing.

A: Yeah, pretty much the same thing because it doesn't matter. They don't have no
impact on the movie, long as it's got action and point and interesting. Doesn't change the
person.

Q: Did you notice any brand name products being used in these clips?

A: Beer. Corona.

A: Yeah.










A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah, that's what I was going to say.

A: Yeah.

Q: Did you all notice the Corona?

A: Yeah (all).

A: Corona and (INAUDIBLE)

Q: What?

A: He gave him a choice of either Corona or... Bud?

A: Mm mm.

A: No, they both were Corona.

A: (INAUDIBLE)

Q: Did you notice brands in Loser or Summer Catch?

A: No, well, he bought some kind of beer.

A: He bought some kind of beer, but...

A: I think it might have been Captain Morgan or something.

A: No, Samuel Adams.

Q: Which clip?

A: The last one.

A: Loser.

A: No...oh yeah.

A: Summer Catch.









A: In, uh, Summer Catch, yeah, Samuel Adams, and Loser...I don't know what he had
but it was two cases.

A: In all three movies the clothing was like, almost, on the females it was almost the
same. It's just that...but it didn't say no name brand. It was just a particular style. It
was all the same.

Q: Okay. I want to go back to Loser for a minute. Did you notice a brand at all in there?

A: No.

A: No.

A: No.

Q: You said you noticed the boxes that he was carrying...

A: Oh, I saw them, but, like, I didn't know what they were.

Q: Okay. It was actually Sam Adams.

A: Yeah, that's what I thought it was.

Q: How old do you think the characters in each of these clips were supposed to be?

A: About 20

A: In their teenage years. Like, 17 to 25.

Q: In all of them?

A: Yeah.

A: In Fast and The Furious they seemed to be...in their mid-30's.

A: They're older than 17...like in their 20's.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: Fast in the Furious, like I think they were 30, 28, 29, yeah.

A: In the Fast and The Furious I think they were supposed to be, like, 25 or 26 or
something. And in Loser they were in college, so they were probably supposed to be,
like, 20, I guess. And in Summer Catch, they played for the baseball team, so, like, they









can't be too old... and they still hadn't gone off to play in the majors or anything, so they
had to be, like, 22 or something.

A: To me, all the characters ranged from 21 to 25, 'cause you gotta at least be 21 to
drink, so...

A: Yeah.

A:...all of 'em were ranged from 21 to 25. I don't think they'd be older.

A: Yeah, the drinking and then driving, you can't have, like all the sports and all that
other (INAUDIBLE).

A: Yeah.

Q: Do you think there's any chance that they were under 21?

A: Yeah, the guy that bought it in... Summer Catch?

A: yeah, that guy they called Einstein in Fast and The Furious, where he was like, 'hey
Einstein,'

A: That Summer Catch guy

A: He was about 20

A: the one that bought the beer...he doesn't look it... he looked underage.

Q: You don't think he was 21?

A: Yeah. Just, like, the guy didn't care.

A: He was his brother.

Q: Did you like the characters in the clips that were shown? We'll start with Fast and
The Furious.

A: The bald...

A: Yes.

A: Yes.

A: Yeah.

A: yes.










A: yes.

Q: What about Loser? Did you like those characters?

A: The girls.

A: (INAUDIBLE)

A: The girls.

A: Even though in Loser, I didn't see it, the clip that you showed got me interested, like I
wanted to see it, so yeah.

A: No, I don't like them.

A: Yeah, they looked kind-of funny.

Q: What didn't you like about the characters in Loser?

A: They were just stupid.

A: They try too hard.

A: Yeah.

Q: What about the characters in Summer Catch?

A: No.

A: Yeah, they were ok. They, like, they act stupid, but it was comedy and action mixed
together, so...

A: Yeah, I would say the same thing as him.

A: Yeah.

A: (INAUDIBLE)

A: I liked the characters in Summer Catch. They were funny.

Q: Do you think the usage of alcohol in these clips says anything particular about the
characters? Specifically, the brands that they were drinking or what it was?

A: They like to party and get drunk.









A: Party and get drunk.

A: Yeah, in that age, you see that they like to drink and stuff, or like it's the thing to do
in that age.

A: Yeah.

A: 21 to 25, that's pretty much what they live to do, to go clubbing and partying and stuff
like that. Like, right now, as teenagers, we try to do it, but we're not allowed to, so we
can't do most things, but once you hit 21, or in between 21 and 25, that's your life right
there. It's going to be nothing but memories, so they do as much as they can. It doesn't
depend on the character. It doesn't say nothing because in none of those scenes you
haven't seen anybody get drunk to the point where they're going to throw up or
something like that. Like, in I think it was Loser, the girl tried a drug or something...

A: They spiked her drink.

A: Like, see, she didn't know that, so she got sick. Them other people, they wouldn't do
that to themselves, to like, take a overdose and hurt themselves.

Q: Well, you all noticed that Vin Diesel was drinking Corona. Do you think that says
anything about his character in the movie? Or the facts that he was drinking beer instead
of, say, liquor?

A: That's Mexican beer.

A: That's just his choice.

A: He just...it doesn't really matter, as long as it's alcohol.

A: No, 'cause he said you can drink Corona, that's it.

A: 'Cause all he had was Corona.

A: To me, throughout the movie, even though you just showed a clip, since I've watched
the movie so many times, that's probably one out of two scenes that you only caught him
drinking, so basically he was just a social drinker, so it wasn't nothing heavy, so it
doesn't change nothing about him.

Q: Okay. Do you think the fact his character was using it says anything about the brand,
as opposed to the brand saying something about him?

A: Oh, he's Mexican, maybe.

A: No, like since the movie was a hit, some people may go, be like, 'oh, he drunk
Corona, let me drink Corona.' Just like, after The Fast and The Furious came out, so






83


many people, were like, trying to their cars all hooked up and there's so many people that
end up dying, this and that. So movies do have a impact on teenagers.

A: Yeah.

Q: Does anyone want to add anything?
Q: Okay, what about the Sam Adams? I know in Loser it wasn't as prominent, but how
about in Summer Catch? They were all sitting around, you know, drinking Sam Adams.
Do you think that says anything about the characters? Or does it say anything about the
brand that those types of characters were drinking it?

A: No, I don't know why that guy liked Corona and (INAUDIBLE). Maybe it just tastes
better than other beers. I don't...it doesn't put together why.

A: I don't understand it either, because I'm not a drinker, so I don't know the difference.
A: I'd prefer Corona.

A: Corona, you see commercials about it. Sam Adams, you're saying it now, I still don't
know what you're talking about.

A: The guy with the brown hair...

A: No, I understand that. But Sam Adams, the drink, I never heard of that. Never seen a
commercial or no one drinking it or nothing like that.

Q: Actually, have any of you guys noticed or seen ads for Sam Adams?

A: I have.

A: No.

A: No.

A: Nope.

A: Sam Adams? Yeah, they're on.

A: Oh yeah, I've seen, maybe, one, two.

A: They're rare, but...

A: They can't advertise it as much unless they make a lot of money on it.

A: You don't see as much as, like, Heineken and Bud Light.


A: Budweiser stinks...it's going down.






84



A: It's like Corona and Heineken are up there now. I see a lot of them commercials. I
don't see no more Budweiser.

Q: How do you feel about the seeing the characters in these clips drinking alcohol?

A: We know we're going to do it between 21 and 25.

A: You might.

A: You're not? You're not going to go to parties?

A: I go to parties now and I don't.

Q: Does it make you want to drink? Like maybe in the future or even right now?

A: It's so people do.

A: No, that's not an impact on us. We already...know we're going to drink by
ourselves.

A: Seriously.

A: Like, if you want to drink right now, you can drink. You just do it behind
(INAUDIBLE).

A: Yeah. Long as you don't do it heavily or and stuff like that where you hurt yourself,
become drunk, pass out...like, I'm a sports player, I play football. I know when we go
out we see some of the other sports players drinking and we just knock the beer out their
hand to get them mad 'cause it's football season, you're not supposed to be doing that.
Like, off season, see, I can't say that I'm not going to drink when I grow up, but I don't
know the future. But it won't be nothing, like, other than social events.

A: Yeah.

Q: What about the brands that they were drinking? Would this make you want to drink
those brands more than anything else?

A: Pass the Couvassier.

A: Not really.

A: Yeah.


A: No.









A: No.

A: No.

A: Oh, that's probably why...why they had... Corona probably had something to do with
that.

Q: So how do you feel about that?

A: No, it's all about taste. They might want you to try and taste it.

A: I don't know. I don't think it would have an effect on someone and change their taste
in beer.

Q: So you wouldn't go out and buy Corona because you thought Vin Diesel was cool?

A: No.

A: No, not really.

A: I think it would. Not...it wouldn't make them go change their taste, but I think, if
they see him in the movies and more commercials of it, they'll go out and get it, just to
taste it, and like, if they see more people like it, they'll just switch over as peer pressure,
and stuff like that.

Q: So you think other people would be influenced by this?

A: Yeah. But that doesn't stand out. You gotta watch a movie, like, a million times to
catch the little things, 'cause I know when I watch a movie once, and then when I watch
it again, I'm like 'I didn't see that the first time.'

Q: Have you noticed alcohol being used in other movies?

A: Yeah, a lot of movies.

A: Yeah.

A: Everything, everything.

A: Yeah.

A: Most movies have drinking in them.

A: Yeah.

Q: Can you think of any specific ones?










A: Um... all movies. I can't think of one right now.

A: American Pie.

A: Budweiser.

A: Yeah, American Pie.

A: American Pie.

A: American Pie, American Pie 2 and all them.

A: Like, all the comedy movies and stuff.

A: Yeah, like teen movies and that kind of stuff.

Q: Teen movies in general?

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: Not really, not all teen movies.

A: Yeah, not all teen movies, just like, some of them.

A: Like Varsity Blues.

A: Varsity Blues was awesome.

A: Some of the teen movies that's rated PG-13 that should be rated R, most of them,
yeah.

Q: Okay. Have you noticed brands in any of those movies that specifically come to
mind? I know in American Pie there was a lot of drinking, but, were there any brands
that you noticed them drinking?

A: What brand is a 40? I see that in a lot of movies. What is that?

A: Budweiser.

A: I don't know, I think I see them drinking out of, like, cups a lot. Not really cans or
bottles.

A: Yeah.






87



A: Yeah, they don't really have anything in cups. Well, sometimes, at like a party there,
in the movie, they're having like bottles or red cups...

A: 'Cause they don't want to show it's off the tap.

A: They use a lot more kegs.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

Q: Okay, so you were saying that there are a lot of PG-13 movies that you think should
be rated R. How do you feel about the fact that a lot of these teen movies have drinking
in them?

A: They don't need it so much. It doesn't really matter.

A: To me, since I'm older now, I really don't care, but like I got a lot of siblings. I know
if they would go out to watch it, I wouldn't want them to. Even though I know they're
not going to do nothing 'cause I'll kill them, but, I wouldn't want them to, 'cause...but
like there's laws that say you're supposed to be a certain age to watch a movie. Most
movie theaters don't even do that, they just let anybody go in now, so it really doesn't
matter.

A: Except for R, and like, they just don't let you buy the ticket, but it's not like they're
standing there guarding the door. You can just go in.

A: Yeah.

Q: What do you guys think?

A: Like, if my brothers watched that, I don't really care in general, 'cause they're gonna
eventually find out about all that grown-up stuff, but... I don't know.

Q: You think it's maybe a little too much?

A: But the movies shouldn't help them learn that.

A: Some, yeah.

A: My brothers are both older than me, so I don't have to worry about it.









A: It should show both side effects. There is no both side effects. It should show what
happens when you get addicted to it.

A: The same.

Q: I know you guys were just talking about this a couple of minutes ago...you
mentioned some kinds of brands of alcohol that you've seen advertised a lot lately. You
mentioned Heineken...

A: And, uh, Corona.

A: Heineken, Corona, Budweiser.

A: Corona, Captain Morgan's has a lot of ads.

A: Skyy Blue, Skyy Blue.

Q: In magazines?

A: No, Skyy Blue's got a commercial I've seen.

A: Yeah, Skyy Blue.

A: I haven't seen that.

Q: What about radio? Have you heard any radio commercials lately for any alcoholic
products?

A: Um, no.

A: Mike's Hard Lemonade.

A: Yeah, Mike's Hard Lemonade.

A: Oh yeah, yeah.

A: That's, like, always on, so...

A: Spiked, Spiked Lemonade.

A: I've heard, like, a couple Captain Morgan commercials on the radio.

Q: What about billboards?

A: Mike's Lemonade, Captain Morgan has a lot of billboards, with 'the Captain was
here.'










A: On the way to Miami, there's, uh, a Heineken one, it's, like, it's a six-pack of
Heineken and it says, like, I don't know, it says, like 'people like our six-pack better' or
something and it has the six kegs.

A: Mike's Lemonade.

A: Mike's Hard Lemonade.

A: I don't see them as much as they used to be advertised.

Q: What about magazine ads?

A: Skyy Blue.

A: Yeah, I can go get a magazine in the classroom right now, you'll see about four
different pages and three different alcohols.

Q: Do you remember any specifically?

A: There was Skyy Blue in there, Corona, those were the only two that I've seen.

A: I like, rarely see beers in magazines, but, like, when I do, it's either Corona or some
kind-of, like, Crown Royale or liquor or something. Not beers.

A: Yeah, like he said, it won't be beers. It'll be the popular ones, like the ones that stand
out, but most of them is hard liquor.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: And they use it with sexual ads.

A: yeah, the put, like girls in them.

Q: What magazines do you read that you've seen those ads in?

A: I got Source in the classroom. Source, Double X, L. It's another hip-hop magazine.

Q: Any of you guys want to add any other ones you've seen? Do you feel that these
advertisements are directed towards your age group?

A: Yes.

A: Yeah.










A: Yes.

A: They don't really put them in, like, teen magazines, but like, magazines that kids
read, like them put them in People and stuff. I rarely see them in People, but sometimes
they will, and like, other magazines. But they're not really directed at us, I guess, but
sort-of, like, everybody.

A: Yeah, they aim for, to me, they aim for 17, 18, and up, because they know that's the
next generation that's gonna be using their stuff. They don't care the side effects or
what's gonna happened to them, so they know that we're starting to have parties,
especially when certain times of year come around, they advertise more, try to get people
to do more things, so their product can go up.

A: During the SuperBowl there's always at least one alcohol.

A: One? One?

A: More than one.

A: Yeah, like Budweiser always has one on the SuperBowl.

A: But that's the SuperBowl, so...it's only once a year, you know what I'm saying?

Q: What about, um, do you think they're trying to reach anything older? You said 17
and older, you don't think they're maybe aiming for a 25 and older crowd?

A: Yeah, like... 17 to 30, but, like, they kind-ofjust want whatever money comes, they'll
take.

A: Not really because once they hit you when you're 17, each generation when they're
17, 18, 19, and 20, they know that once they get used to it, and they like it, they're gonna
always use it throughout their life, no matter what. So they don't aim as much toward the
higher ages.

Q: Have characters in movies ever influenced any of your interests or hobbies or outside
activities?

A: Yeah. 'cause, like, before I saw fast and The Furious, I liked going fast, and then I
saw The Fast and The Furious, and I just wanted me to go out and buy a car and do all
that other stuff and then go out and race for money. Now, everybody's starting to do that,
and it's just getting stupid.

A: Yeah.


Q: Okay. What about you?










A: None.

A: No.

A: Actually, I just got this new game, it's called Pass the Pigs, it's not, like a, it's not like
a Playstation game or anything, it's like, like you rol the pigs and however they land, like,
that's how many points you get. Like, they showed it in a movie. I can't remember what
it was called, but it was this one where...Mark Paul Gosselar, they guy who played Zack
in Saved By The Bell, him and two of his friends were sitting around a campfire playing,
and like, it looked really fun, and they were, like, making bets about it. So I got that and
it's fun.

A: To me, yeah, I think so 'cause a lot of people change. Like, certain music videos,
movies and stuff like that. That makes a person dress a certain way, talk a certain way
and all that other stuff. I'm not gonna say I don't do it because I probably did throughout
my life so far. I did probably change 'cause a movie, but I don't think that's good 'cause
it hurts people.

Q: What about clothing or hairstyles?

A: Yeah, a lot of people, like, will go after, like the actresses' hairstyles, like, the girls.
A: The clothing.

A: I remember when, like...

A: Now music videos and movies, I don't know about the rest of y'all, a lot of, um,
Asian people, Caucasian, whatever, I'm not trying to be racist, they get their hair colored
now. African Americans and stuff like that, they get their hair braided. A lot of people.
I don't see why. It don't do nothing.

A: Well, uh, I forgot what I was going to say.

Q: Okay. I'll come back to you. Have any of you seen a style a specific style in a movie
and said 'I want to get my hair cut like this or I want to wear this type of clothes.'

A: No.

A: Um, I got my hair braided for a year of my life.

Q: What were you modeling that after?

A: Ooh Lord. I don't think...I don't remember. I think Bone Thugs N Harmony.


A: Yeah.









A: Um, it was a music video if Mudvein and he had blue hair and it was in a surfer cut
and I said 'mom, I'm gonna go dye my hair,' and she said okay. Then I went to the
barber shop and I cut my hair the certain way that he had it and I dyed it.

A: No.

A: No.

A: When Buffy the Vampire Slayer first came out, I was in, like, fifth grade or
something and I was looking for a hairstyle, and it had that guy on there, Angel. And
like, he put his hair up in the front, and like I started doing that, 'cause my cousin thought
it would be a good idea, and that's when it, like, started getting popular, and then, like,
everybody put their hair up in the front.

A: Also, with that, I recall when I was in sixth grade...when I was in fifth, sixth and
seventh grade, I used to... now I only wear one chain, but back then I used to wear, like,
8, 9 different chains. Now it's like it's why...I don't even know why I used to do that.

Q: Is there any language from other movie that you guys have picked up on that you use
around your friends?

A: Slang, a lot of slang.

Q: Anything specific from a movie?

A: Yeah, I know, like some people use, like, uh, to like, make fun of someone in a
movie, if, like they made fun of them that way, they'll use that same line to make fun of
someone.

Q: Can you think of anything specific?

A: I don't remember, no.

A: I can think of one, even though it's a long time ago. Little Rascals, when Alfalfa said
'You sissified tweety bird.' I said that to someone when I was little.

Q: What about behavior that they show in movies, like drinking or smoking, or even
messages against that? Have you noticed anything like that?

A: That really doesn't affect me. Like, I don't care what they're doing. It doesn't rub
off on me.

A: It's just a movie.


A: Well that's cool, like Cheech and Chong. That's funny.






93


A: I haven't seen anything, like, against it. I haven't seen any movies that are against
certain things. I just think they all promote it, which, yeah, there should be some against
it, but it doesn't rub off on me either.

A: Yeah. It doesn't affect me.

A: Not me neither.

Q: Okay. Why do you think a company would put its products in a movie?

A: So they can advertise it.

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah, advertising.

A: More advertising, and the know, like more people go to see movies and stuff, so, like,
if they're a certain age, they'll put that certain product on, like if they know someone will
watch it. Like, if it's a teenager movie, like they'll put something in there to, like get
teenagers to want to do that, to make money off of it.

A: To me, I don't think they specifically put it in certain movies. I think they go along
with the character, 'cause I don't think they see the movies when they allow the people to
use their product. Like, say if Lil Bow Wow is to go into a movie, they wouldn't put that
stuff in there 'cause they know he's a kid and he's nothing but 12, so there'll be little kids
watching his movie. But if it was someone, like, popular where they know a lot of teens
see that person's movie just because of that person, they'll put it in there, yeah.

A: Probably, like, the new Eminem movie will come out. They'll have a lot of stuff in
there, 'cause everyone's gonna see that movie.

Q: Have you ever seen a product in a movie and wanted to buy it or actually gone out
and bought it?

A: Yeah.

A: Yeah.

A: Um, my sister, we saw The Fast and The Furious and we went out, like, the next
week and we did, like, all that stuff that was on the Honda, and we did it to my sister's
car.

A: No, not me.


A: I probably have but I don't remember.