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Development of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and its Impact on collegiate athletics: 198...

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIGHT FOUNDATION COMMISSION ON INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS AND ITS IMPACT ON COLLEGE SPORTS: 1989-2001 By ROB MARINO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2002

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have been possible without the superb guidance for the last year of my supervisory committee. I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Julie E. Dodd, for her wonderful mentorship--and opening my eyes to the possibility of a teaching career--in my two-plus years at UF after returning to Gainesville as a -something graduate student. The rest of my committee, Professor Jean Chance and Dr. Ruth H. Alexander, have been invaluable assets not only in keeping my focus in the right direction for this thesis, but also as instructors in my graduate studies. I received some valuable research connections on sources from Ralph Lowenstein, dean emeritus of the University of Floridas College of Journalism and Communications. My research at UF was also aided tremendously by President Charles E. Young, Vice President and General Counsel Pam Bernard and Assistant Controller Susan Parrish. From the Knight Commission and Knight Foundation, I would like to personally thank Creed Black, Maureen Devlin and Bud Meyer for getting my research off on the right track and being there to answer questions along the way. This research also obviously would not have been possible without the cooperation of my interview sources: Dr. William C. Friday, Dr. Charles E. Young, Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, C. Thomas McMillen and Richard Schultz. I was aided in setting up these interviews by the superb work and patience of executive assistants Sandy Hayden, Viki Shields and Carolyn Dow. Finally, a special thanks go to the Marino family: my parents, Bob and Mary Ann, as well as Mary Beth and Nelson, Chris and Nancy and Mark. My nephews, Owen and ii

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Jeremy, always helped keep things in perspective. I appreciate their strength, stability and belief in me. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................1 Academic Abuse......................................................................................................3 Financial Expenses...................................................................................................4 Rights Fees and Corporate Sponsorships.............................................................5 Focus of the Study...................................................................................................7 2 METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................8 3 HISTORY OF KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND COMMISSION ON INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS....................................................................11 4 REACTIONS TO THE FIRST KNIGHT COMMISSION REPORT...................33 Academic Reponses...............................................................................................33 Federal Legislation.................................................................................................37 5 KNIGHT COMMISSION AND THE NCAA.......................................................39 Presidential Control of NCAA and the Knight Commissions role.......................40 Presidential Control...............................................................................................47 Academic Integrity.................................................................................................49 Financial Integrity..................................................................................................53 Certification...........................................................................................................55 6 KNIGHT COMMISSION -1992-2001................................................................57 Academics..............................................................................................................62 Decrease in Athletic Expenditures.........................................................................62 Less Reliance on Commercial Sponsorships.........................................................62 Disbandment of the Knight Commission...............................................................64 iv

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7 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................70 Summary of Research Question Findings..............................................................71 Future Research.....................................................................................................74 Analysis..................................................................................................................76 REFERENCES..............................................................................................82 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................92 v

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School at the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIGHT FOUNDATION COMMISSION ON INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS AND ITS IMPACT ON COLLEGIATE SPORTS: 1989-2001 By Rob Marino December, 2002 Chair: Dr. Julie E. Dodd Major Department: Journalism and Communications This study was an analysis of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and the impact it had in the regulation of collegiate sports reform from 1989-2001 when the commission was active. The Knight Commission was funded exclusively by the Knight Foundation, an independent group of the Knight-Ridder Inc. newspaper chain, which makes charitable donations to higher education programs and community programs in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder newspaper is published. In particular, the Knight Foundation has made a strong commitment to improving higher education journalism programs worldwide. The researcher interviewed six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served on the commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. The six members included Creed C. Black, former president of the Knight Foundation and member of the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees; Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the University vi

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of North Carolina; Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University in North Carolina; C. Thomas McMillen, former Maryland congressman and former professional basketball player; Richard Schulz, former NCAA executive director and former executive director of the U.S. Olympic Committee; and Dr. Charles E. Young, president of the University of Florida. The six commission members were chosen because they served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Library System. The Knight Commission was comprised primarily of university presidents and presidents of public and private corporations who were concerned about the overemphasis of athletics when compared to the academic goals of an institution. The commission first convened in the fall of 1989 and held a series of six hearings with key figures in intercollegiate athletics to determine the main problems facing college sports. Based primarily on those hearings, the commission developed 20 suggestions for reforming intercollegiate athletics in its first report in March of 1991. The commission also issued follow-up reports in 1992 and 1993. Among those 20 suggestions, 10 were adopted in some form by the NCAA, including the top priority of placing university presidents in control of the NCAA in 1996. The commission reconvened in 2000 to reexamine the problems facing intercollegiate athletics and issued a final report in 2001. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Skepticism has traditionally been associated with reform movements in intercollegiate athletics. The Wall Street Journal said Blue-ribbons panels ... are routinely ignored (Hunt, p. A21). In Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate Athletics, author John Thelin questioned the likelihood of any organization being able to bring about meaningful, permanent change in college sports: What we find is that perennial confidence in blue-ribbon commission reports has often elicited a groundswell of immediate publicity and discussion. However . the diversity . of American higher education . tend to derail any attempts at implementing lasting policy changes. (Thelin, 1996, preface, p. viii) Thelins 1996 book described the four largest intercollegiate athletic reform movements of the 20th century: the third report of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1929; the Presidents Report for the American Council on Education in 1952; George Hanfords 1974 study for the American Council on Education; and the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, which issued three reports from 1991-93, then issued a final report in 2001 prior to its disbandment. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is generally viewed as initiating the reform movement in U.S. intercollegiate athletics. The Carnegie Foundation group issued four reports pertaining to higher education from 1923-31. More than 100 U.S. universities were studied for the third and fourth reports. Chairman Henry S. 1

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2 Pritchett issued this ominous warning in the preface of the third report, American College Athletics, in July of 1929 (Savage, 1929): The paid coach, the gate receipts, the special training tables, the costly sweaters and extensive journeys in special Pullman cars, the recruiting from the high school, the demoralizing publicity showered on the players, the devotion of an undue proportion of time to training, the devices for putting a desirable athlete, but a weak scholar, across the hurdles of the examinations . ought to stop and the intercollege and intramural sports be brought back to a stage in which they can be enjoyed by large numbers of students . college sports have been developed from games played by boys for pleasure into systematic professionalized athletic contests for the glory, and, too often, for the financial profit of the college. (p.xxi) Almost 75 years later near the beginning of the 21st century, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was sounding that same warning about the priorities of athletics being skewed when compared to the academic goals of a university and that universities were compromising their academic values in lieu of fielding successful athletic programs. Only this time, costly sweaters and Pullman cars had been replaced by million-dollar revenue-sharing and Nike shoes. The guiding principle behind this study was to measure the impact a journalism-related charitable organization such as the Knight Foundation had on reforming intercollegiate athletics. The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics issued four reports from 1991-2001 dealing with reform measures for intercollegiate athletics. The Knight Foundation Commissions reform package consisted of a series of recommendations compiled by members based on the major issues confronting university athletic departments in the 1980s and 1990s: 1) academic abuse, centering on the poor graduation rates and academic performance of student-athletes; 2) financial expenses, the expenses related to intercollegiate athletics and how those escalating costs, particularly since the 1980s, had continually led expenses to outpace revenues at many university athletic departments;

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3 3) the influence of corporate sponsorships and rights fees from NCAA or conference revenue-sharing on universities, creating the perception that these exorbitant figures had professionalized intercollegiate athletics. Academic Abuse Academic abuse primarily included the academic status and progress of student-athletes. The Knight Commission was concerned that some student-athletes were entering institutions not prepared for the academic demands of a university and were not committed to working toward a degree. Here are some examples of academic transgressions since 1980: A 1980s survey found that of 106 of the more than 300 universities competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Associations highest level, I-A, 48 had graduation rates under 30 percent in mens basketball, while 19 other universities had graduation rates of under 30 percent in football. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commisssion, June 2001) A 1991, 90-minute documentary Sports for Sale, funded by the Knight Foundation Commission and produced by Public Affairs Television pioneer Bill Moyers, found a 30 percent graduation rate for Division I football and basketball players in the late-1980s and early-1990s. The documentary also revealed 25 percent of high school players at a Nike basketball camp in the late-1980s read below a sixth-grade level and only 16 percent of basketball players at the University of Louisville from 1981-1990 graduated. (Knight, 1996w, subseries 3.1, folder 162) University of Minnesota mens basketball coach Clem Haskins was forced to resign in 1999 following a school investigation when a former tutor for the team said she had written 400 papers for 20 players from 1993-1998. One assistant professor at the school complained to school administrators when he suspected some of those papers written by the players were not authentic because he said one of those papers was the best he had read in his 40 years at the university. (Sperber, 2000) A 1999 NCAA study revealed the overall graduation rate within a six-year period for Division I-A male athletes to be 58 percent, however, those rates fell to 51 percent for football players and 41 percent for basketball players. (Bowen & Shulman, 2001) Another NCAA study released in September 2002, tracked graduation rates in mens basketball compared to the overall male graduation rates at institutions from 1983-95. Among the findings were that the University of Louisville (17 percent graduation rate for mens basketball players) and the University of Oklahoma (15

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4 percent graduation rate for mens basketball players) had graduation rates for mens basketball players at least 25 percent lower than those of all male students on their campus. (Wieberg, October 18, 2002) At the end of Ohio State Universitys 2000 football season, 23 players would have been ineligible to play in a national championship bowl game after January 1 because their grade point averages fell below the NCAA-minimum of 2.00 required to remain eligible. One of those players had a 0.00 grade point average that season. (Glasser, 2002a) According to a May 2002 study in The Des Moines Register published in the USA Today, 45 of the 69 mens basketball teams from the NCAAs top six conferences had graduation rates of less than 50 percent among all their players from 1993-2000. The University of Florida, University of Oklahoma and University of Tennessee, which won three of the five Associated Press college football national championships from 1996-2001, had median graduation rates of less than 50 percent. (Witosky, 2002) According to a 2002 NCAA study, Brigham Young University, Georgia Tech and the University of Michigan all had graduation rates for football players at least 30 percent less than all male students on each campus from 1992-1995. Financial Expenses The Knight Commission was concerned that a win-at-all-costs mentality had forced institutions to make increasingly larger financial commitments to its athletic departments. Those financial commitments sometimes left athletic departments in a precarious situation when attempting to balance revenues against expenses. Here are some examples of those financial commitments since 1980: An August 3, 2001, USA Today story on college coaching salaries found 22 head football coaches and 17 mens head basketball coaches making salaries of more than $1 million a year. The highest paid coaches on that 2001 list were the University of Floridas Steve Spurrier in football at $2.1 million a year and the University of Louisvilles Rick Pitino in basketball at $2.2 million. (Wieberg, 2001a) After Texas A&M reached the Big 12 Championship Game in 1998, head coach R.C. Slocum signed a seven-year contract extension for $7 million, raising his base salary from $185,000 to $300,000 and being given a $200,000 annual raise. University of Tennessee head football coach Phil Fulmer signed a six-year contract that paid him $1 million a year after the Volunteers won the national championship in 1998. (Vitale & Weiss, 2000)

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5 Some of those coaches reach the magic mark by hitting incentives, such as money for winning a conference championship, qualifying for a bowl game or graduating a certain percentage of players. Salaries, along with a push to expand stadiums and upgrade other facilities, feed into growing concerns about an escalating athletics arms race that a majority of schools cant afford. (Wieberg, 2001a, p. 1A) University athletic department officials argued that in order to remain competitive, they must continually upgrade their facilities to attract the most promising studentathletes. In the 1990s, many athletic departments either upgraded their facilities or built new ones, often moving the expenses, including the debt-servicing, off their books and onto university ledgers. As always, athletic directors and coaches pressured presidents and administrators to approve the construction--whether the institution could afford the costs or not. (Sperber, 2000, p. 228) Since 1998, of the $635 million allocated for Ohio State Universitys capital budget, $316 was used for building new athletic facilities. If that figure is broken down per student, Ohio State spent just over $350,000 per student-athlete on improving its athletic facilities as compared to spending just over $6,600 per student on non-athletic facilities. (Glasser, 2002b) When the University of Buffalo joined the Mid-American Conference (MAC) in the early 1990s, it was forced to spend several million dollars to upgrade its facilities in order to meet minimum NCAA Division I-A standards. The school also had to increase its athletic budget from approximately $3 million (when it was a Division III school) to more than $10 million when it moved up to Division I-A, and school officials acknowledge that the sea of red ink will expand during the first decade of the twenty-first century (Sperber, 2000, p. 66). Virginia Tech athletic director Jim Weaver said, If you are not upgrading your facilities, you are going backward. A former University of Nebraska athletic official had a similar belief: When we won the national (football) championship at Nebraska in 1994, what we did instantly was continue to expand. Thats when we started the project to build skyboxes and expand the stadium and continue to improve facilities (Sperber, 2000, p. 228). Rights Fees and Corporate Sponsorships That trend in upgrading or building new university athletic facilities came partly from the enormous amounts of money institutions received from rights fees--money paid to the NCAA and athletic conferences by television networks for the rights to

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6 broadcast certain sporting events. That money was eventually dispersed to member schools through revenue-sharing plans where each school would receive a certain percentage of a total rights fee. Over the last decade, the commercialization of college sports has burgeoned. Vastly larger television deals and shoe contracts have been signed, and more and more space in stadiums and arenas has been sold to advertisers. In too many respects, big-time college sports today more closely resemble the commercialized model appropriate to professional sports than they do the academic model. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 19) Here are some examples of the rights fees since 1980: The NCAA will receive $6.2 billion from CBS television for broadcasting rights to the NCAA Mens Basketball Tournament from 2002-2013. The NCAA generated more than $275 million in revenue from the 2000 NCAA Mens Basketball Tournament, including $17.1 million from ticket sales, and distributed nearly $150 million to Division I colleges. (Vitale & Weiss, 2000) That rights fees from the NCAA Tournament has steadily increased since the mid-1980s, starting at $32 million a year from CBS in the mid-1980s, increasing to more than $60 million in 1986, more than $1 billion in 1989 and $1.7 billion in 1994 prior to the most recent contract of $6.2 billion starting in 2002. (Sperber, 2000) The Southeastern Conference (SEC) split a conference-record $95.7 million among its 12 member schools during the 2001-2002 academic year. That total was $17 million more than its previous record and represented a continuing increase in rights fees paid to SEC schools. Those rights fees were $4.1 million in 1980, $16.3 million in 1990 and $45.5 million in 1996. The SEC rights fees included $40.7 million for TV football contracts; $17.2 million in bowl game payouts; $12 million from the SEC championship football game; $12 million from the NCAA basketball tournament; and $10.3 million from TV basketball contracts. (Hyams, 2002) Sponsorships have also become an important part in the college athletic scene. Athletic apparel manufacturer Nike is responsible for many of those sponsorships. The sports marketing trend was to hook up near exclusive sponsorship deals with entire universities -as Nike had struck with the University of Miami in 1989...The University of Southern Californias football, basketball, tennis, volleyball, and track-and-field teams, for instance, would be prominently clad in Nike gear. The money would first pass through university administration and then go to the team coaches. Over half of the NCAA championship basketball teams of the past ten years had worn Nikes, and more than sixty big-time colleges were Nike schools-

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7 this, in most cases, because their coaches were Nike coaches. (Katz, 1994, pp. 25, 243) From 1980-1988, universities which had sponsorships with Nike to outfit their teams won four of eight NCAA Tournaments in mens basketball during that period. During one season in that 1980-1988 period, 23 of 64 mens basketball teams which qualified for the NCAA tournament had contracts to wear Nike products. (Katz, 1994) Focus of the Study This study examined the impact the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics played in reforming intercollegiate athletics from 1989-2001. Those dates were selected as the time period the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics remained active by either holding hearings or issuing reports. The primary questions this research is intended to answer are as follows: 1) How did a journalism-based charitable foundation dedicated to protecting the First Amendment rights of free speech decide to become involved in collegiate athletic reform? 2) How did the commission report its findings to the public, and did the commission use its connections to a media conglomerate such as Knight-Ridder Inc. to sway public opinion --through the media--about its findings? 3) How were the actions and recommendations of the Knight Commission viewed by the academic and athletic community, including administrators, faculty, coaches, and athletic directors? 4) What has been the NCAAs response to the Knight Commissions work? 5) How do members of the Knight Commission evaluate the success of the groups work.

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY To acquire further background on the Knight Commission, six commission members were interviewed. Other background on the commission was done by researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina to locate testimony from the five 1990 commission hearings used to form the basis for the first Knight Commission report in 1991. The Knight Foundation Commission Collection included a clips file of media coverage of the commission, which was also analyzed for this research. The researcher interviewed six of the 22 individuals who served on the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics during its entirety from 1989-2001. In all, 30 members served on the Knight Commission two members resigned following the 1991 report and eight members were added for the commissions fourth and final report in 2001. The following Knight Commission members were interviewed: Creed C. Black, Knight Foundation president, 1988-98; Dr. William Friday, president emeritus, University of North Carolina, Knight Commission co-chairman; Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president, Wake Forest University; C. Thomas McMillen, former U.S. congressman (D-Maryland); Richard Schultz, NCAA executive director, 1987-93; and Dr. Charles E. Young, former chancellor, UCLA, and president of the University of Florida. 8

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9 In order to receive the most accurate perspective on the Knight Commissions accomplishments, it was necessary to interview individuals who served on the commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Library System. These individuals were asked the five research questions through either personal interviews or telephone interviews from May 1-June 30, 2002. Their Institutional Review Board approval responses are included in the Appendix. The researcher also made two trips to the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill campus to use the Manuscripts Department of the Southern Historical Collection of the UNC-Chapel Hill The Academic Libraries, where the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection is housed. The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection includes 16,200 items. The collection is broken into series: Series 1 -Knight Commission Reports: Report Drafts, Final Reports, Responses and Requests for Reports Series 2 -Meeting Materials: Transcripts of Proceedings (Closed until January 1, 2004); Meeting Notes and Summaries, Masters Briefing Book, which was a clip file of Knight Foundation Commission media coverage. Series 3 -Chair, Commissioner and General Files: Files from Knight Foundation Commission member Creed Black and from staff associate director Maureen Devlin, along with Commissioner Files from several Knight members and two General Files. Series 4 -Monthly Correspondence and Bills. Series 5 -Video and Audio Tapes.

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10 A separate section contained additions made after November 1994. The researcher was able to read minutes from the five meetings from January-July of 1990 used to generate the first report of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, Keeping Faith With The Student-Athlete: A New Model For Intercollegiate Athletics. Research Limitations The research from this study was limited for the following reasons: 1) Only six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served on the commission during its entirety were interviewed. Commission members Creed C. Black and Dr. William Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight members. The researcher was able to reach six of the eight members, including Black and Friday. The criteria of interviewing members who served on the commission throughout its entirety was used because the researcher thought those members could provide a more detailed perspective on the overall accomplishments of the commission. The six individuals interviewed were generally supportive of the work of the Knight Commission. 2) The accuracy of the information collected from the interviews was predicated on members recollecting events that in some cases had occurred one decade earlier. The Knight Commission was formed in the fall of 1989, and this research began in the winter of 2002. Several members interviewed said it was difficult to recall exact details of how certain commission events transpired. Ill scratch my head and try to help, one member said. Please remember that were talking about stuff that happened 10-12 years ago. 3) While the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina contained approximately 16,200 items, those items were not all in chronological order, making it difficult to track year-by-year information, particularly financial information. For example, while there was a folder for Monthly Correspondence and Bills, complete information was not available for every year and was not arranged chronologically. Another obstacle to obtaining accurate information on the commission was that the transcripts of the commissions executive sessions, which were only open to commission members and where important decisions were sometimes made on the wording and agenda in the reports, will not be available to the public until January 1, 2004.

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CHAPTER 3 HISTORY OF KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND COMMISSION ON INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was a division of the larger John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Understanding how the Knight Commission fits into that context is important. Brothers John S. and James L. Knight formed the Knight Foundation in 1950 as a private foundation independent of their family publishing operation. The Knights father, Charles Landon Knight, purchased the familys first newspaper, the Akron Beacon-Journal, in 1903. John S. Knight inherited that paper upon his fathers death in 1933, providing the start for the Knight Newspapers chain. Knight Newspapers purchased The Miami Herald in 1937, and James L. Knight moved to Miami to run the paper. Over the next three decades, Knight Newspapers acquired newspapers including the Detroit Free Press, Charlotte (N.C.) Observer and Tallahassee Democrat. Knight Newspapers became a public corporation by offering public stock in 1969. In 1974, Knight Newspapers Inc. merged with Ridder Publications, Inc. to form the Knight-Ridder newspaper chain. Knight-Ridder incorporated in Ohio in 1974 and reincorporated in Florida in 1976, where it opened its headquarters that same year and remained until moving to the Silicon Valley region of San Jose, California, in 1998. By 2002, the Knight-Ridder Inc. chain was comprised of 32 daily newspapers, as well as the Real Cities Internet network of 54 regional web sites (www.knightfdn.org). 11

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12 The Knight Foundation was formed from the original Knight Memorial Education Fund, created in 1940 in memory of Charles Landon Knight, who was instrumental in helping Akron, Ohio-area college students with college funding. The funds assets of just under $10,000 were transferred to the Knight Foundation when the organization was formed in December of 1950. Almost from the beginning, however, the Foundation made small grants to educational, cultural and social service institutions--mostly in Akron--and, on a very limited basis, for journalism-related courses. For the first 10 years, the Foundations assets came from contributions from the Akron Beacon Journal and The Miami Herald and personal gifts by John S. and James L. Knight. Other Knight newspapers began to contribute small amounts in the early 1960s--a move that led to a limited number of grants to cities from which the contributions came. Newspaper contributions stopped in 1965 with the Foundations first major infusion of assets--a bequest of 180,000 shares of Knight Newspapers stock from the Knights mother, Clara I. Knight. . A turning point came in 1972 when the board of trustees authorized the sale of Clara Knights stock in a secondary offering by Knight Newspapers. The sale raised $21,343,500, increased the Foundations assets to more than $24 million and initiated an expanded grant program focused on the growing number of cities where the Knights published newspapers. Journalism, especially the education of journalists, became a matter of more pronounced funding interest. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, p. 37) The Knight Foundation opened its first office in Akron in 1975, the same year John S. Knight bequested the remainder of his estate to the organization upon his death. John S. Knight passed away on June 16, 1981, and almost five years later, on May 5, 1986, the Knight Foundation received a transfer of funds from the bulk of John S. Knights estate-$428.1 million. James L. Knight passed away in February of 1991, also bequesting the Knight Foundation $200 million from his estate (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993). Creed C. Black, a former publisher of the Knight-Ridder newspaper, the Lexington Herald-Leader, who later served as Knight Foundation president from 1988-98 and is now a member of the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees, said the organization began

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13 focusing more of its charitable resources towards liberal arts colleges beginning in the late 1980s (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). The Knight Foundation concentrated its efforts in these primary areas: journalism, nonprofit organizations, arts and culture, education, children/social welfare, citizenship, community development, homelessness, and literacy. That philanthropic initiative was headlined by the foundations Knight Community Initiatives Program, whose primary mission was to award charitable contributions to organizations in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder-owned newspaper was published when James L. Knight passed away in 1991. The Knight Foundation had just begun to change its mission to community-based fundraising prior to James L. Knights death. The largest contribution from the Knight Community Initiatives Program was awarded to Dade County, home of The Miami Herald, when the Knight Foundation created a $10 million fund to aid the county in the cleanup following Hurricane Andrew in 1992 (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993). Journalism proved an especially fertile area for initiatives as educational needs and free-press and First Amendment issues created opportunities for funding with impact. . Journalism, especially the education of journalists, became a matter of more pronounced funding interest. . In journalism, the Foundation built on the Knights legacy of support for education as the cornerstone of quality journalism by establishing, salvaging or strengthening some of the professions most prestigious midcareer fellowship programs for journalists. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, pp. 39, 37, 33) The Knight Foundation invested more than $153 million in its Journalism Program, including more than $30 million in grants to nonprofit organizations working to improve journalism. That undertaking has also included funding of 16 Knight Chairs of Journalism in endowed tenured teaching positions at various institutions across the country, including the University of Florida, to promote the importance of a free press.

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14 According to the Knight Foundations Statement of Financial Position as of Dec. 31, 2000, the organizations assets totaled $2.1 billion. The organization awarded $113.5 million in grants in 2000 alone (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001). In analyzing the Knight Foundations history, it would appear initially that intercollegiate athletics did not fall within the primary mission of an organization that had dedicated so many resources to enhancing journalism programs or improving social programs in areas with a Knight-Ridder newspaper. However, at least one Knight Foundation Commission member said the reforming of college sports fit perfectly into the organizations goals. Broaden your mind a little, said Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the University of North Carolina and a Knight Commission co-chairman. While athletics is the vehicle, the issue is really the integrity of the American university that plays college sports. Knight saw this as a chance to define what the role should be (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics originated in October of 1989 through the Knight Foundations Higher Education program. Knight trustees created the original Commission in 1989, seeing intercollegiate athletic reform as a goal worthy of a foundation that identified higher education as one of its primary interests. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, p. 36) When the Knight Commission was initially created in 1989, five former university presidents, including Friday, served on a Knight Foundation higher education advisory board. Friday suggested to Creed Black the possibility of forming a Knight Foundation committee dealing with intercollegiate athletic issues. Black then traveled across the

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15 country to gauge the support of university presidents about the formation of such a commission (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). The idea was to get together a national blue ribbon commission that would look at proposals and suggest reform agendas concentrating on university athletics, Black said in explaining the impetus for the Knight Commission (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). The issue also was important to Black because he was publisher of the Lexington Herald-Leader in the fall of 1985 when the newspaper published a series of articles about a scandal involving University of Kentucky basketball players accepting cash and gifts from UK boosters and alumni. Herald-Leader staff writers Jeffrey Marx and Michael York, who did the bulk of the research and writing for the series, received anonymous death threats just after the series was published, yet they also won a Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting in 1986 (Marx, York, 1985). But that was not the only university athletic scandal of the 1980s. In the 1980s, 109 colleges and universities were censured, sanctioned or put on probation by the NCAA . including half the universities playing at the NCAAs top competitive level, I-A--57 institutions out of 106. Nearly a third of present and former professional football players responding to a survey near the end of the 1980s said they had accepted illicit payments while in college, and more than half said they saw nothing wrong with the practice. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commisison, June 2001, p. 9) A 1989 Associated Press-Media General Survey found that the majority of the general public believed that the institutions with the top athletic programs paid their student-athletes, or did so by a secret payment through the schools booster club. They also believed those institutions altered student-athlete grades in order to remain eligible. Two-thirds of those surveyed said the colleges overemphasize sports and neglect academic standards for athletes (Thelin, 1996).

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16 The public perception of college sports in the late 1980s may have been epitomized by a July 1989 Louis Harris Poll revealing that eight of 10 individuals from the general public believed intercollegiate athletics were out of control. Other results from that poll were that 79 percent of those surveyed believed a university held a different standard for the academic progress of a star recruit and that 77 percent of those surveyed believes athletic scandals were undermining the traditional role of universities (Knight, 1996h). The atmosphere appeared ideal to form a committee to study the problems facing college sports. The real provocation behind it all was the poll Louis Harris did in , Friday said. Most of us being college-identified found that very hard to accept. But the testimony on it was quite clear (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). The time was right, Black said. Our feeling was that the problem had gotten so serious that it was endangering the integrity of what higher education was all about. The tail was wagging the dog rather than the other way around (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). In testimony Black gave to the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection & Competitiveness on June 19, 1991, he further explained why the commission was formed: It was not . out of any hostility toward college athletics. Our interest is not to abolish that role but to preserve it by putting it back in perspective. We saw that as a worthy goal for a foundation which has a major program interest in the field of higher education. Black convinced the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees of the need for a commission dealing with intercollegiate athletic reform measures. The board of trustees agreed on September 22, 1989, and pledged $2 million over two years to start the Knight

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17 Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). On October 19, 1989, Black announced at a press conference in Akron, Ohio, the former home of the Knight Foundation, the formation of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. A Knight Foundation press release described the formation of the commission: The Knight Foundation is establishing a national blue-ribbon commission to develop and build support for a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics. . the commission would be an independent body with no mandate except to make whatever additional study of the problem it considers necessary and then propose specific, workable solutions. (Knight Foundation News Release, 1989) Black was joined at the conference by Knight Commission co-chairmen, the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, president emeritus of the University of Notre Dame, and Friday. Black said membership on the Knight Commission was based on including university presidents from the major athletic conferences, as well as individuals familiar with intercollegiate athletic reform (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). When the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics began holding hearings in 1990 to formulate the agenda for its first report, Hesburgh spoke during the fourth hearing on May 15, 1990, about where this commission needed to be different from past intercollegiate athletic commissions (Knight, 1996f). The last thing we wanted to do was to be redundant. There have been commissions going all the way back to Teddy Roosevelts time and most of them have accomplished just about nil. Theyve put out nice reports which have duly gathered dust on various shelves and we dont want to do that. (p. 28) The first Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics appointee was Richard Schultz, at the time the NCAAs executive director and later an executive director of the U.S. Olympic Committee. Schultz told Black he felt the NCAA would be

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18 receptive to listening to the Knight Commissions recommendations, particularly after Schultz had encouraged NCAA members to make major changes and major commitments to restructuring and reform within the organization at the 1989 NCAA Convention. Schultz also helped choose the first commission (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002; R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). In addition, each Knight Commission member had to be approved by the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees (Knight, 1996d). As names came up, (Black) ran a general list by me, Schultz said. We talked about what the balance should be; that it needed to be more than just collegiate people. We finally came up with enough names (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). We wanted to make it as representative as possible, Friday said. Thats why we had Afro-Americans, we had women, we had senior college presidents, we had small institution presidents, we had Olympic representation and NCAA representation. We were trying to reflect players to their people. We took people from every conference of the country (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). On November 16, 1989, the full 21-member initial Knight Commission was announced at another press conference in Akron. Besides co-chairs Hesburgh and Friday, as well as Black, who served as an ex-officio member, and Schultz, the remainder of the first Knight Commission was comprised of: Lamar Alexander, president of the University of Tennessee; Douglas S. Dibbert from the University of North Carolina and president-elect of the Council of Alumni Association Executives; Dr. John A. DiBiaggio, president of Michigan State University;

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19 Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University; J. Lloyd Huck, chairman of the board of Pennsylvania State University; Dr. Bryce Jordan, president emeritus of Pennsylvania State University; Richard W. Kazmaier, president of Kazmaier & Associates and the last Heisman Trophy winner from the Ivy League when he won the award with Princeton in 1951, as well as chairman of the Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports; Donald R. Keough, president of the Coca-Cola Co.; Dr. Martin A. Massengale, president of the University of Nebraska; C. Thomas McMillen, U.S. congressman from Maryland, a former NBA basketball player and All-America at the University of Maryland, as well as a Rhodes scholar; Dr. Chase N. Peterson, president of the University of Utah; Jane C. Pfeiffer, former chairman of NBC; Dr. A. Kenneth Pye, president of Southern Methodist University; Donna E. Shalala, chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Leroy T. Walker, president emeritus of the U.S. Olympic Committee, chancellor emeritus of North Carolina Central University and past president of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics; Dr. James J. Whalen, president of Ithaca College and chairman of the American Council of Education; Clifton R. Wharton, chairman and CEO of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association-College Retirement Equities Fund; Dr. Charles E. Young, chancellor of the University of California at Los Angeles. Upon formation in the fall of 1989, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics opened an office in Charlotte, North Carolina, and hired a three-person staff by the first week of October of 1989. The Knight Commission received more than 25 resumes inquiring about employment opportunities with the commission (Knight, 1996ff). Christopher Kit Morris, a former athletic director at Davidson College and

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20 associate athletic director at Yale University, became staff director. Maureen Devlin, who had previously worked in the NCAA compliance and legislative services offices, became assistant staff director. Bryan Skelton became an administrative assistant. All three were hired on a consultant basis with the idea it would be a temporary position, according to Devlin (M. Devlin, personal communication, October 9, 2002). Knight Commission expenses for 1989 were $146,608, with the majority ($100,000) being for staff administrative costs to set up the Charlotte office (Knight, 1996n). The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics held its first meetings on January 30-31, 1990, and devised a strategic plan in which its first set of recommendations for its first report were based on a series of five hearings over the next six months with individuals familiar with intercollegiate athletic policy such as conference commissioners, faculty athletic representatives, athletic directors, coaches, television executives, professional sports representatives and student-athletes. All the hearings were held in Washington, D.C. The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics paid the expenses of all participants to travel to the hearings. Each group was asked to speak about the biggest problems they perceived in intercollegiate athletics and offer some possible solutions (Knight, 1996s). Knight Commission co-chairman Father Theodore Hesburgh said the commission needed to listen to as many intercollegiate athletic sources to understand the primary problems facing intercollegiate athletics in the late-1980s and early-1990s (Knight, 1996e). We think if we stay on the main track and pull in as much information as we can from those who are acquainted with the problems and have had to live with them or live against them that is the best thing we can do. (p. 9)

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21 On March 13-14, 1990, the Knight Commission met with conference commissioners from the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten, Southwestern, Mideastern and Big Eight. That was followed by a second hearing with 13 faculty athletic representatives and 16 athletic directors on April 16-17, 1990. On May 14-15, 1990, the third hearing was held with 12 college basketball and football coaches. The basketball coaches included Dale Brown (LSU); Bobby Knight (Indiana); Mike Kryzewski (Duke); Digger Phelps (Notre Dame); Dean Smith (North Carolina); John Thompson (Georgetown); and Roy Williams (Kansas). Among the football coaches were Terry Donahue (UCLA); Dennis Green (Stanford); Dick MacPherson (Syracuse); Tom Osbourne (Nebraska); and Joe Paterno (Penn State). The fifth and final hearing was June 28-29, 1990, with National Football League (NFL) Commissioner Paul Tagliablue, National Basketball Association (NBA) Deputy Commissioner Russ Granik; six student-athletes selected from the NCAA Student-Athlete Committee; several representatives from high school associations; representatives from the NCAA Certification Program; and university faculty. (Knight, 1996s). Several NCAA basketball coaches complimented the Knight Commission for seeking their suggestions on ways to improve college sports during the fourth hearing on May 15, 1990 (Knight, 1996f). Indiana coach Bobby Knight said: I dont remember one other time where weve ever had a chance to either directly or indirectly have input into things that were affecting basketball. (pp. 36-37)

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22 Notre Dame coach Digger Phelps shared a similar sentiment: Personally, in 25 years of college coaching, Ive never been able to sit down with a group of college presidents and say, Hey, listen, heres what were going through in the battlefield. (p. 140) We had a group of power coaches -the football and basketball coaches -and one of the first things they said was this is the first time weve ever been asked for our opinion about anything, which I thought was incredible, said Dr. William Friday (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). However, not all participants from those meetings were always supportive of the Knight Commission agenda. Albert Witte, the University of Arkansas faculty athletic representative and NCAA president in 1990, questioned the necessity of the Knight Commission and suggested the commission should shift its emphasis to high schools during the third hearing with faculty athletic representatives on April 16, 1990 (Knight, 1996e). I had hoped that the Commission would not plow the same ground that has been plowed and replowed and is currently being plowed again by all sorts of other groups. I havent heard a thing today that strikes me as the first time I have heard it. (p. 125) The athletic director at the University of Michigan said the presidents get in here and they get all excited and they try to tell us how to run our business, but theyll go away and well keep doing what we want, Friday said. That didnt happen this time. They didnt want anything to happen, thats the point (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). By the time the Knight Commission completed its first five hearings of 1990, the group had met with more than 90 individuals associated with intercollegiate athletics, including conference commissioners, faculty athletic representatives, athletic directors,

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23 senior women administrators, college football and basketball coaches and student-athletes (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993). The Knight Commission then met on Sept. 23-25, 1990, in West Palm Beach, Florida, and analyzed testimony from those five hearings and began formulating how it would draft the first report. The commission spent the remainder of the fall of 1990 revising the first report and its recommendations. Knight Commission member Dr. James J. Whalen said in a December 4, 1990, letter faxed to Kit Morris and Maureen Devlin that the report still needed to be revised and edited more sharply: The most serious concern I would share is that I dont think the report packs enough punch relative to the expectations we have raised in several quarters. We have gone to great lengths to publicize and promote the Knight Commission and its deliberations with the idea that the resulting recommendations would be the key elements in furthering the athletic reform movement. (Knight, 1996e) In helping prioritize its recommendations, the Knight Commission also hired the public polling group Louis Harris and Associates of New York City in the fall of 1990 to conduct a follow-up survey from its 1989 poll on intercollegiate athletics. Harris, founder of Louis Harris and Associates of New York City, a public polling organization, was an acquaintance of Black and attended several of the commission hearings throughout 1990. At the first commission hearing on Jan. 30-31, 1990, Harris released the findings of a college athletics poll conducted by his organization to aid the Knight Commission in creating a framework for the first report. That 1989 poll found that 77 percent of respondents believed college athletic scandals undermined the traditional role of universities and that 78 percent of the general public and 75 percent of sports fans believed college athletics were out of control. (Knight, 1996e) In a December 14, 1990, letter to Black, Harris outlined the parameters of the follow-up survey his organization would conduct for the Knight Commission. The plan

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24 was for the Harris follow-up survey to be released with the first report and then a second Harris poll to be released prior to the third report to show the impact the Knight Commission had made in reforming college athletics since its inception in 1989 (Knight, 1996c). Harris and Associates were paid more than $200,000 for conducting the follow-up survey and second poll. The follow-up survey consisted of phone interviews with approximately 1,000 individuals affiliated with intercollegiate athletics and another 1,250 randomly selected individuals from the general public (from December of 1990 through January of 1991) to determine their main concerns involving intercollegiate athletics (Knight, 1996p). Harris and Associates conducted 2,273 phone interviews from December 18, 1990-February 17, 1991, and split the responses into separate categories such as university presidents, university trustees, athletic directors, faculty athletic representatives, members of Congress and male and female athletes (Knight, 1996h). Each group was asked to evaluate the extent of problems in intercollegiate athletics and then their support for and belief in the effectiveness of a series of reform proposals. ... The purpose of the project goes beyond a straight up or down read on a series of reform proposals. It maps out which reforms are perceived as most important and how the whole array of constituencies line up on reform. (p. i) Participants were asked their views on college sports at the time the survey was conducted in the early 1990s. Each participant was asked specifically about the biggest problem facing college sports. In relation to this research, the two primary questions asked in the survey were 1) What is the extent of the problem? 2) Do you believe the problem is a threat to the integrity of universities? In response to the first question, the following majorities felt intercollegiate athletics were out of control: 81% of faculty; 75% of the general public; 68% of trustees;

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25 59% of members of Congress. In response to the second question, if serious rules violations have undermined the integrity of universities, the majority of the following groups agreed with that statement: 85% of faculty representatives; 76% of presidents; 75% of trustees; 69% of athletic directors; 63% of coaches; and 56% of boosters (Knight, 1996h). By the spring of 1991, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was prepared to release its first report, Keeping Faith With The Student-Athlete: A New Model for Intercollegiate Athletics. That document ... placed less emphasis on specific solutions for the problems in college sports and more on proposing a structure for reform. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, p. 10) The Knight Commissions primary reform model, one-plus-three, originated in the first report. The one-plus-three model was defined as university presidents (being the one) having direct control over an entire university athletic department, including trustees, alumni and boosters. The three would consist of : academic integrity a students eligibility would be measured by their academic performance and continual progress toward a degree; financial integrity all athletic funds would be approved and funneled through a universitys financial department; independent certification universities would go through an annual independent audit on all athletic department matters as well as undergo a certification program to ensure the athletic department is adhering to that individual universitys financial and academic policy. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, March 1991) We felt those were the things that created a lot of attention, Schultz said in explaining why the Knight Commission concentrated reforms in those three areas. We felt the graduation rate was not where it should be. We felt the athletic expenditures were out of control. And we felt corporate sponsorships were starting to play a big part. The

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26 need for corporate dollars were starting to dictate policy (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). Several Knight Commission members said that first report made the most substantial progress in intercollegiate athletic reform of the four reports the commission issued (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002; R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). For the purpose of this research, the first Knight Commission report was the primary report studied. The Knight Commission also issued ensuing reports in 1992, 1993 and 2001. By the spring of 1991, the Knight Commission completed all the revisions and was prepared to release the 47-page first report, Keeping Faith With The Student-Athlete: A New Model for Intercollegiate Athletics. In order to maximize publicity for the report, the commission planned to announce the findings of the report, along with the findings of the 1990-91 Louis Harris poll, at a morning press conference on March 19, 1991, followed later that evening by the airing of a documentary produced by Bill Moyers of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS). The poll and documentary pertained to intercollegiate athletics and were funded by the Knight Commission (Knight, 1996g). Several Knight Commission members said Moyers added credibility to the work of the commission. In more than 25 years of broadcasting, Moyers is considered an acclaimed journalist for establishing Public Affairs Television in 1986, as well as Bill Moyers Journal. He is a former senior news analyst for the CBS Evening News and a chief correspondent for CBS Reports. He has produced a series of investigative, cultural pieces for the Public Broadcasting Systems and has won more than 30 Emmy Awards for excellence by The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. He was elected to

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27 the Television Hall of Fame in 1995 and is a former recipient of the Gold Baton from Columbia University (Moyers, 2002). To bring greater visibility to the Knight Commission report and the work of the commission, the Knight Commission also paid the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton of New York City more than $50,000 from October of 1990 through March of 1993 to publicize the first three reports (Knight Commission, 1996n). According to Creed Black, Hill & Knowlton developed a list of media contacts, prepared and distributed press releases, made arrangements for the Knight Commission press conferences and set up interviews and media appearances by Knight Commission members (C. Black, e-mail, October 1, 2002). According to the Knight Commission budgets from 1989 through mid-1992, the commission spent $12,241 on public relations in 1989, $7,744 in 1990 and $153,269 in 1991 (Knight, 1996p). The Knight Commission spent $137,483 on the printing and distribution of the first report. According to the Knight Commission Report Distribution Scenarios, more than 20,000 copies of the report were printed and sent to university trustees, presidents, athletic directors, conference commissioners, senior women athletics administrators, faculty athletic representatives, guests who spoke at commission hearings and university libraries. Knight Commission members could also obtain extra copies of the report. According to the Knight Commission budget of June 30, 1992, the group spent $300,000 on the production of the Bill Moyers 1991 documentary. The Knight Commission also funded two informational videos about trustees proper role in athletics

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28 and another video Knight Commission could use for speaking engagements (Knight, 1996n). On March 19, 1991, a significant day for the Knight Commission, the first report was released at a morning press conference at the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C. Later that evening, the 90-minute Moyers documentary, Sports for Sale, aired on PBS, followed by a 30-minute, televised panel discussion moderated by Moyers with several Knight Commission members, including co-chairs Hesburgh and Friday. Sports for Sale dealt with the problems facing intercollegiate athletics in the United States in the early 1990s. The release of the findings from the first report warranted enough interest that 12 national media outlets were among the 43 affiliates attending the press conference. More than 200 people attended the morning press conference, including reporters from the following media outlets: Cox Broadcasting, CBS News, Cox Communications, NewsLink, The New York Times, ESPN, The Chronicle of Higher Education, the Chicago Tribune, the Washington Post, CNN, ABC News, Newhouse Newspapers, the Baltimore Sun, Potomac News, Group-W TV, Des Moines Register, Education Daily, Unistar News, Winston-Salem Journal, USA Today, Ann Arbor News, Akron Beacon-Journal, ABC Radio, United Press International (UPI), Education Week, U.S. News & World Report, the Associated Press (AP), the Los Angeles Times, Catholic News Service, Lincoln (Neb.) Star, Knight-Ridder newspapers, WUSA-TV (Washington, D.C.), Scripps-Howard News Service, Kiplingers, the New Orleans Times-Picauyne and the Voice of America (Knight, 1996b).

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29 Several Knight Commission members said that media attention was a positive step in helping promote the commissions agenda (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). Several of those national newspapers published Knight Commission stories prominently in their March 20, 1991, editions--on either the front page of the entire paper or the front page of the sports section--on the release of the report. The Washington Post published three Knight Commission stories on March 20: a lead story on its front page, a column by sports columnist Thomas Boswell on the front page of the sports section and an editorial on its editorial page. The Washington Times published one story on the front page of the sports section. USA Today published a short story and a box including some of the Knight Commission recommendations on its front page, as well as another sidebar story on the inside of its sports section. The New York Times published a story on the front page of its sports section with a three-column jump to an inside page, including a two-column box listing the names and titles of all Knight Commission members, as well as the address to write to receive a copy of the report. In analyzing Knight Commission media coverage, it is important to consider whether the commission used its connections to Knight-Ridder Inc. to sway public opinion on the findings. Did more Knight-Ridder papers attend the Knight Commission press conference? Was there also a greater probability that a commission members hometown newspaper would attend the press conference? Creed Black said in an October 1, 2002, e-mail that because the Knight Foundation is a private foundation and operates independently of Knight-Ridder Inc., We were in no position to use those newspapers for anything. I personally was disappointed in the Knight-Ridder coverage, or rather lack of it, throughout the life of the commission

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30 because I thought the papers were ignoring the corruption of college athletics, often in their own backyards (C. Black, e-mail, October 1, 2002). The Charlotte Observer, a Knight-Ridder newspaper, ran a preview story the day of the press conference announcing that the commissions findings would be released that day, then published three stories--on the front page, the front page of the sports section and on the editorial page--the following day. One of those stories, Commission membership has North Carolina flavor, featured the North Carolina connections to the commission: Dr. William Friday was former president of the states university system, Dr. Thomas K. Hearn was president of Wake Forest University in Durham, N.C.; Leroy Walker was a former coach at North Carolina Central University and Douglas Dibbert was affiliated with the General Alumni Association of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. The Charlotte Observer and the Akron Beacon Journal, along with a Knight-Ridder representative, were the only Knight-Ridder newspapers at the press conference. That meant those newspapers could run their stories on the Knight-Ridder wire, allowing other Knight-Ridder newspapers such as The Miami Herald, Detroit Free Press, Wichita Eagle and The Lexington Herald-Leader access to Knight Commission coverage and to be able to run follow-up stories on March 20. The Akron Beacon Journal is in the former hometown of the Knight Foundation, The Miami Herald is in the current hometown of the Knight Foundation and The Lexington Herald-Leaders former publisher was Knight Commission member Creed Black. The Los Angeles Times ran a front-page story on March 20; Knight Commission member Dr. Charles Young was chancellor of UCLA at the time.

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31 Many of those second-day stories were confined to news coverage of the press conference. It was not until the five to seven days following the announcement that more critical stories of the Knight Commission began appearing. Many of those criticisms accused the Knight Commission of not offering enough specific solutions for reforming college sports. In a March 25, 1991, story in The Washington Post, writer Jonathan Yardley said the Knight Commission offends no one and therefore may please everyone . it offers nothing more than symbolic reform . and shies away from real reform. David Halahan, in a USA Today editorial on March 22, criticized the Knight Commission for spending a year on a study that offered no new findings or solutions. Ira Berkow of The New York Times in a March 22 story and Richard Demak of Sports Illustrated in the April 1 edition paralleled the Knight Commission with the Carnegie Foundation, intimating that neither group offered the drastic changes needed to truly reform college sports. In Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate Athletics, author John R. Thelin said historically that groups without any power to legislate reform, such as the Knight Commission, have difficulty in implementing their recommendations. Although the report of a major foundation or a higher education association provides a broad view and a national context for problems between academics and athletics that have percolated up from the various colleges and universities, it does not follow that a report or recommendations from a blue ribbon panel or a national commission leads to reform. (Thelin, 1996, p. 11) Even prior to the release of Knight Commission findings, author Murray Sperber, in the Jan.-Feb. 1991 edition of Academe, a higher education trade publication, said, This commission has been long on hearings and short on ideas. In his 2000 book, Campus Chaos: Why The Game I Love is Breaking My Heart, college basketball television analyst Dick Vitale, while not specifically criticizing the

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32 Knight Foundation Commission, said athletic department decisions should be made by athletic department officials and not university presidents. Vitale said, A basketball coach wouldnt tell a psychology prof how to draw up a curriculum for his class (Vitale & Weiss, 2000, p. 91). Sperber wrote about many of the issues the Knight Commission addressed in his 2000 book, Beer and Circus: How Big-time College Sports Is Crippling Undergraduate Education. In the book, Sperber illustrated how a university president has public sentiment against him when dealing with a popular coach, player or athletic director involved in a scandal--suggesting that presidential control over athletic departments may be unrealistic at many universities. Sperber also intimated that university presidents were hesitant to take control over athletic department finances, which often allowed those expenses to go unfettered. The Knight Commission went through a lengthy process of holding the five hearings to help identify the major problems in college sports and then build its first report around those problems. However, extensive planning also went into determining the best method for releasing the reports to bring awareness to major issues facing college sports. That is why the commission brought in a New York City public relations firm and funded a documentary produced by renowned public affairs journalist Bill Moyers. The commission obviously was hoping for as much media attention as possible.

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CHAPTER 4 REACTIONS TO THE FIRST KNIGHT COMMISSION REPORT While media coverage of the first report was important to the Knight Commission, another area that needed to be considered was how the commission would be perceived by those individuals not in the media, particularly those in higher education. The higher education spectrum was split into the athletic community, such as coaches, athletic directors and conference commissioners, and the academic community, such as university administrators and faculty. In evaluating the impact of the first Knight Commission report, two primary areas to consider included: I. Academic Responses -actions taken by universities in responding to the report; II. Federal Legislation -federal legislation originating as a result of the report. Academic Responses The academic community, those not directly involved in intercollegiate athletics, had a mixed reaction to the Knight Commission report. Presidents, boards of trustees, higher education associations and athletic conferences welcomed the opportunity to reform college athletics. The Knight Commission tracked the responses of universities after sending the first report by including a survey along with the report for universities to complete. Among the group that returned the survey: 24 universities adopted or endorsed the report; seven adopted the report in principle; six endorsed the report; seven supported or adopted certain recommendations from the report; 20 supported the general philosophy of the 33

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34 report; 29 mentioned the report in athletic department discussions; eight supported the commission; and 24 responded only that they had received the report (Knight, 1996b). Endorsements from presidents in particular offered strong support for the work of the Knight Commission. In letters written to Black, University of Miami Communications Dean Edward J. Pfister said, in my view, it is already a success, while Louis J. Batson Jr., chairman of the board of trustees of Clemson University, said, the Knight Commission can be proud that it took the initiative to do such a report (Knight, 1996b). In a March 22 letter to Black, University of New Orleans Chancellor Gregory M St. L. OBrien said, the document stands as a wonderful blueprint for us. Two March 25 letters to Black also contained strong support, with Midwestern State University President Louis J. Rodriguez saying, it contains superb recommendations, and Davidson College President John W. Kuykendall said he was impressed with the breadth and balance of the job. Higher education associations also endorsed the Knight Commission. Alan Pifer, chairman of the Southport Institute for Policy Analysis, described the report as being, clear, forceful and courageous and tackles the issues head on, in a March 25 letter to Dr. William Friday. The National Association of College Admission Counselors Executive Board also endorsed the report, as did the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities and the American Council on Education and the General Alumni Association of the University of North Carolina (Knight, 1996b).

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35 Public universities, such as the board of trustees of the University of North Carolina, University of Pittsburgh and Southern Methodist University and the presidents of Virginias public universities, offered support with resolutions either endorsing the Knight Commission recommendations or adopting new resolutions based on the first report. Penn State University requested 125 copies of the report and distributed them to all of the universitys head coaches and assistant coaches. The Knight Commission recommendations were also endorsed by larger conferences such as the Big 10 and Western Athletic Conference, as well as smaller conferences such as the Patriot League, Southern Conference and Mon-Dak Conference (Knight, 1996b). Several schools also created committees to reevaluate their compliance to parts of the Knight Commission report. In the fall of 1991, Syracuse University formed a Faculty Oversight Committee to investigate a scandal involving the schools mens basketball program as well as consider restructuring the athletic department (Knight, 1996t). Texas A&M University formed a Knight Commission Task Force of students, alumni and administrators to study the schools compliance with the Knight Commission report and used the report as the primary part of a meeting amongst the schools faculty, students, administrators, athletic department personnel and coaches (Knight, 1996u). The University of Nevada at Las Vegas created a version of the Knight Commission report, The College Student-Athlete Project, to examine the relationship between academics and athletics at the school (Knight, 1996v). From the presidents it was very positive, said Knight Commission member Richard Schultz in explaining the reaction from parts of the academic community. It was mostly positive from the conference commissioners. You had some coaches and athletic

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36 directors that probably grumbled a little bit. Its hard to come up with something to make everybody happy. For something like that and the findings we came up with, it was very, very positive, much more so than I thought (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). Faculty, however, were more skeptical. Several Knight Commission members intimated faculty did not closely follow the actions of the Knight Commission (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002; T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). There was probably a lot more interest on the part of administrators than faculty, said Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, Wake Forest University president and Knight Commission member. Faculty members have always taken a kind of arms length attitude toward intercollegiate athletics (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). Knight Commission co-chairman Dr. William Friday described the faculty tone toward the Knight Commission--and intercollegiate athletics in general. Most of the faculty at these institutions have defaulted, Friday said. They will not exercise any action. Theyve grown cynical about it. Theyve seen the abuses of it. Theyve seen the coaches paid those terrible salaries. They see the stature of the president riding on the football team. They see them (the presidents) wearing the (school) sweatshirts (on TV). Theyve (faculty) given up or capitulated (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). Knight Commission member C. Thomas McMillen said the perception was that the group should have made more powerful recommendations. It was not enough, but people always say this is not enough, McMillen said. What the first Knight

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37 Commission did was prod the system. It was more of a jaw-boning exercise. You cant take a group of presidents and get them to blow up the system. It was done to rebuild the system and that much happened (T. McMillen, personal communication, June 21, 2002). Federal Legislation During the first Knight Commission hearings and release of the first report, McMillen was a U.S. congressman from Maryland. McMillen also played professional basketball in the NBA, and following his term in Congress, he later served as a co-chairman of the Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. However, McMillens ties to the U.S. government resulted in one of the pieces of federal legislation involving the Knight Commission. The first piece of legislation came from U.S. Congressman Richard E. Neal of Massachusetts. During the first session of the 102nd Congress on April 11, 1991, less than one month after the release of the first Knight Commission report, Neal introduced Resolution 119, encouraging institutions to implement the work of the Knight Commission. Resolution 119 further urged the NCAA to consider the Knight Commission recommendations at its 1992 Convention and proposed federal legislation to protect student-athletes. (H. Con. Res. 119) However, in an April 15, 1991 letter from Knight Commission co-chairman Father Theodore Hesburgh to Rep. Neal, Hesburgh discouraged Congress from becoming involved in policing intercollegiate athletics. Hesburgh said the framework for individual institutional policing came from the Knight Commissions independent certification proposal.

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38 During the second session of the 102nd Congress on July 25, 1991, Rep. McMillen also introduced the Collegiate Athletics Reform Act (H.R. 3046), 1 which covered 10 steps for reforming intercollegiate athletics and threatened federal intervention if the NCAA and individual institutions did not comply. Among those 10 steps included the Knight Commission recommendations of presidential control of the NCAA and disallowing institutions from revoking a scholarship if a student-athlete maintains minimum academic requirements of that institution. In addition, the bill paralleled the Knight Commission recommendation of presidential approval of all athletic expenses by requiring institutions to send its revenues and expenditures for each sport to the U.S. Department of Education. The Collegiate Athletic Reform Act was sent to six sub-committees in the week following its introduction and was still waiting for approval as of the fall of 2002. 1The Collegiate Athletics Reform Act would grant the NCAA a temporary exemption from antitrust laws so the NCAA could negotiate exclusive contracts with commercial sponsors and the use of those sponsors logos in post-season events involving NCAA member institutions. It would also allow the NCAA the right to sell the telecast of those post-season events. That antitrust exemption was one of three main parts of the bill. The second part of the bill, Tax Provisions, would amend the Internal Revenue Code to allow income and deductions from the television contract in the first part to be allowed in determining the NCAAs or a members institutions unrelated business income. The third part of the bill, Education Program Requirements, would require institutions to disclose their total revenues and expenses for each sport to prospective student-athletes, as well as requiring athletic scholarships be renewed each year of the student-athlete is making satisfactory academic progress. Bill Summary & Status for the 102nd Congress, H.R. 3046, Sponsor: Rep. McMillen, introduced 07/25/91.

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CHAPTER 5 KNIGHT COMMISSION AND THE NCAA In evaluating the success of the Knight Commission, an important factor was the commissions relationship with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the organization which sets athletic policy and enforces athletic regulations for intercollegiate athletics. The Knight Commission shared an important relationship with the NCAA since the largest NCAA structural change was based on a recommendation from the commission. However, to understand the role of the Knight Commission and NCAA, it is necessary to briefly examine the history of intercollegiate athletic governance in the United States and where the NCAA fits into that context. Concerned about the dangers of the new sport of football in 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt convened two conferences to consider reform measures for football. During the second reform meeting on December 28 in New York City, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS), the first governing organization for intercollegiate athletics, was created with 62 members. By 1910, the IAAUS became the NCAA. For its first decade of existence, the NCAA primarily developed rules for college sports. In 1921, the NCAA staged its first national championship between member institutions, the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. National championships in other sports began being held in the 1920s and 1930s. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code--adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid--failed to curb abuses involving student-athletes. Postseason football games were multiplying rapidly. Member institutions were increasingly concerned about the 39

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40 effects of unrestricted television on football attendance. (NCAA Online, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/about/history.html) Walter Byers was the NCAAs first executive director in 1951, and the NCAA established its national headquarters in Kansas City in 1952. The organizations first structural change occurred in 1973 when the NCAA split into three divisions based on the number of varsity sports an institution sponsors. In 1978, Division I football was expanded into three divisions of I, I-A and I-AA. The NCAA established womens athletic programs in 1980 and formed a governing plan for womens athletics in 1983, as well as creating 19 national championships for womens sports. As of 2002, NCAA membership was comprised of approximately 1,200 higher education institutions, athletic conferences and non-profit sports organizations affiliated with amateur athletics. Of the 1,200 NCAA members, more than 1,000 are higher education institutions. In 2002, the NCAA hierarchy consisted of a 19-person, Executive Committee with representatives from all three divisions serving four-year terms. The Executive Committee meets four times a year and initiates and votes on all NCAA legislation. The only individuals who can vote on NCAA legislation are Executive Committee members (NCAA Online, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/about/div_criteria.html ). This voting system has been in place since 1997. The Knight Commission played a pivotal role in helping implement that system. Presidential Control of NCAA and the Knight Commissions Role Since the Knight Commission did not have the authority nor power to either set or enforce intercollegiate athletic policy, and was essentially only offering recommendations, it was crucial that the commission establish a positive working relationship with the NCAA in order to promote its reform agenda. Those members said

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41 it was important to maintain that positive working relationship in order to avoid the perception that the Knight Commission was trying to take over the role of the NCAA (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). From the time the Knight Commission was formed in 1989, the group made continual efforts to involve the NCAA in its reform agenda. Five Knight Commission members were also members of the NCAA, including NCAA chairman Dr. Martin Massengale, president of the University of Nebraska, in 1990 when the Knight Commission held hearings prior to the release of its first report. University of Oklahoma law professor and faculty athletic representative Dan Gibbons urged the Knight Commission during the commissions third hearing on April 16, 1990, to maintain a close relationship with the NCAA in order to promote the Knight Commissions reform agenda (Knight, 1996e). In addition, at the time the Knight Commission released each of its four reports from 1991-2001, the two NCAA executive directors during that time period served as Knight Commission members. Several Knight Commission felt that connection was beneficial in making NCAA policy-makers aware of Knight Commission recommendations. Richard Schultz, the NCAAs executive director from 1987-1993, was the first Knight Commission member selected after Creed Black and co-chairs Dr. William Friday and Father Theodore Hesburgh. Cedric Dempsey, who succeeded Schultz as NCAA executive director in 1993 and announced his intentions to resign from that post in 2002, served on the final Knight Commission when the group reconvened in 2001. Schultz, who served as executive director of the United States Olympic Committee following his NCAA tenure, served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety.

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42 If youre talking about intercollegiate athletics, youve got to be in dialogue with the NCAA, said Knight Commission member Dr. Thomas Hearn. If Dick or Ced had declined to participate, the chance for effectiveness would have been measurably impaired (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). Knight Commission member Dr. Charles Young said it was important that Schultz and Dempsey share the commissions reform plans. Dick Schultz and Ced Dempsey were advocates of the kinds of reform recommendations which were made, Young said. They didnt agree with everything, but by and large they were supportive (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002). Dempsey wrote about his willingness to work with the Knight Commission when it reconvened in 2001 in an August 22, 2000, introductory statement from a section of the NCAA Web site (http://www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html), NCAA Review of Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics This NCAA publication compared each of the recommendations from the first 1991 Knight Commission report to what action the NCAA took based on each recommendation. Before examining those recommendations and ensuing NCAA action, it is necessary to understand the difference in the Knight Commission and the NCAA-affiliated Presidents Commission and how those two commissions worked together to achieve presidential control of the NCAA. The original Knight Commission of 1991 consisted of six university presidents who also served on the Presidents Commission. There was a lot of commerce between the leadership level of the NCAA and the Knight Commission and a lot of effort to

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43 collaborate and cooperate, said Hearn (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). Prior to 1996, the NCAA was controlled by the Presidents Commission and the NCAA Council, which acted independently of each other but still each had the power to set NCAA legislation. The Presidents Commission was established in 1984 and consisted of 44 presidents or chancellors from all three of the NCAAs divisions to examine intercollegiate athletic issues, particularly as they pertained to a president or chancellor. The Presidents Commission could propose legislation and determine the voting order at NCAA Conventions. The NCAA Council dealt with NCAA policy and could also bring forth legislation to NCAA Conventions. The NCAA Council was comprised of presidents, athletic directors and faculty representatives (R. Schultz, e-mail, September 15, 2002). In that pre-1996 system, each Division I -the largest of the NCAAs three divisions -institution was guaranteed an equal vote on NCAA legislation. While presidents still controlled NCAA legislation prior to 1996, many presidents did not attend the annual NCAA Convention and allowed faculty representatives or athletic directors from their institution to vote in their place (R. Schultz, e-mail, September 15, 2002). This created a chaotic situation since many athletic directors held a separate agenda from the presidents. The NCAA was almost ungovernable, Hearn said in describing the pre-1996 NCAA. It had so many factions and so many interests that it was hard to get any focus around a particular issue (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002).

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44 A major change for the NCAA occurred at the 1996 NCAA Convention in Dallas. It was there that delegates voted by a 777-79-1 margin to restructure the NCAA hierarchy by eliminating the Presidents Commission and NCAA Council and implementing a 20-member Executive Committee consisting of presidents or chancellors from the board of directors of 12 major athletic conferences, two presidents from Division II schools, two presidents from Division III schools, one chairman from each of the Division I, Division II and Division III Management Councils and the NCAA executive director. No longer would each institution have its own separate vote on NCAA legislation. The voting would now be relegated to this group of presidents and chancellors, each serving a three-year term. A story in the January 15, 1996, edition of The NCAA News described the restructuring as, one of the most dramatic changes in NCAA history ... and represents the beginning of what proponents say will be a much more efficient, federated Association in which chief executive officers will exercise more control than ever before (Pickle, 1996, p. 1). Presidents or chancellors now controlled intercollegiate athletic policy, which was the framework of the Knight Commission agenda for reforming intercollegiate athletic policy. Several Knight Commission members said the presidential control issue was the most significant piece of reform offered by the commission and provided evidence that the NCAA was carefully following the Knight Commission agenda. The whole concept of the one plus three that presidents had to be in control was the most important one, Schultz said. The other areas that fell under that--the financial stability and accountability and independent certification--all had their own niches. But the first thing we really pounded on was that the presidents had to be in charge. If they

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45 were in charge, then a lot of others things would fall into place (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). In testimony during the fourth Knight Commission hearing on May 15, 1990, Indiana University basketball coach Bobby Knight also said presidents ought to control athletic department matters (Knight, 1996f). I made a statement a long time ago that were not going to get hold or control of intercollegiate athletics until presidents take both an active and a sincere role in it. I think that historically, presidents have let the business of athletics be handled by people in the athletic department. (p. 37) Schultz argued for presidential control of the NCAA as early as the Knight Commissions first hearing on January 31, 1990. During that hearing, Schultz testified that a common occurrence at universities was a head coach allying with the universitys booster club on athletic department matters or for a universitys booster club to become so powerful it dealt directly with the head coach. In both of those scenarios, the university president would be left out of making important athletic department decisions (Knight, 1996c). In testimony during the Knight Foundation Commissions second hearing on March 13-14, 1990, Creed Black said presidents, not booster clubs, should have final authority on all athletic department matters. Black was responding to an inquiry about the increasing number of athletic departments funded by private foundations based outside the university (Knight, 1996d). If a separate foundation and private corporation are attached to the host university, it provides great temptation for a corporate autonomy outside the president and the university board. The president and the board of trustees should have assurances that they, not the foundation board, are the ones to whom to the athletic department must be accountable. (pp. 80-81)

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46 Schultz also said many universities exist where the president could hire or fire any university employee except for the athletic director or head football coach (Knight, 1996c). During the second hearing on March 13-14, 1990, two Knight Foundation Commission members shared personal experiences relating to a university presidents power versus that of a popular basketball or football coach. Dr. Charles E. Young, chancellor at UCLA during the 1970s and 1980s, said if UCLA basketball coach John Wooden committed an NCAA violation, he could fire him, despite Woodens legendary status. Knight Commission co-chair Father Theodore Hesburgh, the president of the University of Notre Dame at the time of Knight Commission hearings in 1990, said when he was vice president at Notre Dame, he told the schools football coach, Frank Leahy, that only 38 players would be allowed to travel to an away game, and Hesburgh was attempting to bring 44 players on the trip. The Notre Dame president supported Hesburgh, even against a popular football coach, and only the 38 players traveled on the trip (Knight, 1996d). Other Knight Commission members shared Schultzs sentiment that the presidential control issue held the greatest priority on the commissions agenda. Hearn said giving presidential control over the NCAA was still a work in progress, but it was huge(T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). Another commission member echoed Hearns sentiments. You dont put the president in charge, youre not going to have all those other things, Friday said (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002). Young agreed with Hearn and Friday. Theres much more presidential involvement at the institutional level than there was before, and theres more presidential

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47 authority in the NCAA than there was before, Young said. The approach that was taken to provide more presidential control was the right approach (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002). Presidential control was also the first of four Knight Commissions issues that the NCAA addressed in its publication, NCAA Review of Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. The NCAA followed the Knight Commissions one plus three model of presidential control over academic integrity, financial integrity and independent certification in listings its actions based on the Knight Commission recommendations. The following are NCAA actions from the original Knight Commission 1991 recommendations based on the NCAA Review of Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics or based on information from the Knight Commissions 2001 report, A Call To Action, (www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html). Presidential Control I. Knight Commission Recommendation: Trustees should explicitly endorse and reaffirm presidential authority in athletics governance, delegate authority over finances, affirm the presidents authority for personnel, and annually review athletics program. NCAA Action: No specific action taken. Individual institutional decision. II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should act on their obligation to control conferences. NCAA Action: Presidential approval of conference legislation was approved at the 1992 NCAA Convention. III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should control the NCAA.

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48 NCAA Action: Since August 1997, the Division I Board of Directors can adopt Division I legislation and policies and a budget. The NCAA Executive Committee consists entirely of presidents, with 12 representing Division I institutions. IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should commit their institutions to equality in all aspects of athletics. NCAA Action: The NCAA Executive Committee established a permanent subcommittee on gender and diversity and there were these actions on the following levels: From 1991-2000, the number of women competing in Division I National Collegiate Championships increased by 57 percent. The Division II Presidents Council has made a commitment for Division II championships to achieve equality status by 2002. A Division II strategic plan includes enhancing the role of Division II senior women administrators. Division III is implementing consistent access to NCAA championships for all team sports. A support ethnic and gender diversity will be included in the Division III Philosophy. V. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should control their institutions involvement with commercial television. NCAA Action: The NCAA annual budget is approved by the Executive Committee and reviewed quarterly. Presidential approval is required for all major commercial contracts. However, testimony before the 2000-2001 Knight Commission indicated presidents did not play key roles in the negotiations for the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) 2 postseason football bowl games. Conference commissioners have done all the 2 The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) is a system used for determining the two teams that will play each January in the college football national championship game in a rotational basis among the Fiesta, Orange, Rose and Sugars bowls. The two teams are decided by a system involving their won-loss records, average rank in national polls, strength of schedule, and quality wins, considered a victory over a top 15

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49 negotiating of BCS contracts since the BCS format went into place in 1998. Conference commissioners control distributions of all Division I-A postseason football revenues. The NCAA is limited in its involvement in negotiating television contracts for football games following the Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma, 468 U.S. 85, 1984. 3 Academic Integrity I. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should strengthen initial eligibility requirements. The number of required units of high school academic work for initial eligibility should be raised from 11 to 15. 4 opponent. The BCS grew out of 1991 partnership originally called the Bowl Coalition between five athletic conferences and the University of Notre Dame. The agreement stipulated the Southeastern Conference (SEC), Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big East Conference, Southwest Conference and Big 8 Conference, as well as Notre Dame would send their highest-ranked teams to one of these bowl games: Orange, Sugar, Cotton, Fiesta, Gator and Sun. However, that partnership did not guarantee a national championship game between the two top-ranked teams. That changed in 1995 when the Bowl Alliance was formed out of the Bowl Coalition, which guaranteed a national championship game if the game were played in the Fiesta, Orange or Sugar bowls. The Big-10 and Pac-10, whose conference champions traditionally meet in the Rose Bowl, did not initially join the Bowl Alliance. That meant if a Big-10 or Pac-10 team ended the year No. 1 or No. 2, they would still meet in the Rose Bowl -leaving the Bowl Alliance without a true national championship game. That also changed in 1998 when the Big-10 and Pac-10 agreed to join the Bowl Alliance, which became the BCS in 1998. Rob Marino. (2001). The state of college football: Is the BCS a bunch of B.S.? Unpublished report, University of Florida. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall01/marino/page3.htm 3 Prior to the 1984 Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, the NCAA negotiated all television contracts for member institutions. The Supreme Court ruled that by negotiating on behalf of the member institutions, the NCAA was violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and was a restraint of trade in not allowing those schools to negotiate their own television contracts. Prior to this ruling, the NCAAs television contract with ABC and CBS Sports prohibited any school from appearing on national television more than six times in a two-year period. Schools are paid a rights fee by television networks for appearing in a televised game. Members of the College Football Association (CFA), which in the mid-1980s consisted of five major athletic conferences and the University of Notre Dame, said they were hurt financially by being limited to six appearances. The Universities of Oklahoma and Georgia filed the suit against the NCAA, arguing that members institutions should be allowed to negotiate their own television contracts. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. Doyice J. Cotten, John T. Wolohan, T. Jesse Wilde, Law for Recreation and Sports Managers, 2nd ed. (Kendell/Hunt Publishing Company, 2001). 4 The revised 1996 initial-eligibility standards, also referred to as Proposition 16, requires prospective student-athletes to earn at least a C average in 13 core high school classes. Under a sliding scale, those prospective student-athletes must also score at least 820 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Ben Wildavsky, Graduation blues, U.S. News & World Report, March 18, 2002, p. 70.

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50 NCAA Action: The initial-eligibility standards was increased in core courses from 11 to 13 in 1996. II. Knight Commission Recommendation: High school students should be ineligible for reimbursed campus visits or signing a national letter of intent 5 until they show reasonable promise of being able to meet degree requirements. NCAA Action: The membership adopted seven proposals between 1991 and 1997 related to proof of a prospects academic credentials required before an official visit. The criteria for official visits included minimum standardized test scores and core courses. In 1997, in response to concerns expressed by the U.S. Justice Department, the membership eliminated the requirement that a student-athlete must achieve specific academic credentials to receive an official visit before the early signing period for the national letter of intent. The requirement to submit a test score and an academic transcript remains applicable. III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Junior college transfers who did not meet NCAA initial eligibility requirements upon graduation from high school should sit out a year of completion after transfer. NCAA Action: Division I has established more stringent transfer eligibility requirements for two-year college transfers students who did not satisfy initial-eligibility requirements on graduating from high school, particularly in football and mens basketball. These student-athletes must have completed 35 percent--versus the previous 5 The national letter of intent (NLI) is signed by prospective student-athletes announcing their decision to attend a particular institution. A student-athlete may appeal the terms and conditions of the national letter of intent at any time for any reason, such as a coaching change. The institution has the opportunity to respond to the appeal before it is heard by the National Letter of Intent NLI Steering Committee. Approximately 20,000 NLIs are signed each year by Division I and Division II institutions. The NLI Program receives 160 to 180 letter of intent appeals each year. The NLI Steering Committee approved 84 percent of the appeals in 1997, 90 percent of the appeals in 1998 and 92 percent of the appeals in 1999. If a student-athlete is not approved by the steering committee, they may file a second appeal with the NLI Appeals Committee. Since 1998, the NLI Appeals Committee has approved 50 percent of those appeals. NCAA Review of Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, [Electronic version], www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html

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51 standard of 25 percent--of their degree requirements to be immediately eligible in their third year of collegiate enrollment. The Division I Board of Directors approved legislation that requires all midyear transfers in mens and womens basketball to be ineligible until the ensuing academic year. Transfer students are subject to continuing-eligibility requirements at the time of enrollment, specifically percentage-of-degree requirements. IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should study the feasibility of requiring that the range of academic abilities of incoming athletes approximates the range of abilities of the entire freshmen class.6 NCAA Action: NCAA rules dictate that academic standards and policies applicable to student-athletes must be consistent with those adopted by the institution for the student body in general or the NCAAs standards, whichever is higher. V. Knight Commission Recommendation: The letter of intent should serve the student as well as the athletic department. NCAA Action: The National Letter of Intent Program is a voluntary program administered by the Collegiate Commissioners Association and is not governed by the NCAA. Student-athletes are permitted to appeal the terms and conditions of the letter of intent. During the 1999-2000 academic year, of the approximately 20,000 national letters of intent that were signed, 170 letters were appealed. Of those 170 letters, 86 percent were approved, 12 percent were given a partial release, and 2 percent were denied. 7 VI. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics scholarships should be offered for a five-year period. 6 A 1990 federal law requires universities to report graduation rates for full-time undergrads and for students on athletic scholarships. Among Division I schools, the graduation rate for student-athletes is 58 percent versus a 56 percent graduation rate for all students, according to the NCAA. The student-athlete graduation rate has not fluctuated greatly since Proposition 16 initial-eligibility requirements were implemented in 1996. Ben Wildavsky, Graduation blues, U.S. News & World Report, March 18, 2002, p. 70. 7 2000 NCAA Review.

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52 NCAA Action: Since 1991, the NCAAs rules regarding the period for which student-athletes may receive financial aid have remained intact. Institutions are permitted to provide aid based to any degree on athletics ability for no more than a one-year period. This aid is renewable by the institution each year, but the institution can also decide not to renew the aid each year. In 1999, the NCAA Division I Committee on Financial Aid recommended that the NCAA sponsor legislation to extend the time period for renewable grants-in-aid to exceed the one-year period. Neither the NCAA Division I Academics/Eligibility/Compliance Cabinet nor the NCAA Division I Student-Athlete Advisory Committee supported the proposal. VII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics eligibility should depend upon progress toward a degree. NCAA Action: Academic satisfactory-progress legislation was adopted in 1991 and modified in 1992, 1993 and 1996. Progress toward a degree, grade point average minimums and core-completion requirements all have been enhanced. VIII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Graduation rates of student-athletes should be a criterion for NCAA certification. NCAA Action: The athletics certification process requires institutions to analyze the academic profile of entering student-athletes and student-athlete graduation rates. In the programs first five-year cycle from 1991-96, graduation rates of all athletes were compared with the student body. In the next certification cycle from 1997-2002, institutions were required to analyze all student-athletes whose performance is lower than other student-athletes.

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53 Financial Integrity I. Knight Commission Recommendation: All funds raised and spent in connection with intercollegiate athletics programs will be channeled through the institutions general treasury. The athletics department budget will be developed and monitored in accordance with general budgeting procedures on campus.8 NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision. II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics costs must be reduced. NCAA Action: Presidents are in control of the NCAA budget. All budget approval is performed by the Executive Committee or by presidential bodies of each division. Budget subcommittees in each division are controlled by presidents. Attempts to control costs that were put into place in basketball resulted in an antitrust case and judgment against the NCAA that eventually was settled for $54.5 million. 9 8 At the University of Florida, the University Athletic Association (UAA), a non-profit corporation, handles athletic department financial issues. UAA maintains separate books, audits, budgets and funds from the university. UAA is not completely autonomous from the university since it is controlled by a board, including faculty and line administrators appointed by the university president. In addition, UAAs financial matters are reviewed by the universitys vice-president for administration. The UAA projected budget for 2002-2003, approved in June of 2002, included projected revenues of $48.9 million and projected expenses of $48.7 million, an excess revenue of approximately $180,000. UAA also has made annual contributions of up to $1 million to the university in support of general university programs. The University of Florida maintains a booster organization, Gator Boosters Inc., which is under the control of the university president. Gator Boosters transfers all funds collected in excess of operating expenses to the UAA for student support or capital expenditures for the athletic program. Gator Boosters Inc. is strictly a fund-raising branch of UAA. John V. Lombardi, A Model For Intercollegiate Athletics, pp. 5-6; 2002-2003 Operating Budget Executive Summary, University Athletic Association, Inc., University of Florida, p. 2. 9 In January of 1989, the NCAA established a Cost Reduction Committee to find ways to reduce expenses in intercollegiate athletics. One of its proposals was to limit Division I basketball coaching staffs to four members, including an entry-level coach called a restricted earnings coach (REC). An addendum to that proposal limited the wages for the REC in all sports but football to $12,000 during the school year and $4,000 in summer months. The NCAA adopted the REC Proposal at its 1991 Convention and the REC Rule was put in place as of August 1, 1992. A group of restricted earnings coaches challenged the rule in Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, saying it was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act because it placed constraints on their income. A district court agreed with the coaches and ruled against the NCAA by saying the law restrained the coachs incomes and prohibiting the NCAA from enforcing the rule. When the NCAA appealed, a Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision. In 1995, the NCAA got rid of the REC Rule. In May of 1998, a federal judge awarded the REC plantiffs $67 million and in March of 1999, the NCAA and REC plantiffs reached a $54 million settlement. Doyice J. Cotten, John T. Wolohan, T. Jesse Wilde, Law for Recreation and Sports Managers, 2nd ed. (Kendell/Hunt Publishing Company, 2001); The NCAA News (December 20, 1999). NCAA Time line--1990-99; The NCAA News (January 13, 1997). NCAA Convention review.

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54 III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics grants-in-aid should cover the full cost of attendance for the very needy. 10 NCAA Action: Changes in Division I financial aid legislation allow student-athletes to work during the academic year and earn additional money. The creation of programs such as the special assistance fund have helped address the issue of expenses for student-athletes with special financial needs. The Special Assistance Fund has increased from $3 million in 1991 to $10 million in 1998 to $10.4 million in 2002. IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: The independence of athletics foundations and booster clubs must be curbed. 11 NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision. V. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA formula for sharing television revenues from the Division I mens basketball tournament must be reviewed by university presidents. NCAA Action: In November 1999, the NCAA signed a $6.2 billion, 11-year contract with CBS to televise the Division I mens basketball tournament and presidents were involved in the negotiations of the renewed televisions agreement. The NCAA Executive Committee approved the distribution formula from the basketball tournament in 2001. Presidential approval is required for all major commercial contracts with the NCAA 10 NCAA Bylaw 14.3 currently allows Division I or II student-athletes to receive a financial aid package, including tuition and fees, housing and books. Additional aid, such as Pell Grants, are also available. At its 1997 Convention, the NCAA passed a proposal allowing student-athletes to work during the academic year and earn up to the cost of attendance. But the NCAA has also maintained a strict policy on how much outside income student-athletes can earn. In 1984, the NCAA allowed certain student-athletes financial aid and a Pell Grant as long as the combined total did not exceed the value of their tuition and fees, housing and books, plus $900. That total was increased to $1,400 in 1988. However, in 1989, NCAA members defeated a proposal that would have increased Pell Grants in special circumstances. In 1991, the amount of financial aid in all Division I sports was reduced by 10 percent. In 1995, NCAA members defeated a proposal that would have allowed Division I student-athletes to earn up to $1,500 in addition to their financial aid while employed during the school year. 11 A Model for Intercollegiate Athletics.

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55 VI. Knight Commission Recommendation: All athletics-related coaches income should be reviewed and approved by the university. NCAA Action: In 1992, Divisions I and II adopted Proposal No. 28, which required coaches to obtain prior written approval from the institutions chief executive officer for all athletically related income garnered from outside sources. That legislation was eliminated in 2000 as part of an NCAA deregulation effort. 12 VII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Coaches should be offered long-term contracts. NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision. VIII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Institutional support should be available for intercollegiate athletics. NCAA Action: In Division I-A, institutional support, direct government support and student activity fees have increased as a percentage of total revenues from 14 percent in 1993 to 16 percent in 1997. Certification Athletics certification is a process is a process where a universitys athletic department is reviewed by an independent, outside peer group to determine if the university is complying with NCAA regulations. The certification program was approved at the 1993 NCAA Convention. The program was originally introduced in 1989 in a two-year test program. It began its first five-year cycle during the 1993-94 academic year when institutions were required to be certified every five years. When the second cycle 12 In 1994, further legislation was passed requiring all athletic department staff members to receive that same approval. In 1995, the proposal was again modified to allow an institutions CEO to grant prior written approval for outside income not exceeding $500 per event. In a University of Florida Coaching Contract drawn on March 21, 1990, a stipulation requires coaches to report all outside income to the University Athletic Association (UAA) prior to May 1 of each year. However, contracts on coaches outside income was removed at the 2000 NCAA Convention. 2000 NCAA Review, p.12; David Pickle, The NCAA News. (May 7, 2001). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/news/2001/20010507/active/3810n02.html

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56 began in the 1999-2000 academic year, the certification process was required once every 10 years. However, institutions must still undergo a rules compliance evaluation once every three years. The certification program includes four areas: governance and commitment to rule compliance, academic issues, financial issues and gender equity and sportsmanship (NCAA Online, Division I Certification Program and The Purpose of Athletics Certification). I. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should adopt a certification program for all institutions granting athletics aid that would act independently authenticate the integrity of each institutions athletics program. NCAA Action: Division I institutions must undergo NCAA certification of their athletics departments. Originally, the certification process was once every five years but has been extended to once every 10 years. Division II institutions, which also award athletics aid, have not adopted the certification program. II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Universities should undertake comprehensive, annual policy audits of their athletics programs. NCAA Action: The NCAA certification program entails an annual compilation of athletics policy audits and other data. III. Knight Commission Recommendation: The certification program should include the major themes advanced by the Knight Commission (i.e., the one-plus-three model.) NCAA Action: The NCAA certification program substantially incorporates the fundamental principles of the one-plus-three model. Four major components of athletics certification are governance and commitment to rules compliance; academic integrity; fiscal integrity; and equity, welfare and sportsmanship.

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CHAPTER 6 KNIGHT COMMISSION: 1992-2001 The second and third Knight Commission reports were released one year apart in 1992 and 1993. A Solid Start: A Report On Reform Of Intercollegiate Athletics was released in March of 1992 and A New Beginning For A New Century: Intercollegiate Athletics In The United States was released in March of 1993. A Solid Start detailed the Knight Commissions work over its first year, including 20 specific recommendations, 10 of which were implemented by the NCAA Presidents Commission, a group of university presidents responsible for establishing reform measures to be voted on at annual NCAA conventions. The Knight Commission underwent several membership changes by the second and third reports. By 1992, Lamar Alexander was replaced by R. Gerald Turner, chancellor from the University of Mississippi, when Alexander was appointed Secretary of Education by President George H. Bush in December of 1990. In January of 1993, just prior to the release of the third Knight Commission report, President Bill Clinton appointed Knight Commission members Donna Shalala as Secretary of Health and Human Services and Clifton R. Wharton Jr. as Deputy Secretary of State. Shalala and Wharton resigned from the Knight Commission, leaving the commission with 20 members when its third report was issued in March of 1993, A New Beginning For A New Century. That third report also contained the results of the second Louis Harris poll. The first Harris poll in 1989 found 78 percent of the American public thought college sports were 57

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58 corrupt, but by the second Harris poll in 1993, 52 percent of the American public thought college sports were corrupt. This significant 26-point decline represents how far college sports have come, according to the third report, A New Beginning For A New Century: Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States (p. 3). Following the release of the third report, the Knight Commission decided to disband because the NCAA was moving toward establishing a one-plus-three model the commission advocated in intercollegiate athletic policy. However, the Knight Commission reconvened in 1994, in part to discourage the NCAA from weakening recently-approved academic reform measures. The group remained active through the 1996 NCAA Convention in January of that year when the reform measure most closely tied to the Knight Commission--presidential control--was enacted by the NCAA. The NCAA made a dramatic change in its governing procedure following that convention when it put university presidents in control of the organization rather than athletic directors. The Knight Commission then agreed to disband in a January 11, 1996, letter Black sent to commission members: While mindful that we dont have a very good track record in our efforts to go out of business, Father Ted (Hesburgh), Bill (Friday) and I agreed that we should try again. Once this restructuring process is completed in 1997, presidential control--the central principle of our reform agenda--will be firmly established. The commission did not disband permanently because in August of 2000, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics decided to briefly reconvene to examine the progress of its reform suggestions and issue a fourth and final report detailing how it viewed the present intercollegiate athletic atmosphere. As the 10th anniversary of the Commissions first report in March 1991 approached, the members decided to reconvene for a fresh look at what has happened in this intervening decade and to assess the state of college athletics at the beginning of this new century. Had the situation improved or worsened? Were

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59 there new problems that warranted attention. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 11) We werent going to reconvene after the first commission, said Knight Commission member Creed Black. But as time passed, the problem was getting worse because the money involved was getting more substantial. So, we decided to see what was happening after 10 years. Our conclusion was that it was getting worse and needed to take more drastic steps (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). The fourth Knight Commission report, A Call To Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education, was released in June of 2001 following four hearings from August 28, 2000-January 22-23, 2001, with key players in the intercollegiate athletic reform movement, including NCAA officials, university presidents, university faculty, athletic directors, coaches, conference commissioners, student-athletes, athletic and higher education association officials and athletic sportswear officials. None of the individuals who testified before the 2001 Knight Commission testified before the earlier commission. The Knight Commission reconvened with 28 members for that final report, including the following new members, who either replaced a member or were added as the commission expanded: Michael F. Adams, president of the University of Georgia; Hodding Carter III, president of the Knight Foundation; Carol A. Cartwright, president of Kent State University; Mary Sue Coleman, president of the University of Iowa; Cedric W. Dempsey, NCAA President; Adam W. Herbert, executive director of The Florida Center for Public Policy and Leadership;

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60 Stanley O. Ikenberry, president of the American Council on Education; Richard T. Ingram, president of the Association of Governing Boards. Those individuals were joined by the Knight Commission members who had served on the commission during its first three reports from 1991-1993: Creed C. Black, former president, Knight Foundation Douglas S. Dibbert, president, General Alumni Association, University of North Carolina Dr. John A. DiBiaggio, president, Tufts University Dr. William C. Friday, co-chairman, president emeritus, University of North Carolina Dr. Thomas K. Hearn Jr., president, Wake Forest University Theodore M. Hesburgh, co-chairman, president emeritus, University of Notre Dame J. Lloyd Huck, trustee emeritus, The Pennsylvania State University Bryce Jordan, president emeritus, The Pennsylvania State University Richard W. Kazmaier, president, Kazmaier Associates Martin A. Massengale, president emeritus, University of Nebraska C. Thomas McMillen, former member of Congress Chase N. Peterson, president emeritus, University of Utah Jane C. Pfeiffer, former chair, NBC-Broadcasting Richard D. Schultz, former NCAA executive director R. Gerald Turner, president, Southern Methodist University LeRoy T. Walker, president emeritus, United States Olympic Committee James J. Whalen, president emeritus, Ithaca College Clifton R. Wharton Jr., former chairman and CEO, TIAA-CREF Charles E. Young, president, University of Florida.

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61 In its fourth report, the Knight Commission spoke positively about the strides the commission had made since its inception, particularly in the measures the NCAA had adopted from the commissions recommendations. In analyzing the state of intercollegiate athletics at the start of the 21st century, the Knight Commission also emphasized that not enough was being done to reform intercollegiate athletics and that the situation had worsened rather than improved in the last 10 years since 1990. The commission also said the responsibility with reforming college sports does not lie with creating more NCAA rules, but rather with the individual key figures such as presidents, trustees and athletic directors taking more responsibility for what occurs at their institutions. It is clear that good intentions and reform measures of recent years have not been enough . the threat has grown rather than diminished. More sweeping measures are imperative to halt the erosion of traditional educational values in college sports. The evidence strongly suggests that it is not enough simply to add new rules to the NCAAs copious rule book or ask presidents to carry the burden alone. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 11) In that fourth report, the Knight Commission presented a revised one-plus-three model by proposing the creation of a Coalition of Presidents, a group of presidents compiled from the NCAA, Division I-A conferences, the American Council on Education and the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. In the revised one-plus-three model, the Coalition of Presidents would oversee an agenda of academic reform, a decrease in athletic expenditures and less reliance on commercial sponsorships (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001). These are some of the Knight Commission major proposals for the agenda of the Coalition of Presidents from A Call To Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education (pp. 26-28):

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62 Academics Athletes should be held to the same standards as other students, including criteria for admission, academic support services, choice of major, and making satisfactory progress toward a degree. Graduation rates must improve. By 2007, teams that do not graduate at least 50 percent of their players should not be eligible for conference championships or for postseason play. The NBA and the NFL should be encouraged to develop minor leagues so that athletes not interested in undergraduate study are provided an alternative route to professional careers. Decrease in Athletic Expenditures Reduce expenditures in big-time sports such as football and basketball. This includes a reduction in the total number of scholarships that may be awarded in Division I-A football. Ensure that the legitimate and long-overdue need to support womens athletic programs and comply with Title IX is not used as an excuse for soaring costs while expenses in big-time sports are unchecked. Require that agreements for coaches outside income be negotiated with institutions, not individual coaches. Revise the plan for distribution of revenue from the NCAA contract with CBS for broadcasting rights to the NCAA mens basketball tournament. That revenue-sharing plan should not be based on a teams won-loss record, but should figure in other things such as graduation rates. Less Reliance on Commercial Sponsorships Insist that institutions alone should determine when games are played, how they are broadcast, and which companies are permitted to use their athletic contests as advertising vehicles. Encourage institutions to reconsider all sports-related commercial contracts as to whether they are appropriate in an academic setting. Support federal legislation to ban legal gambling on college sports in the state of Nevada and encourage college presidents to address illegal gambling on their campuses. Shortly after the Knight Commission released its fourth report in the summer of 2001, critics began attacking some of those reform recommendations even more harshly

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63 than in the first three reports. In the August 12, 2000, edition of The Bradenton Herald, national political commentator George Will said, the commissions culture war approach to reforming college athletics is unconvincing (Will, 2002, p. 13c). Author Andrew Zimbalist, who teaches economics at Smith College (R.I.) and has written extensively on sports business issues, criticized the fourth report even though he testified in one of the four hearings before the Knight Commission issued the fourth report. Writing in The Final Word column for the July 16-22, 2001, edition of Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, Zimbalist said: The present Knight report produces a long laundry list of possible reforms. None of these ideas are new, but many are worthy. Yet with 25 people on the Knight Commission, the inevitable compromises yielded too many half-baked proposals. (Zimbalist, 2001, p. 46) In the January 8-14, 2001, edition of Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, former professional basketball player and TV commentator Len Elmore attacked the Knight Commission proposal to create developmental leagues in professional football and basketball for aspiring players uncommitted to the academic demands of being in college as targeting African-Americans. The skeptics among us, including some prominent college basketball coaches, believe that the Knight Commissions views reflect a sinister plot that would rid the college game of troublesome black athletes who appear merely to use the system for their own gain. To them, these kids, with their scandals and purported academic deficiencies, are a drain on the institutions and a blot on the good name of intercollegiate sports. This school of thought continues that the commission believes college basketball doesnt need these kids and would be better off without them. (Elmore, 2001, p. 30) Elmore said the Knight Commission took a hypocritical stance, particularly since some of the institutions of Knight Commission members admit the same type of players that they encourage not to come to college.

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64 However, the report from reconvened Knight Commission in 2001 has also been cited in two 2002 special sections pertaining to intercollegiate athletic reform, particularly the strong stance the commission took on the academic performance of student-athletes. In the inaugural issue of U.S. News & World Reports Americas Best College Sports Programs, the Knight Commissions Maureen Devlin was quoted as saying a perception was that the large amounts of money involved in college sports had forced institutions into a competition to make more money. She said the only way to break that perception was for institutions to halt their need to cut back on expenses (LaGesse, 2002). In an October 18, 2002, feature in USA Today on the graduation rates of student-athletes as measured against the male population of an institution, it was said The blue-ribbon Knight Commission pulled no punches. The story mentioned the commissions specific recommendations on holding student-athletes to the same admissions criteria as the rest of the student body; of reducing the length of sports seasons and of barring any institution from conference championships and postseason play that does not have at least a 50 percent graduation rate for student-athletes by 2007. Disbandment of Knight Commission In a letter to Dr. W. Gerald Austen. chairman of the board of trustees of the Knight Foundation, at the beginning of the fourth report, Knight Commission co-chairman Dr. William C. Friday and Father Theodore M. Hesburgh recommended that the Knight Commission disband if the Coalition of Presidents can be created. They further recommended that the Knight Foundation offer matching grants to the Coalition of Presidents and American Council on Education to help continue reform efforts in

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65 intercollegiate athletics. They also recommended the creation of the Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics to promote a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics. One Knight Commission member was still uncertain that the commission might still reconvene someday. Ill never say never because we thought we were out of business a couple of times before, Creed Black said. When we see the opportunity to give support, thats the most important thing (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). For purposes of analyzing the contributions of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for this research, the commissions work will be divided into two time periods: 1) The early Knight Commission--comprising the first three reports of 1991, 1992 and 1993; 2) The reconvened Knight Commission--comprising the 2001 report after the commission reconvened in 2000. Knight Commission members interviewed for this research said the early Knight Commission reports made more noteworthy accomplishments in reforming college sports than did the reconvened commission. I think the first commission fared better than the second, Dr. Charles Young said. Having served on both -this last one didnt go as well in my view in its meetings, discussions and couldnt come to conclusions as easily or with as much consensus as the first commission did. Its recommendations were not as precise and not as understandable and not as readily accepted by the public as the first commission. If you rank the two, I would rank the first as much better (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002). Other Knight Commission members specifically pointed to several reform measures offered by the commission that were later adopted by the NCAA, such as the

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66 change in the NCAAs hierarchy in 1996, as reasons for why the early Knight Commission was more successful in its reform efforts than the reconvened commission. Certainly in the first report, youd have to say it was a resounding success, Dr. Thomas Hearn said. Its recommendations were almost entirely adopted by the NCAA, including the restructuring of the organization itself. There were other forces at work. I dont mean to suggest it was the Knight Commissions work alone, but the Knight Commission certainly was an important player (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002). For an outside group like that to do something and really get positive response to it, to have some weight to it and move forward, I think it was really very successful, Richard Schultz said. It was a lot more successful at the time than anticipated (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). Knight Commission co-chairman Dr. William C. Friday cited as examples Knight Commission members who were asked to speak nationally on intercollegiate athletic reform issues just after the first report was released in 1991 as evidence of the commissions popularity. They wanted the credibility of the Knight Commission, Friday said. The Knight Commission voice is the one that has stood out there, and I think it was a great success (W. Friday, personal communication, June 11, 2002). The Knight Commission wasnt trying to blow the system up and I think in its time, the Knight Commission played a very important role, said Knight Commission member Thomas McMillen. But reform is always driven by some kind of outrage. And

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67 it will take some sort of scandal -whether gambling or anything else -to really restructure the system (T. McMillen, personal communication, June 21, 2002). However, it is unfair to compare the two periods of the Knight Commission since the commission had different agendas during both junctures. The early and reconvened commissions drew up recommendations based on what it perceived as the major problems facing intercollegiate athletics during both periods -the beginning of the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century. The early commission was predicated more on putting presidents in charge of college sports. It achieved that goal when the NCAA was restructured in 1997. The reconvened commission was driven more by the disillusionment it held that there was not more progress made on many of its other recommendations from the first three reports, particularly concerning graduation rates and the increasing expenses in athletic departments. In an introductory letter at the beginning of the fourth report, commission co-chairmen Dr. William C. Friday and Theodore M. Hesburgh said, We find that the problems of big-time college sports have grown rather than diminished (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 4). However, the "reconvened" Knight Commission did not consider its work unsuccessful. The commission decided to reconvene to analyze what had transpired since issuing its first report 10 years earlier in 1991. There were several positive steps that the commission could point to as evidence that its reform agenda was making progress. The NCAA had been restructured to give university presidents voting control on all legislation. University presidents also had stronger control of athletic department

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68 finances. Between 1989 and 1993, there was a 26-point decline in the percentage of the general public that viewed college sports as being corrupt. But the "reconvened" commission was not oblivious to the problems still facing collegiate athletics. Student-athlete graduation rates were still lower than that of the general student population at many institutions. At more than 100 of the 300-plus Division I-A institutions, athletic department expenses were greater than revenues. The commission decided that enacting even more recommendations for the NCAA to consider was not the solution. In the commission's fourth and final report, the group worked more toward an agenda of putting the responsibility for reforming college athletics in the hands of the individual institutions.. Consider some of these specific recommendations by the "reconvened commission": Student-athletes should be treated no differently that the rest of the student population. For example, if all student must maintain a 2.0 grade point average, a student-athlete should have to maintain the same minimum GPA. Coaches must have institutional approval for all outside income. Individual institutions rather than athletic conferences or the NCAA should have the final approval on the times for all athletic events. Encourage institutions to enforce a stricter policy on sponsorships to reflect the main goals of an institution as being academically-based. The commission even revised its primary "one-plus-three" model to have university presidents oversee a reform agenda of academic integrity, a reduction in athletic department finances and less reliance on corporate sponsorships. "Sports as big business for colleges and universities is in direct conflict with nearly every value that should matter for higher education," the commission said in the fourth report, A Call To Action (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 21).

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69 In comparing the work of the "early" commission and the "reconvened" commission, several individuals with connections to intercollegiate athletics said the "early" commission had more success in implementing its recommendations. Member Dr. Charles Young said the "early" commission was able to build more of a consensus of agreement among members on an agenda and offered more precise recommendations. (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002) Another member, Richard Schultz, said the NCAA was not as receptive of the "reconvened" commission because there was a perception by the NCAA that the commission was interfering in the recommendations it was offering. Athletic directors in particular said the commission was out of touch with its recommendations. (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002) Sports economist Andrew Zimbalist said the "reconvened" commission did not offer any new recommendations from its earlier reports and may have suffered from the commission being too large (Zimbalist, 2001). The final proposal from the "reconvened" Knight Commission was the creation of Coalition of Presidents, funded by the Knight Foundation and comprised of university presidents, to ensure institutions are complying with NCAA regulations. The commission also proposed creating an Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics to take the role of the commission and monitor the issues affecting intercollegiate athletics. If that system could be implemented, the commission recommended to the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees that the commission permanently disband.

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION When analyzing the history of collegiate athletic reform commissions, a common theme has been the strong public support these commissions have initially received. However, not all athletic commissions have been able to permanently implement their reform agendas. In Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate Athletics, author John R. Thelin said, The reforms put into place have only an incidental connection with the original intent of the reports authors and advocates (Thelin, 1996, p. 11). The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching questioned what it perceived as an overemphasis on college sports in higher education as far back as the 1920s. Those same beliefs were also offered in the 1990s by the most recent collegiate athletic reform group, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact the Knight Commission played in reforming intercollegiate athletic policy from 1989-2001. The Knight Commission was funded solely by the Knight Foundation, a charitable organization that, while independent of the Knight-Ridder Inc. media chain, focused many of its resources on improving journalism programs worldwide. Since the Knight Commission was primarily active from 1989-1993 and from 2000-2001, six members of the commission who served during each of those time periods were interviewed in person or by phone because they served throughout the commissions entirety. 70

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71 Summary of Research Question Findings 1) How did a journalism-based charitable foundation dedicated to protecting the First Amendment rights of free speech decide to become involved in collegiate athletic reform? The Knight Foundations goal of improving journalism programs fell under its main mission of addressing and offering solutions to higher education issues. Intercollegiate athletics fell under that mission as well. Several Knight Foundation members who were also university presidents in the late 1980s prior to the formation of the Knight Commission were concerned about the increasing role of intercollegiate athletics in higher education, and they thought the best way to address many of the topics that concerned them would be to form a commission focusing on collegiate sports and ways to address many of its problems. 2) How did the commission report its findings to the public, and did the commission use its connections to a media conglomerate such as Knight-Ridder Inc., to sway public opinion--through the media--about its findings? The Knight Commission hired, a New York City-based public relations firm, Hill & Knowlton, to promote the release of the commissions first three reports. The Knight Commission also funded a 1991 documentary that aired on the Public Broadcasting Stations (PBS) and was produced by Public Affairs Television pioneer Bill Moyers pertaining to the issues affecting intercollegiate athletics; the documentary was released simultaneously with the first report. The commission also used the public polling organization, Louis Harris & Associates, to conduct polls about the publics perception of intercollegiate athletics. While Knight-Ridder newspapers covered the Knight Commission, particularly following the release of the first report, the coverage was not dictated by the Knight Commissions affiliation with the Knight Foundation. At least one Knight Commission

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72 member was disappointed in Knight-Ridders coverage of the commission and said the coverage did not sway public opinion. 3) How were the actions and recommendations of the Knight Commission viewed by the academic and athletic community, including administrators, faculty, coaches and athletic directors? The Knight Commission received support from parts of the academic community. Texas A&M University formed a Knight Commission Task Force of students, alumni and administrators in 1992 to study the schools compliance with the Knight Commission report. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas created a smaller version of the Knight Commission report to examine the relationship between academics and athletics at the school. The University of North Carolina, University of Pittsburgh, Southern Methodist University and the presidents of Virginias public universities passed resolutions supporting the Knight Commissions work following the release of the first report in 1991. Faculty were skeptical of the Knight Commission because they were unsure that the group could initiate its reform measures, according to commission member Dr. William Friday. The athletic community, however, was not as apathetic toward the Knight Commission. Coaches, in particular the ones who testified before the commission, were enthused about being part of dialogue to reform college sports. Basketball coaches Bobby Knight and Digger Phelps said they had never sat down with university presidents to discuss the issues facing intercollegiate athletics prior to being invited to testify before the Knight Commission. 4) What has been the NCAAs response to the Knight Commissions work? By 1993, nearly two-thirds of the Knight Commission recommendations had been endorsed by the NCAA; with 10 of the original 20 recommendations developed into

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73 some type of NCAA legislation. The most noteworthy recommendation of having university presidents control the NCAA occurred in 1996 when the NCAA was restructured and a small group of presidents became the only voting members of the organization (prior to 1996, each of the more than 300 Division I-A institution was allowed one vote). The two NCAA executive directors who served from during the time period from 1987-2002 also served on the Knight Commission. The presidential control of the NCAA was one of the Knight Commissions original reform proposals. The NCAA was very supportive of the Knight Commission the first time, said commission member Richard Schultz. The second time ... it just didnt seem to be as well-received. I think there was the feeling the Knight Commission was interfering, and I think some of the ADs felt (the Knight Commission) was out of touch in some of the things they were proposing (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). 5) How do members of the Knight Commission evaluate the success of the groups work? Members were positive about the commissions accomplishments, particularly in bringing presidential control over the NCAA. Most members interviewed said the work of the early commission from 1989-93 was more significant than when the commission reconvened in 2000 because the early commission offered more specific reform measures and received more favorable public reception than did the latter group. An important area to consider was the professional status of commission members during the early commission from 1990-93 and the reconvened commission in 2000. When the Knight Commission released its first report in March of 1991, three members were considered emeritus status at their institutions. When the commission released its last report in the summer of 2001, 12 members were either considered emeritus status or no

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74 longer held the job status they had during the early commission. It could be suggested that since some of these members were no longer in a position where they could affect athletic agendas at either their institution or nationally, the reconvened commissions influence was not as strong as that of the early commission. Future Research The researcher interviewed six of the 22 members who served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. If a larger number of commission members were interviewed, a more complete portrayal of the feelings of commission members when building the agendas for each of the four reports could be developed. Negative feelings about any agenda must be included to determine how much division or debate, if any, there were among commission members. The future of the Knight Commissions proposed Coalition of Presidents and Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics should be followed closely. The Knight Commission proposed that the Knight Foundation help fund both of those groups. However, as of the fall of 2002, the Knight Foundation had not made a decision on the funding. The proposed Coalition of Presidents would be drawn from university presidents and trustees, as well as officials from the NCAA, American Council on Education and the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. The Knight Commission proposal is that the Coalition of Presidents be independent of the NCAA and athletic conferences. The Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics would serve as a watchdog to maintain pressure for change, according to the Knight Commissions 2001 report, A Call To Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education. Since the Knight Commission disbanded following the 2001 report, any future Knight Commission movement would come from the possible formation of an Institute for Intercollegiate

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75 Athletics. The status of the Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics should be closely watched to determine if it will be created, particularly if any Knight Commission members join the group. Another area of future research pertaining to the Knight Commission could be a case study of an individual institution or a conference to determine if it implemented any of the commissions recommendations and what occurred once those changes were implemented. For example, former University of Florida president John Lombardi wrote a 1992 article, A Model for Intercollegiate Athletics, for The Journal of the Association of Governing Boards of Universities & Colleges. In that piece, he outlined how the University of Florida had implemented some of the Knight Commission recommendations from the commissions first report in 1991. Lombardi cited examples of how UF-affiliated organizations such as the University Athletic Association (UAA) and Gator Boosters Inc. operate independent budgets from the university but still must have those budgets approved through the university. He cited other examples in a standard UF Coaching Contract that include stipulations for each coach to report outside income to the university and an incentive clause awarding a coach for graduating a certain percentage of players (Lombardi, 1992). The release of the Knight Commission executive sessions on January 1, 2004, could also offer a new perspective on the commissions work and how it formed its agendas for each of its four reports. The executive sessions were closed to the public and media--these meetings are where the directions for each of the reports were debated among commission members. The unsealing of these executive sessions could reveal

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76 which of the issues were debated the most among commission members and what was the consensus among the entire commission on each of the reports. From a media analysis of the Knight Commission, further research could include analyzing the commissions relationship with the media, particularly the Knight-Ridder Inc. newspaper organization. Knight-Ridder officials could be contacted to determine if they felt pressured to cover the work of a Knight Foundation-funded group. Individual Knight-Ridder writers who covered the Knight Commission could be contacted to determine if they also felt pressured to write positive stories on the commission because of the Knight connection. A content analysis could include evaluating whether the sports, news or editorial sections of a newspaper covered the Knight Commission the most and which section was the most critical in its comments about the commission. A possible question in any media-related analysis of the Knight Commission would be whether the media holds apathetic views to athletic reform groups in general because historically these groups have not been able to sustain permanent reform agendas. Analysis The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was formed primarily in response to the myriad of college athletic scandals in the 1980s when 109 higher education institutions committed some type of NCAA violation during that period, including more than half of the 106 Division I-A institutions, the NCAA's highest level. A group of individuals with connections to higher education issues, such as Creed Black, Dr. William C. Friday and Father Theodore Hesburgh, were concerned about the state of college athletics. Graduation rates for some student-athletes were declining. Booster groups were becoming more influential on campuses. Athletic departments were

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77 encountering financial difficulties--even while still attempting to upgrade athletic facilities. By creating a commission to study and offer solutions for reforming college athletics, Black, Friday and Hesburgh hoped to reduce some of the problems plaguing intercollegiate sports. Black and Friday provided the impetus for starting the Knight Commission in the late 1980s. At that time, Friday was president and co-chair of the William R. Kenan Jr. Fund at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Black had just become president in 1988 of the Knight Foundation, a charitable organization with ties to the Knight-Ridder publishing family. However, both men had experience in intercollegiate athletic policy. Black was publisher of the Lexington Herald-Leader in 1985 when the newspaper ran a series of stories about a scandal involving the hometown University of Kentucky men's basketball players accepting illegal cash payments from school booster club members and alumni. The series generated controversy for the newspaper, which received death threats, however, the writers of the series were also awarded a Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting. Black solicited support from university presidents and presidents and chief executive officers of public and private organizations in building support for forming an athletics commission. He was also influential in helping persuade the Knight Foundation to donate $2 million to create the Knight Commission. Friday and Hesburgh were chosen as co-chairmen of the commission. That was one of several strategic moves in the early life of the commission. With Friday being president emeritus of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and Hesburgh being

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78 president emeritus of the University of Notre Dame, both men were coming from institutions able to balance highly acclaimed academic and athletic programs. Some of the other strategic moves by the commission included: Choosing someone such as Bill Moyers to lend credibility to the commission's findings. Moyers, who established Public Affairs Television in 1986 and is revered for his journalistic and cultural programs, produced a Knight Foundation-funded documentary coinciding with the release of the commission's first report in March of 1991. Inviting an array of well-known coaches such as Bobby Knight, Dean Smith, Joe Paterno and Tom Osbourne to testify during one of its five hearings in preparation for the first report. Retaining a New York City-based public relations firm, Hill & Knowlton Inc., to promote the commission's findings. Establishing a strong, working relationship with the NCAA. The Knight Commission did not have authority to legislate its reform agenda--it was only offering recommendations. To compensate for that lack of power, the commission specifically chose members who were key figures in college sports, particularly university presidents. These presidents maintained close connections to the NCAA -several served on the now-defunct NCAA President's Commissions--and aided in promoting the Knight Commission's agenda. Maintaining that working relationship with the NCAA by including NCAA Executive Directors Richard Schultz and Cedric Dempsey, who each served during the Knight Commission's active period from 1989-2001, as Knight Commission members. Schultz was the commission's first appointee in 1989. That working relationship with the NCAA continued throughout the 1990s. Among the commission's first 20 recommendations from its first report in 1991, 10 were adopted in some form by the NCAA. Some of the most noteworthy Knight Commission recommendations were: Presidential control of the NCAA. This was an historic shift in power in the NCAA in 1996 when the organization went from a one vote per institution system in which more than 900 institutions cast votes, to a new system that included an Executive Committee of 20 university presidents or chancellors. NCAA voting would be relegated to this group of presidents and chancellors, each serving a three-year term. No longer would each institution have its own vote. This shift in power put presidents in control of all NCAA legislation. It also allowed the presidents to

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79 approve all funding for their individual institutions on all athletic department matters, which was another Knight Commission recommendation. Increasing the minimum entrance requirements for prospective student-athletes from 11 to 13 high school core classes, while also increasing the minimum grade point average and national standardized test scores. All those were accomplished with the implementation of Proposition 16 in 1993. Requiring student-athletes to make satisfactory progress each academic year toward a degree in order to maintain eligibility. The NCAA adopted this in 1991 and strengthened those requirements in 1992, 1993 and 1996. In analyzing the Knight Commission, it is also important to remember that the commission had two active periods--the "early" commission when the first three reports were released in 1991, 1992 and 1993 and the "reconvened" commission when the final report was issued in 2001. Several commission members cited the accomplishments of the "early" commission as being more noteworthy than the "reconvened" commission. Most of the commission's most publicized recommendations--presidential control of the NCAA and over institutional athletic department finances and a strengthening of academic requirements for incoming student-athletes came out of that first report. However, the "reconvened" commission appeared to focus more on strengthening its original recommendations from the first report in 1991 rather than adding a large amount of new recommendations. One of the strengths of the Knight Commission was its access to a wealthy, charitable group such as the Knight Foundation. The Knight Foundation funded the Knight Commission with an original $2 million donation. This multi-million donation allowed the commission to open an office in Charlotte, N.C., and to bring in an array of important intercollegiate athletic figures to testify during its hearings. The commission was also well-conceived in the way it selected members. It included university presidents from the major athletic conferences from different

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80 geographic regions of the country. Its membership also included individuals from public and private corporations and aligned itself closely with the NCAA by including NCAA executive directors as members. The Knight Commission was responsible for bringing about numerous intercollegiate athletic reform measures--restructuring the NCAA, tightening academic requirements for student-athletes and keeping a closer monitor on athletic department expenses. The commission has gained such notoriety that it is often mentioned in articles pertaining to collegiate athletic reform, such as 2002 special sections appearing in U.S. News & World Report and USA Today. In analyzing the Knight Commission's weaknesses, it did not go far enough in its reform efforts since many of the problems facing college sports in 2002 are the same problems the commission faced when it was created in 1989. Graduation rates for student-athletes are still lower than that of the overall student population --in many cases by as much as 30 to 40 percent. Many institutions are still driven by how they can outspend their competitors in improving athletic facilities. Since 2001, major institutions such as the University of Alabama, University of Kentucky and University of Michigan have all admitted to committing NCAA violations in football or men's basketball. However, there is more academic and financial integrity in college sports because of the Knight Commission. The commission has made it easier for institutions to monitor their athletic departments. The final decision on athletic matters now goes through university presidents. There is no longer a chaotic voting system with varying agendas in the NCAA. Academic requirements have been strengthened. The Knight Commission

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81 deserves much of this credit for helping bringing about meaningful reforms such as these in college athletics.

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REFERENCES Asher, M. (1991, March 20). Agenda set for reform in athletics. The Washington Post, pp. 1A, 8A. Asher, M. (1993, March 19). Knight commission issues last words. The Washington Post, p. B5. Benjamin, M. (2002, March 18). Old-timers game: At the university of georgia and other winning schools, veteran coaches are the key to victory. U.S. News & World Report, 97, pp. 65-66. Bennett. C. (2002, May 24). SEC schools hit with claims of fraud, gambling, assault. USA Today, p. 2C. Blum, D. (1993, March 17). Knight panel leaves a mixed legacy as it ends work on college sports reform. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. 41-45. Boswell, T. (1993, March 19). No reward for playing by rules. The Washington Post, p. B1. Bowen, W.G., & Shulman, J.L. (2000). The game of life: college sports and educational values. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Bowen, W.G. & Shulman, J.L. (2001). How the playing field is encroaching on the admissions office. The Chronicle Review: The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2, B8-B9. Brown, B.(1991, March 20). Knight commission calls for values. USA Today, p. 1C. Brown, B. (1993, March 19). Study cites progress, suggests continued diligence. USA Today, p. C1. Brown, G.T. (2001, July 2). Knight Commission calls for tighter presidential grip. [Electronic version]. The NCAA News. Retrieved September 20, 2002 from http://ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html Carroll. J.S. (1985, October 27). Why probe cheating in UK basketball program. Lexington Herald-Leader, p. H7. 82

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83 Clarke, L. (1993, March 19). Knight commission leaves reform in presidents hands. The Charlotte Observer, p. D1. Composition of the NCAA. (n.d.) Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://ww1.ncaa.org/membership/membership_svcs/membership_breakdown.html Cotten, D.J., Wolohan, J.T., & Wilde, T. J.. (2001). Law for recreation and sports managers. Dubuque, IA.: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Deford, F. (n.d.). Damning admissions: Two school presidents decry college sports and hit upon a larger problem. Sports Illustrated. Elmore, L. (2001, January 8-14). Knight commission members show little interest in no interest kids. Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, 17, 30. Fatsis, S. (2002, March 22). Another march, the usual madness. The Wall Street Journal, p. W6. Glasser, J. (2002a, March 18). King of the hill: In big-time college sports, athletic directors -like ohio states andy geiger -rule. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 52-60. Glasser, J. (2002b, March 18). Geigers story: Destined for athletics. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 56. Hawes, K. (1999a, December 20). A presidential era: Institutional CEOs launch reforms in college athletics. [Electronic version]. The NCAA News. Retrieved September 10, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html Hawes, K. (1999b, December 20). 1990s: A decade of litigation. [Electronic version]. The NCAA News. Retrieved September 20, 2002 from http://ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html Hawes, K. (1999c, December 20). Opportunity vs. exploitation? [Electronic version]. The NCAA News. Retrieved September 20, 2002 from http://ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html Hyams, J. (2002, June 22). Alabama uses loophole for hawaii. Gatorbait, p. 22. Hunt, P. (n.d.) College athletics have difficult reform history. The Wall Street Journal. Katz, D. (1994). Just do it: the nike spirit in the corporate world. Holborook, MA: Adams Media Corporation. Knight Foundation News Release (1989, November 16). Knight foundation sports panel named. (no author).

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84 Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996a, April 9). Subseries 1.3, Folder 52: Response to Report, 1991. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996b, April 9). Subseries 1.3, Folder 53: Information surrounding release of knight commission report. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996, April 9). Subseries 1.3, Folder 54: Endorsements of 1991 Knight Commission report. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996c, April 9). Subseries 2.1, Folders 60-61: Knight Commission meeting, January 31, 1990, transcript. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996d, April 9). Subseries 2.1, Folder 62: Knight Commission meeting, March 13-14, 1990, transcript. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996e, April 9). Subseries 2.1, Folder 63: Knight Commission meeting, April 16, 1990, transcript. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996f, April 9). Subseries 2.1, Folder 64: Knight Commission meeting, May 14, 1990, transcript. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996g, April 9). Subseries 2.1, Folder 65: Knight Commission meeting, June 28-29, 1990, transcript. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996h, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 74-76: January 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996i, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 77-80: March 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996j, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 81-83: April 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection.

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85 Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996k, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 84-89: May 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996l, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 90-92: June 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996m, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folders 93-100: 1990 retreat and miscellaneous. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996n, April 9). Subseries 2.2, Folder 101: 1990 Budget. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996o, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 105: 1991 Budget. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996p, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 109: 1992 Budget. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996q, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 111: 1993 Budget. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996r, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 112: Articles and Updates. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996s, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 114: One page summaries of meetings. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996t, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 116: Syracuse university faculty oversight committee. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection.

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86 Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996u, April 9). Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 117: Texas A&M university knight task force report. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996v, April 9).Subseries 2.2: Meeting Notes and Summaries, Folder 118: UNLV presidential task force report. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996w, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 162: clippings, 1989. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996x, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folders 163-164: clippings, 1990. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996y, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 165: clippings, 1991. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996z, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 166: clippings, 1992. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996aa, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 167: Clippings, 1993. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996bb, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 202: NCAA presidents commission. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996cc, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 207: Reforming intercollegiate athletics, Louis Harris & Associates, Inc., 1991. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection.

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87 Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996dd, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 208: Report No. 1: Summary results from the 1987-88 national study of intercollegiate athletics, american institutes for research, november 1988. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996ee, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 211: Responses to criticism, 1991. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996ff, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 212: Staff Data. Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Inventory #4687. (1996gg, April 9). Subseries 3.1: Creed Carter Black Files, Folder 218: Why the NCAA cant reform college athletics. Academe. (January-February, 1991). Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Southern Historical Collection. Knight Foundation, J.S. and J.L. (2001, July 1). Knight commission proposes penalties for colleges whose athletes fail academically; pursues other major reforms of college sports.Retrieved July 1, 2001, from http://knightfdn.org/default.asp?story-news_at_knight/releases Knight, J.S. and J.L. Foundation. A new approach. (2000 Annual Report). Miami: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. LaGesse, D. (2002, March 18). Troubleshooting: Schools are hiring compliance officers to police athletic departments; boosters remain a problem. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 61-62. Lombardi, J.V. (1992, January-February). A model for intercollegiate athletics. The Journal of the Association of Governing Boards of Universities & Colleges, 34, 1. Lord, M. (2002, March 18). Athletics for all: Harvard tops the scoreboard with a sporting smorgasbord to foster sound bodies and minds. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 68-69. Marklein, M.B. (2001). Athletics push academics to the sideline, authors say. USA Today. Marx, J. & York M. (1985a, October 27). Boosters cash, gifts lined pockets of UK players. Lexington Herald-Leader, p. A1.

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88 Marx, J. & York M. (1985b, October 27). Singletary: Stopping cheating is difficult. Lexington Herald-Leader, p. A10. Menard, L. (2001). Sporting chances: The cost of college athletics. The New Yorker. Mitchell, P. (1998). Sports are getting better play in state universities money game. The Wall Street Journal. Monk, John. (1991, March 20). Knight reforms set futures tone. The Charlotte Observer. pp. 1C, 5C. Moran, M. (2002, May 24). SEC may take on self-policing. USA Today, pp. 1C-2C. Morse, R.J. & Schneider, J. (2002, March 18). Methodology: How the schools were evaluated. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 61. Moyers, B. (2002). NOW: The Series. [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://www.pbs.org/now/series.billmoyers.html National Letter of Intent. (Electronic version]. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from http://www.national-letter.org NCAA Division I Certification Program. [Electronic version]. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/membership_svcs/athletics_certification/index.html NCAA Executive Committee. (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 10, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/library/membership/committee_dir.pdf NCAA Executive Commitee Roster. (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/governance/committee_rosters/exec_comm_roster.html NCAA Governance at a Glance. (n.d.) [Electyronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/governance/org_chart.html The NCAA News. (1999, December 20). NCAA Time line--1990-99. [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 20, 2002 from http://ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html The NCAA News. (1997, January 13). NCAA convention review. [Electronic version]. Retrieved November 3, 2002 from http://www.ncaa.org/news/1997/970113/active/3402n28.html The NCAA News. (1996, January 8). Higher education groups on board for restructuring. [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 10, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/news/1996/19960108.pdf

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89 NCAA Online. Guide for the college-bound student-athlete: Financial aid. [Electronic version]. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/eligibility/cbsa/financialaid.html NCAA Online. It was the flying wedge, footballs major offense in 1905, that spurred the formation of the ncaa. (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 200, from http://www.ncaa.org/about/history.html NCAA Online. The national collegiate athletic associations purposes. (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/about/purposes.html NCAA Online. 2000 review of principles identified by the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 10, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html NCAA Online. Whats the difference between divisions I, II and III? (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/about/div_criteria.html NCAA Online. What is the ncaa? (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/about/what_is_the_ncaa.html NCAA Online. Who makes up the ncaas membership? (n.d.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 29, 2002, from http://www.ncaa.org/about/membership.html Panel targets schools with poor graduation rate. (2001, June 26). Associated Press. [Electronic version]. Retrieved June 26, 2001, from http://espn.com/ncaa/news/2001/0626/1218872.html Pickle, D. (1996, January 15). Memberships approval puts restructuring plan in motion. The NCAA News. [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 10, 2002, from http://ncaa.org/news/1996/19960115.pdf Rader, B.G. (1999). American sports: From the age of folk games to the age of televised sport. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. (1991-1993). Miami: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Report of the Knight Foundation Commisison on Intercollegiate Athletics. (March 1991). Keeping faith with the student-athlete: A new model for intercollegiate athletics. Miami: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Report of the Knight Foundation Commission On Intercollegiate Athletics. (June 2001). A call to action: Reconnecting college sports and higher education. Miami: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Sack, A.L. & Staurowsky, E.J. (1998). College athletes for hire: The evolution and legacy of the NCAAs amateur myth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

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90 Sack, A. L. (2001). Big-time athletics vs. academic values: its a rout. The Chronicle Review: The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2, B7-B10. Savage, H.J. (1929). The growth of college athletics: American college athletics. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching: New York, pp. 13-33. Schneider, J. (2002, March 18). The fairness factor: Title ix meant more opportunity for female athletes. But should male athletes have to pay? U.S. News & World Report, 97, 63-65. Sherman, E. (1993, March 19). Knight commission report stresses collegiate refrom. Chicago Tribune, p. D1. Smith, R.A. (1988). Sports & freedom: the rise of big-time college athletics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Sperber, M. (2000). Beer and circus: how big-time college sports is crippling undergraduate education. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. Suggs, W. (1999). Graduation rates hits lowest level in 7 years for athletes in football and basketball. The Chronicle of Higher Education. p. A58. Suggs, W. (2002, October 18). Indiana U. president will run the ncaa. The Chronicle of Higher Education. p. A41. Taylor, P. (2002, October 7). Americas best sports colleges. Sports Illustrated, 97, 5877. Thelin, John R. (1996). Games colleges play: scandal and reform in intercollegiate athletics. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press. Tucker, D. (1991, October 7). Commission approves strategic planning process. The NCAA News, 35, p. 1. Tucker, D. (1991, October 7). Hearn: Work of commission is only beginning. The NCAA News, 35, p. 4. Vitale, D., & Weiss, D. (2000). Campus chaos: why the game I love is breaking my heart. Indianapolis, IN: TimeOut Publishing. Walker, S. (2001, September 21). College football goes public. The Wall Street Journal, p. W4. Wieberg, S. (2001a, August 3-5). Top dollar, top coaches. USA Today. pp. 1A-2A. Wieberg, S. (2001b, August 3-5). Some colleges still paying off their ex-coaches. USA Today. p. 2A.

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91 Wieberg, S. (2001c, August 3-5). ADs: Agents up the ante. USA Today. p. 2AWieberg, S. (2002a, October 18). Off court, top teams fall short: NCAA tournament successes often graduation-rate failures. USA Today. p. 1C-2C. Wieberg, S. (2002b, October 18). BCS schools dont measure up: Athletes lag behind student body; non-BCS schools do better. USA Today. p. 3C.Wieberg, S. (2002, November 1). NCAA board oks new academic rules. USA Today. p. 11C. Wildavsky, B. (2002, March 18). Graduation blues: Sheepskin totals obscure major failures in big money sports like football and mens basketball. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 69-70. Will, G. (2001, August 12). Rhetoric about college sports is never out of season. [Editorial]. The Bradenton Herald, p. 13C. Witking G. & Schneider, J. (2002, March 18). Americas best college sports programs: A guide to over 300 schools [Special Report: College Sports]. U.S. News & World Report, 97, 50. Witkosky, T. (2002). Grad rate plan would have KOd big-time schools from postseason. USA Today. Zimbalist, Andrew. (2001, July 16-22). Knight report yields little new, much worthy. Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, 17, 46.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rob Marino received his Master of Arts in Mass Communication degree from the University of Florida in December of 2002. Marino also obtained his Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Florida in December of 1988 after transfering to UF from Manatee Community College, where he received an Associate of Arts degree in July of 1986. Marino covered college and high school athletics for more than 15 years as a prep/general assignment newspaper reporter for the Sarasota Herald-Tribune and The Bradenton Herald on Floridas southwest coast. He also has also written for team publications Die Hard and GatorBait, as well as the Associated Press, The Tampa Tribune, St.Petersburg Times, Lakeland Ledger, Gainesville Sun, and The Miami Herald. His most recent work was providing content for the Rivals.com Web site. He is presently a consultant with Sunshine Sports Marketing where he helps coordinate media coverage of The Dairy Farmers High School Awards Program. Marino lives in Gainesville. 92


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0000571/00001

Material Information

Title: Development of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and its Impact on collegiate athletics: 1989-2001
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Marino, Rob ( Dissertant )
Dodd, Julie E. ( Thesis advisor )
Chance, Jean ( Reviewer )
Alexander, Ruth H. ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2002
Copyright Date: 2002

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications Thesis, M. A.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Journalism and Communications
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: This study was an analysis of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and the impact it had in the regulation of collegiate sports reform from 1989-2001 when the commission was active. The Knight Commission was funded exclusively by the Knight Foundation, an independent group of the Knight-Ridder Inc. newspaper chain, which makes charitable donations to higher education programs and community programs in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder newspaper is published. In particular, the Knight Foundation has made a strong commitment to improving higher education journalism programs worldwide. The researcher interviewed six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served on the commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. The six members included Creed C. Black, former president of the Knight Foundation and member of the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees; Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the University of North Carolina; Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University in North Carolina; C. Thomas McMillen, former Maryland congressman and former professional basketball player; Richard Schulz, former NCAA executive director and former executive director of the U.S. Olympic Committee; and Dr. Charles E. Young, president of the University of Florida. The six commission members were chosen because they served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill Library System. The Knight Commission was comprised primarily of university presidents and presidents of public and private corporations who were concerned about the overemphasis of athletics when compared to the academic goals of an institution. The commission first convened in the fall of 1989 and held a series of six hearings with key figures in intercollegiate athletics to determine the main problems facing college sports. Based primarily on those hearings, the commission developed 20 suggestions for reforming intercollegiate athletics in its first report in March of 1991. The commission also issued follow-up reports in 1992 and 1993. Among those 20 suggestions, 10 were adopted in some form by the NCAA, including the top priority of placing university presidents in control of the NCAA in 1996. The commission reconvened in 2000 to reexamine the problems facing intercollegiate athletics and issued a final report in 2001.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2002.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains vii 92 p.
General Note: Title from title page of document.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0000571:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0000571/00001

Material Information

Title: Development of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and its Impact on collegiate athletics: 1989-2001
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Marino, Rob ( Dissertant )
Dodd, Julie E. ( Thesis advisor )
Chance, Jean ( Reviewer )
Alexander, Ruth H. ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2002
Copyright Date: 2002

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications Thesis, M. A.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Journalism and Communications
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: This study was an analysis of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and the impact it had in the regulation of collegiate sports reform from 1989-2001 when the commission was active. The Knight Commission was funded exclusively by the Knight Foundation, an independent group of the Knight-Ridder Inc. newspaper chain, which makes charitable donations to higher education programs and community programs in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder newspaper is published. In particular, the Knight Foundation has made a strong commitment to improving higher education journalism programs worldwide. The researcher interviewed six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served on the commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. The six members included Creed C. Black, former president of the Knight Foundation and member of the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees; Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the University of North Carolina; Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University in North Carolina; C. Thomas McMillen, former Maryland congressman and former professional basketball player; Richard Schulz, former NCAA executive director and former executive director of the U.S. Olympic Committee; and Dr. Charles E. Young, president of the University of Florida. The six commission members were chosen because they served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill Library System. The Knight Commission was comprised primarily of university presidents and presidents of public and private corporations who were concerned about the overemphasis of athletics when compared to the academic goals of an institution. The commission first convened in the fall of 1989 and held a series of six hearings with key figures in intercollegiate athletics to determine the main problems facing college sports. Based primarily on those hearings, the commission developed 20 suggestions for reforming intercollegiate athletics in its first report in March of 1991. The commission also issued follow-up reports in 1992 and 1993. Among those 20 suggestions, 10 were adopted in some form by the NCAA, including the top priority of placing university presidents in control of the NCAA in 1996. The commission reconvened in 2000 to reexamine the problems facing intercollegiate athletics and issued a final report in 2001.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2002.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains vii 92 p.
General Note: Title from title page of document.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0000571:00001


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIGHT FOUNDATION COMMISSION ON
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS AND ITS IMPACT ON COLLEGE SPORTS:
1989-2001















By

ROB MARINO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2002















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This thesis would not have been possible without the superb guidance for the last

year of my supervisory committee. I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Julie E.

Dodd, for her wonderful mentorship--and opening my eyes to the possibility of a teaching

career--in my two-plus years at UF after returning to Gainesville as a "30-something"

graduate student. The rest of my committee, Professor Jean Chance and Dr. Ruth H.

Alexander, have been invaluable assets not only in keeping my focus in the right

direction for this thesis, but also as instructors in my graduate studies. I received some

valuable research connections on sources from Ralph Lowenstein, dean emeritus of the

University of Florida's College of Journalism and Communications. My research at UF

was also aided tremendously by President Charles E. Young, Vice President and General

Counsel Pam Bernard and Assistant Controller Susan Parrish.

From the Knight Commission and Knight Foundation, I would like to personally

thank Creed Black, Maureen Devlin and Bud Meyer for getting my research off on the

right track and being there to answer questions along the way. This research also

obviously would not have been possible without the cooperation of my interview sources:

Dr. William C. Friday, Dr. Charles E. Young, Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, C. Thomas

McMillen and Richard Schultz. I was aided in setting up these interviews by the superb

work and patience of executive assistants Sandy Hayden, Viki Shields and Carolyn Dow.

Finally, a special thanks go to the Marino family: my parents, Bob and Mary Ann,

as well as Mary Beth and Nelson, Chris and Nancy and Mark. My nephews, Owen and









Jeremy, always helped keep things in perspective. I appreciate their strength, stability and

belief in me.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

ABSTRACT ............... ................... ......... .............. vi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ........................ .... ........................ ........ ..... ................

A cadem ic A bu se ....................................................... 3
Financial Expenses ............................................... ........4.
"Rights Fees" and Corporate Sponsorships..........................................................5
Focus of the Study .................. ............. ... ............ ... .............

2 M E T H O D O L O G Y ....................................................................... .....................8

3 HISTORY OF KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND COMMISSION ON
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS .......................... .......... ..............11

4 REACTIONS TO THE FIRST KNIGHT COMMISSION REPORT .................. 33

A cadem ic R eponses .......... .. ...... .... .......... .................. .. ................ .. 33
Federal Legislation................ ......... ............... ........... 37

5 KNIGHT COMMISSION AND THE NCAA......................................................39

Presidential Control of NCAA and the Knight Commission's role.....................40
Presidential Control ................................................ ............ 47
A cadem ic Integrity ........... .............................................................. .. .... .. ..... 49
Financial Integrity ....................................................... ................. 53
C e rtific atio n ..................................................................................................... 5 5

6 KNIGHT COMMISSION -- 1992-2001....................................................57

A cad em ics ................. ................................................... ..... 6 2
D ecrease in Athletic Expenditures..................................................................... 62
Less Reliance on Commercial Sponsorships........................................................62
Disbandment of the Knight Commission............................................................64









7 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION ....................................... ............... 70

Summary of Research Question Findings............................................................71
Future Research .................................. ... .. ......... .......... .... 74
A naly sis .................................................. 76

REFERENCES ................ ... ........... ...... ............ ............ .............. 82

BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ...................................................... 92
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
at the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIGHT FOUNDATION COMMISSION ON
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS AND ITS IMPACT ON COLLEGIATE SPORTS:
1989-2001

By

Rob Marino

December, 2002

Chair: Dr. Julie E. Dodd
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

This study was an analysis of the Knight Foundation Commission on

Intercollegiate Athletics and the impact it had in the regulation of collegiate sports reform

from 1989-2001 when the commission was active. The Knight Commission was funded

exclusively by the Knight Foundation, an independent group of the Knight-Ridder Inc.

newspaper chain, which makes charitable donations to higher education programs and

community programs in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder newspaper is published. In

particular, the Knight Foundation has made a strong commitment to improving higher

education journalism programs worldwide.

The researcher interviewed six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served

on the commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. The six members included

Creed C. Black, former president of the Knight Foundation and member of the Knight

Foundation Board of Trustees; Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the University









of North Carolina; Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University in North

Carolina; C. Thomas McMillen, former Maryland congressman and former professional

basketball player; Richard Schulz, former NCAA executive director and former executive

director of the U.S. Olympic Committee; and Dr. Charles E. Young, president of the

University of Florida.

The six commission members were chosen because they served on the Knight

Commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with

contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to

contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal

or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation

Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina-

Chapel Hill Library System.

The Knight Commission was comprised primarily of university presidents and

presidents of public and private corporations who were concerned about the

overemphasis of athletics when compared to the academic goals of an institution. The

commission first convened in the fall of 1989 and held a series of six hearings with key

figures in intercollegiate athletics to determine the main problems facing college sports.

Based primarily on those hearings, the commission developed 20 suggestions for

reforming intercollegiate athletics in its first report in March of 1991. The commission

also issued follow-up reports in 1992 and 1993. Among those 20 suggestions, 10 were

adopted in some form by the NCAA, including the top priority of placing university

presidents in control of the NCAA in 1996. The commission reconvened in 2000 to

reexamine the problems facing intercollegiate athletics and issued a final report in 2001.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Skepticism has traditionally been associated with reform movements in

intercollegiate athletics. The Wall Street Journal said "Blue-ribbons panels ... are

routinely ignored" (Hunt, p. A21). In Games Colleges Play. Scandal and Reform in

Intercollegiate Athletics, author John Thelin questioned the likelihood of any

organization being able to bring about meaningful, permanent change in college sports:

What we find is that perennial confidence in blue-ribbon commission reports has
often elicited a groundswell of immediate publicity and discussion. However ...
the diversity of American higher education tend to derail any attempts at
implementing lasting policy changes. (Thelin, 1996, preface, p. viii)

Thelin's 1996 book described the four largest intercollegiate athletic reform

movements of the 20th century: the third report of the Carnegie Foundation for the

Advancement of Teaching in 1929; the Presidents' Report for the American Council on

Education in 1952; George Hanford's 1974 study for the American Council on

Education; and the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, which

issued three reports from 1991-93, then issued a final report in 2001 prior to its

disbandment.

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is generally viewed as

initiating the reform movement in U.S. intercollegiate athletics. The Carnegie Foundation

group issued four reports pertaining to higher education from 1923-31. More than 100

U.S. universities were studied for the third and fourth reports. Chairman Henry S.









Pritchett issued this ominous warning in the preface of the third report, "American

College Athletics," in July of 1929 (Savage, 1929):

The paid coach, the gate receipts, the special training tables, the costly sweaters and
extensive journeys in special Pullman cars, the recruiting from the high school, the
demoralizing publicity showered on the players, the devotion of an undue
proportion of time to training, the devices for putting a desirable athlete, but a weak
scholar, across the hurdles of the examinations ... ought to stop and the
intercollege and intramural sports be brought back to a stage in which they can be
enjoyed by large numbers of students .. college sports have been developed from
games played by boys for pleasure into systematic professionalized athletic
contests for the glory, and, too often, for the financial profit of the college. (p.xxi)

Almost 75 years later near the beginning of the 21st century, the Knight Foundation

Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was sounding that same warning about the

priorities of athletics being skewed when compared to the academic goals of a university

and that universities were compromising their academic values in lieu of fielding

successful athletic programs. Only this time, costly sweaters and Pullman cars had been

replaced by million-dollar revenue-sharing and Nike shoes.

The guiding principle behind this study was to measure the impact ajournalism-

related charitable organization such as the Knight Foundation had on reforming

intercollegiate athletics. The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics

issued four reports from 1991-2001 dealing with reform measures for intercollegiate

athletics. The Knight Foundation Commission's reform package consisted of a series of

recommendations compiled by members based on the major issues confronting university

athletic departments in the 1980s and 1990s:

1) academic abuse, centering on the poor graduation rates and academic performance
of student-athletes;

2) financial expenses, the expenses related to intercollegiate athletics and how those
escalating costs, particularly since the 1980s, had continually led expenses to
outpace revenues at many university athletic departments;









3) the influence of corporate sponsorships and "rights fees" from NCAA or
conference revenue-sharing on universities, creating the perception that these
exorbitant figures had professionalizedd" intercollegiate athletics.

Academic Abuse

Academic abuse primarily included the academic status and progress of student-

athletes. The Knight Commission was concerned that some student-athletes were entering

institutions not prepared for the academic demands of a university and were not

committed to working toward a degree. Here are some examples of academic

transgressions since 1980:

* A 1980s survey found that of 106 of the more than 300 universities competing at
the National Collegiate Athletic Association's highest level, I-A, 48 had graduation
rates under 30 percent in men's basketball, while 19 other universities had
graduation rates of under 30 percent in football. (Report of the Knight Foundation
Commission, June 2001)

* A 1991, 90-minute documentary "Sports for Sale," funded by the Knight
Foundation Commission and produced by Public Affairs Television pioneer Bill
Moyers, found a 30 percent graduation rate for Division I football and basketball
players in the late-1980s and early-1990s. The documentary also revealed 25
percent of high school players at a Nike basketball camp in the late-1980s read
below a sixth-grade level and only 16 percent of basketball players at the
University of Louisville from 1981-1990 graduated. (Knight, 1996w, subseries 3.1,
folder 162)

* University of Minnesota men's basketball coach Clem Haskins was forced to resign
in 1999 following a school investigation when a former tutor for the team said she
had written 400 papers for 20 players from 1993-1998. One assistant professor at
the school complained to school administrators when he suspected some of those
papers written by the players were not authentic because he said one of those
papers was the best he had read in his 40 years at the university. (Sperber, 2000)

* A 1999 NCAA study revealed the overall graduation rate within a six-year period
for Division I-A male athletes to be 58 percent, however, those rates fell to 51
percent for football players and 41 percent for basketball players. (Bowen &
Shulman, 2001)

* Another NCAA study released in September 2002, tracked graduation rates in
men's basketball compared to the overall male graduation rates at institutions from
1983-95. Among the findings were that the University of Louisville (17 percent
graduation rate for men's basketball players) and the University of Oklahoma (15









percent graduation rate for men's basketball players) had graduation rates for men's
basketball players at least 25 percent lower than those of all male students on their
campus. (Wieberg, October 18, 2002)

* At the end of Ohio State University's 2000 football season, 23 players would have
been ineligible to play in a national championship bowl game after January 1
because their grade point averages fell below the NCAA-minimum of 2.00 required
to remain eligible. One of those players had a 0.00 grade point average that season.
(Glasser, 2002a)

* According to a May 2002 study in The Des Moines Register published in the USA
Today, 45 of the 69 men's basketball teams from the NCAA's top six conferences
had graduation rates of less than 50 percent among all their players from 1993-
2000. The University of Florida, University of Oklahoma and University of
Tennessee, which won three of the five Associated Press college football national
championships from 1996-2001, had median graduation rates of less than 50
percent. (Witosky, 2002)

* According to a 2002 NCAA study, Brigham Young University, Georgia Tech and
the University of Michigan all had graduation rates for football players at least 30
percent less than all male students on each campus from 1992-1995.

Financial Expenses

The Knight Commission was concerned that a win-at-all-costs mentality had forced

institutions to make increasingly larger financial commitments to its athletic departments.

Those financial commitments sometimes left athletic departments in a precarious

situation when attempting to balance revenues against expenses. Here are some examples

of those financial commitments since 1980:

* An August 3, 2001, USA Today story on college coaching salaries found 22 head
football coaches and 17 men's head basketball coaches making salaries of more
than $1 million a year. The highest paid coaches on that 2001 list were the
University of Florida's Steve Spurrier in football at $2.1 million a year and the
University of Louisville's Rick Pitino in basketball at $2.2 million. (Wieberg,
2001a)

* After Texas A&M reached the Big 12 Championship Game in 1998, head coach
R.C. Slocum signed a seven-year contract extension for $7 million, raising his base
salary from $185,000 to $300,000 and being given a $200,000 annual raise.
University of Tennessee head football coach Phil Fulmer signed a six-year contract
that paid him $1 million a year after the Volunteers won the national championship
in 1998. (Vitale & Weiss, 2000)









Some of those coaches reach the magic mark by hitting incentives, such as money
for winning a conference championship, qualifying for a bowl game or graduating a
certain percentage of players. Salaries, along with a push to expand stadiums and
upgrade other facilities, feed into growing concerns about an escalating athletics
arms race that a majority of schools can't afford. (Wieberg, 2001a, p. 1A)

University athletic department officials argued that in order to remain competitive,

they must continually upgrade their facilities to attract the most promising student-

athletes.

* In the 1990s, many athletic departments either upgraded their facilities or built new
ones, often moving the expenses, including the debt-servicing, off their books and
onto university ledgers. As always, athletic directors and coaches pressured
presidents and administrators to approve the construction--whether the institution
could afford the costs or not. (Sperber, 2000, p. 228)

* Since 1998, of the $635 million allocated for Ohio State University's capital
budget, $316 was used for building new athletic facilities. If that figure is broken
down per student, Ohio State spent just over $350,000 per student-athlete on
improving its athletic facilities as compared to spending just over $6,600 per
student on non-athletic facilities. (Glasser, 2002b)

* When the University of Buffalo joined the Mid-American Conference (MAC) in
the early 1990s, it was forced to spend several million dollars to upgrade its
facilities in order to meet minimum NCAA Division I-A standards. The school also
had to increase its athletic budget from approximately $3 million (when it was a
Division III school) to more than $10 million when it moved up to Division I-A,
"and school officials acknowledge that the sea of red ink will expand during the
first decade of the twenty-first century" (Sperber, 2000, p. 66).

* Virginia Tech athletic director Jim Weaver said, "If you are not upgrading your
facilities, you are going backward." A former University of Nebraska athletic
official had a similar belief: "When we won the national (football) championship at
Nebraska in 1994, what we did instantly was continue to expand. That's when we
started the project to build skyboxes and expand the stadium and continue to
improve facilities" (Sperber, 2000, p. 228).

"Rights Fees" and Corporate Sponsorships

That trend in upgrading or building new university athletic facilities came partly

from the enormous amounts of money institutions received from "rights fees"--money

paid to the NCAA and athletic conferences by television networks for the "rights" to









broadcast certain sporting events. That money was eventually dispersed to member

schools through "revenue-sharing" plans where each school would receive a certain

percentage of a total "rights" fee.

Over the last decade, the commercialization of college sports has burgeoned. Vastly
larger television deals and shoe contracts have been signed, and more and more
space in stadiums and arenas has been sold to advertisers. In too many respects,
big-time college sports today more closely resemble the commercialized model
appropriate to professional sports than they do the academic model. (Report of the
Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 19)

Here are some examples of the "rights fees" since 1980:

* The NCAA will receive $6.2 billion from CBS television for broadcasting rights to
the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament from 2002-2013. The NCAA generated
more than $275 million in revenue from the 2000 NCAA Men's Basketball
Tournament, including $17.1 million from ticket sales, and distributed nearly $150
million to Division I colleges. (Vitale & Weiss, 2000) That "rights fees" from the
NCAA Tournament has steadily increased since the mid-1980s, starting at $32
million a year from CBS in the mid-1980s, increasing to more than $60 million in
1986, more than $1 billion in 1989 and $1.7 billion in 1994 prior to the most recent
contract of $6.2 billion starting in 2002. (Sperber, 2000)

* The Southeastern Conference (SEC) split a conference-record $95.7 million among
its 12 member schools during the 2001-2002 academic year. That total was $17
million more than its previous record and represented a continuing increase in
"rights fees" paid to SEC schools. Those "rights fees" were $4.1 million in 1980,
$16.3 million in 1990 and $45.5 million in 1996. The SEC "rights fees" included
$40.7 million for TV football contracts; $17.2 million in bowl game payouts; $12
million from the SEC championship football game; $12 million from the NCAA
basketball tournament; and $10.3 million from TV basketball contracts. (Hyams,
2002)

Sponsorships have also become an important part in the college athletic scene.

Athletic apparel manufacturer Nike is responsible for many of those sponsorships.

The sports marketing trend was to hook up "near exclusive" sponsorship deals with
entire universities -- as Nike had struck with the University of Miami in 1989...The
University of Southern California's football, basketball, tennis, volleyball, and
track-and-field teams, for instance, would be prominently clad in Nike gear. The
money would first pass through university administration and then go to the team
coaches. Over half of the NCAA championship basketball teams of the past ten
years had worn Nikes, and more than sixty big-time colleges were "Nike schools"--









this, in most cases, because their coaches were Nike coaches. (Katz, 1994, pp. 25,
243)

S From 1980-1988, universities which had sponsorships with Nike to outfit their
teams won four of eight NCAA Tournaments in men's basketball during that
period. During one season in that 1980-1988 period, 23 of 64 men's basketball
teams which qualified for the NCAA tournament had contracts to wear Nike
products. (Katz, 1994)

Focus of the Study

This study examined the impact the Knight Foundation Commission on

Intercollegiate Athletics played in reforming intercollegiate athletics from 1989-2001.

Those dates were selected as the time period the Knight Foundation Commission on

Intercollegiate Athletics remained active by either holding hearings or issuing reports.

The primary questions this research is intended to answer are as follows:

1) How did a journalism-based charitable foundation dedicated to protecting the First
Amendment rights of free speech decide to become involved in collegiate athletic
reform?

2) How did the commission report its findings to the public, and did the commission
use its connections to a media conglomerate such as Knight-Ridder Inc. to sway
public opinion --through the media--about its findings?

3) How were the actions and recommendations of the Knight Commission viewed by
the academic and athletic community, including administrators, faculty, coaches,
and athletic directors?

4) What has been the NCAA's response to the Knight Commission's work?

5) How do members of the Knight Commission evaluate the success of
the group's work.















CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY

To acquire further background on the Knight Commission, six commission

members were interviewed. Other background on the commission was done by

researching the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at

the University of North Carolina to locate testimony from the five 1990 commission

hearings used to form the basis for the first Knight Commission report in 1991. The

Knight Foundation Commission Collection included a "clips file" of media coverage of

the commission, which was also analyzed for this research.

The researcher interviewed six of the 22 individuals who served on the Knight

Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics during its entirety from 1989-2001.

In all, 30 members served on the Knight Commission two members resigned following

the 1991 report and eight members were added for the commission's fourth and final

report in 2001.

The following Knight Commission members were interviewed:

* Creed C. Black, Knight Foundation president, 1988-98;

* Dr. William Friday, president emeritus, University of North Carolina, Knight
Commission co-chairman;

* Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president, Wake Forest University;

* C. Thomas McMillen, former U.S. congressman (D-Maryland);

* Richard Schultz, NCAA executive director, 1987-93; and

* Dr. Charles E. Young, former chancellor, UCLA, and president of the University of
Florida.









In order to receive the most accurate perspective on the Knight Commission's

accomplishments, it was necessary to interview individuals who served on the

commission throughout its entirety. Black and Friday provided the researcher with

contact information for eight members who met that criteria. The researcher was able to

contact four of those members, along with Black and Friday, to conduct either a personal

or phone interview. Further background came from researching the Knight Foundation

Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at the University of North Carolina-

Chapel Hill Library System.

These individuals were asked the five research questions through either personal

interviews or telephone interviews from May 1-June 30, 2002. Their Institutional Review

Board approval responses are included in the Appendix. The researcher also made two

trips to the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill campus to use the Manuscripts

Department of the Southern Historical Collection of the UNC-Chapel Hill The Academic

Libraries, where the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics

Collection is housed. The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics

Collection includes 16,200 items. The collection is broken into series:

* Series 1 -- Knight Commission Reports: Report Drafts, Final Reports, Responses
and Requests for Reports

* Series 2 -- Meeting Materials: Transcripts of Proceedings (Closed until January 1,
2004); Meeting Notes and Summaries, Masters Briefing Book, which was a clip
file of Knight Foundation Commission media coverage.

* Series 3 -- Chair, Commissioner and General Files: Files from Knight Foundation
Commission member Creed Black and from staff associate director Maureen
Devlin, along with Commissioner Files from several Knight members and two
General Files.

* Series 4 -- Monthly Correspondence and Bills.

* Series 5 -- Video and Audio Tapes.









A separate section contained additions made after November 1994. The researcher

was able to read minutes from the five meetings from January-July of 1990 used to

generate the first report of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate

Athletics, Keeping Faith With The S.ti,,leut-.Aihlet A New Model For Intercollegiate

Aililetik ,.

Research Limitations

The research from this study was limited for the following reasons:

1) Only six of the 22 Knight Commission members who served on the commission
during its entirety were interviewed. Commission members Creed C. Black and Dr.
William Friday provided the researcher with contact information for eight
members. The researcher was able to reach six of the eight members, including
Black and Friday. The criteria of interviewing members who served on the
commission throughout its entirety was used because the researcher thought those
members could provide a more detailed perspective on the overall accomplishments
of the commission. The six individuals interviewed were generally supportive of
the work of the Knight Commission.

2) The accuracy of the information collected from the interviews was predicated on
members recollecting events that in some cases had occurred one decade earlier.
The Knight Commission was formed in the fall of 1989, and this research began in
the winter of 2002. Several members interviewed said it was difficult to recall exact
details of how certain commission events transpired. "I'll scratch my head and try
to help," one member said. "Please remember that we're talking about stuff that
happened 10-12 years ago."

3) While the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics Collection at
the University of North Carolina contained approximately 16,200 items, those
items were not all in chronological order, making it difficult to track year-by-year
information, particularly financial information. For example, while there was a
folder for Monthly Correspondence and Bills, complete information was not
available for every year and was not arranged chronologically. Another obstacle to
obtaining accurate information on the commission was that the transcripts of the
commission's executive sessions, which were only open to commission members
and where important decisions were sometimes made on the wording and agenda in
the reports, will not be available to the public until January 1, 2004.














CHAPTER 3
HISTORY OF KNIGHT FOUNDATION AND COMMISSION ON
INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was a division of

the larger John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Understanding how the Knight

Commission fits into that context is important.

Brothers John S. and James L. Knight formed the Knight Foundation in 1950 as a

private foundation independent of their family publishing operation. The Knights' father,

Charles Landon Knight, purchased the family's first newspaper, the Akron Beacon-

Journal, in 1903. John S. Knight inherited that paper upon his father's death in 1933,

providing the start for the Knight Newspapers chain.

Knight Newspapers purchased The Miami Herald in 1937, and James L. Knight

moved to Miami to run the paper. Over the next three decades, Knight Newspapers

acquired newspapers including the Detroit Free Press, Charlotte (N. C.) Observer and

Tallahassee Democrat.

Knight Newspapers became a public corporation by offering public stock in 1969.

In 1974, Knight Newspapers Inc. merged with Ridder Publications, Inc. to form the

Knight-Ridder newspaper chain. Knight-Ridder incorporated in Ohio in 1974 and

reincorporated in Florida in 1976, where it opened its headquarters that same year and

remained until moving to the Silicon Valley region of San Jose, California, in 1998. By

2002, the Knight-Ridder Inc. chain was comprised of 32 daily newspapers, as well as the

Real Cities Internet network of 54 regional web sites (www.knightfdn.org).









The Knight Foundation was formed from the original Knight Memorial Education

Fund, created in 1940 in memory of Charles Landon Knight, who was instrumental in

helping Akron, Ohio-area college students with college funding. The fund's assets of just

under $10,000 were transferred to the Knight Foundation when the organization was

formed in December of 1950.

Almost from the beginning, however, the Foundation made small grants to
educational, cultural and social service institutions--mostly in Akron--and, on a
very limited basis, for journalism-related courses. For the first 10 years, the
Foundation's assets came from contributions from the Akron Beacon Journal and
The Miami Herald and personal gifts by John S. and James L. Knight. Other Knight
newspapers began to contribute small amounts in the early 1960s--a move that led
to a limited number of grants to cities from which the contributions came.
Newspaper contributions stopped in 1965 with the Foundation's first major
infusion of assets--a bequest of 180,000 shares of Knight Newspapers stock from
the Knights' mother, Clara I. Knight. ... A turning point came in 1972 when the
board of trustees authorized the sale of Clara Knight's stock in a secondary offering
by Knight Newspapers. The sale raised $21,343,500, increased the Foundation's
assets to more than $24 million and initiated an expanded grant program focused on
the growing number of cities where the Knights published newspapers. Journalism,
especially the education of journalists, became a matter of more pronounced
funding interest. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993,
p. 37)

The Knight Foundation opened its first office in Akron in 1975, the same year John

S. Knight bequested the remainder of his estate to the organization upon his death. John

S. Knight passed away on June 16, 1981, and almost five years later, on May 5, 1986, the

Knight Foundation received a transfer of funds from the bulk of John S. Knight's estate--

$428.1 million. James L. Knight passed away in February of 1991, also bequesting the

Knight Foundation $200 million from his estate (Reports of the Knight Foundation

Commission, 1991-1993).

Creed C. Black, a former publisher of the Knight-Ridder newspaper, the Lexington

Herald-Leader, who later served as Knight Foundation president from 1988-98 and is

now a member of the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees, said the organization began









focusing more of its charitable resources towards liberal arts colleges beginning in the

late 1980s (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). The Knight Foundation

concentrated its efforts in these primary areas: journalism, nonprofit organizations, arts

and culture, education, children/social welfare, citizenship, community development,

homelessness, and literacy. That philanthropic initiative was headlined by the

foundation's Knight Community Initiatives Program, whose primary mission was to

award charitable contributions to organizations in the 26 cities where a Knight-Ridder-

owned newspaper was published when James L. Knight passed away in 1991. The

Knight Foundation had just begun to change its mission to community-based fundraising

prior to James L. Knight's death. The largest contribution from the Knight Community

Initiatives Program was awarded to Dade County, home of The Miami Herald, when the

Knight Foundation created a $10 million fund to aid the county in the cleanup following

Hurricane Andrew in 1992 (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993).

Journalism proved an especially fertile area for initiatives as educational needs and
free-press and First Amendment issues created opportunities for funding with
impact .... Journalism, especially the education of journalists, became a matter of
more pronounced funding interest. In journalism, the Foundation built on the
Knight's legacy of support for education as the cornerstone of quality journalism
by establishing, salvaging or strengthening some of the profession's most
prestigious midcareer fellowship programs for journalists. (Reports of the Knight
Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, pp. 39, 37, 33)

The Knight Foundation invested more than $153 million in its Journalism Program,

including more than $30 million in grants to nonprofit organizations working to improve

journalism. That undertaking has also included funding of 16 Knight Chairs of

Journalism in endowed tenured teaching positions at various institutions across the

country, including the University of Florida, to promote the importance of a free press.









According to the Knight Foundation's Statement of Financial Position as of Dec.

31, 2000, the organization's assets totaled $2.1 billion. The organization awarded $113.5

million in grants in 2000 alone (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June

2001).

In analyzing the Knight Foundation's history, it would appear initially that

intercollegiate athletics did not fall within the primary mission of an organization that had

dedicated so many resources to enhancing journalism programs or improving social

programs in areas with a Knight-Ridder newspaper. However, at least one Knight

Foundation Commission member said the reforming of college sports fit perfectly into

the organization's goals.

"Broaden your mind a little," said Dr. William Friday, president emeritus of the

University of North Carolina and a Knight Commission co-chairman. "While athletics is

the vehicle, the issue is really the integrity of the American university that plays college

sports. Knight saw this as a chance to define what the role should be" (W. Friday,

personal communication, June 12, 2002).

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics originated in

October of 1989 through the Knight Foundation's Higher Education program.

Knight trustees created the original Commission in 1989, seeing intercollegiate
athletic reform as a goal worthy of a foundation that identified higher education as
one of its primary interests. (Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-
1993, p. 36)

When the Knight Commission was initially created in 1989, five former university

presidents, including Friday, served on a Knight Foundation higher education advisory

board. Friday suggested to Creed Black the possibility of forming a Knight Foundation

committee dealing with intercollegiate athletic issues. Black then traveled across the









country to gauge the support of university presidents about the formation of such a

commission (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002).

"The idea was to get together a national blue ribbon commission that would look at

proposals and suggest reform agendas concentrating on university athletics," Black said

in explaining the impetus for the Knight Commission (C. Black, personal

communication, June 3, 2002). The issue also was important to Black because he was

publisher of the Lexington Herald-Leader in the fall of 1985 when the newspaper

published a series of articles about a scandal involving University of Kentucky basketball

players accepting cash and gifts from UK boosters and alumni. Herald-Leader staff

writers Jeffrey Marx and Michael York, who did the bulk of the research and writing for

the series, received anonymous death threats just after the series was published, yet they

also won a Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting in 1986 (Marx, York, 1985).

But that was not the only university athletic scandal of the 1980s.

In the 1980s, 109 colleges and universities were censured, sanctioned or put on
probation by the NCAA ... including half the universities playing at the NCAA's
top competitive level, I-A--57 institutions out of 106. Nearly a third of present and
former professional football players responding to a survey near the end of the
1980s said they had accepted illicit payments while in college, and more than half
said they saw nothing wrong with the practice. (Report of the Knight Foundation
Commisison, June 2001, p. 9)

A 1989 Associated Press-Media General Survey found that the majority of the

general public believed that the institutions with the top athletic programs paid their

student-athletes, or did so by a secret payment through the school's booster club. They

also believed those institutions altered student-athlete grades in order to remain eligible.

Two-thirds of those surveyed said the colleges overemphasize sports and neglect

academic standards for athletes (Thelin, 1996).









The public perception of college sports in the late 1980s may have been epitomized

by a July 1989 Louis Harris Poll revealing that eight of 10 individuals from the general

public believed intercollegiate athletics were out of control. Other results from that poll

were that 79 percent of those surveyed believed a university held a different standard for

the academic progress of a star recruit and that 77 percent of those surveyed believes

athletic scandals were undermining the traditional role of universities (Knight, 1996h).

The atmosphere appeared ideal to form a committee to study the problems facing college

sports.

"The real provocation behind it all was the poll Louis Harris did in '89," Friday

said. "Most of us being college-identified found that very hard to accept. But the

testimony on it was quite clear" (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002).

"The time was right," Black said. "Our feeling was that the problem had gotten so

serious that it was endangering the integrity of what higher education was all about. The

tail was wagging the dog rather than the other way around" (C. Black, personal

communication, June 3, 2002).

In testimony Black gave to the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on

Commerce, Consumer Protection & Competitiveness on June 19, 1991, he further

explained why the commission was formed:

It was not... out of any hostility toward college athletics. Our interest is not to
abolish that role but to preserve it by putting it back in perspective. We saw that as
a worthy goal for a foundation which has a major program interest in the field of
higher education.

Black convinced the Knight Foundation Board of Trustees of the need for a

commission dealing with intercollegiate athletic reform measures. The board of trustees

agreed on September 22, 1989, and pledged $2 million over two years to start the Knight









Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics (C. Black, personal communication,

June 3, 2002).

On October 19, 1989, Black announced at a press conference in Akron, Ohio, the

former home of the Knight Foundation, the formation of the Knight Foundation

Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. A Knight Foundation press release described

the formation of the commission:

The Knight Foundation is establishing a national blue-ribbon commission to
develop and build support for a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics. the
commission would be an independent body with no mandate except to make
whatever additional study of the problem it considers necessary and then propose
specific, workable solutions. (Knight Foundation News Release, 1989)

Black was joined at the conference by Knight Commission co-chairmen, the Rev.

Theodore M. Hesburgh, president emeritus of the University of Notre Dame, and Friday.

Black said membership on the Knight Commission was based on including university

presidents from the major athletic conferences, as well as individuals familiar with

intercollegiate athletic reform (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002). When

the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics began holding hearings

in 1990 to formulate the agenda for its first report, Hesburgh spoke during the fourth

hearing on May 15, 1990, about where this commission needed to be different from past

intercollegiate athletic commissions (Knight, 1996f).

The last thing we wanted to do was to be redundant. There have been commissions
going all the way back to Teddy Roosevelt's time and most of them have
accomplished just about nil. They've put out nice reports which have duly gathered
dust on various shelves and we don't want to do that. (p. 28)

The first Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics appointee

was Richard Schultz, at the time the NCAA's executive director and later an executive

director of the U.S. Olympic Committee. Schultz told Black he felt the NCAA would be









receptive to listening to the Knight Commission's recommendations, particularly after

Schultz had encouraged NCAA members "to make major changes and major

commitments to restructuring and reform" within the organization at the 1989 NCAA

Convention. Schultz also helped choose the first commission (C. Black, personal

communication, June 3, 2002; R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002). In

addition, each Knight Commission member had to be approved by the Knight Foundation

Board of Trustees (Knight, 1996d).

"As names came up, (Black) ran a general list by me," Schultz said. "We talked

about what the balance should be; that it needed to be more than just collegiate people.

We finally came up with enough names" (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18,

2002).

"We wanted to make it as representative as possible," Friday said. "That's why we

had Afro-Americans, we had women, we had senior college presidents, we had small

institution presidents, we had Olympic representation and NCAA representation. We

were trying to reflect players to their people. We took people from every conference of

the country" (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002).

On November 16, 1989, the full 21-member initial Knight Commission was

announced at another press conference in Akron. Besides co-chairs Hesburgh and Friday,

as well as Black, who served as an ex-officio member, and Schultz, the remainder of the

first Knight Commission was comprised of:

* Lamar Alexander, president of the University of Tennessee;

* Douglas S. Dibbert from the University of North Carolina and president-elect of the
Council of Alumni Association Executives;

* Dr. John A. DiBiaggio, president of Michigan State University;









* Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, president of Wake Forest University;

* J. Lloyd Huck, chairman of the board of Pennsylvania State University;

* Dr. Bryce Jordan, president emeritus of Pennsylvania State University;

* Richard W. Kazmaier, president of Kazmaier & Associates and the last Heisman
Trophy winner from the Ivy League when he won the award with Princeton in
1951, as well as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and
Sports;

* Donald R. Keough, president of the Coca-Cola Co.;

* Dr. Martin A. Massengale, president of the University of Nebraska;

* C. Thomas McMillen, U.S. congressman from Maryland, a former NBA basketball
player and All-America at the University of Maryland, as well as a Rhodes scholar;

* Dr. Chase N. Peterson, president of the University of Utah;

* Jane C. Pfeiffer, former chairman of NBC;

* Dr. A. Kenneth Pye, president of Southern Methodist University;

* Donna E. Shalala, chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison;

* Leroy T. Walker, president emeritus of the U.S. Olympic Committee, chancellor
emeritus of North Carolina Central University and past president of the National
Association of Intercollegiate Athletics;

* Dr. James J. Whalen, president of Ithaca College and chairman of the American
Council of Education;

* Clifton R. Wharton, chairman and CEO of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity
Association-College Retirement Equities Fund;

* Dr. Charles E. Young, chancellor of the University of California at Los Angeles.

Upon formation in the fall of 1989, the Knight Foundation Commission on

Intercollegiate Athletics opened an office in Charlotte, North Carolina, and hired a three-

person staff by the first week of October of 1989. The Knight Commission received more

than 25 resumes inquiring about employment opportunities with the commission (Knight,

1996ff). Christopher "Kit" Morris, a former athletic director at Davidson College and









associate athletic director at Yale University, became staff director. Maureen Devlin, who

had previously worked in the NCAA compliance and legislative services offices, became

assistant staff director. Bryan Skelton became an administrative assistant. All three were

hired on a consultant basis with the idea it would be a temporary position, according to

Devlin (M. Devlin, personal communication, October 9, 2002). Knight Commission

expenses for 1989 were $146,608, with the majority ($100,000) being for staff

administrative costs to set up the Charlotte office (Knight, 1996n).

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics held its first

meetings on January 30-31, 1990, and devised a strategic plan in which its first set of

recommendations for its first report were based on a series of five hearings over the next

six months with individuals familiar with intercollegiate athletic policy such as

conference commissioners, faculty athletic representatives, athletic directors, coaches,

television executives, professional sports representatives and student-athletes. All the

hearings were held in Washington, D.C. The Knight Foundation Commission on

Intercollegiate Athletics paid the expenses of all participants to travel to the hearings.

Each group was asked to speak about the biggest problems they perceived in

intercollegiate athletics and offer some possible solutions (Knight, 1996s).

Knight Commission co-chairman Father Theodore Hesburgh said the commission

needed to listen to as many intercollegiate athletic sources to understand the primary

problems facing intercollegiate athletics in the late-1980s and early-1990s (Knight,

1996e).

We think if we stay on the main track and pull in as much information as we can
from those who are acquainted with the problems and have had to live with them or
live against them that is the best thing we can do. (p. 9)









On March 13-14, 1990, the Knight Commission met with conference

commissioners from the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten, Southwestern,

Mideastern and Big Eight. That was followed by a second hearing with 13 faculty athletic

representatives and 16 athletic directors on April 16-17, 1990. On May 14-15, 1990, the

third hearing was held with 12 college basketball and football coaches.

The basketball coaches included

* Dale Brown (LSU);
* Bobby Knight (Indiana);
* Mike Kryzewski (Duke);
* Digger Phelps (Notre Dame);
* Dean Smith (North Carolina);
* John Thompson (Georgetown); and
* Roy Williams (Kansas).

Among the football coaches were

* Terry Donahue (UCLA);
* Dennis Green (Stanford);
* Dick MacPherson (Syracuse);
* Tom Osbourne (Nebraska); and
* Joe Paterno (Penn State).

The fifth and final hearing was June 28-29, 1990, with National Football League

(NFL) Commissioner Paul Tagliablue, National Basketball Association (NBA) Deputy

Commissioner Russ Granik; six student-athletes selected from the NCAA Student-

Athlete Committee; several representatives from high school associations; representatives

from the NCAA Certification Program; and university faculty. (Knight, 1996s). Several

NCAA basketball coaches complimented the Knight Commission for seeking their

suggestions on ways to improve college sports during the fourth hearing on May 15, 1990

(Knight, 1996f). Indiana coach Bobby Knight said:

I don't remember one other time where we've ever had a chance to either directly
or indirectly have input into things that were affecting basketball. (pp. 36-37)









Notre Dame coach Digger Phelps shared a similar sentiment:

Personally, in 25 years of college coaching, I've never been able to sit down with a
group of college presidents and say, 'Hey, listen, here's what we're going through
in the battlefield. (p. 140)

"We had a group of power coaches -- the football and basketball coaches -- and one

of the first things they said was this is the first time we've ever been asked for our

opinion about anything, which I thought was incredible," said Dr. William Friday (W.

Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002).

However, not all participants from those meetings were always supportive of the

Knight Commission agenda. Albert Witte, the University of Arkansas faculty athletic

representative and NCAA president in 1990, questioned the necessity of the Knight

Commission and suggested the commission should shift its emphasis to high schools

during the third hearing with faculty athletic representatives on April 16, 1990 (Knight,

1996e).

I had hoped that the Commission would not plow the same ground that has been
plowed and replowed and is currently being plowed again by all sorts of other
groups. I haven't heard a thing today that strikes me as the first time I have heard it.
(p. 125)

"The athletic director at the University of Michigan said 'the presidents get in here

and they get all excited and they try to tell us how to run our business, but they'll go

away and we'll keep doing what we want,'" Friday said. "That didn't happen this time.

They didn't want anything to happen, that's the point" (W. Friday, personal

communication, June 12, 2002).

By the time the Knight Commission completed its first five hearings of 1990, the

group had met with more than 90 individuals associated with intercollegiate athletics,

including conference commissioners, faculty athletic representatives, athletic directors,









senior women administrators, college football and basketball coaches and student-athletes

(Reports of the Knight Foundation Commission, 1991-1993). The Knight Commission

then met on Sept. 23-25, 1990, in West Palm Beach, Florida, and analyzed testimony

from those five hearings and began formulating how it would draft the first report. The

commission spent the remainder of the fall of 1990 revising the first report and its

recommendations. Knight Commission member Dr. James J. Whalen said in a December

4, 1990, letter faxed to Kit Morris and Maureen Devlin that the report still needed to be

revised and edited more sharply:

The most serious concern I would share is that I don't think the report packs
enough "punch" relative to the expectations we have raised in several quarters. We
have gone to great lengths to publicize and promote the Knight Commission and its
deliberations with the idea that the resulting recommendations would be the key
elements in furthering the athletic reform movement. (Knight, 1996e)

In helping prioritize its recommendations, the Knight Commission also hired the

public polling group Louis Harris and Associates of New York City in the fall of 1990 to

conduct a follow-up survey from its 1989 poll on intercollegiate athletics. Harris, founder

of Louis Harris and Associates of New York City, a public polling organization, was an

acquaintance of Black and attended several of the commission hearings throughout 1990.

At the first commission hearing on Jan. 30-31, 1990, Harris released the findings of a

college athletics poll conducted by his organization to aid the Knight Commission in

creating a framework for the first report. That 1989 poll found that 77 percent of

respondents believed college athletic scandals "undermined the traditional role of

universities" and that 78 percent of the general public and 75 percent of sports fans

believed college athletics were "out of control." (Knight, 1996e)

In a December 14, 1990, letter to Black, Harris outlined the parameters of the

follow-up survey his organization would conduct for the Knight Commission. The plan









was for the Harris follow-up survey to be released with the first report and then a second

Harris poll to be released prior to the third report to show the impact the Knight

Commission had made in reforming college athletics since its inception in 1989 (Knight,

1996c).

Harris and Associates were paid more than $200,000 for conducting the follow-up

survey and second poll. The follow-up survey consisted of phone interviews with

approximately 1,000 individuals affiliated with intercollegiate athletics and another 1,250

randomly selected individuals from the general public (from December of 1990 through

January of 1991) to determine their main concerns involving intercollegiate athletics

(Knight, 1996p). Harris and Associates conducted 2,273 phone interviews from

December 18, 1990-February 17, 1991, and split the responses into separate categories

such as university presidents, university trustees, athletic directors, faculty athletic

representatives, members of Congress and male and female athletes (Knight, 1996h).

Each group was asked to evaluate the extent of problems in intercollegiate athletics
and then their support for and belief in the effectiveness of a series of reform
proposals. ... The purpose of the project goes beyond a straight up or down read on
a series of reform proposals. It maps out which reforms are perceived as most
important and how the whole array of constituencies line up on reform. (p. i)

Participants were asked their views on college sports at the time the survey was

conducted in the early 1990s. Each participant was asked specifically about the biggest

problem facing college sports. In relation to this research, the two primary questions

asked in the survey were

1) What is the extent of the problem?
2) Do you believe the problem is a threat to the integrity of universities?

In response to the first question, the following majorities felt intercollegiate

athletics were out of control: 81% of faculty; 75% of the general public; 68% of trustees;









59% of members of Congress. In response to the second question, if serious rules

violations have undermined the integrity of universities, the majority of the following

groups agreed with that statement: 85% of faculty representatives; 76% of presidents;

75% of trustees; 69% of athletic directors; 63% of coaches; and 56% of boosters (Knight,

1996h).

By the spring of 1991, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate

Athletics was prepared to release its first report, Keeping Faith With The .,,ntlI, l-.-lJthlk

A New Modelfor Intercollegiate Athililik

That document ... placed less emphasis on specific solutions for the problems in
college sports and more on proposing a structure for reform. (Reports of the Knight
Foundation Commission, 1991-1993, p. 10)

The Knight Commission's primary reform model, "one-plus-three," originated in

the first report. The "one-plus-three" model was defined as university presidents (being

the "one") having direct control over an entire university athletic department, including

trustees, alumni and boosters. The "three" would consist of:

* academic integrity a student's eligibility would be measured by their academic
performance and continual progress toward a degree;

* financial integrity all athletic funds would be approved and funneled through a
university's financial department;

* independent certification universities would go through an annual independent
audit on all athletic department matters as well as undergo a certification program
to ensure the athletic department is adhering to that individual university's financial
and academic policy. (Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, March 1991)

"We felt those were the things that created a lot of attention," Schultz said in

explaining why the Knight Commission concentrated reforms in those three areas. "We

felt the graduation rate was not where it should be. We felt the athletic expenditures were

out of control. And we felt corporate sponsorships were starting to play a big part. The









need for corporate dollars were starting to dictate policy" (R. Schultz, personal

communication, June 18, 2002).

Several Knight Commission members said that first report made the most

substantial progress in intercollegiate athletic reform of the four reports the commission

issued (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002; R. Schultz, personal

communication, June 18, 2002). For the purpose of this research, the first Knight

Commission report was the primary report studied. The Knight Commission also issued

ensuing reports in 1992, 1993 and 2001.

By the spring of 1991, the Knight Commission completed all the revisions and was

prepared to release the 47-page first report, Keeping Faith With The .Nti, leit-.A4itlet: A

New Modelfor Intercollegiate Aihleti, In order to maximize publicity for the report, the

commission planned to announce the findings of the report, along with the findings of the

1990-91 Louis Harris poll, at a morning press conference on March 19, 1991, followed

later that evening by the airing of a documentary produced by Bill Moyers of the Public

Broadcasting System (PBS). The poll and documentary pertained to intercollegiate

athletics and were funded by the Knight Commission (Knight, 1996g).

Several Knight Commission members said Moyers added credibility to the work of

the commission. In more than 25 years of broadcasting, Moyers is considered an

acclaimed journalist for establishing Public Affairs Television in 1986, as well as Bill

Moyers' Journal. He is a former senior news analyst for the CBS Evening News and a

chief correspondent for CBS Reports. He has produced a series of investigative, cultural

pieces for the Public Broadcasting Systems and has won more than 30 Emmy Awards for

excellence by The National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. He was elected to









the Television Hall of Fame in 1995 and is a former recipient of the Gold Baton from

Columbia University (Moyers, 2002).

To bring greater visibility to the Knight Commission report and the work of the

commission, the Knight Commission also paid the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton

of New York City more than $50,000 from October of 1990 through March of 1993 to

publicize the first three reports (Knight Commission, 1996n). According to Creed Black,

Hill & Knowlton developed a list of media contacts, prepared and distributed press

releases, made arrangements for the Knight Commission press conferences and set up

interviews and media appearances by Knight Commission members (C. Black, e-mail,

October 1, 2002).

According to the Knight Commission budgets from 1989 through mid-1992, the

commission spent $12,241 on public relations in 1989, $7,744 in 1990 and $153,269 in

1991 (Knight, 1996p).

The Knight Commission spent $137,483 on the printing and distribution of the first

report. According to the Knight Commission Report Distribution Scenarios, more than

20,000 copies of the report were printed and sent to university trustees, presidents,

athletic directors, conference commissioners, senior women athletics administrators,

faculty athletic representatives, guests who spoke at commission hearings and university

libraries. Knight Commission members could also obtain extra copies of the report.

According to the Knight Commission budget of June 30, 1992, the group spent

$300,000 on the production of the Bill Moyers' 1991 documentary. The Knight

Commission also funded two informational videos about trustees' proper role in athletics









and another video Knight Commission could use for speaking engagements (Knight,

1996n).

On March 19, 1991, a significant day for the Knight Commission, the first report

was released at a morning press conference at the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C.

Later that evening, the 90-minute Moyers documentary, "Sports for Sale," aired on PBS,

followed by a 30-minute, televised panel discussion moderated by Moyers with several

Knight Commission members, including co-chairs Hesburgh and Friday. "Sports for

Sale" dealt with the problems facing intercollegiate athletics in the United States in the

early 1990s.

The release of the findings from the first report warranted enough interest that 12

national media outlets were among the 43 affiliates attending the press conference. More

than 200 people attended the morning press conference, including reporters from the

following media outlets: Cox Broadcasting, CBS News, Cox Communications,

NewsLink, The New York Times, ESPN, The Chronicle of Higher Education, the Chicago

Tribune, the Washington Post, CNN, ABC News, Newhouse Newspapers, the Baltimore

Sun, Potomac News, Group-W TV, Des Moines Register, Education Daily, Unistar News,

Winston-Salem Journal, USA Today, Ann Arbor News, Akron Beacon-Journal, ABC

Radio, UnitedPress International (UPI), Education Week, U.S. News & World Report,

the Associated Press (AP), the Los Angeles Times, Catholic News Service, Lincoln (Neb.)

Star, Knight-Ridder newspapers, WUSA-TV (Washington, D.C.), Scripps-Howard News

Service, Kiplinger's, the New Orleans Times-Picauyne and the Voice of America (Knight,

1996b).









Several Knight Commission members said that media attention was a positive step

in helping promote the commission's agenda (C. Black, personal communication, June 3,

2002). Several of those national newspapers published Knight Commission stories

prominently in their March 20, 1991, editions--on either the front page of the entire paper

or the front page of the sports section--on the release of the report.

The Washington Post published three Knight Commission stories on March 20: a

lead story on its front page, a column by sports columnist Thomas Boswell on the front

page of the sports section and an editorial on its editorial page. The Washington Times

published one story on the front page of the sports section. USA Today published a short

story and a box including some of the Knight Commission recommendations on its front

page, as well as another sidebar story on the inside of its sports section. The New York

Times published a story on the front page of its sports section with a three-column jump

to an inside page, including a two-column box listing the names and titles of all Knight

Commission members, as well as the address to write to receive a copy of the report.

In analyzing Knight Commission media coverage, it is important to consider

whether the commission used its connections to Knight-Ridder Inc. to sway public

opinion on the findings. Did more Knight-Ridder papers attend the Knight Commission

press conference? Was there also a greater probability that a commission member's

hometown newspaper would attend the press conference?

Creed Black said in an October 1, 2002, e-mail that because the Knight Foundation

is a private foundation and operates independently of Knight-Ridder Inc., "We were in no

position to 'use' those newspapers for anything. I personally was disappointed in the

Knight-Ridder coverage, or rather lack of it, throughout the life of the commission









because I thought the papers were ignoring the corruption of college athletics, often in

their own backyards" (C. Black, e-mail, October 1, 2002).

The Charlotte Observer, a Knight-Ridder newspaper, ran a preview story the day of

the press conference announcing that the commission's findings would be released that

day, then published three stories--on the front page, the front page of the sports section

and on the editorial page--the following day. One of those stories, "Commission

membership has North Carolina flavor," featured the North Carolina connections to the

commission: Dr. William Friday was former president of the state's university system,

Dr. Thomas K. Hearn was president of Wake Forest University in Durham, N.C.; Leroy

Walker was a former coach at North Carolina Central University and Douglas Dibbert

was affiliated with the General Alumni Association of the University of North Carolina-

Chapel Hill.

The Charlotte Observer and the Akron Beacon Journal, along with a Knight-Ridder

representative, were the only Knight-Ridder newspapers at the press conference. That

meant those newspapers could run their stories on the Knight-Ridder wire, allowing other

Knight-Ridder newspapers such as The Miami Herald, Detroit Free Press, Wichita Eagle

and The Lexington Herald-Leader access to Knight Commission coverage and to be able

to run follow-up stories on March 20. The Akron Beacon Journal is in the former

hometown of the Knight Foundation, The Miami Herald is in the current hometown of

the Knight Foundation and The Lexington Herald-Leader 's former publisher was Knight

Commission member Creed Black. The Los Angeles Times ran a front-page story on

March 20; Knight Commission member Dr. Charles Young was chancellor of UCLA at

the time.









Many of those second-day stories were confined to news coverage of the press

conference. It was not until the five to seven days following the announcement that more

critical stories of the Knight Commission began appearing. Many of those criticisms

accused the Knight Commission of not offering enough specific solutions for reforming

college sports.

In a March 25, 1991, story in The Washington Post, writer Jonathan Yardley said

the Knight Commission "offends no one and therefore may please everyone ... it offers

nothing more than 'symbolic reform and shies away from real reform." David

Halahan, in a USA Today editorial on March 22, criticized the Knight Commission for

spending a year on a study that offered no new findings or solutions. Ira Berkow of The

New York Times in a March 22 story and Richard Demak of Sports Illustrated in the

April 1 edition paralleled the Knight Commission with the Carnegie Foundation,

intimating that neither group offered the drastic changes needed to truly reform college

sports. In Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate A ihletii \, author

John R. Thelin said historically that groups without any power to legislate reform, such as

the Knight Commission, have difficulty in implementing their recommendations.

Although the report of a major foundation or a higher education association
provides a broad view and a national context for problems between academics and
athletics that have percolated up from the various colleges and universities, it does
not follow that a report or recommendations from a blue ribbon panel or a national
commission leads to reform. (Thelin, 1996, p. 11)

Even prior to the release of Knight Commission findings, author Murray Sperber,

in the Jan.-Feb. 1991 edition of Academe, a higher education trade publication, said,

"This commission has been long on hearings and short on ideas."

In his 2000 book, Campus Chaos: Why The Game I Love is Breaking My Heart,

college basketball television analyst Dick Vitale, while not specifically criticizing the









Knight Foundation Commission, said athletic department decisions should be made by

athletic department officials and not university presidents. Vitale said, "A basketball

coach wouldn't tell a psychology prof how to draw up a curriculum for his class" (Vitale

& Weiss, 2000, p. 91).

Sperber wrote about many of the issues the Knight Commission addressed in his

2000 book, Beer and Circus: How Big-time College Sports Is Crippling Undergraduate

Education. In the book, Sperber illustrated how a university president has public

sentiment against him when dealing with a popular coach, player or athletic director

involved in a scandal--suggesting that presidential control over athletic departments may

be unrealistic at many universities. Sperber also intimated that university presidents were

hesitant to take control over athletic department finances, which often allowed those

expenses to go unfettered.

The Knight Commission went through a lengthy process of holding the five

hearings to help identify the major problems in college sports and then build its first

report around those problems. However, extensive planning also went into determining

the best method for releasing the reports to bring awareness to major issues facing college

sports. That is why the commission brought in a New York City public relations firm and

funded a documentary produced by renowned public affairs journalist Bill Moyers. The

commission obviously was hoping for as much media attention as possible.















CHAPTER 4
REACTIONS TO THE FIRST KNIGHT COMMISSION REPORT

While media coverage of the first report was important to the Knight Commission,

another area that needed to be considered was how the commission would be perceived

by those individuals not in the media, particularly those in higher education. The higher

education spectrum was split into the athletic community, such as coaches, athletic

directors and conference commissioners, and the academic community, such as university

administrators and faculty.

In evaluating the impact of the first Knight Commission report, two primary areas

to consider included:

I. Academic Responses -- actions taken by universities in responding to the report;
II. Federal Legislation -- federal legislation originating as a result of the report.

Academic Responses

The academic community, those not directly involved in intercollegiate athletics,

had a mixed reaction to the Knight Commission report. Presidents, boards of trustees,

higher education associations and athletic conferences welcomed the opportunity to

reform college athletics.

The Knight Commission tracked the responses of universities after sending the first

report by including a survey along with the report for universities to complete. Among

the group that returned the survey: 24 universities adopted or endorsed the report; seven

adopted the report "in principle"; six endorsed the report; seven supported or adopted

certain recommendations from the report; 20 supported the general philosophy of the









report; 29 mentioned the report in athletic department discussions; eight supported the

commission; and 24 responded only that they had received the report (Knight, 1996b).

Endorsements from presidents in particular offered strong support for the work of

the Knight Commission. In letters written to Black, University of Miami

Communications Dean Edward J. Pfister said, "in my view, it is already a success," while

Louis J. Batson Jr., chairman of the board of trustees of Clemson University, said, "the

Knight Commission can be proud that it took the initiative to do such a report" (Knight,

1996b).

In a March 22 letter to Black, University of New Orleans Chancellor Gregory M St.

L. O'Brien said, "the document stands as a wonderful blueprint for us." Two March 25

letters to Black also contained strong support, with Midwestern State University

President Louis J. Rodriguez saying, "it contains superb recommendations," and

Davidson College President John W. Kuykendall said he was "impressed with the

breadth and balance of the job."

Higher education associations also endorsed the Knight Commission. Alan Pifer,

chairman of the Southport Institute for Policy Analysis, described the report as being,

"clear, forceful and courageous and tackles the issues head on," in a March 25 letter to

Dr. William Friday. The National Association of College Admission Counselor's

Executive Board also endorsed the report, as did the American Association of Colleges of

Nursing, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities and the

American Council on Education and the General Alumni Association of the University of

North Carolina (Knight, 1996b).









Public universities, such as the board of trustees of the University of North

Carolina, University of Pittsburgh and Southern Methodist University and the presidents

of Virginia's public universities, offered support with resolutions either endorsing the

Knight Commission recommendations or adopting new resolutions based on the first

report. Penn State University requested 125 copies of the report and distributed them to

all of the university's head coaches and assistant coaches. The Knight Commission

recommendations were also endorsed by larger conferences such as the Big 10 and

Western Athletic Conference, as well as smaller conferences such as the Patriot League,

Southern Conference and Mon-Dak Conference (Knight, 1996b).

Several schools also created committees to reevaluate their compliance to parts of

the Knight Commission report. In the fall of 1991, Syracuse University formed a Faculty

Oversight Committee to investigate a scandal involving the school's men's basketball

program as well as consider restructuring the athletic department (Knight, 1996t). Texas

A&M University formed a Knight Commission Task Force of students, alumni and

administrators to study the school's compliance with the Knight Commission report and

used the report as the primary part of a meeting amongst the school's faculty, students,

administrators, athletic department personnel and coaches (Knight, 1996u). The

University of Nevada at Las Vegas created a version of the Knight Commission report,

"The College Student-Athlete Project," to examine the relationship between academics

and athletics at the school (Knight, 1996v).

"From the presidents it was very positive," said Knight Commission member

Richard Schultz in explaining the reaction from parts of the academic community. "It was

mostly positive from the conference commissioners. You had some coaches and athletic









directors that probably grumbled a little bit. It's hard to come up with something to make

everybody happy. For something like that and the findings we came up with, it was very,

very positive, much more so than I thought" (R. Schultz, personal communication, June

18, 2002).

Faculty, however, were more skeptical. Several Knight Commission members

intimated faculty did not closely follow the actions of the Knight Commission (W.

Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002; T. Hearn, personal communication, June

25, 2002).

"There was probably a lot more interest on the part of administrators than faculty,"

said Dr. Thomas K. Hearn, Wake Forest University president and Knight Commission

member. "Faculty members have always taken a kind of arm's length attitude toward

intercollegiate athletics" (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002).

Knight Commission co-chairman Dr. William Friday described the faculty tone

toward the Knight Commission--and intercollegiate athletics in general. "Most of the

faculty at these institutions have defaulted," Friday said. "They will not exercise any

action. They've grown cynical about it. They've seen the abuses of it. They've seen the

coaches paid those terrible salaries. They see the stature of the president riding on the

football team. They see them (the presidents) wearing the (school) sweatshirts (on TV).

They've (faculty) given up or capitulated" (W. Friday, personal communication, June 12,

2002).

Knight Commission member C. Thomas McMillen said the perception was that the

group should have made more powerful recommendations. "It was not enough, but

people always say this is not enough," McMillen said. "What the first Knight









Commission did was prod the system. It was more of a jaw-boning exercise. You can't

take a group of presidents and get them to blow up the system. It was done to rebuild the

system and that much happened (T. McMillen, personal communication, June 21,

2002).

Federal Legislation

During the first Knight Commission hearings and release of the first report,

McMillen was a U.S. congressman from Maryland. McMillen also played professional

basketball in the NBA, and following his term in Congress, he later served as a co-

chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. However,

McMillen's ties to the U.S. government resulted in one of the pieces of federal legislation

involving the Knight Commission.

The first piece of legislation came from U.S. Congressman Richard E. Neal of

Massachusetts. During the first session of the 102nd Congress on April 11, 1991, less

than one month after the release of the first Knight Commission report, Neal introduced

Resolution 119, encouraging institutions to implement the work of the Knight

Commission. Resolution 119 further urged the NCAA to consider the Knight

Commission recommendations at its 1992 Convention and proposed federal legislation to

protect student-athletes. (H. Con. Res. 119) However, in an April 15, 1991 letter from

Knight Commission co-chairman Father Theodore Hesburgh to Rep. Neal, Hesburgh

discouraged Congress from becoming involved in policing intercollegiate athletics.

Hesburgh said the framework for individual institutional policing came from the Knight

Commission's independent certification proposal.










During the second session of the 102nd Congress on July 25, 1991, Rep. McMillen

also introduced the Collegiate Athletics Reform Act (H.R. 3046),1 which covered 10

steps for reforming intercollegiate athletics and threatened federal intervention if the

NCAA and individual institutions did not comply. Among those 10 steps included the

Knight Commission recommendations of presidential control of the NCAA and

disallowing institutions from revoking a scholarship if a student-athlete maintains

minimum academic requirements of that institution. In addition, the bill paralleled the

Knight Commission recommendation of presidential approval of all athletic expenses by

requiring institutions to send its revenues and expenditures for each sport to the U.S.

Department of Education. The Collegiate Athletic Reform Act was sent to six sub-

committees in the week following its introduction and was still waiting for approval as of

the fall of 2002.


1The Collegiate Athletics Reform Act would grant the NCAA a temporary exemption from antitrust laws
so the NCAA could negotiate exclusive contracts with commercial sponsors and the use of those sponsors'
logos in post-season events involving NCAA member institutions. It would also allow the NCAA the right
to sell the telecast of those post-season events. That antitrust exemption was one of three main parts of the
bill. The second part of the bill, Tax Provisions, would amend the Internal Revenue Code to allow income
and deductions from the television contract in the first part to be allowed in determining the NCAA's or a
member's institution's unrelated business income. The third part of the bill, Education Program
Requirements, would require institutions to disclose their total revenues and expenses for each sport to
prospective student-athletes, as well as requiring athletic scholarships be renewed each year of the student-
athlete is making satisfactory academic progress. Bill Summary & Status for the 102nd Congress, H.R.
3046, Sponsor: Rep. McMillen, introduced 07/25/91.














CHAPTER 5
KNIGHT COMMISSION AND THE NCAA

In evaluating the success of the Knight Commission, an important factor was the

commission's relationship with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the

organization which sets athletic policy and enforces athletic regulations for intercollegiate

athletics. The Knight Commission shared an important relationship with the NCAA since

the largest NCAA structural change was based on a recommendation from the

commission. However, to understand the role of the Knight Commission and NCAA, it is

necessary to briefly examine the history of intercollegiate athletic governance in the

United States and where the NCAA fits into that context.

Concerned about the dangers of the new sport of football in 1905, President

Theodore Roosevelt convened two conferences to consider reform measures for football.

During the second reform meeting on December 28 in New York City, the Intercollegiate

Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS), the first governing organization for

intercollegiate athletics, was created with 62 members. By 1910, the IAAUS became the

NCAA. For its first decade of existence, the NCAA primarily developed rules for college

sports. In 1921, the NCAA staged its first national championship between member

institutions, the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. National

championships in other sports began being held in the 1920s and 1930s.

A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The
"Sanity Code"--adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid--
failed to curb abuses involving student-athletes. Postseason football games were
multiplying rapidly. Member institutions were increasingly concerned about the









effects of unrestricted television on football attendance. (NCAA Online, 2002, from
http://www.ncaa.org/about/history.html)

Walter Byers was the NCAA's first executive director in 1951, and the NCAA

established its national headquarters in Kansas City in 1952. The organization's first

structural change occurred in 1973 when the NCAA split into three divisions based on the

number of varsity sports an institution sponsors. In 1978, Division I football was

expanded into three divisions of I, I-A and I-AA. The NCAA established women's

athletic programs in 1980 and formed a governing plan for women's athletics in 1983, as

well as creating 19 national championships for women's sports.

As of 2002, NCAA membership was comprised of approximately 1,200 higher

education institutions, athletic conferences and non-profit sports organizations affiliated

with amateur athletics. Of the 1,200 NCAA members, more than 1,000 are higher

education institutions. In 2002, the NCAA hierarchy consisted of a 19-person, Executive

Committee with representatives from all three divisions serving four-year terms. The

Executive Committee meets four times a year and initiates and votes on all NCAA

legislation. The only individuals who can vote on NCAA legislation are Executive

Committee members (NCAA Online, 2002, from

http://www.ncaa.org/about/divcriteria.html). This voting system has been in place since

1997. The Knight Commission played a pivotal role in helping implement that system.

Presidential Control of NCAA and the Knight Commission's Role

Since the Knight Commission did not have the authority nor power to either set or

enforce intercollegiate athletic policy, and was essentially only offering

recommendations, it was crucial that the commission establish a positive working

relationship with the NCAA in order to promote its reform agenda. Those members said









it was important to maintain that positive working relationship in order to avoid the

perception that the Knight Commission was trying to take over the role of the NCAA (C.

Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002).

From the time the Knight Commission was formed in 1989, the group made

continual efforts to involve the NCAA in its reform agenda. Five Knight Commission

members were also members of the NCAA, including NCAA chairman Dr. Martin

Massengale, president of the University of Nebraska, in 1990 when the Knight

Commission held hearings prior to the release of its first report. University of Oklahoma

law professor and faculty athletic representative Dan Gibbons urged the Knight

Commission during the commission's third hearing on April 16, 1990, to maintain a close

relationship with the NCAA in order to promote the Knight Commission's reform agenda

(Knight, 1996e).

In addition, at the time the Knight Commission released each of its four reports

from 1991-2001, the two NCAA executive directors during that time period served as

Knight Commission members. Several Knight Commission felt that connection was

beneficial in making NCAA policy-makers aware of Knight Commission

recommendations. Richard Schultz, the NCAA's executive director from 1987-1993, was

the first Knight Commission member selected after Creed Black and co-chairs Dr.

William Friday and Father Theodore Hesburgh. Cedric Dempsey, who succeeded Schultz

as NCAA executive director in 1993 and announced his intentions to resign from that

post in 2002, served on the final Knight Commission when the group reconvened in

2001. Schultz, who served as executive director of the United States Olympic Committee

following his NCAA tenure, served on the Knight Commission throughout its entirety.









"If you're talking about intercollegiate athletics, you've got to be in dialogue with

the NCAA," said Knight Commission member Dr. Thomas Hearn. "If Dick or Ced had

declined to participate, the chance for effectiveness would have been measurably

impaired" (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002).

Knight Commission member Dr. Charles Young said it was important that Schultz

and Dempsey share the commission's reform plans. "Dick Schultz and Ced Dempsey

were advocates of the kinds of reform recommendations which were made," Young said.

"They didn't agree with everything, but by and large they were supportive" (C. Young,

personal communication, June 19, 2002).

Dempsey wrote about his willingness to work with the Knight Commission when it

reconvened in 2001 in an August 22, 2000, introductory statement from a section of the

NCAA Web site (http://www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html), "2000 NCAA Review of

Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate

Athletics" This NCAA publication compared each of the recommendations from the first

1991 Knight Commission report to what action the NCAA took based on each

recommendation. Before examining those recommendations and ensuing NCAA action,

it is necessary to understand the difference in the Knight Commission and the NCAA-

affiliated President's Commission and how those two commissions worked together to

achieve presidential control of the NCAA.

The original Knight Commission of 1991 consisted of six university presidents who

also served on the President's Commission. "There was a lot of commerce between the

leadership level of the NCAA and the Knight Commission and a lot of effort to









collaborate and cooperate," said Hearn (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25,

2002).

Prior to 1996, the NCAA was controlled by the President's Commission and the

NCAA Council, which acted independently of each other but still each had the power to

set NCAA legislation. The President's Commission was established in 1984 and

consisted of 44 presidents or chancellors from all three of the NCAA's divisions to

examine intercollegiate athletic issues, particularly as they pertained to a president or

chancellor. The President's Commission could propose legislation and determine the

voting order at NCAA Conventions. The NCAA Council dealt with NCAA policy and

could also bring forth legislation to NCAA Conventions. The NCAA Council was

comprised of presidents, athletic directors and faculty representatives (R. Schultz, e-mail,

September 15, 2002).

In that pre-1996 system, each Division I -- the largest of the NCAA's three

divisions -- institution was guaranteed an equal vote on NCAA legislation. While

presidents still controlled NCAA legislation prior to 1996, many presidents did not attend

the annual NCAA Convention and allowed faculty representatives or athletic directors

from their institution to vote in their place (R. Schultz, e-mail, September 15, 2002). This

created a chaotic situation since many athletic directors held a separate agenda from the

presidents.

"The NCAA was almost ungovernable," Hearn said in describing the pre-1996

NCAA. "It had so many factions and so many interests that it was hard to get any focus

around a particular issue" (T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002).









A major change for the NCAA occurred at the 1996 NCAA Convention in Dallas.

It was there that delegates voted by a 777-79-1 margin to restructure the NCAA hierarchy

by eliminating the President's Commission and NCAA Council and implementing a 20-

member Executive Committee consisting of presidents or chancellors from the board of

directors of 12 major athletic conferences, two presidents from Division II schools, two

presidents from Division III schools, one chairman from each of the Division I, Division

II and Division III Management Councils and the NCAA executive director. No longer

would each institution have its own separate vote on NCAA legislation. The voting

would now be relegated to this group of presidents and chancellors, each serving a three-

year term. A story in the January 15, 1996, edition of The NCAA News described the

restructuring as, "one of the most dramatic changes in NCAA history ... and represents

the beginning of what proponents say will be a much more efficient, federated

Association in which chief executive officers will exercise more control than ever before"

(Pickle, 1996, p. 1).

Presidents or chancellors now controlled intercollegiate athletic policy, which was

the framework of the Knight Commission agenda for reforming intercollegiate athletic

policy. Several Knight Commission members said the presidential control issue was the

most significant piece of reform offered by the commission and provided evidence that

the NCAA was carefully following the Knight Commission agenda.

"The whole concept of the one plus three that presidents had to be in control was

the most important one," Schultz said. "The other areas that fell under that--the financial

stability and accountability and independent certification--all had their own niches. But

the first thing we really pounded on was that the presidents had to be in charge. If they









were in charge, then a lot of others things would fall into place" (R. Schultz, personal

communication, June 18, 2002).

In testimony during the fourth Knight Commission hearing on May 15, 1990,

Indiana University basketball coach Bobby Knight also said presidents ought to control

athletic department matters (Knight, 1996f).

I made a statement a long time ago that we're not going to get hold or control of
intercollegiate athletics until presidents take both an active and a sincere role in it. I
think that historically, presidents have let the business of athletics be handled by
people in the athletic department. (p. 37)

Schultz argued for presidential control of the NCAA as early as the Knight

Commission's first hearing on January 31, 1990. During that hearing, Schultz testified

that a common occurrence at universities was a head coach allying with the university's

booster club on athletic department matters or for a university's booster club to become

so powerful it dealt directly with the head coach. In both of those scenarios, the

university president would be left out of making important athletic department decisions

(Knight, 1996c).

In testimony during the Knight Foundation Commission's second hearing on

March 13-14, 1990, Creed Black said presidents, not booster clubs, should have final

authority on all athletic department matters. Black was responding to an inquiry about the

increasing number of athletic departments funded by private foundations based outside

the university (Knight, 1996d).

If a separate foundation and private corporation are attached to the host university,
it provides great temptation for a corporate autonomy outside the president and the
university board. The president and the board of trustees should have assurances
that they, not the foundation board, are the ones to whom to the athletic department
must be accountable. (pp. 80-81)









Schultz also said many universities exist where the president could hire or fire any

university employee except for the athletic director or head football coach (Knight,

1996c). During the second hearing on March 13-14, 1990, two Knight Foundation

Commission members shared personal experiences relating to a university president's

power versus that of a popular basketball or football coach. Dr. Charles E. Young,

chancellor at UCLA during the 1970s and 1980s, said if UCLA basketball coach John

Wooden committed an NCAA violation, he could fire him, despite Wooden's legendary

status. Knight Commission co-chair Father Theodore Hesburgh, the president of the

University of Notre Dame at the time of Knight Commission hearings in 1990, said when

he was vice president at Notre Dame, he told the school's football coach, Frank Leahy,

that only 38 players would be allowed to travel to an away game, and Hesburgh was

attempting to bring 44 players on the trip. The Notre Dame president supported

Hesburgh, even against a popular football coach, and only the 38 players traveled on the

trip (Knight, 1996d).

Other Knight Commission members shared Schultz's sentiment that the

presidential control issue held the greatest priority on the commission's agenda.

Hearn said "giving presidential control over the NCAA was still a work in

progress, but it was huge"(T. Hearn, personal communication, June 25, 2002).

Another commission member echoed Hearn's sentiments. "You don't put the

president in charge, you're not going to have all those other things," Friday said (W.

Friday, personal communication, June 12, 2002).

Young agreed with Hearn and Friday. "There's much more presidential

involvement at the institutional level than there was before, and there's more presidential









authority in the NCAA than there was before," Young said. "The approach that was taken

to provide more presidential control was the right approach" (C. Young, personal

communication, June 19, 2002).

Presidential control was also the first of four Knight Commissions issues that the

NCAA addressed in its publication, "2000 NCAA Review of Principles Identified By

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics." The NCAA followed

the Knight Commission's "one plus three" model of presidential control over academic

integrity, financial integrity and independent certification in listings its actions based on

the Knight Commission recommendations.

The following are NCAA actions from the original Knight Commission 1991

recommendations based on the "2000 NCAA Review of Principles Identified By The

Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics" or based on information

from the Knight Commission's 2001 report, A Call To Action,

(www. ncaa. orglenforcefrontF. html).

Presidential Control

I. Knight Commission Recommendation: Trustees should explicitly endorse and
reaffirm presidential authority in athletics governance, delegate authority over
finances, affirm the president's authority for personnel, and annually review
athletics program.

NCAA Action: No specific action taken. Individual institutional decision.

II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should act on their obligation
to control conferences.

NCAA Action: Presidential approval of conference legislation was approved at the

1992 NCAA Convention.

III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should control the NCAA.









NCAA Action: Since August 1997, the Division I Board of Directors can adopt

Division I legislation and policies and a budget. The NCAA Executive Committee

consists entirely of presidents, with 12 representing Division I institutions.

IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should commit their
institutions to equality in all aspects of athletics.

NCAA Action: The NCAA Executive Committee established a permanent

subcommittee on gender and diversity and there were these actions on the following

levels:

* From 1991-2000, the number of women competing in Division I National
Collegiate Championships increased by 57 percent.

* The Division II Presidents Council has made a commitment for Division II
championships to achieve equality status by 2002.

* A Division II strategic plan includes enhancing the role of Division II senior
women administrators.

* Division III is implementing consistent access to NCAA championships for all
team sports.

* A "support ethnic and gender diversity" will be included in the Division III
Philosophy.

V. Knight Commission Recommendation: Presidents should control their
institution's involvement with commercial television.

NCAA Action: The NCAA annual budget is approved by the Executive Committee

and reviewed quarterly. Presidential approval is required for all major commercial

contracts. However, testimony before the 2000-2001 Knight Commission indicated

presidents did not play key roles in the negotiations for the Bowl Championship Series

(BCS)2 postseason football bowl games. Conference commissioners have done all the


2 The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) is a system used for determining the two teams that will play each
January in the college football national championship game in a rotational basis among the Fiesta, Orange,
Rose and Sugars bowls. The two teams are decided by a system involving their won-loss records, average
rank in national polls, strength of schedule, and quality "wins," considered a victory over a top 15










negotiating ofBCS contracts since the BCS format went into place in 1998. Conference

commissioners control distributions of all Division I-A postseason football revenues. The

NCAA is limited in its involvement in negotiating television contracts for football games

following the Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Board of Regents of University of

Oklahoma, 468 U.S. 85, 1984.3

Academic Integrity

I. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should strengthen initial
eligibility requirements. The number of required units of high school academic
work for initial eligibility should be raised from 11 to 15.4






opponent. The BCS grew out of 1991 partnership originally called the Bowl Coalition between five athletic
conferences and the University of Notre Dame. The agreement stipulated the Southeastern Conference
(SEC), Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big East Conference, Southwest Conference and Big 8
Conference, as well as Notre Dame would send their highest-ranked teams to one of these bowl games:
Orange, Sugar, Cotton, Fiesta, Gator and Sun. However, that '91 partnership did not guarantee a national
championship game between the two top-ranked teams. That changed in 1995 when the Bowl Alliance was
formed out of the Bowl Coalition, which guaranteed a national championship game if the game were
played in the Fiesta, Orange or Sugar bowls. The Big-10 and Pac-10, whose conference champions
traditionally meet in the Rose Bowl, did not initially join the Bowl Alliance. That meant if a Big-10 or Pac-
10 team ended the year No. 1 or No. 2, they would still meet in the Rose Bowl -- leaving the Bowl Alliance
without a true national championship game. That also changed in 1998 when the Big-10 and Pac-10 agreed
to join the Bowl Alliance, which became the BCS in 1998. Rob Marino. (2001). The state of college
football: Is the BCS a bunch of B.S.? Unpublished report, University of Florida. Retrieved November 3,
2002, from http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/fall01/marino/page3.htm
Prior to the 1984 Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Board ofRegents of the University of Oklahoma,
the NCAA negotiated all television contracts for member institutions. The Supreme Court ruled that by
negotiating on behalf of the member institutions, the NCAA was violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and
was a "restraint of trade" in not allowing those schools to negotiate their own television contracts. Prior to
this ruling, the NCAA's television contract with ABC and CBS Sports prohibited any school from
appearing on national television more than six times in a two-year period. Schools are paid a "rights fee" by
television networks for appearing in a televised game. Members of the College Football Association
(CFA), which in the mid-1980s consisted of five major athletic conferences and the University of Notre
Dame, said they were hurt financially by being limited to six appearances. The Universities of Oklahoma
and Georgia filed the suit against the NCAA, arguing that member's institutions should be allowed to
negotiate their own television contracts. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. Doyice J.
Cotten, John T. Wolohan, T. Jesse Wilde, Law for Recreation and Sports Managers, 2nd ed. (Kendell/Hunt
Publishing Company, 2001).
The revised 1996 initial-eligibility standards, also referred to as Proposition 16, requires prospective
student-athletes to earn at least a C average in 13 core high school classes. Under a sliding scale, those
prospective student-athletes must also score at least 820 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Ben
Wildavsky, Graduation blues, U.S. News & World Report, March 18, 2002, p. 70.









NCAA Action: The initial-eligibility standards was increased in core courses from

11 to 13 in 1996.

II. Knight Commission Recommendation: High school students should be ineligible
for reimbursed campus visits or signing a national letter of intent5 until they show
reasonable promise of being able to meet degree requirements.
NCAA Action: The membership adopted seven proposals between 1991 and 1997

related to proof of a prospect's academic credentials required before an official visit. The

criteria for official visits included minimum standardized test scores and core courses. In

1997, in response to concerns expressed by the U.S. Justice Department, the membership

eliminated the requirement that a student-athlete must achieve specific academic

credentials to receive an official visit before the early signing period for the national letter

of intent. The requirement to submit a test score and an academic transcript remains

applicable.

III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Junior college transfers who did not meet
NCAA initial eligibility requirements upon graduation from high school should sit
out a year of completion after transfer.

NCAA Action: Division I has established more stringent transfer eligibility

requirements for two-year college transfers students who did not satisfy initial-eligibility

requirements on graduating from high school, particularly in football and men's

basketball. These student-athletes must have completed 35 percent--versus the previous




The national letter of intent (NLI) is signed by prospective student-athletes announcing their decision to
attend a particular institution. A student-athlete may appeal the terms and conditions of the national letter of
intent at any time for any reason, such as a coaching change. The institution has the opportunity to respond
to the appeal before it is heard by the National Letter of Intent NLI Steering Committee. Approximately
20,000 NLIs are signed each year by Division I and Division II institutions. The NLI Program receives 160
to 180 letter of intent appeals each year. The NLI Steering Committee approved 84 percent of the appeals
in 1997, 90 percent of the appeals in 1998 and 92 percent of the appeals in 1999. If a student-athlete is not
approved by the steering committee, they may file a second appeal with the NLI Appeals Committee. Since
1998, the NLI Appeals Committee has approved 50 percent of those appeals. "2000 NCAA Review of
Principles Identified By The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics," [Electronic
version], www.ncaa.org/enforcefrontF.html









standard of 25 percent--of their degree requirements to be immediately eligible in their

third year of collegiate enrollment.

* The Division I Board of Directors approved legislation that requires all midyear
transfers in men's and women's basketball to be ineligible until the ensuing
academic year.

* Transfer students are subject to continuing-eligibility requirements at the time of
enrollment, specifically percentage-of-degree requirements.

IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should study the feasibility
of requiring that the range of academic abilities of incoming athletes approximates
the range of abilities of the entire freshmen class.6

NCAA Action: NCAA rules dictate that academic standards and policies

applicable to student-athletes must be consistent with those adopted by the institution for

the student body in general or the NCAA's standards, whichever is higher.

V. Knight Commission Recommendation: The letter of intent should serve the
student as well as the athletic department.

NCAA Action: The National Letter of Intent Program is a voluntary program

administered by the Collegiate Commissioners Association and is not governed by the

NCAA. Student-athletes are permitted to appeal the terms and conditions of the letter of

intent. During the 1999-2000 academic year, of the approximately 20,000 national letters

of intent that were signed, 170 letters were appealed. Of those 170 letters, 86 percent

were approved, 12 percent were given a partial release, and 2 percent were denied.7

VI. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics scholarships should be offered
for a five-year period.


6 A 1990 federal law requires universities to report graduation rates for full-time undergrads and for
students on athletic scholarships. Among Division I schools, the graduation rate for student-athletes is 58
percent versus a 56 percent graduation rate for all students, according to the NCAA. The student-athlete
graduation rate has not fluctuated greatly since Proposition 16 initial-eligibility requirements were
implemented in 1996. Ben Wildavsky, "Graduation blues," U.S. News & World Report, March 18, 2002, p.
70.
2000 NCAA Review.









NCAA Action: Since 1991, the NCAA's rules regarding the period for which

student-athletes may receive financial aid have remained intact. Institutions are permitted

to provide aid based to any degree on athletics ability for no more than a one-year period.

This aid is renewable by the institution each year, but the institution can also decide not

to renew the aid each year.

In 1999, the NCAA Division I Committee on Financial Aid recommended that the

NCAA sponsor legislation to extend the time period for renewable grants-in-aid to

exceed the one-year period. Neither the NCAA Division I

Academics/Eligibility/Compliance Cabinet nor the NCAA Division I Student-Athlete

Advisory Committee supported the proposal.

VII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics eligibility should depend upon
progress toward a degree.

NCAA Action: Academic satisfactory-progress legislation was adopted in 1991

and modified in 1992, 1993 and 1996. Progress toward a degree, grade point average

minimums and core-completion requirements all have been enhanced.

VIII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Graduation rates of student-athletes
should be a criterion for NCAA certification.

NCAA Action: The athletics certification process requires institutions to analyze

the academic profile of entering student-athletes and student-athlete graduation rates. In

the program's first five-year cycle from 1991-96, graduation rates of all athletes were

compared with the student body. In the next certification cycle from 1997-2002,

institutions were required to analyze all student-athletes whose performance is lower than

other student-athletes.










Financial Integrity

I. Knight Commission Recommendation: All funds raised and spent in connection
with intercollegiate athletics programs will be channeled through the institution's
general treasury. The athletics department budget will be developed and monitored
in accordance with general budgeting procedures on campus.8

NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision.

II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics costs must be reduced.

NCAA Action: Presidents are in control of the NCAA budget. All budget approval

is performed by the Executive Committee or by presidential bodies of each division.

Budget subcommittees in each division are controlled by presidents. Attempts to control

costs that were put into place in basketball resulted in an antitrust case and judgment

against the NCAA that eventually was settled for $54.5 million.9



8 At the University of Florida, the University Athletic Association (UAA), a non-profit corporation, handles
athletic department financial issues. UAA maintains separate books, audits, budgets and funds from the
university. UAA is not completely autonomous from the university since it is controlled by a board,
including faculty and line administrators appointed by the university president. In addition, UAA's
financial matters are reviewed by the university's vice-president for administration. The UAA projected
budget for 2002-2003, approved in June of 2002, included projected revenues of $48.9 million and
projected expenses of $48.7 million, an excess revenue of approximately $180,000. UAA also has made
annual contributions of up to $1 million to the university in support of general university programs. The
University of Florida maintains a booster organization, Gator Boosters Inc., which is under the control of
the university president. Gator Boosters transfers all funds collected in excess of operating expenses to the
UAA for student support or capital expenditures for the athletic program. Gator Boosters Inc. is strictly a
fund-raising branch of UAA. John V. Lombardi, A Model For Intercollegiate Athletics, pp. 5-6; 2002-2003
Operating Budget Executive Summary, University Athletic Association, Inc., University of Florida, p. 2.
9
In January of 1989, the NCAA established a Cost Reduction Committee to find ways to reduce expenses
in intercollegiate athletics. One of its proposals was to limit Division I basketball coaching staffs to four
members, including an entry-level coach called a "restricted earnings coach" (REC). An addendum to that
proposal limited the wages for the REC in all sports but football to $12,000 during the school year and
$4,000 in summer months. The NCAA adopted the REC Proposal at its 1991 Convention and the REC
Rule was put in place as of August 1, 1992. A group of restricted earnings coaches challenged the rule in
Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, saying it was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act
because it placed constraints on their income. A district court agreed with the coaches and ruled against the
NCAA by saying the law restrained the coach's incomes and prohibiting the NCAA from enforcing the
rule. When the NCAA appealed, a Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision. In 1995, the NCAA got
rid of the REC Rule. In May of 1998, a federal judge awarded the REC plaintiffs $67 million and in March
of 1999, the NCAA and REC plaintiffs reached a $54 million settlement. Doyice J. Cotten, John T.
Wolohan, T. Jesse Wilde, Law for Recreation and Sports Managers, 2nd ed. (Kendell/Hunt Publishing
Company, 2001); The NCAA News (December 20, 1999). NCAA Time line--1990-99; The NCAA News
(January 13, 1997). NCAA Convention review.










III. Knight Commission Recommendation: Athletics grants-in-aid should cover the
full cost of attendance for the very needy.10

NCAA Action: Changes in Division I financial aid legislation allow student-

athletes to work during the academic year and earn additional money. The creation of

programs such as the special assistance fund have helped address the issue of expenses

for student-athletes with special financial needs. The Special Assistance Fund has

increased from $3 million in 1991 to $10 million in 1998 to $10.4 million in 2002.

IV. Knight Commission Recommendation: The independence of athletics
foundations and booster clubs must be curbed.11

NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision.

V. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA formula for sharing
television revenues from the Division I men's basketball tournament must be
reviewed by university presidents.

NCAA Action: In November 1999, the NCAA signed a $6.2 billion, 11-year

contract with CBS to televise the Division I men's basketball tournament and presidents

were involved in the negotiations of the renewed televisions agreement. The NCAA

Executive Committee approved the distribution formula from the basketball tournament

in 2001. Presidential approval is required for all major commercial contracts with the

NCAA



10NCAA Bylaw 14.3 currently allows Division I or II student-athletes to receive a financial aid package,
including tuition and fees, housing and books. Additional aid, such as Pell Grants, are also available. At its
1997 Convention, the NCAA passed a proposal allowing student-athletes to work during the academic year
and earn up to the cost of attendance. But the NCAA has also maintained a strict policy on how much
outside income student-athletes can earn. In 1984, the NCAA allowed certain student-athletes financial aid
and a Pell Grant as long as the combined total did not exceed the value of their tuition and fees, housing
and books, plus $900. That total was increased to $1,400 in 1988. However, in 1989, NCAA members
defeated a proposal that would have increased Pell Grants in special circumstances. In 1991, the amount of
financial aid in all Division I sports was reduced by 10 percent. In 1995, NCAA members defeated a
proposal that would have allowed Division I student-athletes to earn up to $1,500 in addition to their
financial aid while employed during the school year.
11A Model for Intercollegiate Athletics.









VI. Knight Commission Recommendation: All athletics-related coaches' income
should be reviewed and approved by the university.

NCAA Action: In 1992, Divisions I and II adopted Proposal No. 28, which

required coaches to obtain prior written approval from the institution's chief executive

officer for all athletically related income garnered from outside sources. That legislation

was eliminated in 2000 as part of an NCAA deregulation effort.12

VII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Coaches should be offered long-term
contracts.

NCAA Action: No action taken. Individual institutional decision.

VIII. Knight Commission Recommendation: Institutional support should be available
for intercollegiate athletics.

NCAA Action: In Division I-A, institutional support, direct government support

and student activity fees have increased as a percentage of total revenues from 14 percent

in 1993 to 16 percent in 1997.

Certification

Athletics certification is a process is a process where a university's athletic

department is reviewed by an independent, outside peer group to determine if the

university is complying with NCAA regulations. The certification program was approved

at the 1993 NCAA Convention. The program was originally introduced in 1989 in a two-

year test program. It began its first five-year cycle during the 1993-94 academic year

when institutions were required to be certified every five years. When the second cycle


12 In 1994, further legislation was passed requiring all athletic department staff members to receive that
same approval. In 1995, the proposal was again modified to allow an institution's CEO to grant prior
written approval for outside income not exceeding $500 per event. In a University of Florida Coaching
Contract drawn on March 21, 1990, a stipulation requires coaches to report all outside income to the
University Athletic Association (UAA) prior to May 1 of each year. However, contracts on coaches outside
income was removed at the 2000 NCAA Convention. 2000 NCAA Review, p.12; David Pickle, The NCAA
News. (May 7, 2001). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from
hIp \\ \ .ncaa.org/news/2001/20010507/active/3810n02.html









began in the 1999-2000 academic year, the certification process was required once every

10 years. However, institutions must still undergo a rules compliance evaluation once

every three years. The certification program includes four areas: governance and

commitment to rule compliance, academic issues, financial issues and gender equity and

sportsmanship (NCAA Online, Division I Certification Program and The Purpose of

Athletics Certification).

I. Knight Commission Recommendation: The NCAA should adopt a certification
program for all institutions granting athletics aid that would act independently
authenticate the integrity of each institution's athletics program.

NCAA Action: Division I institutions must undergo NCAA certification of their

athletics departments. Originally, the certification process was once every five years but

has been extended to once every 10 years. Division II institutions, which also award

athletics aid, have not adopted the certification program.

II. Knight Commission Recommendation: Universities should undertake
comprehensive, annual policy audits of their athletics programs.

NCAA Action: The NCAA certification program entails an annual compilation of

athletics policy audits and other data.

III. Knight Commission Recommendation: The certification program should include
the major themes advanced by the Knight Commission (i.e., the "one-plus-three"
model.)

NCAA Action: The NCAA certification program substantially incorporates the

fundamental principles of the "one-plus-three" model. Four major components of

athletics certification are governance and commitment to rules compliance; academic

integrity; fiscal integrity; and equity, welfare and sportsmanship.















CHAPTER 6
KNIGHT COMMISSION: 1992-2001

The second and third Knight Commission reports were released one year apart in

1992 and 1993. A Solid Start: A Report On Reform OfIntercollegiate A thleik' was

released in March of 1992 and A New Beginning For A New Century: Intercollegiate

At kl//tiri In The United States was released in March of 1993. A Solid Start detailed the

Knight Commission's work over its first year, including 20 specific recommendations, 10

of which were implemented by the NCAA President's Commission, a group of university

presidents responsible for establishing reform measures to be voted on at annual NCAA

conventions.

The Knight Commission underwent several membership changes by the second and

third reports. By 1992, Lamar Alexander was replaced by R. Gerald Turner, chancellor

from the University of Mississippi, when Alexander was appointed Secretary of

Education by President George H. Bush in December of 1990.

In January of 1993, just prior to the release of the third Knight Commission report,

President Bill Clinton appointed Knight Commission members Donna Shalala as

Secretary of Health and Human Services and Clifton R. Wharton Jr. as Deputy Secretary

of State. Shalala and Wharton resigned from the Knight Commission, leaving the

commission with 20 members when its third report was issued in March of 1993, A New

Beginning For A New Century.

That third report also contained the results of the second Louis Harris poll. The first

Harris poll in 1989 found 78 percent of the American public thought college sports were









corrupt, but by the second Harris poll in 1993, 52 percent of the American public thought

college sports were corrupt. "This significant 26-point decline represents how far college

sports have come," according to the third report, A New Beginning For A New Century:

Intercollegiate Aitletii \ in the United States (p. 3).

Following the release of the third report, the Knight Commission decided to

disband because the NCAA was moving toward establishing a "one-plus-three" model

the commission advocated in intercollegiate athletic policy. However, the Knight

Commission reconvened in 1994, in part to discourage the NCAA from weakening

recently-approved academic reform measures. The group remained active through the

1996 NCAA Convention in January of that year when the reform measure most closely

tied to the Knight Commission--presidential control--was enacted by the NCAA. The

NCAA made a dramatic change in its governing procedure following that convention

when it put university presidents in control of the organization rather than athletic

directors. The Knight Commission then agreed to disband in a January 11, 1996, letter

Black sent to commission members:

While mindful that we don't have a very good track record in our efforts to go out
of business, Father Ted (Hesburgh), Bill (Friday) and I agreed that we should try
again. Once this restructuring process is completed in 1997, presidential control--
the central principle of our reform agenda--will be firmly established.

The commission did not disband permanently because in August of 2000, the

Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics decided to briefly reconvene

to examine the progress of its reform suggestions and issue a fourth and final report

detailing how it viewed the present intercollegiate athletic atmosphere.

As the 10th anniversary of the Commission's first report in March 1991
approached, the members decided to reconvene for a fresh look at what has
happened in this intervening decade and to assess the state of college athletics at the
beginning of this new century. Had the situation improved or worsened? Were









there new problems that warranted attention. (Report of the Knight Foundation
Commission, June 2001, p. 11)

"We weren't going to reconvene after the first commission," said Knight

Commission member Creed Black. "But as time passed, the problem was getting worse

because the money involved was getting more substantial. So, we decided to see what

was happening after 10 years. Our conclusion was that it was getting worse and needed to

take more drastic steps" (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002).

The fourth Knight Commission report, A Call To Action: Reconnecting College

Sports and Higher Education, was released in June of 2001 following four hearings from

August 28, 2000-January 22-23, 2001, with key players in the intercollegiate athletic

reform movement, including NCAA officials, university presidents, university faculty,

athletic directors, coaches, conference commissioners, student-athletes, athletic and

higher education association officials and athletic sportswear officials. None of the

individuals who testified before the 2001 Knight Commission testified before the earlier

commission.

The Knight Commission reconvened with 28 members for that final report,

including the following new members, who either replaced a member or were added as

the commission expanded:

* Michael F. Adams, president of the University of Georgia;

* Hodding Carter III, president of the Knight Foundation;

* Carol A. Cartwright, president of Kent State University;

* Mary Sue Coleman, president of the University of Iowa;

* Cedric W. Dempsey, NCAA President;

* Adam W. Herbert, executive director of The Florida Center for Public Policy and
Leadership;









* Stanley O. Ikenberry, president of the American Council on Education;

* Richard T. Ingram, president of the Association of Governing Boards.

Those individuals were joined by the Knight Commission members who had served

on the commission during its first three reports from 1991-1993:

* Creed C. Black, former president, Knight Foundation

* Douglas S. Dibbert, president, General Alumni Association, University of North
Carolina

* Dr. John A. DiBiaggio, president, Tufts University

* Dr. William C. Friday, co-chairman, president emeritus, University of North
Carolina

* Dr. Thomas K. Hearn Jr., president, Wake Forest University

* Theodore M. Hesburgh, co-chairman, president emeritus, University of Notre
Dame

* J. Lloyd Huck, trustee emeritus, The Pennsylvania State University

* Bryce Jordan, president emeritus, The Pennsylvania State University

* Richard W. Kazmaier, president, Kazmaier Associates

* Martin A. Massengale, president emeritus, University of Nebraska

* C. Thomas McMillen, former member of Congress

* Chase N. Peterson, president emeritus, University of Utah

* Jane C. Pfeiffer, former chair, NBC-Broadcasting

* Richard D. Schultz, former NCAA executive director

* R. Gerald Turner, president, Southern Methodist University

* LeRoy T. Walker, president emeritus, United States Olympic Committee

* James J. Whalen, president emeritus, Ithaca College

* Clifton R. Wharton Jr., former chairman and CEO, TIAA-CREF

* Charles E. Young, president, University of Florida.









In its fourth report, the Knight Commission spoke positively about the strides the

commission had made since its inception, particularly in the measures the NCAA had

adopted from the commission's recommendations. In analyzing the state of

intercollegiate athletics at the start of the 21st century, the Knight Commission also

emphasized that not enough was being done to reform intercollegiate athletics and that

the situation had worsened rather than improved in the last 10 years since 1990. The

commission also said the responsibility with reforming college sports does not lie with

creating more NCAA rules, but rather with the individual key figures such as presidents,

trustees and athletic directors taking more responsibility for what occurs at their

institutions.

It is clear that good intentions and reform measures of recent years have not been
enough ... the threat has grown rather than diminished. More sweeping measures
are imperative to halt the erosion of traditional educational values in college sports.
The evidence strongly suggests that it is not enough simply to add new rules to the
NCAA's copious rule book or ask presidents to carry the burden alone. (Report of
the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 11)

In that fourth report, the Knight Commission presented a revised "one-plus-three"

model by proposing the creation of a Coalition of Presidents, a group of presidents

compiled from the NCAA, Division I-A conferences, the American Council on Education

and the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. In the revised

"one-plus-three" model, the Coalition of Presidents would oversee an agenda of academic

reform, a decrease in athletic expenditures and less reliance on commercial sponsorships

(Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001).

These are some of the Knight Commission major proposals for the agenda of the

Coalition of Presidents from A Call To Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher

Education (pp. 26-28):









Academics

* Athletes should be held to the same standards as other students, including criteria
for admission, academic support services, choice of major, and making satisfactory
progress toward a degree.

* Graduation rates must improve. By 2007, teams that do not graduate at least 50
percent of their players should not be eligible for conference championships or for
postseason play.

* The NBA and the NFL should be encouraged to develop minor leagues so that
athletes not interested in undergraduate study are provided an alternative route to
professional careers.

Decrease in Athletic Expenditures

* Reduce expenditures in big-time sports such as football and basketball. This
includes a reduction in the total number of scholarships that may be awarded in
Division I-A football.

* Ensure that the legitimate and long-overdue need to support women's athletic
programs and comply with Title IX is not used as an excuse for soaring costs while
expenses in big-time sports are unchecked.

* Require that agreements for coaches' outside income be negotiated with
institutions, not individual coaches.

* Revise the plan for distribution of revenue from the NCAA contract with CBS for
broadcasting rights to the NCAA men's basketball tournament. That revenue-
sharing plan should not be based on a team's won-loss record, but should figure in
other things such as graduation rates.

Less Reliance on Commercial Sponsorships

* Insist that institutions alone should determine when games are played, how they are
broadcast, and which companies are permitted to use their athletic contests as
advertising vehicles.

* Encourage institutions to reconsider all sports-related commercial contracts as to
whether they are appropriate in an academic setting.

* Support federal legislation to ban legal gambling on college sports in the state of
Nevada and encourage college presidents to address illegal gambling on their
campuses.

Shortly after the Knight Commission released its fourth report in the summer of

2001, critics began attacking some of those reform recommendations even more harshly









than in the first three reports. In the August 12, 2000, edition of The Bradenton Herald,

national political commentator George Will said, "the commission's 'culture war'

approach to reforming college athletics is unconvincing" (Will, 2002, p. 13c). Author

Andrew Zimbalist, who teaches economics at Smith College (R.I.) and has written

extensively on sports business issues, criticized the fourth report even though he testified

in one of the four hearings before the Knight Commission issued the fourth report.

Writing in The Final Word column for the July 16-22, 2001, edition of Street & .Sniih's

SportsBusiness Journal, Zimbalist said:

The present Knight report produces a long laundry list of possible reforms. None of
these ideas are new, but many are worthy. Yet with 25 people on the Knight
Commission, the inevitable compromises yielded too many half-baked proposals.
(Zimbalist, 2001, p. 46)

In the January 8-14, 2001, edition of Street & .Snih 's SportsBusiness Journal,

former professional basketball player and TV commentator Len Elmore attacked the

Knight Commission proposal to create developmental leagues in professional football

and basketball for aspiring players uncommitted to the academic demands of being in

college as targeting African-Americans.

The skeptics among us, including some prominent college basketball coaches,
believe that the Knight Commission's views reflect a sinister plot that would rid the
college game of troublesome black athletes who appear merely to use the system
for their own gain. To them, these kids, with their scandals and purported academic
deficiencies, are a drain on the institutions and a blot on the good name of
intercollegiate sports. This school of thought continues that the commission
believes college basketball doesn't need these kids and would be better off without
them. (Elmore, 2001, p. 30)

Elmore said the Knight Commission took a hypocritical stance, particularly since

some of the institutions of Knight Commission members admit the same type of players

that they encourage not to come to college.









However, the report from reconvened Knight Commission in 2001 has also been

cited in two 2002 special sections pertaining to intercollegiate athletic reform,

particularly the strong stance the commission took on the academic performance of

student-athletes. In the inaugural issue of U.S. News & WorldReport's "America's Best

College Sports Programs," the Knight Commission's Maureen Devlin was quoted as

saying a perception was that the large amounts of money involved in college sports had

forced institutions into a competition to make more money. She said the only way to

break that perception was for institutions to halt their need to cut back on expenses

(LaGesse, 2002).

In an October 18, 2002, feature in USA Today on the graduation rates of student-

athletes as measured against the male population of an institution, it was said "The blue-

ribbon Knight Commission pulled no punches." The story mentioned the commission's

specific recommendations on holding student-athletes to the same admissions criteria as

the rest of the student body; of reducing the length of sports seasons and of barring any

institution from conference championships and postseason play that does not have at least

a 50 percent graduation rate for student-athletes by 2007.

Disbandment of Knight Commission

In a letter to Dr. W. Gerald Austen. chairman of the board of trustees of the Knight

Foundation, at the beginning of the fourth report, Knight Commission co-chairman Dr.

William C. Friday and Father Theodore M. Hesburgh recommended that the Knight

Commission disband if the Coalition of Presidents can be created. They further

recommended that the Knight Foundation offer matching grants to the Coalition of

Presidents and American Council on Education to help continue reform efforts in









intercollegiate athletics. They also recommended the creation of the Institute for

Intercollegiate Athletics to promote a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics.

One Knight Commission member was still uncertain that the commission might

still reconvene someday.

"I'll never say never because we thought we were out of business a couple of times

before," Creed Black said. "When we see the opportunity to give support, that's the most

important thing" (C. Black, personal communication, June 3, 2002).

For purposes of analyzing the contributions of the Knight Foundation Commission

on Intercollegiate Athletics for this research, the commission's work will be divided into

two time periods:

1) The "early" Knight Commission--comprising the first three reports of 1991, 1992
and 1993;

2) The "reconvened" Knight Commission--comprising the 2001 report after the
commission reconvened in 2000.

Knight Commission members interviewed for this research said the "early" Knight

Commission reports made more noteworthy accomplishments in reforming college sports

than did the "reconvened" commission.

"I think the first commission fared better than the second," Dr. Charles Young said.

"Having served on both -- this last one didn't go as well in my view in its meetings,

discussions and couldn't come to conclusions as easily or with as much consensus as the

first commission did. Its recommendations were not as precise and not as understandable

and not as readily accepted by the public as the first commission. If you rank the two, I

would rank the first as much better" (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002).

Other Knight Commission members specifically pointed to several reform

measures offered by the commission that were later adopted by the NCAA, such as the









change in the NCAA's hierarchy in 1996, as reasons for why the "early" Knight

Commission was more successful in its reform efforts than the "reconvened"

commission.

"Certainly in the first report, you'd have to say it was a resounding success," Dr.

Thomas Hearn said. "Its recommendations were almost entirely adopted by the NCAA,

including the restructuring of the organization itself. There were other forces at work. I

don't mean to suggest it was the Knight Commission's work alone, but the Knight

Commission certainly was an important player" (T. Hearn, personal communication, June

25, 2002).

"For an outside group like that to do something and really get positive response to

it, to have some weight to it and move forward, I think it was really very successful,"

Richard Schultz said. "It was a lot more successful at the time than anticipated" (R.

Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002).

Knight Commission co-chairman Dr. William C. Friday cited as examples Knight

Commission members who were asked to speak nationally on intercollegiate athletic

reform issues just after the first report was released in 1991 as evidence of the

commission's popularity.

"They wanted the credibility of the Knight Commission," Friday said. "The Knight

Commission voice is the one that has stood out there, and I think it was a great success"

(W. Friday, personal communication, June 11, 2002).

"The Knight Commission wasn't trying to blow the system up and I think in its

time, the Knight Commission played a very important role," said Knight Commission

member Thomas McMillen. "But reform is always driven by some kind of outrage. And









it will take some sort of scandal -- whether gambling or anything else -- to really

restructure the system" (T. McMillen, personal communication, June 21, 2002).

However, it is unfair to compare the two periods of the Knight Commission since

the commission had different agendas during both junctures. The "early" and

"reconvened" commissions drew up recommendations based on what it perceived as the

major problems facing intercollegiate athletics during both periods -- the beginning of the

1990s and the beginning of the 21st century. The "early" commission was predicated

more on putting presidents in charge of college sports. It achieved that goal when the

NCAA was restructured in 1997.

The "reconvened" commission was driven more by the disillusionment it held that

there was not more progress made on many of its other recommendations from the first

three reports, particularly concerning graduation rates and the increasing expenses in

athletic departments. In an introductory letter at the beginning of the fourth report,

commission co-chairmen Dr. William C. Friday and Theodore M. Hesburgh said, "We

find that the problems of big-time college sports have grown rather than diminished"

(Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 4).

However, the "reconvened" Knight Commission did not consider its work

unsuccessful. The commission decided to reconvene to analyze what had transpired since

issuing its first report 10 years earlier in 1991. There were several positive steps that the

commission could point to as evidence that its reform agenda was making progress.

The NCAA had been restructured to give university presidents voting control on all

legislation. University presidents also had stronger control of athletic department









finances. Between 1989 and 1993, there was a 26-point decline in the percentage of the

general public that viewed college sports as being corrupt.

But the "reconvened" commission was not oblivious to the problems still facing

collegiate athletics. Student-athlete graduation rates were still lower than that of the

general student population at many institutions. At more than 100 of the 300-plus

Division I-A institutions, athletic department expenses were greater than revenues.

The commission decided that enacting even more recommendations for the NCAA

to consider was not the solution. In the commission's fourth and final report, the group

worked more toward an agenda of putting the responsibility for reforming college

athletics in the hands of the individual institutions..

Consider some of these specific recommendations by the "reconvened

commission":

* Student-athletes should be treated no differently that the rest of the student
population. For example, if all student must maintain a 2.0 grade point average, a
student-athlete should have to maintain the same minimum GPA.

* Coaches must have institutional approval for all outside income.

* Individual institutions rather than athletic conferences or the NCAA should have
the final approval on the times for all athletic events.

* Encourage institutions to enforce a stricter policy on sponsorships to reflect the
main goals of an institution as being academically-based.

The commission even revised its primary "one-plus-three" model to have university

presidents oversee a reform agenda of academic integrity, a reduction in athletic

department finances and less reliance on corporate sponsorships. "Sports as big business

for colleges and universities is in direct conflict with nearly every value that should

matter for higher education," the commission said in the fourth report, A Call To Action

(Report of the Knight Foundation Commission, June 2001, p. 21).









In comparing the work of the "early" commission and the "reconvened"

commission, several individuals with connections to intercollegiate athletics said the

"early" commission had more success in implementing its recommendations.

* Member Dr. Charles Young said the "early" commission was able to build more of
a consensus of agreement among members on an agenda and offered more precise
recommendations. (C. Young, personal communication, June 19, 2002)

* Another member, Richard Schultz, said the NCAA was not as receptive of the
"reconvened" commission because there was a perception by the NCAA that the
commission was interfering in the recommendations it was offering. Athletic
directors in particular said the commission was out of touch with its
recommendations. (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002)

Sports economist Andrew Zimbalist said the "reconvened" commission did not

offer any new recommendations from its earlier reports and may have suffered from the

commission being too large (Zimbalist, 2001).

The final proposal from the "reconvened" Knight Commission was the creation of

Coalition of Presidents, funded by the Knight Foundation and comprised of university

presidents, to ensure institutions are complying with NCAA regulations. The commission

also proposed creating an Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics to take the role of the

commission and monitor the issues affecting intercollegiate athletics. If that system could

be implemented, the commission recommended to the Knight Foundation Board of

Trustees that the commission permanently disband.















CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

When analyzing the history of collegiate athletic reform commissions, a common

theme has been the strong public support these commissions have initially received.

However, not all athletic commissions have been able to permanently implement their

reform agendas. In Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Intercollegiate

Ailetii %, author John R. Thelin said, "The reforms put into place have only an incidental

connection with the original intent of the report's authors and advocates" (Thelin, 1996,

p. 11).

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching questioned what it

perceived as an overemphasis on college sports in higher education as far back as the

1920s. Those same beliefs were also offered in the 1990s by the most recent collegiate

athletic reform group, the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact the Knight Commission played

in reforming intercollegiate athletic policy from 1989-2001. The Knight Commission was

funded solely by the Knight Foundation, a charitable organization that, while independent

of the Knight-Ridder Inc. media chain, focused many of its resources on improving

journalism programs worldwide. Since the Knight Commission was primarily active from

1989-1993 and from 2000-2001, six members of the commission who served during each

of those time periods were interviewed in person or by phone because they served

throughout the commission's entirety.









Summary of Research Question Findings

1) How did a journalism-based charitable foundation dedicated to protecting the First
Amendment rights of free speech decide to become involved in collegiate athletic
reform?

The Knight Foundation's goal of improving journalism programs fell under its

main mission of addressing and offering solutions to higher education issues.

Intercollegiate athletics fell under that mission as well. Several Knight Foundation

members who were also university presidents in the late 1980s prior to the formation of

the Knight Commission were concerned about the increasing role of intercollegiate

athletics in higher education, and they thought the best way to address many of the topics

that concerned them would be to form a commission focusing on collegiate sports and

ways to address many of its problems.

2) How did the commission report its findings to the public, and did the commission
use its connections to a media conglomerate such as Knight-Ridder Inc., to sway
public opinion--through the media--about its findings?

The Knight Commission hired, a New York City-based public relations firm, Hill

& Knowlton, to promote the release of the commission's first three reports. The Knight

Commission also funded a 1991 documentary that aired on the Public Broadcasting

Stations (PBS) and was produced by Public Affairs Television pioneer Bill Moyers

pertaining to the issues affecting intercollegiate athletics; the documentary was released

simultaneously with the first report. The commission also used the public polling

organization, Louis Harris & Associates, to conduct polls about the public's perception of

intercollegiate athletics.

While Knight-Ridder newspapers covered the Knight Commission, particularly

following the release of the first report, the coverage was not dictated by the Knight

Commission's affiliation with the Knight Foundation. At least one Knight Commission









member was disappointed in Knight-Ridder's coverage of the commission and said the

coverage did not sway public opinion.

3) How were the actions and recommendations of the Knight Commission viewed by
the academic and athletic community, including administrators, faculty, coaches
and athletic directors?

The Knight Commission received support from parts of the academic community.

Texas A&M University formed a Knight Commission Task Force of students, alumni and

administrators in 1992 to study the school's compliance with the Knight Commission

report. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas created a smaller version of the Knight

Commission report to examine the relationship between academics and athletics at the

school. The University of North Carolina, University of Pittsburgh, Southern Methodist

University and the presidents of Virginia's public universities passed resolutions

supporting the Knight Commission's work following the release of the first report in

1991.

Faculty were skeptical of the Knight Commission because they were unsure that

the group could initiate its reform measures, according to commission member Dr.

William Friday. The athletic community, however, was not as apathetic toward the

Knight Commission. Coaches, in particular the ones who testified before the commission,

were enthused about being part of dialogue to reform college sports. Basketball coaches

Bobby Knight and "Digger" Phelps said they had never sat down with university

presidents to discuss the issues facing intercollegiate athletics prior to being invited to

testify before the Knight Commission.

4) What has been the NCAA's response to the Knight Commission's work?

By 1993, nearly two-thirds of the Knight Commission recommendations had been

endorsed by the NCAA; with 10 of the original 20 recommendations developed into









some type of NCAA legislation. The most noteworthy recommendation of having

university presidents control the NCAA occurred in 1996 when the NCAA was

restructured and a small group of presidents became the only voting members of the

organization (prior to 1996, each of the more than 300 Division I-A institution was

allowed one vote). The two NCAA executive directors who served from during the time

period from 1987-2002 also served on the Knight Commission. The presidential control

of the NCAA was one of the Knight Commission's original reform proposals. "The

NCAA was very supportive of the Knight Commission the first time," said commission

member Richard Schultz. "The second time ... it just didn't seem to be as well-received. I

think there was the feeling the Knight Commission was interfering, and I think some of

the ADs felt (the Knight Commission) was out of touch in some of the things they were

proposing" (R. Schultz, personal communication, June 18, 2002).

5) How do members of the Knight Commission evaluate the success of the group's
work?

Members were positive about the commission's accomplishments, particularly in

bringing presidential control over the NCAA. Most members interviewed said the work

of the "early" commission from 1989-93 was more significant than when the commission

reconvened in 2000 because the "early" commission offered more specific reform

measures and received more favorable public reception than did the latter group. An

important area to consider was the professional status of commission members during the

"early" commission from 1990-93 and the "reconvened" commission in 2000. When the

Knight Commission released its first report in March of 1991, three members were

considered "emeritus" status at their institutions. When the commission released its last

report in the summer of 2001, 12 members were either considered "emeritus" status or no









longer held the job status they had during the "early" commission. It could be suggested

that since some of these members were no longer in a position where they could affect

athletic agendas at either their institution or nationally, the "reconvened" commission's

influence was not as strong as that of the "early" commission.

Future Research

The researcher interviewed six of the 22 members who served on the Knight

Commission throughout its entirety from 1989-2001. If a larger number of commission

members were interviewed, a more complete portrayal of the feelings of commission

members when building the agendas for each of the four reports could be developed.

Negative feelings about any agenda must be included to determine how much division or

debate, if any, there were among commission members.

The future of the Knight Commission's proposed Coalition of Presidents and

Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics should be followed closely. The Knight Commission

proposed that the Knight Foundation help fund both of those groups. However, as of the

fall of 2002, the Knight Foundation had not made a decision on the funding. The

proposed Coalition of Presidents would be drawn from university presidents and trustees,

as well as officials from the NCAA, American Council on Education and the Association

of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. The Knight Commission proposal is

that the Coalition of Presidents be independent of the NCAA and athletic conferences.

The Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics would serve "as a watchdog to maintain

pressure for change," according to the Knight Commission's 2001 report, A Call To

Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education. Since the Knight

Commission disbanded following the 2001 report, any future Knight Commission

movement would come from the possible formation of an Institute for Intercollegiate









Athletics. The status of the Institute for Intercollegiate Athletics should be closely

watched to determine if it will be created, particularly if any Knight Commission

members join the group.

Another area of future research pertaining to the Knight Commission could be a

case study of an individual institution or a conference to determine if it implemented any

of the commission's recommendations and what occurred once those changes were

implemented. For example, former University of Florida president John Lombardi wrote

a 1992 article, A Modelfor Intercollegiate Ailileik for The Journal of the Association of

Governing Boards of Universities & Colleges. In that piece, he outlined how the

University of Florida had implemented some of the Knight Commission

recommendations from the commission's first report in 1991. Lombardi cited examples

of how UF-affiliated organizations such as the University Athletic Association (UAA)

and Gator Boosters Inc. operate independent budgets from the university but still must

have those budgets approved through the university. He cited other examples in a

standard UF Coaching Contract that include stipulations for each coach to report outside

income to the university and an incentive clause awarding a coach for graduating a

certain percentage of players (Lombardi, 1992).

The release of the Knight Commission executive sessions on January 1, 2004,

could also offer a new perspective on the commission's work and how it formed its

agendas for each of its four reports. The executive sessions were closed to the public and

media--these meetings are where the directions for each of the reports were debated

among commission members. The unsealing of these executive sessions could reveal









which of the issues were debated the most among commission members and what was the

consensus among the entire commission on each of the reports.

From a media analysis of the Knight Commission, further research could include

analyzing the commission's relationship with the media, particularly the Knight-Ridder

Inc. newspaper organization. Knight-Ridder officials could be contacted to determine if

they felt "pressured" to cover the work of a Knight Foundation-funded group. Individual

Knight-Ridder writers who covered the Knight Commission could be contacted to

determine if they also felt "pressured" to write positive stories on the commission

because of the Knight connection. A content analysis could include evaluating whether

the sports, news or editorial sections of a newspaper covered the Knight Commission the

most and which section was the most critical in its comments about the commission. A

possible question in any media-related analysis of the Knight Commission would be

whether the media holds apathetic views to athletic reform groups in general because

historically these groups have not been able to sustain permanent reform agendas.

Analysis

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics was formed

primarily in response to the myriad of college athletic scandals in the 1980s when 109

higher education institutions committed some type of NCAA violation during that period,

including more than half of the 106 Division I-A institutions, the NCAA's highest level.

A group of individuals with connections to higher education issues, such as Creed

Black, Dr. William C. Friday and Father Theodore Hesburgh, were concerned about the

state of college athletics. Graduation rates for some student-athletes were declining.

Booster groups were becoming more influential on campuses. Athletic departments were









encountering financial difficulties--even while still attempting to upgrade athletic

facilities.

By creating a commission to study and offer solutions for reforming college

athletics, Black, Friday and Hesburgh hoped to reduce some of the problems plaguing

intercollegiate sports. Black and Friday provided the impetus for starting the Knight

Commission in the late 1980s. At that time, Friday was president and co-chair of the

William R. Kenan Jr. Fund at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Black had

just become president in 1988 of the Knight Foundation, a charitable organization with

ties to the Knight-Ridder publishing family. However, both men had experience in

intercollegiate athletic policy.

Black was publisher of the Lexington Herald-Leader in 1985 when the newspaper

ran a series of stories about a scandal involving the hometown University of Kentucky

men's basketball players accepting illegal cash payments from school booster club

members and alumni. The series generated controversy for the newspaper, which

received death threats, however, the writers of the series were also awarded a Pulitzer

Prize for investigative reporting.

Black solicited support from university presidents and presidents and chief

executive officers of public and private organizations in building support for forming an

athletics commission. He was also influential in helping persuade the Knight Foundation

to donate $2 million to create the Knight Commission.

Friday and Hesburgh were chosen as co-chairmen of the commission. That was one

of several strategic moves in the early life of the commission. With Friday being

president emeritus of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and Hesburgh being









president emeritus of the University of Notre Dame, both men were coming from

institutions able to balance highly acclaimed academic and athletic programs.

Some of the other strategic moves by the commission included:

* Choosing someone such as Bill Moyers to lend credibility to the commission's
findings. Moyers, who established Public Affairs Television in 1986 and is revered
for his journalistic and cultural programs, produced a Knight Foundation-funded
documentary coinciding with the release of the commission's first report in March
of 1991.

* Inviting an array of well-known coaches such as Bobby Knight, Dean Smith, Joe
Paterno and Tom Osbourne to testify during one of its five hearings in preparation
for the first report.

* Retaining a New York City-based public relations firm, Hill & Knowlton Inc., to
promote the commission's findings.

* Establishing a strong, working relationship with the NCAA. The Knight
Commission did not have authority to legislate its reform agenda--it was only
offering recommendations. To compensate for that lack of power, the commission
specifically chose members who were key figures in college sports, particularly
university presidents. These presidents maintained close connections to the NCAA
-- several served on the now-defunct NCAA President's Commissions--and aided in
promoting the Knight Commission's agenda.

* Maintaining that working relationship with the NCAA by including NCAA
Executive Directors Richard Schultz and Cedric Dempsey, who each served during
the Knight Commission's active period from 1989-2001, as Knight Commission
members. Schultz was the commission's first appointee in 1989.

That working relationship with the NCAA continued throughout the 1990s. Among

the commission's first 20 recommendations from its first report in 1991, 10 were adopted

in some form by the NCAA.

Some of the most noteworthy Knight Commission recommendations were:

* Presidential control of the NCAA. This was an historic shift in power in the NCAA
in 1996 when the organization went from a one vote per institution system in which
more than 900 institutions cast votes, to a new system that included an Executive
Committee of 20 university presidents or chancellors. NCAA voting would be
relegated to this group of presidents and chancellors, each serving a three-year
term. No longer would each institution have its own vote. This shift in power put
presidents in control of all NCAA legislation. It also allowed the presidents to









approve all funding for their individual institutions on all athletic department
matters, which was another Knight Commission recommendation.

* Increasing the minimum entrance requirements for prospective student-athletes
from 11 to 13 high school core classes, while also increasing the minimum grade
point average and national standardized test scores. All those were accomplished
with the implementation of Proposition 16 in 1993.

* Requiring student-athletes to make satisfactory progress each academic year toward
a degree in order to maintain eligibility. The NCAA adopted this in 1991 and
strengthened those requirements in 1992, 1993 and 1996.

In analyzing the Knight Commission, it is also important to remember that the

commission had two active periods--the "early" commission when the first three reports

were released in 1991, 1992 and 1993 and the "reconvened" commission when the final

report was issued in 2001. Several commission members cited the accomplishments of

the "early" commission as being more noteworthy than the "reconvened" commission.

Most of the commission's most publicized recommendations--presidential control of the

NCAA and over institutional athletic department finances and a strengthening of

academic requirements for incoming student-athletes came out of that first report.

However, the "reconvened" commission appeared to focus more on strengthening its

original recommendations from the first report in 1991 rather than adding a large amount

of new recommendations.

One of the strengths of the Knight Commission was its access to a wealthy,

charitable group such as the Knight Foundation. The Knight Foundation funded the

Knight Commission with an original $2 million donation. This multi-million donation

allowed the commission to open an office in Charlotte, N.C., and to bring in an array of

important intercollegiate athletic figures to testify during its hearings.

The commission was also well-conceived in the way it selected members. It

included university presidents from the major athletic conferences from different









geographic regions of the country. Its membership also included individuals from public

and private corporations and aligned itself closely with the NCAA by including NCAA

executive directors as members.

The Knight Commission was responsible for bringing about numerous

intercollegiate athletic reform measures--restructuring the NCAA, tightening academic

requirements for student-athletes and keeping a closer monitor on athletic department

expenses. The commission has gained such notoriety that it is often mentioned in articles

pertaining to collegiate athletic reform, such as 2002 special sections appearing in U.S.

News & World Report and USA Today.

In analyzing the Knight Commission's weaknesses, it did not go far enough in its

reform efforts since many of the problems facing college sports in 2002 are the same

problems the commission faced when it was created in 1989. Graduation rates for

student-athletes are still lower than that of the overall student population --in many cases

by as much as 30 to 40 percent. Many institutions are still driven by how they can

outspend their competitors in improving athletic facilities. Since 2001, major institutions

such as the University of Alabama, University of Kentucky and University of Michigan

have all admitted to committing NCAA violations in football or men's basketball.

However, there is more academic and financial integrity in college sports because

of the Knight Commission. The commission has made it easier for institutions to monitor

their athletic departments. The final decision on athletic matters now goes through

university presidents. There is no longer a chaotic voting system with varying agendas in

the NCAA. Academic requirements have been strengthened. The Knight Commission






81


deserves much of this credit for helping bringing about meaningful reforms such as these

in college athletics.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Rob Marino received his Master of Arts in Mass Communication degree from the

University of Florida in December of 2002. Marino also obtained his Bachelor of Science

degree from the University of Florida in December of 1988 after transferring to UF from

Manatee Community College, where he received an Associate of Arts degree in July of

1986.

Marino covered college and high school athletics for more than 15 years as a

prep/general assignment newspaper reporter for the Sarasota Herald-Tribune and The

Bradenton Herald on Florida's southwest coast. He also has also written for team

publications Die Hard and GatorBait, as well as the Associated Press, The Tampa

Tribune, St.Petersburg Times, Lakeland Ledger, Gainesville Sun, and The Miami Herald.

His most recent work was providing content for the Rivals.com Web site. He is

presently a consultant with Sunshine Sports Marketing where he helps coordinate media

coverage of The Dairy Farmers High School Awards Program.

Marino lives in Gainesville.