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Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods


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SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS By KARA SUZANNE STRONG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL S TUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2001

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Copyright 2001 by Kara Suzanne Strong

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to thank my thesis committee for their assistance in the completion of this thesis. Professor Nancy Clark focused my research and balanced th e concerns of the other committee members. Professor Ira Winarsky provided excellent assistance in researching sustainability while Professor Luoni kept my case study design appropriate to an urban environment. I would also like to thank Professor Peter Prugh f or his helpful advice in establishing my goals while studying at the University of Florida. Brad Guy, from the Center for Construction and Environment assisted me with his technical knowledge of all things sustainable. Jason Thiel, of the Jacksonville Eco nomic Development Commission, provided valuable insight and information about the area in which I generated my thesis case study. Most importantly, I would like to thank David E. Johnson for his constant support and understanding. I never would have cons idered undertaking graduate research without his instigation. I especially appreciated his unceasing willingness to review my work as it evolved The clarity of this document is largely thanks to him.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... iii LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... viii ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ x CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 1 Nature of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 1 Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods as Part of a Natural System ................................ ............................ 3 E lements of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood ................................ ................................ .......................... 7 Benefits of Urban Development ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 8 Neighborhood Scale ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 8 Methodology of Investigation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 9 2 HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SUSTAINABILITY ................................ ................................ .... 11 Transit Orie nted Developments ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 11 Reducing Dependence Upon Natural Resources ................................ ................................ .................. 14 Taking the Next Step ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 16 Passive Solar Design through Indigenous Prototypes ................................ ................................ .............. 16 Cold Climate Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 17 Temperate Climate Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Hot Arid Climate Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 20 Hot Humid Clim ate Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 21 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 23 Selecting Green Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 Wh at is a Green Material? ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 24 Using the Life Cycle Analysis for Material Selection ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Green Material Guides ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 26

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v 3 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS ..................... 27 S ustainable Development ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Site Inventory ....................................................................................................................................................... 28 Neighborhood Master Plan ............................................................................................................................. 31 Implementing the Sustainable Urban Neighborhood ......................................................................... 34 Guidelines for Green Buildings .......................................................................................................................... 35 Spatially Efficient ............................................................................................................................................... 35 Design with the Climate .................................................................................................................................. 36 Energy Efficient Systems ................................................................................................................................ 37 Design for the Future ........................................................................................................................................ 37 Selecting and Assembling Green Mat erials .................................................................................................. 38 Preferred Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 39 Materials to Avoid ............................................................................................................................................. 40 Using Gre en Materials ...................................................................................................................................... 41 The Greenest Material ...................................................................................................................................... 41 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................ 42 4 SITE I NVENTORY .................................................................................................................................................. 43 Local Vision ............................................................................................................................................................... 44 Climate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Natural Features ....................................................................................................................................................... 52 Land Uses ................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Neighborhood Circulation ................................................................................................................................... 55 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................................... 56 Local Vision ........................................................................................................................................................... 56 Climate .................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Natural Features ................................................................................................................................................. 57 Land Uses ............................................................................................................................................................... 57 Circulation ............................................................................................................................................................. 58 5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BROOKLYN ............................................................................ 66 Neighborhood Master Plan ................................................................................................................................ 66 Natural Systems .................................................................................................................................................. 67 General Concepts for Proposed Land Uses ............................................................................................. 69 Primarily nonresidential uses ..................................................................................................................... 70 Primarily residential uses ............................................................................................................................. 72 Proposed Circulation ........................................................................................................................................ 72 Prototype Green Buildings ................................................................................................................................... 81 Commercial Structures .................................................................................................................................... 81 Spatial arrangement ....................................................................................................................................... 82 Appropriate systems ...................................................................................................................................... 83 Residential Structures ..................................................................................................................................... 84 Spatial arrangement ...................................................................................................................................... 84 Appropriate System s .................................................................................................................................... 85 Design for the Futur e ....................................................................................................................................... 85 Prototype Residential Structure for Brooklyn ....................................................................................... 86 Green Material Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 92

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vi 6 COMPARATIVE ANAL YSIS ................................................................................................................. 97 Sustainable Development ....................................................................................................................... 97 Energy Efficient Buildings ................................................................................................................... 102 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 106 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................ 107 Lessons Learned ....................................................................................................................................... 108 Areas of Future Research ...................................................................................................................... 109 APPENDICES A LEED RATING SYSTEM PROJECT CHECKLIST ......................................................................... 110 B FLORIDA GREEN HOME STANDARD CHECKLIST .................................................................. 113 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 119 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....................................................................................................................... 125

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Population Levels Required to Support Selected Urban Activities. ...................................... 33 2 Recommended Native Plants for Brooklyns Natural Drainage Areas. .................................. 68 3 Retail Uses that Encourage Pedestrian Activity. ........................................................................ 70 4 Recommended Green Materials for Brooklyn. ............................................................................ 92 5 Recommended Native Plants for Brooklyn ................................................................................. 96 6 Comparison of Brooklyn Neighborhood Design Alternatives. ................................................ 98 7 Comparison of Prototype Hou se and Construction House using Energy 10. .................... 104

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 System Diagram of an Evergreen Hardwood Forest. ................................ ................................ ... 4 2 System Diagram of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood. ................................ ............................ 5 3 Components of Sustainable Development. ................................ ................................ .................. 7 4 Cross Sectional Model of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood ................................ ................. 9 5 Saltbox Construction. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 6 Sod Construction. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 20 7 Adobe Construction. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 21 8 Dogtrot Construction. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 22 9 Components of a S ustainable Urban Neighborhood ................................ ................................ 28 10 Bioclimatic Chart with Design Strategies. ................................ ................................ ................... 30 11 Materials as Part of a Closed Loop System ................................ ................................ ................. 40 12 Location of the Brooklyn District in Jacksonville, Florida. ................................ ..................... 44 13 Aerial view of the Brooklyn Neighborhood in Jacksonville, Florida ................................ ..... 45 14 City of Jacksonvilles Vision for their Downtown Redevelopment. ................................ ...... 46 15 Open Space and Pedestrian Plan. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 48 16 Partial Plan of Brooklyn. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 48 17 Bioclimatic Chart for Jacksonville. ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 18 Yearly Precipitation for Jacksonville. ................................ ................................ ............................ 50 19 Sun Path Diagram for Jacksonville. ................................ ................................ ................................ 51 20 Soil Pattern Present in Leon Boulogne Evergreen. ................................ ................................ .... 52 21 McCoys Creek ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 59

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ix 22 Tree along Gilmore Street ................................................................................................................ 59 23 View of Riverside Avenue near Forest Street ............................................................................. 60 24 Demolition along Riverside Avenue for Street Widening Project ......................................... 60 25 Clima tic Forces ................................................................................................................................... 61 26 Existing Natural Systems ................................................................................................................. 62 27 Existing Land Uses ............................................................................................................................ 63 28 Existing Circulation ......................................................................................................................... 64 29 Summary of Existing Site Recommendations ............................................................................. 65 30 Parti of Brooklyn Redevelopment. ................................................................................................. 67 31 Proposed Natural Systems ............................................................................................................... 74 32 Proposed Land Uses .......................................................................................................................... 75 33 Proposed Site Circulatio n ................................................................................................................ 76 34 Detail Plan of Brooklyn Center ....................................................................................................... 77 35 Typical Residential Block ................................................................................................................ 78 36 Typical Street Sections ..................................................................................................................... 79 37 Typical Street and Pedestrian Path Sections ............................................................................... 80 38 Street Elevation of the Prototype House. ..................................................................................... 87 39 Main Level Plan of the Prototype House. ..................................................................................... 88 40 Upper Level Plan of the Prototype House. ................................................................................... 89 41 Longitudinal Section through the Prototype House. ................................................................. 90 42 Typical Wall Section through the Prototype House. ................................................................ 91 43 Brooklyns Current Zoning Lan d Use Plan .................................................................................. 99 44 Jacksonvilles Future Master Plan for Brooklyn Land Use Plan ............................................ 100 45 Proposed Sustainable Development Design Lan d Use Plan .................................................... 101 46 Monthly Lighting Energy Use. ...................................................................................................... 105 47 Monthly HVAC Energy Use. ......................................................................................................... 105

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x Abstra ct of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies SUSTAINABLE URBAN NE IGHBORHOODS By Kara Suzanne Strong Dec ember 2001 Chairman: Nancy Clark Major Department: Architecture Many inner city neighborhoods in the United States suffer from neglect and underutilization while suburban sprawl increases. Creating new housing subdivisions in formerly rural environmen ts and the consequent overdependence on the automobile is environmentally unsustainable. A more sustainable alternative involves reusing previously developed land in an environmentally sensitive manner. Cities provide an excellent opportunity for creating dense sustainable neighborhoods that use existing infrastructure while providing a direct connection to employment and services. This thesis proposes a methodology for designing sustainable urban neighborhoods that integrate green materials, energy effici ent buildings and sustainable development practices in formerly underdeveloped areas. Analogous to natural ecosystems, a successful sustainable urban neighborhood functions interdependently. As much as current technology allows, each component within the n eighborhood is designed to limit external resource needs and generated wastes. Within the neighborhood, resources are used more efficiently by designing the sustainable urban neighborhood from the smallest component to the largest system. Materials are ca refully selected for their minimal environmental impact and are detailed to generate minimal

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xi construction waste and to allow ease of disassembly. Each building is designed to use natural systems for heating, cooling, and ventilation while allowing flexibil ity for future adaptations. Land uses within the neighborhood are organized to maximize transportation alternatives while maintaining the closed loop system. By incorporating the proposed neighborhoods local vision, climate, infrastructure, resources, an d circulation patterns, descriptive recommendations were developed for the design of a sustainable urban neighborhood. To test this methodology, an existing urban neighborhood was designed using the proposed guidelines. Jacksonville, Florida is an example of a largely underdeveloped central city surrounded by sprawling suburbs. The Brooklyn neighborhood in particular currently suffers from economic neglect and may soon be redeveloped by the City. While the citys vision recommends a transit oriented develo pment in order to minimize transportation requirements, the sustainable urban neighborhood alternative proposes a design that encourages energy efficiency throughout the development. The proposed Brooklyn design shows that a sustainable urban neighborhood is more sensitive to natural systems and requires less energy to maintain. When compared to the current zoning or approved master plan, the proposed sustainable urban neighborhood has a greater variety of transportation alternatives while decreasing the a mount of paved surfaces. Stormwater is retained naturally within the site that requires minimal cost to install and maintain; and it can recharge the aquifer. The increased percentage of mixed use development generates an active neighborhood and enables r esources to be used efficiently. The efficiency of the design is reinforced through the analysis of the prototype house. When compared to conventional construction and design, the prototype generates approximately seven thousand pounds less carbon dioxide per year and requires 22% less energy to operate than conventional construction. The analysis suggests that using the proposed guidelines for designing sustainable urban neighborhoods creates energy efficient communities.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Nature of the Pr oblem Due to human consumption and destruction of natural resources, the earths natural systems have been stressed nearly to the point of collapse. The temperature of the Earths surface is strongly influenced by the existence, density, and composition of its atmosphere. Many gases in the Earths atmosphere such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb infrared radiation reradiated from the surface, trapping heat in the lower atmosphere. 1 Without this natural greenhouse effect, the Earth would be a frozen planet. Since the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have greatly increased the concentrations of greenhouse gases and are now beginning to affect the climate. Carbon dioxide, the most significant anthropogenic greenhou se gas, has increased in atmospheric concentration by 31% since 1750. Approximately 75% of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide originate from fossil fuel burning; the remainder is mostly due to deforestation. 2 The increase in concentration of greenh ouse gases in the atmosphere has led to increased global temperatures (1 F since 1961), reduced snow and ice cover (a 10% reduction since the late 1960s) and rising sea levels (approximate six inches during the 20 th century). 3 1 Paul McArdle et al., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999 [online] (Washington D.C.: Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of Energy, 2000 [c ited 13 April 2001]); File no. DOE/EIA 0573(99), available from ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt/057399.pdf 1. 2 Daniel L. Albritton et al., Summary for Policymakers: A Report of W orking Group 1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [online] (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]); available from http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/spm22 01.pdf, 7. 3 Ibid., 14.

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2 The United States contribute s more to greenhouse gas emissions than any other nation. While the country constitutes only 4.6% of the worlds population, 4 it emits 24.7% of the worlds carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels, 5 These emissions are divided into the sectors of transpo rtation (33% of total US emissions), industrial (32%), residential (19%) and commercial (16%). 6 Given that motorized vehicles contribute approximately 85% of carbon dioxide emissions in the transportation sector, 7 this suggests that US vehicle emissions al one contribute nearly 7% of world carbon dioxide emissions. 8 Within the construction industry, fossil fuel dependency can be reduced in several ways. This thesis recommends reducing the need for vehicular transportation, which is the single largest anthr opogenic contributor to the greenhouse effect. The current practice of constructing new subdivisions on former greenspaces requires long commutes into the city to access employment. Between 1969 and 1995, the average commute, in miles, has increased 25%, a nd in 1995 commuting comprised 31% of all vehicular travel. 9 To reverse this trend, this thesis recommends constructing new mixed use neighborhoods in underdeveloped urban areas. The 4 U.S. Census Bureau. POPClocks [online] (Washington D.C.: Census Bureau, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]); available from http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html. 5 Michael J Grillot et al., International Energy Annual 1999 [online] (Washington D.C.: Energy Information Admini stration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy [cited 13 April 2001]); File no. DOE/EIA 0219(99), available from http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/pdf/internationa l/021999.pdf 227 228. In the United States, 98% of carbon dioxide emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels, from Paul McArdle et al., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases viii. 6 McArdle et al., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases ix. 7 U.S. Departme nt of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Indicators [online] (Washington D.C.: Department of Transportation, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]); available from http://bts.gov/transtu/indicators/Environment.pdf, 90. 8 An amount wh ich, if accurate, exceeds the carbon dioxide emissions of fossil fuels for every other country, save China. See Michael J Grillot et al., International Energy Annual 1999 227 228. 9 Patricia S. Hu and Jennifer R. Young, Summary of Travel Trends: 1995 Nati onwide Personal Transportation Survey [online], prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation [cited 27 May 2001]); available from http://www cta.ornl.gov/npts/1995/DO C/trends_report.pdf, 13. The remainder of vehicle travel consists of shopping (13% of total travel), personal business (21%), social and recreational (23%) and miscellaneous (30%).

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3 new development can then reuse existing infrastructure while preserving e xisting rural land. If Americans return to living within the city while using alternative forms of transportation, the nation can begin to reduce its dependency on the automobile. While constructing new neighborhoods in existing cities can decrease the con sumption of fossils fuels by reducing American dependence on cars, a more sustainable urban neighborhood also results in reduced commercial and residential use of fossil fuels. Considering that the construction industry consumes 30% of the total national e nergy, 10 more efficiently designed structures significantly reduce American energy requirements This goal is accomplished by replicating natural climax ecosystems with a diversity of systems that are interconnected and energy efficient. Specifically, a sus tainable urban neighborhood must consider material selection, building design and the development layout in order to reduce its external energy requirements and waste. Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods as Part of a Natural System Ideally, a sustainable urb an neighborhood functions similar to natural systems. Natural systems strive to maintain a balance, or steady state between its various components, eventually reaching climax status. 11 In climax ecosystems, all available energies are used within the system. The system reuses or recycles all waste, maximizing its available power. Greater diversity increases the stability of the system by making it less susceptible to external disturbances. A disturbance may affect one component of the system, but it should no t damage the entire ecosystem, as it might in a monoculture system. Instead, the climax ecosystem should repair the damage to the system and return to equilibrium. 10 Charles J. Kibert, Jan Sendzimir and Brad Guy, Construction ecology and metabolism: natural system analogues for a sustainable built environment, Construction Management and Economics 18 (2000): 913. 11 Paragraph is summarized from Howard T. Odum, Elisabeth C. Odum and Mark T. Brown, Environment and Society in Florida (Boca Ra ton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1998), 63 71.

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4 Figure 1 : System Diagram of an Evergreen Hardwood Forest. Ho ward T. Odum, Elisabeth C. Odum and Mark T. Brown, Environment and Society in Florida (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1998), 210. The energy model of the sustainable urban neighborhood represents the interconnectedness of the proposed system. While ene rgy flows from low energy sources to higher ones, reusing or recycling wastes within the neighborhood reduces its external energy requirements. Since all of the products used within the neighborhood cannot be produced within an urban environment, this mode l shows the additional components as part of the ecological footprint for the neighborhood. Sensitive design responses reducs the neighborhoods required support region by minimizing the need for components not produced within the neighborhood. Similar to all natural systems, energy flows from the sun, wind and rain are the foundation for the entire system. The energy flows create the local microclimate and ecosystems and they fuel local industries and agriculture. The ecosystems in turn support urban agric ulture and other vital green spaces within the neighborhood. These resources also create renewable materials for use in residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

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5 Figure 2 : System Diagram of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood.

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6 Goods required by the neighborhood are processed by the commercial sector. The people within and without the neighborhood supply the labor to produce these goods and other functions within the city. Money circulates through the local economy, flowing in from the sale of goods processed by the neighborhood and flowing out to pay for services not generated within the neighborhood. Fuel and power sources required by the sustainable urban neighborhood are ideally generated from renewable sources, such as sun wind and rain. During periods when these sources are unavailable, fuels from non renewable sources are utilized. The components within the neighborhood are designed to minimize energy and goods produced from nonrenewable sources. Wastes generated by the sustainable urban neighborhood are recycled back into the system and used as an energy source. Wastewater can be treated within the neighborhood and used for irrigation while food wastes can be composted and used for fertilizer. Whenever possible, waste pr oducts are sorted for recycling and waste construction materials are salvaged and reused in other neighborhood construction projects. Reusing neighborhood wastes locally reduces external energy requirements. The interconnected nature of the sustainable ur ban neighborhood energy model suggests that components should not be added or removed without considering the impact to the overall system. Each component has unique energy requirements and generates wastes that the system must accept. If the system cannot adapt to the proposed change, external energy sources are required in order to the restore balance within the system. An interdependent neighborhood requires a smaller support region than a conventional one, but the interdependent neighborhood requires gr eater sensitivity during its design, development and operation.

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7 Elements of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood By definition, a sustainable development occurs only when the development is balanced between ecological viability, economical feasibility and soci al desirability.12 The ecological objectives of any sustainable development should include restoring the natural ecosystem and maximizing the diversity of natural systems. No development is possible unless it can be constructed within the means of its devel opers. The social objectives of a sustainable development require the design to be a response to the needs of those intended to live within its boundaries. This involves local participation in the design process, maintaining a cultural identity, and allowi ng for social mobility. Although the emphasis given to each of these objectives is subject to interpretation, all of them should be included in a truly sustainable development.13 Figure 3 : Components of Sustainable Development. Adapted from C. Lee Campbell and Walter W. Heck, Principles of Sustainable Development ed. F. Douglas Muschett (Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997), 56. This thesis focuses on the ecological feasibility of the proposed guidelines. Specifically, this thesis compares the inputs and outflows of the existing neighborhood to the proposed 12 C. Lee Campbell and Walter W. Heck, Principles of Sustainable Development ed. F. Douglas Muschett (Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997), 56. 13 Ibid., 55.

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8 sustainable urban neighborhood. Social desirability and economic feasibility are addressed through the review and application of reports produced by the local government. Benefits of Urban Development On average, fifteen percent of American urban land is vacant. The strategic reuse of urban vacant land and abandoned structures represents a key opportunity to encourage greater density and reduce the development of suburban or rural greenfields. 14 Building in urban environments allows developments to use existing infrastructure, such as utilities, water and roadway systems, which constitutes significant expenditures in greenfield development. People who live within central cit ies are less dependent on automobiles for transportation because of the close proximity of employment and services. A properly planned urban neighborhood provides opportunities for their residents to walk, bicycle or take public transportation to other par ts of the city. Neighborhood Scale This thesis attempts to develop the sustainable urban neighborhood as part of a natural system. The urban neighborhood is pe rhaps the smallest unit that one can visualize all of the components as part of a natural system. The sustainable urban neighborhood is presented at three separate scales in order to focus on specific components of the system (see Figure 2). These componen ts are designed sustainably within the scale under consideration and with the overall system. For example, the neighborhood scale addresses the major components and land uses and how they connect and interrelate to form a cohesive system. The building scal e of this thesis increases the focus of the project by approximately fifty times in order to visualize individual structures. This scale includes not only the building forms, but also the internal and external systems adjacent to the buildings. The materia ls scale takes an even closer view of the 14 Michael A. Pagano and Ann OM. Bowman, Vacant Land in Cities: An Urban Resource, The Brookings Institution [online] (Washington D.C., December 2000 [cited April 27, 2001]); available from http://brook.edu/es/urban/pagano/paganofinal.pdf 1

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9 neighborhood. At this scale, the thesis considers both the selection of materials and how the materials are connected to form energy efficient buildings. Figure 4 : Cross Sectional Model of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood Methodology of Investigation This thesis begins the investigation of sustainable urban neighborhoods by considering precedents for each scale. By analyzing existing th eories for sustainable developments, energy efficient structures and green materials, this research helps define the ideal components of the sustainable urban neighborhood. Next, the thesis defines the guidelines for creating sustainable urban neighborhood s from the neighborhood, building and material scales. These guidelines are sufficiently general so that they can be applied to any urban environment.

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10 To test the hypothesis that an existing urban environment can be redeveloped sustainably, the remainder of the thesis focuses on a case study of a sustainable urban neighborhood designed based on the guidelines presented in chapter three. Chapter four s ummarizes the local vision and existing site conditions. Chapter five illustrates the proposed neighborhood design, requirements for energy efficient structures and recommended green materials. Chapter six compared the proposed neighborhood design to the c urrent zoning and the local vision as well as the environmental benefits of the prototype house to a more conventional one. The final chapter summarizes the lessons learned in the formation and testing of this thesis. A series of observations and a final c onclusion addresses the viability of developing guidelines for sustainable urban neighborhoods.

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11 CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SUSTAINABILITY A sustainable urban neighborhood should be designed at three different scales: the use of materials, how the mat erials combine to form structures, and the organization of structures within the overall neighborhood. Each scale must be designed environmentally sensitive within itself and it must also be integrated within the entire system. Therefore, consideration of how each scale has been designed sustainably in the past in order determines how it should be adapted to the sustainable urban environment. For example, while transit oriented developments provide an alternative to automobile dependency by providing goods and services within walking distance of the entire neighborhood, these developments generally are not responsive to climate or other environmental factors. In contrast, much indigenous architecture evolved as a response to the local climate and available m aterials, and therefore provides many examples of energy efficient design that uses environmentally sensitive materials. No standard exists for determining if a material is green, but materials selected for use in the sustainable urban neighborhood shoul d minimize the environmental impact of new construction over its entire life cycle and contribute to the overall energy efficiency of the structure. A better understanding of how these elements have been previously understood leads to a more complete under standing of the components within the sustainable urban neighborhood. Transit Oriented Developments Commuting to the city from the suburbs is not a recent phenomenon. For example in 1827, the omnibus transformed the residential make up of larger cities in the United States. Those able to afford the omnibus were able to escape the crowded city and live in the outlying

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12 districts and thereby became the first commuters. 15 By the late nineteenth century, a series of technological advances in transportation and c ommunication accelerated the process of urban population deconcentration. The advent of the trolley, rapid transit and the automobile extended the commuting distance between ones residence and place of employment. 16 This pattern of low density growth great ly increased after World War II with the advent of federal legislation that provided low cost builder and buyer programs, as well as a massive highway construction program that made it easier for people of modest means to live away from their city jobs and activities. Unfortunately, the new suburban communities consisted almost exclusively of low density single family residences and did not provide pedestrian access to shopping or other basic services. The resulting sprawling developments are automobile dep endent and wasteful of natural resources. 17 A more sustainable development shall respect the environment and allow residents to access employment and shopping through less energy intensive methods of transportation. Transit oriented development, or TOD, con sists of a high density, mixed use, pedestrian oriented environment within convenient walking distance of a transit station. While TODs must be modified to maximize energy efficiency and reflect modern shopping habits, this concept can create an environme nt where one may socialize, work, and shop within short walking distance of home. 18 The basic principle for all transit oriented developments, regardless of location, is straightforward: they must be mixed use, pedestrian oriented and support all income le vels. A 15 Howard P. Chudacoff, and Judith E. Smith, The Evolution of American Urban Society (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000), 86 87. 16 Edward S. Shihadeh and Graham C. Ousey, Metropolitan Expansion and Black Social Dislocation: The Link between Surburban ization and Center City Crime, Social Forces 75(2) (1996): 652. 17 John J. Macionis, and Vince Parrillo, Cities and Urban Life (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000), 106. 18 David Salvesen, Promoting Transit Oriented Development, Urban Land July 1996, 31.

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13 successful TOD minimizes private space in order to maximize public areas. 19 A TOD neighborhood has a central core consisting of a public transit station that is the focal point of the neighborhood. Within 1,200 feet of the station, which represents a reasonable walking distance, is a mix of shopping centers, office facilities, and multi family housing. 20 Farther from the center but within a ten minute walk of the transit station, the development is less dense and more residential, eventually becoming single family housing. 21 Reinforcing the multimodal nature of these developments, TODs are combined with multiple pedestrian and bicycle routes, increasing the residents travel options. Aesthetically, buildings should address the street and sidewalk wit h entries, balconies, porches, architectural features, and activities that help create safe, pleasant pedestrian oriented environments. Building densities, orientation and massing should promote more active commercial centers, support transit, and reinforc e public spaces. The architectural detail should also show a strong connection to human scale. 22 In suburban areas, transit oriented developments require both a private market for denser, less automobile dependent neighborhoods and governmental approval of higher density development near stations. Public policies that allow intensive building adjacent to stations and promote transit friendly design can generate the most efficient use of travel opportunities afforded by transit service. Further, transportatio n and land use planning agencies must work together to develop locations for transit oriented development. Both organizations benefit from 19 Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and the American Dream (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993), 53. 20 Ibid., 55. 21 Roxanne Warren, abstract of The Urban Oasis: Guideways and Greenways in the Human Environmen t [online] (New York: McGraw Hill, [cited 22 January 01]); available from http://faculty.washington.edu/~jbs/itrans. 22 Calthorpe, American Metropolis 65.

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14 this synergy, since a successful TOD offers transit agencies a means to increase ridership while providing cities a mechanism to generate less resource intensive development. 23 Reducing Dependence Upon Natural Resources Perhaps counterintuitively, compact urban regions provide better opportunities for healthy ecological systems than suburban development and rural densit y housing. By creating denser developments less dependent on the automobile for transportation, transit oriented developments use fewer natural resources, are better able to recycle wastes, and allow for more natural biodiversity than conventional developm ents. 24 By locating new TODs in underutilized places near urban centers, consumers are closer to the areas of production and distribution. In addition, dense urban developments reduce the need to destroy rural greenspaces or agricultural land in order to cr eate additional housing. In the United States, the automobile and its supporting services and infrastructure, such as roads and highways, significantly contribute to the destruction of the natural environment and resources. If land use configurations supp ort alternatives to the car, then many positive results are possible: people may choose to walk, bike and use transit more often; they can combine trips more easily; and because of these changes, slowly reduce their overdependence on the automobile. 25 Accor ding to one authority, properly planned transit oriented developments may reduce automobile travel by 20 25% compared with conventional developments. 26 23 David Salvesen, Promoting Transit Oriented Development, 87. 24 Urban Sustainability Learning Group Staying in the Game: Exploring Options for Urban Sustainability (Chicago, IL: The Tides Center, 1996), 24. 25 Calthorpe, American Metropolis 46. 26 Transit Oriented Development Online TDM Encyclopedia [online] (Victoria, British Columbia: Victoria T ransport Policy Institute, 2001 [cited 22 January 2001]); available from http://www.vtpi.org/tdm.

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15 Taking the Next Step Transit oriented development does create the possibility for significant automotive energy and air pollution reductions as well as an improved community fabric. However, TOD planners do not provide specific recommendations for adapting to the local climate. 27 In fact, some proponents of TODs believe that planners can go too far in brin ging nature into human settlement. They state that urban vitality should not be sacrificed for green space and the development should not be designed while considering the buildings energy efficiency. 28 This theory does not consider that a carefully desi gned development can be both environmentally responsible and meet the needs of the community. When planning new developments also consider that store are generally increasing in size and thus require larger catchment areas. 29 The success of a transit orien ted development depends on the profitability of businesses located within the TOD. Unprofitable businesses relocate, reducing the TOD to a solely residential development. Today, commercial businesses prefer larger structures to take advantage of economies of scale and therefore require a large market area. Consumers who prefer to buy cheaply and have a large selection readily available reinforce this marketing strategy. Since most TODs are designed for a maximum of 5,000 people, they cannot support large r etail structures, which require population levels in excess of 10,000 people. 30 In addition, large stores do not easily fit within the dense scale of a TOD. 31 In order for 27 Charles J. Kibert and G. Bradley Guy, Abacoa: A Model for Sustainable Land Development, Land Development Spring Summer 1997, 25 29. 28 Calthorpe, America n Metropolis 44. 29 Randal OToole, The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths (Bandon, Oregon: Thoreau Institute, 2001), 136. Catchment area refers to number of people who can access the business. This number is dependent on the desired transportation method. In TODs, where pedestrians generally access businesses, the catchment area is limited to a half mile walking radius. 30 Joseph de Chiara, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik, eds., Time Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Development 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1995), 10. Supermarkets require a minimum of 10,000 people in the catchment area while department stores or shopping centers require 20,000 people.

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1 6 TODs to become a viable alternative to conventional developments, transit oriented de velopments must respect the reality of current shopping habits. Many people may be tempted to return to the automobile to do their shopping, unless TODs can be adapted to provide sufficient population to support larger shopping centers. Recommendations W hile mass transit initiated sprawl, it now can contribute to the reversal of its damaging effects of sprawl not generated by automobile usage. People can become less dependent on the automobile when commercial and residential uses are clustered around tran sit stops, allowing other transportation options. Transit oriented developments require less land per person because of their density. Both of these factors improve air quality and minimize our dependence on non renewable resources. However, transit orient ed developments should go further to minimize their impact on the environment. New developments should be more responsive to climatic and ecological influences. A more site specific master plan improves the potential environmental benefits of the design. T he designers of these developments must also consider the economic concerns of the commercial enterprises they wish to attract. The potential of transit oriented developments to reduce automobile usage is unquestioned, but its guiding principles require re finement. Passive Solar Design through Indigenous Prototypes Until the advent of cheap fossil fuels in the middle to late 1800s, people typically oriented their homes and commercial buildings to maximize natural lighting and solar thermal gain. They used renewable resources such as hydropower, wind and biomass, for additional heating and 31 John Niles and Dick Nelson, Measuring the Success of Transit Oriented Deve lopment: Retail Market Dynamics and Other Key Determinants, paper presented at the American Planning Association, National Planning Conference, Seattle, Washington, 24 28 April 1999, 6.

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17 ventilation requirements. 32 In early American homes, architectural style was not as important as developing a response to the local site conditions and building with availa ble materials. Indigenous architecture therefore provides many useful examples of passive solar design principles. A better understanding of indigenous responses to climate and the use of available materials suggests improvements to modern energy efficient house design. Cold Climate Design Covering most of the Northern United States, above 40 latitude, the cold climate features cloudy, cold winters and bright, warm summers. During the winter, prevailing winds generally originate from the northwest while h ot summer afternoons the wind is out of the south southwest. While most of the precipitation is during the summer, structures must accommodate large amounts of winter snow. 33 In the extreme northeast, early Americans had to work hard to stay warm. New Engla nd Colonial houses were constructed of local timbers and usually consisted of one main space with a centrally located fireplace that doubled as both a space heater and a cook stove. Architectural strategies helped to warm the interior. Windows were orien ted to the south or west to allow in solar warmth and light the indoor space, while the colder north elevation, was generally windowless. The saltbox form illustrates how early American architecture adapted to the reality of harsh winters. The distinctive long roof reached almost to the ground on the north side to deflect the strong winter wind while allowing a second story on the warmer south elevation. 34 32 Steven J. Strong, Reshaping the Built Environment: Ecology, Ethics and Economics ed. Charles J. Kibert (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999), 89. 33 Victor Olgyay, Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), 153. 34 Jim Kemp, American Vernacular: Re gional Influences in Architecture and Interior Design (New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987), 17.

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18 Figure 5 : Saltbox Construction. Reprinted from Jim Kemp, American Vernacu lar: Regional Influences in Architecture and Interior Design (New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987), 38. Modern structures built in cold climates should follow the energy efficient principles of saltbox construction. Ideally, the structure should emphasize retaining heat and radiant absorption, while minimizing conduction or evaporation loss. Due to the long winter season, conservation of heating is a higher priority than providing for summer comfort, although both needs should be met by the design. To maxim ize heat gain, orient structures along the east west axis. In residential forms, two story houses under one common roof are preferable for compactness. Locate the main living spaces along the warmer southern elevation and storage rooms and garages along th e cold northern face of the building. In addition, evergreen windbreaks in the direction of winter winds shelters the structure while deciduous trees or a roof overhang along the southern elevation cool the building in the summer 35 When adapted to modern technologies, the saltbox form remains an ideal response to cold climate requirements. 35 Olgyay, Design with Climate 155.

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19 Temperate Climate Design In most of the United States, the weather is balanced between hot summers and freezing winters. As with the cold climate, winter winds come from the northwest while summer winds originate from the south southwest direction. Precipitation is also evenly distributed, with snow cover lasting only a few days during the winter. The summer tends to be rather humid with the west facing exposures becoming overheated. In the western United States, timber was not always available in sufficient quantities for house construction. While suitable clays existed for brick construction, the fuel to fire the bricks did not exist for early American settlers. Much of the best agricultural land of the plains was covered with thick soils that prevented access to the underlying rock for use as building stone. Therefore, pioneer settlers developed techniques of building with sod. Sod construction consisted of cutting the u ppermost few inches of soil, along with the interlocking roots of the tough plains grasses, into rectangular sections with a special plow. These were then laid like bricks to make thick earthen walls that provided excellent insulation from both summer heat and winter cold. 36 This region permits the most flexible structural forms. Because temperatures are within acceptable human comfort ranges throughout most of the year, provide a strong connection between interior and exterior spaces. Elongated buildings to encourage cross ventilation should be provided. Locate bedrooms along the cooler east elevations and place outdoor living spaces on the south. Similar to cold climate construction, locate tree breaks against the northwest winter wind direction and provide deciduous shade trees along the south and west elevations. 37 While sod house construction is no longer appropriate to modern ventilation requirements, modern equivalents, such as earth berming and rammed earth construction are effective means of 36 Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984), 86. 37 Olg yay, Design with Climate 161.

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20 minimizing temperature swings as well as utilizing a locally available renewable material. Sod roofs, applied over modern roof systems, insulates the home while absorbing stormwater. Figure 6 : Sod Construction. Reprinted from Kemp, Ameri can Vernacular 124. Ho t Arid Climate Design This region is characterized by large daily temperature swings and intense sunlight with the hottest part of the building along the western face. Unlike the cold and temperate climates, the prevailing breeze fol lows the east west axis. This part of the country receives minimal rainfall, and therefore water conservation is extremely important. In the southwestern United States, early Spanish American houses were constructed of adobe bricks. Adobe is a particularl y durable material made by blending soil, water and straw and formed into bricks. The adobe brick walls were often two to three feet thick with small windows, forming a thermal mass that absorbed the heat during the day and released the heat into the home during the relatively cooler evenings. The exterior of the houses were coated with a protective layer of whitewash, which also reduced the heat load. Adobe houses typically began as a single space, rooms were later added to form an internal courtyard. The courtyard is partially

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21 covered to create a sheltered connection between rooms.38 Each room was accessed through the courtyard, placing the house circulation on the exterior and allowing trapped heat to escape during the evening while providing outdoor sleep ing spaces. Figure 7 : Adobe Construction. Reprinted from Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984), 134. The adobe house illustrates that encouraging heat los s is the guiding principle of design in hot and humid climates. Design the floor plan to require a minimum of movement. To minimize solar loads, locate non inhabited spaces on the overheated west exposure. In addition, use light exterior colors to reduce h eat absorption.39 The massive walls of adobe construction continue to be utilized as a successful means of absorbing heat during the day while keeping the interior spaces cool, and releasing it during the cooler evenings. Hot Humid Climate Design Unlike th e ho t arid climate, this region is characterized by minimal daily temperature variations. Ocean breezes predominate along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, while wind velocity is less than ten miles per hour for the remainder of the region. Summer breezes orig inate in the 38 Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, Field Guide 132. 39 Olgyay, Design with Climate 167.

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22 south while winter wind comes from the north. Most of yearly rainfall comes principally during the summer months. The most significant design concern is the constant humidity. During the summer months, outdoor humidity rises well above the com fortable range. In the southeast, air circulation provided the only means of cooling early American houses. The dogtrot house featured an open breezeway that extends through the center of the house, which separated the overheated kitchen from the rest of t he house. In addition, these houses were located several feet above ground. With this design, cooling breezes flowed though the breezeway, under the floor and above the roof, allowing ventilation in several directions. Originally, the houses were construct ed of locally available wood walls and tin roofs. The roof deflects the heat of the sun and its large overhang shaded the exterior walls and windows.40 Figure 8 : Dogtrot Construction Reprinted from Kemp, American Vernacular 78. As the dogtrot house illustrates, buildings in the ho t humid climate should encourage air movement. Where possible, maximize surface area to encourage air circulation. Sun radiation builds up continuously during the day, requiring large shaded areas throu ghout the year. Heat 40 Kemp, American Vernacular 78.

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23 and moisture producing areas should be isolated from the remainder of the house. 41 In addition, any trees placed near the home should have high branches to allow breezes to pass below while providing some shade. Recommendations In the quest to create or emulate the latest style, many architects have abandoned the basic principles of passive solar design and relied on modern technologies to provide basic human comfort levels. However, this practice requires significant amounts of energy for heating, cooling and ventilation. A more sustainable structure works with the local climate and use local, renewable materials. Studying the indigenous structures of that area increases the understanding of how buildings should interpret these influen ces. Indigenous buildings are a direct manifestation of local environmental influences, the ultimate form of passive solar design principles. Adapting these principles to reflect modern technologies and program considerations improves the energy efficiency of house design. Selecting Green Materials An energy efficient architectural design begins by selecting environmentally sensitive materials. Truly green materials do not negatively impact the environment in their extraction or manufacture while minimizin g the energy required to heat or cool the building. While manufactures extol the virtues of their green materials, their products are not always as green as they claim. Without an accepted industry standard, anyone may claim that any particular product i s green. 42 This claim is not without some basis in reality, because the environmental sensitivity of any product is subject to interpretation. For example, while wood is a renewable resource, if the wood is conventionally harvested or requires preservative treatment in its application, then wood may not be the best option for framing. On the other hand, steel stud 41 Olgyay, Design with Climate 173. 42 Abby Bussel, Eco Evaluators: What Do They Do? Progressive Architecture March 1993, 90.

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24 manufacturing releases various air and water pollutants, but used steel framing can be easily recycled back into new studs. 43 Both products can cla im some level of environmental sensitivity, but the issue remains as to which is the greener product. What is a Green Material? To begin with, there is no one specific definition of a green material. Among commentators a general consensus exists that a gr een product should be biodegradable, low in embodied energy, low in toxins and in emissions of volatile organic compounds, contain recycled compounds and in themselves recyclable and are derived from renewable resources. 44 However, few products completely m eet the stringent requirements for environmentally sensitive materials. The challenge consists of deciding which measures are the most critical. Emerging standards recommend selecting materials based on the environmental impact of their life cycle. Using the Life Cycle Analysis for Material Selection The life cycle analysis is based on the belief that all stages in the life of a product generate an environmental impact. A life cycle analysis considers how the material was extracted, manufactured and trans ported to the site, the performance of the material once installed, and whether the material can be reused or recycled. While an individual product may claim to be green based on one stage, it might not be green in other life cycle stages, which offsets the perceived benefits of the product. 45 Currently several guidelines have been created to help in green material selection. The difference between them lies in determining the relative importance of each criterion. In the 43 Nadav Malin, Is Wood or Metal Greener?, Progressive Architecture September 1995, 41. 44 Stewart Mosberg, What Do We Mean by Green? Progressive Architecture March 1991, 62. 45 National Institute of Standards and Techn ology, Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability Ver. 2.0 (BEES 2.0) (Washington D.C.: National Institute of Standards and Technology), 1.

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25 wood/steel stud example, is the ha rvesting of the product more important, or how its manufactured? Green Material Guides The editors of the Environmental Building News advocate the analysis of the entire life cycle when selecting green materials. Their selection process is based on resea rch into the qualities of the raw materials, energy consumed in its production and disposal and any by products generated during its life cycle. 46 They place the largest importance on the products usage within the building because, of the relatively long l ifetime that the building material is in use. 47 This standard does not consider that some products spend the most of their lifetime decomposing in a landfill or that some products are more easily recycled than others. Because wood studs are not commonly reu sed in construction while steel studs are relatively simple to recycle, steel may therefore be the better alternative, especially if the steel is derived from recycled sources. The editors of the Environmental Building News recommended wood studs only if t hey are available from sustainably managed forests; otherwise, they suggested specifying steel studs. 48 Similar to EBN, the Environmental Resource Guide reviews the entire life cycle of a product to determine its environmental impact. Its main difference is that the ERG does not place a priority on any one stage; rather, it provides the basic research and leaves it to the user to determine the products acceptability. 49 This approach places a larger burden on the user and may result in a harmful product being incorrectly specified. In keeping with the ERGs decision 46 Nadav Malin and Alex Wilson, Material Selection: Tools, Resources, and Techniques for Choosing Green Environmental Building News January 1997, 1. 47 Ibid., 12. 48 Malin, Is Wood or Metal Greener?, 41. 49 American Institute of Architects, Environmental Resource Guide (Washington D.C.: American Institute of Architects, Inc., 1994), 2:xiii.

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26 not to provide definitive suggestions for specific products or materials, the guide recommends neither wood nor steel. The United States Department of Commerce has developed a separate set of guide lines for selecting green materials. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability Standard has created a systematic methodology for selecting building products that achieve the most appropriate balance between environmental and economic perf ormance based on the decision makers values. 50 Based on established standards for determining the life cycle cost as well as considering the actual cost of each product, this standard determines an overall performance measure. This system has great pote ntial for relatively inexperienced users to select green materials. However, few products have been analyzed to date, so other methods need to be used in the interim. The BEES guideline recommends wood studs overwhelmingly over steel studs. Recommendation s Current research suggests that the selection of green materials should be dependent the environmental impact of their life cycle. Because products that excel in one criterion may be weak in another, one must balance the relative environmental strengths a nd weaknesses of various materials, considering, for example: energy efficiency, low toxicity and use of renewable resources. While several green guidelines exist to assist in product selection, their recommendations can be contradictory. Unfortunately, no single recognized standard exists for evaluating the relative merits between competing products. As in the metal/wood stud selection, the ultimate responsibility for green material selection rests on the user. 50 BEES 2.0, 1 2.

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27 CHAPTER 3 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS The primary goal of this thesis is to develop guidelines for creating sustainable urban neighborhoods for any inner city location. An ideal sustainable urban neighborhood functions analogously to a natural ecosystem while meeting the needs of the community. In order to achieve this goal, each element of the neighborhood must be designed interdependently. In addition, the waste products of each component of the neighborhood should be selected or designed to become the input of another compone nt of the neighborhood, thus creating a closed loop system. This thesis therefore recommends designing each scale within the system concurrently with the other scales to assure interdependency. As Figure 9 illustrates, the form of the sustainable urban nei ghborhood is dependent on the interaction between the various scales. For example, the development cannot be designed until the spatial needs of the buildings located within the neighborhood are addressed. In turn, the structures should not be designed wit hout understanding how the selected materials impact their forms. The interconnected nature of the sustainable urban neighborhood should be considered while developing each component of the system. Sustainable Development Conceptually, the overall design of a sustainable neighborhood is similar to a transit oriented development, but with greater sensitivity to environmental issues and natural systems. Before designing a sustainable urban neighborhood, analyze the existing climate, infrastructure, and circ ulation patterns. The existing conditions must be understood before the neighborhood can be designed sustainably. The neighborhood should then be designed to encourage public

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28 transit, pedestrian and bicycle connections in order to minimize the need for aut omobiles.51 Organizing the core of the neighborhood about a transit stop and locating all structures within the neighborhood within walking distance of the center encourages alternate forms of transit. Figure 9 : Components of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood Beyond transportation needs, the neighborhood is designed to minimize energy input and waste outflows. The lots are oriented to maximize passive solar design strategies for as many of the structures as possible. Also, land u ses within the development are selected to meet the needs of the community while encouraging interdependency between the various structures. Site Inventory Before designing the development, begin by analyzing the potential of the existing site. Every sit e has its own unique climate and character; a sustainable urban neighborhood is 51 Alex Wilson and Nadav Malin Establishing Priorities with Green Building, Environmental Building News September/October 1995, 15.

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29 designed to enhance those features. Often, these sites have existing homes and businesses. While the area may be underdeveloped or otherwise unusable, it is generally better to improve on what already exists than to ignore the lessons that the existing fabric has to offer. A successful sustainable urban neighborhood also meets the needs of the community. This thesis recommends including the communitys culture and character in the site analysis. This requires contacting those living and working near the proposed neighborhood to better understand their needs. From these contacts, analyze how people within the area live, work and play and determine how those activities should be a ccommodated within the neighborhood. In addition, many communities have developed master plans for the city. These plans indicates the citys vision for the neighborhood and should be incorporated within the design of the sustainable development. In order to design an energy efficient neighborhood, the designer must identify the local climate and natural features of the site. This process requires determining the heating and cooling requirements of the area. Plotting the monthly temperature and humidity ran ges on a bioclimatic chart shows what passive cooling and heating strategies are required in building design. Also, identifying the amount and form of precipitation recommends opportunities for stormwater retention and reuse. Diagramming topography and nat ural features determines appropriate land uses, their location, and areas where the natural landscape should be preserved. A soil analysis helps define the vegetation native to this region as well as groundwater absorption and land use suitability. In pla ces where an existing area is to be redeveloped, a sustainable urban neighborhood preserves existing structures that are structurally sound or important to the community. Generally, renovating an existing building requires far less energy and resources tha n building new. 52 Where the quality of the existing structures may not recommend reuse, determine if there 52 Alex Wilson and Nadav Malin Establishing Priorities with Green Building, 14 15.

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30 is any consistency in their original forms or adaptations. This may suggest a local response to passive heating and cooling requirements or a local preference of design features. Figure 10: Bioclimatic Chart with Design Strategies. Reprinted from “Which Passive Cooling Strategy Is Right for You?” Energy Source Builder [online] (Lorane, OR: Iris Communications, Inc., June 1997 [cited 27 April 2001]); available from http://oikos.com/esb/51/passivecooling.html. As part of the site analysis, determine the existing circulation routes within the neighborhood and the connections to adjacent communities. Routes connecting other neighborhoods suggest opportunities for retail areas as well as locations for bicycle routes. Streets that are used as high-speed thoroughfares should be rerouted away from the neighborhood. Existing public transit stops, especially those receiving heavy use should also be identified as potential locations for the center of the redeveloped neighborhood. Once complete, represent the research graphically or verbally in order to begin developing a more environmentally sensitive design for the neighborhood. This information

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31 should also be presented to local residents and authorities to encourage feedback. This analysis can then be distilled into an overall site summary. While the site summary may not inc lude all aspects of the site analysis, it should illustrate a deep understanding of the neighborhood. Neighborhood Master Plan As previously discussed, the sustainable urban neighborhood should be organized to allow structures to be designed as energy eff iciently as possible. Ideally, begin by developing prototype structures, based on the green building guidelines, for the neighborhood, as these designs illustrate optimal lot sizes and orientation. Depending on the microclimate, this generally suggests max imizing southern exposures and avoiding structures with large openings due west or east. The neighborhood should include places for a variety of green spaces. Providing urban forests within the neighborhood absorbs carbon dioxide and other air pollutants as well as reducing its heat envelope. 53 The connection of urban forests with continuous green corridors, 54 forming an interconnected matrix of built and natural forms, benefits the neighborhood in several ways. First, the matrix of restored native forests restores the natural ecosystem and reintroduces native wildlife to the neighborhood. 55 Second, the continuous greenspaces creates pedestrian access to play spaces and gathering areas for various age levels. These green routes can also function as a natural means of stormwater drainage for the entire neighborhood. Naturally retaining and draining rainwater is generally less expensive than conventional stormwater systems. 56 Where the existing soil structure and precipitation rates allow, these routes can then 53 Ibid., 15. 54 Green corridors, which can consist of hedgerows, drainage ditches and other protective vegetation, allow species to travel between natural areas. Paul Selman, Environmental Planning: The Conservation and Development of Biophysical Resources 2d ed. (London: SAGE Publicati ons Ltd, 2000), 162 3. 55 Cynthia Girling et al., Green Neighborhoods: Planning and Design Guidelines for Air, Water and Urban Water Quality (Eugene: University of Oregon, 2000), 23. 56 Alex Wilson Stormwater Management, Environmental Building News Septe mber/October 1999, 8.

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32 connect to constructed wetlands, an aesthetically pleasing and natural method for wastewater reclamation. 57 Minimizing the width of vehicular routes and adding landscape features limits automobile traffic speeds and reduce the amount of impervious surfaces within the neighborhood. 58 Streets should also be limited to connecting adjacent communities and gathering places within the neighborhood. Create separate lanes for bicycle routes and sidewalks adjacent to vehicular routes. Where vehicular parking is requir ed, provide bicycle parking as well. Parking structures with commercial uses at street level encourages pedestrian activity and are more attractive than surface parking lots. Center the sustainable urban neighborhood on a public transit stop with the rema inder of the neighborhood within walking distance, approximately one half mile, of the stop. Adjacent to the transit stop, locate the basic needs of the neighborhood. These structures should be oriented for ease of pedestrian access. A local elementary sch ool, library or community center provides a gathering place for the neighborhood. Also within short walking distance of the neighborhood center, locate businesses that serve the basic needs of the neighborhood, such as theatres, child care centers, markets hardware stores, stationery stores, clothing stores and other businesses recommended from discussions with the local community. While the population of most sustainable urban neighborhoods cannot support modern superstores, the diverse range and convenie nt access of neighborhood shops limits their need. In larger neighborhoods, with areas farther than one quarter mile from downtown, secondary nodes should be organized around bus stops with corner shops or similar general stores. Locating places for a suff icient amount of businesses to employ the residents of the neighborhood keeps the area active throughout the day. Ideally these structures should be 57 Craig S. Campbell and Michael H. Ogden, Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995), v. 58 Girling et al., Green Neighborhoods 89.

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33 located within walking distance of the transit stop and with minimal automobile parking and maximum bicycle parking to allow those commuting into the neighborhood other transportation alternatives. A diverse range of businesses helps to maintain steady employment throughout various economic cycles. For manufacturing and light industry, a sustainable urban neigh borhood provides opportunities for businesses that create products required by the neighborhood or utilize waste products generated within the neighborhood. Places that resell used building materials, recycle materials, compost food products can help to re duce the approximately 80% of rubbish that currently is sent to landfills. 59 Table 1 : Population Levels Required to Support Selected Urban Activities. Activity Population Post Office 100 Corner Store 500 Daycare Center 500 Elemen tary School 1,800 Market 2,000 Restaurant 2,000 Beauty Parlor 3,000 Drug Store 3,000 Bank Office 5,000 Library 5,000 Supermarket 10,000 Source: Adapted from Joseph de Chiara, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik, eds., Time Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Development 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1995), 10. Residences should be spread throughout the neighborhood. Homeownership, as opposed to rental properties, fosters community stability and safety by encouraging families to main tain their properties and become involved with the community. 60 Ideally land parcels should be built 59 David Pearson The Natural House Book (New York: Simon & Schuster Inc./Fireside, 1989), 268. 60 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The State of the Cities 1999 [electronic journal] (Washington, D.C., June 1999 [cited 17 April 2001]); available from http://huduser.org/publications/polleg/tso c99/contents.html.

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34 in a variety of densities and scales to encourage a diverse mixture of incomes and ages within the neighborhood. 61 The individual lots themselves should be a s dense as practical, allowing more community spaces. Within the center, apartments or condominia can be located above offices while, if space permits, single family homes can be located on the outskirts of the neighborhoods. The lots should be of various sizes to encourage mixed income housing. Implementing the Sustainable Urban Neighborhood The construction of a project of this magnitude takes time. The impact of the development on the current residents, businesses and other elements of the existing neig hborhood requires careful consideration. This thesis recommends redeveloping the neighborhood so that it impacts minimally those who live and work within the existing one. The order of construction is therefore extremely important. The initial structure bu ilt for the new neighborhood should symbolize the concepts of the sustainable urban neighborhood. If possible, the new neighborhood begins with the construction of a transit stop and a community building. Both buildings introduce sustainable design princip les to those visiting the area during construction. After the community buildings are constructed, the neighborhood should be developed as an equal mixture of housing and commercial spaces. In this manner, the population of the neighborhood grows as more e mployment opportunities and services become available. In areas where the neighborhood is a redevelopment, consider how people and businesses within the existing neighborhood should transition to the new plan. Ideally, those currently living and working in the neighborhood should not be displaced; rather, they should have the option of relocating within the neighborhood to similarly valued structures. This concept requires a carefully considered phasing plan to ensure that the transition to the sustainable urban neighborhood is relatively painless for all concerned. 61 Local Government Commission, Ahwahnee Principles [online] (Sacramento, CA: Center for Livable Communities [cited 1 Sep 00]); available from http://www.lgc.org/clc/ library/ahwahnee/principles.html

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35 Second, materials currently in use in the existing neighborhood should be either reused or recycled into part of the new design. Native trees should be relocated, not destroyed, and exotic veget ation should be composted and reused within the neighborhood. Buildings that are not a part of the new neighborhood plan should be deconstructed, so that their materials can be reused in new buildings. As with its operation, the construction of a sustainab le urban neighborhood should generate as little waste as possible. Guidelines for Green Buildings Conventional architectural design infrequently considers adapting the building design for its location in order to minimize its energy requirements. Using th is method, building systems are designed independently to meet industry standards without concern for the unique qualities of the structure or other systems within the building. On the other hand, a green building is designed to fit within its ecosystem an d climate. The buildings shell filters out the extreme climatic factors while allowing the natural sunlight and wind to heat, cool and ventilate the building. Replicating natural systems, all of the components contained within a green building function in terdependently to reduce its external energy requirements and waste generated during construction and operation. 62 Ideally, this process begins by selecting the major building components during the design of the structure, which allows the buildings form t o complement the characteristics of the selected systems. Spatially Efficient Within the sustainable urban neighborhood, structures should be designed to meet, but not exceed, the needs of the users. Sustainable development practices recommend minimizing private spaces in order to increase community areas. 63 The adaptability of a green home allows for future additions and renovations (see Design for the Future). A well designed and efficient 62 Wilson and Malin Establishing Priorities with Green Building, 14. 63 Calthorpe, American Metropolis 55.

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36 structure inherently requires fewer materials to construct and le ss energy to maintain than a larger one. 64 The money saved from designing a spatially efficient structure can be redeployed to upgrade other systems and finishes within the building. Design with the Climate Several principles must be considered in order to reduce the amount of energy required to operate a building. The building must be designed for its climate and site conditions. For cooling alone, an energy efficient design can reduce cooling loads by 50% of conventional construction. 65 Use the site invent ory to orient the building, optimizing the sites natural heating and cooling effects. When placed and specified appropriately, vegetation minimizes the effects of summer sun or winter winds. 66 The building should then be designed with overhangs calculated to allow sunshine in the winter while blocking it in the summer. Sunlight can then be used as the primary lighting source of buildings; artificial lighting should only be necessary in the evening. Light shelves can assist these daylighting strategies, by b ouncing daylight further into the interior spaces. 67 To meet the buildings power requirements, consider using systems that use natural systems to generate energy. For example, in commercial structures, photovoltaics work well to offset the energy needed to power the building since most power is required during daylight hours. While residential structures are most affected by climatic loads on the building, commercial energy requirements can be reduced if the building uses natural systems for heating and ve ntilation. 64 Alex Wilson Small is Beautiful: House Size, Resource Use, and the Environment, Environmental Building News January 1999, 10. 65 Alex Wilson Keeping the Heat Out: Cooling Load Avoidance Strategies, Environmental Building News May/June 94, 14. 66 Donald Watson and Kenneth Labs Climatic Building Design: Energy Efficient Building Principles and Practice (New Y ork: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1983), 85. 67 Dianna L. Barnett and William D. Browning A Primer on Sustainable Building (Colorado: Rocky Mountain Institute Green Development Series, 1995), 44.

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37 Energy Efficient Systems The energy requirements of any building can be significantly reduced simply by providing a well insulated, airtight and geometrically simple structure. 68 In commercial structures, energy loads generated within the build ing generally exceed those created by local climate. The support systems within the build in g should therefore be designed to minimize the overall energy requirements of the structure. In order to have the most efficient structure, all of the systems should be designed and sized for the actual needs of the entire structure, as opposed to using rules of thumb. For example, the mechanical system should be designed for the actual building envelope (which is designed for the climate), lighting load (which shou ld be minimized as a result of daylighting techniques), and the specified appliances (which are energy efficient). A mechanical system designed for the actual needs of the building is typically much smaller than one designed for a conventional building. A smaller mechanical system requires less structure to support and less space for ductwork. The plumbing and electrical systems should be designed to require minimal energy inputs. For the plumbing system, use low volume, high pressure fixtures. If current codes permit, reuse greywater for toilets and rainwater and other non potable uses. Otherwise, the building should be designed to allow the conversion in the future. For lighting systems, design the fixtures to take advantage of natural daylight within the building. For example in commercial structures, place sensors in the light fixture dimmers to augment the current amount of daylight. These sensors should also dim the lights if the space is unoccupied. In addition, select lighting fixtures for their mini mal energy requirements and heat generated. Design for the Future Unfortunately, the future needs of the buildings occupants cannot always be anticipated. Thus structures should be designed to be as flexible and adaptable as possible. This 68 Wilson Small is Beautiful, 7.

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38 concept sugge sts carefully locating shear walls and other structural elements so as to not interfere with future renovations. The location of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems should be easily accessible and upgradeable. If the past is any indication, provide sufficient space and connections for future technologies, such as for photovoltaics or greywater recycling. In addition, potential locations for future expansion should be identified so that the structural system accommodates the addition. No matter how c arefully designed, some buildings eventually need to be replaced. Buildings within the sustainable urban neighborhood are designed for ease of dismantlement. A building designed for deconstruction allows the materials contained within the building to be re used, or at least recycled, into other building components and helps to close the loop within the sustainable urban neighborhood. 69 A deconstructable building should have bolted, instead of fused, connections and a minimum of composite materials. Select ing and Assembling Green Materials Currently, the selection of green materials is rather limited. Therefore, it is difficult to find and specify materials that meet all of the criteria for environmental sensitivity. 70 In the sustainable urban neighborhood, provide recommendations for materials that are as green as possible. Primarily, the selection of materials and assemblies should reinforce the energy efficient strategies of the structure. 71 Buildings are generally designed to last a minimum of fifty year s, therefore the materials that are selected either need last the lifetime of the building or should be easy to access and replace. Selected materials should also be locally produced in order to minimize transportation requirements. In addition, the materi als should be assembled so that 69 Kibert, Sendzimir and Gu y, Construction Ecology, 914. 70 An ideal green product should be biodegradable low in toxins and in emissions of volatile organic compounds, contain recycled constituents or are in themselves derived from renewable resources. Mosberg What do We Mea n By Green? 62. 71 Wilson and Malin Establishing Priorities with Green Building, 14.

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39 they generate a minimum of construction waste and that the assembled components can be disassembled for future reuse. When more than one material meets these criteria, select materials with minimal environmental impact over its life cycle, materials that do not impact the indoor air quality of the structure and materials that have the greatest potential for reuse or recycling. As with any other element of the sustainable urban neighborhood, green materials are also part of th e closed loop system. Preferred Materials Green materials should originate from renewable sources and be sustainably harvested. 72 As discussed in Chapter 2, while wood framing is an excellent example of a material originating from a renewable resource, if the wood was removed from a clear cut forest, then the environmental impact is similar to the mining of iron for steel studs. 73 Therefore the extraction of the basic components of the product must be considered. In order for materials to be part of a closed loop system, they must be recyclable or biodegradable. Generally speaking, recyclable products are minimally processed so that it is easier for it to be broken down and reformed into a new material. 74 However, for some composite materials such as concrete, carpet and plastics, technologies exist for the products to be reduced to their original components, which may then be reused. Whenever possible, select products that contain recycled components. While post industrial recycled content is a good start, pos t consumer recycled content is stronger indication that materials have been removed from the waste stream. 75 72 Pearson The Natural House Book 130. 73 Malin Is Wood or Metal Greener? 39. 74 Nadav Malin What It Means to Be Green, Architectural Record August 1999, 140. 75 Alex Wilson Building Materials: What Makes a Product Green? Environmental Building News October 2000, 2 3. Post industrial recycled content refers to waste generated within the factory that is used in the manufacture of another product.

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40 Figure 11 : Materials as Part of a Closed Loop System Selecting materials that are manufactured locally supports the local economy while reducing the distance that the materials need to be transported to the site. As discussed in Chapter 1, transportation vehicles generally require harmful chemicals for fuel and release toxins into the environment as waste. The sele ction of products manufactured within 500 miles of the neighborhood follows the LEED standard.76 Materials to Avoid In an energy efficient structure, buildings are airtight in order to reduce the heating and air conditioning loads. Therefore, select materia ls that do not negatively impact air quality. Many modern materials contain volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are toxic to the buildings 76 U.S Green Building Council, LEED Green Building Rating System Version 2.0 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Green Building Council, 2000), 16. The LEED Green Building System promotes the improvement of the environmental performance of commercial buildings.

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41 inhabitants and can cause irritation, headaches, nausea, and damage to some internal organs. 77 VOC are commonly l ocated in paint, carpets, vinyl flooring and furniture. Selected products should not contain volatile organic compounds or materials that are harmful to the environment. These materials include arsenic (currently used in pressure treated wood), mercury (us ed in some lighting systems) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (in insulation). 78 As previously mentioned, products should be selected that are easily recycled. Unfortunately, as more dissimilar materials are combined to form a product, it becomes more difficult to separate the materials in order to reuse or recycle them. Some obvious examples of currently non recyclable products include: plastic lumber, laminated countertops and plywood. The use of composite materials should be limited to applications where they greatly increase the energy efficiency of the structure. Using Green Materials Energy efficient buildings should be designed to use materials whole, as opposed to cutting them to custom sizes. Using whole materials reduces construction waste as well as m aximizing the potential reuse of the material. To meet this requirement, energy efficient buildings are designed to a standard two or four feet module. 79 Selecting adhesives that are of the same or inferior strength as the materials they connect increases t he opportunity for the reuse of the material, since it avoids destroying materials in the process of removing strong adhesives. The final color of green materials is also an important factor. In northern climates, darker colors help to trap heat within the building, while lighter colors should be used in the south to reflect it. 77 St. John, A., ed., The Sourcebook for Sustainable Design: A Guide to Environmentally Responsible Building Materials and Processes (Boston: Boston Society of Architects, 1992), 9.2. Technically, a VOC is any organic compound that evaporates at room temperature. 78 Wil son Building Materials, 3. 79 Wilson and Malin Establishing Priorities with Green Building, 15.

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42 The Greenest Material When properly located, vegetation can greatly moderate natural temperature swings, absorb urban noise and other pollutants. Selecting native plants minimizes the water and fertilizers required to maintain the vegetation as well as strengthening the natural ecosystems as well as encouraging wildlife. 80 With this in mind, limit the use of high maintenance grasses to areas where it is required for the proposed act ivity. In those locations, potable water requirements can be minimized with the use of drip irrigation, preferably in conjunction with reclaimed water. Throughout the neighborhood, selecting native vegetation reduces the overall energy needs of the neighbo rhood. Conclusion The pace of change in technology and industry is faster than natural systems can adapt to moderate their effects. Therefore Americans must begin to alter their lifestyles in order to consume fewer resources and generate less waste. In t he built environment, there are have several opportunities to reduce our non renewable energy needs. A sustainable urban neighborhood is more analogous to a natural system than conventional development. All components of the neighborhood are interconnecte d and energy efficient. In order to achieve a sustainable urban neighborhood, begin by creating specific recommendations for the redevelopment of the urban district. These recommendations are dependent on the neighborhoods climate, natural and manmade fea tures, and the needs of the community. These guidelines can create a sustainable urban neighborhood that benefits not only its residents but also begins to repair the damage man has generated in our natural environment. 80 Mary Duryea, Eliana Kampf Binelli and Henry L. Gholz. Restoring the Urban Forest Ecosystem ed. Mary Duryea, Eliana Kampf Binelli and Henry L. Gholz (Gai nesville, FL: School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2000), 2 1.

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43 CHAPTER 4 SITE INVENTORY In order to determine t he effectiveness of this thesis, a site was selected and redesigned according to the sustainable urban neighborhood guidelines. Jacksonville, Florida meets the criteria for a city experiencing suburban sprawl with substantial underutilized land in the inne r city. Over sixteen thousand acres of the city lies available for development, 81 while most recent development is concentrated far from the inner city. In a ten year span, daily vehicle miles traveled increased 74% while the aggregated length of roadways i ncreased less than ten percent. 82 The suburban sprawl in Jacksonville has generated urban blight and wasted historic resources, 83 while the resulting commuting on limited roadways has led to traffic congestion, increasing fossil fuel emissions. The city hope s to reverse this trend by redeveloping downtown Jacksonville, and therefore Brooklyn, in order to encourage resettlement of the inner city. Interstate 95 and the St. Johns River form the boundaries of the Brooklyn district. The location of the interstate together with McCoys Creek, isolates Brooklyn from the remainder of downtown Jacksonville. Once a thriving residential community, most of this 285 acre site is currently in a state of disrepair and neglect. Over half of its land is vacant and many of th e existing structures require substantial repair. However, Brooklyn has the potential to be redeveloped into an asset to the city and its residents. Not only is the neighborhood adjacent to the river, but it also has a small creek running along its norther n boundary. These natural 81 Pagano and Bowman, Vacant Land, 4. 82 Texas Transportation Institute, The Mobilit y Data for Jacksonville, FL [online] (College Station, TX: Information & Technology Exchange Center/Publications [citied 27 April 2001]); available from http://mobility.tamu.edu/2001/study/cities/tables/jacksonville.pdf, 2. 83 Jason Thiel, Program Manager f or Jacksonville Economic Development Commission, email to author, 22 May 2001.

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44 features, combined with its close proximity to downtown Jacksonville, suggest that the new Brooklyn neighborhood can support a thriving community. Figure 12: Location of the Brooklyn District in Jacksonville, Florida. Adapted from American Automobile Association, AAA North American Road Atlas 1996: United States, Canada, Mexico MCMXCV ed. (American Automobile Association, 1995), 26. Local Vision Jacksonville is the celebration of a great, international river and extensive public green space, where city parks and attractive water features are essential components of busy, sustainable urban neighborhoods.84 Between 1998 and 1999, the City of Jacksonville held a series of public workshops in order to develop a downtown master plan. Early in the process, these workshops discussed perceived assets and liabilities of the existing downtown. The participants believed that the St. 84 Statement presented as the design theme for downtown Jacksonville. City of Jacksonville Planning Development Department, Public Participation Summary (Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, 1999), Section 8.

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45 Johns River and the downtown skyline are community assets. On the other hand, most participants believed that the city lacks evening and weekend activities, sufficient public transportation and public greenspaces.85 Over time, these issues evolved into specific concerns with the downtown area. Basically, most participants believed that the downtown did not support those living within the urban center because basic services, such as restaurants and day care centers, are not available. They also felt that Jacksonville might become a more dynamic city if activities were more diverse and evenly distributed throughout the downtown. In addition, the number of greenspaces should be increased and linked and additional pedestrian access points to St. Johns River should be provided. They also felt that streets should become less oriented towards for automobiles by widening sidewalks, adding bicycle lanes and slowing automobile traffic.86 Figure 13: Aerial view of the Brooklyn Neighborhood in Jacksonville, Florida 85 Planning Development Department, Public Participation Summary Section 1. 86 Summarized from the Planning Development Department, Public Participation Summary Section 3.

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46 Figure 14 : City of Jacksonvilles Vision for their Downtown Redevelopment. Reprinted from City of Jacksonville Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown Jacksonville (Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, 2000), 9. These diverse ideas were eventually combined into a master plan for downtown Jacksonville. The guiding principles, as defined by the City of Jacksonville, became the basis for a series of plans illustrati ng this vision for the new downtown. Most of these principles are similar to those indicated in the sustainable urban development guidelines. Unfortunately, environmental sensitivity was not indicated to be part of the vision for downtown. This lack of vis ion suggests that the community, and the residents of Brooklyn, needs to be educated as to the benefits of sustainability. This education needs to include recommendations for healthier, less wasteful living and how to maintain green buildings. For example, in Florida a cupola can be used to naturally ventilate a house. In order for the ventilation to occur, the homeowner needs to open the window on the leeward side of the house. While this is a relatively simple operation, it does require a different set of skills than merely turning on the air conditioning and an interest in using passive solar design techniques. Also, the community and its businesses needs to learn the benefits of water conservation, material recycling and composting. 1. We will improve access to our river banks, creatin g a greenway of substantial amenity to our citizens. 2. We will develop clearly defined downtown districts with distinct identities and a mix of uses and identify which district would be an appropriate location for major public capital investment projects 3. We will develop interconnected, attractive and safe pedestrian links among neighborhoods, activities and open space. 4. We will encourage adequate, well designed and strategically placed parking throughout downtown. 5. We will recognize open space as a valuable development asset. 6. We will provide a sustainable system of connected public open spaces that encourages variety, both in terms of size and function. Water and natural features will be important elements. 7. We will establish downtown as a 24 hour city and as a new location for residential development, a regional destination for tourists, conventioneers, and local residents. 8. We will enhance the perception of downtown as a safe place. 9. We will pursue short term actions that help us a chieve our long term vision.

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47 Our vision for Brook lyn is to regenerate is as a vibrant mixed use neighborhood and to link it to the river via as many routes as possible. A key redevelopment strategy will be to attract creative businesses and individuals, such as graphic artists, architects, sculptors and designers, to this area. 87 The City intends to redevelop the neighborhood as a transit oriented development by extending the automated skyway express (ASE) along Riverside Avenue. As a catalyst, the city intends to provide substantial improvements to McCoy s Creek, converting the area into a primary open space with pedestrian and bicycle trails. The Creek renovation connects to a planned series of parks within the city. Park Street then becomes a pedestrian oriented mixed use street connecting McCoys Cree k to the remainder of the neighborhood. While the remainder of Brooklyn becomes single and multi family housing, the City intends to preserve Riverside Avenue as a high volume connection to downtown Jacksonville, lined by office towers with pedestrian conn ections to St. Johns River. 88 The Citys plan for Brooklyn has many parallels to the goals of a sustainable urban neighborhood. The redevelopment of McCoys Creek into an urban park provides local residents with much needed green space and should help to retain stormwater within the city. This scheme also suggests developing Park Street as a commercial corridor, providing goods and services to the neighborhood. Unfortunately, the neighborhood master plan does not mention providing bicycle paths throughout the neighborhood, or providing a continuous bicycle route through the city. Another area of concern is the proposed plan for Riverside Avenue. If Riverside Avenue remains a high speed thoroughfare with office towers to either side, pedestrian crossings to the river need to be carefully considered. In addition, future structures should be located so maintain existing views of the River. 87 City of Jacksonville Planning Development Depart ment, Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown Jacksonville (Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, 2000), 20. 88 Paragraph summarized from Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River 20 21.

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48 Figure 15 : Open Space and Pedestrian Plan. Reprinted from Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River 10. Figure 16 : Partial Plan of Brooklyn. Reprinted from Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River 40.

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49 Climate The Brooklyn neighborhood is located on the St. Johns River, approximately sixteen miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Its location along the thirtieth parallel and close proximity of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico brings humidity and ample precipitation to the area, allowing the growth of subtropical vegetation.89 The site therefore possesses hot humid climate characteristics. Figure 17: Bioclimatic Chart for Jacksonville. Adapted from Passive Cooling Strategy. Most of the year, temperatures range fairly uniformly each day from the 70s to the 90s. More variability is experienced in the winter, when temperature ranges from the 60s to 80s on most days and 20s to 40s on a few days. An average of fifteen overnight freezes occur annually, 89 Jacksonville Community Council, Inc., Quality of Life in Jacksonville: Indicators for Progress [online] (Jacksonville: Jacksonville Community Council, Inc., 2000 [cited 27 April 2001]); available from http://www.jcci.org/qol/qol.pdf, 4.

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50 but on almost all winter days temperatures rise above freezing. 90 On average, Jacksonville requires approximately 1434 heating degree days per year. 91 However as Figure 17 indicates, passive solar heating can be utilized for most of the heating season with mechanical heating only necessary during cold spells in January and F ebruary. Due to the hot humid climate, cooling is the primary design consideration. Although Jacksonville experience approximately 2551 cooling degree days per year, 92 with passive design features such as natural ventilation, mechanical cooling may be limit ed to activation during the heat waves that occur from May to September. Figure 18 : Yearly Precipitation for Jacksonville. Reprinted from National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (JAX) (Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001), 1. The precipitation for Jacksonville is almost entirely in the form of rain. As Figure 18 indicates, the majority of rainfall occurs from late July through September for a total of fifty three inches per year. The unevenness of rainfall distribution complicates its on site collection for landscape irrigation. Since bacteria collects in water stored more than thirty days, rainwater collection for this area should eith er be sized for an average month of rainfall (approximately 90 Ibid. 91 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (JAX) (Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001), 3. 92 Ibid., 3.

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51 which is less an inch), releasing the overflow during the summer, or chlorine needs to be added monthly to the stored water. Prevailing winds are northeasterly in the fall and winter months, and s outhwesterly in the spring and summer. This suggests locating an urban forest in the southwest corner of the neighborhood cools the neighborhood in the summer while the trees filter pollutants originating from the highway. Wind movement, which averages sli ghtly less than 9 mph, is higher in the early afternoon hours.93 Although Jacksonville lies within the hurricane belt, hurricanes have only rarely been a concern. Nevertheless, all structures within the sustainable urban neighborhood needs to meet existing hurricane resistant construction requirements. The average wind speeds are, however, inadequate for current wind power technologies. Figure 1 9 : Sun Path Diagram for Jacksonville. Adapted from G. Z. Brown and Mark DeKay, Sun, W ind & Light: Architectural Design Strategies 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001), 301. 93 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data 7.

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52 Natural Features The Brooklyn site sits within the Leon Boulogne Evergreen soil unit.94 These soils are in flatwoods interspersed with depressions. The Leon soils are poorly drained sandy soils approximately eight inches thick. The Boulogne soils are also poorly drained soils, but they consist of dark gray fine sand approximately six inches thick. The Evergreen soils are located within depressions and consis t of black loamy sand. This soil unit extends approximately eighty inches below grade, where it meets sediments from the Hawthorne group, for approximately four hundred feet, eventually resting on Ocala Limestone. Figure 2 0 : Soil Pattern Present in Leo n Boulogn e Evergreen. Adapted from Frank C. Watts, Soil Survey of City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida (Washington D.C.: The Service, 1998), 24. 94 Frank C. Watts, Soil Survey of City of Jacksonville, Du val County, Florida (Washington D.C.: The Service, 1998), 23 24.

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53 While the natural ecosystem for the Leon Boulogne Evergreen soil unit is Scru b and High Pine, this particular ecosystem is maintained by fire, 95 which is inappropriate for urban locations. Therefore the Mesic Hardwood Forest ecosystem, the climax ecosystem for pine forests, is introduced into the Brooklyn neighborhood. Specifically this area is part of the temperate broad leaved evergreen forest zone. 96 Vegetation in this area consists of an overstory of Southern Magnolia, various oaks and Sweet Gum, and an understory of American Holly and Devilwood. 97 These plants should constitute th e dominant vegetation in the Brooklyn neighborhood. Potable water in Duval County is obtained primarily from the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial aquifer below the Brooklyn neighborhood begins approximately seventy fi ve feet below grade, with the upper surface extending to the water table. The water table is less than ten feet below grade, minimizing the opportunity for subsurface structures. This aquifer is recharged through direct infiltration of precipitation, with some minor upward leakage from the deeper aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer is the dominant source of ground water for irrigation, public supplies, and industrial uses in Duval County. The slowly permeable sediments of the Hawthorn soils confine the aqu ifer to the Ocala Limestone below. While the Floridan aquifer is primarily recharged in areas west and southwest of Jacksonville, the surficial aquifer can be maintained by precipitation. 98 This suggests using the surficial aquifer as a cistern for the neig hborhood. If stormwater was contained within the neighborhood until it is absorbed into the aquifer, then the aquifer could be used for irrigation. 95 Ronald L. Myers, Ecosystems of Florida ed. Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel (Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Presses, 1990), 151. 96 Ibid., 200. 97 Ibid., 199. 98 Paragraph summari zed from Watts, Soil Survey 117.

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54 Since the soil group drains poorly, stormwater retention requires a large land area, perhaps incorporating p art of the natural drainage system itself. As suggested by the soil unit, the Brooklyn neighborhood is relatively flat. The steepest slope is less than two percent, with most of the remaining site sloping less than one percent. The average elevation is app roximately fifteen feet above sea level, rising to twenty five feet in a few locations. While the land south and east of Riverside Avenue drains into the St. Johns River, most of the site drains towards McCoy Creek The stormwater retention area, therefore should be placed near the Creek. The retention area allows rainwater to recharge the surficial aquifer, as opposed to the rainwater draining into the Creek. Several natural features should be preserved and improved within the Brooklyn neighborhood. The most dominating feature is St. Johns River. Unfortunately, office towers along Riverside Avenue generally block the view of the River. This suggests that some existing view corridors should be preserved and pedestrian access to the River should be created A linear park along the river allows residents to enjoy the view and connects this part of Brooklyn to the remainder of the neighborhood. This linear park should be extended to follow McCoys Creek. The Creek area could then be developed as a more active neighborhood park. The form of the park should follow the flood plain, which is approximately eight feet above sea level. Land Uses The existing Brooklyn Neighborhood is in a state of decline. Excluding the Riverside Avenue corridor, approximately one h alf of the land is undeveloped (see Figure 27) and many of the remaining buildings are in need of repair. However, a few structures should be preserved as part of the redeveloped neighborhood. Renovating the former schoolhouse on the southwest corner of th e site could be a symbolic start to the new Brooklyn neighborhood. The active churches and other well constructed buildings should be preserved as a link for the current residents and to minimize energy intensive new construction. Since the population of t he area

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55 has been steadily decreasing, few homes are owner occupied 99 and most housing is in poor condition. Generally, the occupied structures within Brooklyn consist of light industrial or similar service type uses. Other than convenience stores, Brooklyn does not contain businesses to serve the basic needs of the community. Along Riverside Avenue, the current land usage is quite different from the remainder of Brooklyn. Several high rise office towers line this Avenue, taking advantage of the views of do wntown Jacksonville and the River. These structures do not support or connect to Brooklyn and it is difficult to access them, without a car, from the neighborhood. Current marketing analysis, completed for the City, suggests that the available land in this area be developed as high rise structures. 100 While this approach may increase revenues for the city, a more balanced approach provides structures that transition and connect the existing office towers with the proposed residential neighborhood. Neighborho od Circulation Interstate 95 currently isolates the Brooklyn neighborhood by forming a loud, unsightly barrier between the neighborhood and the remainder of Jacksonville. To slow traffic in this area, the City of Jacksonville recommends reducing highway ac cess in this area. 101 The highway access ramp from Gilmore Street should therefore be closed. All development along the edges of the neighborhood need to consider the impact of the highway, suggesting that a buffer should be created between the highway and r esidential or commercial use. This buffer should transition into gateways where local streets pass under the highway and connect to adjacent neighborhoods. Another area of concern is Riverside Avenue. Currently, this Avenue is for high 99 Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc., Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Residential and Commercial Market Analyses (Jacksonville, FL: Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc., June 1999) 2 4. 100 Camb ridge Systematics, Inc., Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Transportation Element (Jacksonville, FL: Cambridge Systematics, Inc., 1999) 3 4. 101 Urbanomics and Development Strategies, Market Analyses 2 4.

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56 speed vehicular traf fic traveling to and from downtown. The width of Riverside Avenue, combined with the traffic speeds, greatly limits pedestrian access to the buildings on the west side of the Avenue and St. Johns River. In order to connect the river with the rest of the n eighborhood, either the pace of Riverside needs to be reduced or pedestrian crossings should occur above the street. Within the Brooklyn neighborhood, the only four lane streets are Park Street and Forest Street, the remaining streets are two lane. Most of these side streets lack sidewalks and all streets are without bicycle lanes. Public transportation is available throughout the Brooklyn neighborhood. The current system of buses connects Brooklyn to downtown Jacksonville and to western neighborhoods. Alt hough the bus system also connects Brooklyn to the nearest skyway 102 stop, at the convention center, the planned skyway extension to Brooklyn improves the neighborhoods transportation alternatives. Recommendations The Brooklyn neighborhood contains all of the elements of an area that could become a sustainable urban neighborhood. The existing neighborhood is experiencing decline while new suburbs are being constructed on the periphery. The city government supports the idea of redeveloping Brooklyn into a tr ansit oriented development. A market appears to exist for mixed use housing development in the city. 103 This thesis therefore recommends redeveloping Brooklyn into a sustainable urban neighborhood. Local Vision Brooklyn is organized around the proposed auto mated skyway express stop. While the city intends to locate the skyway along Riverside, this may be inappropriate if the Avenue continues to be utilized as a high speed thoroughfare, which deters pedestrians from crossing up 102 In Jacksonville, the skyway is also referred to as the Automatic Skyway Express, or ASE. 103 Urbanomics and Development Strategies, Market Analyses 5 4.

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57 to six lanes of traffic. In add ition, a series of connected greenspaces can link the St. Johns River to a redeveloped McCoys Creek. All streets should be redesigned to reduce vehicular speeds and promote pedestrian and bicycle usage. As part of a sustainable urban neighborhood, the com mercial areas within Brooklyn should provide basic services, such as restaurants and day care centers. Most of these businesses should be located along Park Street, in order to expand on the existing commercial corridor. Climate Due to the hot humid clim ate, cooling is the primary design consideration for this neighborhood. Passive design features, such as natural ventilation, helps to limit mechanical cooling activation on the hottest days of the summer. Since summer winds originate from the southwest, l ocating an urban forest in this area (see Figure 29) helps to cool the neighborhood and the trees filter any pollutants from the highway. Natural Features This neighborhood can be restored as part of a Mesic Hardwood Forest ecosystem. Therefore, the vege tation selected for the neighborhood should be native to that ecosystem. Restoring the ecosystem requires the creation of pockets of hardwood forests connected by linear greenspaces, to allow wildlife to move from one pocket to another. These linear parks can also serve as part of a natural stormwater drainage system and provide pedestrian access to the commercial core. The retention area itself should be located at the lowest part of the site, near McCoys Creek. The Creek can also be redesigned to allow a ctive and diverse play areas. The redesigned park should follow the natural flood plain. Land Uses While most of Brooklyn is converted into a sustainable urban neighborhood, a few structures should be preserved as a link for its current residents. Preser ved structures include

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58 those that are important to the neighborhood or appropriate to the proposed neighborhood design. For example, the existing churches are integrated into the design of the new Brooklyn neighborhood. Riverside Avenue needs to be woven back into the fabric of the Brooklyn neighborhood. This approach suggests locating uses along the Avenue that transitions and connects the existing office towers with the proposed residential neighborhood. New structures should have a strong connection to street edges and provide services that support the neighborhood. If office towers are part of the revised scheme, parking for those uses should be above the street with commercial uses along the first floor. Circulation In order to reduce automobile conge stion and speeds, alternative forms of transportation are emphasized. The planned ASE extension to Brooklyn greatly improves the public transit connection to downtown. Bicycle lanes, linear parks and wider sidewalks encourages alternate forms of transporta tion. Traffic speeds can be reduced by providing narrow streets lined with trees. These trees also help to cool the neighborhood, reduce traffic noise and filter vehicular pollutants. Adding trees along Gilmore Street also helps to reduce the highway impac ting that area of the neighborhood. In addition, the highway access from Gilmore Street should be closed to further reduce automobile traffic in that area. Another alternative for this area is to transform Gilmore Street into an eco industrial corridor. Ca refully selected business could serve as a buffer from the highway as well as providing employment opportunities to the community.

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59 Figure 2 1 : McCoys Creek Figure 22 : Tree along Gilmore Street

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60 Fi gure 2 3 : View of Riverside Avenue near Forest Street Figure 2 4 : Demolition along Riverside Avenue for Street Widening Project

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61 Figure 25 : Climatic Forces. Adapted from N ational Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (JAX) (Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001) 3 and G. Z. Brown and Mark DeKay, Sun, Wind & Light: Architectural Design Strat egies 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001), 301.

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62 Figure 2 6 : Existing Natural Systems. Information provided by Jason Thiel, 5 February 2001.

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63 Figure 27 : Existing Land Uses

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64 Figure 2 8 : Existing Circulation. Information provided by Jason Thiel, 5 February 2001.

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65 Figure 29 : Summary of Existing Site Recommendations

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66 CHAPTER 5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BROOKLYN Neighborhood Master Plan The proposed c onversion of Brooklyn into a sustainable development attempts to fulfill several goals. Primarily, the neighborhood should require minimal external energy and generate minimal waste. Existing structures are therefore preserved whenever possible. Streets a re narrower to minimize vehicular traffic while maximizing alternate, less energy intensive, forms of transportation. Second, the neighborhood design encourages a variety mixed use and mixed income structures in order to establish a stable community. The increased density of these structures maximizes the opportunity for public areas. Public green spaces surround the neighborhood, providing many types of gathering spaces as well as a natural buffer to the highway. The proposed design of Brooklyn illustrate s how an existing development can be transformed into a sustainable urban neighborhood. The general pattern of the development is organized around the preserved elements of the existing neighborhood. For Brooklyn, most structures that should remain part of the new neighborhood are located along Park Street and Riverside Avenue. The existing street layout is therefore be maintained with Park Street as a shopping district and Riverside Avenue as primarily business oriented corridor. Forest Street has been rea ligned with a gracious curve. This arrangement divides Brooklyn into four quadrants. Three of the quadrants consist of various types and scales of residential housing and are immediately adjacent to public green spaces that surround the neighborhood. The h ousing blocks were then reoriented to maximize passive cooling benefits. The remaining area is converted into an eco industrial zone, since the southwest quadrant consists mainly of the BlueCross Blue Shield office building and parking

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67 structure. The large st parcel was developed as an eco enterprise center. Pioneered in Minneapolis as a means of creating urban employment while encouraging green business practices, an eco enterprise center leases office and warehouse space for environmentally sustainable bus inesses.104 A common structure maximizes the potential for waste reduction through exchanges between the tenants. Figure 30 : Parti of Brooklyn Redevelopment. Natural Systems Within the neighborhood, parcels and streets are minimi zed in order to increase opportunities for public green spaces. The variety of public green spaces surrounding the development allows different levels of activity. An urban forest along the western edge creates opportunities for nature walks. Play fields t o the north allow organized team sports for all age levels. Adolescents preferring less organized sports can use the skate park to the west of the site. East of the skate park, public garden space can be used as a backdrop for evening strolls along McCoy C reek. A riverwalk completes the circuit through the neighborhood and can be 104 National Housing Institute, Minneapolis Goes Green, Shelter Force Online [online] (Orange, NJ: National Housing Institute, January/February 1999 [cite d 19 June 2001]); available from

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68 connected to the riverwalk to the east of Brooklyn. Tree lined streets and linear parks connect the public green spaces along Brooklyns perimeter. Trees along the streets remove p articulates from local traffic while helping to reduce automobile speeds. The use of native vegetation encourages wildlife, requires minimal maintenance and helps to restore the native ecosystem. Table 2 : Recommended Native Plants f or Brooklyns Natural Drainage Areas. Scientific Name Common Name Height Planting Locations Swale planting Acer rubrum Red maple 35' street, parks Fraxinus caroliniana White ash 50' parks Ilex cassine Dahoon holly 20' street, hedge Illicium f loridanum Florida anise 10' border, hedge Myrica cerifera Southern wax myrtle 15' screen, highway Source: Adapted from Michael Jameson and Richard Moyroud, ed., Xeric Landscaping with Florida Native Plants (Hollyrood, FL: Betrock Information Systems, I nc., 1991), 65 66. and Bijan Dehgan, Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998). Beyond plant selection, the neighborhood design also contributes to restoring the natural ecosystem. The urban forest loca ted along the western and northern boundaries of the site serves to filter noise and air pollution from the highway. Smaller naturalized areas are created within the residential blocks. Connecting the naturalized areas via linear parks and swales forms an ecosystem matrix. The matrix also assists in natural stormwater drainage. Stormwater is held within the neighborhood and absorbed directly into the aquifer. Stormwater runoff from streets is transferred to natural swales that line every street. The vegeta tion within the swale absorbs particulates and decreases the runoff speed, allowing the water to be absorbed into the aquifer below. Swales are also used within public green spaces and the residential blocks to channel water flow. All remaining stormwater is eventually directed to a constructed wetland, which slowly filters and releases water into the aquifer. http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/103/minneapo.html.

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69 General Concepts for Proposed Land Uses The Brooklyn neighborhood was organized to meet the needs of the community, encourage alternate forms of tra nsportation, and maximize energy efficiency while minimizing waste. This was accomplished by creating an interconnected mix of existing and new structures, which allows resources to be used more efficiently as well as creating an active neighborhood. By pr oviding three dimensional mixed use zoning throughout the neighborhood allows residents to work, shop and play within Brooklyn, without requiring them to drive. Primarily, pedestrian and bicycle access was promoted over vehicular transportation requirement s by locating main building entrances on the street. Narrow lots with structures located on the street lot line minimize travel distances between structures thus encouraging walking. Bicycle parking is required for all non residential areas, while parking lots are obscured from the street or not provided. In residential areas, garage doors cannot face the street and driveways must be narrow, reinforcing the pedestrian scale of the neighborhood. Beyond transportation needs, the neighborhood was designed to minimize energy input and waste outflows. Whenever possible, existing non residential structures were integrated into the proposed neighborhood plan, since less energy is generally required to renovate them then to build new. New structures are designed us ing the energy efficient practices discussed later in the chapter and use green materials. New lots were oriented to maximize passive solar design strategies for as many of the structures as possible. In addition, structures are located to allow solar and wind access to adjacent buildings as well. While a large portion of the neighborhood is devoted to public green space, additional green spaces are required within private lots. These green spaces use native vegetation, in order to restore the native mesic hammock ecosystem. Lawns are used only where required for play areas. Providing green spaces, both public and private, throughout the neighborhood help reduce urban heat islands as well as providing additional space for stormwater retention. In fact, larg e lots are required to collect stormwater runoff and allow it to be absorbed into the aquifer. To

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70 avoid flooding while allowing stormwater to drainage naturally, the first floor of all buildings are held above the flood plain. Based on the proposed site pl an, zoning requirements were developed to assist designers in developing proposals for individual parcels. These requirements do not require a specific building form; rather, it is hoped that a dynamic range of design solutions can be generated using the z oning requirements as a point of departure. Primarily nonresidential uses Since they provide opportunities for public gatherings that strengthen the fabric of the community, civic structures, such as public theatres, galleries, community centers and h ouses of worship are permitted throughout the neighborhood. Civic structures should fit within their surrounding context and follow the scale of the adjacent structures. Table 3 : Retail Uses that Encourage Pedestrian Activity. Pref erred Uses Cinemas, theatres and auditoriums Eating Places, cafes and restaurants Food stores and food markets General Merchandise retail, including electronics, variety shops, and hardware stores Health clubs and gymnasiums Miscellaneou s retail trade, such as florists, camera supplies, art & hobby supplies Personal services, such as barber & beauty shops, shoe repair Excluded Uses Drive thru facilities Parking garage Gasoline stations Within the retail corridor along Park Street, mixed use structures ensure constant street activity. Locating retail stores on the first floor should encourage residents to shop within Brooklyn. Covered walkways and bike racks along Park Street are also recommended. The main

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71 entrance to the stores must be along either Park or Forest Street to encourage pedestrian access between buildings. The upper floors should be retail, commercial or residential uses. When existing buildings along Park Street are renovated, the structures must be e xtended to meet either Park or Forest Street. New construction in lots south of Riverside Avenue match the scale of the existing, high rise, neighboring lots. The new structures, however, cannot create shadows on structures located north of Riverside Avenu e. In order to encourage pedestrian travel along Riverside Avenue, part of the new construction must be along that street and contain the main entrance to the structure. A pedestrian route must also be provided through each lot to connect Riverside Avenue with the riverwalk. Any vehicular parking must be accessed from a side street and should not be visible from Riverside or the riverwalk. To encourage employees to utilize alternative forms of transportation, covered bicycle parking must equal to the number of parking spaces provided and be located adjacent to the main entrance. The structures themselves should be a mix of retail, commercial and residential uses. When existing structures in this area are renovated, new structures must be added along Riversid e Avenue. For commercial structures located north of Riverside Avenue, mixed use is also encouraged. The first floor is ideally retail, to encourage public access along Riverside Avenue, with professional offices on the upper floors. These structures must be approximately four stories tall to maximize solar access to adjacent buildings. The eco industrial area in the southwest portion of the neighborhood are for businesses that either generate green materials for the neighborhood, and the city, or reuses w aste materials generated by the neighborhood. Preferred uses include environmentally sustainable businesses, such as recycling centers, resale stores and the manufacture of energy efficient materials. Multi story structures with multiple businesses within each structure are encouraged in this area in order to promote the sharing of resources. As with the other non residential uses, the building must be located along the front property line. The main building entrance must face the street

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72 and bicycle parkin g must also be provided. If provided, the loading docks cannot be viewed from Riverside Avenue. Primarily residential uses Multi family structures should provide a range of unit sizes and prices in order to create a mixed income neighborhood. Lots locate d along Forest Street may have retail stores at street level. As with non residential uses, the main entrance should be facing the street. Bicycle parking should be provided. On larger lots, public green space must be provided that connects to existing pe destrian paths. In general, structures may not exceed four stories, but taller structures are permitted if no shadow is cast on adjacent structures. Attached residential buildings, such as townhouses, apartments buildings or condominiums can be single or multiple units, to also provide a range of unit sizes and prices. While the main entrance must face the street, a second entrance should also be provided to access the pedestrian path along the rear of the lot. Given the narrow lot dimensions, three story structures are permitted. Residential lots may be for either one or two families. In addition, owner occupied home businesses are also encouraged to reinforce the mixed use nature of the neighborhood. To avoid casting shadows on neighboring houses, struc tures should not exceed 2 stories. Front and rear porches should be provided to foster interaction between neighbors as well as to encourage outdoor, non conditioned, activities. Proposed Circulation Circulation within the Brooklyn neighborhood attempts to minimize automobile traffic while encouraging alternate forms of transportation. Primarily, circulation within Brooklyn is designed as a pedestrian oriented neighborhood. All streets are lined with sidewalks that are generously proportioned according t o the intended traffic flows. Separate greenways provide

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73 automobile free routes that connect the residential areas to Park Street as well as the green spaces surrounding Brooklyn. Public transportation routes have been designed for convenient access throu ghout Brooklyn. According to the city plan, the skyway is located along Riverside Avenue. The skyway stop is proposed to occur at the Forest Street intersection. This placement allows commuters convenient access, via a pedestrian bridge over Riverside, to the offices along the River. The skyway stop is also within a 10 minute walk of the entire neighborhood. The busses generally follow their existing routes, with the exception that busses continue along Park Street into the Five Points neighborhood, instead of switching over to Riverside Avenue. Bicycle lanes are isolated from potential conflicts between busses, automobiles and pedestrians. Conventionally, bicycle lanes are often located at the edge of city streets. This design often requires people, leaving their parked car or exiting a bus, to cross the bicycle lane. Also, cars must cross the bicycle lane when turning, which is in conflict of bicyclists continuing along the street. In Brooklyn, bicycle lanes are located within the wide street median. By cre ating a fairly continuous median, opportunities for conflict between bikes and cars are minimized. 105 Appropriate signage along the left hand lane of major streets within the neighborhood alerts drivers to oncoming traffic. Pedestrian and bicycle conflict al ong the River and perimeter green spaces is avoided by providing a separate bicycle lane that parallels the pedestrian path. Vehicular access in the neighborhood is greatly limited. While the entire neighborhood is accessible by car, the streets are arra nged to make walking or bicycling more convenient. Most streets are one way and two way streets contain fairly continuous medians. Streets are also limited in width, which tends to reduce traffic speeds as well as minimizing the amount of impervious surfac es within the neighborhood. 105 Michelle M. DeRobertis and Rhonda Rae, Buses and bicycles: Design alternatives for sharing the road, ITE Journal 71 (May 2001): 43.

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74 Figure 31 : Proposed Natural Systems

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75 Figure 3 2 : Proposed Land Uses

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76 Figure 33 : Proposed Site Circulation

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77 Figure 34 : D etail Plan of Brooklyn Center

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78 Figure 3 5 : Typical Residential Block

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79 Figure 36 : Typical Street Sections

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80 Figure 3 7 : Typical Street and Pedestrian Path Sections

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81 Prototype G reen Buildings As discussed in Chapter 4, the climate in Florida is hot and humid. Throughout northern Florida, the summers are warm (reaching into the 90s) and rather humid (averaging 75%) with prevailing winds from the southwest. The winter is much milde r (in the 50s) with periodic invasions of cold air from the northwest. Most of the precipitation occurs during summer, when thunderstorms occur several times a week. 106 Structures within Brooklyn should, therefore, be designed to minimize their cooling load. Reducing the cooling load of structures located in hot climates has many benefits. The most immediate improvement is the energy cost reduction due to the cost of air conditioning being roughly proportional to its conditioning capacity. In addition, becaus e the duct size is directly related to the cooling load, energy efficiency structures in Florida requires significantly smaller ducts than standard construction practices. 107 Commercial Structures Within Brooklyn, many existing commercial structures can be renovated into new uses. In fact the neighborhood was designed in order to preserve the existing infrastructure to the greatest extent possible. Before deciding to build new, designers should carefully consider the benefits of reusing the existing structur e. Renovated structures generate less waste and embodied energy than demolition and new construction. When the building program requires a new structure, the existing materials must be either reused or recycled as current technology permits. Commercial str uctures, either in this neighborhood should be designed or renovated in order to reduce their internal heating loads. In Florida, thirty percent of the cooling load of a typical office building is attributable to heat produced from lighting, twenty percen t to solar heat 106 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data 8. 107 Wilson, Keeping the Heat Out, 13.

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82 gain through the windows, fifteen percent to heat gain through the roof and thirteen percent is generated by internal equipment. 108 All commercial structures within the Brooklyn neighborhood meet, or exceed, the requirements for the latest v ersion of LEED Green Building Certification. LEED 109 is a self assessing system designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high rise residential buildings. The rating system is based on existing proven technology. It evaluates enviro nmental performance from a "whole building" perspective over a building's life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a "green building". It is a feature oriented system where credits are earned for satisfying each criterion. Differen t levels of green building certification are awarded based on the total credits earned. For Brooklyn, only the minimum certified level is required. Spatial arrangement To maximize the potential for daylighting strategies, buildings should be oriented along a generally east west axis. Daylighting strategies can reduce lighting requirements up to fifty percent. 110 The daylight provided must be of an acceptable quality to the buildings occupants, which suggests providing diffuse, cool sunlight; uncontrolled gl are and localized overheating cause users to resort to blinds, defeating the benefits of the daylighting design. 111 Open spaces should be provided along the windows, allowing natural light and ventilation to penetrate throughout the entire floor. The east we st orientation also minimizes 108 Danny S. Parker, Philip W. Fairey and Janet E.R. McIlvaine, Energy Efficient Office Building Design for a Hot and Humid Climate: Floridas new Energy Center [online] (Cape Canaveral, FL : Florida Solar Energy Center, 1994 [cited 28 May 2001]); available from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/~bdac/pubs/PF291/pf 291.htm. 109 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design as developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, LEED Green Building Rating System Version 2.0 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Green Building Council, 2000). 110 Adrian Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Energy Efficient Design and Construction for Commercial Buildings (New York: McGraw Hill, Companies, Inc., 1997), 82. 111 Parker,. Fairey and McIlvaine, Floridas new Energy Center

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83 solar heat gain along the overheated west faade. Minimizing the width of structures allows for greater cross ventilation. Appropriate systems Lighting uses much energy in commercial structures; in typical office buildings, fo r example, it accounts for up to fifty percent of the electricity consumption. 112 Additionally, the cooling equipment must remove the heat generated by the light fixtures. In order to reduce cooling loads, lighting fixtures should contain electric ballasts t hat can be automatically dimmed in according to the amount of daylight available. Occupancy sensors should also be used to minimize lighting waste. In keeping with LEED requirements, minimal exterior lighting should be provided and lighting should not be d irected at the sky in order to minimize light pollution. 113 Commercial structures within Brooklyn should be designed using low flow plumbing fixtures. Toilets and sinks should contain automatic controls to minimize water waste. Where permitted by code, desig ners should also consider using waterless urinals and composting toilets. Maintaining proper humidity levels within buildings in Florida is a constant concern. In energy efficient structures, mechanical systems are generally used under part load conditio ns. Therefore, the mechanical equipment must be carefully sized for the actual operating conditions, especially if operable windows are provided. The mechanical system should produce a positive pressure, with respect to the exterior, and dehumidify all ven tilated air. Exterior air should be dehumidified prior to being mixed with any return air. By directly conditioning the moist outside air first, the thermodynamic effectiveness of moisture removal is improved, a smaller dehumidifier is required, and a cent ralized location for air filtration or other enhancements is provided. 114 112 Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Commercial Buildings 81. 113 U.S. Green Building Council, LEED 7. 114 Parker, Fairey and McIlvaine, Floridas new Energy Center

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84 Residential Structures Unlike commercial structures, cooling loads generally originate from climatic factors. Therefore the shape and openings of the house has the greatest impact on its energy efficiency. Primarily, houses designed for Brooklyn should encourage summer ventilation. Constant airflow reduces the need for mechanical ventilation during the early and late summer months. Similar to the LEED standard, the Florida Green Build ing Coalition has developed a standard for Florida Green Homes. 115 The standard has minimum requirements in various categories, some specific to the unique Florida climate. The standards provide an excellent checklist for designing and detailing energy effic ient homes within Florida. All new residences within Brooklyn require Florida Green Home certification. Spatial arrangement Residential structures should be designed to maximize climatic benefits. Lots within Brooklyn have been arranged to provide for a g enerally east west orientation. This configuration allows for high occupancy areas, such as the living and dining rooms to face south. Placing the porches on the east and west facades minimizes glare in the morning and afternoon. The kitchen and other heat producing spaces should be isolated from the remainder of the occupied spaces, minimizing overheating during the summer. An open floor plan, with a raised slab, assists in the natural ventilation of the home. Openings should be located to encourage cross ventilation. Casement windows can capture summer and fall breezes while transom windows can allow hot air to escape along the ceiling. Another consideration in Florida house design is the height of the interior spaces. Sufficient vertical space should be provided to provide for convective ventilation. Once the heat rises above the occupants, it can then be channeled out of the building. 115 Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc ., Florida Green Home Designation Standard of the Florida Green Building Coalition [online] (Naples, FL: Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc. [cited 31 October 2001]); available from http://floridagreenbuilding.org/Standards/HomeStd_071001.pdf.

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85 Appropriate Systems Residential design in Florida should take advantage of the large number of sunny days. Daylighting techniques sh ould be used for rooms along the southern faade, while avoiding glare during the summer months. In addition, all houses within Brooklyn should be equipped with compact fluorescent lamps, rather than incandescent fixtures. Compact lamps save use sixty perc ent less electricity than traditional incandescent lighting.116 As with commercial structures, homes should be designed using low flow plumbing fixtures. In addition, technologically advanced clothes and dishwashers greatly reduce the water requirements of the home. In addition, eliminating in sink garbage disposals reduces the load on sewage treatment plants as well as reducing water usage.117 Designers should also consider providing a solar water heater as well as a cistern for rainwater collection. The mech anical system of residences should be integrated with the buildings systems. For most of the cooling season, ceiling fans in high occupancy areas should reduce the need for mechanical ventilation. An energy efficient home should require conditioning on on ly the hottest days. To minimize heat loss, ductwork should be located within the conditioned spaces. Design for the Future Plumbing systems with within Brooklyn should be designed for future greywater recycling. When permitted by code, greywater can be used for landscape irrigation or toilet flushing. In addition, the flat roofs should be engineered for the addition of future photovoltaic panels. For sloping roofs, provide wiring for future building integrated photovoltaic roof assemblies. 116 Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Commercial Buildings 82. 117 Water Conservation Checklist, Environmental Building News September 1997, 13.

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86 Prototype Res idential Structure for Brooklyn A prototype house was designed in order to illustrate the design principles for energy efficient housing in Brooklyn. The first floor consists of an open plan that encourages natural ventilation between spaces as well as all owing heated air to escape through the roof monitor. The main living areas are located where they receive the most daylight while the porches are located to minimize glare in the morning and afternoon. The kitchen and mechanical room were isolated from the rest of the house, minimizing internal heat gain during the summer. For a house to reduce its energy requirements, the house was oriented on the site to maximize its energy efficiency. Deciduous trees located southwest of the building shade the house in the summer; yet allow sunlight through in winter. 118 Sunlight cannot be easily controlled on west elevation, so those openings are heavily shaded with deep overhangs. These overhangs cover screened porches, providing additional living spaces throughout most of the year, without requiring additional conditioned space. The main living spaces are located along the southern elevation to take advantage of the better sunlight for daytime activities. The kitchen helps to heat the northern part of the house during th e winter and is separated, by means of the roof monitor, from the living spaces to avoid overheating the house in the summer. The house design also encourages natural ventilation. The casement windows used on the on the main level maximizes cross ventilati on in both the north south and east west directions. In fact, the length of the house is oriented to allow airflow during the hottest months of the year. To maximize the house surface area and increase airflow, the floor is raised above the ground. The ov erhangs over the windows not only block direct sunlight, but they also assist in trapping air under the eaves, funneling the breezes into the house. 119 The roof monitor assists in ventilating the house by releasing any heat generated from within the house. H eat continuously rise up the staircase and be vented through the roof monitor. The process of the hot air being 118 Watson and Labs, Climatic Building Design 89. 119 Ibid., 195.

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87 replaced with cooler air, known as the stack effect, naturally generates positive air circulation and cools the interior spaces.120 Green material s, as discussed in the next section, were used throughout the house, maximizing the energy efficiency of the structure. Sustainably harvested cedar shingles are used for the exterior finish since they provide a natural deterrent to termites. Using low e do uble glazed windows minimize heat gain during the summer. To minimize solar gain through the roof, a light colored metal roof was used and the entire roof assembly is vented. Sustainably harvested 2x6 wood studs, spaced 24 on center, packed with cellulos e generates a better insulated wall than conventional 2x4 wood studs, 16 on center, with batt insulation. Using these assemblies, in fact, allows the house to exceed accepted energy efficient standards for Florida.121 Figure 3 8 : Street Elevation of the Prototype House. 120 Ibid., 201. 121 The prototype house will have a roof R value of 30, a wall R value of 20 and a floor R value of 15, values of 26, 19, and 13 respectively are considered energy efficient. Ibid ., 146.

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88 Figure 3 9 : Main Level Plan of the Prototype House.

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89 Figure 4 0 : Upper Level Plan of the Prototype House.

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90 Figure 41 : Longitu d inal Section through the Prototype House.

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91 Figure 4 2 : Typical Wall Section through the Prototype House.

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92 Green Material Recommendations Primarily, materials were selected that reinforce the energy efficient strategies of the structure For this project, preference was given to exterior materials that are lightly colored or maximize ventilation. Some materials were selected due to their close proximity to the neighborhood. Materials manufactured within the region support the local econo my while reducing the distance that the materials need to be transported to the site. Other suggested materials were selected for what they do not contain. Where the standard manufacture of materials involves components that are harmful to the environment, such as volatile organic compounds (in paint, fiberboard and carpet) arsenic (currently used in pressure treated wood), mercury (used in some lighting systems) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (in insulation), alternative materials were recommended. Table 4 : Recommended Green Materials for Brooklyn. Company Environmental Benefits Recycled/ Renewable Regional Product Site Work Porous pavement Geoblock Grasspave Stabilizes green space for pedestrian traffic, water to penetrate the system yes no Concrete Concrete CSR Rinker, various Locally produced, Brick absorbs VOC's no yes Masonry Cement Blocks Faswall Recycled wood fibers mixed with cement yes yes Non toxic Brick Cherokee Brick & Tile Locally p roduced yes yes Boral Bricks Components are from renewable resources

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93 Table 4 continued. Company Environmental Benefits Recycled/ Renewable Regional Product Metals Steel Birmingham Steel Corp. Easily recyclable yes yes US Steel Steel Beam SMI Steel Utilizes Smart Beam technology to reduce total steel no no Wood & Plastics Wood Red Hills Lumber Co. Sustainably harvested Renewable resource yes yes Cedar Shingles ABC Forest Products, various Sustainably harvested, Nat ural pest deterrent yes no Pressure Treated Lumber Sunbelt Forest Products Arsenic and chromium free yes yes Thermal & Moisture Protection Garden Roof American Hydrotech Carbon and Heat sink partially partially ZinCo Absorbs Stormwater Membr ane Roof Carlisle Syntec Systems No plasticizers, chlorine or other halogens yes yes Stevens Roofing White color is solar reflective (83% of UV rays) Cellulose Insulation Appelgate Insulation 25% greater energy efficiency, 75% recycled content ye s yes Cell Pak Inc. Non carcinogenic, no CFC's Doors & Windows Wood Door Sylvania Certified Sustainably harvested wood door yes no Aluminum Window Various Maintenance free, thermally broken no yes Aluminum Window Visionwall High energy eff iciency (R 7) no no Glazing Viracon Desiccant filled spacer using an organic sealant energy efficient no yes Skylight Tubular Skylight, Inc. Energy efficient (R 22) no yes

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94 Table 4 continued. Company Environmental Benefits Recycled/ Renewable Regio nal Product Finishes Temple 99% recycled content yes yes Gypsum Wallboard Georgia Pacific 40% recycled content Fiberboard Homasote 100% recycled newsprint yes no non formaldehyde Particleboard Acadia Board Co. Waste sugar cane, non formaldehyde yes no Particleboard Wheat Lumber wheat straw mixed with MDI resin yes no Eco Const. non formaldehyde Carpet Collins & Aikman Fully recyclable carpet and backing, low VOC yes yes Carpet Earth Weave Carpet Carpet and backing from renewable sorces, no VOC yes yes Linoleum Domco, Inc. All natural product, biodegradeable yes yes Rubber Flooring Tuflex Rubber Products made from 100% recycled rubber yes yes Ceramic Tile Florida Ceramic Durable material, locally manufactured no yes Acoustic Ceiling Celotex Recycled content, locally manufactured, absorbs VOC's yes yes Paint Safecoat No VOC's, seals in off gassing from base material no no Equipment Refrigerator Conserv Energy efficient, no CFC's yes no Elevator Various Ge arless, no oils or lubricant no no Mechanical Solar water heater Pacemaker no electricity required no yes Electrical Photovoltaics Uni Solar, Kyocera Building integrated photovoltaic system no no Ceiling Fan Hampton Bay aerodynamic fans blades allow 40% increase in airflow no yes

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95 Table 5 : Recommended Native Plants for Brooklyn. Scientific Name Common Name Height Planting Locations Canopy Trees Carya glabra Pignut Hickory 40' shade, street Celtis la evigata Sugarberry 80' shade tree Fraxinus americana White Ash 50' parks Magnolia grandiflora Southern Magnolia 100' shade, street Pinus taeda Loblolly Pine 70' screen, windbreak Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak 60' parks, street Quercus michau xii Basket Oak 100' shade tree Quercus shumardii Shumard Oak 75' shade, street Quercus virginiana Live Oak 80' shade, parks Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm 40' specimen, street Tilia caroliniana Basswood 80' shade tree Ulmus alata Winged Elm 40 shade, street Understory Trees Acer saccharu Florida maple 30' street, parks Carpinus caroliniana Hornbeam 35' specimen tree Cercis canadensis Redbud 30' street, specimen Chionanthus virginicus Fringe Tree 25' specimen tree Ilex opaca Americ an Holly 25' street, barrier Juniperus silicicola Southern Red Cedar 40' specimen, windbreaks Morus rubra Red mulberry 15' woodland mass Prunus caroliniana Cherry Laurel 40' border, screen Prunus umbellata Flatwoods Plum 20' specimen tree Shru bs Callicarpa americana Beautyberry 8' mass planting Erythrina herbaceae Coralbean 4' specimen plant Hamamelis virginiana Witchhazel 15' border, hedge Ilex vomitoria Yaupon Holly 25' screen, hedge Rhapidophyllum hystrix Needle Palm 8' specimen plant Rhododendron canescens Wild Azalea 15' specimen plant Sabal minor Bluestem palmetto 3' parking areas Groundcovers Thelypteris kunthii Wood fern 3' woodland mass Zamia floridana Coontie 2' hedge, low mass Vines Bignonia capreolata Cross vin e screen Gelsemium sempervirens Yellow jessamine cover walls Lonicera sempervirens Coral honeysuckle cover fences Wildflowers Ruellia caroliniensis Wild petunia 1' borders Salvia lyrata Lyre leaf sage 1' borders Source: Adapted from U.S. S oil Conservation Service, 26 Ecological Communities of Florida (Washington D.C.: Soil Conservation Service, 1980), 63 64 and Bijan Dehgan, Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998).

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96 As Table 4 indicates green materials are available for use in construction within the sustainable urban neighborhood. However, selecting the actual material often requires choosing either energy efficiency or a regionally manufactured material. For example, the most efficien t window, Visionwall, is manufactured in Canada. Since windows typically last the life of the building, Visionwall may be the better selection over a regionally produced window. For carpet, designers must choose a carpet from recycled sources or one from r enewable sources. Since indoor air quality is a primary concern for green materials, Earth Weave Carpet may be the better selection. Other products, such as refrigerators and elevators, were listed in order to illustrate greener alternatives to conventiona l products. As the construction continues adapting to consumer preferences for green materials, more options should become available. Therefore, this list should be used as a point of departure and modified to include additional green materials when they a re identified.

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97 CHAPTER 6 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS From the Brooklyn case study, several analyses were preformed to determine the energy efficiency of each scale to conventional design. The overall development was compared the current zoning and Jacksonvilles proposed master plan using several criteria, such as land usage, public green space allocation and transportation alternatives. The energy efficiency of the prototype house design was then compared to a more conventional design using Energy 10. The results of both of these analyses illustrate the environmental benefits of the sustainable urban neighborhood. Sustainable Development The proposed sustainable urban design was compared to both the current zoning and Jacksonvilles master plan. The current zoning plan w as modified to reflect The Better Jacksonville Plan approved by the city last year. According to the Better Jacksonville Website, the indicated improvements in the Brooklyn neighborhood are limited to the addition of green space along McCoys Creek. 122 As di scussed in Chapter 4, the citys master plan for Brooklyn also transforms the creek into a public green space. Unfortunately, a complete master plan covering the entire neighborhood was not available. For the comparison study, the land uses follow the curr ent zoning guidelines when not otherwise indicated. Once the neighborhood plans were generated, they were compared to the proposed sustainable urban neighborhood using an adaptation of the Place 3 s model. 123 While the Place 3 s 122 Overview, The Better Jacksonville Plan [online] (Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, September 2 000 [cited 28 October 2001]); available from http://www.betterjax.com/Overview/default.htm. 123 Eliot Allen, Michael McKeever, and Jeff Mitchum, The Energy Yardstick: Using Place 3 s to Create more Sustainable Communities [online] (Sacramento, CA: California E nergy Commission, State Energy Office in

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98 approach to urban planning uses e nergy accounting to evaluate the efficiency with which land is used, their analysis was beyond the scope of this study. The Brooklyn neighborhood analysis provides similar comparisons in land usage, design and circulation without calculating the resulting energy usage. Table 6 : Comparison of Brooklyn Neighborhood Design Alternatives. Current Master Proposed Zoning Plan Design Land Use Distribution (not including roadways) Public Buildings 3.7% 3.4% 3.7% Reside ntial 29.4% 36.5% 26.2% Retail 20.2% 19.8% 6.3% Commercial 19.9% 16.3% 20.5% Industrial/EcoIndustrial 9.8% 9.9% 3.5% Public Green Space 17.0% 14.0% 37.3% Mixed Use 19.9% 16.3% 26.8% Green Space Allocation Rati o of Public Green Space to Residential 1:1.7 1:2.6 1:0.7 Residences within 1/4 mile of park 68.7% 98.0% 100.0% Roadway swales (s.f.) 0 0 248,879 Stormwater Mitigation city system city system natural Transportation Alternatives Roadways (including sidewalks & bike paths (s.f.)) 3,107,012 3,246,439 2,247,185 Average Street width (vehicular pavement) 35' 35' 20' Residences within 1/4 mile of rail stop not available not available 65% Linear feet of dedicated Bike Paths 0 8 ,668 15,669 Percentage of Streets with Sidewalks 15% not available 100.0% Oregon, and the Washington Dept. of Energy, 1996 [cited 31 October 2001]); available from http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/pdf/places.pdf.

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99 Figure 43 : Brooklyns Current Zoning Land Use Plan. Information provided by Jason Thiel, 5 February 2001.

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100 Figure 44 : Jacksonvilles Future Master Plan for Brooklyn Land Use Plan. Adapted from Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River 40.

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101 Figure 4 5 : Proposed Sustainable Development Design Land Use Plan

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102 The neighborhood an alysis illustrates the key differences between the plans. In the proposed plan, over one third of the neighborhood is dedicated to public green space distributed throughout the community, while the alternative plans contain significantly less green space m ost of which is located along McCoys Creek (the master plans proximity to parks ratio is deceptively high to due a small, 1 acre park located in the center of Brooklyn). The larger percentage of green space in the proposed plan required reducing the am ount of square footage devoted to residential, retail, and industrial uses. However, most of the reduction only occurs at the ground level, since taller developments are generally allowed in the proposed plan. For example, while retail uses appear to be dr amatically reduced, the number does not reflect that buildings along the major streets have other uses on the floors above street level. The other dramatic difference between the plans is the reduced quantity of paved surfaces in the proposed plan. In the proposed plan, significantly less space is devoted to roadways, reducing the amount of impervious surfaces that in turn reduces the amount of stormwater runoff. In addition, the use of natural systems for stormwater mitigation significantly reduces insta llation and operating costs, as opposed to connecting to the city stormwater system. A similar system used in the Village Homes development of Davis, California saved approximately $800 per household. 124 Energy Efficient Buildings The prototype house design was then analyzed using Energy 10 software. 125 The software was developed as a collaborative project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratorys Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems, the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council, Lawrence Berkeley N ational Laboratory, and the Berkeley Solar Group. The resulting program 124 Bill Browning and Kim Hamilton, Village Homes: A model solar community prov es its worth, In Context: A Quarterly of Humane Sustainable Culture (Spring 1993 [cited 11 November 2001]); available from http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC35/Browning.htm. 125 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Energy 10: A Tool for Designing Low Energy Buildings Ver. 1.2 (Energy 10 V1.2). National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington D.C.

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103 compares the energy usage of any two proposed buildings. The energy simulations quantify the benefits of various design strategies as well as recommend additional modifications to opti mize the buildings design and selected systems. For this project, the prototype house was compared to a similarly designed structure, located in the existing Brooklyn street grid instead of the proposed neighborhood and using conventional constructio n techniques. In order to narrow the analysis to energy efficiency, the standard construction house was of the same size and volume as the prototype house. Additional high efficiency windows were provided on the prototype house to allow for daylighting. A s the Table 7 indicates, the standard construction house was constructed of 2x4 wood studs, sitting on a concrete slab on grade with an insulated attic. The prototype house used 2x6 studs over a raised slab and cathedral ceilings. In addition, the prototyp e house utilized additional energy efficiency techniques such as tighter seals on all wall and roof penetrations, higher energy efficient rated (EER) heat pump and lighting dimmers that adjust to sunlight conditions. The computer simulation indicates that the prototype house utilizes approximately 22% less energy than the standard construction house, which in turn reduces a homeowners annual utility cost by nearly $400 per year. Due to the increased insulation in the prototype design, the most significant energy reduction was in winter heating, while using daylighting techniques reduced internal lighting requirements. The limitations of the software did not allow for energy reductions for natural ventilation or solar water heaters. Using a solar water heate r system saves approximately $250 per year for a family of four. 126 Because the software did not account for natural ventilation, raising the floor slab actually reduced the computed energy savings. In addition, using natural ventilation instead of air condi tioning during the early and late summer months also reduces the total energy requirements of the house. 126 JEA Fact Sheet #147: Solar Water Heating, Power for Pennies [online] (Jacksonville, FL : Jacksonville Electric Authority, April 2000 [cited 31 October 2001]); available from http://www.jea.com/safety/downloads/f 147.pdf.

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104 Table 7 : Comparison of Prototype House and Construction House using Energy 10. Prototype Design Evaluation Oct 26, 2001 Energy 10 Summary Page Weather file: jcksnvll.et1 Variant: Thesis Saved as C: \ PROGRA~1 \ ENERGY10 \ TH HOUSE, Var. 2 Description: Standard Construction Prototype Design Floor Area, ft 1734.0 1734.0 Surface Area, ft 5477.4 5477.4 Volume, ft 21632.0 21632.0 Surfac e Area Ratio 1.18 1.18 Total Conduction UA, Btu/h F 592.5 665.0 Average U value, Btu/hr ft F 0.108 0.121 Wall Construction 2 x 4 frame, R=12.6 2 x 6 frame poly, R=23.1 Roof Construction attic, r 30, R=29.4 cathedral, 2x10, R=30.8 Floor type, insulation Sl ab on Grade, Reff=8.0 Exposed to Outside, Reff=4.4 Window Construction 4060 double, wood, U=0.47 4060 low e al/b, U=0.31 Window Shading None 28 deg latitude Wall total gross area, ft 3373 3373 Roof total gross area, ft 1052 1052 Ground total gross area, ft 1052 1052 Window total gross area, ft 360 888 Windows (N/E/S/W:Roof) 4/2/6/3:0 10/8/10/8:1 Glazing name double, U=0.49 double low e, U=0.26 Operating parameters for zone 1 HVAC system Heat Pump/ER Backup Heat Pump/ER Backup Rated Output kBtuh 52/37/4 9 41/50/67 Rated Air Flow/MOOA,cfm 2641/0 2454/0 Heating thermostat 70.0 F, no setback 70.0 F, setback to 65.0 F Cooling thermostat 78.0 F, no setup 78.0 F, setup to 83.0 F Heat/cool performance COP=2.9,EER=8.9 COP=4.3,EER=13.0 Economizer?/type no/NA yes/fixed dry bulb, 60.0 F Peak Gains; IL,EL,HW,OT; W/ft 0.20/0.04/0.66/0.36 0.11/0.02/0.66/0.36 Daylighting? no yes, continuous dimming Infiltration, in ELA=448.7 ELA=121.4 Results : (Energy cost: 0.400 $/Therm, 0.069 $/ kWh, 0.069 $/kW) Simulation dates 01 Jan to 31 Dec 01 Jan to 31 Dec Simulation status, Thermal/DL valid/NA valid/valid Energy use, kBtu 84280 65956 Energy cost, $ 1711 1339 Saved by daylighting, kWh NA 314 Total Electric, kWh 24699 19329 Internal/Extern al lights, kWh 1363/149 452/84 Heating/Cooling/Fan, kWh 4078/7571/2438 1661/6895/1136 Elec. Res./Heat Pump, kWh 3734/344 1517/144 Hot water/Other, kWh 4971/4130 4971/4130 Emissions, CO2/SO2/NOx, lbs 33195/195/101 25978/153/79

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105 Monthly Average Hourly Lighting Energy UsePrototype Design, work + non-work days -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Savings Actual Lighting Profile kW JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 0 2 4 6 8 Est Direct Est Diffuse 1000 foot-candles outdoors Monthly Average Hourly Lighting Energy UseStandard Construction, work + non-work days -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Savings Actual Lighting Profile kW JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 0 2 4 6 8 Est Direct Est Diffuse 1000 foot-candles outdoors Prototype Design Evaluation / Thesis Figure 46 : Monthly Lighting Energy Use. Monthly Average Hourly HVAC Energy UsePrototype Design, work + non-work days -10 0 10 20 Heating Cooling 1000 Btu JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Inside Outside Fahrenheit 0 10 Fan Internal 1000 Btu Monthly Average Hourly HVAC Energy UseStandard Construction, work + non-work days -10 0 10 20 Heating Cooling 1000 Btu JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Inside Outside Fahrenheit 0 10 Fan Internal 1000 Btu Prototype Design Evaluation / Thesis Figure 47 : Monthly HVAC Energy Use.

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106 Conclusion The redevelopment of Brooklyn as a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood has a smaller impact on the environment then either maintaining th e existing zoning or implementing the vision described in Jacksonvilles master plan. By reducing roadway widths and the industrial area, the proposed plan is able to devote over one third of the neighborhood to public green space distributed throughout B rooklyn. The addition of sidewalks, bike routes and a skyway stop, while reducing automobile lanes encourages Brooklyn residents and workers to use alternative means of travel. Allocating over one quarter of the neighborhood to mixed uses ensures that reso urces are used more efficiently as well as keeping the neighborhood active. The analysis of the energy efficiency of the prototype illustrates the economic and environmental benefits of the design. The increased insulation used in the prototype design redu ced the reduction the winter heating costs, while adding windows allows residents to rely on the abundant Florida sunshine for internal lighting. Additional energy savings are generated through the use of solar water heaters, natural ventilation and increa sed overhead vegetation. By implementing house designs based on the energy efficient principals of the prototype house on a neighborhood wide basis reduces the carbon dioxide by approximately 850,000 pounds and well as saving the neighborhood $44,000 in en ergy costs per year.

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107 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study investigated the potential of redeveloping neglected inner cities into sustainable urban neighborhoods. Constructing new mixed use neighborhoods in underdeveloped urban areas reuses existing i nfrastructure while preserving existing rural land. By returning to city living and using alternative forms of transportation, the nation begins to reduce its dependency on the automobile, thus reducing its contribution to the greenhouse effect. Not only d o these new developments promote energy efficiency by reducing automobile dependency, but also through the materials selected, buildings designed and the overall development layout reduces the neighborhoods external energy requirements and wastes. In orde r to design an energy efficient community in any urban environment, this thesis generated guidelines for developing sustainable urban neighborhoods. Primarily, the neighborhood should be designed while considering the requirements of energy efficient stru ctures and green materials. Thus materials should be selected that are locally produced, reducing transportation requirements, and from renewable resources. Buildings should be designed to optimize use of these green materials while minimizing its future e nergy requirements. The development should then be oriented to maximize the energy efficiency of the individual structures while enhancing the climate and character of the location. The guidelines for designing sustainable urban neighborhoods were then uti lized in the proposed redevelopment of an existing underdeveloped urban community. Jacksonville, Florida is an example of a largely underdeveloped central city surrounded by sprawling suburbs. The Brooklyn neighborhood in particular currently suffers from economic neglect and may soon be redeveloped by the City. While the citys vision recommends a transit oriented development in

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108 order to minimize transportation requirements, the sustainable urban neighborhood alternative proposes a design that encourages energy efficiency throughout the development. The proposed Brooklyn design illustrates that a sustainable urban neighborhood is more sensitive to natural systems and requires less energy to maintain. When compared to the current zoning or approved master plan, the proposed sustainable urban neighborhood has a greater variety of transportation alternatives while decreasing the amount of paved surfaces. Stormwater is retained naturally within the site and requires minimal cost to install and maintain as well as recharging the aquifer. The increased percentage of mixed use development generates an active neighborhood as well as enabling resources to be used efficiently. The efficiency of the design is reinforced through the analysis of the prototype house. Wh en compared to conventional construction and design, the prototype generates approximately seven thousand pounds less carbon dioxide per year and requires 22% less energy to operate than conventional construction. The analysis suggests that using the propo sed guidelines for designing sustainable urban neighborhoods creates energy efficient communities. Lessons Learned The challenge of this thesis was in defining its limits. Developing guidelines for sustainable urban neighborhoods that encompass every as pect of green design could be the work of a lifetime. Within the constraints of a masters thesis, my research was unfortunately limited to the discussion of the basic components of a sustainable urban neighborhood. Ideally, the neighborhood analysis shoul d have included calculations of approximate stormwater runoff. This document should also provide the design and analysis of a prototype commercial building. In addition, several additional building wall sections, illustrating different green material opti ons, should have been developed and analyzed as well as a cost benefit analysis of those options. While I believe that these elements was not required in order to analyze the design, their inclusion may have presented a more complete document.

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109 Areas of Fu ture Research Sustainable design is an emerging specialty within the architecture profession. Therefore, few accepted standards exist to accurately analyze the energy efficiency of a proposed design or selected materials. Without an accepted standard, the value of this thesis, whether a sustainable urban neighborhood can be developed within the urban environment sustainable urban neighborhoods can be developed using a specific set of guidelines, cannot be objectively analyzed. With the recent adoption of P ractice E2129 01: Standard Practice for Data Collection for Sustainability Assessment of Building Products by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the construction industry is moving closer to simplifying green material selection. Upon ac ceptance of a green material standard, the design of the prototype energy efficient house should be reevaluated. In turn, the recommended materials for the Brooklyn neighborhood should be updated. But most importantly, a truly sustainable urban neighborhoo d requires more than an energy efficient design. As discussed in Chapter 1, the neighborhood must also be economically feasible and socially acceptable to its future inhabitants. A more complete analysis of the potential advantages of the sustainable urban neighborhood includes presenting the guidelines and proposed designs to the Jacksonville Economic Development Commission and the Brooklyn neighborhood as well as performing a market analysis. Conceptually, I believe that this proposed sustainable urban ne ighborhood, while a departure from the current design alternatives, it should be acceptable to both the citizens of Jacksonville and future developers. However additional research in these areas improves the quality of the guidelines and increases the pote ntial success of the design.

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APPENDIX A LEED RATING SYSTEM PROJECT CHECKLIST 127 127 U.S. Green Building Council, LEED v vi.

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APPENDIX B FLORIDA GREEN HOME STANDARD CHECKLIST 128 128 Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc., Florida Green Home Designation A1 A4

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119 LIST OF REFERENCES Albritton, Daniel L., Myles R. Allen, Alfons P. M. Baede, John A. Church, Ulrich Cubasch, Dai Xiaosu, Ding Yihui, Dieter H. Ehhalt, Christopher K. Folland, Filippo Giorgi, Jonathan M. Gregory, David J. Griggs, Jim M. Haywood, Bruce Hewitson, John T. Houghton, Joanna I. House, Michael H ulme, Ivar Isaksen, Victor J. Jaramillo, Achuthan Jayaraman, Catherine A. Johnson, Fortunat Joos, Sylvie Joussaume, Thomas Karl, David J. Karoly, Haroon S. Kheshgi, Corrine Le Qur, Kathy Maskell, Luis J. Mata, Bryant J. McAvaney, Mack McFarland, Linda O. Mearns, Gerald A. Meehl, L. Gylvan Meira Filho, Valentin P. Meleshko, John F. B. Mitchell, Berrien Moore, Richard K. Mugara, Maria Noguer, Buruhani S. Nyenzi, Michael Oppenheimer, Joyce E. Penner, Steven Pollonais, Michael Prather, I. Colin Prentice, Venk atchala Ramaswamy, Armando Ramirez Rojas, Sarah C. B. Raper, M. Jim Salinger, Robert J. Scholes, Susan Solomon, Thomas F. Stocker, John M. R. Stone, Ronald J. Stouffer, Kevin E. Trenberth, Ming Xing Wang, Robert T. Watson, Kok S. Yap, and John Zillman. Sum mary for Policymakers: A Report of Working Group 1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]. Available from http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/spm22 01.pdf Allen, Eli ot Michael McKeever, and Jeff Mitchum. The Energy Yardstick: Using Place 3 s to Create more Sustainable Communities Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission, State Energy Office in Oregon, and the Washington Dept. of Energy, 1996 [cited 31 October 200 1]. Available from http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/pdf/places.pdf American Automobile Association. AAA North American Road Atlas 1996: United States, Canada, Mexico MCMXCV ed. American Automobile Association, 1995. American Institute of Architects. Enviro nmental Resource Guide 2 vols. Washington D.C.: American Institute of Architects, Inc., 1994. Barnett, Dianna L. and William D. Browning. A Primer on Sustainable Building Colorado: Rocky Mountain Institute Green Development Series, 1995. Brown, G. Z. and Mark DeKay. Sun, Wind & Light: Architectural Design Strategies 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. Browning, Bill and Kim Hamilton. Village Homes: A model solar community proves its worth. In Context: A Quarterly of Humane Sustainable Cultu re Spring 1993 [cited 11 November 2001]. Available from http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC35/Browning.htm Bussel, Abby. Eco Evaluators: What Do They Do? Progressive Architecture March 1993, 90 91. Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and the American Dream New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993.

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120 Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Transportation Element. Jacksonville, FL: Cambridge Systematics, Inc., 1999. Campbell, C. Lee and Walter W. Heck. Principles of Sustainable Development Edited by F. Douglas Muschett. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997. Campbell, Craig S. and Michael H .Ogden. Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995. Chudacoff Howard P. and Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000. City of Jacksonville Planning Development Department. Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown Jacksonville Jacksonville, FL: City of Jackso nville, 2000. City of Jacksonville Planning Development Department. Public Participation Summary Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, 1999. de Chiara, Joseph, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik, eds. Time Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Devel opment 2d ed. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1995. Dehgan, Bijan. Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998. DeRobertis, Michelle M. and Rhonda Rae. Buses and bicycles: Design alternatives for sharing the road. ITE Journal 71 (May 2001): 36 44. Duryea, Mary, Eliana Kampf Binelli, and Henry L. Gholz. Restoring the Urban Forest Ecosystem Edited by Mary Duryea, Eliana Kampf Binelli and Henry L. Gholz. Gainesville, FL: School of Forest Resources and Conserv ation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 2000. Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc. Florida Green Home Designation Standard of the Florida Green Building Coalition Naples, FL: Flor ida Green Building Coalition, Inc., July 2001 [cited 31 August 2001]. Available from http://floridagreenbuilding.org/Standards/HomeStd_071001.pd f Girling, Cynthia, Ronald Kellett, Jacqueline Rochefort, and Christine Roe. Green Neighborhoods: Planning and Design Guidelines for Air, Water and Urban Water Quality Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]. Available from http://www.aaa.uoregon.edu/~nee/guidelines.html Grillot, Michael J., Patricia A. Smith, Joel E. Lou, Karen F. Griffin, H Vicky McLaine, and Lowell Feld. International Energy Annual 1999 Washington D.C.: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy [cited 13 April 2001]. File no. DOE/EI A 0219(99). Available from http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/pdf/international/021999.pd f Hu, Patricia S. and Jennifer R. Young. Summary of Travel Trends: 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey Prepared for the U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation [cited 27 May 2001]. Available from http://wwwcta.ornl.gov/npts/1995/DOC/trends_report.pd f

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121 Jacksonville Community Council, Inc. Quality of Life in Jacksonville: Indicators for Progress Jacksonville: Jacksonville Community Council, Inc., 2000 [cited 27 April 2001]. Available from http://www.jcci.org/qol/qol.pdf Jameson, Michael and Richard Moy roud, ed. Xeric Landscaping with Florida Native Plants Hollyrood, FL: Betrock Information Systems, Inc., 1991. JEA Fact Sheet #147: Solar Water Heating. Power for Pennies Jacksonville, FL: Jacksonville Electric Authority, April 2000 [cited 31 October 2 001]. Available from http://www.jea.com/safety/downloads/f 147.pdf Kemp, Jim. American Vernacular: Regional Influences in Architecture and Interior Design New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987. Kibert, Charles J., Jan Sendzimir and Brad Guy. Construction ecology and metabolism: natural system analogues for a sustainable built environment. Construction Management and Economics 18 (2000): 903 916. Kibert, Charles J. and G. Bradley Guy. Abacoa: A Model for Sustainable Land Development. Land Development S pring Summer 1997, 25 29. Local Government Commission. Ahwahnee Principles Sacramento, CA: Center for Livable Communities [cited 1 Sep 00]. Available from http://www.lgc.org/clc/libra ry/ahwahnee/principles.html Macionis, John J. and Vince Parrillo. Cities and Urban Life New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000. Malin, Nadav. Is Wood or Metal Greener? Progressive Architecture September 1995, 39 41. Malin, Nadav. What It Means to B e Green. Architectural Record August 1999, 137 140. Malin, Nadav and Alex Wilson. Material Selection: Tools, Resources, and Techniques for Choosing Green. Environmental Building News January 1997, 1,10 14. McAlester, Virginia and Lee McAlester. A Fiel d Guide to American Houses New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984. McArdle, Paul, Perry Lindstrom, Michael Mondshine, Stephen Calopedis, Chris Minnucci, and Sarah Billups. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999 Washington D.C.: Energy Inf ormation Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of Energy, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]. File no. DOE/EIA 0573(99). Available from ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1 605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt/057399.pdf Mosberg, Stewart. What Do We Mean by Green? Progressive Architecture March 1991, 62 63. Myers, Ronald L. Ecosystems of Florida Edited by Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Pre sses, 1990. National Climatic Data Center. Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (JAX) Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001.

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122 National Housing Institute. Minneapolis Goes Green. Shelter Forc e Online [electronic journal]. Orange, NJ: National Housing Institute, January/February 1999 [cited 19 June 2001]. Available from http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/103/minneapo.html National Institute of Standards and Technology. Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability Ver. 2.0 (BEES 2.0). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington D.C. National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Energy 10: A Tool for Designing Low Energy Buildings Ver. 1.2 (Ene rgy 10 V1.2). National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington D.C. Niles, John and Dick Nelson. Measuring the Success of Transit Oriented Development: Retail Market Dynamics and Other Key Determinants. Paper present ed at the American Planning Association, National Planning Conference, Seattle, Washington, April 1999. Odum, Howard T., Elisabeth C. Odum and Mark T. Brown. Environment and Society in Florida Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1998. Olgyay, Victor. Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963. OToole, Randal. The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths Bandon, Oregon: Thoreau Institute, 2001. Overview. The Better Jacksonville Pla n. Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, September 2000 [cited 28 October 2001]. Available from http://www.betterjax.com/Overview/default.htm Pagano, Michael A. and Ann OM. Bowman. Vacant Land in Cities: An Urban Resource. The Brookings Institution Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, December 2000 [cited April 27, 2001]. Available from http://brook.edu/es/urban/pagano/paganofinal.pdf Parker, Danny S., Philip W. Fairey, and Jan et E.R. McIlvaine. Energy Efficient Office Building Design for a Hot and Humid Climate: Floridas new Energy Center Cape Canaveral, FL: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1994 [cited 28 May 2001]. Available from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/~bdac/pubs/PF291/pf 291.ht m Pearson, David. The Natural House Book New York: Simon & Schuster Inc./Fireside, 1989. St. John, Andrew, ed. The Sourcebook for Sustainable Design: A Guide to Environmentally Responsible Building Materials and Processes Boston: Boston Society of Archi tects, 1992. Salvesen, David. Promoting Transit Oriented Development. Urban Land July 1996, 31 35, 87. Selman, Paul. Environmental Planning: The Conservation and Development of Biophysical Resources 2d ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2000. Shihadeh, Edward S. and Graham C. Ousey. Metropolitan Expansion and Black Social Dislocation: The Link between Surburbanization and Center City Crime, Social Forces 75(2) (1996): 649 666.

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123 Strong, Steven J. Reshaping the Built Environment: Ecology, Ethics and Econ omics edited by Charles J. Kibert. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999. Texas Transportation Institute, The Mobility Data for Jacksonville, FL College Station, TX: Information & Technology Exchange Center/Publications [cited 27 April 2001]. Available f rom http://mobility.tamu.edu/study/PDFs/jacksonville.pd f Transit Oriented Development. Online TDM Encyclopedia Victoria, British Columbia: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2001 [cited 22 January 2001]. Available from http://www.vtpi.org/td m Tuluca, Adrian and Steven Winter Associates, Inc. Energy Efficient Design and Construction for Commercial Buildings New York: McGraw Hill, Companies, Inc., 1997. Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc. Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Residential and Commercial Market Analyses Jacksonville, FL: Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc., 1999. Urban Sustainability Learning Group. Sta ying in the Game: Exploring Options for Urban Sustainability Chicago, IL: The Tides Center, 1996. U.S. Census Bureau. POPClocks Washington D.C.: Census Bureau, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]. Available from http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The State of the Cities 1999 Washington, D.C.: Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1999 [cited 17 April 2001]. Available from http://www. huduser.org/publications/polleg/tsoc99/contents.html U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Transportation Indicators Washington D.C.: Department of Transportation, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]. Available from http://bts.gov/transtu/indicators/Environment.pdf U.S. Green Building Council. LEED Green Building Rating System Version 2.0 Washington D.C.: U.S. Green Building Council, 2000. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. 26 Ecological Communities of Florida Washington D.C.: Soil Conservation Service, 1980. Warren, Roxanne. Abstract of The Urban Oasis: Guideways and Greenways in the Human Environment Seattle: University of Washington, [cited 22 January 01]. Avai lable from http://faculty.washington.edu/~jbs/itrans Water Conservation Checklist. Environmental Building News September 1997, 13. Watson, Donald and Kenneth Labs. Climatic Building Design: Ene rgy Efficient Building Principles and Practice New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1983. Watts, Frank C. Soil Survey of City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida Washington D.C.: The Service, 1998.

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124 Which Passive Cooling Strategy Is Right for You? Ene rgy Source Builder [electronic journal]. Lorane, OR: Iris Communications, Inc., June 1997 [cited 27 April 2001]. Available from http://oikos.com/esb/51/passivecooling.html Wilson, Alex. Building Materials: What Makes a Product Green? Environmental Build ing News October 2000, 1 5. Wilson, Alex. Keeping the Heat Out: Cooling Load Avoidance Strategies. Environmental Building News May/June 1994, 1,13 17. Wilson, Alex. Small is Beautiful: House Size, Resource Use, and the Environment. Environmental Buil ding News January 1999, 1,7 10. Wilson, Alex. Stormwater Management. Environmental Building News September/October 1994, 1,8 13. Wilson, Alex and Nadav Malin. Establishing Priorities with Green Building. Environmental Building News September/October 1995, 1,14 17.

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125 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kara S. Strong was born and raised in northwest Indiana. Upon graduation from high school, she left for the Army Reserves and college. After completing two years of the architecture program at Oklahoma State Universit y, she transferred to the Boston Architectural Center where she received her Bachelor of Architecture degree. While in Boston, Kara spent eight years working in various architectural firms, eventually as a job captain responsible for the technical and cons ultant coordination of various projects. While obtaining her masters degree at the University of Florida, Kara was a research associate for the Center for Construction and Environment, where her expertise was in the areas of sustainable urban planning, ar chitectural design and materials. She assisted the director in completing the USEPA SDCG Depot Avenue Eco Development Project. In order to better understand the economic value of deconstructed commercial buildings, she also analyzed the outflows of a recen tly demolished residential hall at the University of Florida. She also designed a prototype sustainable affordable house for the Alachua County Housing Authority. The approximately nine hundred square feet house plan will be used by ACHA when they replace substandard housing. In her spare time, Kara is striving toward completing the Architectural Registration Exam. Kara is an Associate Member of the American Institute of Architects and Phi Kappa Phi. Her interests include traveling to exotic places, reading and caring for her cat, Tigger.


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Full Text












SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS


By

KARA SUZANNE STRONG












A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUII;: II ENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001


















































Copyright 2001

by

Kara Suzanne Strong
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I want to thank my thesis committee for their assistance in the completion of this thesis.

Professor Nancy Clark focused my research and balanced the concerns of the other committee

members. Professor Ira Winarsky provided excellent assistance in researching sustainability

while Professor Luoni kept my case-study design appropriate to an urban environment.

I would also like to thank Professor Peter Prugh for his helpful advice in establishing my

goals while studying at the University of Florida. Brad Guy, from the Center for Construction

and Environment assisted me with his technical knowledge of all things sustainable. Jason Thiel,

of the Jacksonville Economic Development Commission, provided valuable insight and

information about the area in which I generated my thesis case-study.

Most importantly, I would like to thank David E. Johnson for his constant support and

understanding. I never would have considered undertaking graduate research without his

instigation. I especially appreciated his unceasing willingness to review my work as it evolved.

The clarity of this document is largely thanks to him

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGMENTS .....................................................iii

LIST OF TABLES........................................................................... vii

L IS T O F F IG U R E S .................................. ......................................................................................................... v iii

A B S T R A C T .. ..... .... ..............................................................................................................................................x

CHAPTERS

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................................................................. .

N a tu re o f th e P ro b le m ................................. .... ........... .... .............................................................................
Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods as Part of a Natural System........................................................ 3
Elem ents of a Sustainable U rban N eighborhood......................................................... ......................... 7
B en efits o f U rb an D ev elo p m en t.......................................................................... ......... ................ ....... 8
N e ig h b o rh o o d S c a le .............................................................................................................. ................ ....... 8
M ethod ology of Investigation ............................................................. ......................... ........... ........... 9

2 HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SUSTAINABILITY.................................................... 11

T ran sit O rien ted D ev elo p m en ts .................................................................................... ............................. 11
Reducing Dependence Upon Natural Resources.................................................................. 14
T ak in g th e N ex t S tep ................. ..................................................................................................................... 15
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s ...................................................................................................................................... 16
Passive Solar Design through Indigenous Prototypes .............................................................. 16
Cold Climate Design .....................................................17
T em operate C lim ate D design ............................................................................ ........... ............ ... 19
H ot A rid C lim ate D esig n .. .................... ........................................................... .............. ................ ......... 2 0
H o t H u m id C lim ate D esig n ........................................................................... ............ ................ ......... 2 1
R e c o m m en d a tio n s ........................................................................ .................................... ............... ....... 2 3
S election g G reen M materials ................................................................................................. ........................... 2 3
W h at is a G reen M material? ..................................................................... ................................................ 2 4
Using the Life Cycle Analysis for Material Selection......................................................... 24
G reen M material G u id es ...................................................................... ..................... .......... ...... 25
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s ............................................................................................................ ............... .......... 2 6










3 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS ...................27

S u stain a b le D ev elo p m en t ..................................................................... ....................... .......... ............... 2 7
Site Inventory ..................... .................... 28
N eig h b o rh o o d M aster P lan ................................................................................................ ......................31
Implementing the Sustainable Urban Neighborhood.................. ...... .......................34
G u id elin es fo r G reen B u ild in g s ........................................................................................... ........................ 35
Spatially Efficient ............................................. ....... 35
D esig n w ith th e C lim a te ................................................................................................. .......................... 36
E n e rg y E ffic ie n t S y ste m s .................................................................................................. ............... ......... 37
D e sig n fo r th e F u tu re ......................................................................................... ............ ........................ 3 7
Selecting and A ssem bling G reen M materials ........................................................................................... 38
P referred d M a te ria ls ............................................................................................. .......... ......... ............... 3 9
M a te ria ls to A v o id ............................................................................................................................... 4 0
U sin g G reen M ateria ls ................. ................................................................................................................... 4 1
T h e G reen est M material ................. ................................................................................................................... 4 1
Conclusion ......................... ........ ................. 42

4 SITE INVENTORY ....................................................43

L o c a l V is io n ................... ............................................................................................................................................ 4 4
C lim ate .................................................... ..................... ........ 49
Natural Features .................................................. ........................ 52
L a n d U s e s ................................... ...................................................................................................... . ........... ....... 5 4
N eight b orh ood C ircu latio n ................................................................................................. ...... ............ 55
Recommendations ........................................ 56
Local V ision............................................................................. 56
C lim a te .... ......... ....................................................................................................................................... 5 7
Natural Features ................................................ ........................ 57
Land Uses ......................................... 57
C ir c u la t io n ...................................................................................................................................................... 5 8

5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BROOKLYN .......................................................... ........... 66

N neighborhood M aster Plan ....................................... ................. ................. 66
N a tu ra l S y ste m s ................................. .......................................................................... .................. 6 7
G general C concepts for Proposed Land U ses ...................................................................................... 69
P rim a rily n o n resid en tial u ses .............................................................................................................. 7 0
Primarily residential uses.................................................................72
P rop osed C ircu latio n ....................................................................72
Prototype G reen Buildings .. ........................................................... ........................ 81
C om m ercial Structures .. ......................................... ..................... ................. 81
Sp atial arran g em en t .....................................................................82
A p p ro p ria te sy stem s....................... ............................................................................. ................. 8 3
R residential Structures .. ......................................... ...................... ................. 84
S p a tia l a rra n g e m e n t .......................................................................................................... ............... ......... 8 4
A p p ro p rate Sy stem s..... ............................................................................................. .................. 85
D design fo r th e F u tu re ..................... ................................................... .................................. ......... 85
Prototype Residential Structure for Brooklyn ...............................................86
G reen M material R ecom m endations .............................................................92










6 C O M P A R A T IV E A N A LY SIS ............... ..................................................................... ........................ 97

S u stain a b le D ev elo p m en t .............................................................................. ......... ............... ....... 9 7
E n erg y -E ffi cien t B u ild in g s ................................................................................................................... 10 2
C on clusion ............................. .............. ............... 10 6

7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................. ......... ........................ 107

L esson s L earn ed .. ............ ......................................................... .............................. ................ 10 8
A areas o f F u tu re R research ........................................................................... ........... .............. ........ 10 9

APPENDICES

A LEED RATING SYSTEM PROJECT CHECKLIST...................................110

B FLORIDA GREEN HOME STANDARD CHECKLIST........................................................... 113

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ............... .......................................................................................................... 119

B IO G R A P H IC A L S K E T C H ......................................................................................... .......................12 5
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Population Levels Required to Support Selected Urban Activities. ......................................33

2 Recommended Native Plants for Brooklyn's Natural Drainage Areas ...............................68

3 Retail Uses that Encourage Pedestrian Activity............................................ ................ 70

4 Recommended Green M materials for Brooklyn......................................................... ........... 92

5 Recom m ended Native Plants for Brooklyn..................................................... ................ 96

6 Comparison of Brooklyn Neighborhood Design Alternatives. .............................................98

7 Comparison of Prototype House and Construction House using Energy-10...................104















LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Page

1 System Diagram of an Evergreen Hardwood Forest. ...............................................................4

2 System Diagram of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood..................... ................ 5

3 Components of Sustainable Development. ......................... ....... ............................ 7

4 Cross Sectional Model of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood.............................................. 9

5 S altb o x C o n stru ctio n ........................................................... ................... 18

6 Sod Construction. .......... ........ ...... ....................................... ........ 20

7 A d o b e C o n structio n ......................... ............................................................................... ............... ....... 21

8 D ogtrot C construction ................................................................22

9 Components of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood................................................... 28

10 Bioclimatic Chart w ith Design Strategies. ................................ .....................................30

11 M materials as Part of a C losed Loop System .................................. ................ .... ... ............... 40

12 Location of the Brooklyn District inJacksonville, Florida............................................ 44

13 Aerial view of the Brooklyn Neighborhood inJacksonville, Florida.................................. 45

14 City ofJacksonville's Vision for their Downtown Redevelopment............ ............ 46

15 O pen Space and Pedestrian Plan. ..................................................................... .......................48

16 P a rtial P lan o f B ro o k ly n ...................................................................................... .......................4 8

17 Bioclim atic C hart for Jacksonville.................................................................... ............... 49

18 Yearly Precipitation forJacksonville ..................................................... .......................... 50

19 Sun Path D iagram for Jacksonville.................................................................... ............... 51

20 Soil Pattern Present in Leon-Boulogne -Evergreen. ....................................... ...................52

21 M cC oy's C reek ................... .......... ................... .......................................... 59



viii










2 2 T ree alo n g G ilm o re S treet.................................................................................. .......................5 9

23 V iew of Riverside Avenue near Forest Street................................................ ... ................... 60

24 Demolition along Riverside Avenue for Street Widening Project............................. 60

25 C lim atic Forces............................... ............... ....... 61

2 6 E x istin g N atu ra l S y stem s ................................................................................... .......................6 2

27 Existing Land U ses................ ..................................................63

28 Existing Circulation......................................... ........ 64

29 Summary of Existing Site Recommendations............................................... ................ 65

30 Parti of Brooklyn R edevelopm ent ...................................................... ..................................... 67

31 Proposed N natural System s ................................................................... .................. ........ 74

32 Proposed Land Uses......................................... ................... 75

3 3 P ro p o sed S ite C ircu latio n ..................................................................... .......... ...................... 7 6

34 D etail Plan of Brooklyn C enter...................................................... ............................................. 77

3 5 T y p ical R esid en tial B lo ck ................................................................................ ......................... 7 8

36 T typical Street Section s ................................................ ............................. 79

37 Typical Street and Pedestrian Path Sections................ ................................................ 80

38 Street Elevation of the Prototype House ........................................................ ............... 87

39 M ain Level Plan of the Prototype H ouse........................................................ ............... 88

40 U pper Level Plan of the Prototype H ouse...................................................... ....................... 89

41 Longitudinal Section through the Prototype House................................... ................90

42 Typical Wall Section through the Prototype House.................................. ............... 91

43 Brooklyn's Current Zoning Land Use Plan.................................................... ................ 99

44 Jacksonville's Future Master Plan for Brooklyn Land Use Plan.............. .... ............ 100

45 Proposed Sustainable Development Design Land Use Plan................................................101

4 6 M monthly Lighting E n ergy U se................................................... ............................................... 105

47 M monthly H V A C Energy U se.. ...................................................... ............................................... 105
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies

SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS

By

Kara Suzanne Strong

December 2001


Chairman: Nancy Clark
Major Department: Architecture

Many inner city neighborhoods in the United States suffer from neglect and

underutilization while suburban sprawl increases. Creating new housing subdivisions in

formerly rural environments and the consequent overdependence on the automobile is

environmentally unsustainable. A more sustainable alternative involves reusing previously

developed land in an environmentally sensitive manner. Cities provide an excellent opportunity

for creating dense sustainable neighborhoods that use existing infrastructure while providing a

direct connection to employment and services. This thesis proposes a methodology for designing

sustainable urban neighborhoods that integrate green materials, energy-efficient buildings and

sustainable development practices in formerly underdeveloped areas.

Analogous to natural ecosystems, a successful sustainable urban neighborhood functions

interdependently. As much as current technology allows, each component within the

neighborhood is designed to limit external resource needs and generated wastes. Within the

neighborhood, resources are used more efficiently by designing the sustainable urban

neighborhood from the smallest component to the largest system. Materials are carefully

selected for their minimal environmental impact and are detailed to generate minimal









construction waste and to allow ease of disassembly. Each building is designed to use natural

systems for heating, cooling, and ventilation while allowing flexibility for future adaptations.

Land uses within the neighborhood are organized to maximize transportation alternatives while

maintaining the closed-loop system. By incorporating the proposed neighborhood's local vision,

climate, infrastructure, resources, and circulation patterns, descriptive recommendations were

developed for the design of a sustainable urban neighborhood.

To test this methodology, an existing urban neighborhood was designed using the

proposed guidelines. Jacksonville, Florida is an example of a largely underdeveloped central city

surrounded by sprawling suburbs. The Brooklyn neighborhood in particular currently suffers

from economic neglect and may soon be redeveloped by the City. While the city's vision

recommends a transit-oriented development in order to minimize transportation requirements,

the sustainable urban neighborhood alternative proposes a design that encourages energy

efficiency throughout the development.

The proposed Brooklyn design shows that a sustainable urban neighborhood is more

sensitive to natural systems and requires less energy to maintain. When compared to the current

zoning or approved master plan, the proposed sustainable urban neighborhood has a greater

variety of transportation alternatives while decreasing the amount of paved surfaces. Stormwater

is retained naturally within the site that requires minimal cost to install and maintain; and it can

recharge the aquifer. The increased percentage of mixed-use development generates an active

neighborhood and enables resources to be used efficiently. The efficiency of the design is

reinforced through the analysis of the prototype house. When compared to conventional

construction and design, the prototype generates approximately seven thousand pounds less

carbon dioxide per year and requires 22% less energy to operate than conventional construction.

The analysis suggests that using the proposed guidelines for designing sustainable urban

neighborhoods creates energy-efficient communities.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Nature of the Problem

Due to human consumption and destruction of natural resources, the earth's natural

systems have been stressed nearly to the point of collapse. The temperature of the Earth's surface

is strongly influenced by the existence, density, and composition of its atmosphere. Many gases

in the Earth's atmosphere such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide

absorb infrared radiation reradiated from the surface, trapping heat in the lower atmosphere.1

Without this natural greenhouse effect, the Earth would be a frozen planet. Since the Industrial

Revolution, anthropogenic emissions have greatly increased the concentrations of greenhouse

gases and are now beginning to affect the climate. Carbon dioxide, the most significant

anthropogenic greenhouse gas, has increased in atmospheric concentration by 31% since 1750.

Approximately 75% of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide originate from fossil fuel

burning; the remainder is mostly due to deforestation.2 The increase in concentration of

greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to increased global temperatures (1 F since 1961),

reduced snow and ice cover (a 10% reduction since the late 1960s) and rising sea levels

(approximate six inches during the 20th century).3



1Paul McArdle et al.,Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999 [online] (Washington D.C.:
Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, U.S. Department of
Energy, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]); File no. DOE/EIA-0573(99), available from
ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt/057399.pdf, 1.

2 Daniel L. Albritton et al., Summary for Policymakers: A Report of Working Group 1 of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [online] (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, 2000 [cited 13 April 2001]); available from http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/spm22-01.pdf, 7.

3 Ibid., 14.










The United States contributes more to greenhouse gas emissions than any other nation.

While the country constitutes only 4.6% of the world's population,4 it emits 24.7% of the world's

carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels,5 These emissions are divided into the sectors of

transportation (33% of total US emissions), industrial (32%), residential (19%) and commercial

(16%).6 Given that motorized vehicles contribute approximately 85% of carbon dioxide

emissions in the transportation sector,7 this suggests that US vehicle emissions alone contribute

nearly 7% of world carbon dioxide emissions.8

Within the construction industry, fossil fuel dependency can be reduced in several ways.

This thesis recommends reducing the need for vehicular transportation, which is the single

largest anthropogenic contributor to the greenhouse effect. The current practice of constructing

new subdivisions on former greenspaces requires long commutes into the city to access

employment. Between 1969 and 1995, the average commute, in miles, has increased 25%, and in

1995 commuting comprised 31% of all vehicular travel.9 To reverse this trend, this thesis

recommends constructing new mixed-use neighborhoods in underdeveloped urban areas. The


4 U.S. Census Bureau. POPClocks [online] (Washington D.C.: Census Bureau, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]);
available from http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html.

5 MichaelJ Grillot et al., International Energy Annual 1999 [online] (Washington D.C.: Energy Information
Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy [cited 13 April 2001]);
File no. DOE/EIA-0219(99), availablefromhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/pdf/international/021999.pdf,227-
228. In the United States, 98% of carbon dioxide emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels,
from Paul M cArdle et al., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, viii.

6 McArdle et al., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, ix.

7 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Indicators
[online] (Washington D.C.: Department of Transportation, 2001 [cited 13 April 2001]); available from
http://bts.gov/transtu/indicators/Environment.pdf, 90.

8 An amount which, if accurate, exceeds the carbon dioxide emissions of fossil fuels for every other
country, save China. See MichaelJ Grillot et al., International Energy Annual 1999, 227-228.

9 Patricia S. Hu and Jennifer R. Young, Summary of Travel Trends: 1995 Nationwide Personal
Transportation Survey [online], prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation [cited 27 May 2001]); available
from http://www-cta.ornl.gov/npts/1995/DOC/trends report.pdf, 13. The remainder of vehicle travel
consists of shopping (13% of total travel), personal business (21%), social and recreational (23%) and
miscellaneous (30%).










new development can then reuse existing infrastructure while preserving existing rural land. If

Americans return to living within the city while using alternative forms of transportation, the

nation can begin to reduce its dependency on the automobile.

While constructing new neighborhoods in existing cities can decrease the consumption

of fossils fuels by reducing American dependence on cars, a more sustainable urban

neighborhood also results in reduced commercial and residential use of fossil fuels. Considering

that the construction industry consumes 30% of the total national energy,10 more efficiently

designed structures significantly reduce American energy requirements. This goal is

accomplished by replicating natural climax ecosystems with a diversity of systems that are

interconnected and energy-efficient. Specifically, a sustainable urban neighborhood must

consider material selection, building design and the development layout in order to reduce its

external energy requirements and waste.


Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods as Part of a Natural System

Ideally, a sustainable urban neighborhood functions similar to natural systems. Natural

systems strive to maintain a balance, or steady-state between its various components, eventually

reaching climax status." In climax ecosystems, all available energies are used within the system.

The system reuses or recycles all waste, maximizing its available power. Greater diversity

increases the stability of the system by making it less susceptible to external disturbances. A

disturbance may affect one component of the system, but it should not damage the entire

ecosystem, as it might in a monoculture system. Instead, the climax ecosystem should repair the

damage to the system and return to equilibrium.




10 Charles J. Kibert,Jan Sendzimir and Brad Guy, "Construction ecology and metabolism: natural system
analogues for a sustainable built environment," Construction Management and Economics 18 (2000): 913.

1 Paragraph is summarized from Howard T. Odum, Elisabeth C. Odum and Mark T. Brown, Environment
and Society in Florida (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1998), 63-71.






























Figure 1: System Diagram of an Evergreen Hardwood Forest. Howard T. Odum, Elisabeth C.
Odum and Mark T. Brown, Environment and Society in Florida (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis
Publishers, 1998), 210.




The energy model of the sustainable urban neighborhood represents the

interconnectedness of the proposed system. While energy flows from low energy sources to

higher ones, reusing or recycling wastes within the neighborhood reduces its external energy

requirements. Since all of the products used within the neighborhood cannot be produced within

an urban environment, this model shows the additional components as part of the ecological

footprint for the neighborhood. Sensitive design responses reducs the neighborhood's required

support region by minimizing the need for components not produced within the neighborhood.

Similar to all natural systems, energy flows from the sun, wind and rain are the

foundation for the entire system The energy flows create the local microclimate and ecosystems

and they fuel local industries and agriculture. The ecosystems in turn support urban agriculture

and other vital green spaces within the neighborhood. These resources also create renewable

materials for use in residential, commercial and industrial sectors.





















I.


1C,;




It IIC I B 2










Goods required by the neighborhood are processed by the commercial sector. The people

within and without the neighborhood supply the labor to produce these goods and other

functions within the city. Money circulates through the local economy, flowing in from the sale

of goods processed by the neighborhood and flowing out to pay for services not generated within

the neighborhood.

Fuel and power sources required by the sustainable urban neighborhood are ideally

generated from renewable sources, such as sun, wind and rain. During periods when these

sources are unavailable, fuels from non-renewable sources are utilized. The components within

the neighborhood are designed to minimize energy and goods produced from nonrenewable

sources.

Wastes generated by the sustainable urban neighborhood are recycled back into the

system and used as an energy source. Wastewater can be treated within the neighborhood and

used for irrigation while food wastes can be composted and used for fertilizer. Whenever

possible, waste products are sorted for recycling and waste construction materials are salvaged

and reused in other neighborhood construction projects. Reusing neighborhood wastes locally

reduces external energy requirements.

The interconnected nature of the sustainable urban neighborhood energy model suggests

that components should not be added or removed without considering the impact to the overall

system Each component has unique energy requirements and generates wastes that the system

must accept. If the system cannot adapt to the proposed change, external energy sources are

required in order to the restore balance within the system. An interdependent neighborhood

requires a smaller support region than a conventional one, but the interdependent neighborhood

requires greater sensitivity during its design, development and operation.









Elements of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood

By definition, a sustainable development occurs only when the development is balanced

between ecological viability, economical feasibility and social desirability.12 The ecological

objectives of any sustainable development should include restoring the natural ecosystem and

maximizing the diversity of natural systems. No development is possible unless it can be

constructed within the means of its developers. The social objectives of a sustainable

development require the design to be a response to the needs of those intended to live within its

boundaries. This involves local participation in the design process, maintaining a cultural

identity, and allowing for social mobility. Although the emphasis given to each of these

objectives is subject to interpretation, all of them should be included in a truly sustainable

development.1








Susialnablc
Development\






Figure 3: Components of Sustainable Development. Adapted from C. Lee Campbell and
Walter W. Heck, Principles of Sustainable Development, ed. F. Douglas Muschett
(Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997), 56.



This thesis focuses on the ecological feasibility of the proposed guidelines. Specifically,

this thesis compares the inputs and outflows of the existing neighborhood to the proposed


12 C. Lee Campbell and Walter W. Heck, Principles of Sustainable Development, ed. F. Douglas Muschett
(Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997), 56.

"1 Ibid., 55.









sustainable urban neighborhood. Social desirability and economic feasibility are addressed

through the review and application of reports produced by the local government.


Benefits of Urban Development

On average, fifteen percent of American urban land is vacant. The strategic reuse of

urban vacant land and abandoned structures represents a key opportunity to encourage greater

density and reduce the development of suburban or rural greenfields.14 Building in urban

environments allows developments to use existing infrastructure, such as utilities, water and

roadway systems, which constitutes significant expenditures in greenfield development. People

who live within central cities are less dependent on automobiles for transportation because of

the close proximity of employment and services. A properly planned urban neighborhood

provides opportunities for their residents to walk, bicycle or take public transportation to other

parts of the city.


Neighborhood Scale

This thesis attempts to develop the sustainable urban neighborhood as part of a natural

system. The urban neighborhood is perhaps the smallest unit that one can visualize all of the

components as part of a natural system. The sustainable urban neighborhood is presented at

three separate scales in order to focus on specific components of the system (see Figure 2). These

components are designed sustainably within the scale under consideration and with the overall

system. For example, the neighborhood scale addresses the major components and land uses and

how they connect and interrelate to form a cohesive system. The building scale of this thesis

increases the focus of the project by approximately fifty times in order to visualize individual

structures. This scale includes not only the building forms, but also the internal and external

systems adjacent to the buildings. The materials scale takes an even closer view of the


14 Michael A. Pagano and Ann O'M. Bowman, "Vacant Land in Cities: An Urban Resource," The Brookings
Institution [online] (Washington D.C., December 2000 [cited April 27,2001]); available from
http://brook.edu/es/urban/pagano/paganofinal.pdf,1.











neighborhood. At this scale, the thesis considers both the selection of materials and how the

materials are connected to form energy-efficient buildings.






4
4 r 1 nL0n # 4


A* fo.L H X


r7


9 '




N O


IL
S
I
V
I

II

I
*
4,
zy


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Figure 4: Cross Sectional Model of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood





Methodology of Investigation

This thesis begins the investigation of sustainable urban neighborhoods by considering

precedents for each scale. By analyzing existing theories for sustainable developments, energy-

efficient structures and green materials, this research helps define the ideal components of the

sustainable urban neighborhood.

Next, the thesis defines the guidelines for creating sustainable urban neighborhoods

from the neighborhood, building and material scales. These guidelines are sufficiently general so

that they can be applied to any urban environment.


**
S
a
*
*




I
ISt
I

t
1k









To test the hypothesis that an existing urban environment can be redeveloped

sustainably, the remainder of the thesis focuses on a case -study of a sustainable urban

neighborhood designed based on the guidelines presented in chapter three. Chapter four

summarizes the local vision and existing site conditions. Chapter five illustrates the proposed

neighborhood design, requirements for energy-efficient structures and recommended green

materials. Chapter six compared the proposed neighborhood design to the current zoning and

the local vision as well as the environmental benefits of the prototype house to a more

conventional one.

The final chapter summarizes the lessons learned in the formation and testing of this

thesis. A series of observations and a final conclusion addresses the viability of developing

guidelines for sustainable urban neighborhoods.

















CHAPTER 2
HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SUSTAINABILITY

A sustainable urban neighborhood should be designed at three different scales: the use of

materials, how the materials combine to form structures, and the organization of structures

within the overall neighborhood. Each scale must be designed environmentally sensitive within

itself and it must also be integrated within the entire system. Therefore, consideration of how

each scale has been designed sustainably in the past in order determines how it should be

adapted to the sustainable urban environment. For example, while transit oriented developments

provide an alternative to automobile dependency by providing goods and services within

walking distance of the entire neighborhood, these developments generally are not responsive to

climate or other environmental factors. In contrast, much indigenous architecture evolved as a

response to the local climate and available materials, and therefore provides many examples of

energy efficient design that uses environmentally sensitive materials. No standard exists for

determining if a material is 'green', but materials selected for use in the sustainable urban

neighborhood should minimize the environmental impact of new construction over its entire life

cycle and contribute to the overall energy efficiency of the structure. A better understanding of

how these elements have been previously understood leads to a more complete understanding of

the components within the sustainable urban neighborhood.


Transit Oriented Developments

Commuting to the city from the suburbs is not a recent phenomenon. For example in

1827, the omnibus transformed the residential make -up of larger cities in the United States.

Those able to afford the omnibus were able to escape the crowded city and live in the outlying









districts and thereby became the first commuters."5 By the late nineteenth century, a series of

technological advances in transportation and communication accelerated the process of urban

population deconcentration. The advent of the trolley, rapid transit and the automobile extended

the commuting distance between one's residence and place of employment.16 This pattern of low-

density growth greatly increased after World War II with the advent of federal legislation that

provided low-cost builder and buyer programs, as well as a massive highway-construction

program that made it easier for people of modest means to live away from their city jobs and

activities. Unfortunately, the new suburban communities consisted almost exclusively of low-

density single-family residences and did not provide pedestrian access to shopping or other basic

services. The resulting sprawling developments are automobile-dependent and wasteful of

natural resources." A more sustainable development shall respect the environment and allow

residents to access employment and shopping through less energy intensive methods of

transportation. Transit-oriented development, or TOD, consists of a high-density, mixed-use,

pedestrian-oriented environment within convenient walking distance of a transit station. While

TOD's must be modified to maximize energy efficiency and reflect modem shopping habits, this

concept can create an environment where one may socialize, work, and shop within short

walking distance of home.'8

The basic principle for all transit-oriented developments, regardless of location, is

straightforward: they must be mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented and support all income levels. A






"5 Howard P. Chudacoff, and Judith E. Smith, The Evolution of American Urban Society (New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000), 86-87.

16 Edward S. Shihadeh and Graham C. Ousey, "Metropolitan Expansion and Black Social Dislocation: The
Link between Surburbanization and Center-City Crime," Social Forces 75(2) (1996): 652.

L7JohnJ. Macionis, and Vince Parrillo, Cities and Urban Life (NewJersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000), 106.

18 David Salvesen, "Promoting Transit-Oriented Development," Urban Land,July 1996,31.










successful TOD minimizes private space in order to maximize public areas.19 A TOD

neighborhood has a central core consisting of a public transit station that is the focal point of the

neighborhood. Within 1,200 feet of the station, which represents a reasonable walking distance,

is a mix of shopping centers, office facilities, and multi-family housing.20 Farther from the center

but within a ten-minute walk of the transit station, the development is less dense and more

residential, eventually becoming single-family housing.21 Reinforcing the multimodal nature of

these developments, TOD's are combined with multiple pedestrian and bicycle routes, increasing

the resident's travel options. Aesthetically, buildings should address the street and sidewalk

with entries, balconies, porches, architectural features, and activities that help create safe,

pleasant pedestrian oriented environments. Building densities, orientation and massing should

promote more active commercial centers, support transit, and reinforce public spaces. The

architectural detail should also show a strong connection to human scale.22

In suburban areas, transit-oriented developments require both a private market for

denser, less automobile dependent neighborhoods and governmental approval of higher density

development near stations. Public policies that allow intensive building adjacent to stations and

promote transit-friendly design can generate the most efficient use of travel opportunities

afforded by transit service. Further, transportation and land use planning agencies must work

together to develop locations for transit-oriented development. Both organizations benefit from







19 Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and the American Dream, (New
York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993), 53.

20 Ibid., 55.

21 Roxanne Warren, abstract of The Urban Oasis: Guideways and Greenways in the Human Environment
[online] (New York: McGraw-Hill, [cited 22January 01]); available from
http://faculty.washington.edu/-jbs/itrans.
22 Calthorpe, American Metropolis, 65.










this synergy, since a successful TOD offers transit agencies a means to increase ridership while

providing cities a mechanism to generate less resource intensive development.23


Reducing Dependence Upon Natural Resources

Perhaps counterintuitively, compact urban regions provide better opportunities for

healthy ecological systems than suburban development and rural density housing. By creating

denser developments less dependent on the automobile for transportation, transit-oriented

developments use fewer natural resources, are better able to recycle wastes, and allow for more

natural biodiversity than conventional developments.24 By locating new TODs in underutilized

places near urban centers, consumers are closer to the areas of production and distribution. In

addition, dense urban developments reduce the need to destroy rural greenspaces or agricultural

land in order to create additional housing.

In the United States, the automobile and its supporting services and infrastructure, such

as roads and highways, significantly contribute to the destruction of the natural environment

and resources. If land use configurations support alternatives to the car, then many positive

results are possible: people may choose to walk, bike and use transit more often; they can

combine trips more easily; and because of these changes, slowly reduce their overdependence on

the automobile." According to one authority, properly planned transit-oriented developments

may reduce automobile travel by 20-25% compared with conventional developments.26







23 David Salvesen, "Promoting Transit-Oriented Development," 87.

24 Urban Sustainability Learning Group, Staying in the Game: Exploring Options for Urban Sustainability
(Chicago, IL: The Tides Center, 1996), 24.

25 Calthorpe, American Metropolis, 46.

26 "Transit Oriented Development" Online TDM Encyclopedia [online] (Victoria, British Columbia:
Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2001 [cited 22January 2001]); available from http://www.vtpi.org/tdm.










Taking the Next Step

Transit-oriented development does create the possibility for significant automotive

energy and air pollution reductions as well as an improved community fabric. However, TOD

planners do not provide specific recommendations for adapting to the local climate.27 In fact,

some proponents of TOD's believe that planners can 'go too far' in bringing nature into human

settlement. They state that 'urban vitality' should not be sacrificed for green space and the

development should not be designed while considering the buildings' energy-efficiency.28 This

theory does not consider that a carefully designed development can be both environmentally

responsible and meet the needs of the community.

When planning new developments also consider that store are generally increasing in

size and thus require larger catchment areas.29 The success of a transit-oriented development

depends on the profitability of businesses located within the TOD. Unprofitable businesses

relocate, reducing the TOD to a solely residential development. Today, commercial businesses

prefer larger structures to take advantage of economies of scale and therefore require a large

market area. Consumers who prefer to buy cheaply and have a large selection readily available

reinforce this marketing strategy. Since most TOD's are designed for a maximum of 5,000 people,

they cannot support large retail structures, which require population levels in excess of 10,000

people.30 In addition, large stores do not easily fit within the dense scale of a TOD.31 In order for



27 Charles J. Kibert and G. Bradley Guy, "Abacoa: A Model for Sustainable Land Development," Land
Development. Spring-Summer 1997, 25-29.

28 Calthorpe, American Metropolis, 44.

29 Randal O'Toole,The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths (Bandon, Oregon: Thoreau
Institute, 2001), 136. Catchment area refers to number of people who can access the business. This number
is dependent on the desired transportation method. In TOD's, where pedestrians generally access
businesses, the catchment area is limited to a half-mile walking radius.

30 Joseph de Chiara,Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik, eds., Time-Saver Standards for Housing and
Residential Development, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995), 10. Supermarkets require a
minimum of 10,000 people in the catchment area while department stores or shopping centers require
20,000 people.










TOD's to become a viable alternative to conventional developments, transit oriented

developments must respect the reality of current shopping habits. Many people may be tempted

to return to the automobile to do their shopping, unless TOD's can be adapted to provide

sufficient population to support larger shopping centers.


Recommendations

While mass transit initiated sprawl, it now can contribute to the reversal of its damaging

effects of sprawl not generated by automobile usage. People can become less dependent on the

automobile when commercial and residential uses are clustered around transit stops, allowing

other transportation options. Transit oriented developments require less land per person because

of their density. Both of these factors improve air quality and minimize our dependence on non-

renewable resources. However, transit-oriented developments should go further to minimize

their impact on the environment. New developments should be more responsive to climatic and

ecological influences. A more site-specific master plan improves the potential environmental

benefits of the design. The designers of these developments must also consider the economic

concerns of the commercial enterprises they wish to attract. The potential of transit-oriented

developments to reduce automobile usage is unquestioned, but its guiding principles require

refinement.


Passive Solar Design through Indigenous Prototypes

Until the advent of cheap fossil fuels in the middle to late 1800s, people typically oriented

their homes and commercial buildings to maximize natural lighting and solar thermal gain. They

used renewable resources such as hydropower, wind and biomass, for additional heating and





31John Niles and Dick Nelson, "Measuring the Success of Transit-Oriented Development: Retail Market
Dynamics and Other Key Determinants," paper presented at the American Planning Association, National
Planning Conference, Seattle, Washington, 24-28 April 1999, 6.










ventilation requirements.32 In early American homes, architectural style was not as important as

developing a response to the local site conditions and building with available materials.

Indigenous architecture therefore provides many useful examples of passive solar design

principles. A better understanding of indigenous responses to climate and the use of available

materials suggests improvements to modern energy-efficient house design.


Cold Climate Design

Covering most of the Northern United States, above 40 latitude, the cold climate

features cloudy, cold winters and bright, warm summers. During the winter, prevailing winds

generally originate from the northwest while hot summer afternoons the wind is out of the

south-southwest. While most of the precipitation is during the summer, structures must

accommodate large amounts of winter snow.3

In the extreme northeast, early Americans had to work hard to stay warm. New England

Colonial houses were constructed of local timbers and usually consisted of one main space with a

centrally located fireplace -that doubled as both a space heater and a cook stove. Architectural

strategies helped to warm the interior. Windows were oriented to the south or west to allow in

solar warmth and light the indoor space, while the colder north elevation, was generally

windowless. The saltbox form illustrates how early American architecture adapted to the reality

of harsh winters. The distinctive long roof reached almost to the ground on the north side to

deflect the strong winter wind while allowing a second story on the warmer south elevation.34





32 StevenJ. Strong, Reshaping the Built Environment: Ecology, Ethics and Economics, ed. Charles J. Kibert
(Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999), 89.

33 Victor Olgyay, Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1963), 153.

34 Jim Kemp, American Vernacular: Regional Influences in Architecture and Interior Design (New York:
Viking Penguin Inc., 1987), 17.





























Figure 5: Saltbox Construction. Reprinted fromJim Kemp, American Vernacular: Regional
Influences in Architecture and Interior Design (New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987), 38.



Modem structures built in cold climates should follow the energy efficient principles of

saltbox construction. Ideally, the structure should emphasize retaining heat and radiant

absorption, while minimizing conduction or evaporation loss. Due to the long winter season,

conservation of heating is a higher priority than providing for summer comfort, although both

needs should be met by the design. To maximize heat gain, orient structures along the east-west

axis. In residential forms, two -story houses under one common roof are preferable for

compactness. Locate the main living spaces along the warmer southern elevation and storage

rooms and garages along the cold northern face of the building. In addition, evergreen

windbreaks in the direction of winter winds shelters the structure while deciduous trees or a

roof overhang along the southern elevation cool the building in the summer.3 When adapted to

modern technologies, the saltbox form remains an ideal response to cold climate requirements.


35 Olgyay, Design with Climate, 155.










Temperate Climate Design

In most of the United States, the weather is balanced between hot summers and freezing

winters. As with the cold climate, winter winds come from the northwest while summer winds

originate from the south-southwest direction. Precipitation is also evenly distributed, with snow

cover lasting only a few days during the winter. The summer tends to be rather humid with the

west-facing exposures becoming overheated.

In the western United States, timber was not always available in sufficient quantities for

house construction. While suitable clays existed for brick construction, the fuel to fire the bricks

did not exist for early American settlers. Much of the best agricultural land of the plains was

covered with thick soils that prevented access to the underlying rock for use as building stone.

Therefore, pioneer settlers developed techniques of building with sod. Sod construction

consisted of cutting the uppermost few inches of soil, along with the interlocking roots of the

tough plains grasses, into rectangular sections with a special plow. These were then laid like

bricks to make thick earthen walls that provided excellent insulation from both summer heat

and winter cold.36

This region permits the most flexible structural forms. Because temperatures are within

acceptable human comfort ranges throughout most of the year, provide a strong connection

between interior and exterior spaces. Elongated buildings to encourage cross-ventilation should

be provided. Locate bedrooms along the cooler east elevations and place outdoor living spaces on

the south. Similar to cold climate construction, locate tree breaks against the northwest winter

wind direction and provide deciduous shade trees along the south and west elevations.37 While

sod house construction is no longer appropriate to modern ventilation requirements, modern

equivalents, such as earth berming and rammed-earth construction are effective means of


36 Virginia M cAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc., 1984), 86.

37 Olgyay, Design with Climate, 161.









minimizing temperature swings as well as utilizing a locally available renewable material. Sod

roofs, applied over modern roof systems, insulates the home while absorbing stormwater.





















Figure 6: Sod Construction. Reprinted from Kemp, American Vernacular, 124.



Hot Arid Climate Design

This region is characterized by large daily temperature swings and intense sunlight with

the hottest part of the building along the western face. Unlike the cold and temperate climates,

the prevailing breeze follows the east-west axis. This part of the country receives minimal

rainfall, and therefore water conservation is extremely important.

In the southwestern United States, early Spanish-American houses were constructed of

adobe bricks. Adobe is a particularly durable material made by blending soil, water and straw

and formed into bricks. The adobe brick walls were often two to three feet thick with small

windows, forming a thermal mass that absorbed the heat during the day and released the heat

into the home during the relatively cooler evenings. The exterior of the houses were coated with

a protective layer of whitewash, which also reduced the heat load. Adobe houses typically began

as a single space, rooms were later added to form an internal courtyard. The courtyard is partially










covered to create a sheltered connection between rooms.38 Each room was accessed through the

courtyard, placing the house circulation on the exterior and allowing trapped heat to escape

during the evening while providing outdoor sleeping spaces.
















Figure 7: Adobe Construction. Reprinted from Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, A
Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984), 134.



The adobe house illustrates that encouraging heat loss is the guiding principle of design

in hot and humid climates. Design the floor plan to require a minimum of movement. To

minimize solar loads, locate non-inhabited spaces on the overheated west exposure. In addition,

use light exterior colors to reduce heat absorption.39 The massive walls of adobe construction

continue to be utilized as a successful means of absorbing heat during the day while keeping the

interior spaces cool, and releasing it during the cooler evenings.


Hot Humid Climate Design

Unlike the hot arid climate, this region is characterized by minimal daily temperature

variations. Ocean breezes predominate along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, while wind velocity is

less than ten miles per hour for the remainder of the region. Summer breezes originate in the



38 Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, Field Guide, 132.

39 Olgyay, Design with Climate, 167.










south while winter wind comes from the north. Most of yearly rainfall comes principally during

the summer months. The most significant design concern is the constant humidity. During the

summer months, outdoor humidity rises well above the comfortable range.

In the southeast, air circulation provided the only means of cooling early American

houses. The dogtrot house featured an open breezeway that extends through the center of the

house, which separated the overheated kitchen from the rest of the house. In addition, these

houses were located several feet above ground. With this design, cooling breezes flowed though

the breezeway, under the floor and above the roof, allowing ventilation in several directions.

Originally, the houses were constructed of locally available wood walls and tin roofs. The roof

deflects the heat of the sun and its large overhang shaded the exterior walls and windows.40


















Figure 8: Dogtrot Construction Reprinted from Kemp, American Vernacular, 78.



As the dogtrot house illustrates, buildings in the hot humid climate should encourage air

movement. Where possible, maximize surface area to encourage air circulation. Sun radiation

builds up continuously during the day, requiring large shaded areas throughout the year. Heat


40 Kemp, American Vernacular, 78.










and moisture -producing areas should be isolated from the remainder of the house.41 In addition,

any trees placed near the home should have high branches to allow breezes to pass below while

providing some shade.


Recommendations

In the quest to create or emulate the latest style, many architects have abandoned the

basic principles of passive solar design and relied on modern technologies to provide basic

human comfort levels. However, this practice requires significant amounts of energy for heating,

cooling and ventilation. A more sustainable structure works with the local climate and use local,

renewable materials. Studying the indigenous structures of that area increases the understanding

of how buildings should interpret these influences. Indigenous buildings are a direct

manifestation of local environmental influences, the ultimate form of passive solar design

principles. Adapting these principles to reflect modern technologies and program considerations

improves the energy-efficiency of house design.


Selecting Green Materials

An energy-efficient architectural design begins by selecting environmentally sensitive

materials. Truly green materials do not negatively impact the environment in their extraction or

manufacture while minimizing the energy required to heat or cool the building. While

manufactures extol the virtues of their green materials, their products are not always as 'green' as

they claim. Without an accepted industry standard, anyone may claim that any particular

product is green.42 This claim is not without some basis in reality, because the environmental

sensitivity of any product is subject to interpretation. For example, while wood is a renewable

resource, if the wood is conventionally harvested or requires preservative treatment in its

application, then wood may not be the best option for framing. On the other hand, steel stud


41 Olgyay, Design with Climate, 173.

42 Abby Bussel, "Eco-Evaluators: What Do They Do?" Progressive Architecture, March 1993, 90.










manufacturing releases various air and water pollutants, but used steel framing can be easily

recycled back into new studs.43 Both products can claim some level of environmental sensitivity,

but the issue remains as to which is the greener product.


What is a Green Material?

To begin with, there is no one specific definition of a green material. Among

commentators a general consensus exists that a green product should be biodegradable, low in

embodied energy, low in toxins and in emissions of volatile organic compounds, contain recycled

compounds and in themselves recyclable and are derived from renewable resources.44 However,

few products completely meet the stringent requirements for environmentally sensitive

materials. The challenge consists of deciding which measures are the most critical. Emerging

standards recommend selecting materials based on the environmental impact of their life cycle.


Using the Life Cycle Analysis for Material Selection

The life cycle analysis is based on the belief that all stages in the life of a product generate

an environmental impact. A life cycle analysis considers how the material was extracted,

manufactured and transported to the site, the performance of the material once installed, and

whether the material can be reused or recycled. While an individual product may claim to be

green based on one stage, it might not be 'green' in other life -cycle stages, which offsets the

perceived benefits of the product.45

Currently several guidelines have been created to help in green material selection. The

difference between them lies in determining the relative importance of each criterion. In the




43 Nadav Malin, "Is Wood or Metal "Greener"?", Progressive Architecture, September 1995, 41.

44 Stewart Mosberg, "What Do We Mean by "Green"?" Progressive Architecture, March 1991, 62.

45 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building for Environmental and Economic
Sustainability Ver. 2.0 (BEES 2.0) (Washington D.C.: National Institute of Standards and Technology), 1.










wood/steel stud example, is the harvesting of the product more important, or how it's

manufactured?


Green Material Guides

The editors of the Environmental Building News advocate the analysis of the entire life-

cycle when selecting green materials. Their selection process is based on research into the

qualities of the raw materials, energy consumed in its production and disposal and any by

products generated during its life -cycle.46 They place the largest importance on the product's

usage within the building because, of the relatively long lifetime that the building material is in

use.47 This standard does not consider that some products spend the most of their lifetime

decomposing in a landfill or that some products are more easily recycled than others. Because

wood studs are not commonly reused in construction while steel studs are relatively simple to

recycle, steel may therefore be the better alternative, especially if the steel is derived from

recycled sources. The editors of the Environmental Building News recommended wood studs

only if they are available from sustainably managed forests; otherwise, they suggested specifying

steel studs.48

Similar to EBN, the Environmental Resource Guide reviews the entire life cycle of a

product to determine its environmental impact. Its main difference is that the ERG does not

place a priority on any one stage; rather, it provides the basic research and leaves it to the user to

determine the product's acceptability.49 This approach places a larger burden on the user and

may result in a harmful product being incorrectly specified. In keeping with the ERG's decision


46 Nadav Malin and Alex Wilson, "Material Selection: Tools, Resources, and Techniques for Choosing
Green", Environmental Building News ,January 1997, 1.

47 Ibid., 12.
48 Malin, "Is Wood or Metal "Greener"?", 41.

49 American Institute of Architects,Environmental Resource Guide, (Washington D.C.: American Institute
of Architects, Inc., 1994), 2:xiii.










not to provide definitive suggestions for specific products or materials, the guide recommends

neither wood nor steel.

The United States Department of Commerce has developed a separate set of guidelines

for selecting green materials. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability

Standard has created a "systematic methodology for selecting building products that achieve the

most appropriate balance between environmental and economic performance based on the

decision maker's values".s0 Based on established standards for determining the life cycle 'cost' as

well as considering the actual cost of each product, this standard determines an overall

performance measure. This system has great potential for relatively inexperienced users to select

green materials. However, few products have been analyzed to date, so other methods need to be

used in the interim. The BEES guideline recommends wood studs overwhelmingly over steel

studs.


Recommendations

Current research suggests that the selection of green materials should be dependent the

environmental impact of their life cycle. Because products that excel in one criterion may be

weak in another, one must balance the relative environmental strengths and weaknesses of

various materials, considering, for example: energy efficiency, low toxicity and use of renewable

resources. While several green guidelines exist to assist in product selection, their

recommendations can be contradictory. Unfortunately, no single recognized standard exists for

evaluating the relative merits between competing products. As in the metal/wood stud selection,

the ultimate responsibility for green material selection rests on the user.


50 BEES 2.0,1-2.















CHAPTER 3
GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS

The primary goal of this thesis is to develop guidelines for creating sustainable urban

neighborhoods for any inner-city location. An ideal sustainable urban neighborhood functions

analogously to a natural ecosystem while meeting the needs of the community. In order to

achieve this goal, each element of the neighborhood must be designed interdependently. In

addition, the waste products of each component of the neighborhood should be selected or

designed to become the input of another component of the neighborhood, thus creating a closed-

loop system This thesis therefore recommends designing each scale within the system

concurrently with the other scales to assure interdependency. As Figure 9 illustrates, the form of

the sustainable urban neighborhood is dependent on the interaction between the various scales.

For example, the development cannot be designed until the spatial needs of the buildings located

within the neighborhood are addressed. In turn, the structures should not be designed without

understanding how the selected materials impact their forms. The interconnected nature of the

sustainable urban neighborhood should be considered while developing each component of the

system


Sustainable Development

Conceptually, the overall design of a sustainable neighborhood is similar to a transit

oriented development, but with greater sensitivity to environmental issues and natural systems.

Before designing a sustainable urban neighborhood, analyze the existing climate, infrastructure,

and circulation patterns. The existing conditions must be understood before the neighborhood

can be designed sustainably. The neighborhood should then be designed to encourage public









transit, pedestrian and bicycle connections in order to minimize the need for automobiles.5'

Organizing the core of the neighborhood about a transit stop and locating all structures within

the neighborhood within walking distance of the center encourages alternate forms of transit.





SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT


Figure 9: Components of a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood


Beyond transportation needs, the neighborhood is designed to minimize energy input

and waste outflows. The lots are oriented to maximize passive solar design strategies for as many

of the structures as possible. Also, land uses within the development are selected to meet the

needs of the community while encouraging interdependency between the various structures.


Site Inventory

Before designing the development, begin by analyzing the potential of the existing site.

Every site has its own unique climate and character; a sustainable urban neighborhood is


51 Alex Wilson and Nadav M alin, "Establishing Priorities with Green Building," Environmental Building
News, September/October 1995,15.









designed to enhance those features. Often, these sites have existing homes and businesses. While

the area may be underdeveloped or otherwise unusable, it is generally better to improve on what

already exists than to ignore the lessons that the existing fabric has to offer.

A successful sustainable urban neighborhood also meets the needs of the community.

This thesis recommends including the community's culture and character in the site analysis.

This requires contacting those living and working near the proposed neighborhood to better

understand their needs. From these contacts, analyze how people within the area live, work and

play and determine how those activities should be accommodated within the neighborhood. In

addition, many communities have developed master plans for the city. These plans indicates the

city's vision for the neighborhood and should be incorporated within the design of the

sustainable development.

In order to design an energy efficient neighborhood, the designer must identify the local

climate and natural features of the site. This process requires determining the heating and

cooling requirements of the area. Plotting the monthly temperature and humidity ranges on a

bioclimatic chart shows what passive cooling and heating strategies are required in building

design. Also, identifying the amount and form of precipitation recommends opportunities for

stormwater retention and reuse. Diagramming topography and natural features determines

appropriate land uses, their location, and areas where the natural landscape should be preserved.

A soil analysis helps define the vegetation native to this region as well as groundwater absorption

and land use suitability.

In places where an existing area is to be redeveloped, a sustainable urban neighborhood

preserves existing structures that are structurally sound or important to the community.

Generally, renovating an existing building requires far less energy and resources than building

new."2 Where the quality of the existing structures may not recommend reuse, determine if there



52 Alex Wilson and Nadav Malin, "Establishing Priorities with Green Building," 14-15.







30


is any consistency in their original forms or adaptations. This may suggest a local response to

passive heating and cooling requirements or a local preference of design features.









4- -


: i" _
,I














braseiirutio e-tir- With *" i&+rt+if
Figure 10: Bioclimatic Chart with Design Strategies. Reprinted from "Which Passive
Cooling Strategy Is Right for You?" Energy Source Builder [online] (Lorane, OR: Iris
Communications, Inc., June 1997 [cited 27 April 2001]); available from
http://oikos.com/esb/51/passivecooling.html.



As part of the site analysis, determine the existing circulation routes within the

neighborhood and the connections to adjacent communities. Routes connecting other

neighborhoods suggest opportunities for retail areas as well as locations for bicycle routes.

Streets that are used as high-speed thoroughfares should be rerouted away from the

neighborhood. Existing public transit stops, especially those receiving heavy use should also be

identified as potential locations for the center of the redeveloped neighborhood.

Once complete, represent the research graphically or verbally in order to begin

developing a more environmentally sensitive design for the neighborhood. This information










should also be presented to local residents and authorities to encourage feedback. This analysis

can then be distilled into an overall site summary. While the site summary may not include all

aspects of the site analysis, it should illustrate a deep understanding of the neighborhood.


Neighborhood Master Plan

As previously discussed, the sustainable urban neighborhood should be organized to

allow structures to be designed as energy efficiently as possible. Ideally, begin by developing

prototype structures, based on the green building guidelines, for the neighborhood, as these

designs illustrate optimal lot sizes and orientation. Depending on the microclimate, this

generally suggests maximizing southern exposures and avoiding structures with large openings

due west or east.

The neighborhood should include places for a variety of green spaces. Providing urban

forests within the neighborhood absorbs carbon dioxide and other air pollutants as well as

reducing its 'heat envelope'.53 The connection of urban forests with continuous green corridors,54

forming an interconnected matrix of built and natural forms, benefits the neighborhood in

several ways. First, the matrix of restored native forests restores the natural ecosystem and

reintroduces native wildlife to the neighborhood.55 Second, the continuous greenspaces creates

pedestrian access to play spaces and gathering areas for various age levels. These green routes can

also function as a natural means of stormwater drainage for the entire neighborhood. Naturally

retaining and draining rainwater is generally less expensive than conventional stormwater

systems.56 Where the existing soil structure and precipitation rates allow, these routes can then


5 Ibid., 15.

54 Green corridors, which can consist of hedgerows, drainage ditches and other protective vegetation,
allow species to travel between natural areas. Paul Selman,Environmental Planning: The Conservation and
Development of Biophysical Resources, 2d ed. (London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2000), 162-3.

55 Cynthia Girling et al.,Green Neighborhoods: Planning and Design Guidelines for Air, Water and Urban
Water Quality (Eugene: University of Oregon, 2000), 23.

56 Alex Wilson, "Stormwater Management," Environmental Building News, September/October 1999, 8.










connect to constructed wetlands, an aesthetically pleasing and natural method for wastewater

reclamation.57

Minimizing the width of vehicular routes and adding landscape features limits

automobile traffic speeds and reduce the amount of impervious surfaces within the

neighborhood.58 Streets should also be limited to connecting adjacent communities and

gathering places within the neighborhood. Create separate lanes for bicycle routes and sidewalks

adjacent to vehicular routes. Where vehicular parking is required, provide bicycle parking as

well. Parking structures with commercial uses at street level encourages pedestrian activity and

are more attractive than surface parking lots.

Center the sustainable urban neighborhood on a public transit stop with the remainder

of the neighborhood within walking distance, approximately one-half mile, of the stop. Adjacent

to the transit stop, locate the basic needs of the neighborhood. These structures should be

oriented for ease of pedestrian access. A local elementary school, library or community center

provides a gathering place for the neighborhood. Also within short walking distance of the

neighborhood center, locate businesses that serve the basic needs of the neighborhood, such as

theatres, child care centers, markets, hardware stores, stationery stores, clothing stores and other

businesses recommended from discussions with the local community. While the population of

most sustainable urban neighborhoods cannot support modern superstores, the diverse range

and convenient access of neighborhood shops limits their need. In larger neighborhoods, with

areas farther than one-quarter mile from downtown, secondary nodes should be organized

around bus stops with corner shops or similar general stores.

Locating places for a sufficient amount of businesses to employ the residents of the

neighborhood keeps the area active throughout the day. Ideally these structures should be


5 Craig S. Campbell and Michael H. Ogden, Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape (New
York:John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995), v.

58 Girling et al., Green Neighborhoods, 89.










located within walking distance of the transit stop and with minimal automobile parking and

maximum bicycle parking to allow those commuting into the neighborhood other transportation

alternatives. A diverse range of businesses helps to maintain steady employment throughout

various economic cycles. For manufacturing and light industry, a sustainable urban

neighborhood provides opportunities for businesses that create products required by the

neighborhood or utilize waste products generated within the neighborhood. Places that resell

used building materials, recycle materials, compost food products can help to reduce the

approximately 80% of rubbish that currently is sent to landfills.59




Table 1: Population Levels Required to Support Selected Urban Activities.
Activity Population
Post Office 100
Corner Store 500
Daycare Center 500
Elementary School 1,800
Market 2,000
Restaurant 2,000
Beauty Parlor 3,000
Drug Store 3,000
Bank Office 5,000
Library 5,000
Supermarket 10,000
Source: Adapted fromJoseph de Chiara, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik, eds., Time-
Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Development, 2nd ed. (New York:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995), 10.


Residences should be spread throughout the neighborhood. Homeownership, as opposed

to rental properties, fosters community stability and safety by encouraging families to maintain

their properties and become involved with the community.60 Ideally land parcels should be built


59 David Pearson, The Natural House Book (New York: Simon & Schuster Inc./Fireside, 1989), 268.

60 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The State of the Cities 1999 [electronic journal]
(Washington, D.C.,June 1999 [cited 17 April 2001]); available from
http://huduser.org/publications/polleg/tsoc99/contents.html.









in a variety of densities and scales to encourage a diverse mixture of incomes and ages within the

neighborhood.61 The individual lots themselves should be as dense as practical, allowing more

community spaces. Within the center, apartments or condominia can be located above offices

while, if space permits, single family homes can be located on the outskirts of the neighborhoods.

The lots should be of various sizes to encourage mixed income housing.


Implementing the Sustainable Urban Neighborhood

The construction of a project of this magnitude takes time. The impact of the

development on the current residents, businesses and other elements of the existing

neighborhood requires careful consideration. This thesis recommends redeveloping the

neighborhood so that it impacts minimally those who live and work within the existing one. The

order of construction is therefore extremely important. The initial structure built for the new

neighborhood should symbolize the concepts of the sustainable urban neighborhood. If possible,

the new neighborhood begins with the construction of a transit stop and a community building.

Both buildings introduce sustainable design principles to those visiting the area during

construction. After the community buildings are constructed, the neighborhood should be

developed as an equal mixture of housing and commercial spaces. In this manner, the population

of the neighborhood grows as more employment opportunities and services become available. In

areas where the neighborhood is a redevelopment, consider how people and businesses within

the existing neighborhood should transition to the new plan. Ideally, those currently living and

working in the neighborhood should not be displaced; rather, they should have the option of

relocating within the neighborhood to similarly valued structures. This concept requires a

carefully considered phasing plan to ensure that the transition to the sustainable urban

neighborhood is relatively painless for all concerned.



61 Local Government Commission, Ahwahnee Principles [online] (Sacramento, CA: Center for Livable
Communities [cited 1 Sep 00]); available from http://www.lgc.org/clc/library/ahwahnee/principles.html.









Second, materials currently in use in the existing neighborhood should be either reused

or recycled into part of the new design. Native trees should be relocated, not destroyed, and

exotic vegetation should be composted and reused within the neighborhood. Buildings that are

not a part of the new neighborhood plan should be deconstructed, so that their materials can be

reused in new buildings. As with its operation, the construction of a sustainable urban

neighborhood should generate as little waste as possible.


Guidelines for Green Buildings

Conventional architectural design infrequently considers adapting the building design

for its location in order to minimize its energy requirements. Using this method, building

systems are designed independently to meet industry standards without concern for the unique

qualities of the structure or other systems within the building. On the other hand, a green

building is designed to fit within its ecosystem and climate. The building's shell filters out the

extreme climatic factors while allowing the natural sunlight and wind to heat, cool and ventilate

the building. Replicating natural systems, all of the components contained within a green

building function interdependently to reduce its external energy requirements and waste

generated during construction and operation.62 Ideally, this process begins by selecting the major

building components during the design of the structure, which allows the building's form to

complement the characteristics of the selected systems.


Spatially Efficient

Within the sustainable urban neighborhood, structures should be designed to meet, but

not exceed, the needs of the users. Sustainable development practices recommend minimizing

private spaces in order to increase community areas.63 The adaptability of a green home allows

for future additions and renovations (see Design for the Future). A well-designed and efficient


62 Wilson and Malin, "Establishing Priorities with Green Building," 14.

63 Calthorpe, American Metropolis, 55.










structure inherently requires fewer materials to construct and less energy to maintain than a

larger one.64 The money saved from designing a spatially efficient structure can be redeployed to

upgrade other systems and finishes within the building.


Design with the Climate

Several principles must be considered in order to reduce the amount of energy required

to operate a building. The building must be designed for its climate and site conditions. For

cooling alone, an energy-efficient design can reduce cooling loads by 50% of conventional

construction.65 Use the site inventory to orient the building, optimizing the site's natural heating

and cooling effects. When placed and specified appropriately, vegetation minimizes the effects of

summer sun or winter winds.66 The building should then be designed with overhangs calculated

to allow sunshine in the winter while blocking it in the summer. Sunlight can then be used as the

primary lighting source of buildings; artificial lighting should only be necessary in the evening.

Light shelves can assist these daylighting strategies, by bouncing daylight further into the

interior spaces.67 To meet the building's power requirements, consider using systems that use

natural systems to generate energy. For example, in commercial structures, photovoltaics work

well to offset the energy needed to power the building since most power is required during

daylight hours. While residential structures are most affected by climatic loads on the building,

commercial energy requirements can be reduced if the building uses natural systems for heating

and ventilation.



64 Alex Wilson, "Small is Beautiful: House Size, Resource Use, and the Environment," Environmental
Building News ,January 1999, 10.

65 Alex Wilson, "Keeping the Heat Out: Cooling Load Avoidance Strategies," Environmental Building
News, May/June 94,14.

66 Donald Watson and Kenneth Labs, Climatic Building Design: Energy-Efficient Building Principles and
Practice, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983), 85.

67 Dianna L. Barnett and William D. Browning, A Primer on Sustainable Building, (Colorado: Rocky
Mountain Institute Green Development Series, 1995), 44.










Energy Efficient Systems

The energy requirements of any building can be significantly reduced simply by

providing a well insulated, airtight and geometrically simple structure.68 In commercial

structures, energy loads generated within the building generally exceed those created by local

climate. The support systems within the building should therefore be designed to minimize the

overall energy requirements of the structure. In order to have the most efficient structure, all of

the systems should be designed and sized for the actual needs of the entire structure, as opposed

to using 'rules of thumb'. For example, the mechanical system should be designed for the actual

building envelope (which is designed for the climate), lighting load (which should be minimized

as a result of daylighting techniques), and the specified appliances (which are energy-efficient).

A mechanical system designed for the actual needs of the building is typically much smaller than

one designed for a conventional building. A smaller mechanical system requires less structure to

support and less space for ductwork.

The plumbing and electrical systems should be designed to require minimal energy

inputs. For the plumbing system, use low-volume, high-pressure fixtures. If current codes

permit, reuse greywater for toilets and rainwater and other non-potable uses. Otherwise, the

building should be designed to allow the conversion in the future. For lighting systems, design

the fixtures to take advantage of natural daylight within the building. For example in commercial

structures, place sensors in the light fixture dimmers to augment the current amount of daylight.

These sensors should also dim the lights if the space is unoccupied. In addition, select lighting

fixtures for their minimal energy requirements and heat generated.


Design for the Future

Unfortunately, the future needs of the building's occupants cannot always be

anticipated. Thus structures should be designed to be as flexible and adaptable as possible. This


68 Wilson, "Small is Beautiful," 7.










concept suggests carefully locating shear walls and other structural elements so as to not

interfere with future renovations. The location of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems

should be easily accessible and upgradeable. If the past is any indication, provide sufficient space

and connections for future technologies, such as for photovoltaics or greywater recycling. In

addition, potential locations for future expansion should be identified so that the structural

system accommodates the addition.

No matter how carefully designed, some buildings eventually need to be replaced.

Buildings within the sustainable urban neighborhood are designed for ease of dismantlement. A

building designed for deconstruction allows the materials contained within the building to be

reused, or at least recycled, into other building components and helps to 'close the loop' within

the sustainable urban neighborhood.69 A deconstructable building should have bolted, instead of

fused, connections and a minimum of composite materials.


Selecting and Assembling Green Materials

Currently, the selection of green materials is rather limited. Therefore, it is difficult to

find and specify materials that meet all of the criteria for environmental sensitivity.70 In the

sustainable urban neighborhood, provide recommendations for materials that are as 'green' as

possible. Primarily, the selection of materials and assemblies should reinforce the energy-efficient

strategies of the structure.71 Buildings are generally designed to last a minimum of fifty years,

therefore the materials that are selected either need last the lifetime of the building or should be

easy to access and replace. Selected materials should also be locally produced in order to

minimize transportation requirements. In addition, the materials should be assembled so that


69 Kibert, Sendzimir and Guy, "Construction Ecology," 914.

70 An ideal green product should be "biodegradable... low in toxins and in emissions of volatile organic
compounds, contain recycled constituents or are in themselves... derived from renewable resources".
Mosberg, "What do We Mean By "Green"?" 62.

7 Wilson and Malin, "Establishing Priorities with Green Building," 14.










they generate a minimum of construction waste and that the assembled components can be

disassembled for future reuse. When more than one material meets these criteria, select materials

with minimal environmental impact over its life cycle, materials that do not impact the indoor air

quality of the structure and materials that have the greatest potential for reuse or recycling. As

with any other element of the sustainable urban neighborhood, green materials are also part of

the closed-loop system.


Preferred Materials

Green materials should originate from renewable sources and be sustainably harvested.72

As discussed in Chapter 2, while wood framing is an excellent example of a material originating

from a renewable resource, if the wood was removed from a clear-cut forest, then the

environmental impact is similar to the mining of iron for steel studs.73 Therefore the extraction of

the basic components of the product must be considered.

In order for materials to be part of a closed-loop system, they must be recyclable or

biodegradable. Generally speaking, recyclable products are minimally processed so that it is

easier for it to be broken down and reformed into a new material.74 However, for some composite

materials such as concrete, carpet and plastics, technologies exist for the products to be reduced

to their original components, which may then be reused. Whenever possible, select products that

contain recycled components. While post-industrial recycled content is a good start, post-

consumer recycled content is stronger indication that materials have been removed from the

waste stream75



7 Pearson, The Natural House Book, 130.

73 Malin, "Is Wood or Metal "Greener"?" 39.

74 Nadav Malin, "What It Means to Be Green," Architectural Record, August 1999, 140.

75 Alex Wilson, "Building Materials: What Makes a Product Green?" Environmental Building News,
October 2000, 2-3. Post-industrial recycled content refers to waste generated within the factory that is
used in the manufacture of another product.































Figure 11: Materials as Part of a Closed Loop System



Selecting materials that are manufactured locally supports the local economy while

reducing the distance that the materials need to be transported to the site. As discussed in

Chapter 1, transportation vehicles generally require harmful chemicals for fuel and release toxins

into the environment as waste. The selection of products manufactured within 500 miles of the

neighborhood follows the LEED standard.76


Materials to Avoid

In an energy-efficient structure, buildings are airtight in order to reduce the heating and

air-conditioning loads. Therefore, select materials that do not negatively impact air quality. Many

modem materials contain volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are toxic to the building's







76 U.S. Green Building Council, LEED Green Building Rating System Version 2.0 (Washington D.C.: U.S.
Green Building Council, 2000), 16. The LEED Green Building System promotes the improvement of the
environmental performance of commercial buildings.









inhabitants and can cause irritation, headaches, nausea, and damage to some internal organs.77

VOC are commonly located in paint, carpets, vinyl flooring and furniture. Selected products

should not contain volatile organic compounds or materials that are harmful to the environment.

These materials include arsenic (currently used in pressure treated wood), mercury (used in

some lighting systems) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (in insulation).78

As previously mentioned, products should be selected that are easily recycled.

Unfortunately, as more dissimilar materials are combined to form a product, it becomes more

difficult to separate the materials in order to reuse or recycle them Some obvious examples of

currently non-recyclable products include: plastic lumber, laminated countertops and plywood.

The use of composite materials should be limited to applications where they greatly increase the

energy-efficiency of the structure.


Using Green Materials

Energy-efficient buildings should be designed to use materials whole, as opposed to

cutting them to custom sizes. Using whole materials reduces construction waste as well as

maximizing the potential reuse of the material. To meet this requirement, energy-efficient

buildings are designed to a standard two or four feet module.79 Selecting adhesives that are of the

same or inferior strength as the materials they connect increases the opportunity for the reuse of

the material, since it avoids destroying materials in the process of removing strong adhesives. The

final color of green materials is also an important factor. In northern climates, darker colors help

to trap heat within the building, while lighter colors should be used in the south to reflect it.




77 St. John, A., ed., The Sourcebook for Sustainable Design: A Guide to Environmentally Responsible
Building Materials and Processes (Boston: Boston Society of Architects, 1992), 9.2. Technically, a VOC is
any organic compound that evaporates at room temperature.

78 Wilson, "Building Materials," 3.

79 Wilson and Malin, "Establishing Priorities with Green Building," 15.









The Greenest Material

When properly located, vegetation can greatly moderate natural temperature swings,

absorb urban noise and other pollutants. Selecting native plants minimizes the water and

fertilizers required to maintain the vegetation as well as strengthening the natural ecosystems as

well as encouraging wildlife.80 With this in mind, limit the use of high-maintenance grasses to

areas where it is required for the proposed activity. In those locations, potable water

requirements can be minimized with the use of drip irrigation, preferably in conjunction with

reclaimed water. Throughout the neighborhood, selecting native vegetation reduces the overall

energy needs of the neighborhood.


Conclusion

The pace of change in technology and industry is faster than natural systems can adapt

to moderate their effects. Therefore Americans must begin to alter their lifestyles in order to

consume fewer resources and generate less waste. In the built environment, there are have several

opportunities to reduce our non-renewable energy needs. A sustainable urban neighborhood is

more analogous to a natural system than conventional development. All components of the

neighborhood are interconnected and energy-efficient. In order to achieve a sustainable urban

neighborhood, begin by creating specific recommendations for the redevelopment of the urban

district. These recommendations are dependent on the neighborhood's climate, natural and

manmade features, and the needs of the community. These guidelines can create a sustainable

urban neighborhood that benefits not only its residents but also begins to repair the damage man

has generated in our natural environment.





80 Mary Duryea, Eliana Kampf Binelli and Henry L. Gholz. Restoring the Urban Forest Ecosystem, ed. Mary
Duryea, Eliana Kampf Binelli and Henry L. Gholz (Gainesville, FL: School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, 2000), 2-1.















CHAPTER 4
SITE INVENTORY

In order to determine the effectiveness of this thesis, a site was selected and redesigned

according to the sustainable urban neighborhood guidelines. Jacksonville, Florida meets the

criteria for a city experiencing suburban sprawl with substantial underutilized land in the inner

city. Over sixteen thousand acres of the city lies available for development,8s while most recent

development is concentrated far from the inner city. In a ten-year span, daily vehicle miles

traveled increased 74% while the aggregated length of roadways increased less than ten

percent.82 The suburban sprawl inJacksonville has generated urban blight and wasted historic

resources,83 while the resulting commuting on limited roadways has led to traffic congestion,

increasing fossil fuel emissions. The city hopes to reverse this trend by redeveloping downtown

Jacksonville, and therefore Brooklyn, in order to encourage resettlement of the inner city.

Interstate 95 and the St. John's River form the boundaries of the Brooklyn district. The

location of the interstate, together with McCoy's Creek, isolates Brooklyn from the remainder of

downtownJacksonville. Once a thriving residential community, most of this 285-acre site is

currently in a state of disrepair and neglect. Over half of its land is vacant and many of the

existing structures require substantial repair. However, Brooklyn has the potential to be

redeveloped into an asset to the city and its residents. Not only is the neighborhood adjacent to

the river, but it also has a small creek running along its northern boundary. These natural


81 Pagano and Bowman, "Vacant Land," 4.

82 Texas Transportation Institute, The Mobility Data for Jacksonville, FL [online] (College Station, TX:
Information & Technology Exchange Center/Publications citiedd 27 April 2001]); available from
http://mobility.tamu.edu/2001/study/cities/tables/jacksonville.pdf, 2.

83Jason Thiel, Program Manager forJacksonville Economic Development Commission, email to author, 22
May 2001.










features, combined with its close proximity to downtownJacksonville, suggest that the new

Brooklyn neighborhood can support a thriving community.




acksnill- i th ceJAtofagiLU-


S -l and a99, of .ck onvll e ." -i
Io. -'-- r-"--op E i w





Ir
.,ts l i .. '-*' t

It '- II '



.6-A











Figure 12: Location of the Brooklyn District in Jacksonville, Florida. Adapted from
American Automobile Association, AAA North American Road Atlas 1996: United
States, Canada, Mexico, MCMXCV ed. (American Automobile Association, 1995), 26.



Local Vision

Jacksonville is the celebration of a great, international river and extensive public
green space, where city parks and attractive water features are essential
components of busy, sustainable urban neighborhoods.84

Between 1998 and 1999, the City of Jacksonville held a series of public workshops in

order to develop a downtown master plan. Early in the process, these workshops discussed

perceived assets and liabilities of the existing downtown. The participants believed that the St.


84 Statement presented as the design theme for downtown Jacksonville. City of Jacksonville Planning
Development Department, Public Participation Summary (Jacksonville, FL: City of Jacksonville, 1999),
Section 8.
,7 ] -.--- i
V, ,i
%,' ["































Section 8.









John's River and the downtown skyline are community assets. On the other hand, most

participants believed that the city lacks evening and weekend activities, sufficient public

transportation and public greenspaces.5 Over time, these issues evolved into specific concerns

with the downtown area. Basically, most participants believed that the downtown did not

support those living within the urban center because basic services, such as restaurants and day

care centers, are not available. They also felt that Jacksonville might become a more dynamic city

if activities were more diverse and evenly distributed throughout the downtown. In addition, the

number of greenspaces should be increased and linked and additional pedestrian access points to

St. John's River should be provided. They also felt that streets should become less oriented

towards for automobiles by widening sidewalks, adding bicycle lanes and slowing automobile

traffic.6









% v













Figure 13: Aerial view of the Brooklyn Neighborhood inJacksonville, Florida




85 Planning Development Department, Public Participation Summary, Section 1.

86 Summarized from the Planning Development Department, Public Participation Summary, Section 3.










1. We will improve access to our river banks, creating a greenway of substantial amenity to
our citizens.
2. We will develop clearly defined downtown districts with distinct identities and a mix of
uses and identify which district would be an appropriate location for major public capital
investment projects.
3. We will develop interconnected, attractive and safe pedestrian links among
neighborhoods, activities and open space.
4. We will encourage adequate, well-designed and strategically placed parking throughout
downtown.
5. We will recognize open space as a valuable development asset.
6. We will provide a sustainable system of connected public open spaces that encourages
variety, both in terms of size and function. Water and natural features will be important
elements.
7. We will establish downtown as a 24-hour city and as a new location for residential
development, a regional destination for tourists, conventioneers, and local residents.
8. We will enhance the perception of downtown as a safe place.
9. We will pursue short-term actions that help us achieve our long-term vision.



Figure 14: City ofJacksonville's Vision for their Downtown Redevelopment. Reprinted from City
ofJacksonville Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown
Jacksonville (Jacksonville, FL: City ofJacksonville, 2000), 9.



These diverse ideas were eventually combined into a master plan for downtown

Jacksonville. The guiding principles, as defined by the City ofJacksonville, became the basis for a

series of plans illustrating this vision for the new downtown. Most of these principles are similar

to those indicated in the sustainable urban development guidelines. Unfortunately,

environmental sensitivity was not indicated to be part of the vision for downtown. This lack of

vision suggests that the community, and the residents of Brooklyn, needs to be educated as to the

benefits of sustainability. This education needs to include recommendations for healthier, less

wasteful living and how to maintain green buildings. For example, in Florida a cupola can be

used to naturally ventilate a house. In order for the ventilation to occur, the homeowner needs to

open the window on the leeward side of the house. While this is a relatively simple operation, it

does require a different set of skills than merely turning on the air conditioning and an interest in

using passive solar design techniques. Also, the community and its businesses needs to learn the

benefits of water conservation, material recycling and composting.









Our vision for Brooklyn is to regenerate is as a vibrant mixed-use neighborhood
and to link it to the river via as many routes as possible. A key redevelopment
strategy will be to attract creative businesses and individuals, such as graphic
artists, architects, sculptors and designers, to this area.87

The City intends to redevelop the neighborhood as a transit-oriented development by

extending the automated skyway express (ASE) along Riverside Avenue. As a catalyst, the city

intends to provide substantial improvements to McCoy's Creek, converting the area into a

'primary open space' with pedestrian and bicycle trails. The Creek renovation connects to a

planned series of parks within the city. Park Street then becomes a pedestrian-oriented mixed-

use street connecting McCoy's Creek to the remainder of the neighborhood. While the

remainder of Brooklyn becomes single and multi-family housing, the City intends to preserve

Riverside Avenue as a high volume connection to downtown Jacksonville, lined by office towers

with pedestrian connections to St. John's River.88

The City's plan for Brooklyn has many parallels to the goals of a sustainable urban

neighborhood. The redevelopment of McCoy's Creek into an urban park provides local residents

with much needed green space and should help to retain stormwater within the city. This

scheme also suggests developing Park Street as a commercial corridor, providing goods and

services to the neighborhood. Unfortunately, the neighborhood master plan does not mention

providing bicycle paths throughout the neighborhood, or providing a continuous bicycle route

through the city. Another area of concern is the proposed plan for Riverside Avenue. If Riverside

Avenue remains a high-speed thoroughfare with office towers to either side, pedestrian crossings

to the river need to be carefully considered. In addition, future structures should be located so

maintain existing views of the River.





87 City of Jacksonville Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River: A Plan for Downtown
Jacksonville (Jacksonville, FL: City ofJacksonville, 2000), 20.

8s Paragraph summarized from Planning Development Department, Celebrating the River, 20-21.







48






-H .S'



C' '





o/ ,. ./"-v *_, ----.!--. V _ew



The Emerald Necklace connects neighborhoods to the river through a variety of pocket parks, boardwalks, creek-side <- Pedestrian Links
trails, and streetscape Inviting pedestrians and bicyclists to explore downtown through a series of green spaces. Pedeslrian Links
Proposed Park
SExisting Park
Water Body
SViews
Figure 15: Open Space and Pedestrian Plan. Reprinted from Planning Development Department,
Celebrating the River, 10.


4~I.


Figure 16: Partial Plan of Brooklyn. Reprinted from Planning Development Department,
Celebrating the River, 40.









Climate

The Brooklyn neighborhood is located on the St. Johns River, approximately sixteen

miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Its location along the thirtieth parallel and close proximity of the

Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico brings humidity and ample precipitation to the area,

allowing the growth of subtropical vegetation.89 The site therefore possesses hot humid climate

characteristics.






r ---------I. --. C---art f a Adapte fo _-ssv C l Srtg.
r' N "'%, % I
i,.. *-" *

1 b f- r t t

















Figure 17: Bioclimatic Chart for Jacksonville. Adapted from "Passive Cooling Strategy"


Most of the year, temperatures range fairly uniformly each day from the 70s to the 90s.
1: -"- ~--'- ----- ----- -






More variability is experienced in the winter, when temperature ranges from the 60s to 80s on
most days and 20s to 40s on a few days An average of fifteen overnight freezes occur annually,









89 Jacksonville Community Council, Inc., Quality of Life in Jacksonville: Indicators for Progress [online]
(Jacksonville: Jacksonville Community Council, Inc., 2000 [cited 27 April 2001]); available from
http://www.jcci.org/qol/qol.pdf, 4.










but on almost all winter days temperatures rise above freezing.90 On average, Jacksonville

requires approximately 1434 heating degree days per year.91 However as Figure 17 indicates,

passive solar heating can be utilized for most of the heating season with mechanical heating only

necessary during cold spells in January and February. Due to the hot humid climate, cooling is

the primary design consideration. Although Jacksonville experience approximately 2551 cooling

degree days per year,92 with passive design features such as natural ventilation, mechanical

cooling may be limited to activation during the heat waves that occur from May to September.


I cl ie ille ra A
)i2.
3- 1-]2,



N..- N 00
Z 4.5











Figure 18: Yearly Precipitation for Jacksonville. Reprinted from National Climatic Data Center,
Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (JAX)
(Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001), 1.



The precipitation forJacksonville is almost entirely in the form of rain. As Figure 18

indicates, the majority of rainfall occurs from late July through September, for a total of fifty-

three inches per year. The unevenness of rainfall distribution complicates its on-site collection

for landscape irrigation. Since bacteria collects in water stored more than thirty days, rainwater

collection for this area should either be sized for an average month of rainfall (approximately




90 Ibid.

91 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data:
Jacksonville, Florida (JAX) (Asheville, N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001), 3.

92 Ibid., 3.
92 Ibid., 3.










which is less an inch), releasing the overflow during the summer, or chlorine needs to be added

monthly to the stored water.

Prevailing winds are northeasterly in the fall and winter months, and southwesterly in

the spring and summer. This suggests locating an urban forest in the southwest corner of the

neighborhood cools the neighborhood in the summer while the trees filter pollutants originating

from the highway. Wind movement, which averages slightly less than 9 mph, is higher in the

early afternoon hours.93 AlthoughJacksonville lies within the hurricane belt, hurricanes have

only rarely been a concern. Nevertheless, all structures within the sustainable urban

neighborhood needs to meet existing hurricane resistant construction requirements. The average

wind speeds are, however, inadequate for current wind power technologies.


1a1



















Figure 19: Sun Path Diagram for Jacksonville. Adapted from G. Z. Brown and Mark DeKay, Sun,
Wind & Light: Architectural Design Strategies, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
2001), 301.


93 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data, 7.










Natural Features

The Brooklyn site sits within the Leon-Boulogne-Evergreen soil unit.94 These soils are in

flatwoods interspersed with depressions. The Leon soils are poorly drained sandy soils

approximately eight inches thick. The Boulogne soils are also poorly drained soils, but they

consist of dark gray fine sand approximately six inches thick. The Evergreen soils are located

within depressions and consist of black loamy sand. This soil unit extends approximately eighty

inches below grade, where it meets sediments from the Hawthorne group, for approximately four

hundred feet, eventually resting on Ocala Limestone.


clcu Uiunia m
Oate Ljmuloie

Figure 20: Soil Pattern Present in Leon-Boulogne-Evergreen. Adapted from Frank C.
Watts, Soil Survey of City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida (Washington D.C.: The
Service, 1998), 24.







94 Frank C. Watts, Soil Survey of City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida (Washington D.C.: The
Service, 1998), 23-24.










While the natural ecosystem for the Leon-Boulogne -Evergreen soil unit is Scrub and

High Pine, this particular ecosystem is maintained by fire,95 which is inappropriate for urban

locations. Therefore the Mesic Hardwood Forest ecosystem, the climax ecosystem for pine

forests, is introduced into the Brooklyn neighborhood. Specifically this area is part of the

temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest zone.96 Vegetation in this area consists of an overstory of

Southern Magnolia, various oaks and Sweet Gum, and an understory of American Holly and

Devilwood.97 These plants should constitute the dominant vegetation in the Brooklyn

neighborhood.

Potable water in Duval County is obtained primarily from the surficial aquifer system

and the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial aquifer below the Brooklyn neighborhood begins

approximately seventy-five feet below grade, with the upper surface extending to the water

table. The water table is less than ten feet below grade, minimizing the opportunity for

subsurface structures. This aquifer is recharged through direct infiltration of precipitation, with

some minor upward leakage from the deeper aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer is the

dominant source of ground water for irrigation, public supplies, and industrial uses in Duval

County. The slowly permeable sediments of the Hawthorn soils confine the aquifer to the Ocala

Limestone below. While the Floridan aquifer is primarily recharged in areas west and southwest

ofJacksonville, the surficial aquifer can be maintained by precipitation.98 This suggests using the

surficial aquifer as a cistern for the neighborhood. If stormwater was contained within the

neighborhood until it is absorbed into the aquifer, then the aquifer could be used for irrigation.




95 Ronald L. Myers, Ecosystems of Florida, ed. Ronald L. Myers andJohnJ. Ewel (Orlando, FL: University
of Central Florida Presses, 1990), 151.

96 Ibid., 200.

97 Ibid., 199.

98 Paragraph summarized from Watts, Soil Survey, 117.









Since the soil group drains poorly, stormwater retention requires a large land area, perhaps

incorporating part of the natural drainage system itself.

As suggested by the soil unit, the Brooklyn neighborhood is relatively flat. The steepest

slope is less than two percent, with most of the remaining site sloping less than one percent. The

average elevation is approximately fifteen feet above sea level, rising to twenty-five feet in a few

locations. While the land south and east of Riverside Avenue drains into the St. John's River,

most of the site drains towards McCoy Creek The stormwater retention area, therefore, should

be placed near the Creek. The retention area allows rainwater to recharge the surficial aquifer, as

opposed to the rainwater draining into the Creek.

Several natural features should be preserved and improved within the Brooklyn

neighborhood. The most dominating feature is St. John's River. Unfortunately, office towers

along Riverside Avenue generally block the view of the River. This suggests that some existing

view corridors should be preserved and pedestrian access to the River should be created. A linear

park along the river allows residents to enjoy the view and connects this part of Brooklyn to the

remainder of the neighborhood. This linear park should be extended to follow McCoy's Creek.

The Creek area could then be developed as a more active neighborhood park. The form of the

park should follow the flood plain, which is approximately eight feet above sea level.


Land Uses

The existing Brooklyn Neighborhood is in a state of decline. Excluding the Riverside

Avenue corridor, approximately one-half of the land is undeveloped (see Figure 27) and many of

the remaining buildings are in need of repair. However, a few structures should be preserved as

part of the redeveloped neighborhood. Renovating the former schoolhouse on the southwest

corner of the site could be a symbolic start to the new Brooklyn neighborhood. The active

churches and other well-constructed buildings should be preserved as a link for the current

residents and to minimize energy-intensive new construction. Since the population of the area










has been steadily decreasing, few homes are owner occupied99 and most housing is in poor

condition. Generally, the occupied structures within Brooklyn consist of light industrial or

similar service-type uses. Other than convenience stores, Brooklyn does not contain businesses

to serve the basic needs of the community.

Along Riverside Avenue, the current land usage is quite different from the remainder of

Brooklyn. Several high-rise office towers line this Avenue, taking advantage of the views of

downtownJacksonville and the River. These structures do not support or connect to Brooklyn

and it is difficult to access them, without a car, from the neighborhood. Current marketing

analysis, completed for the City, suggests that the available land in this area be developed as

high-rise structures.100 While this approach may increase revenues for the city, a more balanced

approach provides structures that transition and connect the existing office towers with the

proposed residential neighborhood.


Neighborhood Circulation

Interstate 95 currently isolates the Brooklyn neighborhood by forming a loud, unsightly

barrier between the neighborhood and the remainder of Jacksonville. To slow traffic in this area,

the City ofJacksonville recommends reducing highway access in this area.'1' The highway access

ramp from Gilmore Street should therefore be closed. All development along the edges of the

neighborhood need to consider the impact of the highway, suggesting that a buffer should be

created between the highway and residential or commercial use. This buffer should transition

into gateways where local streets pass under the highway and connect to adjacent

neighborhoods. Another area of concern is Riverside Avenue. Currently, this Avenue is for high-


99 Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc.,Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Residential and
Commercial Market Analyses (Jacksonville, FL: Urbanomics, Inc. and Development Strategies, Inc.,June
1999) 2-4.

100 Cambridge Systematics, Inc.,Jacksonville Downtown Mater Plan: Transportation Element
(acksonville, FL: Cambridge Systematics, Inc., 1999) 3-4.
101Urbanomics and Development Strategies, Market Analyses, 2-4.










speed vehicular traffic traveling to and from downtown. The width of Riverside Avenue,

combined with the traffic speeds, greatly limits pedestrian access to the buildings on the west

side of the Avenue and St. John's River. In order to connect the river with the rest of the

neighborhood, either the pace of Riverside needs to be reduced or pedestrian crossings should

occur above the street. Within the Brooklyn neighborhood, the only four lane streets are Park

Street and Forest Street, the remaining streets are two lane. Most of these side streets lack

sidewalks and all streets are without bicycle lanes.

Public transportation is available throughout the Brooklyn neighborhood. The current

system of buses connects Brooklyn to downtown Jacksonville and to western neighborhoods.

Although the bus system also connects Brooklyn to the nearest sl,, "'- stop, at the convention

center, the planned skyway extension to Brooklyn improves the neighborhood's transportation

alternatives.


Recommendations

The Brooklyn neighborhood contains all of the elements of an area that could become a

sustainable urban neighborhood. The existing neighborhood is experiencing decline while new

suburbs are being constructed on the periphery. The city government supports the idea of

redeveloping Brooklyn into a transit-oriented development. A market appears to exist for mixed-

use housing development in the city.103 This thesis therefore recommends redeveloping Brooklyn

into a sustainable urban neighborhood.


Local Vision

Brooklyn is organized around the proposed automated skyway express stop. While the

city intends to locate the skyway along Riverside, this may be inappropriate if the Avenue

continues to be utilized as a high-speed thoroughfare, which deters pedestrians from crossing up


102 In Jacksonville, the skyway is also referred to as the Automatic Skyway Express, or ASE.

103 Urbanomics and Development Strategies, Market Analyses, 5-4.










to six lanes of traffic. In addition, a series of connected greenspaces can link the St. Johns River to

a redeveloped McCoy's Creek. All streets should be redesigned to reduce vehicular speeds and

promote pedestrian and bicycle usage. As part of a sustainable urban neighborhood, the

commercial areas within Brooklyn should provide basic services, such as restaurants and day care

centers. Most of these businesses should be located along Park Street, in order to expand on the

existing commercial corridor.


Climate

Due to the hot humid climate, cooling is the primary design consideration for this

neighborhood. Passive design features, such as natural ventilation, helps to limit mechanical

cooling activation on the hottest days of the summer. Since summer winds originate from the

southwest, locating an urban forest in this area (see Figure 29) helps to cool the neighborhood

and the trees filter any pollutants from the highway.


Natural Features

This neighborhood can be restored as part of a Mesic Hardwood Forest ecosystem.

Therefore, the vegetation selected for the neighborhood should be native to that ecosystem.

Restoring the ecosystem requires the creation of pockets of hardwood forests connected by

linear greenspaces, to allow wildlife to move from one pocket to another. These linear parks can

also serve as part of a natural stormwater drainage system and provide pedestrian access to the

commercial core. The retention area itself should be located at the lowest part of the site, near

McCoy's Creek. The Creek can also be redesigned to allow active and diverse play areas. The

redesigned park should follow the natural flood plain.


Land Uses

While most of Brooklyn is converted into a sustainable urban neighborhood, a few

structures should be preserved as a link for its current residents. Preserved structures include









those that are important to the neighborhood or appropriate to the proposed neighborhood

design. For example, the existing churches are integrated into the design of the new Brooklyn

neighborhood.

Riverside Avenue needs to be woven back into the fabric of the Brooklyn neighborhood.

This approach suggests locating uses along the Avenue that transitions and connects the existing

office towers with the proposed residential neighborhood. New structures should have a strong

connection to street edges and provide services that support the neighborhood. If office towers

are part of the revised scheme, parking for those uses should be above the street with commercial

uses along the first floor.


Circulation

In order to reduce automobile congestion and speeds, alternative forms of transportation

are emphasized. The planned ASE extension to Brooklyn greatly improves the public transit

connection to downtown. Bicycle lanes, linear parks and wider sidewalks encourages alternate

forms of transportation. Traffic speeds can be reduced by providing narrow streets lined with

trees. These trees also help to cool the neighborhood, reduce traffic noise and filter vehicular

pollutants. Adding trees along Gilmore Street also helps to reduce the highway impacting that

area of the neighborhood. In addition, the highway access from Gilmore Street should be closed

to further reduce automobile traffic in that area. Another alternative for this area is to transform

Gilmore Street into an eco-industrial corridor. Carefully selected business could serve as a buffer

from the highway as well as providing employment opportunities to the community.


































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Figure 24: Demolition along Riverside Avenue for Street Widening Project


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Figure 25: Climatic Forces. Adapted from National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data: Annual Summary with Comparative Data: Jacksonville, Florida (lAX) (Asheville,
N.C.: National Climate Data Center, 2001) 3 and G. Z. Brown and Mark DeKay, Sun, Wind & Light: Architectural Design Strategies, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001),
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CHAPTER 5
DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BROOKLYN


Neighborhood Master Plan

The proposed conversion of Brooklyn into a sustainable development attempts to fulfill

several goals. Primarily, the neighborhood should require minimal external energy and generate

minimal waste. Existing structures are therefore preserved whenever possible. Streets are

narrower to minimize vehicular traffic while maximizing alternate, less energy-intensive, forms

of transportation. Second, the neighborhood design encourages a variety mixed-use and mixed-

income structures in order to establish a stable community. The increased density of these

structures maximizes the opportunity for public areas. Public green spaces surround the

neighborhood, providing many types of gathering spaces as well as a natural buffer to the

highway. The proposed design of Brooklyn illustrates how an existing development can be

transformed into a sustainable urban neighborhood.

The general pattern of the development is organized around the preserved elements of

the existing neighborhood. For Brooklyn, most structures that should remain part of the new

neighborhood are located along Park Street and Riverside Avenue. The existing street layout is

therefore be maintained with Park Street as a shopping district and Riverside Avenue as

primarily business-oriented corridor. Forest Street has been realigned with a gracious curve. This

arrangement divides Brooklyn into four quadrants. Three of the quadrants consist of various

types and scales of residential housing and are immediately adjacent to public green spaces that

surround the neighborhood. The housing blocks were then reoriented to maximize passive

cooling benefits. The remaining area is converted into an eco-industrial zone, since the

southwest quadrant consists mainly of the BlueCross Blue Shield office building and parking









structure. The largest parcel was developed as an eco-enterprise center. Pioneered in

Minneapolis as a means of creating urban employment while encouraging green business

practices, an eco-enterprise center leases office and warehouse space for environmentally

sustainable businesses.104 A common structure maximizes the potential for waste reduction

through exchanges between the tenants.




















Figure 30: Parti of Brooklyn Redevelopment.



Natural Systems

Within the neighborhood, parcels and streets are minimized in order to increase

opportunities for public green spaces. The variety of public green spaces surrounding the

development allows different levels of activity. An urban forest along the western edge creates

opportunities for nature walks. Play fields to the north allow organized team sports for all age

levels. Adolescents preferring less organized sports can use the skate park to the west of the site.

East of the skate park, public garden space can be used as a backdrop for evening strolls along

McCoy Creek. A riverwalk completes the circuit through the neighborhood and can be

104 National Housing Institute, "Minneapolis Goes Green," Shelter Force Online [online] (Orange, NJ:
National Housing Institute,January/February 1999 [cited 19June 2001]); available from









connected to the riverwalk to the east of Brooklyn. Tree-lined streets and linear parks connect

the public green spaces along Brooklyn's perimeter. Trees along the streets remove particulates

from local traffic while helping to reduce automobile speeds. The use of native vegetation

encourages wildlife, requires minimal maintenance and helps to restore the native ecosystem.




Table 2: Recommended Native Plants for Brooklyn's Natural Drainage Areas.
Scientific Name Common Name Height Planting Locations
Swale planting Acerrubrunm Red maple 35' street, parks
Fui\ ils caroliniana White ash 50' parks
Ilex cassine Dahoon holly 20' street, hedge
Illiciumfloridanum Florida anise 10' border, hedge
\p ii cr4fera Southern wax myrtle 15' screen, highway
Source: Adapted from Michael Jameson and Richard Moyroud, ed., Xeric Landscaping with
Florida Native Plants (Hollyrood, FL: Betrock Information Systems, Inc., 1991), 65-66. and Bijan
Dehgan, Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida,
1998).


Beyond plant selection, the neighborhood design also contributes to restoring the natural

ecosystem. The urban forest located along the western and northern boundaries of the site serves

to filter noise and air pollution from the highway. Smaller naturalized areas are created within

the residential blocks. Connecting the naturalized areas via linear parks and swales forms an

ecosystem matrix. The matrix also assists in natural stormwater drainage.

Stormwater is held within the neighborhood and absorbed directly into the aquifer.

Stormwater runoff from streets is transferred to natural swales that line every street. The

vegetation within the swale absorbs particulates and decreases the runoff speed, allowing the

water to be absorbed into the aquifer below. Swales are also used within public green spaces and

the residential blocks to channel water flow. All remaining stormwater is eventually directed to a

constructed wetland, which slowly filters and releases water into the aquifer.


http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/103/minneapo.html.









General Concepts for Proposed Land Uses

The Brooklyn neighborhood was organized to meet the needs of the community,

encourage alternate forms of transportation, and maximize energy efficiency while minimizing

waste. This was accomplished by creating an interconnected mix of existing and new structures,

which allows resources to be used more efficiently as well as creating an active neighborhood. By

providing three-dimensional mixed-use zoning throughout the neighborhood allows residents to

work, shop and play within Brooklyn, without requiring them to drive.

Primarily, pedestrian and bicycle access was promoted over vehicular transportation

requirements by locating main building entrances on the street. Narrow lots with structures

located on the street lot line minimize travel distances between structures thus encouraging

walking. Bicycle parking is required for all non-residential areas, while parking lots are obscured

from the street or not provided. In residential areas, garage doors cannot face the street and

driveways must be narrow, reinforcing the pedestrian scale of the neighborhood.

Beyond transportation needs, the neighborhood was designed to minimize energy input

and waste outflows. Whenever possible, existing non-residential structures were integrated into

the proposed neighborhood plan, since less energy is generally required to renovate them then to

build new. New structures are designed using the energy-efficient practices discussed later in the

chapter and use green materials. New lots were oriented to maximize passive solar design

strategies for as many of the structures as possible. In addition, structures are located to allow

solar and wind access to adjacent buildings as well.

While a large portion of the neighborhood is devoted to public green space, additional

green spaces are required within private lots. These green spaces use native vegetation, in order

to restore the native mesic hammock ecosystem. Lawns are used only where required for play

areas. Providing green spaces, both public and private, throughout the neighborhood help reduce

urban heat islands as well as providing additional space for stormwater retention. In fact, large

lots are required to collect stormwater runoff and allow it to be absorbed into the aquifer. To









avoid flooding while allowing stormwater to drainage naturally, the first floor of all buildings are

held above the flood plain.

Based on the proposed site plan, zoning requirements were developed to assist designers

in developing proposals for individual parcels. These requirements do not require a specific

building form; rather, it is hoped that a dynamic range of design solutions can be generated using

the zoning requirements as a point of departure.

Primarily nonresidential uses

Since they provide opportunities for public gatherings that strengthen the fabric of the

community, civic structures, such as public theatres, galleries, community centers and houses of

worship are permitted throughout the neighborhood. Civic structures should fit within their

surrounding context and follow the scale of the adjacent structures.




Table 3: Retail Uses that Encourage Pedestrian Activity.
Preferred Uses
Cinemas, theatres and auditoriums
Eating Places, cafes and restaurants
Food stores and food markets
General Merchandise retail, including electronics, variety shops, and hardware stores
Health clubs and gymnasiums
Miscellaneous retail trade, such as florists, camera supplies, art & hobby supplies
Personal services, such as barber & beauty shops, shoe repair

Excluded Uses
Drive-thru facilities
Parking garage
Gasoline stations



Within the retail corridor along Park Street, mixed-use structures ensure constant street

activity. Locating retail stores on the first floor should encourage residents to shop within

Brooklyn. Covered walkways and bike racks along Park Street are also recommended. The main









entrance to the stores must be along either Park or Forest Street to encourage pedestrian access

between buildings. The upper floors should be retail, commercial or residential uses. When

existing buildings along Park Street are renovated, the structures must be extended to meet

either Park or Forest Street.

New construction in lots south of Riverside Avenue match the scale of the existing, high-

rise, neighboring lots. The new structures, however, cannot create shadows on structures located

north of Riverside Avenue. In order to encourage pedestrian travel along Riverside Avenue, part

of the new construction must be along that street and contain the main entrance to the structure.

A pedestrian route must also be provided through each lot to connect Riverside Avenue with the

riverwalk. Any vehicular parking must be accessed from a side street and should not be visible

from Riverside or the riverwalk. To encourage employees to utilize alternative forms of

transportation, covered bicycle parking must equal to the number of parking spaces provided

and be located adjacent to the main entrance. The structures themselves should be a mix of retail,

commercial and residential uses. When existing structures in this area are renovated, new

structures must be added along Riverside Avenue.

For commercial structures located north of Riverside Avenue, mixed use is also

encouraged. The first floor is ideally retail, to encourage public access along Riverside Avenue,

with professional offices on the upper floors. These structures must be approximately four

stories tall to maximize solar access to adjacent buildings.

The eco-industrial area in the southwest portion of the neighborhood are for businesses

that either generate green materials for the neighborhood, and the city, or reuses waste materials

generated by the neighborhood. Preferred uses include environmentally sustainable businesses,

such as recycling centers, resale stores and the manufacture of energy-efficient materials. Multi-

story structures with multiple businesses within each structure are encouraged in this area in

order to promote the sharing of resources. As with the other non-residential uses, the building

must be located along the front property line. The main building entrance must face the street









and bicycle parking must also be provided. If provided, the loading docks cannot be viewed from

Riverside Avenue.

Primarily residential uses

Multi-family structures should provide a range of unit sizes and prices in order to create

a mixed-income neighborhood. Lots located along Forest Street may have retail stores at street

level. As with non-residential uses, the main entrance should be facing the street. Bicycle

parking should be provided. On larger lots, public green space must be provided that connects to

existing pedestrian paths. In general, structures may not exceed four stories, but taller structures

are permitted if no shadow is cast on adjacent structures.

Attached residential buildings, such as townhouses, apartments buildings or

condominiums can be single or multiple units, to also provide a range of unit sizes and prices.

While the main entrance must face the street, a second entrance should also be provided to

access the pedestrian path along the rear of the lot. Given the narrow lot dimensions, three story

structures are permitted.

Residential lots may be for either one or two families. In addition, owner-occupied home

businesses are also encouraged to reinforce the mixed-use nature of the neighborhood. To avoid

casting shadows on neighboring houses, structures should not exceed 2 12 stories. Front and rear

porches should be provided to foster interaction between neighbors as well as to encourage

outdoor, non-conditioned, activities.


Proposed Circulation

Circulation within the Brooklyn neighborhood attempts to minimize automobile traffic

while encouraging alternate forms of transportation. Primarily, circulation within Brooklyn is

designed as a pedestrian-oriented neighborhood. All streets are lined with sidewalks that are

generously proportioned according to the intended traffic flows. Separate greenways provide









automobile-free routes that connect the residential areas to Park Street as well as the green

spaces surrounding Brooklyn.

Public transportation routes have been designed for convenient access throughout

Brooklyn. According to the city plan, the skyway is located along Riverside Avenue. The skyway

stop is proposed to occur at the Forest Street intersection. This placement allows commuters

convenient access, via a pedestrian bridge over Riverside, to the offices along the River. The

skyway stop is also within a 10-minute walk of the entire neighborhood. The busses generally

follow their existing routes, with the exception that busses continue along Park Street into the

Five Points neighborhood, instead of switching over to Riverside Avenue.

Bicycle lanes are isolated from potential conflicts between busses, automobiles and

pedestrians. Conventionally, bicycle lanes are often located at the edge of city streets. This design

often requires people, leaving their parked car or exiting a bus, to cross the bicycle lane. Also,

cars must cross the bicycle lane when turning, which is in conflict of bicyclists continuing along

the street. In Brooklyn, bicycle lanes are located within the wide street median. By creating a

fairly continuous median, opportunities for conflict between bikes and cars are minimized.'05

Appropriate signage along the left hand lane of major streets within the neighborhood alerts

drivers to oncoming traffic. Pedestrian and bicycle conflict along the River and perimeter green

spaces is avoided by providing a separate bicycle lane that parallels the pedestrian path.

Vehicular access in the neighborhood is greatly limited. While the entire neighborhood is

accessible by car, the streets are arranged to make walking or bicycling more convenient. Most

streets are one-way and two-way streets contain fairly continuous medians. Streets are also

limited in width, which tends to reduce traffic speeds as well as minimizing the amount of

impervious surfaces within the neighborhood.




105 Michelle M. DeRobertis and Rhonda Rae, "Buses and bicycles: Design alternatives for sharing the road,"
ITE journal, 71 (May 2001): 43.














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Prototype Green Buildings

As discussed in Chapter 4, the climate in Florida is hot and humid. Throughout northern

Florida, the summers are warm (reaching into the 90s) and rather humid (averaging 75%) with

prevailing winds from the southwest. The winter is much milder (in the 50s) with periodic

invasions of cold air from the northwest. Most of the precipitation occurs during summer, when

thunderstorms occur several times a week.106

Structures within Brooklyn should, therefore, be designed to minimize their cooling load.

Reducing the cooling load of structures located in hot climates has many benefits. The most

immediate improvement is the energy cost reduction due to the cost of air conditioning being

roughly proportional to its conditioning capacity. In addition, because the duct size is directly

related to the cooling load, energy efficiency structures in Florida requires significantly smaller

ducts than standard construction practices.107


Commercial Structures

Within Brooklyn, many existing commercial structures can be renovated into new uses.

In fact the neighborhood was designed in order to preserve the existing infrastructure to the

greatest extent possible. Before deciding to build new, designers should carefully consider the

benefits of reusing the existing structure. Renovated structures generate less waste and

embodied energy than demolition and new construction. When the building program requires a

new structure, the existing materials must be either reused or recycled as current technology

permits.

Commercial structures, either in this neighborhood should be designed or renovated in

order to reduce their internal heating loads. In Florida, thirty percent of the cooling load of a

typical office building is attributable to heat produced from lighting, twenty percent to solar heat


106 National Climatic Data Center, Local Climatological Data, 8.

107 Wilson, "Keeping the Heat Out," 13.









gain through the windows, fifteen percent to heat gain through the roof and thirteen percent is

generated by internal equipment.'s0

All commercial structures within the Brooklyn neighborhood meet, or exceed, the

requirements for the latest version of LEED Green Building Certification. LEED109 is a self-

assessing system designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise

residential buildings. The rating system is based on existing proven technology. It evaluates

environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building's life cycle,

providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building It is a feature -oriented

system where credits are earned for satisfying each criterion. Different levels of green building

certification are awarded based on the total credits earned. For Brooklyn, only the minimum

certified level is required.

Spatial arrangement

To maximize the potential for daylighting strategies, buildings should be oriented along

a generally east-west axis. Daylighting strategies can reduce lighting requirements up to fifty

percent."0 The daylight provided must be of an acceptable quality to the building's occupants,

which suggests providing diffuse, cool sunlight; uncontrolled glare and localized overheating

cause users to resort to blinds, defeating the benefits of the daylighting design.'

Open spaces should be provided along the windows, allowing natural light and

ventilation to penetrate throughout the entire floor. The east-west orientation also minimizes




10s Danny S. Parker, Philip W. Fairey and Janet E.R. M cllvaine,Energy Efficient Office Building Design for a
Hot and Humid Climate: Florida's new Energy Center [online] (Cape Canaveral, FL: Florida Solar Energy
Center, 1994 [cited 28 May 2001]); available from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/-bdac/pubs/PF291/pf-291.htm.

109 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design as developed by the U.S. Green Building Council,
LEED Green Building Rating System Version 2.0 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Green Building Council, 2000).

110 Adrian Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Energy Efficient Design and Construction for
Commercial Buildings (New York: McGraw-Hill, Companies, Inc., 1997), 82.

111 Parker,. Fairey and Mcllvaine, Florida's new Energy Center.









solar heat gain along the overheated west facade. Minimizing the width of structures allows for

greater cross-ventilation.

Appropriate systems

Lighting uses much energy in commercial structures; in typical office buildings, for

example, it accounts for up to fifty-percent of the electricity consumption."2 Additionally, the

cooling equipment must remove the heat generated by the light fixtures. In order to reduce

cooling loads, lighting fixtures should contain electric ballasts that can be automatically dimmed

in according to the amount of daylight available. Occupancy sensors should also be used to

minimize lighting waste. In keeping with LEED requirements, minimal exterior lighting should

be provided and lighting should not be directed at the sky in order to minimize light pollution."3

Commercial structures within Brooklyn should be designed using low-flow plumbing

fixtures. Toilets and sinks should contain automatic controls to minimize water waste. Where

permitted by code, designers should also consider using waterless urinals and composting toilets.

Maintaining proper humidity levels within buildings in Florida is a constant concern. In

energy-efficient structures, mechanical systems are generally used under part-load conditions.

Therefore, the mechanical equipment must be carefully sized for the actual operating conditions,

especially if operable windows are provided. The mechanical system should produce a positive

pressure, with respect to the exterior, and dehumidify all ventilated air. Exterior air should be

dehumidified prior to being mixed with any return air. By directly conditioning the moist outside

air first, the thermodynamic effectiveness of moisture removal is improved, a smaller

dehumidifier is required, and a centralized location for air filtration or other enhancements is

provided.14



112 Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Commercial Buildings, 81.

113 U.S. Green Building Council, LEED, 7.

114 Parker, Fairey and Mcllvaine, Florida's new Energy Center.









Residential Structures

Unlike commercial structures, cooling loads generally originate from climatic factors.

Therefore the shape and openings of the house has the greatest impact on its energy-efficiency.

Primarily, houses designed for Brooklyn should encourage summer ventilation. Constant airflow

reduces the need for mechanical ventilation during the early and late summer months.

Similar to the LEED standard, the Florida Green Building Coalition has developed a

standard for Florida Green Homes.115 The standard has minimum requirements in various

categories, some specific to the unique Florida climate. The standards provide an excellent

checklist for designing and detailing energy-efficient homes within Florida. All new residences

within Brooklyn require Florida Green Home certification.

Spatial arrangement

Residential structures should be designed to maximize climatic benefits. Lots within

Brooklyn have been arranged to provide for a generally east-west orientation. This configuration

allows for high-occupancy areas, such as the living and dining rooms to face south. Placing the

porches on the east and west facades minimizes glare in the morning and afternoon. The kitchen

and other heat-producing spaces should be isolated from the remainder of the occupied spaces,

minimizing overheating during the summer.

An open floor plan, with a raised slab, assists in the natural ventilation of the home.

Openings should be located to encourage cross-ventilation. Casement windows can capture

summer and fall breezes while transom windows can allow hot air to escape along the ceiling.

Another consideration in Florida house design is the height of the interior spaces.

Sufficient vertical space should be provided to provide for convective ventilation. Once the heat

rises above the occupants, it can then be channeled out of the building.



115 Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc., Florida Green Home Designation Standard of the Florida Green
Building Coalition, [online] (Naples, FL: Florida Green Building Coalition, Inc. [cited 31 October 2001]);
available from http://floridagreenbuilding.org/Standards/HomeStd 071001.pdf.










Appropriate Systems

Residential design in Florida should take advantage of the large number of sunny days.

Daylighting techniques should be used for rooms along the southern facade, while avoiding glare

during the summer months. In addition, all houses within Brooklyn should be equipped with

compact fluorescent lamps, rather than incandescent fixtures. Compact lamps save use sixty

percent less electricity than traditional incandescent lighting.16

As with commercial structures, homes should be designed using low-flow plumbing

fixtures. In addition, technologically advanced clothes and dishwashers greatly reduce the water

requirements of the home. In addition, eliminating in-sink garbage disposals reduces the load on

sewage treatment plants as well as reducing water usage.17 Designers should also consider

providing a solar water heater as well as a cistern for rainwater collection.

The mechanical system of residences should be integrated with the building's systems.

For most of the cooling season, ceiling fans in high-occupancy areas should reduce the need for

mechanical ventilation. An energy-efficient home should require conditioning on only the hottest

days. To minimize heat loss, ductwork should be located within the conditioned spaces.

Design for the Future

Plumbing systems with within Brooklyn should be designed for future greywater

recycling. When permitted by code, greywater can be used for landscape irrigation or toilet

flushing. In addition, the flat roofs should be engineered for the addition of future photovoltaic

panels. For sloping roofs, provide wiring for future building-integrated photovoltaic roof

assemblies.







116 Tuluca and Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Commercial Buildings, 82.

117 "Water Conservation Checklist," Environmental Building News. September 1997, 13.









Prototype Residential Structure for Brooklyn

A prototype house was designed in order to illustrate the design principles for energy-

efficient housing in Brooklyn. The first floor consists of an open plan that encourages natural

ventilation between spaces as well as allowing heated air to escape through the roof monitor. The

main living areas are located where they receive the most daylight while the porches are located

to minimize glare in the morning and afternoon. The kitchen and mechanical room were isolated

from the rest of the house, minimizing internal heat gain during the summer.

For a house to reduce its energy requirements, the house was oriented on the site to

maximize its energy efficiency. Deciduous trees located southwest of the building shade the

house in the summer; yet allow sunlight through in winter.18 Sunlight cannot be easily controlled

on west elevation, so those openings are heavily shaded with deep overhangs. These overhangs

cover screened porches, providing additional living spaces throughout most of the year, without

requiring additional conditioned space. The main living spaces are located along the southern

elevation to take advantage of the better sunlight for daytime activities. The kitchen helps to heat

the northern part of the house during the winter and is separated, by means of the roof monitor,

from the living spaces to avoid overheating the house in the summer.

The house design also encourages natural ventilation. The casement windows used on

the on the main level maximizes cross-ventilation in both the north-south and east-west

directions. In fact, the length of the house is oriented to allow airflow during the hottest months

of the year. To maximize the house surface area and increase airflow, the floor is raised above the

ground. The overhangs over the windows not only block direct sunlight, but they also assist in

trapping air under the eaves, funneling the breezes into the house.119 The roof monitor assists in

ventilating the house by releasing any heat generated from within the house. Heat continuously

rise up the staircase and be vented through the roof monitor. The process of the hot air being


18s Watson and Labs, Climatic Building Design, 89.

119 Ibid., 195.









replaced with cooler air, known as the stack effect, naturally generates positive air circulation

and cools the interior spaces.120

Green materials, as discussed in the next section, were used throughout the house,

maximizing the energy-efficiency of the structure. Sustainably harvested cedar shingles are used

for the exterior finish since they provide a natural deterrent to termites. Using low-e double

glazed windows minimize heat gain during the summer. To minimize solar gain through the roof,

a light colored metal roof was used and the entire roof assembly is vented. Sustainably harvested

2x6 wood studs, spaced 24" on center, packed with cellulose generates a better-insulated wall

than conventional 2x4 wood studs, 16" on center, with batt insulation. Using these assemblies, in

fact, allows the house to exceed accepted energy-efficient standards for Florida.121

















------. --
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Figure 38: Street Elevation of the Prototype House.




120 Ibid., 201.

12 The prototype house will have a roof R-value of 30, a wall R-value of 20 and a floor R-value of15, values
of 26, 19, and 13 respectively are considered energy-efficient. Ibid., 146.












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