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ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES: COL...


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ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE) By KENNETH L. KRYSKO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2001

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Copyright 2001 by Kenneth L. Krysko

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to express my greatest appreciation to my parents, Barbara and Len Krysko, for surviving all of my errors as a child, as well as the recent ones. If it were not for them and their outlook on wildlife and the environment I would not have developed such a passion for all biology-related fields. The research conducted as part of my Master of Science in Biology program at Florida International University, Miami, FL (1995), laid the groundwork for parts of this dissertation. It was in Miami that I was first exposed to all of the political and environmental problems in our state, including the many factors that have disrupted the Everglades ecosystem. I wish to thank my committee members at FIU : George H. Dalrymple (chair), Maureen Donnelly, Scott Quackenbush, Kelsey Downum, and Martin Tracey for their guidance and support. I truly thank my PhD committee members at the University of Florida : F. Wayne King (chair), D. Bruce Means, Walter S. Judd, L. Richard Franz, Brian W. Bowen, Raymond R. Carthy, and Joseph C. Shaefer. They have provided me with many different views on school, research and life. I am especially grateful to F. Wayne King, Kent Vliet, and Jon Reiskind for providing me with research and teaching assistantships throughout my graduate studies. I thank Kenetha Johnson and Tangelyn Mitchell for their kindness and assistance in obtaining teacher's resources. There are numerous friends and colleagues who have provided assistance during different stages of my research and I am grateful to everyone. For assistance field

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iv collecting kingsnakes I thank Len E. Krysko, Andy Daneault Doug Riesco Anthony T. Reppas, Kevin M. Enge Rubin R. Ramirez, George H. Dalrymple Brian Machovina Doug Barker, David Zlatkin Jack Tanner, Ray Sokol Billy Griswold Bill Griswold Alan Miller, Larry Cote, Kevin Enright Lee Abbott, Gingah Ayee Nashaud Vadsaria Paul E. Moler Joe Roman, Robert H. Robins, Scott Cushnir Jacqueline A. Wilson, Gina Lopresti F. Wayne King, John Decker, Kenny Wray and Flavio Morrissiey For providing samples for morphological and DNA analyses I thank D. Bruce Means, Kevin M. Enge F. Wayne King, Wayne Vandevender Mike Armstrong, Scott Swormstedt Brad Pendley Paul E. Moler Ginger Clark, John Jensen, Carlos Camp, Troy Hibbits Billy Griswold Eric Ferrell Jack Tanner, Dale R. Jackson, Bill Cope, Kevin McHugh Scott Whitney, Bill and Kathy Love, Greg Lepera Fred G. Thompson, Steve Christman Jim Duquesnel Clive Longden David Cook, Eric East, Erik Hood, Jim Kane, David Printiss Howie Sherman, Robert Cox, Chris Scott, Paul Kaiser, Andy Barr and Bruce Skipper. For assistance in obtaining locality records and preserved specimens I thank D. Bruce Means, F. Wayne King, David L. Auth George H. Dalrymple Kevin M. Enge Linda Ford, Frank Burbrink Doug Rossman Joseph B. Slowinski Craig Guyer R. Reed, Greg Schneider, Christopher J. Raxworthy J. Simmons, Jens Vindum R. Crombie R. Wilson, Kevin de Queiroz George R. Zug K. Tighe H. Voris Alan Resetar Jeff Beane J. Wiens and Kent Beaman For providing information and assistance using GIS I thank Daniel J. Smith, Thomas Proctor and Ray Moranz. I also thank Kareem R. Abdelfattah, and Coleman M. Sheehy

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v for plotting nearly 1000 individual reference points in ArcView GIS. I thank Daniel J. Smith and Gina Busscher for providing data and information about Paynes Prairie. I thank Ginger Clark, Mark Whitten and Norris Williams for allowing me to sequence DNA in their labs. For help with lab work I thank Ginger Clark, Mark Whitten, Kareem Abdelfattah, Kevin Coleman, Joe Townsend, Megan E. Westfall, Martin Gorrochategui, Carlos A. Iudica, Milagros Rosales, Anna Bass, and Angella Garcia. I thank James Fetzner, Kyle Ashton, Robin Lawson, and Michael Douglas for information on sequencing and primers. I thank Mark Whitten for help designing primers and James Fetzner for use of certain outgroup sequences. For assistance with statistics I thank Jacqueline A. Wilson, Ziyad R. Mahfoud and Andre Khuri for running ANOVA and ANCOVA using SAS. I thank Joel Carlin for long discussions of population genetics and help using Arlequin. For daily research discussions and their sarcastic encouragement to finish I thank Steve A. Picklebarrel Johnson, Ryan Means, Anthony Reppas, Rob Robins and the Fish Range, Joe Townsend Coleman Sheehy Jason Evert Carlos A. Iudica Bob Godshalk, Esther Langan Nichole Hooper, Dan Janes Jeff Sailer Dan Smith, Jason Evert Jamie Barichivich Jennifer Staiger Perran Ross, Joel Carlin and the hundreds of my former students in my BSC 2001 labs. I also thank Milagros Rosales for her beautiful snake drawings in Figure 4-2. I thank Cynthia Sain, Shannon Wright, Polly Falcon, Delores Tillman, and Sam Jones for assisting me with departmental requirements. I thank Caprice McRae and Monica Lindberg for help obtaining the La Paz, Mexico travel award in 2000.

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vi For teaching me their vast knowledge of the biogeography and herpetology of the southeastern United States I thank Dick Franz, D. Bruce Means, and F. Wayne King. For discussions about species concepts I thank Walter S. Judd, Brent D. Mishler, and James Albert. For review and suggestions on dissertation chapters I thank F. Wayne King, D. Bruce Means, Dick Franz, Walter S. Judd, James Fetzner Brian W. Bowen, Joseph C. Shaefer Raymond R. Carthy Max A. Nickerson L. Lee Grismer Steve Picklebarrel Johnson, Jeff Sailer Peter A. Meylan Hobart M. Smith, C. Kenneth Dodd Jr., James Albert, Jacqueline A. Wilson, Joseph T. Collins, Mark Whitten Joel Carlin Ginger Clark, Robert Liu, Paul E. Moler Chris Meyer, and Rick Owen. I am indebted to those who have supported these kingsnake studies including The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (Project # NG00-002), Central Florida, Volusia County, and Suncoast herpetological societies. I would like to thank those who have assisted me in obtaining and providing appropriate permits in order to carry out these studies : Vivie Thue for collecting permit (#940015) from Everglades National Park; South Florida Water Management District (key permit #1069) for access to canals, levees, and structures in southern Florida; UF Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)(permit #A187) to work with live animals; and the U.S. Forest Service (permit (#2670) for collecting in the Apalachicola National Forest. Finally, I would like to thank all of the great friends I made during my life and times in Hogtown ." Everyone made my last days as a graduate student the best, and I will miss you all. But just remember, Go Seminoles

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... iii ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ ix CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 1 2 THE DECLINE AND EXTIRPATION OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) IN FLORIDA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 11 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 11 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 Natural History Overview ................................ ................................ ......................... 11 Ecological Status ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 13 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 Paynes Prairie (Alachua County) ................................ ................................ .............. 15 Apalachicola National Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin Counties) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 16 Lake Okeechobee (Glades, Hendry and Palm Beach Counties) and Extreme Southern Peninsula (Dade County) ................................ ................................ .... 17 3 SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) IN FLORIDA ................................ ................................ .............................. 28 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Sexual Dimorphism ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 Geographic Variation ................................ ................................ ................................ 31 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 32 Sexual Dimorphism ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 32 Geographic Variation ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 38 Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. brooksi ................................ ............ 39 Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula ................................ .............. 40 Relationships among L. g. getula L. g. goini and Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Populations ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 41

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viii 4 MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) .... 66 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 66 Morphological Characters ................................ ................................ ......................... 66 Cladistic Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 70 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 71 Cladistic Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 71 Character Evolution ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 73 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 75 5 MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) .............. 90 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 90 Laboratory Techniques ................................ ................................ .............................. 90 Phylogenetic Analyses ................................ ................................ .............................. 92 Population Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 93 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 94 Maximum Parsimony ................................ ................................ ................................ 94 Neighbor-Joining ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 96 Population Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 96 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 97 6 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 122 Phylogeography ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 122 Taxonomy ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 124 Future Projections ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 128 Habitat Protection ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 129 Species Protection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 130 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 134 APPENDICES A SPECIMENS REFERENCED FOR FLORIDA LOCALITIES ................................ 136 B SPECIMENS EXAMINED FOR SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION ... 140 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ 145 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 156

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ix Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE) By Kenneth L. Krysko December 2001 Chairman: F. Wayne King Major Department : Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula range throughout much of North America. Based on morphology, there are seven currently recognized subspecies in the L. getula complex. Two of these taxa, L. g. getula and L. g. floridana represent populations in the eastern U.S. Lampropeltis g. getula is distributed from southern New Jersey to northern peninsular and panhandle Florida and L. g. floridana is distributed from central to southern peninsular Florida. Historically, kingsnakes were abundant throughout the state of Florida. However, over the last few decades kingsnakes have declined severely or been locally extirpated leaving only a few isolated populations scattered around the state. Furthermore, for more than 80 years the taxonomy of the L. getula subspecies in the eastern U.S. has been controversial. In addition to L. g. getula and L. g. floridana the taxonomic status of four other potential subspecies remains questionable: L. g. brooksi from extreme southern

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x peninsular Florida, L. g. goini from the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands in panhandle Florida, an unnamed subspecies from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands, and L. g. sticticeps from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. In this study, I used a multidisciplinary approach to better understand kingsnake ecology and their phylogenetic relationships, and provide management recommendations for their conservation. First, I present a natural history overview of kingsnakes derived mainly from two years of fieldwork in southern Florida. Secondly, I used GIS to document kingsnake declines in Florida, and hypothesize possible causes leading to this event. Finally, I examine morphological and molecular characters of kingsnakes in the L. getula complex. Possible causes for population declines include habitat loss and fragmentation, road mortality, pollution, toxin buildup in tissues, red imported fire ants, and overcollecting by commercial collectors. Populations of L. g. getula L. g. floridana and unnamed populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands appear to represent natural groups, here recognized as subspecies. I found no morphological or genetic evidence supporting the recognition of L. g. brooksi L. g. goini and L. g. sticticeps Habitat protection and improved management practices are crucial to insure survival of kingsnakes in the wild.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex ( Linnaeus 1766) range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America, from Oregon to the Mexican Plateau in the west and from southern New Jersey to southern Florida in the east. In the past, kingsnakes were abundant throughout the state of Florida (Fig. 1-1) from well-known sites including Paynes Prairie (Alachua Co.), Apalachicola National Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin counties), Lake Okeechobee (Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach counties) and the extreme southern peninsula (Dade Co.) (Carr, 1940; Kauffeld 1957; Duellman and Schwartz, 1958; Wilson and Porras 1983; Krysko, 1995). Despite their previous abundance in Florida, kingsnake populations have severely declined or been locally extirpated for unknown reasons (Wilson and Porras, 1983; Krysko, 1995; Means, 2000), leaving only a few isolated populations scattered around the state. Similar examples of local extirpation of other reptile species have also taken place throughout the southeastern U.S. ( Moler, 1992; Tuberville et al., 2000), causing alarm among herpetologists and conservationists. Based on morphology, Blaney (1977) recognized seven subspecies of L. getula throughout its range : L. g. californiae ( Blainville 1835), L. g. floridana Blanchard 1919, L. g. getula ( Linnaeus 1766), L. g. holbrooki Stejneger 1903, L. g. nigra (Yarrow 1882), L. g. nigrita Zweifel and Norris 1955 and L. g. splendida (Baird and Girard 1853).

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2 Furthermore, Blaney (1977) recognized that populations in the eastern U.S. represented a distinct clade consisting of L. g. getula and L. g. floridana Lampropeltis g. getula is distributed from southern New Jersey to northern peninsular and panhandle Florida (Fig. 1-1; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997; Conant and Collins, 1991, 1998). Its dorsal pattern is solid black to chocolate brown with 19-32 narrow (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) crossbands and a lateral chain pattern (Fig. 12A; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997). Lampropeltis g. floridana is distributed from central to southern peninsular Florida (Fig. 1-1; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997). Its dorsal pattern has > 34 narrow (1.5 dorsal scale rows) crossbands, a degenerate lateral chain pattern and undergoes various degrees of ontogenetic interband (= interspaces between light crossbands) lightening, giving it a yellowish speckled appearance in the adult stage (Fig. 1-2B; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997). For more than 80 years the taxonomy of L. getula subspecies in the eastern U.S. has been controversial. In addition to L. g. getula and L. g. floridana the taxonomic status of three other named subspecies from the eastern U.S. remains questionable: L. g. brooksi Barbour 1919 from the extreme southern Florida peninsula (Fig. 1-1), L. g. goini Neill and Allen 1949 from the Florida panhandle on the western side of the Apalachicola River in the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands (Figs. 1-1, 1-3), and L. g. sticticeps Barbour and Engles 1942 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. In addition, Means (1977) believed that an unnamed subspecies existed on the eastern side of the Apalachicola River in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 1-3). The dorsal pattern of L. g. brooksi is like that of L. g. floridana but it undergoes extreme ontogenetic interband

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3 lightening that almost completely obscures the presence of the narrow crossbands (Fig. 14A; Barbour, 1919). The dorsal pattern of L. g. goini has 15-17 wide (4-8 dorsal scale rows) crossbands, and undergoes slight interband lightening, yet the interband areas remain nearly black (Fig. 1-4B; see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949). The dorsal pattern of individuals in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 1-3) is polymorphic and may be wide-banded (up to 8 dorsal scale rows) or non-banded (striped or patternless)(Fig. 15; Means, 1977; Krysko, 1995). The dorsal pattern of L. g. sticticeps is like that of L. g. getula but it undergoes slight interband lightening. All newborn, banded eastern U.S. L. getula individuals have bold light-colored crossbands with black interbands (Fig. 1-6AC), yet newborn non-banded eastern Apalachicola Lowlands individuals have only remnant black interbands (Fig. 1-6D, E). The lightened interband pattern of adult L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B), L. g. brooksi (Fig. 1-4A), L. g. goini (Fig. 1-4B), Apalachicola drainage individuals (Fig. 1-5) and L. g. sticticeps is derived from ontogenetic lightening of the normally black interbands (Fig. 1-6). In this study, I provide 1) a natural history overview of L. getula in Florida and attempt to document its decline and suggest possible causes leading to this event, 2) an analysis of sexual and geographic variation in Florida using morphology, and 3) analysis of morphological and molecular characters throughout the L. getula complex. I relate morphological and molecular data to historical geological events and attempt to clarify taxonomic relationships of L. getula populations in the eastern U.S. My interpretation of valid taxa along with their geographic ranges is presented using the Apomorphic Species Concept (Phylogenetic Species Concept sensu Mishler and Theriot, 2000). Under the Apomorphic Species Concept (ASC), species are considered to be well-supported

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4 minimal monophyletic groups, and subspecies may be considered as subclades within species, having lesser support because of interbreeding and a more recent evolution (see Mishler and Theriot, 2000). This definition of subspecies is similar to that of Mayr (1969) and Smith et al. (1997), in which subspecies are geographically-delimited populations that possess relatively homogeneous characters produced by evolution, yet are genetically non-discrete because of gene flow with surrounding morphologicallydivergent populations.

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5 Fig. 1-1. Florida panhandle and northern, central, and southern peninsula (modified after Enge, 1994).

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6 Fig. 1-2. Pattern variation of A = Lampropeltis g. getula from southern New Jersey to northern peninsular and panhandle Florida and B = L. g. floridana from central to southern peninsular Florida.

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7 Fig. 1-3. Apalachicola drainage in the Florida panhandle with recognized natural areas (after Means, 1977). 1 = Marianna Lowlands; 2 = Western Red Hills; 3 = Grand Ridge; 4 = Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines; 5 = River Bottomlands ; 6 = Apalachicola Lowlands; 7 = Coastal Marshes; 8 = Offshore Spits, Bars, and Barrier Islands. The two crescentshaped structures in mainland Franklin Co. are ancient barrier islands. Shading on the inset map = geographic distribution of Lampropeltis getula

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8 Fig. 1-4. Pattern variation of A = Lampropeltis getula brooksi and B = L. g. goini Note that adult L. g. brooksi (A) and L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) are distinctly banded as newborns (Fig. 1-6A) and although their ontogenetic interband lightening may obscure the presence of crossbands they are not truly non-banded like those in Figs. 1-5B, C; 16D, E.

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9 Fig. 1-5. Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Lampropeltis getula A = wide-banded, B = non-banded striped, C = non-banded patternless. Note that wide-banded specimen in A is the same as in Fig. 1-6C and has undergone considerably more ontogenetic interband lightening than adult L. g. goini from the surrounding region.

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10 Fig. 1-6. Newborn eastern U.S. Lampropeltis getula with bold light-colored crossbands and black interbands A = L. g. floridana (left) and L. g. getula (right); B = L. g. goini ; C = wide-banded eastern Apalachicola Lowlands; D = striped eastern Apalachicola Lowlands; E = patternless eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. Note that 1) wide-banded specimen C is the same as in Fig. 1-5A and will undergo considerably more ontogenetic interband lightening than L. g. goini from the region surrounding the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and 2) striped and patternless eastern Apalachicola Lowlands snakes have only remnant black interbands.

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11 CHAPTER 2 THE DECLINE AND EXTIRPATION OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) IN FLORIDA Materials and Methods Natural history data and Florida locality records of kingsnakes were obtained from the literature, herpetologists, and systematic collections throughout the U.S. Reference points were plotted for each collection record dated between 1858 and 1999 with latitude-longitude coordinates using ArcView GIS (ver. 3.2, ESRI, Inc). All individual and county records were plotted on maps of Florida to show the historical distribution of kingsnakes in Florida. Additionally, those records from 1990 to1999 were plotted separately to show the distribution of records over the last decade. Results Natural History Overview The diet of kingsnakes consists of both venomous and non-venomous snakes, including their own species, as well as lizards, amphibians, turtle eggs, rabbits and rodents ( Conant and Collins, 1991; Tennant, 1997). Newborn kingsnakes range in size from 13 to 20 cm snout-vent length (SVL), adults range from 90 to 122 cm SVL with a maximum size of 208.3 cm total length ( Conant and Collins, 1991; Tennant, 1997). Sexual maturity has been found at 80 cm SVL in the southern Florida peninsula (Krysko, unpubl. data). Males usually attain a greater size than females. The breeding season occurs from February through June. During this time, males are encountered more often

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12 than females, apparently because they are actively searching for mates. Combat rituals have been observed between two males (Krysko et al., 1998). Females are also observed more frequently from February through June, possibly because they are waiting for males to pick up their pheromones, feeding more frequently to increase yolk masses, or basking before oviposition. Oviposition occurs within two weeks after ecdysis. Three to 29 eggs are deposited from April through July, and hatching occurs after an incubation period of ca. 60 days ( Tennant, 1997). Kingsnakes are usually found in the vicinity of water-containing microhabitats that allow them to burrow (Wright and Bishop, 1915; Carr, 1940; Enge, 1997). In the southern Florida peninsula, they occur in or near tropical hardwood hammocks, cypress ( Taxodium ascendens and T. distichum ) strands, sawgrass ( Cladium jamaicense ) prairies, Australian pine ( Casuarina equisetifolia ), and melaleuca ( Melaleuca quinquenervia ) forests, along drainage canals in sugarcane fields, and where excavated oolitic limestone is piled up alongside man-made canals (Wilson and Porras 1983; OHare and Dalrymple 1997; Tennant 1997; Krysko, unpubl data). In the central and northern peninsula, they occur in or near hardwood hammocks, pine flatwoods ( Pinus elliottii ), cypress strands, freshwater prairies, salt marshes, and estuaries with black ( Avicennia germinans ), red ( Rhizophora mangle ), and white ( Laguncularia racemosa ) mangroves. In the panhandle, they occur in or near mesic pine ( Pinus spp.) flatwoods, clay hills, cypress strands, pitcher plant and sphagnum bogs, and salt marshes. They are typically not found in xeric sandhill habitats ( Enge, 1997). Kingsnakes are primarily diurnal and spend much of their time underground (Krysko, unpubl. data ; Means, unpubl. data), yet when above ground their large size

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13 makes them very conspicuous. In southern peninsular Florida, they are primarily active in February through June and October through December (Krysko, unpubl. data). The first activity period is correlated with the breeding season and an increase in rainfall and day length. The second activity period is correlated with cooling weather and a decrease in day length. They are found above ground mostly between 24C and 29C ambient air temperatures, with the highest frequency at 27C (Krysko, unpubl. data). At lower and higher temperatures, encounter rates decrease as kingsnakes may retreat into refugia. Adults are primarily diurnal, whereas juveniles are more secretive and exhibit crepuscular or nocturnal behaviors (Krysko, unpubl. data). An apparent ontogenetic shift in diel activity occurs, with secretive juveniles gradually become more diurnal. At approximately 90 cm SVL they may become less wary of diurnal predators. Ecological Status I obtained 821 Florida locality records where L. getula has been collected with known date of collection (Appendix A). Of these, 291 records came from two intensive kingsnake surveys (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-1). The first study compiled 110 records from the panhandle (Fig. 1-1) in 1969 through 1990 and consisted of 110 records (D. Bruce Means, unpubl. data). The second study compiled 181 records from the southern peninsula in 1993 through 1995 (Krysko, unpubl. data). Of the southern peninsula records, 109 consisted of captures, non-captures, dead on road specimens ( DORs), shed skins and skeletons that were not collected as vouchers and, therefore, are not listed in Appendix A. Individual records are summarized by county and decade in Table 2-2 and Figures 2-1 and 2-2. The number of kingsnake records have gradually increased over time as the

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14 number of collectors increased, especially around the 1930s (Fig. 2-1). The number of records reported here was inflated in the 1970s through the 1990s because of intensive efforts aimed at documenting large numbers of individuals (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-1). Historical records indicate a nearly statewide distribution for kingsnakes in Florida. Records for fifty-four (80.5%) of 67 counties exist for the period from 1858 to 1999 (Fig. 2-3). However, only 23 (34.3%) counties are represented during the last decade (Fig. 2-4). Similar to kingsnake records by decade (Fig. 2-1), county records also gradually increased over time as the number of herpetologists and collectors increased (Fig. 2-2). The largest number of county records occurred during the 1970s in conjunction with the first intensive kingsnake study (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-2). Even though the number of herpetologists and collectors has increased since the 1970s, the number of records documented has declined sharply. Discussion Kingsnake ecology is poorly known and has only been studied thoroughly in southern peninsular Florida populations (Krysko, unpubl. data). Because of apparent population declines or extirpation, studies of kingsnakes have been inefficient or impossible elsewhere in Florida, and other populations in the state can only be assumed to exhibit similar biological patterns. Because museum records reflect collecting biases, they are unreliable by themselves in determining the present status and distribution of a species ( Dodd and Franz, 1993). However, they are valuable for determining a species historical distribution. In this study, in addition to museum records I used all data available to me including literature and herpetologists field notes. However, records for Florida by

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15 county (Fig. 2-2) do illustrate a collecting bias. From 1858 through the 1960s kingsnakes were probably present statewide, but few individuals were recorded because only a small number of collectors was active in Florida. The peak in kingsnake records occurred in the 1970s, when 118 individuals were recorded from 30 counties (Figs. 2-1, 2-2). Assuming that the number of field biologists and collectors has increased since the 1970s, there has been a considerable decrease in the number of counties represented, which probably does not indicate a collecting bias but rather a reduced number of encounters with kingsnakes. Excluding the intensive kingsnake studies during the last decade (Table 2-1), there have been only 93 kingsnake records documented from 21 counties from 1990 to 1999 (Figs. 2-2, 2-4). A reduction in the number of collected individuals may reflect in part the present-day conservation attitudes and reluctance to collect animals from the wild. But most young biologists have never seen a wild kingsnake in Florida, and many experienced biologists report few or no encounters with kingsnakes over the last two decades (P. A. Meylan, pers. comm.). Paynes Prairie (Alachua County) Kauffeld (1957) claimed that he had never seen such an abundance of kingsnakes anywhere like that on Paynes Prairie. Prior to the 1970s, 20 kingsnakes could commonly be found on a spring morning along U.S. Highway 441 traversing the prairie ( Kauffeld, 1957; F. W. King and D. Franz, pers. comm.). However, from 13 January 1958 through 27 February 1960, U.S. Highway 441 was changed from two to four lanes (G. Busscher, pers. comm.), which drastically changed the habitat. Concurrently, dredging created a deep-water habitat along the roadsides (Smith, 1996). For the next few years the road shoulders were mostly sand with little vegetation, and frequent trips were made by

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16 biologists in the mornings to observe numerous kingsnakes foraging on Ophisaurus sp. (F. W. King, pers. comm.). During the 1960s, hundreds of kingsnakes were killed by vehicles, the prairie was mostly drained, dense hardwoods invaded the margins, and kingsnakes became extremely scarce (F. W. King and D. Franz, pers. comm.). During three separate intensive studies on the prairie from 1973-1977, no kingsnakes were found (Franz and Scudder, 1977; Smith, 1996). The last verified kingsnake found on the prairie was nearly two decades ago, in 1984, and kingsnakes appear to have been extirpated in this region. Although the prairie habitat has been highly modified, D. Jouvenaz ( pers. comm.) believed that decreasing kingsnake populations resulted from increasing densities of red imported fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta ). Apalachicola National Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin Counties) During the 1970s, it was not uncommon t o encounter five or more kingsnakes in one day crossing roads during the breeding season in the Apalachicola National Forest (ANF) and Tates Hell Swamp (D. B. Means, unpubl. data). Yet, near the end of the 1970s, Livingston (1977) reported that the southern half of the Apalachicola region had been under extensive development including agricultural activities, timber harvesting, dredging, and damming. By the early 1980s, kingsnakes had begun to decline drastically in this region (Table 2-1). After surveying thousands of kilometers of these same roads during the 1990s as Means had done in the 1970s, Krysko ( unpubl. data) found only one dead on road (DOR) individual in 1996. Even though few kingsnakes have been found crossing roads during the last decade, some individuals have recently been captured using drift fences (K. M. Enge, pers. comm.). Management practices are currently restoring

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17 native longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris ) in the ANF. However, Tates Hell State Forest has yet to establish an effective restoration program of the native habitat, and the management plan still allows extensive clear cutting, timber harvesting (Fig. 2-5) and replacing of native longleaf pine forests with slash pine ( Pinus elliotii ) tree farms. Lake Okeechobee (Glades, Hendry and Palm Beach Counties) and Extreme Southern Peninsula (Dade County) Godley (1982) reported capturing 58 kingsnakes at Rainey Slough on the western side of Lake Okeechobee from November 1975 through August 1978. Wilson and Porras (1983) noted that the sugarcane fields around Lake Okeechobee attracted large rodent populations and associated drainage canals provided refuge for kingsnakes. Presently, the Lake Okeechobee region, where 101 individuals were recorded from 1993 to 1995 (Table 2-1), appears to be the only area in Florida where large numbers of kingsnakes are still found. Wilson and Porras (1983) also suggested that kingsnake populations in southern Dade Co. and along the Tamiami Trail had experienced drastic declines as a result of increasing urban and agricultural development. Many kingsnakes had also been killed as vermin in the 1960s along the Tamiami Trai and Loop Road (F. W. King, pers. comm.). However, 80 individuals were recorded in the Everglades region from 1993-1995 (Table 2-1). Yet, during these two years local collectors were observed taking every individual found in this area, illustrating the intense collecting pressure put on these populations. This prompted Krysko (1995) to blame habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and overcollecting by commercial collectors for the pet trade as alternative explanations for declining populations in this area. In the six years following Kryskos (1995) survey,

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18 only two kingsnakes (both in 1995) were found at the study sites despite extensive searches during the breeding season.

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19 Table. 2-1. Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula recorded from two unpublished studies in Florida: D. B. Means (1969-1990) in the panhandle and K. L. Krysko (1993-1995) in the southern peninsula. Means County 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total Calhoun 0 2 2 0 4 Franklin 1 7 4 0 12 Gulf 0 9 1 0 10 Jefferson 0 3 1 0 4 Leon 0 5 4 0 9 Liberty 0 53 5 1 59 Wakulla 0 9 3 0 12 Total 1 88 20 1 110 Krysko County 1993-1995 Dade 80 Glades 45 Hendry 23 Palm Beach 33 Total 181

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20 Table. 2-2. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula records by Florida county from 1858 to 1999. 18581890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total Alachua 1 0 4 3 11 8 19 10 10 2 0 68 Baker 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 Bradford 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brevard 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 3 0 9 Broward 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 0 0 7 Calhoun 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 5 12 Charlotte 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 Citrus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 Clay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Collier 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 3 5 3 3 25 Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 Dade 0 1 0 2 6 0 4 0 2 7 83 105 DeSoto 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Dixie 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 7 Duval 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 8 13 Escambia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flagler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Franklin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 18 8 2 31 Gadsden 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 4 Gilchrist 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Glades 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 50 54 Gulf 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 32 6 7 48 Hamilton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Hardee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Hendry 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 24 27 Hernando 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 5 Highlands 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 Hillsborough 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 17 23 Holmes 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 Indian River 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Jackson 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 8

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21 Table 2-2 .Continued. 18581890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total Jefferson 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 3 0 10 Lafayette 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Lake 0 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 Lee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Leon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 8 7 8 4 28 Levy 1 0 0 0 0 3 5 1 6 2 0 18 Liberty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 13 7 82 Madison 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 Manatee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Marion 0 1 3 3 3 1 2 0 1 0 0 14 Martin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monroe 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 4 0 0 0 7 Nassau 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Okaloosa 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 7 1 10 Okeechobee 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 Orange 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 7 Osceola 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 Palm Beach 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 1 0 33 45 Pasco 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Pinellas 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 0 6 8 21 Polk 0 0 0 1 1 5 3 0 0 2 0 12 Putnam 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Santa Rosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 7 Sarasota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Seminole 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 St Johns 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 St Lucie 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sumter 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Suwannee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Taylor 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 5 1 0 9 Union 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Volusia 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 4 Wakulla 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 24 4 3 38

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22 Table 2-2 .Continued. 18581890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total Walton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 8 11 16 13 34 36 82 44 206 96 275 821

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23 8 93 76 118 43 82 36 34 13 16 11 88 182 20 1 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 1858-99 1900-09 1910-19 1920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 Fig. 2-1. Number of kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula records from 1858 to 1999. Note that top numbers in last four decades correspond to those from two unpublished studies by Means (1960-1990) and Krysko (1993-1995), which specifically targeted collecting large numbers of kingsnakes.

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24 7 5 5 6 13 16 23 17 30 27 21 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1858-99 1900-09 1910-19 1920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 Fig. 2-2. Number of Florida counties with kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula records from 1858 to 1999. Note that the high numbers in last four decades correspond to those from two unpublished studies by Means (1960-1990) and Krysko (1993-1995), which specifically targeted collecting large numbers of kingsnakes.

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25 Fig. 2-3. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula records from 1858 to 1999 (n = 821). Solid dots correspond to individual records. Fifty-four (80.5%) counties are represented.

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26 Fig. 2-4. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula records from 1990 to 1999 (n = 275). Open circles correspond to 181 individuals recorded in a two-year study in southern Florida from 1993 to 1995. Solid dots correspond to remaining 94 records. Twenty-three (34.3%) counties are represented.

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27 Fig. 2-5. Tate's Hell State Forest, Franklin County, Florida (1997).

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28 CHAPTER 3 SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) IN FLORIDA Materials and Methods I examined morphological characters including scutellation and color pattern of 822 field-collected and museum specimens of L. getula from Florida (Appendix B). Of these, 141 were field-collected from 1993 to 1995 in the southern peninsula (Fig. 1-1) and examined alive to evaluate natural color pattern variation. Because L. getula populations have drastically declined or been extirpated from Florida (Means, 2000), most specimens demarked KLK (Kenneth L. Krysko, Appendix B) were photographed, marked following Brown and Parker (1976) and released at their capture site after data were collected. Representative voucher specimens were deposited at the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida (FLMNH, UF collection). Morphological data from other areas in the southeastern U.S. were obtained from the scientific literature. The following standard scale counts and measurements were taken: CROSSBANDS the number of light body bands from one head length posterior to the head to above the cloaca (after Blaney, 1977). CROSSBAND WIDTH the number of dorsal scale rows the light crossbands cover mid-dorsally. During embryonic development of individuals from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands having < 15 crossbands or crossbands > 8 dorsal scales rows wide, their distinct crossbands break up and fuse in two basic ways, forming non-banded (striped and patternless) phenotypes

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29 (Fig. 1-6D, E). First, the light crossbands fuse laterally and divide mid-dorsally, producing a light colored individual with a black mid-dorsal stripe (Fig. 1-6D). This stripe appears to be the remnants of the black interbands because it undergoes ontogenetic lightening. Second, the light crossbands fuse both dorsally and laterally, producing a patternless individual with essentially one crossband from head to tail tip ( Fig. 1-6E ). Although I consider that both striped and patternless individuals have one crossband whose width is the entire length of the snake, I set this value at 200 dorsal scale rows wide in statistical analyses. VENTRALS the number using the standard counting system (after Dowling, 1951). SUBCAUDALS the number of scales from the cloaca to the tail tip, excluding the tail tip. DORSAL SCALE ROWS (DSR) the maximum number at midbody. SUPRALABIALS and INFRALABIALS the total number on both sides of the head. TEMPORALS and PRE and POST-OCULARS the arrangement on both sides of the head. DORSAL PATTERN the degree of ontogenetic lightening of the normally dark interband (= interspaces between light crossbands) scales was rated on adults with a system of A-D ( Fig. 3-1 ), where interband scales have A = 0% lightening (typical of L. g. getula ), B = up to 25% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. goini and L. g. floridana ), C = 25% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. floridana and Apalachicola Lowlands populations), D = 75% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. brooksi and Apalachicola Lowlands populations). PERCENT OF THE IRIS LIGHTENED examined on live specimens only. SNOUT-VENT LENGTH (SVL) measured with a tape from the tip of the snout to the distal edge of the cloaca. HEAD LENGTH measured with calipers from the posterior tip of the lower jaw to the tip of the snout. HEAD WIDTH

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30 measured at the widest part on the head. VENTRAL PATTERN estimated percent of lightened to darkened areas over the entire ventral surface. The ventral pattern ( Fig. 3-2) was also scored as A = tight checkerboard, where the alternating light and dark pigment is tightly compressed, typical of L. g. floridana ; B = loose checkerboard, where the alternating light and dark pigment is loosely compressed, typical of L. g. getula ; and C = bicolored where light pigment is confined to the anterior portion and dark pigment is confined to the posterior portion of each ventral scale. Previous workers defined the ranges of L. getula subspecies in Florida based on character distributions (Fig. 3-3; Blanchard, 1921; Conant, 1975; Blaney, 1977). After mapping these same characters in addition to others listed above, I detected similar areas of demarcation. To determine if certain characters differed significantly between regions, I divided Florida into six areas (Fig. 3-4) : 1) extreme southern peninsula from the southern tip of Florida north to southern Miami-Dade County, incorporating the range of L. g. brooksi ; 2) southern and central peninsula, incorporating the range of L. g. floridana ; 3) northern peninsular intergradation zone between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula (modified after Krysko, 1995); 4) northern peninsula and panhandle, incorporating the range of L. g. getula ; 5) western Apalachicola Lowlands on the west side of the Apalachicola River (after Means, 1977); and 6) eastern Apalachicola Lowlands on the east side of the Apalachicola River. In order to determine significant character trends down peninsular Florida as well as to illustrate geographic variation and descriptive statistics, I further separated the peninsula by 0.5 N latitude.

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31 Sexual Dimorphism Students t -tests were performed to test for sexual dimorphism in crossband numbers, crossband width, ventrals, and subcaudals within each area. A chi-square test for independence was used to determine if males obtain lighter interband dorsal patterns (Fig. 3-1D) more frequently than females in the southern peninsula (area 1, Fig. 3-4). Geographic Variation A regression was performed on crossband numbers, crossband width, ventrals, subcaudals, total supralabials and infralabials, and DSR by latitude to see if these characters change significantly north to south in peninsular Florida. I used Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine significance in mean crossband numbers, crossband width, ventrals and subcaudals between each area, and when significance was detected, I used General Linear Models (PROC GLM) with Least Squares Means (LSM) as a multiple comparison tool. Because the percent of the iris lightened and the ventral pattern do not change with age ( pers. obs.), correlation coefficients were calculated to see if these two characters are good indicators for estimating the degree of ontogenetic interband lightening (Fig. 3-1). Because it has been suggested that L. g. brooksi is distinguished from L. g. floridana by having a smaller head to SVL ratio, I used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare relationships of head length and head width relative to SVL between individuals from around Lake Okeechobee vs. southern Miami-Dade County. The data were log transformed and a preliminary test was performed to test for homogeneity among slopes between these two populations. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Analysis System (SAS for Windows, ver. 6.12) with a = 0.05.

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32 Results Sexual Dimorphism Crossband numbers. There were no significant differences in mean crossband numbers between males and females within any areas (all t values from 1.985 to 2.131, all P values > 0.05) except within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6, Fig. 3-4; mean = 9.6 for males, mean = 16.0 for females; t = 3.400, df = 89, P < 0.001), where a higher frequency of males possess non-banded phenotypes. Only males possessed a patternless phenotype, suggesting that this trait may be sex-linked. Additionally, nonbanded individuals are confined to the eastern and southwestern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-5). When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands population, there was no significant difference in crossbands between males and females ( t = 0.312, df = 51, P > 0.05). Therefore, data from both sexes were combined in all areas except in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands for analysis of geographic variation. Crossband width. There were no significant differences in mean crossband width between males and females within any areas (all t values from 1.985 to 2.131, all P values > 0.05) except within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6, Fig. 3-4; mean = 101.0 for males, mean = 33.7 for females; t = -4.843, df = 75, P < 0.001), where patternless males occur as well as males having wider crossbands than females. Even when all non-banded individuals were excluded from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands population, a significant difference remained between males and females ( t = -2.149, df = 37, P < 0.05). Therefore, data from both sexes were combined for all areas except within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands for analysis of geographic variation.

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33 Ventrals. There was no significant difference in mean number of ventrals between males and females within any areas in Florida (all t values from 1.989 to 2.178, all P values > 0.05). Therefore, data from both sexes were combined in all areas for analysis of geographic variation. Subcaudals There was a significant difference in mean number of subcaudals between males and females within all areas in Florida (all t values from 1.996 to 2.570, all P values < 0.05), due to males having longer tails than females. Males have longer tails, which are required for storage of their hemipenes (Greene, 1997). Therefore, data from both sexes were treated separately in all areas for analysis of geographic variation. Dorsal pattern. There was no significant difference in the frequency of adult males and females possessing the lightest interband dorsal pattern (Fig. 3-1D) throughout the entire Florida peninsula ( c 2 = 1.340, df = 1, P > 0.05). Therefore, males do not obtain lighter interband dorsal patterns more frequently than females. Geographic Variation Crossband numbers. A significant regression was detected (R 2 = 0.031, P < 0.001) for a north to south increase in crossband numbers (Table 3-1). Because crossbands varied drastically from 18-72, there is an overall increase of 6.18 crossbands for every 0.5 latitude. However, this cline terminated at 28 50 N latitude in the central peninsula. There were significant differences in mean crossband numbers (all P values < 0.001) between all areas, except between the 1) extreme southern peninsula and southern and central peninsula (areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4), and 2) northern peninsula and panhandle and western Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 4 and 5). The western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 5 and 6) are significantly different from each other due to

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34 a higher frequency of patternless males found in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the analysis there was no significant difference between these two areas ( P > 0.05), but the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands was still significantly different from all other areas ( P < 0.05). Crossband numbers are fewest in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-1; Fig. 3-4; area 6, Fig. 3-6; mean = 9.6 for males, mean = 16.0 for females, mean = 11.8 combined sexes), followed by western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5; mean = 18.0), northern peninsula and panhandle (area 4; mean = 22.6), northern peninsula (area 3; mean = 34.0), southern and central peninsula (area 2; mean = 53.0) and extreme southern peninsula (area 1; mean = 54.7). Mean crossband numbers are greatest at 27 50 N latitude in the central peninsula north of Lake Okeechobee (mean = 56.2 ; Table 3-1). Crossband width. A significant regression was detected ( P < 0.001) for a north to south decrease in crossband width (Table 3-2). However, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R 2 = 0.023) and the slope = 0.03, which indicates for every 0.5 latitude there is only a 0.03 decrease in crossband width. This cline terminated at 28 00 N Latitude in the central peninsula, where from this point south crossband width was invariably 1.5 dorsal scale rows. There were no significant differences in mean crossband width between any areas (Fig. 3-4; all P values > 0.05), except between the western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands ( P < 0.0001), as well as both of these areas being significantly different from all other areas (all P values < 0.01). The western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are significantly different from each other due to a higher frequency of patternless males found in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the analysis, there was

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35 no significant difference in crossband width between these two areas ( P > 0.05). Crossband width (Table 3-2) was lowest in the southern and central peninsula (areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4; mean = 1.5), followed by the northern peninsula (area 3; mean = 1.7), northern peninsula and panhandle (area 4; mean = 2.2), western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5; mean = 19.1) and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-7; area 6, Fig. 3-4, mean = 101.0 for males, mean = 33.7 for females, mean = 71.3 combined sexes). Ventrals. A significant regression ( P < 0.05) indicated a change of 0.28 ventrals over latitude (Table 3-3). However, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R 2 = 0.011). There were no significant differences in mean number of ventrals between any areas (all P values < 0.001 ; Table 3-3). Because ventrals are highly variable geographically, this character is not useful for distinguishing populations. Subcaudals Although a significant regression was detected ( P < 0.01) indicating a change of 0.40 subcaudals over latitude, there were no clear geographic trends down the peninsula (Table 3-4). Additionally, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R 2 = 0.019). Because subcaudals are sexually dimorphic and highly variable geographically, this character is not useful for distinguishing populations. Dorsal scale rows. A significant regression was detected ( P < 0.001) for a north to south increase in number of DSR from 21 to 25 (Table 3-5). However, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R 2 = 0.031) and the slope = 0.08, which indicates for every 0.5 latitude there is only a 0.08 increase in DSR. Snakes from both the western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 5 and 6, Fig. 3-4) have only 21 DSR, individuals from the panhandle and northern peninsula (area 4) usually have 21 DSR, and

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36 individuals from the southern peninsula (area 2) usually have 23 DSR. One individual from 25 50 N latitude in the extreme southern peninsula (area 1) had 25 DSR. Head scutellation. Supralabials were primarily 14 (Table 3-6) and did not show a significant change over latitude ( P > 0.05). Although most infralabials were 18 throughout Florida (Table 3-7), this character is highly variable geographically and did not show a significant change over latitude ( P > 0.05). Most temporals were in the arrangement of 2+3+4 (Table 3-8). Oculars were almost invariably in the arrangement of 1+2 (Table 3-9). Since there were no clear geographic trends in head scutellation within any areas in Florida, these characters are not useful for distinguishing populations. Dorsal pattern. The dorsal pattern is distinctly narrow banded (1.5 dorsal scale rows) with a degenerate lateral chain in the southern and central peninsula (Fig. 3-7; areas 1, 2, Fig. 3-4), slightly wider banded (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) with both the presence and absence of individuals with a lateral chain in the northern peninsula and panhandle (areas 3, 4), narrow, wide and non-banded (1.5-200 dorsal scale rows) in the western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5), and wide banded or non-banded (2.5-200 dorsal scale rows) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6). Adults possessing the lightest interband pattern (Fig. 3-1D) were not confined to L. g. brooksi in the southern peninsula (area 1, Fig. 3-4), yet were found scattered throughout the entire peninsula from southern Miami-Dade and Monroe counties north to Collier, Broward Hendry, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Sumter, Orange, Volusia, St. Johns and Baker counties (Fig. 1-1). However, in the panhandle the lightest interbands were confined to the Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-8). Eighty-nine of 93 (96 %) adults from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands showed

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37 interband lightening as C or D (Fig. 3-1). Only four (4 %) adults showed interband lightening as B like L. g. goini (Fig. 3-1; see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949), and these were peripheral to the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-8). Typically patterned L. g. floridana (Figs. 1-2B, 3-1C) were found from southern Miami-Dade Co. north to Alachua County. Additionally, newborns within all areas may exhibit reddish crossband scales, previously reported by Neill (1954) for only southern peninsular populations. The percent of the iris lightened was a good predictor for estimating the degree of ontogenetic interband lightening (r = 0.812, F = 244.7, df = 1, 126, P < 0.005), which is fully expressed in adults. Adults with moderately lightened interband patterns (Figs. 31B, C) had < 60% of their iris lightened, whereas those with the lightest interband pattern (Fig. 3-1D) had > 60% of their iris lightened. The ventral pattern was not a good predictor for estimating the degree of interband lightening (r = 0.092, F = 1.080, df = 1, 126, P > 0.05). Head to snout-vent length ratio. There were significant relationships between both head length (F 2 ,139 = 1737.03, R 2 = 0.961, P < 0.001) and head width (F 2,138 = 924.13, R 2 = 0.930, P < 0.001) relative to SVL within populations around Lake Okeechobee and southern Miami-Dade County. Slopes of the Lake Okeechobee and southern MiamiDade Co. populations where homogenous (interaction terms : head length P = 0.966 and head width P = 0.101 relative to SVL). There was no significant difference between the slopes of the Lake Okeechobee and southern Miami-Dade Co. populations when analyzing both head length ( P = 0.074) and width ( P = 0.881) relative to SVL (Fig. 3-9), indicating no significant difference in both head length and width relative to SVL

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38 between snakes occurring around Lake Okeechobee ( L. g. floridana ) versus those in southern Miami-Dade County ( L. g. brooksi ). Ventral pattern. The ventral pattern is comprised of a tight checkerboard (Fig. 32A) in the southern and central peninsula (areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4), both a tight and loose checkerboard (Figs. 3-2A, B) in the northern peninsula (area 3), a loose checkerboard in the northern peninsula and panhandle (area 4), both a loose checkerboard and loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolor scales (Figs. 3-2B, C) in the western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5) and both a bicolored and loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales (Fig. 3-2C) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6). Discussion Based on dorsal and ventral patterns and their geographical distributions, I identify three subspecies of L. getula in Florida. Two of these subspecies are presently named ( L. g. floridana and L. g. getula ) and one is unnamed (eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations). All three subspecies have zones of intergradation between them due to gene flow. However, gene flow between these populations in Florida is largely a phenomenon of the past, occurring now much less frequently because of isolation from severely declined or extirpated populations. Populations of L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) range from the southern tip of Florida north to Volusia Co. in the central peninsula (Fig. 1-1; areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4) and have > 34 narrow (1.5 dorsal scale rows) crossbands, a degenerate lateral chain pattern and tight checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 3-2A). Populations of L. g. getula (Fig. 1-2A) range from the northern Florida peninsula and panhandle (area 4, Fig. 3-4) north to southeastern Alabama and southern New Jersey and have 19-32 (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows)

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39 crossbands, a lateral chain pattern and loose checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 3-2B). The eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations (area 6, Fig. 3-4) have 1-25 wide (up to 200 dorsal scale rows) crossbands (Fig. 1-5A), only 21 DSR, ventral patterns of either bicolor or loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolor scales (Fig. 3-2C), and the presence of non-banded (striped and patternless) individuals (Figs. 1-5B, C). Although these Apalachicola morphs are found mainly in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands in Franklin and Liberty counties, others have been found in the southwestern Apalachicola Lowlands in Franklin and southern Gulf counties (Figs. 3-5 to 3-8). Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. brooksi Soon after the description of L. g. brooksi ( Barbour, 1919), its validity was questioned (Blanchard, 1920, 1921; Barbour, 1920; Wright, 1935). Duellman and Schwartz (1958) and Blaney (1977) invalidated L. g. brooksi because they found no differences in scutellation between L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) and L. g. brooksi (Fig. 14A) as well as because both morphs occur together from southern Miami-Dade Co. north to Osceola and Polk counties in the central peninsula (Fig. 1-1). Christman (1980) reported individuals with the light interband pattern of L. g. brooksi (Fig. 3-1D) much farther to the north around eastern Tampa Bay and the extreme northeastern peninsula. I have also found both L. g. floridana and L. g. brooksi (Figs. 1-2B, 1-4A) together from southern Miami-Dade Co. to Volusia Co. (Fig. 1-1), as well as individuals with the light interband pattern of L. g. brooksi (Fig. 3-1D) as far north as the northeastern peninsula in Duval and Baker counties. Therefore, I am unable to distinguish specimens from southern Miami-Dade Co. (= L. g. brooksi ) from those to the north in the southern and central peninsula (= L. g. floridana ). All scutellation characters (Tables 3-1 to 3-9), as

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40 well as meristics (Fig. 3-9) and dorsal (Figs. 1-2B, 1-4A, 3-1B, C, D) and ventral patterns (Fig. 3-2A) are the same for both named taxa. Because Blanchards (1919) description of L. g. floridana preceded Barbours description of L. g. brooksi by one month, L. g. brooksi is confirmed as a junior synonym of L. g. floridana Because individuals with the light interband pattern (Fig. 3-1D) have been found more frequently around prairies and in areas with exposed oolitic limestone, they are considered an ecotype. Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula Blaney (1977) reported that L. g. getula has 21 DSR from southern New Jersey south to peninsular Florida and used this character to define the ranges of L. g. floridana and L. g. getula in peninsular Florida (Fig. 3-3C). Like Blaney (1977), I found this character in different frequencies within these two taxa in Florida (Table 3-5; L. g. floridana usually has 23 DSR and L. g. getula usually 21 DSR). However, since it is a polymorphic character represented in both taxa it should not be used to define these forms in the peninsula. Auffenberg (1963) hypothesized that ancestral L. getula utilized the Gulf Coast Corridor as a dispersal route from the west into Florida during the Pliocene when sea levels were > 100 meters (m) lower than present day. I found an individual from the extreme southern peninsula with 25 DSR, which provides support for an historical relationship with L. g. splendida in Texas. Blanchard (1919, 1921) and Van Hyning (1933) reported occasional morphological intermediates (i.e., intergrades) between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula from Orange Co. in the central peninsula north to Alachua Co. in the northern peninsula (Fig. 1-1). Blaney (1977) believed a disjunct population of L. g. floridana existed in the northeastern peninsula in Duval and Baker counties (Fig. 3-3C), as well as two intergradation zones in

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41 the peninsula between these two taxa : from eastern Miami-Dade Co. north to Alachua Co., and in the northeastern peninsula surrounding his putative disjunct population of L. g. floridana Additionally, many subsequent faunal treatments have perpetuated this view ( Conant, 1975; Behler and King, 1979; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Conant and Collins, 1991, 1998). I recognize one intergradation zone between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula from Pinellas Co. in the central peninsula northeast to Baker, Duval, and Nassau counties in the northern peninsula (Fig. 1-1 ; area 3, Fig. 3-4). Here, individuals possess intermediate characters between these two taxa. Blaney (1977:72) stated that individuals from Baker and Duval counties at 30 50 N latitude exhibit all the characters of L. g. floridana yet claimed that they were distinguished from L. g. floridana by having fewer crossbands, similar to L. g. getula I examined many of the specimens examined by Blaney in addition to others not available to him, and these snakes are clearly intermediate by exhibiting 18-28 crossbands and a lateral chain pattern like L. g. getula yet undergo interband lightening like L. g. floridana Therefore, this is not a disjunct population of L. g. floridana rather it extends the previously recognized intergradation zone from Alachua Co. to the northeast by 45 km. Relationships among L. g. getula L. g. goini and Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Populations Blanchard (1921) and Blaney (1977) claimed that the southwestern portion of the range of L. g. getula included southeastern Alabama and panhandle Florida. Neill and Allen (1949) claimed that L. g. goini was found only on the western side of the Apalachicola River in the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands in Calhoun and northern Gulf counties (Figs. 1-1, 1-3). Neill and Allen (1949), however, did not examine any

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42 specimens from the eastern side of the Apalachicola River, and like Blaney (1977), appeared to be unaware of non-banded morphs. All specimens examined by Neill and Allen possessed 15-17 crossbands of 4-8 dorsal scale rows wide, nearly black interbands in adults and ventral patterns intermediate between L. g. getula and individuals in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands ( see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949). Their description did not include snakes with < 15 crossbands (Fig. 3-6), crossbands > 8 dorsal scale rows wide (Fig. 3-7), extensively lightened interbands (Fig. 3-8), nor striped nor patternless phenotypes (Fig. 3-5). Because the color pattern and locality of L. g. goini are intermediate between L. g. getula and populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands, L. g. goini is relegated to intergrade status. Blaney (1977) invalidated L. g. goini solely by speculating that the Apalachicola populations were relict intergrades from the Pleistocene between panhandle L. g. getula and now disjunct peninsular L. g. floridana Although Blaney (1977) acknowledged that the Apalachicola variants were morphologically unique, he provided no data to support his conclusion. Means (2000) mistakenly stated that patternless individuals occur in both the Apalachicola region and the southern peninsula. However, other than for rare aberrant pattern abnormalities, there are no truly patternless individuals found anywhere within the range of L. getula other than in the Apalachicola Lowlands. Neonate peninsular L. g. floridana are boldly crossbanded with black interbands (Fig. 1-6A) and only after extensive ontogenetic interband lightening do crossbands become obscured (Fig. 3-1D). However, crossbands can always be distinguished on peninsular snakes, simply by examining the snakes body in sufficient light. Adult speckled L. g. holbrooki from the midwestern U.S. have also been confused with truly patternless individuals from

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43 the Apalachicola Lowlands, yet newborn L. g. holbrooki are also distinctly banded and undergo ontogenetic interband lightening. Ontogenetically lightened interbands are not restricted to Florida populations in the eastern U.S., as individuals from the Outer Banks of North Carolina (= L. g. sticticeps Barbour and Engels 1942) and coastal Georgia (both populations = L. g. getula x L. g. floridana sensu Blaney 1977) may also exhibit this trait ( Lazell and Musick 1973; Blaney 1977; Palmer and Braswell 1995). Striped individuals have been commonly found in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and in L. g. californiae from the western U.S., as well as in rare pattern abnormalities in L. g. floridana from eastern Tampa Bay in peninsular Florida (K. M. Enge pers comm.) and L. g. getula from Georgia (D. B. Means, pers comm.). However, Apalachicola Lowlands snakes are black striped whereas all others are light striped (Figs. 1-5B, 1-6D). To determine if the gene for light striping is the same in both California and Georgia populations, a cross between striped L. g. californiae and L. g. getula was performed. All offspring were boldly banded (D. B. Means, pers. comm.) suggesting that the light striping gene in the two populations are on different loci. I therefore presume that the gene for black striping in the Apalachicola Lowlands is also different from these light striping genes. Crossband numbers are fewest (1-25) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands population (Table 3-1; area 6, Fig. 3-4; Fig. 3-6), intermediate (18-63) between L. g. getula and L. g. floridana within their northern peninsular intergradation zone (area 3), and greatest (35-72) in peninsular Florida (areas 1 and 2). Crossband width is greatest (2.5-200 dorsal scale rows) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-2; area 6, Fig. 3-4; Fig. 3-7), intermediate (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) between L. g. getula and L. g.

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44 floridana within their intergradation zone in the northern peninsula (area 3), and least (1.5 dorsal scale rows) in the central and southern peninsula (areas 1 and 2). Wide crossbands (up to 4 DSR) are not restricted to Apalachicola Lowlands populations in the eastern U.S., as occasional L. g. getula have been found on Edisto Island of South Carolina exhibiting this trait (K. M. Enge, pers. comm.). Ventral patterns (Fig. 3-2) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are more similar to those in the western Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding panhandle, and remarkably different from peninsular L. g. floridana The eastern Apalachicola Lowlands population displays no intermediacy in crossband numbers, crossband width, nor ventral patterns between L. g. getula and L. g. floridana rather it represents the extreme for each of these characters and appears to be more closely related to L. g. goini and L. g. getula in the surrounding panhandle. Therefore, I believe that Blaney's (1977) hypothesis that the Apalachicola Lowlands populations are intergrades between L. g. getula and L. g. floridana is not supported. The Apalachicola River drainage in the Florida panhandle is renowned for its historical biogeography and high diversity of endemic flora and fauna (James, 1961; Clewell, 1977; Means, 1977; Yerger, 1977; Ward, 1979; Judd, 1982; Gilbert, 1987; Coile, 1996; Chafin, 2000; Chaplin et al., 2000). The majority of these endemic species have been known for more than 150 years from the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines (Fig. 1-3), which were utilized by many species as refugia during the Pleistocene. Within the last few decades, many other endemic species have been recognized from the Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-10), nested between the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines to the north and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Three ancient barrier islands have been identified within the Apalachicola Lowlands : two in the eastern Apalachicola

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45 Lowlands ca. 26.5-30 km NE Apalachicola, and one in the southwestern Apalachicola Lowlands ca. 15 km NE Apalachicola. These ancient islands presently exist as elevated sand bodies, each being 11-15 km long and up to 10 m above sea level ( Brenneman, 1957; Brenneman and Tanner, 1958). During high sea levels in the Pleistocene, it is speculated that these sand bodies would have been surrounded by saltwater and could have served as isolated areas allowing for the evolution of the Apalachicola Lowlands endemic species (Ward, 1979).

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46 Table 3-1. Geographic variation in crossband numbers in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Data are given for each of the six areas defined in Fig. 2. Areas 1, 2 and 3 are further separated by latitude. Males (M) and females (F) were treated separately within only the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands due to a higher frequency of males exhibiting a nonbanded phenotype. Crossbands Area Mean S.E. Range n 9.6 = M 0.82 1 23 65 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 16.0 = F 1.31 1 25 26 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 18.0 0.97 1 24 45 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 22.6 0.47 14 31 174 3 = N. Peninsula 34.0 0.50 206 30 50 N Latitude 24.8 1.68 18 28 n = 19 30 00 N Latitude 40.6 2.57 21 62 n = 17 29 50 N Latitude 29.9 0.89 19 63 n = 54 29 00 N Latitude 29.4 1.26 24 46 n = 32 28 50 N Latitude 40.3 1.68 32 50 n = 13 28 00 N Latitude 38.4 0.74 29 48 n = 71 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 53.0 0.50 175 29 00 N Latitude 52.2 3.15 45 60 n = 4 28 50 N Latitude 53.6 1.48 40 70 n = 19 28 00 N Latitude 49.0 2.10 44 56 n = 9 27 50 N Latitude 56.2 1.26 44 78 n = 25 27 00 N Latitude 51.5 1.15 35 65 n = 30 26 50 N Latitude 53.5 1.08 41 65 n = 34 26 00 N Latitude 52.7 0.85 42 66 n = 54 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude 54.7 0.72 44 72 76 Total 767

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47 Table 3-2. Geographic variation in crossband width in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement and abbreviations as in Table 3-1. Crossband Width Area Mean S.E. Range n 101.0 = M 4.09 2.5 200 51 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 33.7 = F 6.57 2.5 200 26 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 19.1 5.06 1.5 200 49 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 2.2 2.50 1.5 8 189 3 = N. Peninsula 1.7 2.73 1.5 2.5 189 30 50 N Latitude 1.7 0.15 1.5 2.5 n = 13 30 00 N Latitude 1.6 0.08 1.5 2 n = 9 29 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.02 1.5 2 n = 53 29 00 N Latitude 1.6 0.04 1.5 2.5 n = 32 28 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 10 28 00 N Latitude 1.5 0.02 1.5 2.5 n = 72 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 1.5 0.00 1.5 170 29 00 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 4 28 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 20 28 00 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 9 27 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 24 27 00 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 24 26 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 34 26 00 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 n = 55 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 1.5 0.00 1.5 25 50 N Latitude 1.5 0.00 1.5 83 Total 757

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48 Table 3-3. Geographic variation in ventral scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement as in Table 1. Ventral Scales Area Mean S.E. Range n 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 212.7 0.47 206 222 60 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 211.7 0.09 208 217 15 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 216.1 0.29 208 225 153 3 = N. Peninsula 216.8 0.28 204 231 169 30 50 N Latitude 216.4 1.03 213 220 n = 4 30 00 N Latitude 218.6 1.52 216 222 n = 8 29 50 N Latitude 217.8 0.52 209 231 n = 51 29 00 N Latitude 216.4 0.76 208 223 n = 32 28 50 N Latitude 216.2 1.00 204 223 n = 12 28 00 N Latitude 216.3 0.47 208 225 n = 62 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 216.0 0.29 206 227 164 29 00 N Latitude 216.0 2.64 213 219 n = 2 28 50 N Latitude 216.4 0.90 212 222 n = 19 28 00 N Latitude 214.5 1.24 208 219 n = 9 27 50 N Latitude 216.8 0.74 209 225 n = 25 27 00 N Latitude 216.0 0.78 207 227 n = 23 26 50 N Latitude 217.8 0.65 211 226 n = 33 26 00 N Latitude 214.6 0.51 206 225 n = 53 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude 216.1 0.42 210 225 76 Total 637

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49 Table 3-4. Geographic variation in subcaudal scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement and abbreviations as in Table 1. Subcaudal Scales Area Mean S.E. Range n 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands M: 50.6 0.43 47 53 31 F: 45.5 0.59 42 53 17 M: 51.2 0.73 49 55 11 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands F: 46.6 1.41 45 48 2 M: 51.7 0.29 47 57 61 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle F: 45.4 0.40 41 50 36 3 = N. Peninsula M: 51.4 0.32 45 59 65 F: 45.6 0.30 41 55 63 30 50 N Latitude M: 49.6 0.66 49 51 n = 3 F: 45.5 0.50 45 46 n = 2 30 00 N Latitude M: 52.0 3.00 49 55 n = 2 F: 44.4 0.57 43 45 n = 3 29 50 N Latitude M: 51.1 0.45 47 54 n = 15 F: 45.5 0.95 41 55 n = 16 29 00 N Latitude M: 51.6 0.47 48 54 n = 16 F: 46.2 0.96 43 48 n = 5 28 50 N Latitude M: 50.0 0.70 49 52 n = 4 F: 45.8 1.46 42 50 n = 5 28 00 N Latitude M: 51.9 0.62 45 59 n = 25 F: 45.4 0.36 42 49 n = 32 2 = S. and C. Peninsula M: 51.3 0.26 46 58 75 F: 45.8 0.30 40 53 63 M: 51 0.00 51 n = 1 29 00 N Latitude F: 47 0.00 47 n = 1 28 50 N Latitude M: 51.4 0.80 48 56 n = 10 F: 46.0 0.82 42 49 n = 8 28 00 N Latitude M: 52.4 0.92 50 55 n = 5 F: 46.5 0.64 45 48 n = 4 27 50 N Latitude M: 52.0 0.69 47 56 n = 14 F: 46.4 0.52 44 49 n = 9 27 00 N Latitude M: 51.7 0.63 48 58 n = 14 F: 46.2 0.54 44 50 n = 9 26 50 N Latitude M: 50.6 0.65 47 55 n = 18 F: 45.5 0.66 40 48 n = 14 26 00 N Latitude M: 51.2 0.58 46 57 n = 23 F: 45.6 0.84 41 53 n = 18 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude M: 52.9 0.45 47 57 39 F: 47.0 0.61 40 52 29 Total 492

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50Table 3-5. Geographic variation in dorsal scales rows in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement as in Table 1. Dorsal Scale Rows Area21232425n6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands58 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)58 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands15 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)15 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle128 (80.0%)32 (20.0%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)160 3 = N. Peninsula28 (15.4%)152 (83.9%)1 (0.55%)0 (0.00%)181 30 50’ N Latitude8 (57.1%)6 (42.8%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 14 30 00’ N Latitude1 (11.1%)8 (88.8%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 9 29 50’ N Latitude11 (22.0%)39 (78.0%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 50 29 00’ N Latitude6 (18.1%)27 (81.8%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 33 28 50’ N Latitude0 (0.00%)12 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 12 28 00’ N Latitude2 (3.17%)60 (95.2%)1 (1.58%)0 (0.00%)n = 63 2 = S. and C. Peninsula10 (5.91%)159 (94.0%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)169 29 00’ N Latitude0 (0.00%)4 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 4 28 50’ N Latitude0 (0.00%)20 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 20 28 00’ N Latitude0 (0.00%)9 (100%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n = 9 27 50’ N Latitude3 (12.0%)22 (88.0%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n =25 27 00’ N Latitude2 (8.30%)22 (91.6%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n =24 26 50’ N Latitude1 (3.03%)32 (96.9%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n =33 26 00’ N Latitude4 (7.40%)50 (92.5%)0 (0.00%)0 (0.00%)n =54 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50’ N Latitude14 (18.4%)61 (80.2%)0 (0.00%)1 (1.30%)76 Total 659

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51 Table 3-6. Geographic variation in the total number of supralabial scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement as in Table 1. Supralabials Area 14 15 16 n 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 46 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 46 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 10 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 10 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 89 (94.6%) 5 (5.31%) 0 (0.00%) 94 3 = N. Peninsula 172 (97.1%) 5 (2.82%) 0 (0.00%) 177 30 50 N Latitude 14 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 14 30 00 N Latitude 6 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 6 29 50 N Latitude 48 (97.9%) 1 (2.04%) 0 (0.00%) n = 49 29 00 N Latitude 32 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 32 28 50 N Latitude 9 (90.0%) 1 (10.0%) 0 (0.00%) n = 10 28 00 N Latitude 63 (95.4%) 3 (4.54%) 0 (0.00%) n = 66 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 148 (94.8%) 7 (4.48%) 1 (0.64%) 156 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 0 28 50 N Latitude 16 (88.8%) 1 (5.55%) 1 (5.55%) n = 18 28 00 N Latitude 8 (88.8%) 1 (11.1%) 0 (0.00%) n = 9 27 50 N Latitude 24 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 24 27 00 N Latitude 21 (87.5%) 3 (12.5%) 0 (0.00%) n = 24 26 50 N Latitude 30 (96.7%) 1 (3.22%) 0 (0.00%) n = 31 26 00 N Latitude 49 (98.0%) 1 (2.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 50 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude 64 (90.1%) 5 (7.06%) 2 (2.84%) 71 Total 554

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52 Table 3-7. Geographic variation in the total number of infralabial scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement and abbreviations as in Table 1. Infralabials Area 16 17 18 19 20 21 n 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 18 (40.0%) 12 (26.6%) 15 (33.3%) 0 (0.00%) 45 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 7 (70.0%) 3 (30.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 10 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.07%) 47 (50.5%) 25 (26.8%) 19 (20.4%) 1 (1.07%) 93 3 = N. Peninsula 1 (0.57%) 6 (3.44%) 87 (50.0%) 43 (24.7%) 31 (17.8%) 6 (3.44%) 174 30 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 7 (50.0%) 2 (14.2%) 2 (14.2%) 3 (21.4%) n = 14 30 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (14.2%) 2 (28.5%) 3 (42.8%) 1 (14.2%) n = 7 29 50 N Latitude 1 (2.21%) 2 (4.25%) 19 (40.4%) 13 (27.6%) 11 (23.4%) 1 (2.21%) n = 47 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 1 (3.33%) 13 (43.3%) 10 (33.3%) 6 (20.0%) 0 (0.00%) n = 30 28 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 4 (40.0%) 3 (30.0%) 3 (30.0%) 0 (0.00%) n = 10 28 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 3 (4.54%) 43 (65.1%) 13 (19.6%) 6 (9.09%) 1 (1.51%) n = 66 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 0 (0.00%) 1 (6.49%) 83 (53.8%) 34 (22.0%) 33 (21.4%) 3 (1.94%) 154 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 0 28 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 11 (61.1%) 1 (5.55%) 5 (27.7%) 1 (5.55%) n = 18 28 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 6 (75.0%) 2 (25.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 8 27 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 11 (45.8%) 9 (37.5%) 3 (12.5%) 1 (4.16%) n = 24 27 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 7 (30.4%) 6 (26.0%) 9 (39.1%) 1 (4.34%) n = 23 26 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 1 (3.22%) 12 (38.7%) 7 (22.5%) 11 (35.4%) 0 (0.00%) n = 31 26 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 36 (72.0%) 9 (18.0%) 5 (10.0%) 0 (0.00%) n = 50 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 42 (60.0%) 11 (15.7%) 16 (22.8%) 1 (1.42%) 70 Total 546

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53 Table 3-8. Geographic variation in the arrangement of temporal scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Counts are from one head-side and are not always symmetrical. Arrangement as in Table 1. Temporal Scales Area 1+1+3 1+2+4 1+3+3 1+3+4 2+2+3 2+2+4 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.09%) 1 (1.09%) 4 (4.39%) 4 (4.39%) 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 5 (2.85%) 3 (1.71%) 3 = N. Peninsula 3 (0.86%) 1 (0.28%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.28%) 7 (2.01%) 30 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 3 (10.3%) 30 00 N Latitude 1 (8.33%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 29 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.03%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.03%) 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 2 (3.63%) 28 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 28 00 N Latitude 2 (1.55%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.77%) 1 (0.77%) 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.32%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.32%) 0 (0.00%) 3 (0.97%) 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 28 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 28 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 27 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 2 (5.55%) 27 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 26 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.63%) 26 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.01%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.01%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 25 50 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 2 (1.41%) 3 2 1 2 10 19

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54 Table 3-9. Geographic variation in the arrangement of pre-ocular and post-ocular scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Counts are from one head-side and are not always symmetrical. Arrangement as in Table 1. Ocular Scales Area 1+2 1+3 2+3 n 6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 92 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 92 5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 20 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 20 4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 192 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 168 3 = N. Peninsula 339 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 339 30 50 N Latitude 14 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 14 30 00 N Latitude 12 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 12 29 50 N Latitude 97 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 97 29 00 N Latitude 64 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 64 28 50 N Latitude 20 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 20 28 00 N Latitude 132 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 132 2 = S. and C. Peninsula 314 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 314 29 00 N Latitude 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 0 28 50 N Latitude 36 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 36 28 00 N Latitude 18 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 18 27 50 N Latitude 48 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 48 27 00 N Latitude 48 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 48 26 50 N Latitude 62 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 62 26 00 N Latitude 102 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) n = 102 1 = Extreme S. Peninsula 30 50 N Latitude 102 (96.2%) 2 (1.88%) 2 (1.88%) 106 Total 1039

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55 Table 3-10. List of endemic (E) and relict (R) plants and animals whose geographic distribution is confined to or centered on the Apalachicola Lowlands. Species Endemic or Relict Confined Centered Angiosperms Southern milkweed ( Asclepias viridula ) R X Pinewoods aster ( Aster spinulosus ) E X Scare-weed ( Baptisia simplicifolia ) E X Apalachicola rosemary ( Conradina glabra ) E X Chipola dye-flower ( Coreopsis integrifolia ) R X Florida waxweed ( Cuphea aspera ) E X Dark-headed hatpins ( Eriocaulon nigrobracteatum ) E X Telephus spurge ( Euphorbia telephioides ) E X Harpers beauty ( Harperocallis flava ) E X Henrys spiderlily ( Hymenocallis henryae ) E X Thickleaved water willow ( Justicia crassifolia ) E X Godfreys blazing star ( Liatris provincialis ) E X Wests flax ( Linum westii ) R X White birds-in-a-nest ( Macbridea alba ) E X Ashes magnolia ( Magnolia ashei ) R X Florida beargrass ( Nolina atopocarpa ) E X Giant water dropwort ( Oxypolis filiformes greenmanii ) E X Carolina grass of parnassus ( Parnassia caroliniana ) R X Large flowered grass of parnassus ( Parnassia grandifolia ) R X Narrowleaved Phoebanthus ( Phoebanthus tenuifolia ) E X Apalachicola Dragonhead ( Physostegia godfreyi ) E X Violet butterwort ( Pinguicula ionantha ) E X Chapmans butterwort ( Pinguicula planifolia ) E X Small-flowered meadow beauty ( Rhexia parviflora ) E X

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56 Table 3-10 .Continued. Species Endemic or Relict Confined Centered Chapmans rhododendron ( Rhododendron chapmanii ) R X St. Johns black-eyed Susan ( Rudbeckia nitida ) R X Florida skullcap ( Scutellaria floridana ) E X Mock pennyroyal ( Stachyedeoma graveolens ) E X Chapmans crownbeard ( Verbesina chapmanii ) E X Quillwort yellow-eyed grass ( Xyris isoetifolia ) E X Serpentes Brown-chinned racer ( Coluber constrictor helvigularis ) E X Apalachicola Lowlands kingsnake ( Lampropeltis getula ssp.) E X

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57 Fig. 3-1. Note interbands (areas between light crossbands) only. Interband scale rating system on adult Lampropeltis getula (modified after Krysko, 1995), A = 0% lightening (typical of L. g. getula ), B = up to 25% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. goini and L. g. floridana ), C = 25% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. floridana and Apalachicola Lowlands populations), D = 75% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g. brooksi and Apalachicola Lowlands populations).

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58 Fig. 3-2. Ventral patterns of Lampropeltis getula A = tight checkerboard where the alternating light and dark pigment is tightly compressed, typical of L. g. floridana ; B = loose checkerboard where the alternating light and dark pigment is loosely compressed, typical of L. g. getula ; C = bicolored where light pigment is confined to the anterior portion and the dark pigment is confined to the posterior portion of each ventral scale (bottom), loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales (top).

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59 Fig. 3-3. Distribution hypotheses of Lampropeltis getula subspecies in Florida after A = Blanchard (1921), B = Conant (1975), C = Blaney (1977).

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60 Fig. 3-4. Six areas in Florida used to analyze geographic variation of Lampropeltis getula 1 = southern peninsula, 2 = southern and central peninsula, 3 = central and northern peninsula, 4 = northern peninsula and panhandle, 5 = western Apalachicola Lowlands, 6 = eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. Degrees latitude are shown in the column on right.

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61 Fig. 3-5. Geographic distribution of non-banded (striped and patternless ) phenotypes of Lampropeltis getula across the Apalachicola region of Florida.

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62 Fig. 3-6. Geographic variation in the number of light crossbands in Lampropeltis getula across Apalachicola region of Florida.

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63 Fig. 3-7. Geographic variation in the width of light crossbands in Lampropeltis getula across the Apalachicola region of Florida.

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64 Fig. 3-8. Geographic variation in the degree of ontogenetic interband lightening in Lampropeltis getula across the Apalachicola region of Florida. A = 0% lightening typical of L. g. getula B = up to 25% of the intensity of the crossbands typical of L. g. goini C = 25% of the intensity of the crossbands, D = 75% of the intensity of the crossbands. Non-banded (striped and patternless) individuals were as D.

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65 Snout-vent Length (mm) 200400600800100012001400 Head Length (mm) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Lake Okeechobee Southern Dade County Snout-vent Length (mm) 200400600800100012001400 Head Width (mm) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Lake Okeechobee Southern Dade County Fig. 3-9. A = Head Length/SVL and B = Head Width/SVL in Lampropeltis getula from southern Florida, modified after Krysko (1995).

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66 CHAPTER 4 MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula) Materials and Methods I examined color pattern and external morphology from 52 individuals of the L. getula complex (Table 4-1) : 1) 10 from the Florida peninsula as defined by Enge (1994), 2) 9 from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands in panhandle Florida as defined by Means (1977), 3) 13 from the surrounding panhandle, 4) 12 from the Atlantic U.S. border, and 5) 1-2 individuals of each remaining subspecies of the L. getula complex west to northern Mexico and California. In order to facilitate comparison of morphological and molecular phylogenetic results, most of these individuals were the same as those used in DNA analyses. For some missing localities replacement specimens with a similar morphology from and nearby geographic area were used. Morphological Characters Supralabial, infralabial, loreal, temporal, ocular and ventral scales were reviewed, but determined to be uninformative and omitted from the analyses. Twelve variable and potentially phylogenetically informative characters (Table 4-2) were used in cladistic analyses and plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-4) conditions (Tables 4-2, 4-3) were determined using western and midwestern individuals as functional outgroups ( Maddison et al., 1984). Because not every individual could be examined throughout its entire life, coding for juvenile and adult characters was inferred from other specimens (juvenile or

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67 adult) collected in close geographic proximity. Characters are listed and discussed below. When ordering of characters is used in the analysis, it follows the progression stated for each character. Dorsal scale rows (DSR ). Maximum number at midbody (Fig. 4-1). Examined individuals had either 25, 23, or 21 (Table 4-2). Ventral pattern as juvenile Primary ventral patterns are illustrated in Fig. 4-2. The ventral pattern is typically A = ringed in extreme western North America or B = light with dark lateral margins in the San Diego region of California (A and B = L. g. californiae ), D = tight checkerboard south into northern Mexico and east to peninsular Florida (= L. g. nigrita, L. g. splendida, L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra and L. g. floridana ), E = loose checkerboard north along the Atlantic U.S. border ( L. g. getula ), G = bicolored in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands of Florida, and F = loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding Florida panhandle. There is a progression from A and B to D to E to G (Table 4-2). Ventral pattern as adult Although the ventral pattern does not typically change ontogenetically, individuals from northern Mexico (= L. g. nigrita ) gain dark pigment until becoming completely black (Fig. 4-2C). There may be considerable variation within a single clutch of eggs in L. g. nigrita where some newborns might exhibit a tight checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 4-2D) like those of neighboring populations of L. g. splendida while other siblings might exhibit a completely black venter (Fig. 4-2C). After only a few periods of ecdysis following hatching, all pattern remnants are usually lost. Because this evidence suggests that the ventral pattern may be genetically controlled ontogenetically and there appears to be a progression like that in the juvenile

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68 stage described above, this character was treated as an ordered transformation series (Table 4-2). Dorsal pattern as juvenile Primary dorsal patterns are illustrated in Fig. 4-2. The dorsal pattern is typically A = ringed in extreme western North America or B = light striped in the San Diego region of California (A and B = L. g. californiae ), D and E = narrow banded south into northern Mexico and east to the Atlantic U.S. border (= L. g. nigrita, L. g. splendida, L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra L. g. floridana, and L. g. getula ), F = wide banded in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding Florida panhandle, and dark striped (not illustrated), and G = patternless in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. See above for explanation regarding L. g. nigrita and introduction regarding dark striped eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. There is a progression from A and B to D and E to F to G (Table 4-2). Ontogenetic dorsal pattern change The dorsal pattern changes in certain geographic areas including the juvenile's 1) light bands becoming black (Fig. 4-2C) in northern Mexico (= L.g nigrita ) and in the midwestern U.S. on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains (= L. g. nigra ), 2) black interbands becoming lightened laterally in the Texas area (= L. g. splendida ), or 3) lightened over the entire dorsum east to Florida (= L. g. holbrooki, L. g. floridana ). Individuals of L. g. getula from the Outer Banks, Dare Co., North Carolina, as well as individuals in the Apalachicola region of Florida, also undergo interband lightening over the dorsum. Band or ring formation as juvenile Formations include 1) ringed around body or light-striped in extreme western North America or light-striped in the San Diego region of California (Fig. 4-2A, B = L. g. californiae ), 2) narrow bands that fork laterally

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69 east to the Atlantic U.S. border (Fig. 4-2E = L. g. splendida, L. g. nigrita, L. g holbrooki, L. g. nigra L. g. floridana, and L. g. getula ) and 3) bands that fuse laterally and/or dorsally in the Apalachicola region of Florida (Fig. 4-2F, G). There is a progression from 1 to 2 to 3 ( Table 4-2). Placement of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile Pigment is either A = located on the entire scale, B = centered, or C = anterior (Fig. 4-3). There is a progression from A to B to C (Table 4-2). Placement of ontogenetically lightened pigment within dark interband or ring scales There is either 1) no light pigment, or light pigment is 2) centered, or 3) anterior (Fig. 4-4). There is a progression from 1 to 2 to 3 ( Table 4-2). Red tipping of dorsal scales as juvenile Although previously reported by Neill (1954) for only southern peninsular Florida populations, newborns from the entire eastern U.S. populations may exhibit reddish crossband scales. There may be considerable variation within a single clutch of eggs as different proportions of siblings may or may not exhibit this trait. It appears that the brightest red bands usually change ontogenetically into an off-white, beige, or dull light brown color (K. M. Enge and H. Sherman, pers. comm.). Bands without reddish scales usually remain brilliant white or yellow. Number of light bands or rings as juvenile On body starting one head-length posterior to the head and ending above the cloaca (Fig. 4-5). A = 0, B = 1, C = 16-34, and D = 44-65. Note that the light striped individual (San Diego, CA1) has no bands (Figs. 4-2B, 4-5A) and individuals from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are considered to have only one band (Fig. 4-5B, see Chapter 3 for explanation).

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70 Fraction of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile As a fraction, light pigment incorporates entire = 1.00, half = 0.50, or one-third = 0.33 of entire scale (Fig. 4-6). Band or ring width as juvenile Mean scale width (= # mid-dorsal scale rows) on body : A = 0, B = 0.33, C = 1.5-2, D = 2.5-8, E = 200 (Fig. 4-7). Character state delimitation of D is somewhat subjective because it incorporates a relatively wide range of values, however, this variation is found almost exclusively in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding region. Note that the light striped individual (San Diego, CA1) has no bands. Cladistic Analyses Relationships among individuals are investigated using the maximum-parsimony (MP) method using PAUP* (ver. 4.08b, Swofford, 2000). MP analyses were performed with heuristic search using 500 repetitions of random stepwise additions with subtree pruning and regrafting (SPR), with limits set to 25 trees (30 steps) per random addition replicate. Both unordered and ordered character analyses were performed (Table 4-2). Confidence limits for phylogenetic groupings in both approaches were assessed with bootstrapping ( Felsenstein, 1985) with full heuristic search using 500 repetitions of random stepwise additions with SPR and limits set to 5 trees per random addition replicate. Nonparametric bootstrapping generally yields conservative measures of the probability that a group represents a true evolutionary clade ( Zharkikh and Li, 1992; Hillis and Bull, 1993; RodriguezRobles et al., 1999c).

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71 Results Cladistic Analyses MP analysis using un ordered characters (Table 4-2) resulted in 69 most parsimonious trees of 44 steps (CI = 0.795, RI = 0.954) from 15 parsimony-informative characters. Strict and majority rule consensus trees were produced (Fig. 4-8). The midwestern/western and eastern U.S. samples form separate monophyletic groups. The eastern clade is further divided into three subclades. The strict consensus tree (Fig. 4-8) illustrates a primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowland subclade nested within a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade. Peninsular individuals are most closely related to the predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle subclade. A random representative of the 69 shortest trees was selected, illustrating the number of character differences between individuals and bootstrap support above 50% (Fig. 4-8). Major nodes are statistically supported : California individuals of the western clade (100%), midwest/western clade (87%) and eastern U.S. clade (63%). Most nodes within the eastern clade are less supported, with fewer character differences, illustrating their close relationships to each other. The primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowland samples exist within the only well supported subclade (85%). The MP tree demonstrates the relationships of the outgroups indicating that the midwestern/western clade is the sister group to the eastern clade rather than California individuals of the western clade (with 100% bootstrap support). MP analysis using ordered characters (Table 4-2) resulted in 171 most parsimonious trees of 46 steps (CI = 0.761, RI = 0.952) from 15 parsimony-informative characters. Strict and majority rule consensus trees were created, which yield similar

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72 results as the unordered MP analysis, but give less resolution of ingroup relationships (Fig. 4-9). The strict consensus tree illustrates that the eastern U.S. samples form a monophyletic group. The eastern clade is divided into three subclades : a primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowlands subclade and a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade. There is no information regarding how the Florida peninsula and two Outer Banks, NC, samples relate each other. The majority rule consensus tree (Fig. 4-9) is more similar to the unordered MP analysis, where the midwestern/western samples also form a monophyletic group. Additionally, there is more resolution of the ingroup; the primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowland subclade is most closely related to a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade. A randomly selected representative of the 171 shortest trees in Fig. 4-9 illustrates the number of character differences between individuals and bootstrap support above 50%. Certain major nodes are well supported : California individuals of the western clade (100%) and eastern U.S. clade (81%). Certain nodes within the ingroup (eastern clade) are also statistically supported, illustrating their close relationship to each other. The eastern Apalachicola Lowland samples exist within the only well supported subclade (93%). The Apalachicola and a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade are supported together (57%). Like the unordered MP analysis, the ordered MP analysis demonstrate the relationships of the outgroups indicating that the midwestern/western individuals are the sister group to the eastern clade rather than California individuals of the western clade with 100% bootstrap support.

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73 Character Evolution Although many characters used in the analysis were homoplasious, synapomorphies were identified, supporting the monophyly of particular clades. There were three characters supporting the monophyly of L. g. holbrooki L. g. nigra L. g. nigrita and L. g. splendida in the midwestern/western clade (Fig. 4-8). These include centered light pigment within band scales as juvenile (character 7-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 43B), light pigment incorporating 33% of band scales as juvenile (character 11-2, Table 42, Fig. 4-6), and 33% mean band width as juvenile (character 12-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7). Centered ontogenetically lightened pigment within dark interband scales (character 8-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-4B) is the only character supporting the monophyly of L. g. splendida and L. g. holbrooki from Duval Co., TX, Terrebonne Parish, LA, and Perry, MS, within the midwestern/western clade (Fig. 4-8). Ontogenetically darkened dorsal and ventral patterns in the adult stage (characters 3b-1, 5-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2C) were the two characters supporting the monophyly of L. g. nigrita from Sonora, Mexico (Fig. 4-8). However, it is noted that an ontogenetically darkened dorsal pattern (character 5-2, Fig. 4-2C) is homoplasious, because it is also found on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountains (= L. g. nigra ). There were three characters supporting the monophyly of the eastern clade with L. g. floridana L. g. getula and populations in the Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 4-8). These include anterior light pigment within band scales as a juvenile (character 7-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-3C), red tipping of dorsal scales as juvenile (character 9-1, Table 4-2), and light pigment incorporating 50% of band scales as a juvenile (character 11-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-6). There are five synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands snakes with individuals from the

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74 surrounding panhandle (Fig. 4-8) : a ventral pattern of loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales as a juvenile (character 2-3, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F), ventral patterns of loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales or bicolored as an adult (character 3d-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F, G), wide banded dorsal pattern (character 4-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F), band formation fused laterally and/or dorsally as a juvenile (character 6-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F, G), and band width of 2.5-8 DSR as a juvenile (character 12-3, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7). There are six autapomorphies found within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 4-8), including bicolored ventral patterns as a juvenile and an adult (characters 2-4, 3e-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2G), dark striped and patternless dorsal patterns as a juvenile (characters 4-3, 4-4, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2G), one light dorsal band as a juvenile (character 10-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-5), and band width of >200 DSR as a juvenile (character 12-4, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7). There are two synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of L. g. getula in the Atlantic/panhandle clade (Fig. 4-8) : a loose checkerboard ventral pattern as a juvenile (character 2-2, Table 42,Fig. 4-2E) and a banded dorsal pattern with no ontogenetic change (character 5-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2E). There are two characters supporting the monophyly of eastern Apalachicola Lowlands snakes and L. g. getula from the surrounding region and the Atlantic (Fig. 4-8), including a loose checkerboard, loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolor scales or bicolored ventral patterns (character 3c-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2E, F, G) and laterally forked banded dorsal pattern (character 6-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2E). The monophyly of L. g. floridana from the peninsula (Fig. 4-8) is weakly supported by a single homoplasious character of a band width of 1.5 DSR (character 12-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2).

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75 Discussion Based on previous morphological work by Keogh (1996), a terrestrial behavior was the single synapomorphy defining the monophyly of L. getula Although some clades (or subspecies) within the L. getula complex may be weakly supported by homoplasious characters, at least one synapomorphy supports the monophyly of each of the major clades. Midwestern/western individuals of L. g. holbrooki L. g. nigra L. g. nigrita and L. g. splendida represent sister taxa to the eastern clade of L. g. floridana L. g. getula and eastern Apalahicola Lowlands snakes (Fig. 4-8). This evidence supports the two nearly identical hypotheses of Blanchard (1921) and Blaney (1977), in which the eastern subspecies were derived from midwestern/western individuals. The three identified geographic races in the east, L. g. getula L. g. floridana and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations (chapter 3) are not completely discrete because of intermediates through interbreeding with members of adjacent subspecies. It is quite interesting that the unnamed highly polymorphic and very distinctive eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations are identified by more synapomorphies than any other recognized subspecies (Fig. 4-8). Because these populations overlap in distribution with a number of endemic plants and animals (Table 3-10), I suggest that these snakes evolved locally and deserve taxonomic recognition. There is no evidence supporting the recognition of L. g. brooksi from the extreme southern Florida peninsula (Dade and Monroe counties ) as there are no characters distinguishing L. g. brooksi from L. g. floridana There is no evidence supporting the recognition of L. g. sticticeps from the Outer Banks of North Carolina (Dare Co.) as they exhibit characters of both L. g. getula from the adjacent mainland and L. g. floridana from the Florida peninsula.

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76 Table 4-1. Sample, voucher number and locality of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, used in this study for morphological analyses. Number next to sample indicates that more than one sample was used from the same general locality. Asterisk next to number in parentheses indicates that identical sample was used in DNA analyses. Sample Voucher No., Locality San Diego, CA 1 UF 116020 ; U.S.: California, San Diego Co. San Diego, CA 2 UF 116023 ; U.S.: California, San Diego Co. Sonora, Mexico UF 123994, Mexico: Sonora Duval, TX UF 116062; U.S.: Texas, Duval Co., Hwy 59, 9.5 km N of Freer Terrebonne KLK-xx519 (* Lg 59); U.S.: Louisiana, Terrebonne Parish, Houma Perry, MS KLK-xx259 (* Lg 90) ; U.S.: Mississippi, Perry Co. Calloway, KY KLK-xx232 (* Lg 56) ; U.S.: Kentucky, Calloway Co. Trigg, KY KLK-xx262 (* Lg 93) ; U.S.: Kentucky, Trigg Co. Dare, NC 1 KLK-xx530 (* Lg 121); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island Dare, NC 2 KLK-xx525 (* Lg 111); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island Watauga, NC KLK-xx520 (* Lg 29); U.S.: North Carolina, Watauga Co., Triplett Charleston, SC 1 KLK-xx521 (* Lg 37); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Adams Run Charleston, SC 2 KLK-xx528 (* Lg 120); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Edisto Island Greenwood, SC KLK-xx522 (* Lg 129;) U.S.: South Carolina, Greenwood Co., US 221, 2.6 km W of Hwy 10 Jasper, SC KLK-xx526 (* Lg 99) ; U.S.: South Carolina, Jasper Co. Banks, GA KLK-xx350 (* Lg 117); U.S.: Georgia, Banks Co., Yonah Church Rd, 9.8 km W of Homer Echols, GA KME-m10 (* Lg 18); U.S.: Georgia, Echols Co., Statenville Randolph, GA KLK-xx523 (* Lg 133) ; U.S.: Georgia, Randolph Co. Thomas, GA KLK-xx524 (* Lg 134); U.S.: Georgia, Thomas Co., Ochlockonee River Walton, GA UF 121162 (* Lg 119); U.S.: Georgia, Walton Co., Loganville Bay, FL KLK-xx227 (* Lg 52); U.S.: Florida, Bay Co., SR 22, 32.1 km W of Wewahitchka Dade, FL UF 19675; U.S.: Miami-Dade Co., Krome Ave ca. 10 mi S of Tamiami Trail Calhoun, FL UF 114321 (* Lg 5, KLK-xx031); U.S.: Florida, Calhoun Co., Blountstown Dixie, FL KLK-xx316 (* Lg 115); U.S.: Florida, Dixie Co., CR 361, 5.7 km S of Rocky Creek Duval, FL KME-f11 (* Lg 16); U.S.: Florida, Duval Co., Jacksonville Franklin, FL 1 KLK-xx220 (* Lg 45); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 7 km E of C30 Franklin, FL 2 KLK-xx221 (* Lg 46); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 9.5 km W of Carrabelle Franklin, FL 3 KLK-xx231 (* Lg 55); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., Tates Hell Swamp near New River Gadsden, FL KLK-xx222 (* Lg 47); U.S.: Florida, Gadsden Co., US 90 5.7 km W of Quincy Gulf, FL 1 KME-m25 (* Lg 11); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe Gulf, FL 2 KME-m26 (* Lg 15); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe Hernando, FL UF 111101 (* Lg 23, KLK-xx230); U.S.: Florida, Hernando Co., Hernando Beach Hillsborough, FL KLK-xx238; U.S.: Florida, Hillsborough Co., Brandon Holmes, FL KLK-xx257 (* Lg 65); U.S.: Florida, Holmes Co., Rt 179A, 3.8 km SW of SR 2 Jackson, FL KLK-xx491 (* Lg 107); U.S.: Florida, Jackson Co., CR 271 Jefferson, FL KLK-xx225 (* Lg 50); U.S.: Florida, Jefferson Co., Goosepasture Rd, 1.9 km S of Tram Rd Lee, FL KLK-xx527 (* Lg 35); U.S.: Florida, Lee Co., Gasparilla Island, Boca Grande Leon, FL 1 KME-m3 (* Lg 13); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Bloxham cutoff

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77 Table 4-1Continued. Sample Voucher No., Locality Leon, FL 2 KLK-xx226 (* Lg 51); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Meridian Rd, 0.2 km S of Meridian Hills Rd Levy, FL UF 95556; U.S.: Florida, Levy Co., 6 mi E of Cedar Key Liberty, FL 1 UF 105383 (* Lg 10, KLK-xx211); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, 3.7 km S of SR 20 Liberty, FL 2 KLK-xx213 (* Lg 26); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, just N of Liberty-Franklin Co. line Liberty, FL 3 KLK-xx239 (* Lg 27); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction of NFR 103 and 116 Liberty, FL 4 KLK-xx240 (* Lg 28); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction of NFR 103 and 116 Liberty, FL 5 DBM-104 (* Lg 30) ; U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co. Liberty, FL 6 DBM-50 (* Lg 32); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 110 2.9 km S of jct 111 Liberty, FL 7 KLK-xx247 (* Lg 58); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 139 Monroe, FL UF 123777 (* Lg 36, KLK-xx490); U.S.: Florida, Monroe Co., Key Largo Palm Beach, FL UF 99739 (KLK-94005); U.S.: Florida, Palm Beach Co., Pahokee Pinellas, FL KLK-xx050 ; U.S.: Florida, Pinellas Co. Wakulla, FL 1 KME-m13 (* Lg 12); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., junction of NFR 313 and 312 Wakulla, FL 2 KME-f3 (* Lg 14); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., Arren

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78 Table 4-2. Morphological characters of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, used for cladistic analyses. Note plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-4) conditions. # Character Character State (Coding) 1 Dorsal scale rows (Fig. 4-1). 25 (0), 23 (1), 21 (2) 2 Ventral pattern as juvenile (Fig. 42). (Ordered) Ringed or light with dark lateral margins (0), tight checkerboard (1), loose checkerboard (2), loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales (3), bicolored (4) 3 Ventral pattern as adult (Fig. 4-2). (Ordered transformation series) Ringed or light with dark lateral margins = A, tight checkerboard = B, solid dark = C, loose checkerboard = D, loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales = E, bicolored = F 3a. A (0), not A (1) 3b. C (1), not C (0) 3c. A, B or C (0); D, E or F (1) 3d. A, B, C or D (0); E or F (1) 3e. A, B, C, D or E (0); F (1) 4 Dorsal pattern as juvenile (Fig. 4-2). (Ordered) Ringed or light striped (0), narrow banded (1), wide banded (2), dark striped (3), patternless (4) 5 Ontogenetic dorsal pattern change Ringed or light striped with no change (0), banded with no change (1), bands becoming solid dark (2), interband lightening laterally (3), interband lightening over dorsum (4) 6 Band or ring formation as juvenile (Fig. 4-2). (Ordered) Ringed around body or light striped (0), forked laterally (1), fused laterally and/or dorsally (2) 7 Placement of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile (Fig. 4-3). (Ordered) Entire scale (0), centered (1), anterior (2) 8 Placement of ontogenetically lightened pigment within dark interband or ring scales (Fig. 4-4). (Ordered) No lightening (0), centered (1), anterior (2) 9 Red tipping of dorsal scales as juvenile (Ordered) Absent (0), present (1) 10 Number of light bands or rings as juvenile (Fig. 4-5). A (0), B (1), C (2), D (3) 11 Fraction of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile (Fig. 4-6). 1.00 (0), 0.50 (1), 0.33 (2) 12 Band or ring width as juvenile (Fig. 4-7). A (0), B (1), C (2), D (3), E (4)

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79 Table 4-3. Data matrix of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, used for cladistic analyses. See Table 4-2 for character descriptions. Number next to sample indicates that more than one sample was used from the same general locality. Sample Character State 1 2 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 San Diego, CA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 San Diego, CA 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 Sonora, Mexico 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 1 Duval, TX 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 1 0 3 2 1 Terrebonne 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 1 1 0 3 2 1 Perry, MS 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 1 1 0 3 2 1 Calloway, KY 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 1 Trigg, KY 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 2 1 Dare, NC 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Dare, NC 2 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Watauga, NC 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Charleston, SC 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Charleston, SC 2 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 3 Greenwood, SC 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Jasper, SC 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Banks, GA 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Echols, GA 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Randolph, GA 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Thomas, GA 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Walton, GA 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Bay, FL 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Dade, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Calhoun, FL 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Dixie, FL 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Duval, FL 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Franklin, FL 1 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Franklin, FL 2 2 4 1 0 1 1 1 3 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 Franklin, FL 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Gadsden, FL 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Gulf, FL 1 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Gulf, FL 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Hernando, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Hillsborough, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Holmes, FL 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Jackson, FL 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Jefferson, FL 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Lee, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Leon, FL 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 3 Leon, FL 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 Levy, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Liberty, FL 1 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Liberty, FL 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Liberty, FL 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Liberty, FL 4 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Liberty, FL 5 2 4 1 0 1 1 1 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 Liberty, FL 6 2 4 1 0 1 1 1 3 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 Liberty, FL 7 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3

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80 Table 4-3Continued. Sample Character State 1 2 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Monroe, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Palm Beach, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 Pinellas, FL 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 Wakulla, FL 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 Wakulla, FL 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 3

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81 Dorsal Scale Rows (DSR) 2122232425 San Diego,CA1 San Diego,CA2 Sonora,Mexico Duval,TX Dade,FL Hernando,FL Hillsborough,FL Holmes,FL Lee,FL Levy,FL Monroe,FL PalmBeach,FL Pinellas,FL Wakulla,FL1 Terrabonne Perry,MS Calloway,KY Trigg,KY Dare,NC1 Dare,NC2 Watauga,NC Charleston,SC1 Charleston,SC2 Greenwood,SC Jasper,SC Banks,GA Echols,GA Randolph,GA Mitchell,GA Walton,GA Bay,FL Calhoun,FL Dixie,FL Duval,FL Franklin,FL1 Franklin,FL2 Franklin,FL3 Gadsden,FL Gulf,FL1 Gulf,FL2 Jackson,FL Jefferson,FL Leon,FL1 Leon,FL2 Liberty,FL1 Liberty,FL2 Liberty,FL3 Liberty,FL4 Liberty,FL5 Liberty,FL6 Liberty,FL7 Wakulla,FL2 Fig. 4-1. Dorsal scale rows (DSR) at midbody in Lampropeltis getula complex. Note plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-2) conditions. Sample 0 1 2

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82 Fig. 4-2. Primary dorsal and ventral patterns of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex. Note that dorsal or ventral patterns might be referred to separately in text. A B C D E F G

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83

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84

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85 Number of Bands or Rings as Juvenile 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 San Diego,CA1 Franklin,FL2 Liberty,FL5 Liberty,FL6 San Diego,CA2 Dare,NC1 Dare,NC2 Watauga,NC Charleston,SC1 Charleston,SC2 Greenwood,SC Jasper,SC Banks,GA Echols,GA Mitchell,GA Randolph,GA Walton,GA Bay,FL Calhoun,FL Dixie,FL Duval,FL Franklin,FL1 Franklin,FL3 Gadsden,FL Gulf,FL1 Gulf,FL2 Hernando,FL Holmes,FL Jackson,FL Jefferson,FL Leon,FL1 Leon,FL2 Levy,FL Liberty,FL1 Liberty,FL2 Liberty,FL3 Liberty,FL4 Liberty,FL7 Pinellas,FL Wakulla,FL1 Wakulla,FL2 Sonora,Mexico Duval,TX Terrabonne Perry,MS Calloway,KY Trigg,KY Dade,FL Hillsborough,FL Lee,FL Monroe,FL PalmBeach,FL Fig. 4-5. Number of light bands or rings in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. See Table 4-2 for character state coding. Sample A B C D

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86 Fraction of Light Pigment Within Ring, Band or Stripe Scales as Juvenile 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Sonora,Mexico Duval,TX Terrabonne Perry,MS Calloway,KY Trigg,KY Dare,NC1 Dare,NC2 Watauga,NC Charleston,SC1 Charleston,SC2 Greenwood,SC Jasper,SC Banks,GA Echols,GA Randolph,GA Mitchell,GA Walton,GA Bay,FL Calhoun,FL Dade,FL Dixie,FL Duval,FL Franklin,FL1 Franklin,FL2 Franklin,FL3 Gadsden,FL Gulf,FL1 Gulf,FL2 Hernando,FL Hillsborough,FL Holmes,FL Jackson,FL Jefferson,FL Lee,FL Leon,FL1 Leon,FL2 Levy,FL Liberty,FL1 Liberty,FL2 Liberty,FL3 Liberty,FL4 Liberty,FL5 Liberty,FL6 Liberty,FL7 Monroe,FL PalmBeach,FL Pinellas,FL Wakulla,FL1 Wakulla,FL2 San Diego,CA1 San Diego,CA2 Sample Fig. 4-6. Fraction of light pigment within band or ring scales in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. Note plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-2) conditions. 0 1 2

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87 Ring or Band Width as Juvenile 0 2 4 6 8 10 200 San Diego,CA1 Sonora,Mexico Duval,TX Terrabonne Perry,MS Calloway,KY Trigg,KY Dare,NC1 Dare,NC2 Watauga,NC Greenwood,SC Jasper,SC Banks,GA Walton,GA Bay,FL Calhoun,FL Dade,FL Dixie,FL Duval,FL Gadsden,FL Hernando,FL Hillsborough,FL Holmes,FL Jackson,FL Jefferson,FL Lee,FL Levy,FL Monroe,FL PalmBeach,FL Pinellas,FL San Diego,CA2 Charleston,SC1 Echols,GA Mitchell,GA Randolph,GA Leon,FL2 Wakulla,FL2 Liberty,FL1 Liberty,FL2 Gulf,FL1 Gulf,FL2 Liberty,FL4 Charleston,SC2 Leon,FL1 Liberty,FL3 Liberty,FL7 Franklin,FL1 Wakulla,FL1 Franklin,FL3 Franklin,FL2 Liberty,FL5 Liberty,FL6 Sample Fig. 4-7. Band or ring width in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-4) conditions. 0 1 2 3 4

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90 CHAPTER 5 MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES ( Lampropeltis getula ) Materials and Methods I sequenced mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) from a total of 55 L. getula from the following three eastern U.S. areas: 1) 15 from Atlantic coast, 2) 25 from panhandle Florida and 3) 15 from peninsular Florida (Table 5-1). Additionally, I sequenced mtDNA from five midwestern and three western U.S. L. getula to be used as functional outgroups to eastern U.S. snakes. In order to facilitate comparison of molecular and morphological phylogenetic results, most of these individuals were the same as those used in morphological analyses (Table 4-1). Laboratory Techniques Mitochondrial DNA samples were obtained from blood, muscle tissue, shed skins and bone. Between 0.5 and 1.0 ml of blood was taken from the caudal vein of live specimens and stored in lysis buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8: 100 mM EDTA, ph 8; 10 mM NaCl; 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate) in approximately 1:10 blood to buffer ratio (White and Densmore, 1992). Muscle tissue was taken from salvaged dead on road (DOR) specimens and stored in SED buffer (saturated NaCl; 250 mM EDTA, pH 7.5; 20% DMSO; Amos and Hoelzel, 1991; Proebstel et al., 1993). Both lysis buffer and saturated salt solution preserve tissues for genetic analysis for at least one year without refrigeration and are nontoxic and nonflammable. Shed skins were taken from live

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91 specimens and stored in ziplock plastic bags at room temperature. Bone samples were obtained from the skeletal collection in the Division of Herpetology, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida. DNA isolations were obtained following protocols of Hillis et al. (1990) for blood and muscle tissue, Clark (1998) for shed skins and Iudica et al. (2001) for bone. Using total cellular DNA as a template and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology (Saiki et al., 1988), I amplified and sequenced mtDNA from the cytochrome b ( cyt b ) gene and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) region (Figs. 5-1, 5-2). Cytochrome b (Table 5-2, Fig. 5-2) was sequenced using the primers LGL765 ( Bickham et al., 1995) and H15919 ( Fetzner, 1999). For degraded samples, I used cyt b primer CYB 2 ( Kessing et al., 1989), along with designed internal primers using OLIGO software (ver. 4.06) : CYB 1L, CYB 2L, CYB 1H, CYB 2H. PCR was conducted in a Biometra thermal cycler in 50 m l reactions : 25.9 m l H 2 O, 5.0 m l 10 x PCR reaction buffer (Sigma ), 8.0 ul deoxynucleotide triphophates (800 m M), 6.0 m l MgCl 2 (25 mM, Sigma ), 1.2 m l each primer (10 m M), 0.2 m l Taq DNA polymerase ( Sigma 5 U / m l), and 2.5 m l template DNA. PCR parameters included initial denaturing at 96C for 3 min, followed by 45 cycles of amplification : denaturing at 95C for 25 sec, annealing at 53C for 1 min, and extension at 72C for 2 min, followed by a final extension at 72C for 5 min (J. W. Fetzner, pers. comm.). The ND4 region (Table 5-2, Figs. 5-1, 5-2) included a section of the 3 end of the ND4 gene, and the three following transfer ribonucleic acids ( tRNA His tRNA Ser tRNA Leu ), which were sequenced using the primers ND4 and Leu ( Arevalo et al., 1994; RodriguezRobles and De JesusEscobar, 1999b), along with designed internal primers : ND4 1L, ND4 1H.

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92 PCR was conducted in 50 m l reactions as above. PCR parameters included initial denaturing at 96C for 2 min, followed by 45 cycles of amplification : denaturing at 95C for 10 sec, annealing at 52C for 25 sec, and extension at 72C for 45 min, followed by a final extension at 72C for 7 min (RodriguezRobles and De JesusEscobar, 1999b). Five m l of each PCR product were electrophoresed on a 1% agarose gel, visualized with ethidium bromide staining, and compared with a DNA standard. Doublestranded PCR products were cleaned with 30,000 MW Millipore filters. Cleaned PCR products were sequenced with Big Dye terminator reagents (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) according to manufacturer's instructions, except that reactions were scaled down to 1/8 volume in 20 m l reactions : 1 m l of terminator mix, 3.5 m l 5x buffer (400 mM Tris, pH 9.0, 10 mM MgCl 2 ), 1 m l primer (10 m M), and H 2 O (13.5 10.5 m l) and PCR products (1-4 m l) for a total volume of 20 m l. Single stranded sequence products were analyzed with automated DNA sequencers (Applied Biosystems models 373 and 377). New haplotypes were confirmed by comparing complimentary DNA strands and ambiguities that could not be resolved were resequenced. Initial sequences were screened for the presence of mitochondrial-like pseudogenes (from the nuclear genome) using patterns of nucleotide substitution, stringency tests and primer redesign (Zhang and Hewitt, 1996). Sequence files from the automated sequencer were assembled and edited as necessary with Sequencher (ver. 3.1, Genes Codes Corp., Ann Arbor, MI) and aligned manually. Phylogenetic Analyses Relationships among mtDNA haplotypes were described with maximum-parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-joining (NJ) distance (Saitou and Nei, 1987) methods using PAUP*

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93 (ver. 4.0b8 ; Swofford, 2000). MP cladograms were constructed with an heuristic search using 500 repetitions of random stepwise additions with subtree pruning and regrafting (SPR), with limits set to 25 trees (30 steps) per random addition replicate. Both equal weighting and weighting of transistions (TS) and transversions (TV) were considered based on an observed 3:1 (TS :TV) ratio (Table 5-3). Genetic distances ( d ) between haplotypes were related using a NJ tree with Kimura two-parameter model (Saitou and Nei, 1987) in PAUP* ( Swofford, 2000). Support for phylogenetic groupings in both approaches were assessed with bootstrapping ( Felsenstein, 1985) with full heuristic search using 500 repetitions of random stepwise additions, with SPR and limits set to 5 trees per random addition replicate. Nonparametric bootstrapping generally yields conservative measures of the probability that a group represents a true evolutionary clade ( Zharkikh and Li, 1992; Hillis and Bull, 1993; RodriguezRobles et al., 1999c). Population Structure Mitochondrial DNA variation was described with the nucleotide diversity (p; equation 10.5 in Nei, 1987) and haplotype diversity ( h ; equation 8.4 in Nei, 1987) in Arlequin (ver. 2.000; Schneider et al., 2000). Tests of population structure within and among sampling regions were estimated with F st (a molecular analog of the conventional F ST ; Wright, 1951) using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; Excoffier et al., 1992) with 1000 permutations in Arlequin. Pairwise estimates of gene flow within and among sampling regions ( Nm ; number of migrants per generation) were determined using the formula Nm = (1/ F st 1) / 4 ( Slatkin, 1993). Sampling regions with sample sizes less than five were excluded in pairwise calculations of F st and Nm values, yet were included for estimates of genetic diversity.

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94 Results Cytochrome b (Figs. 5-1, 5-2) consisted of 1117 base pairs ( bp) in Lampropeltis getula and 1083 bp were resolved for these analyses. The analyzed ND4 region consisted of 783 bp, including a 669 bp section of the 3 end of the ND4 gene and a 114 bp section of the subsequent tRNAs. Sequence comparisons revealed a total of 216 polymorphic sites containing a TS :TV ratio of 172:48, and 137 parsimony-informative characters within the 1886 bp sequenced (Table 5-3). Forty-nine unique haplotypes were resolved from 63 total individuals including the midwestern and western individuals (Tables 5-1, 5-4), differing by a mean sequence divergence of d = 1.36% (range d = 0.05-7.2%). Shared haplotypes included (Table 5-1) : Lee Co., FL ( haplotype hh) = Pinellas Co, FL2; Palm Beach Co., FL ( jj) = Hendry Co., FL; Calhoun Co., FL 1 (J) = Bay Co., FL, Calhoun Co., FL2, Leon Co., FL1 and Franklin Co., FL2; Wakulla Co., FL1 (S) = Wakulla Co., FL2; Liberty Co., FL3 (C) = Liberty Co., FL4; Dare Co., NC2 (bb) = Mitchell Co., GA and Randolph Co., GA; Watauga Co., NC (cc) = Charleston Co., SC1, Dare Co., NC1 and Dare Co., NC3; Stewart Co., TN ( uu) = Calloway Co., KY. Maximum Parsimony There were 84 parsimony-informative characters within the 1083 bp sequenced from cyt b MP analysis using equally weighted TS :TV resulted in 44 most parsimonious trees of 171 steps (CI = 0.836, RI = 0.899). There were 53 parsimony-informative characters within the 783 bp fragment of ND4 region. MP analysis using equally weighted TS :TV resulted in 209 most parsimonious trees of 101 steps (CI = 0.822, RI = 0.895). MP analysis using combined genes with equally weighted TS :TV resulted in

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95 2474 most parsimonious trees of 277 steps (CI = 0.816, RI = 0.887). Strict consensus trees were created for individual and combined genes (Fig. 5-3). ND4 produced more resolution within the ingroup (eastern U.S. samples) than cyt b where there are three recognizable subclades : Peninsula, Atlantic and Apalachicola/Panhandle/SW Georgia (A/P/SWGA). When analyzing both cyt b and ND4 together there is much better resolution within the ingroup. Because a combined cyt b -ND4 data set provides a larger number of characters and more robust estimate of matrilineal phylogeny ( Wiens and Reeder, 1997; Soltis et al., 1998; Pook et al., 2000), I used combined genes throughout the rest of the study. The midwestern and eastern samples formed separate monophyletic groups. As with ND4 only, the eastern clade is further divided into three subclades : Peninsula, Atlantic and A/P/SWGA. The Atlantic subclade is most closely related to the A/P/SWGA subclade, which consists primarily of eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and panhandle samples. There is no information regarding how the majority of peninsular samples relate to each other. A random single representative of the 2474 shortest trees was created illustrating the number of base differences between haplotypes and bootstrap support above 50% (Fig. 5-4). Major nodes representing the west, midwest and eastern clades are extremely well supported (100%) with relatively large genetic breaks between them. Nodes within the eastern clade are less supported and there are fewer base differences between subclades and individuals, illustrating their close relationships to each other. The A/P/SWGA subclade has 60% bootstrap support and its close relationship to the Atlantic subclade has 55% bootstrap support. The unweighted MP tree further indicates that the midwestern clade is the sister group to the eastern clade rather than the western clade, a relationship supported by a 100% boostrap.

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96 MP analysis using an empirical 3:1 (TS :TV) ratio found 5143 most parsimonious trees of 385 steps (CI = 0.831, RI = 0.893). A strict consensus tree was created and as in the unweighted MP analysis, the midwestern and eastern samples form separate monophyletic groups (Fig. 5-5). However, there is much less resolution within the eastern clade and only the A/P/SWGA subclade is identified. Additionally, this analysis also indicates that the midwestern clade is the sister group to the eastern clade rather than the western clade. Neighbor-Joining The NJ tree produced a very similar topology to the unweighted MP strict consensus tree (Fig. 5-6), with greater resolution within the eastern clade. The midwestern and eastern clades form separate monophyletic groups with 100% bootstrap support. The eastern clade is further differentiated into the same three subclades. The Atlantic and A/P/SWGA subclades are most closely related to each other with 56% bootstrap support. The A/P/SWGA subclade alone has 55% bootstrap support. As in the MP analyses, the NJ tree demonstrates that the midwestern clade is the sister group to the eastern clade rather than the western clade with 100% bootstrap support. Population Structure The minumum sequence divergences between the eastern clade and the outgroups are d = 2.18% for the midwestern clade and d = 5.56% for the western clade, as compared with the maximum divergence within the eastern clade at d = 0.91%. Genetic diversities for the eastern clade as well as each subclade and its sampling regions are presented in Table 5-4. Significant population structure existed within the eastern clade

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97 ( F ST = 0.550, P < 0.001), illustrating that this is not a single panmictic population. Relatively low and nonsignificant population structure was found within the Atlantic ( F ST = 0.102, P > 0.05) and peninsula ( F ST = 0.072, P > 0.05) subclades. However, relatively moderate and significant population structure ( F ST = 0.181, P < 0.05) existed in the A/P/SWGA subclade, perhaps because this subclade does not actually represent a panmictic population illustrated by the few base differences between haplotypes, or the samples were distributed over a large geographic area ( Avise, 1994). Pairwise comparisons of F ST values and estimates of migrants per generation ( Nm ) between subclades and sampling regions (with n 5) are presented in Table 5-5. The three consistently identified subclades illustrate significant populations structure as well as extremely limited gene flow between each other indicating that they may be separate populations. Discussion MP and NJ methods recovered identical well-supported (100%) major monophyletic groups of L. getula : western, midwestern, and eastern (Figs. 5-3 ? 5-6). The minumum divergences between the eastern clade and both the midwestern and western clades is 2.18% and 5.56%, respectively. My genetic distances between clades are within the range reported between many other closely related snake species (Johns and Avise, 1998, Pook et al., 2000; Burbrink et al., 2000). Because there exists a clear genetic separation of L. getula populations from east and west of the Appalachian Mountains along with the fact that these populations can be distinguished using morphology, the eastern and midwestern clades may represent separate evolutionary

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98 lineages, and may be recognizable at the species level. However, I hesitate at this time to propose nomenclatural rearrangements at this time using a limited sampling of individuals for determining species. Although I believe the opportunity for gene flow may exist between the eastern and midwestern clades on the southwestern side of the Appalachian Mountains, further investigation is required to clarify their relationships. MP and NJ analyses consistently produced the same three subclades within the eastern clade : Atlantic, A/P/SWGA and peninsula. A shallow tree with few diagnostic substitutions between subclades indicates a relatively high degree of gene flow among these populations and/or their divergence has been recent (RodriguezRobles et al., 1999c). Yet, congruence among data sets is probably the best arbiter of the accuracy of phylogenetic results (Miyamoto and Cracraft, 1991; Slowinski, 1993; Slowinski and Keogh, 2000), thus these subclades probably are the results of past geological and evolutionary events. Very high and significant population genetic structure was found throughout the eastern clade (Table 3-5), suggesting that this is not a single panmictic population. Additionally, the number of migrants per generation is extremely low ( Nm < 0.23) suggesting that gene flow is severely restricted between these subclades. This low Nm value further demonstrates the high degree of isolation between sampling regions because an excess of four migrants per generation ( Nm 4) is required to homogenize populations at mitochondrial loci and offset the effects of drift ( Birky et al., 1983; Avise, 1994).

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99 Table 5-1. Haplotype, sample, voucher number and locality of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex used in this study for DNA analyses. Number next to sample indicates that more than one sample was used from the same general locality. Asterisk next to number in parentheses indicates that identical sample was used in morphological analyses. Haplotype Sample Voucher No., Locality A Liberty, FL 1 UF 105383 (* Lg 10, KLK-xx211); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, 3.7 km S SR 20 B Liberty, FL 2 KLK-xx213 (* Lg 26); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, just N Liberty-Franklin Co. line C Liberty, FL 3 KLK-xx239 (* Lg 27); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction NFR 103 and 116 C Liberty, FL 4 KLK-xx240 (* Lg 28); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction NFR 103 and 116 D Liberty, FL 5 DBM-104 (* Lg 30) ; U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co. E Liberty, FL 6 DBM-50 (* Lg 32); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 110 2.9 km S jct 111 F Liberty, FL 7 KLK-xx247 (* Lg 58); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 139 G Liberty, FL 8 KLK-xx537 ( Lg 31) ; U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co. H Franklin, FL 1 KLK-xx220 (* Lg 45); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 7 km E C30 I Franklin, FL 3 KLK-xx231 (* Lg 55); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., Tates Hell Swamp near New River J Bay, FL KLK-xx227 (* Lg 52); U.S.: Florida, Bay Co., SR 22, 32.1 km W Wewahitchka J Calhoun, FL 1 UF 114321 (* Lg 5, KLK-xx031); U.S.: Florida, Calhoun Co., Blountstown J Calhoun, FL 2 KLK-xx032 ( Lg 6); U.S.: Florida, Calhoun Co., Blountstown J Franklin, FL 2 KLK-xx221 (* Lg 46); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 9.5 km W Carrabelle J Leon, FL 1 KME-m3 (* Lg 13); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Bloxham cutoff K Gadsden, FL KLK-xx222 (* Lg 47); U.S.: Florida, Gadsden Co., US 90 5.7 km W Quincy L Gulf, FL 1 KME-m25 (* Lg 11); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe M Gulf, FL 2 KME-m26 (* Lg 15); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe N Holmes, FL KLK-xx257 (* Lg 65); U.S.: Florida, Holmes Co., Rt 179A, 3.8 km SW SR 2 O Jackson, FL KLK-xx491 (* Lg 107); U.S.: Florida, Jackson Co., CR 271 P Jefferson, FL 1 KLK-xx225 (* Lg 50); U.S.: Florida, Jefferson Co., Goosepasture Rd, 1.9 km S Tram Rd Q Jefferson, FL 2 KLK-xx538 ( Lg 105) ; U.S.: Florida, Jefferson Co. R Leon, FL 2 KLK-xx226 (* Lg 51); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Meridian Rd, 0.2 km S Meridian Hills Rd S Wakulla, FL 1 KME-m13 (* Lg 12); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., junction of NFR 313 and 312 S Wakulla, FL 2 KME-f3 (* Lg 14); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., Arren T Banks, GA KLK-xx350 (* Lg 117); U.S.: Georgia, Banks Co., Yonah Church Rd, 9.8 km W Homer U Echols, GA KME-m10 (* Lg 18); U.S.: Georgia, Echols Co., Statenville V Thomas, GA KLK-xx524 (* Lg 134); U.S.: Georgia, Thomas Co., Ochlockonee River W Walton, GA UF 121162 (* Lg 119); U.S.: Georgia, Walton Co., Loganville

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100 Table 5-1 Continued. Haplotype Sample Voucher No., Locality X Charleston, SC 2 KLK-xx528 (* Lg 120); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Edisto Island Y Greenwood, SC KLK-xx522 (* Lg 129); U.S.: South Carolina, Greenwood Co., US 221, 2.6 km W Hwy 10 Z McCormick, SC KLK-xx531 ( Lg 24); U.S.: Florida, South Carolina, McCormick Co., Long Cane Creek, junction SR 81 and SR 28 aa Jasper, SC KLK-xx526 (* Lg 99) ; U.S.: South Carolina, Jasper Co. bb Mitchell, GA KME-m27 (* Lg 17); U.S.: Georgia, Mitchell Co., Cotton bb Randolph, GA KLK-xx523 (* Lg 133) ; U.S.: Georgia, Randolph Co. bb Dare, NC 2 KLK-xx525 (* Lg 111); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island cc Dare, NC 1 KLK-xx530 (* Lg 121); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island cc Dare, NC 3 KLK-xx532 ( Lg 104); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island cc Watauga, NC KLK-xx520 (* Lg 29); U.S.: North Carolina, Watauga Co., Triplett cc Charleston, SC 1 KLK-xx521 (* Lg 37); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Adams Run dd Charlotte, FL KLK-xx533 ( Lg 34); U.S.: Florida, Charlotte Co., SR 776, S Englewood ee Dade, FL 1 KLK-94021 ( Lg 3); U.S.: Florida, Dade Co., C-111 basin ff Dade, FL 2 KLK-xx161 ( Lg 7); U.S.: Florida, Dade Co., Krome Ave, 2 km S Tamiami Trail gg Hendry, FL KLK-xx534 ( Lg 19); U.S.: Florida, Hendry Co., Hwy 80A, 18 km SE Clewiston hh Lee, FL KLK-xx527 (* Lg 35); U.S.: Florida, Lee Co., Gasparilla Island, Boca Grande hh Pinellas, FL 2 UF 121121 (* Lg 4, KLK-xx030); U.S.: Florida, Pinellas Co., Pinellas Park ii Monroe, FL UF 123777 (* Lg 36, KLK-xx490); U.S.: Florida, Monroe Co., Key Largo jj Palm Beach, FL KLK-xx535 ( Lg 20); U.S.: Florida, Palm Beach Co., King Ranch S South Bay kk Dixie, FL KLK-xx316 (* Lg 115); U.S.: Florida, Dixie Co., CR 361, 5.7 km S Rocky Creek ll Duval, FL KME-f11 (* Lg 16); U.S.: Florida, Duval Co., Jacksonville mm Hernando, FL UF 111101 (* Lg 23, KLK-xx230); U.S.: Florida, Hernando Co., Hernando Beach nn Hillsborough, FL KLK-xx195 ( Lg 8); U.S.: Florida, Hillsborough Co., Gibsonton oo Levy, FL 1 KLK-xx536 ( Lg 22); U.S.: Florida, Levy Co., just N Cedar Key pp Levy, FL 2 KLK-xx539 ( Lg 116); U.S.: Florida, Levy Co., Cedar Key qq Pinellas, FL 1 KLK-xx160 ( Lg 2); U.S.: Florida, Pinellas Co., Gandy Blvd rr Terrebonne, LA KLK-xx519 (* Lg 59); U.S.: Louisiana, Terrebonne Parish, Houma ss Perry, MS KLK-xx259 (* Lg 90) ; U.S.: Mississippi, Perry Co. tt Trigg, KY KLK-xx262 (* Lg 93) ; U.S.: Kentucky, Trigg Co. uu Stewart, TN KLK-xx529 ( Lg 96) ; U.S.: Tennessee, Stewart Co. uu Calloway, KY KLK-xx232 (* Lg 56) ; U.S.: Kentucky, Calloway Co. vv Graham, AZ JF25sY; U.S.: Graham Co., AZ ww Sonora, Mexico JF14sY; Mexico: Sonora xx Borrego Desert, CA JF23sY; U.S.: Borrego Desert, CA

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101 Table 5-2. Oligonucleotide primers used for amplification and sequencing of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex. Primers are listed from left to right in the 5 to 3 direction. Reference position corresponds to location when aligned with Dinodon semicarinatus ( Kumazawa et al., 1996). Primer Reference Position Primer Sequence Cytochrome b LGL765 14895-14919 GAA AAA CCA YCG TTG TWA TTC AAC T H15919 16097-16072 GAC CCA KCT TTG RYT TAC AAG GAC AA CYB 1L 15271-15292 CTT ATA GCA ACA GCC TTC TTC G CYB 2L 15670-15688 TTC TCA AAG GCT AAT CCA C CYB 1H 15786-15766 GAG GGC TAC AGT TCC ACC AAG CYB 2 15340-15307 AAA CTG CAG CCC CTC AGA ATG ATA TTT GTC CTC A ND4 Region ND4 11671-11702 CAC CTA TGA CTA CCA AAA GCT CAT GTA GAA GC Leu 12594-12569 CAT TAC TTT TAC TTG GAT TTG CAC CA ND4 1L 12086-12105 TCC TAC CAA TAC TCA CAA CC ND4 1H 12182-12163 GAT GCA ATT AGT AGT TCT CC

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102 Table 5-3. Variable sites observed in Cytochrome b and ND4 sequences of Lampropeltis getula The 49 haplotypes are indicated as letters A through ww. Vertical numbers at top indicate locations of polymorphic sites within the 1864 bp sequence. 2 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 6 2 4 7 0 3 9 6 7 1 2 2 2 3 4 7 8 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 7 8 9 1 3 4 6 2 5 8 7 6 0 6 8 0 6 5 1 7 3 2 5 4 7 8 1 3 7 2 7 Consensus C A A A A T A G C T C T T A T T T G C T C C T T C T A A C A A G C A T A A A B A C A D A E A F A G A H A I A C J A K A L A M A N A O A P A Q A A A R A C S A A T G U A V A W X Y Z aa bb cc dd ee ff gg hh ii jj kk G

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103 Table 5-3Continued. 2 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 6 2 4 7 0 3 9 6 7 1 2 2 2 3 4 7 8 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 7 8 9 1 3 4 6 2 5 8 7 6 0 6 8 0 6 5 1 7 3 2 5 4 7 8 1 3 7 2 7 Consensus C A A A A T A G C T C T T A T T T G C T C C T T C T A A C A A G C A T A ll mm C nn G oo A pp qq G rr G C G C C G C C T A T ss G G C C T A T tt G G C C T A T uu G G C C T A T vv G T G G A A C C C C C A A T C C T C C G T G A T ww A G G G A A C C C C C A A A T C T C C T A G G xx G G A A C C C C A A T C C T C T

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104 Table 5-3Continued. 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 9 9 0 0 0 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 0 2 3 3 5 5 9 0 7 1 4 7 4 7 0 3 8 1 9 2 8 3 9 2 1 7 0 1 4 9 0 7 6 8 2 7 8 0 2 8 0 5 Consensus A C C A A C C A C G C A C C C C T C C C C A G G T T A T G C G C T T A T A B C D E F G H A I T J K L M N G O P Q R S T U V W X C Y Z aa bb cc dd ee ff gg hh ii jj kk T

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105 Table 5-3Continued. 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 9 9 0 0 0 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 0 2 3 3 5 5 9 0 7 1 4 7 4 7 0 3 8 1 9 2 8 3 9 2 1 7 0 1 4 9 0 7 6 8 2 7 8 0 2 8 0 5 Consensus A C C A A C C A C G C A C C C C T C C C C A G G T T A T G C G C T T A T ll mm nn T T oo pp qq T rr A T C A ss A T A A C tt A T A C uu A T A C vv T G T T T T T T C T T C A A C ww T G G G T T T T T C T T A C xx T T G G T G G T T T T T C T G A A C C T A A C C

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106 Table 5-3Continued. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 9 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 0 2 5 7 8 1 5 7 6 2 5 8 3 5 8 5 6 9 3 1 7 5 4 8 3 6 7 0 2 3 4 0 6 Consensus A C T T C C T T A T A G T A A C A G T C A C G A T C C G A G A C C A T C A G B G C G D G E G F G G G C H G I G J G K G L G G M G G N G O G P G Q G R G S G T A U V G A W A X A Y A Z A aa A bb cc A dd C ee ff gg A hh ii jj A kk

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107 Table 5-3Continued. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 9 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 0 2 5 7 8 1 5 7 6 2 5 8 3 5 8 5 6 9 3 1 7 5 4 8 3 6 7 0 2 3 4 0 6 Consensus A C T T C C T T A T A G T A A C A G T C A C G A T C C G A G A C C A T C ll mm nn oo pp qq G rr T C G T A C T ss T C G T A C T tt T C G T A C T uu T C G T A C T vv T A T G C A C A A T C ww G T A C A T G C T T A G C A A C xx A C C T T A C C A G G T G A C T T T A G G A A G G C

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108 Table 5-3Continued. 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 7 7 9 9 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 9 2 3 5 3 9 5 1 3 4 9 5 1 8 9 8 7 6 5 9 1 2 4 4 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 0 0 4 9 8 6 9 1 5 6 0 1 6 5 7 0 3 9 0 Consensus C C T T T A G C T C A C T C T C A C T G C C G C A C T A C T C A G A C A A C B A C D A T E A G F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S A T U V W X Y Z C A aa bb cc dd A A ee C A A ff C A A gg A A hh A A ii A A jj A A kk A A

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109 Table 5-3Continued. 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 7 7 9 9 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 9 2 3 5 3 9 5 1 3 4 9 5 1 8 9 8 7 6 5 9 1 2 4 4 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 0 0 0 4 9 8 6 9 1 5 6 0 1 6 5 7 0 3 9 0 Consensus C C T T T A G C T C A C T C T C A C T G C C G C A C T A C T C A G A C A ll A T A A mm A A A nn A A oo C G A C A pp C G A C A qq A rr A T G G A T T A G A ss A T G A T T A T G A G tt A T G A T T A G A uu A T G A T T A T G A vv C C G A T T A C T C C T C G T ww G C C C A A T C C T C T C G C A xx G G C A T C C T C T C G C A

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110 Table 5-3Continued. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 8 9 0 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 0 1 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 1 2 2 3 3 5 6 6 1 5 6 8 8 6 5 1 6 9 5 8 1 8 0 2 7 3 4 7 3 5 4 7 8 9 5 7 5 1 4 3 9 7 1 8 Consensus T T G C G A A T C T A G A G T C T A T T G C C C C T C A T C A T A G T T A B C C D G E F G G G H I G C J K C L M N O P Q R S T G U V W C G X Y G Z G aa G G bb cc dd ee ff G gg hh ii G jj kk C

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111 Table 5-3Continued. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 8 9 0 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 0 1 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 1 2 2 3 3 5 6 6 1 5 6 8 8 6 5 1 6 9 5 8 1 8 0 2 7 3 4 7 3 5 4 7 8 9 5 7 5 1 4 3 9 7 1 8 Consensus T T G C G A A T C T A G A G T C T A T T G C C C C T C A T C A T A G T T ll mm C nn C oo pp qq G C rr G C C T A T G G ss C C T A T C G tt C C T A T G uu C C T A T G vv A T C C C G A T C C C T T T G C A G A C C ww T T C C G A T C C C T T T T G G G A C C xx C T C T C C G A T C C A T T T T G G G A C C

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112 Table 5-3Continued. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 9 2 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 0 0 1 3 3 4 7 9 1 2 2 4 4 3 1 3 6 3 7 0 2 5 6 3 4 7 0 7 8 0 0 1 5 2 8 9 2 3 0 6 9 9 9 8 9 0 1 3 6 Consensus C T A T A A T C C C G C A T C A T T C T T T C T T T G A G C A G T G C C A C B C C A C D C E C F C G C C T G C H C I T C J C K C C L C M N C O P T C Q R C S C T U C V C W X Y Z aa bb cc dd C ee C ff C C gg C hh C ii C jj C kk

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113 Table 5-3Continued. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 9 2 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 0 0 1 3 3 4 7 9 1 2 2 4 4 3 1 3 6 3 7 0 2 5 6 3 4 7 0 7 8 0 0 1 5 2 8 9 2 3 0 6 9 9 9 8 9 0 1 3 6 Consensus C T A T A A T C C C G C A T C A T T C T T T C T T T G A G C A G T G C C ll C A mm C nn C oo C pp C qq C rr C T G C A C T ss T C A T tt G T G C C T A T uu G T G C C T A T vv T C T T T C T C A T G T T ww T C G C T T C C A A T G C T T xx T G G C T T C C C A G A T G C T T

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114 Table 5-4. Genetic diversities and haplotypes of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula for the eastern U.S. clade, and three main subclades and sampling regions. A/P/SW GA = Apalachicola/Panhandle/SW Georgia subclade, EAL and WAL = eastern and western Apalachicola Lowlands respectively, SW GA = SW Georgia, C&N Intergrade Zone = hypothesized intergradation zone in the central and northern peninsula between L. g. getula and L. g. floridana N = No. of individuals, F ST = levels of genetic exchange, p = nucleotide diversity, h = haplotype diversity, number in parentheses indicates the number of samples with each haplotype. Asterisk next to F ST value indicates significant genetic structure: P < 0.05, ** P < 0.001. Clade/ Subclade Region N F S T p h Haplotypes Atlantic 11 0.102 <0.000 0.890 Atlantic Mainland 8 0.001 0.964 T, W, X, Y, Z, aa, cc(2) Outer Banks 3 <0.000 0.666 bb, cc(2) A/P/SW GA 29 *0.181 0.001 0.968 EAL 10 0.002 0.977 A, B, C(2), D, E, F, G, I, J WAL 5 0.001 0.900 H, J(2), L, M N&E of EAL 8 0.001 0.964 J, K, R, P, S(2), O, Q N&W of WAL 2 <0.000 1.000 J, N SW GA 4 0.001 0.833 U, V, bb(2) Peninsula 15 0.072 0.002 0.981 C&N Intergrade Zone 7 0.003 1.000 hh, jj, kk, ll, nn, oo, pp Central and Southern 5 0.001 0.900 dd, gg(2), hh, mm Extreme Southern 3 0.001 1.000 ee, ff, ii All eastern U.S. 55 **0.562 0.003 0.984

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115 Table 5-5. Population structure and levels of genetic exchange, F ST (below diagonal) and Nm (above diagonal), between the three main subclades and sampling regions (with n 5) in the eastern U.S. for kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula 1 = Atlantic, 2 = Apalachicola/Panhandle/SW Georgia and 3 = Peninsula subclades; 4 = Atlantic mainland, 5 = eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (EAL), 6 = western Apalachicola Lowlands, 7 = N&E of EAL, 8 = central and northern peninsular intergradation zone, 9 = Central and Southern peninsula. Dashed line for F ST or Nm indicate n < 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0.223 0.227 0.174 0.123 0.153 0.219 0.135 2 0.528 0.175 0.212 0.179 0.15 3 0.524 0.587 0.231 0.181 0.174 4 0.540 0.519 0.179 0.122 0.153 0.234 0.140 5 0.589 0.579 0.582 2.623 3.782 0.202 0.152 6 0.670 0.589 0.672 0.087 3.596 0.191 0.106 7 0.619 0.619 0.062 0.065 0.196 0.125 8 0.533 0.582 0.516 0.553 0.566 0.560 249.7 9 0.649 0.625 0.640 0.621 0.702 0.666 0.001

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116 Fig. 5-1. Gene order of snake mitochondrion depicted from Dinodon semicarinatus ( Kumazawa et al., 1996). Note that there is a duplicated control region nested between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Leu.

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117 Fig. 5-2. Cytochrome b and ND4 regions of mtDNA sequenced for kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, illustrating approximate annealing positions of oligonucleotide primers. Arrows indicate the 5 to 3 direction, and their sequences are listed in Table 2.

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122 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS Phylogeography All morphological and molecular analyses performed in this study support a western origin of L. getula in the eastern U.S. The evolutionary history of eastern L. getula appears to be linked to the geological history of the Coastal Plains derived from ancient coastlines. Fossil remains indicate that ancestral western L. getula utilized a Gulf Coast corridor to disperse east into Florida during low sea levels in the Pliocene between 2-5 million years ago ( Mya) ( Auffenburg, 1963). Estimates of mtDNA sequence divergence for reptile species range from 0.47 to 1.32% per million years ( Zamudio and Greene, 1997). The smallest percentage sequence divergence between the eastern and western clades of L. getula is 5.56%, which translates into 4.2-11.8 Mya, a time frame that overlaps the sequence of events hypothesized by Auffenburg (1963). Although some midwestern samples were much closer geographically to eastern samples, they are much less closely related relative to the range of divergences within the eastern clade. A rapid range expansion from southern refugia into northern areas as glaciers retreated could account for the high haplotype diversity and low genetic distances (maximum d = 0.91%) in the east in comparison with other geographic areas. Interestingly, additional snake taxa with similar distributions in the midwestern and eastern U.S. have been reported to exhibit similar phylogeographical patterns (RodriguezRobles and JesusEscobar, 1999b, 1999a; Burbrink et al., 2000; Burbrink, 2001). Thus, the evolution of the three identified

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123 subclades within the eastern clade is probably related to more recent glacial events during the Pleistocene (10,000-2 Mya). The lowest sequence divergence between the eastern and midwestern clades is 2.18%, which translates into 1.65-4.6 Mya (early Pleistocene to early Pliocene). There were four major glacial events during the Pleistocene, with the first being the greatest followed by less intense episodes (Webb, 1990; Brown and Lomolino, 1998). During these glacial events sea level was >100 meters (m) lower than present-day ( Lidz and Shinn, 1991), Florida was nearly twice its present size and land was continuous from the present Florida mainland to the Dry Tortugas ( MacNeil, 1950; Hoffmeister and Multer, 1968). In order to escape from cooler climates and ice masses, extreme northeastern L. getula populations must have been extirpated or pushed southward, whereas peninsular and panhandle populations experienced an expansion following suitable habitat. These conditions of displacement and expansion would have promoted mixing among SE U.S. populations. This is evident because of their close genetic relationships as well as certain shared morphological characters such as ontogenetic interband lightening found in Florida and as far north as the Outer Banks of North Carolina ( Barbour and Engles, 1942; Lazell and Musick, 1973; Blaney, 1977). However, a less likely but alternative hypothesis is that the character of ontogenetic interband lightening evolved multiple times along the Coastal Plains. During major interglacial events much of present-day Florida was inundated except for higher elevations in the peninsula and panhandle. These areas of higher elevations have been identified as ancient shorelines in the peninsula (Jackson, 1973; Webb, 1990; Clark et al., 1999), as well as ancient barrier islands in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands ( Brenneman, 1957; Brenneman and Tanner,

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124 1958). During these times, Atlantic populations were capable of expanding their range northward following warmer climate, but peninsular and panhandle populations were geographically isolated. Peninsular populations were probably found in mesic habitats extending into the southern peninsula (Watts and Hansen, 1988). Panhandle populations were probably isolated on barrier islands in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands ( Brenneman 1957), which correlate well with a large number of endemic and relict plants and animals there (Table 3-10; James, 1961; Clewell 1977; Yerger 1977; Ward, 1979; Judd, 1982; Gilbert, 1987; Coile 1996; Chafin 2000; Chaplin et al., 2000). Thus, the distributions of the Apalachicola Lowlands endemic plants and animals possibly were a result of the same geological event. Since the last glacial maximum around 18,000 years before present (BP), North American glaciers have melted and retreated northward, sea level has risen steadily ( Randazzo and Halley, 1997). Again, populations of eastern L. getula will eventually become isolated in the peninsula and panhandle, while others expand their range northward. Taxonomy Under the Apomorphic Species Concept (ASC), species are considered to be wellsupported minimal monophyletic groups. In all morphological and molecular analyses in this study, the eastern populations of L. getula represent the smallest well-supported monophyletic group, which suggests recognition as a separate species. Recently, users of the various Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Species Concepts (PSC and ESC respectively) have objected to the subspecies concept because they claim it is not operational within their definitions of reciprocal monophyly ( Mayr and Ashlock, 1991; Baum, 1992; Burbrink et al., 2000). Additionally, beginning with Wilson and Brown (1953) the

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125 subspecies concept has been criticized because subspecies were commonly identified on too few and arbitrary delimited characters. And in many cases where several characters were used, each character varied independently because of differing locally adaptive pressures, which resulted in different subspecies distributions and arbitrary cline slices (Frost and Hillis, 1990). Nonetheless, under the ASC one may recognize subspecies as subclades within species, where subclades have weaker support because of occasional gene flow or recent evolutionary divergence ( Mishler and Theriot, 2000). Mayr (1969) and Smith et al. (1997) also recognize subspecies as geographic races with relatively homogenous phenotypic patterns, which have the ability to exchange genes with adjacent races. Areas where subspecies come into genetic contact are identified as intergradation zones ( Mayr, 1969; Smith et al., 1997). Because gene flow will obscure boundaries of subspecies and prevent them from attaining reciprocal monophyly at the mtDNA level, this criterion should not invalidate subspecies recognition (Patton and Smith, 1994; RodriguezRobles et al., 1999c). The traditional subspecies recognized in L. getula in the eastern U.S. correspond closely to the phylogenetic patterns that I have uncovered. After examination of hundreds more specimens than any previous researcher for a study of geographic variation using morphology (Chapter 3), I identified three subspecies in Florida : 1) L. g. floridana from central and southern peninsular Florida, 2) L. g. getula from NW peninsular Florida north to southern New Jersey, and 3) unnamed populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. In the morphological and molecular analyses, the three consistently identified subclades correspond exceptionally well to the three identified geographic races (Chapter 3). Because each of these subspecies can be diagnosed by at

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126 least one synapomorphy, this evidence suggests that they represent evolutionary processes rather than ecotypic variants. Individuals from the western Apalachicola Lowlands were once believed to represent a distinct subspecies, L. g. goini ( Neill and Allen, 1949). However, Blaney (1977) invalidated L. g. goini by speculating that it represented a Pleistocene intergrade between panhandle L. g. getula and now disjunct peninsular L. g. floridana Additionally, Means (1977) believed that L. g. goini indeed represented an intergrade population, but L. g. goini was intermediate between unnamed populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and L. g. getula that surrounds the region. The most consistent subclade with statistical support in morphological and molecular analyses consisted primarily of eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and panhandle individuals. Additionally, there are five synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations. Morphological data examined on a much finer geographic scale (Chapter 3) revealed that the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations possess relatively homogeneous color patterns that grade into populations in surrounding areas (i.e., gene flow) consisting of L. g. getula Because L. g. goini possesses intermediate characters between eastern Apalachicola Lowlands snakes and L. g. getula I relegate L. g. goini to intergrade status. Therefore, because L. g. getula and L. g. floridana are already recognized subspecies, the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations deserve equivalent taxonomic recognition as well. As systematists it is our responsibility to document biological diversity, and it is essential to recognize both species and subspecies otherwise everyone worldwide will fail to notice biological diversity without names

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127 ( Dobzhansky, 1970; Smith et al., 1997). A taxonomic amendment regarding the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations is in progress and will be treated in a separate paper. I was unable to find evidence supporting the recognition of both L. g. brooksi and L. g. sticticeps using morphology and mtDNA. Individuals from the extreme southern Florida peninsula were once believed to represent a distinct subspecies, L. g. brooksi ( Barbour, 1919), yet its validity quickly came into question (Blanchard, 1920, 1921; Wright, 1935). Becasue only 15 individuals from the Florida peninsula were sequenced for mtDNA this small sample size might have been insuffiecient to find genetic partitioning within the peninsula. Nonetheless, Duellman and Schwartz (1958), Blaney (1977), Krysko (1995), and Krysko (this study) could not find morphological characters for diagnosing L. g. brooksi and the mtDNA data indicate that the Florida peninsula is a panmictic population (Tables 5-4, 5-5). Barbour and Engles (1942) described L. g. sticticeps from the Outer Banks of North Carolina based on head morphology and ontogenetic interband lightening of the dorsal pattern ( Lazell and Musick, 1973). However, Hillestad et al. (1975), Blaney (1977), Gibbons and Coker (1978) and Palmer and Braswell (1995) did not accept that a distinct geographic race existed on the Outer Banks. My morphological and molecular data further corroborate these authors, as I found snakes from the Outer Banks with mtDNA haplotypes identical to adjacent mainland snakes as well as those as far away as SW Georgia. This study represents an important contribution to our understanding of the systematics of the L. getula complex, as well as species concepts and mtDNA interpretation. My data suggests that not all subspecies are human constructs or arbitrary subdivisions of clines. Like species, they may represent discrete biological entities, albeit

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128 often more recently evolved and characters less differentiated morphologically and genetically. With close examination, using both molecular and morphological data, I believe that an accurate representation of the evolutionary history can be revealed in many species complexes. My phylogenetic hypothesis of the eastern L. getula populations should represent the basis for further studies into the midwestern and western complexes. Based on the data I have gathered I believe that the midwestern and western populations may reveal additional taxa as well. Future Projections Although kingsnakes appear to still be widespread because they are occasionally encountered at scattered localities throughout the state, they appear to have declined drastically or completely disappeared from most areas where they were once common and presently exist in only a few disjunct populations. Unfortunately, the projection for the continued existence of kingsnakes in Florida appears bleak based on the alarming decline in encounter rates over the last few decades. Possible causes for the population declines include habitat loss and fragmentation, road mortality, pollution, toxin buildup in tissues, red imported fire ants, and over-collecting by commercial collectors for the pet trade, but a combination of all these factors may be the best explanation. Although D. Jouvenaz ( pers. comm.) believed that red imported fire ants were the sole cause for extirpation of kingsnakes on Paynes Prairie, I believe other factors have contributed to this loss. If fire ants alone are causing population declines, it is not yet apparent, because the largest kingsnake populations in Florida presently exist around Lake Okeechobee, where the density of fire ant mounds is extremely high along canal banks. However, Mount (1981) suggested that there might be a lag time of more than

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129 one decade before the effects of these ants are observed on reptile populations. Nonetheless, the widespread decline of kingsnakes in Florida is a serious conservation problem that requires further documentation and attention, and the causes are in need of prompt resolution. Habitat Protection The history of land development regulations in Florida began with wetlands protection in the 1970s ( Mitsch and Gosselink, 1993). This directed urban development toward upland communities including sandhill and scrub communities. More recently, policies and regulations for protection of these upland communities have been targeted for conservation easements due to the increasing rarity of these habitats (Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Greenways Coordinating Council, 1998; Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund, 1999; Hoctor et al., 2000). This has placed developmental pressures on crucial mesic habitats including longleaf pine forests, which are an important habitat for kingsnakes ( Enge, 1997). Principal reasons for the extensive loss of mesic longleaf pine forests include largescale industrial logging, interruption of natural fire cycles, industrial agriculture, urbanization, and silviculture (Means, 1996; Platt, 1999). Slash Pine plantations probably have been as responsible for replacing native longleaf pine forests as agriculture ( Means, unpubl. data). McWilliams et al. (1993) estimated that pine plantations now make up 36% of all pine stands in the South and projected that within 20 years they will account for 70%. Slash pine plantations are very different habitats from native longleaf pine savanna, especially when management practices are considered When the surface is

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130 disturbed by fire management or clear cutting practices, many animals normally retreat under ground. However, following tree harvesting, mechanical site preparation (MSP) takes place before replanting. The most commonly used forms of MSP include drum chopping, disking, scalping, and shearing or bulldozing with a KG blade. Unfortunately, any animal remaining directly under the surface during these practices is unlikely to survive. Furthermore, MSP destroys subterranean cavities and other refugia that are vital for vertbrate survival ( Means, unpubl. data). Habitat loss because of poor management practices and development dictates the need for protection of remaining mesic communities. I suggest developing less destructive and improved management practices for silviculture, which result in plantations that more closely simulate the natural community. Additionally, restoration of areas to their native vegetation and physiognomy must take place. The State of Florida currently has the fourth largest human population in the U.S. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001), and it is expected to become the third most populated state by 2025. Therefore, large tracts of land must be set aside now and protected from development to insure the continued existence of L. getula as well as other native plants and animals. Species Protection Most L. getula populations in Florida have declined severely or been extirpated over the last few decades (Wilson and Porras, 1983; Krysko, 1995; Means, 2000), leaving few remaining isolated populations scattered around the state. My genetic data suggest that the three subclade regions are demographically isolated from each other and, at least, should be considered as distinct management units ( Avise, 1994; Bowen, 1998). Management units are populations that have significant divergence of allele frequencies

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131 at the nuclear or mitochondrial level ( Moritz, 1994). Populations that are not strongly connected by gene flow at the present time, as for the three identified subclade regions, are not likely to recover from additional factors such as fragmentation by natural recruitment from other populational sources ( Avise, 1994). Therefore, I believe that the protection status of all Florida L. getula populations must be re-evaluated promptly in order to preserve biodiversity. Populations of L. getula in Florida are protected only in national and state parks, and no other populations outside of these areas receive protection by state agencies. In order to help prioritize vertebrate conservation efforts in Florida, biological scores were developed to rank taxa according to their biological vulnerability, extent of current knowledge of population status, and management needs ( Millsap et al., 1990). The protection status of taxa (with biological scores) include endangered (> 32), threatened (29 32), and species of special concern (24 28)( Millsap et al., 1990). More than ten years ago, biological scores of 18 and 13 were assigned to the Florida kingsnake ( L. g. floridana ) and eastern kingsnake ( L. g. getula ), respectively ( Millsap et al., 1990). Yet, there is no mention of the Apalachicola populations of L. getula Other species that are encountered much more often in the wild than kingsnakes, and presently receive protection by the State of Florida (endangered, threatened, or species of special concern) include the gopher frog ( Rana areolata ), striped newt ( Notophthalmus perstriatus ), green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ), loggerhead turtle ( Caretta caretta ), gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus ), Florida scrub lizard ( Sceloporus woodi ), and lower keys corn snake ( Elaphe guttata ). Because most populations of L. getula have been reduced to

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132 fragmented populations throughout the state over the last few decades, I believe that each of the three subspecies of L. getula in Florida need to be reevaluated immediately. Protection by the State of Florida include those organisms that are designated as endangered, threatened or species of special concern. Within these categories, species are defined as a (1) species, (2) subspecies, or (3) isolated population (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commision, 2001). Below are the guidelines for species of special concern, as listed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commision (2001). (73) Species of special concern As designated by the Commission, a species subspecies, or isolated population of a subspecies which is facing a moderate risk of extinction in the future, as determined by (a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) below: (a ) Population reduction in the form of either: 1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 20% over the last ten years or three generations, whichever is longer, based on, and specifying, any of the following: a. Direct observation b. An index of abundance appropriate for the species c. A decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat d. Actual or potential levels of exploitation e. The effects of introduced species, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites. 2. A reduction of at least 20%, projected or suspected to be met within the next ten years or three generations, whichever is longer, based on, and specifying, any of 1.b, 1.c, 1.d or 1.e above. (b ) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 7,700 square miles or area of occupancy estimated to be less than 770 square miles, and estimates indicating any two of the following: 1. Severly fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.

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133 2. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following: a. Extent of occurrence b. Area of occupancy c. Area, extent and/or quality of habitat d. Number of locations or subpopulations e. Number of mature individuals. 3. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: a. Extent of occurrence b. Area of occupancy c. Number of locations or subpopulations d. Number of mature individuals. (c ) Population estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and either: 1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within ten years or three generations, whichever is longer or 2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals and populations structure in the form of either: a. Severely fragmented (i.e., no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 1,000 individuals) b. All individuals are in a single subpopulation (d ) Population very small or restricted in the form of either of the following: 1. Population estimated to number fewer than 1,000 mature individuals 2. Population is characterized by an acute restriction in its area of occupancy (less than 40 square miles) or in the number of locations (fewer than 5). (e ) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 10% within 100 years.

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134 Based on the states definitions, I believe that L. g. floridana and L. g. getula most appropriately fall under the species of special concern category at the present time. These taxa almost certainly face a moderate risk of extinction in the future, as determined by (a), (b), and (c) listed above. However, because of the drastically declined populations and extremely small range of L. getula in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands, these populations might be most appropriately listed under a higher category of protection status, threatened or endangered as determined by (a), (b), (c), and (d) and listed above. The docile disposition and numerous color variations of kingsnakes from Florida have created a lucrative market in the pet trade. Almost 10 years ago, Means (1992) reported adult Apalachicola kingsnakes selling for $200-$300 each. However, excellent captive husbandry practices by many herpetological enthusiasts have dramatically reduced pet trade prices as well as the number of individuals taken from the wild. Captive born hatchlings presently sell for $15-$35. My intention is to insure protection of remaining wild kingsnake populations, not to adversely affect captive propagation by hobbyists. If the present trend of habitat loss and decreasing kingsnake populations in the wild continue, in the future kingsnakes might be only found alive in captivity. Future Research It is crucial to initiate kingsnake research before remaining Florida and SE U.S. populations become extirpated. Intense kingsnake ecological studies have been limited to only the southern peninsular populations (Krysko, unpubl. data), mainly because sufficient sample sizes have been unattainable elsewhere (i.e., where populations have drastically declined or been extirpated). Unfortunately, other populations in Florida representing two additional distinct taxa, can only be assumed to exhibit similar life

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135 history patterns as those in the southern peninsula (Means, 1978). Radiotelemetry studies can inform us on daily and seasonal movements. Direct population monitoring with appropriate survey techniques can inform us on the ecological status of certain populations (i.e., population density, and if a population continues to decline). Because kingsnakes are ophiophagous, the effects of pollutants and toxin buildup in tissues should be examined. Additional appropriate molecular analyses should be conducted to reveal both valid and invalid taxa, taxonomic boundries, and gene flow between populations. Finally, kingsnakes presently kept as pets (with locality data), voucher specimens consisting of photographs from surveys, and all DORs should be salvaged for preservation in natural history museums.

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136 APPENDIX A SPECIMENS REFERENCED FOR FLORIDA LOCALITIES Source acronyms follow Leviton et al. (1985), with the addition of ANSPAcademy of Natural Sciences of Philidelphia ; DBM D. Bruce Means, Coastal Plains Institute, and Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; ENP Everglades National Park Museum, Homestead, FL; GHD George H. Dalrymple Everglades Research Group, Florida City, FL; JZG Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, Jacksonville, FL; KLK Kenneth L. Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History; KME Kevin M. Enge Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Quincy, FL; UCF University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. Lampropeltis getula listed by Florida county : ALACHUA: AMNH 3745, 22996, 36715, 63432, 63974; ANSP 18961; AUM 1967, 2584; FMNH 95183-84; UF 1667, 1667, 1691, 1691, 1724, 1724, 1724, 1818, 1818, 1825, 1859, 2499, 304145, 5975, 7398, 7887, 9552, 14065-67, 14288, 14438-39, 18133, 33768, 33771-78, 33781-82, 33786, 33789-92, 33794, 38869, 73272, 95466-67, 95474-76, 95482-84; USNM 64203-04, 310970. BAKER: LSUMZ 19011 ; UF 2103. BAY: KLK xx227 ; UF 74479. BREVARD: UF 46062-65, 48196, 49716-17, 50825 ; USNM 310971. BROWARD: AMNH 97657; KU 68920, 176765; UF 11929; UMMZ 104607-08, 106221. CALHOUN: DBM 49, 2361; KLK 255, xx031, xx032, xx219; UF 34696, 55368, 84007, 87155, 95471. CHARLOTTE: CAS SU-10147 ; UF 2455(DBUF). CITRUS: UF 33769, 33780, 80788, 95472. COLLIER: ANSP 32133; CM 22752; KLK

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137 95019, xx270, xx272; NCSM 27947; UF 14210, 19170, 19389, 19390, 19676, 21648, 33767, 43939-40, 73244-45, 87569, 117401-07. COLUMBIA: UF 39973, 78086, 95486. DADE: CAS 62998-99; CM 7758, 9843, 24914-16; ENP 4520; FMNH 95187; GHD 2015, 2196, 2307, 2308, (1) no catalog #; KLK 91006, 93009-10, 93019-21, 93024-27, 93032-40, 94002, 94021-25, 94040, 94044-45, 94084, 95011-12, xx161, xx274, xx321-22; LSUMZ 8942-43, 38721, 38744, 38757; UF 7612, 19675, 33784, 86888, 88537, 102087-89, 102091, 102156-59, 105382, 117408-10; USNM 36564. DESOTO: USNM 22368. DIXIE: KLK xx316 ; UF 33783, 70564, 95477, 95487-89. DUVAL: KME 2, 3, 5, 10-12, 16, 23; UF 3494(DBUF), 34698, 95478; USNM 14140-2. FRANKLIN: DBM 32, 37, 44; JZG 485046; KLK 244, 245, 264, 287, 288, 305, xx220, xx221, xx231; LSUMZ 27708; UF 15977, 32987, 34699, 55369, 55375-76, 55383, 55391-93, 55419, 55430, 57740, 73432, 73639, 95485, 115937. GADSDEN: KLK xx222-24 ; UF 73438. GLADES: ANSP 32980; CAS 207273; KLK 91007, 91009-10, 93001-07, 93011-15, 94031-32, 94139-45, 95013, 95020-26; UF 9272, 9273, 95532. GULF: AUM 21639; KLK 197-213, 217-18, 258, 272-78, 288-90, 295-97, xx562; KME m25, m26; UF 9466, 16263, 32986, 33779, 34700-01, 55372-74, 55390, 71962. HAMILTON: UF 95481. HARDEE: UF 47156. HENDRY: KLK 93016-17, 9403338; NCSM 9124; UF 50287, 55363. HERNANDO: KLK xx274-76 ; UF 95479. HIGHLANDS: AMNH 65635 ; USNM 307583. HILLSBOROUGH: AMNH 139395; CAS 190537; KLK xx139-40, xx143-45, xx301, xx312; KME m1, f1; UF 1459, 18130, 102088-89; USNM 212239. HOLMES: KLK xx257 ; LSUMZ 6505, UF 95473. INDIAN RIVER : USNM 2375. JACKSON: KLK 27, 224-27, xx319 ; LSUMZ 19340, UF 115938. JEFFERSON: KLK 124-25, 293, xx225 ; UF 16124, 55367, 55377, 64341,

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138 115939-40. LAFAYETTE: UF 20634. LAKE: CAS SU-10475; UMMZ 44550, 77477, 77479, 96787; USNM 69667. LEON: AMNH 58601; KLK 145, 270, 291-92, xx226, xx321-322, xx324-25; UF 55382, 55384, 73427-28, 73431, 74469-76, 87154, 115941115943, 115947. LEVY: FMNH 95185; UF 2575, 3040, 9831, 14106, 19406, 29200, 43153, 95544-46, 95556-58; UMMZ 221422; USNM 2369, 313368. LIBERTY: AUM 26495; DBM 5, 8, 9, 22, 25, 29-31, 33-36, 38-39, 41-43; KLK 98-99, 146, 162, 186-87, 247-48, 251-53, 256-57, 279, 281-82, 285-86, xx213, xx247; LSUMZ 40422; UF 55362, 55364-66, 55370-71, 55378, 55385-89, 55416, 55420-21, 55426-29, 55447-49, 55455, 73433-35, 73638, 91600, 105383, 115948-49, 115951-96, 115957, 123329, 123331; UMMZ 183055. MADISON: LSUMZ 35341 ; UF 74480. MARION: ANSP 16641; CM 2096-97, 6417, 12148, R-2105; FMNH 7474, 48267; KU 55397; UF 19391-93, 36602; UMMZ 57037. MONROE: AMNH R-95952, 97747; ENP 4524; NCSM 4455; UF 115958 ; USNM 85325-26. NASSAU: USNM 16698. OKALOOSA: AUM 29740, 29742, 30434, 30463, 32396, 32524; UF 74477, 103289, 117411; USNM 116461. OKEECHOBEE: KLK 95005-08, 95010 ; UF 528. ORANGE: AMNH 6935, CAS SU10476; CM S-7154; KLK xx302; UCF (1) no catalog #; USNM 84886, 124141-42. OSCEOLA: AMNH 5936-40, 5998; ANSP 17237; USNM 28892, 28894, 29103-04, 29106, 29108. PALM BEACH : KLK 93050, 94003, 94004, 94006-08, 94010-11, 94013-20, 95001-04, 95014-18, xx326; UF 2389, 99065, 99739. PINELLAS: AMNH 7573-74; CAS 175024, 202551; CM 91765; KLK 93022, 94177, xx193-94, xx309-10, xx333; UF 2531(DBUF), 95530, 98411, 102091. POLK: AMNH 25522; CM 14020, 91554; KLK xx303-304; UF 95549-53; UMMZ 111184-85. PUTNAM: UMMZ 106218. SANTA ROSA : AUM 29747, 30277; UF 3923, 3923, 95547-48.

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139 SEMINOLE: UF 95554 ; USNM 307584. ST. JOHNS: UF 66935 ; USNM 64205, 130144. SUMTER: UF 95525. TAYLOR: FMNH 21564; LSUMZ 24796; UF 4318, 32988, 74481, 95533-34, 95541-42. VOLUSIA: UF 95526-29. WAKULLA: AUM 1178; DBM 27, 28; KLK 163, 246, 250, 254, 263, xx243-244, xx307; KME f3, m13; UF 10172, 18144, 19366, 33770, 33785, 33793, 55380-81, 55417-18, 55422-25, 55450, 68897, 95535, 115959-61, 117413-17. WALTON: UF 74863. WASHINGTON: UF 34702, 64715, 77354.

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140 APPENDIX B SPECIMENS EXAMINED FOR SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION Source acronyms follow Leviton et al. (1985), with the addition of DBM D. Bruce Means, Coastal Plains Institute, and Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; ENP Everglades National Park Museum, Homestead, FL; GHD George H. Dalrymple Everglades Research Group, Florida City, FL; JZG Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, Jacksonville, FL; KLK Kenneth L. Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History; KME Kevin M. Enge Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Quincy, FL; UCF University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. Lampropeltis getula floridana listed by Florida county : ALACHUA: UF 1724, 95482. BREVARD: UF 46062-65, 48196, 49716, 49717, 50825, 95468-70. BROWARD: AMNH 97657; KU 68920, 176765; UMMZ 104607, 104608, 106221. CHARLOTTE: CAS SU-10147 ; UF 2455(DBUF). CITRUS: UF 33780. COLLIER: KLK 95019, xx270, xx272; LSUMZ 38731; NCSM 4455; UF 14210, 19170, 19389, 19390, 19676, 33767, 34697, 43939, 43940, 73244, 73245, 87569, 117401-07. DADE: ENP 4520, 4524; GHD 2015, 2196, 2307, 2308, f281, (2) no catalog #; KLK 91006, 93009-10, 93019-21, 93024-27, 93032-40, 93050-51, 94002, 94021-25, 94040, 9404445, 94066-84, 94100-06, 94130-37, 95011-12, 95180, xx161, xx273-274, xx308, xx32022; LSUMZ 8942-43, 38721, 38744, 38757; UF 7612, 19675, 21648, 33784, 86888, 88537, 99740, 99741, 102087-89, 102091, 102156-59, 105382, 117408-10. DESOTO: USNM 22368. GLADES: KLK 91007, 91009-10, 93001-07, 93011-15, 94031-32,

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141 94139, 94143-45, 95013, 95020-26; UF 9272, 9273, 95532. HENDRY: KLK 93016, 93017, 94033-38; LSUMZ 38753; UF 50287, 50288, 55363. HERNANDO: KLK xx275. HIGHLANDS: AMNH 65635. HILLSBOROUGH: CAS 190537; KLK xx139-140, xx143-45, xx280, xx282-84, xx293-94, xx286-91, xx295-300, xx312; KME m1, f1; UF 1459, 18130, 102088-89; USNM 212239. INDIAN RIVER : USNM 2375. LAKE: UMMZ 77477. LEE: LACM 59086. MONROE: AMNH R-95952, 97747; UF 115958 ; USNM 85325-26. OKEECHOBEE: KLK 94056-64, 95005-08, 95010 ; UF 528(DBUF). OSCEOLA: AMNH 5938-40 ; USNM 28892, 28894, 29103-04, 29106, 29108. PALM BEACH : KLK 94003, 94004, 94006-08, 94010, 94011, 94013-20, 95001-04, 95014-18, xx326; UF 2389, 99739. PINELLAS: CM 91765 ; KLK 94053. POLK: CM 14020, 91554; KLK xx303-304; UF 95549-53; UMMZ 111184-85. VOLUSIA: UF 95526-29. LAKE: UMMZ 77479, 69667. PASCO: UF 95543. SEMINOLE: CM R-382. ST. JOHNS : USNM 64205. SUMTER: UF 95525. ST. JOHNS : CM R-1950-51. SEMINOLE: CM R-383; UF 95554 ; USNM 307584. ORANGE: AMNH 6935, CAS SU-10476; KLK xx302; UCF (1) no catalog # ; USNM 84886. PINELLAS: KLK xx050 ; UF 2531(DBUF), 95530, 95531. Lampropeltis getula getula listed by Florida county : ALACHUA: UF 1859, 304145, 5975, 7887, 9552, 33768, 33772-73, 33775-76, 33778, 33790-91, 73272, 9546667, 95482. BAY: KLK xx227; LSUMZ 38719, 38725, 38732, 38733, 38758, 38759, 38773; UF 74479. CALHOUN: DBM 2361; KLK 95030-32, 95185-86, 96001, xx032, xx219; UF 34696, 55368, 84007, 87155, 95471. CITRUS: UF 33769. COLUMBIA: UF 39971, 95486. DIXIE: KLK xx316 ; UF 33783, 70564, 95477, 95487, 95489. DUVAL: KME 16; LSUMZ 38747 ; UF 95478. GADSDEN: KLK xx222-24.

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142 GILCHRIST: UF 95480. HAMILTON: UF 95481. FRANKLIN: KLK 264 ; UF 55391. WALTON: UF 74863. HOLMES: KLK xx257; LSUMZ 6505, 38735; UF 95473. JACKSON: KLK 27, 224-27, xx319 ; LSUMZ 19340, UF 115938. LAFAYETTE: UF 20634. GULF: LSUMZ 38711 ; UF 32986, 33779, 55390. JEFFERSON: KLK 293, xx225; LSUMZ 38718, 38729, 38741, 38774; UF 16124, 64341, 115939. LEON: KLK 145, 291-92, xx226, xx321-25; LSUMZ 38707-08, 38751; UF 54166, 55382, 55384, 73428-31, 73640, 74469-76, 87154, 115943-47. LEVY: UF 2575, 3040, 9831, 19406, 29200, 95544-46, 95555-58. MADISON: LSUMZ 35341 ; UF 74480. NASSAU: USNM 16698. OKALOOSA: AUM 29740, 29742, 30434, 30463, 32396, 32524; KLK xx334; UF 74477, 103289, 117411. WASHINGTON: UF 34702, 64715. SANTA ROSA : AUM 29747, 30277; KLK xx327; UF 3923-1, 3923-2, 95547, 95548. TAYLOR: LSUMZ 24796 ; UF 4318, 32988, 74481, 95533-34, 95541. MARION: UF 19391-93, 36602. WAKULLA: KLK 163, 254; LSUMZ 38715; UF 18144, 33785, 33793, 55381, 55418, 55422-23, 68897, 95539-40, 117413-16. LIBERTY: KLK 260-61, 267 ; UMMZ 183055. Intergrades between Lampropeltis getula floridana and L. g. getula listed by Florida county : ALACHUA: UF 1667, 1667, 1691, 1691, 1724, 1724, 1818, 1818 2, 1825, 2499, 7398, 14065-67, 18133, 33771, 33774, 33777, 33781-2, 33786, 33789, 33792, 33794, 95474-76, 95483. BAKER: LSUMZ 19011 ; UF 2103. CITRUS: UF 80788, UF 95472. COLUMBIA: UF 39972-73, 78086. DIXIE: 95488. DUVAL: KME 2, 3, 5, 10-12, 23; LSUMZ 38720; UF 3494(DBUF), 34698; USNM 14140. HERNANDO: KLK xx274, xx276 ; UF 95479. HILLSBOROUGH: KLK xx277-80, xx285, xx292. LAKE: CAS SU-10475 ; UMMZ 44550, 96787-89. LEVY: FMNH

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143 95185; UMMZ 221422; USNM 2369, 313368. PUTNAM: UMMZ 106218. TAYLOR: FMNH 21564 ; UF 95542. ORANGE: CM S-7154. MARION: CM 12148, R-2105, S6417; KU 55397 ; UMMZ 57037. PINELLAS: KLK 91005, 93022, 94085-99, 94177, xx030, xx051-52, xx142, xx160, xx193-94, xx309-10, xx333; UF 98411, 102091. Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Lampropeltis getula subsp. listed by Florida county : FRANKLIN: DBM 37, 44; JZG 485046; KLK 244, 287, 288, xx221, xx231; LSUMZ 23510; UF 15977, 32987, 34699, 55369, 55375-76, 55379, 55383, 55392-93, 55419, 55430, 73432, 73639, 95485. GULF: KLK 199, 203, 204-05, 208-10, 218, 258, 277, 295. LEON: KLK 270. WAKULLA: KLK 250, KLK xx243-44, UF 55417, 55450. LIBERTY: DBM 5, 8, 9, 22, 25, 29-30, 33-36, 38, 39, 41-43; KLK 98, 99, 146, 181, 186-90, 251-52, 256-57, 280-83, 285-86, 496, xx247; UF 55362, 55365-66, 55370-71, 55378, 55385-87, 55389, 55420-21, 55426-29, 55448-49, 55455, 73433-35, 73638, 95524, 105383, 115948-49, 115957. Intergrades between Lampropeltis getula getula and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Lampropeltis getula subsp. listed by Florida county : CALHOUN: DBM 49, KLK 255, xx031. GADSDEN: UF 73438. FRANKLIN: DBM 32; KLK 245, xx220; LSUMZ 27708, 38724; UF 57740, 115937. GULF: AUM 21639; KLK 176,197-98, 200-02, 20607, 211-17, 272-76, 278, 288-90, 296-97; KME m25, m26; LSUMZ 38775; UF 9466, 16263, 34700-01, 45763, 55372-74, 71962. JEFFERSON: KLK 124, 125; LSUMZ 23511; UF 55367, 55377, 115940. LEON: KLK xx320; KME m3; UF 73427, 11594142. WAKULLA: DBM 27, 28; KLK 246; 263, 299, xx307; KME f3, m13; LSUMZ 28837, 38754; UF 10172, 19366, 33770, 55380, 55424-25, 95535, 115959-61, 117417.

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144 LIBERTY: AUM 26495; DBM 31; KLK 162, 247-48, 253, 279, xx213; LSUMZ 40422; UF 55364, 55388, 55416, 55447, 91600, 95490.

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153 Saiki, R. K., D. H. Gelfand, S. Stoffel, S. J. Scharf, R. Higuchi, G. T. Horn, K. B. Mullis, and H. A. Erlich. 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with thermostable DNA polymerases. Science 239:487-491. Saitou, N., and M. Nei 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic tree. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4:406-425. SAS Institute Inc. 1996. Release 6.12 Edition. Cary, North Carolina : SAS Institute Inc. Schneider, S., D. Roessli and L. Excoffier 2000. Arlequin: a software for population gentics data analysis. Ver. 2.000. Genetics and Biometry Lab, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Geneva. Slatkin M. 1993. Isolation by distance in equilibrium and non-equilibrium populations. Evolution 47:264-279. Slowinski J. B. 1993. Unordered verses ordered characters. Systematic Biology 42:155-165. Slowinski J. B., and J. S. Keogh. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of elapid snakes based on cytochrome b mtDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15:157-164. Smith, D. J. 1996. The direct and indirect impacts of highways on the vertebrates of Payne's Prairie State Preserve. Florida Department of Transportation, Environmental Management Office, Tallahassee. Technical Report No. FL-ER-62-96. Smith, H. M., D. Chiszar and R. R. Montanucci 1997. Subspecies and classification. Herpetological Review 28:13-16. Soltis, D. E., P. S. Soltis, M. E. Mort, M. W. Chase, V. Savolainen, S. B. Hoot, and C. M. Morton. 1998. Inferring complex phylogenies using parsimony : An empirical approach using three large DNA data sets for Angiosperms. Systematic Biology 47:32-42. Swofford D. L. 2000. PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony. Ver. 4.0b8. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland Massachusetts. Tennant A. 1997. Field guide to the snakes of Florida. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas. Tuberville, T. D., J. R. Bodie, J. B. Jensen, L. Laclaire, and J. W. Gibbons. 2000. Apparent decline of the southern hog-nosed snake, Heterodon simus The Journal of Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 116:19-30.

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154 U.S. Census Bureau. 2001. Projections of the Total Population of States: 1995 to 2025. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/projections/state/stpjpop.txt Van Hyning, O. C. 1933. Batrachia and reptilia of Alachua County, Florida. Copeia 1933:3-7. Ward, D. B. (ed.). 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. V. Plants. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. Watts, W. A., and B. C. S. Hansen. 1988. Environments of Florida in the late Wisconsin and Holocene. Pp. 307-323 in B. A. Purdy (ed.). Wet Site Archaeology. The Telford Press, Caldwell, New Jersey. Webb, S. D. 1990. Historical biogeography. Pp. 70-102 in R. L. Meyers and J. J. Ewell (eds.). Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando. White, P. S., and L. D. Densmore 1992. Mitochondrial DNA isolation. Pp. 29-58 in A. R. Hoezel (ed.). Molecular Genetic Analysis of Populations : A Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford Univ. Press, NewYork Wiens J. J., and T. W. Reeder 1997. Phylogeny of the spiny lizards ( Sceloporus ) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Herpetological Monographs 1:1-101. Wilson, E. O., and W. L. Brown, Jr. 1953. The subspecies concept and its taxonomic application. Systematic Zoology 2:97-111. Wilson, L. D., and L. Porras 1983. The ecological impact of man on the South Florida herpetofauna University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Special Publication No. 9, Lawrence, Kansas. Wright, A. H. 1935. Some rare amphibians and reptiles of the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 21:340-345. Wright, A. H., and S. C. Bishop. 1915. A biological reconnaissance of the Okefinokee swamp in Georgia. The Reptiles. II. Snakes. Proc Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia, 1915:139-192. Wright, S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations. Annals of Eugenics 15:323-354. Yerger R. W. 1977. Fishes of the Apalachicola River. Pp. 22-33 in R. J. Livingston and E.A. Joyce (eds.). Proceedings of the Conference on the Apalachicola Drainage System. Florida Marine Research Publication 26. Zamudio K. R., and H. W. Greene. 1997. Phylogeography of the bushmaster ( Lachesis muta : Viperidae) : implications for neotropical biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62:421-442.

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155 Zhang, D. X., and G. M. Hewitt. 1996. Nuclear integrations: challenges for mitochondrial DNA markers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:247-251. Zharkikh A., and W. H. Li 1992. Statistical properties of bootstrap estimation of phylogenetic variability from nucleotide sequences. I. Four taxa with a molecular clock. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9:1119-1147.

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156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kenneth L. Krysko was raised on the Gulf Coast of Florida in Seminole, Pinellas County. As a kid, he was always playing soccer or catching fishes, reptiles, and amphibians. He would frequently make lone field-collecting trips through miles of ditches and under-road culverts to the Boca Ciega Bay, where a specimen of a salt marsh snake ( Nerodia clarkii ) would make the prize catch of the day. Because of his unusual passion for snakes most of the neighborhood girls called him "half boy, half snake." Throughout grade school he began fishing in local tournaments, especially for tarpon ( Megalops atlanticus ). He won the Suncoast Tarpon Roundup's landlubber trophy two years in a row in 1988 and 1989, with fish weighing 145 and 133 pounds, respectively. He also won the release division trophy with 32 releases. Although he had fly-fished for years for smaller tarpon and other feisty saltwater species, he began fly fishing for large tarpon with his friends off of Homasassa, FL, in the mid to late 1980s. His first large tarpon on fly was 130+ pounds. After graduating from Seminole High School, he attended St. Petersburg Junior College. After completing his A.A. degree in 1989 he had to make an important decision. Whether to either become a fishing guide, like many of his life-long friends, or go away to school. He chose to continue his education. His experiences throughout his childhood led him to Florida State University, where he majored in Biological Sciences.

PAGE 167

157 As an undergraduate at FSU (1989-1992), he received a broad background and developed a strong interest in the biological sciences. He worked as an assistant to Dr. Skip Livingston, with whom he researched invertebrates and pollution levels on the Leon Lakes Project. He received a Center for Aquatic Research and Resource Management Award for his work and dedication to the project. In addition, he began to form a particular interest in systematics and ecology of freshwater and marine fishes. As graduation approached he began searching for a graduate school in an area that would allow him to expand his interests and enhance his knowledge in systematics and ecology. In the summer of 1992, he moved to Miami and began volunteering at the Daniel Beard Research Center in Everglades National Park, Homestead, Florida. He received the Everglades National Park VIP Award from the United States Department of Interior for his work researching sea grass die-off in Florida Bay. Simultaneously, he applied to and was accepted into the graduate program in Biological Sciences at Florida International University, Miami. In August of 1992, he moved into the dormitories on Long Pine Key in Everglades National Park. The following morning he was evacuated because of an approaching hurricane. The next day, Hurricane Andrew destroyed everything on Long Pine Key and Kenneth lost almost everything he owned. Nevertheless, he continued his volunteering and began thinking of graduate research. Although he initially thought of projects related to ichthyology, he settled on examining the taxonomy of the kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula in the southern Florida peninsula under the guidance of Dr. George Dalrymple. Concurrently, Dr. Dalrymple offered him both teaching and research assistantships and he assisted his major advisor in both lectures and laboratories in the courses Herpetology and Vertebrate Zoology. Kenneth

PAGE 168

158 began working for the Everglades Research Group, gained invaluable field experience, and specialized in ichthyology and herpetology of the Everglades and Big Cypress ecosystem. He learned to identify almost every amphibian, reptile, and freshwater fish species in Florida, as well as learning about their ecology and natural histories. He worked with grade school children at the Biscayne Nature Center in Miami, teaching them about the local flora and fauna and conservation of the environment. After graduating at FIU with his M.S. degree in the summer of 1995, he moved to Gainesville to pursue his Ph.D. in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the University of Florida. Here, he broadened his research to examine the morphological and molecular systematics of kingsnakes in the Lampropeltis getula complex. He has lectured on herpetology, systematics, and zoological nomenclature at UF and herpetological societies around the state, as well as at scientific meetings as far away as La Paz, Mexico. He was funded by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and Central Florida, Volusia County, and Suncoast Herpetological Societies to carry out his research. Kenneth became involved with the Florida Museum of Natural History at UF in 1995, and became the collection manager of the Division of Herpetology in 1999. He has gained vast experience dealing with the public by participating in numerous FLMNH functions by representing the Division of Herpetology. Kenneth does all the chores, cooks, and pays the rent for the apartment he shares with his many roommates, "Mako" his extra-large 20+ pound cat, day geckos ( Phelsuma spp.) and leaf-nosed snakes ( Langaha madagascariensis ) from Madagascar, and wildcollected introduced cichlids. He has many goals set for himself after completing his Ph.D., including becoming a university professor, publishing scientific research,

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159 continuing with his interests in conservation, systematics, phylogenetics, paleontology, and biogeography, and fishing regularly.


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Title: ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
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ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR
SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES:
COLUBRIDAE)

















By

KENNETH L. KRYSKO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001




























Copyright 2001

by

Kenneth L. Krysko















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to express my greatest appreciation to my parents, Barbara and

Len Krysko, for surviving all of my errors as a child, as well as the recent ones. If it were

not for them and their outlook on wildlife and the environment I would not have

developed such a passion for all biology-related fields.

The research conducted as part of my Master of Science in Biology program at

Florida International University, Miami, FL (1995), laid the groundwork for parts of this

dissertation. It was in Miami that I was first exposed to all of the political and

environmental problems in our state, including the many factors that have disrupted the

Everglades ecosystem. I wish to thank my committee members at FIU: George H.

Dalrymple (chair), Maureen Donnelly, Scott Quackenbush, Kelsey Downum, and Martin

Tracey for their guidance and support.

I truly thank my PhD committee members at the University of Florida: F. Wayne

King (chair), D. Bruce Means, Walter S. Judd, L. Richard Franz, Brian W. Bowen,

Raymond R. Carthy, and Joseph C. Shaefer. They have provided me with many different

views on school, research and life. I am especially grateful to F. Wayne King, Kent

Vliet, and Jon Reiskind for providing me with research and teaching assistantships

throughout my graduate studies. I thank Kenetha Johnson and Tangelyn Mitchell for

their kindness and assistance in obtaining teacher's resources.

There are numerous friends and colleagues who have provided assistance during

different stages of my research and I am grateful to everyone. For assistance field









collecting kingsnakes I thank Len E. Krysko, Andy Daneault, Doug Riesco, Anthony T.

Reppas, Kevin M. Enge, Rubin R. Ramirez, George H. Dalrymple, Brian Machovina,

Doug Barker, David Zlatkin, Jack Tanner, Ray Sokol, Billy Griswold, Bill Griswold,

Alan Miller, Larry Cote, Kevin Enright, Lee Abbott, Gingah Ayee, Nashaud Vadsaria,

Paul E. Moler, Joe Roman, Robert H. Robins, Scott Cushnir, Jacqueline A. Wilson, Gina

Lopresti, F. Wayne King, John Decker, Kenny Wray, and Flavio Morrissiey.

For providing samples for morphological and DNA analyses I thank D. Bruce

Means, Kevin M. Enge, F. Wayne King, Wayne Vandevender, Mike Armstrong, Scott

Swormstedt, Brad Pendley, Paul E. Moler, Ginger Clark, John Jensen, Carlos Camp,

Troy Hibbits, Billy Griswold, Eric Ferrell, Jack Tanner, Dale R. Jackson, Bill Cope,

Kevin McHugh, Scott Whitney, Bill and Kathy Love, Greg Lepera, Fred G. Thompson,

Steve Christman, Jim Duquesnel, Clive Longden, David Cook, Eric East, Erik Hood, Jim

Kane, David Printiss, Howie Sherman, Robert Cox, Chris Scott, Paul Kaiser, Andy Barr,

and Bruce Skipper.

For assistance in obtaining locality records and preserved specimens I thank D.

Bruce Means, F. Wayne King, David L. Auth, George H. Dalrymple, Kevin M. Enge,

Linda Ford, Frank Burbrink, Doug Rossman, Joseph B. Slowinski, Craig Guyer, R. Reed,

Greg Schneider, Christopher J. Raxworthy, J. Simmons, Jens Vindum, R. Crombie, R.

Wilson, Kevin de Queiroz, George R. Zug, K. Tighe, H. Voris, Alan Resetar, JeffBeane,

J. Wiens, and Kent Beaman

For providing information and assistance using GIS I thank Daniel J. Smith, Thomas

Proctor and Ray Moranz. I also thank Kareem R. Abdelfattah, and Coleman M. Sheehy









for plotting nearly 1000 individual reference points in ArcView GIS. I thank Daniel J.

Smith and Gina Busscher for providing data and information about Paynes Prairie.

I thank Ginger Clark, Mark Whitten and Norris Williams for allowing me to

sequence DNA in their labs. For help with lab work I thank Ginger Clark, Mark Whitten,

Kareem Abdelfattah, Kevin Coleman, Joe Townsend, Megan E. Westfall, Martin

Gorrochategui, Carlos A. Iudica, Milagros Rosales, Anna Bass, and Angella Garcia. I

thank James Fetzner, Kyle Ashton, Robin Lawson, and Michael Douglas for information

on sequencing and primers. I thank Mark Whitten for help designing primers and James

Fetzner for use of certain outgroup sequences.

For assistance with statistics I thank Jacqueline A. Wilson, Ziyad R. Mahfoud and

Andre Khuri for running ANOVA and ANCOVA using SAS. I thank Joel Carlin for

long discussions of population genetics and help using Arlequin.

For daily research discussions and their sarcastic encouragement to finish I thank

Steve A. 'Picklebarrel" Johnson, Ryan Means, Anthony Reppas, Rob Robins and the Fish

Range, Joe Townsend, Coleman Sheehy, Jason Evert, Carlos A. ludica, Bob Godshalk,

Esther Langan, Nichole Hooper, Dan Janes, Jeff Sailer, Dan Smith, Jason Evert, Jamie

Barichivich, Jennifer Staiger, Perran Ross, Joel Carlin, and the hundreds of my former

students in my BSC 2001 labs. I also thank Milagros Rosales for her beautiful snake

drawings in Figure 4-2. I thank Cynthia Sain, Shannon Wright, Polly Falcon, Delores

Tillman, and Sam Jones for assisting me with departmental requirements. I thank

Caprice McRae and Monica Lindberg for help obtaining the La Paz, Mexico travel award

in 2000.









For teaching me their vast knowledge of the biogeography and herpetology of the

southeastern United States I thank Dick Franz, D. Bruce Means, and F. Wayne King. For

discussions about species concepts I thank Walter S. Judd, Brent D. Mishler, and James

Albert. For review and suggestions on dissertation chapters I thank F. Wayne King, D.

Bruce Means, Dick Franz, Walter S. Judd, James Fetzner, Brian W. Bowen, Joseph C.

Shaefer, Raymond R. Carthy, Max A. Nickerson, L. Lee Grismer, Steve "Picklebarrel"

Johnson, Jeff Sailer, Peter A. Meylan, Hobart M. Smith, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., James

Albert, Jacqueline A. Wilson, Joseph T. Collins, Mark Whitten, Joel Carlin, Ginger

Clark, Robert Liu, Paul E. Moler, Chris Meyer, and Rick Owen.

I am indebted to those who have supported these kingsnake studies including The

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (Project # NG00-002), Central

Florida, Volusia County, and Suncoast herpetological societies. I would like to thank

those who have assisted me in obtaining and providing appropriate permits in order to

carry out these studies: Vivie Thue for collecting permit (#940015) from Everglades

National Park; South Florida Water Management District (key permit #1069) for access

to canals, levees, and structures in southern Florida; UF Institutional Animal Care and

Use Committee (IACUC)(permit #A187) to work with live animals; and the U.S. Forest

Service (permit (#2670) for collecting in the Apalachicola National Forest.

Finally, I would like to thank all of the great friends I made during 'Yny life and times

in Hogtown." Everyone made my last days as a graduate student the best, and I will miss

you all. But just remember, Go Seminoles!
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ................. ...................................................................iii

A B S T R A C T .................................................................................................................. ix

CHAPTERS

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................................................ .......... .. .. ... 1

2 THE DECLINE AND EXTIRPATION OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula) IN
F L O R ID A .............................. .......... ... ................... ...................... 1 1

M materials and M ethods................... ............................................. .......................... 11
R results ............ .. ....... ............... .............................................. 11
N natural H history Overview ...................................................... ...... ................... 11
Ecological Status............................................ 13
D isc u ssio n ................... ... .............................. ..................................... ...... 14
Paynes Prairie (Alachua County) .................................. ....................... 15
Apalachicola National Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin
C counties) .................... ... .... .... .... ...... .. ........ ....... .............. 16
Lake Okeechobee (Glades, Hendry and Palm Beach Counties) and Extreme
Southern Peninsula (Dade County) ...................................... .............. 17

3 SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis
g etula) IN F L O R ID A ......................................... .. .. .................... .......................28

M materials and M ethods................... ......... .................... ... ................ ...... ................ .. 28
Sexual D im orphism ......................................................................... ... 3 1
G geographic V ariation .......................................... ... ............... ....... ................ .. 3 1
R e su lts ............... ....... .. ............. .. ....................................................... 3 2
Sexual D im orphism ............................................. ......... ..... .............. 32
G geographic V ariation .......................................... ... ............... ....... ................ .. 33
Discussion............... ............. ... ............................... 38
Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. brooksi......................................... 39
Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula....................... ........ ...... 40
Relationships among L. g. getula, L. g. goini, and Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands
P o p u latio n s ............... ................................................... .............. 4 1









4 MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula) ....66

M materials and M ethods................................................................ .......................... 66
M orphological C haracters................................................... .......................... 66
C ladistic A nalyses.................................. .............. .......................... .................. 70
R e su lts ..................................................................................................................... 7 1
C ladistic A naly ses.. ................................................ ... ............... ....... ................... 7 1
Character Evolution .................. .............................. ........ .. .......... .. 73
D iscu ssio n .............................................................................................. ......... ..... 7 5

5 MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula)..............90

M materials and M ethods................... ....... ...... .............. ... ................ ...... ................ .. 90
L laboratory T echniques........................................................ ............. ...... ...... 90
Phylogenetic Analyses ................ .......................................... .............. 92
Population Structure .................. .............................. ........ .. .......... .. 93
R e su lts ....................................................................... 9 4
M ax im u m P arsim ony ......................................................... ................................. 94
N eig hb or-Join in g ................................................... ...................... ... .. ......... 9 6
Population Structure .................. .............................. ........ .. .......... .. 96
D iscu ssio n .............................................................................................. ......... ..... 9 7

6 C O N C L U SIO N S........ ........................................................................ ..................122

Phylogeography ............................................................ ............ .. 122
Taxonomy..................................... ...... .............. 124
Future P projections .... ...................................................... ........ .. ............ 128
H habitat Protection .......................................................................... .. 129
Species Protection.................................. ................ .. ........... ....... .. .......... .. 130
Future R research ..................................................................................................... 134

APPENDICES

A SPECIMENS REFERENCED FOR FLORIDA LOCALITIES ........... .....................136

B SPECIMENS EXAMINED FOR SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION ...140

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................ ...................145

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... ............................ 156















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR
SYSTEMATICS OF THE KINGSNAKE, Lampropeltis getula (SERPENTES:
COLUBRIDAE)

By

Kenneth L. Krysko

December 2001


Chairman: F. Wayne King
Major Department: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula, range throughout much of North America.

Based on morphology, there are seven currently recognized subspecies in the L. getula

complex. Two of these taxa, L. g. getula and L. g. floridana, represent populations in the

eastern U.S. Lampropeltis g. getula is distributed from southern New Jersey to northern

peninsular and panhandle Florida and L. g. floridana is distributed from central to

southern peninsular Florida.

Historically, kingsnakes were abundant throughout the state of Florida. However,

over the last few decades kingsnakes have declined severely or been locally extirpated

leaving only a few isolated populations scattered around the state. Furthermore, for more

than 80 years the taxonomy of the L. getula subspecies in the eastern U.S. has been

controversial. In addition to L. g. getula and L. g. floridana, the taxonomic status of four

other potential subspecies remains questionable: L. g. brooks from extreme southern









peninsular Florida, L. g. goini from the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands in

panhandle Florida, an unnamed subspecies from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands, and

L. g. sticticeps from the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

In this study, I used a multidisciplinary approach to better understand kingsnake

ecology and their phylogenetic relationships, and provide management recommendations

for their conservation. First, I present a natural history overview of kingsnakes derived

mainly from two years of fieldwork in southern Florida. Secondly, I used GIS to

document kingsnake declines in Florida, and hypothesize possible causes leading to this

event. Finally, I examine morphological and molecular characters of kingsnakes in the L.

getula complex.

Possible causes for population declines include habitat loss and fragmentation,

road mortality, pollution, toxin buildup in tissues, red imported fire ants, and over-

collecting by commercial collectors. Populations of L. g. getula, L. g. floridana, and

unnamed populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands appear to represent natural

groups, here recognized as subspecies. I found no morphological or genetic evidence

supporting the recognition of L. g. brooks, L. g. goini, and L. g. sticticeps. Habitat

protection and improved management practices are crucial to insure survival of

kingsnakes in the wild.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex (Linnaeus 1766) range

throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America, from Oregon to the

Mexican Plateau in the west and from southern New Jersey to southern Florida in the

east. In the past, kingsnakes were abundant throughout the state of Florida (Fig. 1-1)

from well-known sites including Paynes Prairie (Alachua Co.), Apalachicola National

Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin counties), Lake Okeechobee

(Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach counties) and the extreme southern peninsula (Dade

Co.)(Carr, 1940; Kauffeld, 1957; Duellmanand Schwartz, 1958; Wilson and Porras,

1983; Krysko, 1995). Despite their previous abundance in Florida, kingsnake

populations have severely declined or been locally extirpated for unknown reasons

(Wilson and Porras, 1983; Krysko, 1995; Means, 2000), leaving only a few isolated

populations scattered around the state. Similar examples of local extirpation of other

reptile species have also taken place throughout the southeastern U.S. (Moler, 1992;

Tuberville et al., 2000), causing alarm among herpetologists and conservationists.

Based on morphology, Blaney (1977) recognized seven subspecies of L. getula

throughout its range: L. g. californiae (Blainville 1835), L. g. floridana Blanchard 1919,

L. g. getula (Linnaeus 1766), L. g. holbrooki Stejneger 1903, L. g. nigra (Yarrow 1882),

L. g. nigrita Zweifel and Norris 1955 and L. g. splendid (Baird and Girard 1853).









Furthermore, Blaney (1977) recognized that populations in the eastern U.S. represented a

distinct clade consisting of L. g. getula and L. g. floridana.

Lampropeltis g. getula is distributed from southern New Jersey to northern

peninsular and panhandle Florida (Fig. 1-1; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997;

Conant and Collins, 1991, 1998). Its dorsal pattern is solid black to chocolate brown with

19-32 narrow (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) crossbands and a lateral chain pattern (Fig. 1-

2A; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995; Tennant, 1997). Lampropeltis g. floridana is

distributed from central to southern peninsular Florida (Fig. 1-1; Blaney, 1977; Krysko,

1995; Tennant, 1997). Its dorsal pattern has > 34 narrow (1.5 dorsal scale rows)

crossbands, a degenerate lateral chain pattern and undergoes various degrees of

ontogenetic interband (= interspaces between light crossbands) lightening, giving it a

yellowish speckled appearance in the adult stage (Fig. 1-2B; Blaney, 1977; Krysko, 1995;

Tennant, 1997).

For more than 80 years the taxonomy of L. getula subspecies in the eastern U.S. has

been controversial. In addition to L. g. getula and L. g. floridana, the taxonomic status of

three other named subspecies from the eastern U.S. remains questionable: L. g. brooks

Barbour 1919 from the extreme southern Florida peninsula (Fig. 1-1), L. g. goiniNeill

and Allen 1949 from the Florida panhandle on the western side of the Apalachicola River

in the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands (Figs. 1-1, 1-3), and L. g. sticticeps Barbour

and Engles 1942 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. In addition, Means (1977)

believed that an unnamed subspecies existed on the eastern side of the Apalachicola

River in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 1-3). The dorsal pattern ofL. g.

brooks is like that of L. g. floridana, but it undergoes extreme ontogenetic interband









lightening that almost completely obscures the presence of the narrow crossbands (Fig. 1-

4A; Barbour, 1919). The dorsal pattern ofL. g. goini has 15-17 wide (4-8 dorsal scale

rows) crossbands, and undergoes slight interband lightening, yet the interband areas

remain nearly black (Fig. 1-4B; see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949). The dorsal pattern

of individuals in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 1-3) is polymorphic and may

be wide-banded (up to 8 dorsal scale rows) or non-banded (striped or patternless)(Fig. 1-

5; Means, 1977; Krysko, 1995). The dorsal pattern of L. g. sticticeps is like that of L. g.

getula, but it undergoes slight interband lightening. All newborn, banded eastern U.S. L.

getula individuals have bold light-colored crossbands with black interbands (Fig. 1-6A-

C), yet newborn non-banded eastern Apalachicola Lowlands individuals have only

remnant black interbands (Fig. 1-6D, E). The lightened interband pattern of adult L. g.

floridana (Fig. 1-2B), L. g. brooks (Fig. 1-4A), L. g. goini (Fig. 1-4B), Apalachicola

drainage individuals (Fig. 1-5) and L. g. sticticeps is derived from ontogenetic lightening

of the normally black interbands (Fig. 1-6).

In this study, I provide 1) a natural history overview ofL. getula in Florida and

attempt to document its decline and suggest possible causes leading to this event, 2) an

analysis of sexual and geographic variation in Florida using morphology, and 3) analysis

of morphological and molecular characters throughout the L. getula complex. I relate

morphological and molecular data to historical geological events and attempt to clarify

taxonomic relationships ofL. getula populations in the eastern U.S. My interpretation of

valid taxa along with their geographic ranges is presented using the Apomorphic Species

Concept (Phylogenetic Species Concept sensu Mishler and Theriot, 2000). Under the

Apomorphic Species Concept (ASC), species are considered to be well-supported






4


minimal monophyletic groups, and subspecies may be considered as subclades within

species, having lesser support because of interbreeding and a more recent evolution (see

Mishler and Theriot, 2000). This definition of subspecies is similar to that of Mayr

(1969) and Smith et al. (1997), in which subspecies are geographically-delimited

populations that possess relatively homogeneous characters produced by evolution, yet

are genetically non-discrete because of gene flow with surrounding morphologically-

divergent populations.












Northern
Peninsula


Panhandle


Central
Peninsula








Southern
Peninsula
F___ rr *m. l J



!'do


Fig. 1-1. Florida panhandle and northern, central, and southern peninsula (modified after
Enge, 1994).


























Fig. 1-2. Pattern variation of A = Lampropeltis g. getula from southern New Jersey to
northern peninsular and panhandle Florida and B = L. g. floridana from central to
southern peninsular Florida.







































Fig. 1-3. Apalachicola drainage in the Florida panhandle with recognized natural areas
(after Means, 1977). 1 = Marianna Lowlands; 2 = Western Red Hills; 3 = Grand Ridge; 4
= Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines; 5 = River Bottomlands; 6 = Apalachicola Lowlands;
7 = Coastal Marshes; 8 = Offshore Spits, Bars, and Barrier Islands. The two crescent-
shaped structures in mainland Franklin Co. are ancient barrier islands. Shading on the
inset map = geographic distribution of Lampropeltis getula.



























Fig. 1-4. Pattern variation of A = Lampropeltis getula brooks and B = L. g. goini. Note
that adult L. g. brooks (A) and L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) are distinctly banded as
newborns (Fig. 1-6A) and although their ontogenetic interband lightening may obscure
the presence of crossbands they are not truly non-banded like those in Figs. 1-5B, C; 1-
6D, E.







































Fig. 1-5. Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands Lampropeltis getula, A = wide-banded, B =
non-banded striped, C = non-banded patternless. Note that wide-banded specimen in A is
the same as in Fig. 1-6C and has undergone considerably more ontogenetic interband
lightening than adult L. g. goini from the surrounding region.
















































Fig. 1-6. Newborn eastern U.S. Lampropeltis getula with bold light-colored crossbands
and black interbands. A = L. g. floridana (left) and L. g. getula (right); B = L. g. goini; C
= wide-banded eastern Apalachicola Lowlands; D = striped eastern Apalachicola
Lowlands; E = patternless eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. Note that 1) wide-banded
specimen C is the same as in Fig. 1-5A and will undergo considerably more ontogenetic
interband lightening than L. g. goini from the region surrounding the eastern
Apalachicola Lowlands and 2) striped and patternless eastern Apalachicola Lowlands
snakes have only remnant black interbands.














CHAPTER 2
THE DECLINE AND EXTIRPATION OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula) IN
FLORIDA



Materials and Methods

Natural history data and Florida locality records of kingsnakes were obtained

from the literature, herpetologists, and systematic collections throughout the U.S.

Reference points were plotted for each collection record dated between 1858 and 1999

with latitude-longitude coordinates using ArcView GIS (ver. 3.2, ESRI, Inc). All

individual and county records were plotted on maps of Florida to show the historical

distribution of kingsnakes in Florida. Additionally, those records from 1990 tol999 were

plotted separately to show the distribution of records over the last decade.


Results

Natural History Overview

The diet of kingsnakes consists of both venomous and non-venomous snakes,

including their own species, as well as lizards, amphibians, turtle eggs, rabbits and

rodents (Conant and Collins, 1991; Tennant, 1997). Newborn kingsnakes range in size

from 13 to 20 cm snout-vent length (SVL), adults range from 90 to 122 cm SVL with a

maximum size of 208.3 cm total length (Conant and Collins, 1991; Tennant, 1997).

Sexual maturity has been found at 80 cm SVL in the southern Florida peninsula (Krysko,

unpubl. data). Males usually attain a greater size than females. The breeding season

occurs from February through June. During this time, males are encountered more often









than females, apparently because they are actively searching for mates. Combat rituals

have been observed between two males (Krysko et al., 1998). Females are also observed

more frequently from February through June, possibly because they are waiting for males

to pick up their pheromones, feeding more frequently to increase yolk masses, or basking

before oviposition. Oviposition occurs within two weeks after ecdysis. Three to 29 eggs

are deposited from April through July, and hatching occurs after an incubation period of

ca. 60 days (Tennant, 1997).

Kingsnakes are usually found in the vicinity of water-containing microhabitats

that allow them to burrow (Wright and Bishop, 1915; Carr, 1940; Enge, 1997). In the

southern Florida peninsula, they occur in or near tropical hardwood hammocks, cypress

(Taxodium ascendens and T. distichum) strands, sawgrass (Cladiumjamaicense) prairies,

Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia)

forests, along drainage canals in sugarcane fields, and where excavated oolitic limestone

is piled up alongside man-made canals (Wilson and Porras, 1983; O'Hare and Dalrymple,

1997; Tennant, 1997; Krysko, unpubl. data). In the central and northern peninsula, they

occur in or near hardwood hammocks, pine flatwoods (Pinus elliottii), cypress strands,

freshwater prairies, salt marshes, and estuaries with black (Avicennia germinans), red

(Rhizophora mangle), and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves. In the panhandle,

they occur in or near mesic pine (Pinus spp.) flatwoods, clay hills, cypress strands,

pitcher plant and sphagnum bogs, and salt marshes. They are typically not found in xeric

sandhill habitats (Enge, 1997).

Kingsnakes are primarily diurnal and spend much of their time underground

(Krysko, unpubl. data; Means, unpubl. data), yet when above ground their large size









makes them very conspicuous. In southern peninsular Florida, they are primarily active

in February through June and October through December (Krysko, unpubl. data). The

first activity period is correlated with the breeding season and an increase in rainfall and

day length. The second activity period is correlated with cooling weather and a decrease

in day length. They are found above ground mostly between 24C and 290C ambient air

temperatures, with the highest frequency at 270C (Krysko, unpubl. data). At lower and

higher temperatures, encounter rates decrease as kingsnakes may retreat into refugia.

Adults are primarily diurnal, whereas juveniles are more secretive and exhibit crepuscular

or nocturnal behaviors (Krysko, unpubl. data). An apparent ontogenetic shift in diel

activity occurs, with secretive juveniles gradually become more diurnal. At

approximately 90 cm SVL they may become less wary of diurnal predators.


Ecological Status

I obtained 821 Florida locality records where L. getula has been collected with

known date of collection (Appendix A). Of these, 291 records came from two intensive

kingsnake surveys (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-1). The first study compiled 110 records from the

panhandle (Fig. 1-1) in 1969 through 1990 and consisted of 110 records (D. Bruce

Means, unpubl. data). The second study compiled 181 records from the southern

peninsula in 1993 through 1995 (Krysko, unpubl. data). Of the southern peninsula

records, 109 consisted of captures, non-captures, dead on road specimens (DORs), shed

skins and skeletons that were not collected as vouchers and, therefore, are not listed in

Appendix A.

Individual records are summarized by county and decade in Table 2-2 and Figures

2-1 and 2-2. The number of kingsnake records have gradually increased over time as the









number of collectors increased, especially around the 1930s (Fig. 2-1). The number of

records reported here was inflated in the 1970s through the 1990s because of intensive

efforts aimed at documenting large numbers of individuals (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-1).

Historical records indicate a nearly statewide distribution for kingsnakes in

Florida. Records for fifty-four (80.5%) of 67 counties exist for the period from 1858 to

1999 (Fig. 2-3). However, only 23 (34.3%) counties are represented during the last

decade (Fig. 2-4). Similar to kingsnake records by decade (Fig. 2-1), county records also

gradually increased over time as the number of herpetologists and collectors increased

(Fig. 2-2). The largest number of county records occurred during the 1970s in

conjunction with the first intensive kingsnake study (Table 2-1, Fig. 2-2). Even though

the number of herpetologists and collectors has increased since the 1970s, the number of

records documented has declined sharply.


Discussion

Kingsnake ecology is poorly known and has only been studied thoroughly in

southern peninsular Florida populations (Krysko, unpubl. data). Because of apparent

population declines or extirpation, studies of kingsnakes have been inefficient or

impossible elsewhere in Florida, and other populations in the state can only be assumed

to exhibit similar biological patterns.

Because museum records reflect collecting biases, they are unreliable by

themselves in determining the present status and distribution of a species (Dodd and

Franz, 1993). However, they are valuable for determining a species historical

distribution. In this study, in addition to museum records I used all data available to me

including literature and herpetologists' field notes. However, records for Florida by









county (Fig. 2-2) do illustrate a collecting bias. From 1858 through the 1960s kingsnakes

were probably present statewide, but few individuals were recorded because only a small

number of collectors was active in Florida. The peak in kingsnake records occurred in

the 1970s, when 118 individuals were recorded from 30 counties (Figs. 2-1, 2-2).

Assuming that the number of field biologists and collectors has increased since the 1970s,

there has been a considerable decrease in the number of counties represented, which

probably does not indicate a collecting bias but rather a reduced number of encounters

with kingsnakes. Excluding the intensive kingsnake studies during the last decade (Table

2-1), there have been only 93 kingsnake records documented from 21 counties from 1990

to 1999 (Figs. 2-2, 2-4). A reduction in the number of collected individuals may reflect

in part the present-day conservation attitudes and reluctance to collect animals from the

wild. But most young biologists have never seen a wild kingsnake in Florida, and many

experienced biologists report few or no encounters with kingsnakes over the last two

decades (P. A. Meylan, pers. comm.).


Paynes Prairie (Alachua County)

Kauffeld (1957) claimed that he had never seen such an abundance of kingsnakes

anywhere like that on Paynes Prairie. Prior to the 1970s, 20 kingsnakes could commonly

be found on a spring morning along U.S. Highway 441 traversing the prairie (Kauffeld,

1957; F. W. King and D. Franz, pers. comm.). However, from 13 January 1958 through

27 February 1960, U.S. Highway 441 was changed from two to four lanes (G. Busscher,

pers. comm.), which drastically changed the habitat. Concurrently, dredging created a

deep-water habitat along the roadsides (Smith, 1996). For the next few years the road

shoulders were mostly sand with little vegetation, and frequent trips were made by









biologists in the mornings to observe numerous kingsnakes foraging on Ophisaurus sp.

(F. W. King, pers. comm.). During the 1960s, hundreds of kingsnakes were killed by

vehicles, the prairie was mostly drained, dense hardwoods invaded the margins, and

kingsnakes became extremely scarce (F. W. King and D. Franz, pers. comm.). During

three separate intensive studies on the prairie from 1973-1977, no kingsnakes were found

(Franz and Scudder, 1977; Smith, 1996). The last verified kingsnake found on the prairie

was nearly two decades ago, in 1984, and kingsnakes appear to have been extirpated in

this region. Although the prairie habitat has been highly modified, D. Jouvenaz (pers.

comm.) believed that decreasing kingsnake populations resulted from increasing densities

of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta).


Apalachicola National Forest/Tate's Hell State Forest (Liberty and Franklin
Counties)

During the 1970s, it was not uncommon to encounter five or more kingsnakes in

one day crossing roads during the breeding season in the Apalachicola National Forest

(ANF) and Tate's Hell Swamp (D. B. Means, unpubl. data). Yet, near the end of the

1970s, Livingston (1977) reported that the southern half of the Apalachicola region had

been under extensive development including agricultural activities, timber harvesting,

dredging, and damming. By the early 1980s, kingsnakes had begun to decline drastically

in this region (Table 2-1). After surveying thousands of kilometers of these same roads

during the 1990s as Means had done in the 1970s, Krysko (unpubl. data) found only one

dead on road (DOR) individual in 1996. Even though few kingsnakes have been found

crossing roads during the last decade, some individuals have recently been captured using

drift fences (K. M. Enge, pers. comm.). Management practices are currently restoring









native longleaf pine (Pinuspalustris) in the ANF. However, Tate's Hell State Forest has

yet to establish an effective restoration program of the native habitat, and the

management plan still allows extensive clear cutting, timber harvesting (Fig. 2-5) and

replacing of native longleaf pine forests with slash pine (Pinus elliotii) tree farms.


Lake Okeechobee (Glades, Hendry and Palm Beach Counties) and Extreme
Southern Peninsula (Dade County)

Godley (1982) reported capturing 58 kingsnakes at Rainey Slough on the western

side of Lake Okeechobee from November 1975 through August 1978. Wilson and Porras

(1983) noted that the sugarcane fields around Lake Okeechobee attracted large rodent

populations and associated drainage canals provided refuge for kingsnakes. Presently,

the Lake Okeechobee region, where 101 individuals were recorded from 1993 to 1995

(Table 2-1), appears to be the only area in Florida where large numbers of kingsnakes are

still found.

Wilson and Porras (1983) also suggested that kingsnake populations in southern

Dade Co. and along the Tamiami Trail had experienced drastic declines as a result of

increasing urban and agricultural development. Many kingsnakes had also been killed as

vermin in the 1960s along the Tamiami Trai and Loop Road (F. W. King, pers. comm.).

However, 80 individuals were recorded in the Everglades region from 1993-1995 (Table

2-1). Yet, during these two years local collectors were observed taking every individual

found in this area, illustrating the intense collecting pressure put on these populations.

This prompted Krysko (1995) to blame habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and over-

collecting by commercial collectors for the pet trade as alternative explanations for

declining populations in this area. In the six years following Krysko's (1995) survey,






18


only two kingsnakes (both in 1995) were found at the study sites despite extensive

searches during the breeding season.










Table. 2-1. Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula, recorded from two unpublished studies in
Florida: D. B. Means (1969-1990) in the panhandle and K. L. Krysko (1993-1995) in the
southern peninsula.

Means
County 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total
Calhoun 0 2 2 0 4
Franklin 1 7 4 0 12
Gulf 0 9 1 0 10
Jefferson 0 3 1 0 4
Leon 0 5 4 0 9
Liberty 0 53 5 1 59
Wakulla 0 9 3 0 12
Total 1 88 20 1 110


Krysko
County 1993-1995
Dade 80
Glades 45
Hendry 23
Palm Beach 33
Total 181












Table. 2-2. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula, records by Florida county from 1858 to 1999.

1858-
1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total
Alachua 1 0 4 3 11 8 19 10 10 2 0 68
Baker 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2
Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2
Bradford 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Brevard 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 3 0 9
Broward 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 0 0 7
Calhoun 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 5 12
Charlotte 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
Citrus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4
Clay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collier 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 3 5 3 3 25
Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3
Dade 0 1 0 2 6 0 4 0 2 7 83 105
DeSoto 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Dixie 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 7
Duval 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 8 13
Escambia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flagler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Franklin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 18 8 2 31
Gadsden 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 4
Gilchrist 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Glades 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 50 54
Gulf 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 32 6 7 48
Hamilton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Hardee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Hendry 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 24 27
Hernando 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 5
Highlands 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
Hillsborough 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 17 23
Holmes 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3
Indian River 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Jackson 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 8











Table 2-2.-Continued.


1858-
1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total
Jefferson 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 3 0 10
Lafayette 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Lake 0 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 6
Lee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Leon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 8 7 8 4 28
Levy 1 0 0 0 0 3 5 1 6 2 0 18
Liberty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 13 7 82
Madison 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Manatee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Marion 0 1 3 3 3 1 2 0 1 0 0 14
Martin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Monroe 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 4 0 0 0 7
Nassau 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Okaloosa 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 7 1 10
Okeechobee 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 6
Orange 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 7
Osceola 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13
Palm Beach 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 1 0 33 45
Pasco 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Pinellas 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 0 6 8 21
Polk 0 0 0 1 1 5 3 0 0 2 0 12
Putnam 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Santa Rosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 7
Sarasota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Seminole 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
St Johns 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
StLucie 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sumter 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Suwannee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Taylor 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 5 1 0 9
Union 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Volusia 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 4
Wakulla 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 24 4 3 38










Table 2-2.-Continued.


1858-
1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Total
Walton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 3
8 11 16 13 34 36 82 44 206 96 275 821

































Fig. 2-1. Number of kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula, records
from 1858 to 1999. Note that top numbers in last four decades
correspond to those from two unpublished studies by Means
(1960-1990) and Krysko (1993-1995), which specifically targeted
collecting large numbers of kingsnakes.
















35
30
30- 27

25- 23
--21
20 7
16
15- 13

10- 7
5 5







Fig. 2-2. Number of Florida counties with kingsnake,
Lampropeltis getula, records from 1858 to 1999. Note that the high
numbers in last four decades correspond to those from two
unpublished studies by Means (1960-1990) and Krysko (1993-1995),
which specifically targeted collecting large numbers of kingsnakes.













AI


Sr
"" -L7Jor '


I.
U


County Records

1858,-1999
absent
present


I S 101 ISO 200 250 KlkheleM s


'

. .


-..,- ..

I-.


A


Fig. 2-3. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula, records from 1858 to 1999 (n = 821). Solid
dots correspond to individual records. Fifty-four (80.5%) counties are represented.
















-
-.








County Records

S1980 -199 9

absent
present



M 5O ID I 52011i 256 KblametersL





Fig. 2-4. Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula, records from 1990 to 1999 (n = 275). Open
circles correspond to 181 individuals recorded in a two-year study in southern Florida
from 1993 to 1995. Solid dots correspond to remaining 94 records. Twenty-three (34.3%)
counties are represented.


































Fig. 2-5. Tate's Hell State


in County, Flonda (1














CHAPTER 3
SEXUAL AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis
getula) IN FLORIDA



Materials and Methods

I examined morphological characters including scutellation and color pattern of 822

field-collected and museum specimens of L. getula from Florida (Appendix B). Of these,

141 were field-collected from 1993 to 1995 in the southern peninsula (Fig. 1-1) and

examined alive to evaluate natural color pattern variation. Because L. getula populations

have drastically declined or been extirpated from Florida (Means, 2000), most specimens

demarked KLK (Kenneth L. Krysko, Appendix B) were photographed, marked following

Brown and Parker (1976) and released at their capture site after data were collected.

Representative voucher specimens were deposited at the Florida Museum of Natural

History, University of Florida (FLMNH, UF collection). Morphological data from other

areas in the southeastern U.S. were obtained from the scientific literature.

The following standard scale counts and measurements were taken:

CROSSBANDS- the number of light body bands from one head length posterior to the

head to above the cloaca (after Blaney, 1977). CROSSBAND WIDTH- the number of

dorsal scale rows the light crossbands cover mid-dorsally. During embryonic

development of individuals from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands having < 15

crossbands or crossbands > 8 dorsal scales rows wide, their distinct crossbands break up

and fuse in two basic ways, forming non-banded (striped and patternless) phenotypes









(Fig. 1-6D, E). First, the light crossbands fuse laterally and divide mid-dorsally,

producing a light colored individual with a black mid-dorsal stripe (Fig. 1-6D). This

stripe appears to be the remnants of the black interbands because it undergoes

ontogenetic lightening. Second, the light crossbands fuse both dorsally and laterally,

producing a patternless individual with essentially one crossband from head to tail tip

(Fig. 1-6E). Although I consider that both striped and patternless individuals have one

crossband whose width is the entire length of the snake, I set this value at 200 dorsal

scale rows wide in statistical analyses. VENTRALS- the number using the standard

counting system (after Dowling, 1951). SUBCAUDALS- the number of scales from

the cloaca to the tail tip, excluding the tail tip. DORSAL SCALE ROWS (DSR)- the

maximum number at midbody. SUPRALABIALS and INFRALABIALS- the total

number on both sides of the head. TEMPORALS and PRE and POST-OCULARS- the

arrangement on both sides of the head. DORSAL PATTERN- the degree of

ontogenetic lightening of the normally dark interband (= interspaces between light

crossbands) scales was rated on adults with a system of A-D (Fig. 3-1), where interband

scales have A = 0% lightening (typical of L. g. getula), B = up to 25% of the intensity of

the crossbands (typical of L. g. goini and L. g. floridana), C = 25-75% of the intensity of

the crossbands (typical of L. g. floridana and Apalachicola Lowlands populations), D =

75-100% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical ofL. g. brooks and Apalachicola

Lowlands populations). PERCENT OF THE IRIS LIGHTENED- examined on live

specimens only. SNOUT-VENT LENGTH (SVL)- measured with a tape from the tip

of the snout to the distal edge of the cloaca. HEAD LENGTH- measured with calipers

from the posterior tip of the lower jaw to the tip of the snout. HEAD WIDTH-









measured at the widest part on the head. VENTRAL PATTERN- estimated percent of

lightened to darkened areas over the entire ventral surface. The ventral pattern (Fig. 3-2)

was also scored as A = tight checkerboard, where the alternating light and dark pigment

is tightly compressed, typical of L. g. floridana; B = loose checkerboard, where the

alternating light and dark pigment is loosely compressed, typical of L. g. getula; and C =

bicolored, where light pigment is confined to the anterior portion and dark pigment is

confined to the posterior portion of each ventral scale.

Previous workers defined the ranges of L. getula subspecies in Florida based on

character distributions (Fig. 3-3; Blanchard, 1921; Conant, 1975; Blaney, 1977). After

mapping these same characters in addition to others listed above, I detected similar areas

of demarcation. To determine if certain characters differed significantly between regions,

I divided Florida into six areas (Fig. 3-4): 1) extreme southern peninsula from the

southern tip of Florida north to southern Miami-Dade County, incorporating the range of

L. g. brooks; 2) southern and central peninsula, incorporating the range ofL. g.

floridana; 3) northern peninsular intergradation zone between L. g. floridana and L. g.

getula (modified after Krysko, 1995); 4) northern peninsula and panhandle, incorporating

the range of L. g. getula; 5) western Apalachicola Lowlands on the west side of the

Apalachicola River (after Means, 1977); and 6) eastern Apalachicola Lowlands on the

east side of the Apalachicola River. In order to determine significant character trends

down peninsular Florida as well as to illustrate geographic variation and descriptive

statistics, I further separated the peninsula by 0.50N latitude.









Sexual Dimorphism

Student's t-tests were performed to test for sexual dimorphism in crossband

numbers, crossband width, ventrals, and subcaudals within each area. A chi-square test

for independence was used to determine if males obtain lighter interband dorsal patterns

(Fig. 3-1D) more frequently than females in the southern peninsula (area 1, Fig. 3-4).


Geographic Variation

A regression was performed on crossband numbers, crossband width, ventrals,

subcaudals, total supralabials and infralabials, and DSR by latitude to see if these

characters change significantly north to south in peninsular Florida. I used Analysis of

Variance (ANOVA) to determine significance in mean crossband numbers, crossband

width, ventrals and subcaudals between each area, and when significance was detected, I

used General Linear Models (PROC GLM) with Least Squares Means (LSM) as a

multiple comparison tool.

Because the percent of the iris lightened and the ventral pattern do not change with

age (pers. obs.), correlation coefficients were calculated to see if these two characters are

good indicators for estimating the degree of ontogenetic interband lightening (Fig. 3-1).

Because it has been suggested that L. g. brooks is distinguished from L. g. floridana by

having a smaller head to SVL ratio, I used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare

relationships of head length and head width relative to SVL between individuals from

around Lake Okeechobee vs. southern Miami-Dade County. The data were log

transformed and a preliminary test was performed to test for homogeneity among slopes

between these two populations. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical

Analysis System (SAS for Windows, ver. 6.12) with c = 0.05.











Results

Sexual Dimorphism

Crossband numbers. There were no significant differences in mean crossband

numbers between males and females within any areas (all t values from 1.985 to 2.131,

all P values > 0.05) except within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6, Fig. 3-4;

mean = 9.6 for males, mean = 16.0 for females; t = 3.400, df= 89, P < 0.001), where a

higher frequency of males possess non-banded phenotypes. Only males possessed a

patternless phenotype, suggesting that this trait may be sex-linked. Additionally, non-

banded individuals are confined to the eastern and southwestern Apalachicola Lowlands

(Fig. 3-5). When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the eastern

Apalachicola Lowlands population, there was no significant difference in crossbands

between males and females (t = 0.312, df = 51, P > 0.05). Therefore, data from both

sexes were combined in all areas except in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands for

analysis of geographic variation.

Crossband width. There were no significant differences in mean crossband width

between males and females within any areas (all t values from 1.985 to 2.131, all P

values > 0.05) except within the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6, Fig. 3-4; mean =

101.0 for males, mean = 33.7 for females; t = -4.843, df= 75, P < 0.001), where

patternless males occur as well as males having wider crossbands than females. Even

when all non-banded individuals were excluded from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands

population, a significant difference remained between males and females (t = -2.149, df =

37, P < 0.05). Therefore, data from both sexes were combined for all areas except within

the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands for analysis of geographic variation.









Ventrals. There was no significant difference in mean number of ventrals between

males and females within any areas in Florida (all t values from 1.989 to 2.178, all P

values > 0.05). Therefore, data from both sexes were combined in all areas for analysis

of geographic variation.

Subcaudals. There was a significant difference in mean number of subcaudals

between males and females within all areas in Florida (all t values from 1.996 to 2.570,

all P values < 0.05), due to males having longer tails than females. Males have longer

tails, which are required for storage of their hemipenes (Greene, 1997). Therefore, data

from both sexes were treated separately in all areas for analysis of geographic variation.

Dorsal pattern. There was no significant difference in the frequency of adult males

and females possessing the lightest interband dorsal pattern (Fig. 3-1D) throughout the

entire Florida peninsula ( 2 = 1.340, df = 1, P > 0.05). Therefore, males do not obtain

lighter interband dorsal patterns more frequently than females.


Geographic Variation

Crossband numbers. A significant regression was detected (R2 = 0.031, P <

0.001) for a north to south increase in crossband numbers (Table 3-1). Because

crossbands varied drastically from 18-72, there is an overall increase of 6.18 crossbands

for every 0.50 latitude. However, this dine terminated at 280 50' N latitude in the central

peninsula. There were significant differences in mean crossband numbers (all P values <

0.001) between all areas, except between the 1) extreme southern peninsula and southern

and central peninsula (areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4), and 2) northern peninsula and panhandle

and western Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 4 and 5). The western and eastern

Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 5 and 6) are significantly different from each other due to









a higher frequency of patternless males found in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands.

When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the analysis there was no

significant difference between these two areas (P > 0.05), but the eastern Apalachicola

Lowlands was still significantly different from all other areas (P < 0.05). Crossband

numbers are fewest in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-1; Fig. 3-4; area 6,

Fig. 3-6; mean = 9.6 for males, mean = 16.0 for females, mean = 11.8 combined sexes),

followed by western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5; mean = 18.0), northern peninsula

and panhandle (area 4; mean = 22.6), northern peninsula (area 3; mean = 34.0), southern

and central peninsula (area 2; mean = 53.0) and extreme southern peninsula (area 1; mean

= 54.7). Mean crossband numbers are greatest at 270 50' N latitude in the central

peninsula north of Lake Okeechobee (mean = 56.2; Table 3-1).

Crossband width. A significant regression was detected (P < 0.001) for a north to

south decrease in crossband width (Table 3-2). However, this is essentially

nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R2 = 0.023) and the slope = 0.03, which indicates

for every 0.50 latitude there is only a 0.03 decrease in crossband width. This dine

terminated at 280 00' N Latitude in the central peninsula, where from this point south

crossband width was invariably 1.5 dorsal scale rows. There were no significant

differences in mean crossband width between any areas (Fig. 3-4; all P values > 0.05),

except between the western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (P < 0.0001), as well as

both of these areas being significantly different from all other areas (all P values < 0.01).

The western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are significantly different from each

other due to a higher frequency of patternless males found in the eastern Apalachicola

Lowlands. When all non-banded individuals were excluded from the analysis, there was









no significant difference in crossband width between these two areas (P > 0.05).

Crossband width (Table 3-2) was lowest in the southern and central peninsula (areas 1

and 2, Fig. 3-4; mean = 1.5), followed by the northern peninsula (area 3; mean = 1.7),

northern peninsula and panhandle (area 4; mean = 2.2), western Apalachicola Lowlands

(area 5; mean = 19.1) and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-7; area 6, Fig. 3-4,

mean = 101.0 for males, mean = 33.7 for females, mean = 71.3 combined sexes).

Ventrals. A significant regression (P < 0.05) indicated a change of 0.28 ventrals

over latitude (Table 3-3). However, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was

poor (R2 = 0.011). There were no significant differences in mean number of ventrals

between any areas (all P values < 0.001; Table 3-3). Because ventrals are highly variable

geographically, this character is not useful for distinguishing populations.

Subcaudals. Although a significant regression was detected (P < 0.01) indicating a

change of 0.40 subcaudals over latitude, there were no clear geographic trends down the

peninsula (Table 3-4). Additionally, this is essentially nonsignificant since the fit was

poor (R2 = 0.019). Because subcaudals are sexually dimorphic and highly variable

geographically, this character is not useful for distinguishing populations.

Dorsal scale rows. A significant regression was detected (P < 0.001) for a north to

south increase in number of DSR from 21 to 25 (Table 3-5). However, this is essentially

nonsignificant since the fit was poor (R2 = 0.031) and the slope = 0.08, which indicates

for every 0.50 latitude there is only a 0.08 increase in DSR. Snakes from both the

western and eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (areas 5 and 6, Fig. 3-4) have only 21 DSR,

individuals from the panhandle and northern peninsula (area 4) usually have 21 DSR, and









individuals from the southern peninsula (area 2) usually have 23 DSR. One individual

from 250 50' N latitude in the extreme southern peninsula (area 1) had 25 DSR.

Head scutellation. Supralabials were primarily 14 (Table 3-6) and did not show a

significant change over latitude (P > 0.05). Although most infralabials were 18

throughout Florida (Table 3-7), this character is highly variable geographically and did

not show a significant change over latitude (P > 0.05). Most temporals were in the

arrangement of 2+3+4 (Table 3-8). Oculars were almost invariably in the arrangement of

1+2 (Table 3-9). Since there were no clear geographic trends in head scutellation within

any areas in Florida, these characters are not useful for distinguishing populations.

Dorsal pattern. The dorsal pattern is distinctly narrow banded (1.5 dorsal scale

rows) with a degenerate lateral chain in the southern and central peninsula (Fig. 3-7;

areas 1, 2, Fig. 3-4), slightly wider banded (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) with both the

presence and absence of individuals with a lateral chain in the northern peninsula and

panhandle (areas 3, 4), narrow, wide and non-banded (1.5-200 dorsal scale rows) in the

western Apalachicola Lowlands (area 5), and wide banded or non-banded (2.5-200 dorsal

scale rows) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6).

Adults possessing the lightest interband pattern (Fig. 3-1D) were not confined to L.

g. brooks in the southern peninsula (area 1, Fig. 3-4), yet were found scattered

throughout the entire peninsula from southern Miami-Dade and Monroe counties north to

Collier, Broward, Hendry, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk,

Osceola, Sumter, Orange, Volusia, St. Johns and Baker counties (Fig. 1-1). However, in

the panhandle the lightest interbands were confined to the Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig.

3-8). Eighty-nine of 93 (96 %) adults from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands showed









interband lightening as C or D (Fig. 3-1). Only four (4 %) adults showed interband

lightening as B like L. g. goini (Fig. 3-1; see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949), and these

were peripheral to the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 3-8). Typically patterned L.

g. floridana (Figs. 1-2B, 3-1C) were found from southern Miami-Dade Co. north to

Alachua County. Additionally, newborns within all areas may exhibit reddish crossband

scales, previously reported by Neill (1954) for only southern peninsular populations.

The percent of the iris lightened was a good predictor for estimating the degree of

ontogenetic interband lightening (r = 0.812, F = 244.7, df = 1, 126, P < 0.005), which is

fully expressed in adults. Adults with moderately lightened interband patterns (Figs. 3-

1B, C) had < 60% of their iris lightened, whereas those with the lightest interband pattern

(Fig. 3-1D) had > 60% of their iris lightened. The ventral pattern was not a good

predictor for estimating the degree of interband lightening (r = 0.092, F = 1.080, df = 1,

126, P > 0.05).

Head to snout-vent length ratio. There were significant relationships between both

head length (F2,139 = 1737.03, R2 = 0.961, P < 0.001) and head width (F2,138 = 924.13, R2

= 0.930, P < 0.001) relative to SVL within populations around Lake Okeechobee and

southern Miami-Dade County. Slopes of the Lake Okeechobee and southern Miami-

Dade Co. populations where homogenous (interaction terms: head length P = 0.966 and

head width P = 0.101 relative to SVL). There was no significant difference between the

slopes of the Lake Okeechobee and southern Miami-Dade Co. populations when

analyzing both head length (P = 0.074) and width (P = 0.881) relative to SVL (Fig. 3-9),

indicating no significant difference in both head length and width relative to SVL









between snakes occurring around Lake Okeechobee (L. g. floridana) versus those in

southern Miami-Dade County (L. g. brooksi.

Ventral pattern. The ventral pattern is comprised of a tight checkerboard (Fig. 3-

2A) in the southern and central peninsula (areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4), both a tight and loose

checkerboard (Figs. 3-2A, B) in the northern peninsula (area 3), a loose checkerboard in

the northern peninsula and panhandle (area 4), both a loose checkerboard and loose

checkerboard with interspersed bicolor scales (Figs. 3-2B, C) in the western Apalachicola

Lowlands (area 5) and both a bicolored and loose checkerboard with interspersed

bicolored scales (Fig. 3-2C) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (area 6).



Discussion

Based on dorsal and ventral patterns and their geographical distributions, I identify

three subspecies ofL. getula in Florida. Two of these subspecies are presently named (L.

g. floridana and L. g. getula) and one is unnamed (eastern Apalachicola Lowlands

populations). All three subspecies have zones of intergradation between them due to

gene flow. However, gene flow between these populations in Florida is largely a

phenomenon of the past, occurring now much less frequently because of isolation from

severely declined or extirpated populations.

Populations of L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) range from the southern tip of Florida

north to Volusia Co. in the central peninsula (Fig. 1-1; areas 1 and 2, Fig. 3-4) and have >

34 narrow (1.5 dorsal scale rows) crossbands, a degenerate lateral chain pattern and tight

checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 3-2A). Populations of L. g. getula (Fig. 1-2A) range

from the northern Florida peninsula and panhandle (area 4, Fig. 3-4) north to southeastern

Alabama and southern New Jersey and have 19-32 (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows)









crossbands, a lateral chain pattern and loose checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 3-2B).

The eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations (area 6, Fig. 3-4) have 1-25 wide (up to

200 dorsal scale rows) crossbands (Fig. 1-5A), only 21 DSR, ventral patterns of either

bicolor or loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolor scales (Fig. 3-2C), and the

presence of non-banded (striped and patternless) individuals (Figs. 1-5B, C). Although

these Apalachicola morphs are found mainly in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands in

Franklin and Liberty counties, others have been found in the southwestern Apalachicola

Lowlands in Franklin and southern Gulf counties (Figs. 3-5 to 3-8).


Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. brooks

Soon after the description of L. g. brooks (Barbour, 1919), its validity was

questioned (Blanchard, 1920, 1921; Barbour, 1920; Wright, 1935). Duellmanand

Schwartz (1958) and Blaney (1977) invalidated L. g. brooks because they found no

differences in scutellation between L. g. floridana (Fig. 1-2B) and L. g. brooks (Fig. 1-

4A), as well as because both morphs occur together from southern Miami-Dade Co. north

to Osceola and Polk counties in the central peninsula (Fig. 1-1). Christman (1980)

reported individuals with the light interband pattern of L. g. brooks (Fig. 3-1D) much

farther to the north around eastern Tampa Bay and the extreme northeastern peninsula. I

have also found both L. g. floridana and L. g. brooks (Figs. 1-2B, 1-4A) together from

southern Miami-Dade Co. to Volusia Co. (Fig. 1-1), as well as individuals with the light

interband pattern ofL. g. brooks (Fig. 3-1D) as far north as the northeastern peninsula in

Duval and Baker counties. Therefore, I am unable to distinguish specimens from

southern Miami-Dade Co. (= L. g. brooks) from those to the north in the southern and

central peninsula (= L. g. floridana). All scutellation characters (Tables 3-1 to 3-9), as









well as meristics (Fig. 3-9) and dorsal (Figs. 1-2B, 1-4A, 3-1B, C, D) and ventral patterns

(Fig. 3-2A) are the same for both named taxa. Because Blanchard's (1919) description of

L. g. floridana preceded Barbour's description of L. g. brooks by one month, L. g.

brooks is confirmed as a junior synonym of L. g. floridana. Because individuals with the

light interband pattern (Fig. 3-1D) have been found more frequently around prairies and

in areas with exposed oolitic limestone, they are considered an ecotype.


Relationship between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula

Blaney (1977) reported that L. g. getula has 21 DSR from southern New Jersey south

to peninsular Florida and used this character to define the ranges ofL. g. floridana and L.

g. getula in peninsular Florida (Fig. 3-3C). Like Blaney (1977), I found this character in

different frequencies within these two taxa in Florida (Table 3-5; L. g. floridana usually

has 23 DSR and L. g. getula usually 21 DSR). However, since it is a polymorphic

character represented in both taxa it should not be used to define these forms in the

peninsula. Auffenberg (1963) hypothesized that ancestral L. getula utilized the Gulf

Coast Corridor as a dispersal route from the west into Florida during the Pliocene when

sea levels were > 100 meters (m) lower than present day. I found an individual from the

extreme southern peninsula with 25 DSR, which provides support for an historical

relationship with L. g. splendid in Texas.

Blanchard (1919, 1921) and Van Hyning (1933) reported occasional morphological

intermediates (i.e., intergrades) between L. g. floridana and L. g. getula from Orange Co.

in the central peninsula north to Alachua Co. in the northern peninsula (Fig. 1-1). Blaney

(1977) believed a disjunct population of L. g. floridana existed in the northeastern

peninsula in Duval and Baker counties (Fig. 3-3C), as well as two intergradation zones in









the peninsula between these two taxa: from eastern Miami-Dade Co. north to Alachua

Co., and in the northeastern peninsula surrounding his putative disjunct population of L.

g. floridana. Additionally, many subsequent faunal treatments have perpetuated this

view (Conant, 1975; Behler and King, 1979; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Conant and

Collins, 1991, 1998). I recognize one intergradation zone between L. g. floridana and L.

g. getula from Pinellas Co. in the central peninsula northeast to Baker, Duval, and Nassau

counties in the northern peninsula (Fig. 1-1; area 3, Fig. 3-4). Here, individuals possess

intermediate characters between these two taxa. Blaney (1977:72) stated that individuals

from Baker and Duval counties at 300 50' N latitude "exhibit all the characters of L. g.

floridana", yet claimed that they were distinguished from L. g. floridana by having fewer

crossbands, similar to L. g. getula. I examined many of the specimens examined by

Blaney in addition to others not available to him, and these snakes are clearly

intermediate by exhibiting 18-28 crossbands and a lateral chain pattern like L. g. getula,

yet undergo interband lightening like L. g. floridana. Therefore, this is not a disjunct

population of L. g. floridana, rather it extends the previously recognized intergradation

zone from Alachua Co. to the northeast by 45 km.


Relationships among L. g. getula, L. g. goini, and Eastern Apalachicola Lowlands
Populations

Blanchard (1921) and Blaney (1977) claimed that the southwestern portion of the

range ofL. g. getula included southeastern Alabama and panhandle Florida. Neill and

Allen (1949) claimed that L. g. goini was found only on the western side of the

Apalachicola River in the northwestern Apalachicola Lowlands in Calhoun and northern

Gulf counties (Figs. 1-1, 1-3). Neill and Allen (1949), however, did not examine any









specimens from the eastern side of the Apalachicola River, and like Blaney (1977),

appeared to be unaware of non-banded morphs. All specimens examined by Neill and

Allen possessed 15-17 crossbands of 4-8 dorsal scale rows wide, nearly black interbands

in adults and ventral patterns intermediate between L. g. getula and individuals in the

eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (see Figs. 1-3, Neill and Allen, 1949). Their description

did not include snakes with < 15 crossbands (Fig. 3-6), crossbands > 8 dorsal scale rows

wide (Fig. 3-7), extensively lightened interbands (Fig. 3-8), nor striped nor patternless

phenotypes (Fig. 3-5). Because the color pattern and locality of L. g. goini are

intermediate between L. g. getula and populations in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands,

L. g. goini is relegated to intergrade status.

Blaney (1977) invalidated L. g. goini solely by speculating that the Apalachicola

populations were relict intergrades from the Pleistocene between panhandle L. g. getula

and now disjunct peninsular L. g. floridana. Although Blaney (1977) acknowledged that

the Apalachicola variants were morphologically unique, he provided no data to support

his conclusion. Means (2000) mistakenly stated that patternless individuals occur in both

the Apalachicola region and the southern peninsula. However, other than for rare

aberrant pattern abnormalities, there are no truly patternless individuals found anywhere

within the range of L. getula other than in the Apalachicola Lowlands. Neonate

peninsular L. g. floridana are boldly crossbanded with black interbands (Fig. 1-6A) and

only after extensive ontogenetic interband lightening do crossbands become obscured

(Fig. 3-1D). However, crossbands can always be distinguished on peninsular snakes,

simply by examining the snake's body in sufficient light. Adult speckled L. g. holbrooki

from the midwestern U.S. have also been confused with truly patternless individuals from









the Apalachicola Lowlands, yet newborn L. g. holbrooki are also distinctly banded and

undergo ontogenetic interband lightening. Ontogenetically lightened interbands are not

restricted to Florida populations in the eastern U.S., as individuals from the Outer Banks

of North Carolina (= L. g. sticticeps Barbour and Engels, 1942) and coastal Georgia (both

populations = L. g. getula x L. g. floridana sensu Blaney, 1977) may also exhibit this trait

(Lazell and Musick, 1973; Blaney, 1977; Palmer and Braswell, 1995).

Striped individuals have been commonly found in the eastern Apalachicola

Lowlands and in L. g. californiae from the western U.S., as well as in rare pattern

abnormalities in L. g. floridana from eastern Tampa Bay in peninsular Florida (K. M.

Enge, pers. comm.) and L. g. getula from Georgia (D. B. Means, pers. comm.).

However, Apalachicola Lowlands snakes are black striped whereas all others are light

striped (Figs. 1-5B, 1-6D). To determine if the gene for light striping is the same in both

California and Georgia populations, a cross between striped L. g. californiae and L. g.

getula was performed. All offspring were boldly banded (D. B. Means, pers. comm.)

suggesting that the light striping gene in the two populations are on different loci. I

therefore presume that the gene for black striping in the Apalachicola Lowlands is also

different from these light striping genes.

Crossband numbers are fewest (1-25) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands

population (Table 3-1; area 6, Fig. 3-4; Fig. 3-6), intermediate (18-63) between L. g.

getula and L. g. floridana within their northern peninsular intergradation zone (area 3),

and greatest (35-72) in peninsular Florida (areas 1 and 2). Crossband width is greatest

(2.5-200 dorsal scale rows) in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-2; area 6, Fig.

3-4; Fig. 3-7), intermediate (1.5-2.5 dorsal scale rows) between L. g. getula and L. g.









floridana within their intergradation zone in the northern peninsula (area 3), and least

(1.5 dorsal scale rows) in the central and southern peninsula (areas 1 and 2). Wide

crossbands (up to 4 DSR) are not restricted to Apalachicola Lowlands populations in the

eastern U.S., as occasional L. g. getula have been found on Edisto Island of South

Carolina exhibiting this trait (K. M. Enge, pers. comm.). Ventral patterns (Fig. 3-2) in

the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are more similar to those in the western Apalachicola

Lowlands and surrounding panhandle, and remarkably different from peninsular L. g.

floridana. The eastern Apalachicola Lowlands population displays no intermediacy in

crossband numbers, crossband width, nor ventral patterns between L. g. getula and L. g.

floridana, rather it represents the extreme for each of these characters and appears to be

more closely related to L. g. goini and L. g. getula in the surrounding panhandle.

Therefore, I believe that Blaney's (1977) hypothesis that the Apalachicola Lowlands

populations are intergrades between L. g. getula and L. g. floridana is not supported.

The Apalachicola River drainage in the Florida panhandle is renowned for its

historical biogeography and high diversity of endemic flora and fauna (James, 1961;

Clewell, 1977; Means, 1977; Yerger, 1977; Ward, 1979; Judd, 1982; Gilbert, 1987;

Coile, 1996; Chafin, 2000; Chaplin et al., 2000). The majority of these endemic species

have been known for more than 150 years from the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines

(Fig. 1-3), which were utilized by many species as refugia during the Pleistocene. Within

the last few decades, many other endemic species have been recognized from the

Apalachicola Lowlands (Table 3-10), nested between the Apalachicola Bluffs and

Ravines to the north and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Three ancient barrier islands

have been identified within the Apalachicola Lowlands: two in the eastern Apalachicola






45


Lowlands ca. 26.5-30 km NE Apalachicola, and one in the southwestern Apalachicola

Lowlands ca. 15 km NE Apalachicola. These ancient islands presently exist as elevated

sand bodies, each being 11-15 km long and up to 10 m above sea level (Brenneman,

1957; Brenneman and Tanner, 1958). During high sea levels in the Pleistocene, it is

speculated that these sand bodies would have been surrounded by saltwater and could

have served as isolated areas allowing for the evolution of the Apalachicola Lowlands

endemic species (Ward, 1979).










Table 3-1. Geographic variation in crossband numbers in Lampropeltis getula from
Florida. Data are given for each of the six areas defined in Fig. 2. Areas 1, 2 and 3 are
further separated by latitude. Males (M) and females (F) were treated separately within
only the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands due to a higher frequency of males exhibiting a
non- banded phenotype.

Crossbands
Area Mean S.E. Range n
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands 9.6 = M 0.82 1 23 65
16.0 =F 1.31 1 -25 26
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands 18.0 0.97 1 24 45
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle 22.6 0.47 14-31 174
3 = N. Peninsula 34.0 0.50 206
30 50' N Latitude 24.8 1.68 18-28 n= 19
30 00' N Latitude 40.6 2.57 21 -62 n= 17
29 50' N Latitude 29.9 0.89 19-63 n= 54
29 00' N Latitude 29.4 1.26 24 46 n = 32
28 50' N Latitude 40.3 1.68 32- 50 n= 13
28 00' N Latitude 38.4 0.74 29 48 n = 71
2 = S. and C. Peninsula 53.0 0.50 175
29 00' N Latitude 52.2 3.15 45 60 n= 4
28 50' N Latitude 53.6 1.48 40-70 n= 19
28 00' N Latitude 49.0 2.10 44- 56 n= 9
27 50' N Latitude 56.2 1.26 44 -78 n = 25
27 00' N Latitude 51.5 1.15 35-65 n= 30
26 50' N Latitude 53.5 1.08 41 65 n = 34
26 00' N Latitude 52.7 0.85 42 66 n = 54
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Latitude 54.7 0.72 44 -72 76
Total 767







47


Table 3-2. Geographic variation in crossband width in Lampropeltis getula from Florida.
Arrangement and abbreviations as in Table 3-1.


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands

5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Latitude
Total


Crossband Width
Mean S.E.
101.0 =M 4.09
33.7 =F 6.57
19.1 5.06
2.2 2.50
1.7 2.73
1.7 0.15
1.6 0.08
1.5 0.02
1.6 0.04
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.02
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00
1.5 0.00


Range
2.5 200
2.5 200
1.5 200
1.5-8
1.5-2.5
1.5-2.5
1.5-2
1.5-2
1.5-2.5
1.5
1.5-2.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5







48


Table 3-3. Geographic variation in ventral scales in Lampropeltis getula
from Florida. Arrangement as in Table 1.

Ventral Scales


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Latitude
Total


Mean S.E. Range


212.7
211.7
216.1
216.8
216.4
218.6
217.8
216.4
216.2
216.3
216.0
216.0
216.4
214.5
216.8
216.0
217.8
214.6


0.47
0.09
0.29
0.28
1.03
1.52
0.52
0.76
1.00
0.47
0.29
2.64
0.90
1.24
0.74
0.78
0.65
0.51


216 1 0.42 210 225











Table 3-4. Geographic variation in subcaudal scales in Lampropeltis getula fromFlorida.
Arrangement and abbreviations as in Table 1.

Subcaudal Scales


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands

5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands

4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle

3 = N. Peninsula

30 50' N Latitude

30 00' N Latitude

29 50' N Latitude

29 00' N Latitude

28 50' N Latitude

28 00' N Latitude

2 = S. and C. Peninsula

29 00' N Latitude

28 50' N Latitude

28 00' N Latitude

27 50' N Latitude

270 00' N Latitude

26 50' N Latitude

26 00' N Latitude

1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
250 50' N Latitude


Mean
M: 50.6
F: 45.5
M: 51.2
F: 46.6
M: 51.7
F: 45.4
M: 51.4
F: 45.6
M: 49.6
F: 45.5
M: 52.0
F: 44.4
M: 51.1
F: 45.5
M: 51.6
F: 46.2
M: 50.0
F: 45.8
M: 51.9
F: 45.4
M: 51.3
F: 45.8
M: 51
F: 47
M: 51.4
F: 46.0
M: 52.4
F: 46.5
M: 52.0
F: 46.4
M: 51.7
F: 46.2
M: 50.6
F: 45.5
M: 51.2
F: 45.6


Range
47 53
42 53
49-55
45 -48
47 57
41 50
45-59
41 -55
49-51
45 46
49-55
43 -45
47 54
41 -55
48-54
43 -48
49-52
42 50
45-59
42 49
46 58
40 53
51
47
48-56
42 49
50-55
45 -48
47 56
44 49
48-58
44 50
47 55
40 48
46 57
41 -53


M: 52.9 0.45 47 57
F: 47.0 0.61 40 52


Total













Table 3-5. Geographic variation in dorsal scales rows in Lampropeltis getula from Florida.
Arrangement as in Table 1.

Dorsal Scale Rows


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
300 50' N Latitude
300 00' N Latitude
290 50' N Latitude
290 00' N Latitude
280 50' N Latitude
280 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
290 00' N Latitude
280 50' N Latitude
280 00' N Latitude
270 50' N Latitude
270 00' N Latitude
260 50' N Latitude
260 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
250 50' N Latitude
Total


21 23 24 25
58 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
15 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
128 (80.0%) 32 (20.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
28 (15.4%) 152 (83.9%) 1 (0.55%) 0 (0.00%)
8 (57.1%) 6 (42.8%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
1 (11.1%) 8 (88.8%) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00%)
11 (22.0%) 39 (78.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
6 (18.1%) 27 (81.8%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%) 12 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
2 (3.17%) 60 (95.2%) 1(1.58%) 0 (0.00%)
10 (5.91%) 159 (94.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%) 4 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%) 20 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%) 9 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
3 (12.0%) 22 (88.0%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
2 (8.30%) 22 (91.6%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
1 (3.03%) 32 (96.9%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
4 (7.40%) 50 (92.5%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)

14 (18.4%) 61 (80.2%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.30%)











Table 3-6. Geographic variation in the total number of supralabial scales in Lampropeltis
getula from Florida. Arrangement as in Table 1.


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Latitude
Total


Supralabials
14
46(100%)
10(100%)
89 (94.6%)
172 (97.1%)
14(100%)
6 (100%)
48(97.9%)
32(100%)
9 (90.0%)
63 (95.4%)
148 (94.8%)
0 (0.00%)
16 (88.8%)
8 (88.8%)
24(100%)
21 (87.5%)
30 (96.7%)
49 (98.0%)


64 (90 1%) 5 (7 06%) 2 (2.84%)


15
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
5(5.31%)
5 (2.82%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(2.04%)
0 (0.00%)
1(10.0%)
3 (4.54%)
7 (4.48%)
0 (0.00%)
1(5.55%)
1 (11.1%)
0 (0.00%)
3 (12.5%)
1(3.22%)
1(2.00%)


16
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.64%)
0 (0.00%)
1(5.55%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)











Table 3-7. Geographic variation in the total number of infralabial scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Arrangement and
abbreviations as in Table 1.

Infralabials


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Latitude
Total


0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.57%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(2.21%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)

0 (0 00%)


0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(1.07%)
6(3.44%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
2 (4.25%)
1(3.33%)
0 (0.00%)
3 (4.54%)
1(6.49%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(3.22%)
0 (0.00%)


18(40.0%)
7 (70.0%)
47 (50.5%)
87 (50.0%)
7 (50.0%)
1(14.2%)
19(40.4%)
13 (43.3%)
4 (40.0%)
43(65.1%)
83 (53.8%)
0 (0.00%)
11(61.1%)
6 (75.0%)
11(45.8%)
7 (30.4%)
12(38.7%)
36 (72.0%)


12 (26.6%)
3 (30.0%)
25 (26.8%)
43 (24.7%)
2(14.2%)
2(28.5%)
13 (27.6%)
10(33.3%)
3 (30.0%)
13 (19.6%)
34 (22.0%)
0 (0.00%)
1(5.55%)
2 (25.0%)
9 (37.5%)
6 (26.0%)
7 (22.5%)
9(18.0%)


15(33.3%)
0 (0.00%)
19(20.4%)
31(17.8%)
2(14.2%)
3 (42.8%)
11(23.4%)
6 (20.0%)
3 (30.0%)
6 (9.09%)
33(21.4%)
0 (0.00%)
5 (27.7%)
0 (0.00%)
3 (12.5%)
9(39.1%)
11(35.4%)
5 (10.0%)


0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(1.07%)
6(3.44%)
3 (21.4%)
1(14.2%)
1(2.21%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1 (1.51%)
3(1.94%)
0 (0.00%)
1 (5.55%)
0 (0.00%)
1(4.16%)
1(4.34%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)


0 (0 00%0 42 (60 0%0 11 (15 7%) 16(22.8%) 1 (1 42%)











Table 3-8. Geographic variation in the arrangement of temporal scales in Lampropeltis getula from Florida.
Counts are from one head-side and are not always symmetrical. Arrangement as in Table 1.

Temporal Scales


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
25 50' N Tatitude


1+1+3
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
3 (0.86%)
0 (0.00%)
1(8.33%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
2(1.55%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)


1+2+4
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.28%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(1.03%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.32%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1 (1.01%)


0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
3 2


1+3+3
1 (1.09%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)

0 (0 00%)


1+3+4
1 (1.09%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.32%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1 (1.01%)

0 (0.00%)
2


2+2+3
4 (4.39%)
0 (0.00%)
5 (2.85%)
1(0.28%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.77%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)

0 (0 00%)


2+2+4
4 (4.39%)
0 (0.00%)
3 (1.71%)
7 (2.01%)
3 (10.3%)
0 (0.00%)
1(1.03%)
2 (3.63%)
0 (0.00%)
1(0.77%)
3 (0.97%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
2 (5.55%)
0 (0.00%)
1(1.63%)
0 (0.00%)

2(1.41%)
19











Table 3-9. Geographic variation in the arrangement of pre-ocular and post-ocular scales
in Lampropeltis getula from Florida. Counts are from one head-side and are not always
symmetrical. Arrangement as in Table 1.

Ocular Scales


Area
6 = E. Apalachicola Lowlands
5 = W. Apalachicola Lowlands
4 = N. Peninsula and Panhandle
3 = N. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude
30 00' N Latitude
29 50' N Latitude
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
2 = S. and C. Peninsula
29 00' N Latitude
28 50' N Latitude
28 00' N Latitude
27 50' N Latitude
27 00' N Latitude
26 50' N Latitude
26 00' N Latitude
1 = Extreme S. Peninsula
30 50' N Latitude


92(100%)
20(100%)
192 (100%)
339 (100%)
14(100%)
12(100%)
97 (100%)
64(100%)
20(100%)
132 (100%)
314 (100%)
0 (0.00%)
36(100%)
18(100%)
48(100%)
48(100%)
62(100%)
102 (100%)


0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)


2+3
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)
0 (0.00%)


102 (96.2%) 2 (1.88%) 2 (1.88%)


106


Total 1039


1039


Total







55


Table 3-10. List of endemic (E) and relict (R) plants and animals whose geographic
distribution is confined to or centered on the Apalachicola Lowlands.

Species Endemic Confined Centered
or Relict
Angiosperms
Southern milkweed R X
(Asclepias viridula)
Pinewoods aster E X
(Aster spinulosus)
Scare-weed E X
(Baptisia simplicifolia)
Apalachicola rosemary E X
(Conradina glabra)
Chipola dye-flower R X
(Coreopsis integrifolia)
Florida waxweed E X
(Cuphea aspera)
Dark-headed hatpins E X
(Eriocaulon nigrobracteatum)
Telephus spurge E X
(Euphorbia telephioides)
Harper's beauty E X
(Harperocallis flava)
Henry's spiderlily E X
(Hymenocallis henryae)
Thick-leaved water willow E X
(Justicia crassifolia)
Godfrey's blazing star E X
(Liatris provincialis)
West's flax R X
(Linum westii)
White birds-in-a-nest E X
(Macbridea alba)
Ashe's magnolia R X
10, ,,. .',, ashei)
Florida beargrass E X
i .- ,'i atopocarpa)
Giant water dropwort E X
(Oxypolis filiformes greenmanii)
Carolina grass of parnassus R X
(Parnassia caroliniana)
Large flowered grass of parnassus R X
(Parnassia grandifolia)
Narrow-leaved Phoebanthus E X
(Phoebanthus tenuifolia)
Apalachicola Dragonhead E X
(i 'I 1 ,. /.,,, godfreyi)
Violet butterwort E X
(Pinguicula ionantha)
Chapman's butterwort E X
(Pinguicula planifolia)
Small-flowered meadow beauty E X
(Rhexia parviflora)










Table 3-10.-


Species Endemic Confined Centered
or Relict
Chapman's rhododendron R X
(Rhododendron chapmanii)
St. John's black-eyed Susan R X
(Rudbeckia nitida)
Florida skullcap E X
(Scutellariafloridana)
Mock pennyroyal E X
(Stachyedeoma graveolens)
Chapman's crownbeard E X
(Verbesina chapmanii)
Quillwort yellow-eyed grass E X
(Xyris isoetifolia)
Serpentes
Brown-chinned racer E X
(Coluber constrictor helvigularis)
Apalachicola Lowlands kingsnake E X
(Lampropeltis getula ssp.)


-Continued.




























Fig. 3-1. Note interbands (areas between light crossbands) only. Interband scale rating
system on adult Lampropeltis getula (modified after Krysko, 1995), A = 0% lightening
(typical of L. g. getula), B = up to 25% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g.
goini and L. g. floridana), C = 25-75% of the intensity of the crossbands (typical of L. g.
floridana and Apalachicola Lowlands populations), D = 75-100% of the intensity of the
crossbands (typical of L. g. brooks and Apalachicola Lowlands populations).

































Fig. 3-2. Ventral patterns of Lampropeltis getula, A = tight checkerboard where the
alternating light and dark pigment is tightly compressed, typical of L. g. floridana; B =
loose checkerboard where the alternating light and dark pigment is loosely compressed,
typical ofL. g. getula; C = bicolored where light pigment is confined to the anterior
portion and the dark pigment is confined to the posterior portion of each ventral scale
(bottom), loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales (top).











A nVeg .r .
^L g Qswa ^
a~,,
LL 9 #ondr j *
g el nnk
S\


KS


r


[7 L 0 a
E L 9 0Oar'J
[ JL. O ftwrdana
[Lg io0 &S


.L g flcdana


Fig. 3-3. Distribution hypotheses of Lampropeltis getula subspecies in Florida after A
Blanchard (1921), B = Conant (1975), C = Blaney (1977).













,30 50'
---6 4
/ 30 000

7 3 22" 20'



,( 28 W


2) 27' 5CY




S28' 00'

25' 50'




Fig. 3-4. Six areas in Florida used to analyze geographic variation of Lampropeltis
getula. 1 = southern peninsula, 2 = southern and central peninsula, 3 = central and
northern peninsula, 4 = northern peninsula and panhandle, 5 = western Apalachicola
Lowlands, 6 = eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. Degrees latitude are shown in the column
on right.





































* 9sindad
i ~bs~iualtr~


61













-i *

















0 I0 20 30 40 mi

0 10 20 0 40 km
6^" ioi *T4k
Q^/- ^
*[ : .A '
:Inri ^ :~ ab .








a^ ^^'-k


~Ii'
S-1

T~i:


Fig. 3-5. Geographic distribution of non-banded (striped and patternless) phenotypes of
Lampropeltis getula across the Apalachicola region of Florida.


)































Number of Bands
# 1
0 2-19
(D 20-31


-. -.


0 10 20 30 40 mi "
0 10 20 30 40 km


Fig. 3-6. Geographic variation in the number of light crossbands in Lampropeltis getula
across Apalachicola region of Florida.















a* *


Width of Bands
* 15Z25
9 3-


.4
-, ~-A '~I.J

*0


63












fee*
A








. .. / ._.-:'i ._-' ..








0 10 20 30 40 mi

o 10 20 7O 40 kM


;/T, f--

-



Vt]
V/L- .


Fig. 3-7. Geographic variation in the width of light crossbands in Lampropeltis getula
across the Apalachicola region of Florida.



































Fig. 3-8. Geographic variation in the degree of ontogenetic interband lightening in
Lampropeltis getula across the Apalachicola region of Florida. A = 0% lightening
typical of L. g. getula, B = up to 25% of the intensity of the crossbands typical of L. g.
goini, C = 25-75% of the intensity of the crossbands, D = 75-100% of the intensity of the
crossbands. Non-banded (striped and patterless) individuals were as D.













40


35


E 30


C 25
_j
20
S20
I


15


10 -
200


400 600 800 1000 1200


1400


Snout-vent Length (mm)


400 600 800


Snout-vent Length (mm)


Fig. 3-9. A = Head Length/SVL and B = Head Width/SVL in Lampropeltis getula
from southern Florida, modified after Krysko (1995).


30



25

E
E 20

-o

-o 15
cro
I


Lake Okeechobee
Southern Dade County














CHAPTER 4
MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula)



Materials and Methods

I examined color pattern and external morphology from 52 individuals of the L.

getula complex (Table 4-1): 1) 10 from the Florida peninsula as defined by Enge (1994),

2) 9 from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands in panhandle Florida as defined by Means

(1977), 3) 13 from the surrounding panhandle, 4) 12 from the Atlantic U.S. border, and 5)

1-2 individuals of each remaining subspecies of the L. getula complex west to northern

Mexico and California. In order to facilitate comparison of morphological and molecular

phylogenetic results, most of these individuals were the same as those used in DNA

analyses. For some missing localities replacement specimens with a similar morphology

from and nearby geographic area were used.


Morphological Characters

Supralabial, infralabial, loreal, temporal, ocular and ventral scales were reviewed,

but determined to be uninformative and omitted from the analyses. Twelve variable and

potentially phylogenetically informative characters (Table 4-2) were used in cladistic

analyses and plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-4) conditions (Tables 4-2, 4-3) were

determined using western and midwestern individuals as functional outgroups (Maddison

et al., 1984). Because not every individual could be examined throughout its entire life,

coding for juvenile and adult characters was inferred from other specimens (juvenile or









adult) collected in close geographic proximity. Characters are listed and discussed

below. When ordering of characters is used in the analysis, it follows the progression

stated for each character.

Dorsal scale rows (DSR). Maximum number at midbody (Fig. 4-1). Examined

individuals had either 25, 23, or 21 (Table 4-2).

Ventral pattern as juvenile. Primary ventral patterns are illustrated in Fig. 4-2.

The ventral pattern is typically A = ringed in extreme western North America or B = light

with dark lateral margins in the San Diego region of California (A and B = L. g.

californiae), D = tight checkerboard south into northern Mexico and east to peninsular

Florida (= L. g. nigrita, L. g. splendid, L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra, andL. g. floridana),

E = loose checkerboard north along the Atlantic U.S. border (L. g. getula), G = bicolored

in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands of Florida, and F = loose checkerboard with

interspersed bicolored scales in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding

Florida panhandle. There is a progression from A and B to D to E to G (Table 4-2).

Ventral pattern as adult. Although the ventral pattern does not typically change

ontogenetically, individuals from northern Mexico (= L. g. nigrita) gain dark pigment

until becoming completely black (Fig. 4-2C). There may be considerable variation

within a single clutch of eggs in L. g. nigrita, where some newborns might exhibit a tight

checkerboard ventral pattern (Fig. 4-2D) like those of neighboring populations of L. g.

splendid, while other siblings might exhibit a completely black venter (Fig. 4-2C).

After only a few periods of ecdysis following hatching, all pattern remnants are usually

lost. Because this evidence suggests that the ventral pattern may be genetically

controlled ontogenetically and there appears to be a progression like that in the juvenile









stage described above, this character was treated as an ordered transformation series

(Table 4-2).

Dorsal pattern as juvenile. Primary dorsal patterns are illustrated in Fig. 4-2.

The dorsal pattern is typically A = ringed in extreme western North America or B = light

striped in the San Diego region of California (A and B = L. g. californiae), D and E =

narrow banded south into northern Mexico and east to the Atlantic U.S. border (= L. g.

nigrita, L. g. splendid, L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra, L. g. floridana, andL. g. getula), F=

wide banded in the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands and surrounding Florida panhandle,

and dark striped (not illustrated), and G = patternless in the eastern Apalachicola

Lowlands. See above for explanation regarding L. g. nigrita and introduction regarding

dark striped eastern Apalachicola Lowlands. There is a progression from A and B to D

and E to F to G (Table 4-2).

Ontogenetic dorsal pattern change. The dorsal pattern changes in certain

geographic areas including the juvenile's 1) light bands becoming black (Fig. 4-2C) in

northern Mexico (= L.g. nigrita) and in the midwesternU.S. on the western side of the

Appalachian Mountains (= L. g. nigra), 2) black interbands becoming lightened laterally

in the Texas area (= L. g. splendida, or 3) lightened over the entire dorsum east to

Florida (= L. g. holbrooki, L. g. floridana). Individuals of L. g. getula from the Outer

Banks, Dare Co., North Carolina, as well as individuals in the Apalachicola region of

Florida, also undergo interband lightening over the dorsum.

Band or ring formation as juvenile. Formations include 1) ringed around body

or light-striped in extreme western North America or light-striped in the San Diego

region of California (Fig. 4-2A, B = L. g. californiae), 2) narrow bands that fork laterally









east to the Atlantic U.S. border (Fig. 4-2E = L. g. splendid, L. g. nigrita, L. g holbrooki,

L. g. nigra, L. g. floridana, andL. g. getula) and 3) bands that fuse laterally and/or

dorsally in the Apalachicola region of Florida (Fig. 4-2F, G). There is a progression from

1 to 2 to 3 (Table 4-2).

Placement of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile. Pigment is

either A = located on the entire scale, B = centered, or C = anterior (Fig. 4-3). There is a

progression from A to B to C (Table 4-2).

Placement of ontogenetically lightened pigment within dark interband or

ring scales. There is either 1) no light pigment, or light pigment is 2) centered, or 3)

anterior (Fig. 4-4). There is a progression from 1 to 2 to 3 (Table 4-2).

Red tipping of dorsal scales as juvenile. Although previously reported by Neill

(1954) for only southern peninsular Florida populations, newborns from the entire eastern

U.S. populations may exhibit reddish crossband scales. There may be considerable

variation within a single clutch of eggs as different proportions of siblings may or may

not exhibit this trait. It appears that the brightest red bands usually change

ontogenetically into an off-white, beige, or dull light brown color (K. M. Enge and H.

Sherman, pers. comm.). Bands without reddish scales usually remain brilliant white or

yellow.

Number of light bands or rings as juvenile. On body starting one head-length

posterior to the head and ending above the cloaca (Fig. 4-5). A = 0, B = 1, C = 16-34,

and D = 44-65. Note that the light striped individual (San Diego, CA1) has no bands

(Figs. 4-2B, 4-5A) and individuals from the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands are

considered to have only one band (Fig. 4-5B, see Chapter 3 for explanation).









Fraction of light pigment within band or ring scales as juvenile. As a fraction,

light pigment incorporates entire = 1.00, half = 0.50, or one-third = 0.33 of entire scale

(Fig. 4-6).

Band or ring width as juvenile. Mean scale width (= # mid-dorsal scale rows)

on body: A = 0, B = 0.33, C = 1.5-2, D = 2.5-8, E = 200 (Fig. 4-7). Character state

delimitation of D is somewhat subjective because it incorporates a relatively wide range

of values, however, this variation is found almost exclusively in the eastern Apalachicola

Lowlands and surrounding region. Note that the light striped individual (San Diego,

CA1) has no bands.


Cladistic Analyses

Relationships among individuals are investigated using the maximum-parsimony

(MP) method using PAUP* (ver. 4.08b, Swofford, 2000). MP analyses were performed

with heuristic search using 500 repetitions of random stepwise additions with subtree

pruning and regrafting (SPR), with limits set to 25 trees (30 steps) per random addition

replicate. Both unordered and ordered character analyses were performed (Table 4-2).

Confidence limits for phylogenetic groupings in both approaches were assessed with

bootstrapping (Felsenstein, 1985) with full heuristic search using 500 repetitions of

random stepwise additions with SPR and limits set to 5 trees per random addition

replicate. Nonparametric bootstrapping generally yields conservative measures of the

probability that a group represents a true evolutionary clade (Zharkikh and Li, 1992;

Hillis and Bull, 1993; Rodriguez-Robles et al., 1999c).











Results

Cladistic Analyses

MP analysis using unordered characters (Table 4-2) resulted in 69 most

parsimonious trees of 44 steps (CI = 0.795, RI = 0.954) from 15 parsimony-informative

characters. Strict and majority rule consensus trees were produced (Fig. 4-8). The

midwestern/western and eastern U.S. samples form separate monophyletic groups. The

eastern clade is further divided into three subclades. The strict consensus tree (Fig. 4-8)

illustrates a primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowland subclade nested within a

predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade. Peninsular

individuals are most closely related to the predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and

Panhandle subclade. A random representative of the 69 shortest trees was selected,

illustrating the number of character differences between individuals and bootstrap support

above 50% (Fig. 4-8). Major nodes are statistically supported: California individuals of

the western clade (100%), midwest/western clade (87%) and eastern U.S. clade (63%).

Most nodes within the eastern clade are less supported, with fewer character differences,

illustrating their close relationships to each other. The primarily eastern Apalachicola

Lowland samples exist within the only well supported subclade (85%). The MP tree

demonstrates the relationships of the outgroups indicating that the midwestern/western

clade is the sister group to the eastern clade rather than California individuals of the

western clade (with 100% bootstrap support).

MP analysis using ordered characters (Table 4-2) resulted in 171 most

parsimonious trees of 46 steps (CI = 0.761, RI = 0.952) from 15 parsimony-informative

characters. Strict and majority rule consensus trees were created, which yield similar









results as the unordered MP analysis, but give less resolution of ingroup relationships

(Fig. 4-9). The strict consensus tree illustrates that the eastern U.S. samples form a

monophyletic group. The eastern clade is divided into three subclades: a primarily

eastern Apalachicola Lowlands subclade and a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and

Panhandle sample subclade. There is no information regarding how the Florida peninsula

and two Outer Banks, NC, samples relate each other. The majority rule consensus tree

(Fig. 4-9) is more similar to the unordered MP analysis, where the midwestern/western

samples also form a monophyletic group. Additionally, there is more resolution of the

ingroup; the primarily eastern Apalachicola Lowland subclade is most closely related to a

predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade. A randomly

selected representative of the 171 shortest trees in Fig. 4-9 illustrates the number of

character differences between individuals and bootstrap support above 50%. Certain

major nodes are well supported: California individuals of the western clade (100%) and

eastern U.S. clade (81%). Certain nodes within the ingroup (eastern clade) are also

statistically supported, illustrating their close relationship to each other. The eastern

Apalachicola Lowland samples exist within the only well supported subclade (93%). The

Apalachicola and a predominately Atlantic, SW Georgia and Panhandle sample subclade

are supported together (57%). Like the unordered MP analysis, the ordered MP analysis

demonstrate the relationships of the outgroups indicating that the midwestern/western

individuals are the sister group to the eastern clade rather than California individuals of

the western clade with 100% bootstrap support.










Character Evolution

Although many characters used in the analysis were homoplasious,

synapomorphies were identified, supporting the monophyly of particular clades. There

were three characters supporting the monophyly of L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra, L. g.

nigrita, and L. g. splendid in the midwestem/westem clade (Fig. 4-8). These include

centered light pigment within band scales as juvenile (character 7-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-

3B), light pigment incorporating 33% of band scales as juvenile (character 11-2, Table 4-

2, Fig. 4-6), and 33% mean band width as juvenile (character 12-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7).

Centered ontogenetically lightened pigment within dark interband scales (character 8-1,

Table 4-2, Fig. 4-4B) is the only character supporting the monophyly ofL. g. splendid

and L. g. holbrooki from Duval Co., TX, Terrebonne Parish, LA, and Perry, MS, within

the midwestem/westem clade (Fig. 4-8). Ontogenetically darkened dorsal and ventral

patterns in the adult stage (characters 3b-1, 5-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2C) were the two

characters supporting the monophyly ofL. g. nigrita from Sonora, Mexico (Fig. 4-8).

However, it is noted that an ontogenetically darkened dorsal pattern (character 5-2, Fig.

4-2C) is homoplasious, because it is also found on the western edge of the Appalachian

Mountains (= L. g. nigra). There were three characters supporting the monophyly of the

eastern clade with L. g. floridana, L. g. getula, and populations in the Apalachicola

Lowlands (Fig. 4-8). These include anterior light pigment within band scales as a

juvenile (character 7-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-3C), red tipping of dorsal scales as juvenile

(character 9-1, Table 4-2), and light pigment incorporating 50% of band scales as a

juvenile (character 11-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-6). There are five synapomorphies supporting

the monophyly of the eastern Apalachicola Lowlands snakes with individuals from the









surrounding panhandle (Fig. 4-8): a ventral pattern of loose checkerboard with

interspersed bicolored scales as a juvenile (character 2-3, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F), ventral

patterns of loose checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales or bicolored as an adult

(character 3d-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F, G), wide banded dorsal pattern (character 4-2,

Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F), band formation fused laterally and/or dorsally as a juvenile

(character 6-2, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2F, G), and band width of 2.5-8 DSR as a juvenile

(character 12-3, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7). There are six autapomorphies found within the

eastern Apalachicola Lowlands (Fig. 4-8), including bicolored ventral patterns as a

juvenile and an adult (characters 2-4, 3e-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2G), dark striped and

patternless dorsal patterns as a juvenile (characters 4-3, 4-4, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2G), one

light dorsal band as juvenile (character 10-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-5), and band width of

>200 DSR as a juvenile (character 12-4, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-7). There are two

synapomorphies supporting the monophyly ofL. g. getula in the Atlantic/panhandle clade

(Fig. 4-8): a loose checkerboard ventral pattern as a juvenile (character 2-2, Table 4-

2,Fig. 4-2E) and a banded dorsal pattern with no ontogenetic change (character 5-1, Table

4-2, Fig. 4-2E). There are two characters supporting the monophyly of eastern

Apalachicola Lowlands snakes and L. g. getula from the surrounding region and the

Atlantic (Fig. 4-8), including a loose checkerboard, loose checkerboard with interspersed

bicolor scales or bicolored ventral patterns (character 3c-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2E, F, G)

and laterally forked banded dorsal pattern (character 6-1, Table 4-2, Fig. 4-2E). The

monophyly of L. g. floridana from the peninsula (Fig. 4-8) is weakly supported by a

single homoplasious character of a band width of 1.5 DSR (character 12-2, Table 4-2,

Fig. 4-2).









Discussion

Based on previous morphological work by Keogh (1996), a terrestrial behavior

was the single synapomorphy defining the monophyly ofL. getula. Although some

clades (or subspecies) within the L. getula complex may be weakly supported by

homoplasious characters, at least one synapomorphy supports the monophyly of each of

the major clades. Midwestern/western individuals of L. g. holbrooki, L. g. nigra, L. g.

nigrita and L. g. splendid represent sister taxa to the eastern clade of L. g. floridana, L.

g. getula and eastern Apalahicola Lowlands snakes (Fig. 4-8). This evidence supports the

two nearly identical hypotheses of Blanchard (1921) and Blaney (1977), in which the

eastern subspecies were derived from midwestern/western individuals.

The three identified geographic races in the east, L. g. getula, L. g. floridana, and

eastern Apalachicola Lowlands populations (chapter 3) are not completely discrete

because of intermediates through interbreeding with members of adjacent subspecies. It

is quite interesting that the unnamed highly polymorphic and very distinctive eastern

Apalachicola Lowlands populations are identified by more synapomorphies than any

other recognized subspecies (Fig. 4-8). Because these populations overlap in distribution

with a number of endemic plants and animals (Table 3-10), I suggest that these snakes

evolved locally and deserve taxonomic recognition. There is no evidence supporting the

recognition of L. g. brooks from the extreme southern Florida peninsula (Dade and

Monroe counties) as there are no characters distinguishing L. g. brooks from L. g.

floridana. There is no evidence supporting the recognition ofL. g. sticticeps from the

Outer Banks of North Carolina (Dare Co.) as they exhibit characters of both L. g. getula

from the adjacent mainland and L. g. floridana from the Florida peninsula.










Table 4-1. Sample, voucher number and locality of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula
complex, used in this study for morphological analyses. Number next to sample indicates
that more than one sample was used from the same general locality. Asterisk next to
number in parentheses indicates that identical sample was used in DNA analyses.

Sample Voucher No., Locality
San Diego, CA' UF 116020; U.S.: California, San Diego Co.
San Diego, CA2 UF 116023; U.S.: California, San Diego Co.
Sonora, Mexico UF 123994, Mexico: Sonora
Duval, TX UF 116062; U.S.: Texas, Duval Co., Hwy 59, 9.5 km N of Freer
Terrebonne KLK-xx519 (*Lg 59); U.S.: Louisiana, Terrebonne Parish, Houma
Perry, MS KLK-xx259 (*Lg 90); U.S.: Mississippi, Perry Co.
Calloway, KY KLK-xx232 (*Lg 56); U.S.: Kentucky, Calloway Co.
Trigg, KY KLK-xx262 (*Lg 93); U.S.: Kentucky, Trigg Co.
Dare, NC1 KLK-xx530 (*Lg 121); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island
Dare, NC2 KLK-xx525 (*Lg 111); U.S.: North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island
Watauga, NC KLK-xx520 (*Lg 29); U.S.: North Carolina, Watauga Co., Triplett
Charleston, SC' KLK-xx521 (*Lg 37); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Adams Run
Charleston, SC2 KLK-xx528 (*Lg 120); U.S.: South Carolina, Charleston Co., Edisto Island
Greenwood, SC KLK-xx522 (*Lg 129;) U.S.: South Carolina, Greenwood Co., US 221, 2.6 km W
of Hwy 10
Jasper, SC KLK-xx526 (*Lg 99); U.S.: South Carolina, Jasper Co.
Banks, GA KLK-xx350 (* Lg 117); U.S.: Georgia, Banks Co., Yonah Church Rd, 9.8 km W of
Homer
Echols, GA KME-mlO (*Lg 18); U.S.: Georgia, Echols Co., ,i.i.l l ill.
Randolph, GA KLK-xx523 (*Lg 133); U.S.: Georgia, Randolph Co.
Thomas, GA KLK-xx524 (*Lg 134); U.S.: Georgia, Thomas Co., Ochlockonee River
Walton, GA UF 121162 (*Lg 119); U.S.: Georgia, Walton Co., Loganville
Bay, FL KLK-xx227 (* Lg 52); U.S.: Florida, Bay Co., SR 22, 32.1 km W of Wewahitchka
Dade, FL UF 19675; U.S.: Miami-Dade Co., Krome Ave ca. 10 mi S of Tamiami Trail
Calhoun, FL UF 114321 (*Lg 5, KLK-xx031); U.S.: Florida, Calhoun Co., Blountstown
Dixie, FL KLK-xx316 (*Lg 115); U.S.: Florida, Dixie Co., CR 361, 5.7 km S of Rocky Creek
Duval, FL KME-fl 1 (*Lg 16); U.S.: Florida, Duval Co., Jacksonville
Franklin, FL1 KLK-xx220 (*Lg 45); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 7 km E of C30
Franklin, FL2 KLK-xx221 (*Lg 46); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., US 98, 9.5 km W of Carrabelle
Franklin, FL3 KLK-xx231 (*Lg 55); U.S.: Florida, Franklin Co., Tates Hell Swamp near New
River
Gadsden, FL KLK-xx222 (*Lg 47); U.S.: Florida, Gadsden Co., US 90 5.7 km W of Quincy
Gulf, FL1 KME-m25 (*Lg 11); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe
Gulf, FL2 KME-m26 (*Lg 15); U.S.: Florida, Gulf Co., Port St. Joe
Hernando, FL UF 111101 (*Lg 23, KLK-xx230); U.S.: Florida, Hernando Co., Hernando Beach
Hillsborough, FL KLK-xx238; U.S.: Florida, Hillsborough Co., Brandon
Holmes, FL KLK-xx257 (*Lg 65); U.S.: Florida, Holmes Co., Rt 179A, 3.8 km SW of SR 2
Jackson, FL KLK-xx491 (*Lg 107); U.S.: Florida, Jackson Co., CR 271
Jefferson, FL KLK-xx225 (*Lg 50); U.S.: Florida, Jefferson Co., Goosepasture Rd, 1.9 km S of
Tram Rd
Lee, FL KLK-xx527 (*Lg 35); U.S.: Florida, Lee Co., Gasparilla Island, Boca Grande
Leon, FL' KME-m3 (*Lg 13); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Bloxham cutoff










Table 4-1-Continued.


Sample
Leon, FL2

Levy, FL
Liberty, FL1

Liberty, FL2

Liberty, FL3

Liberty, FL4

Liberty, FL5
Liberty, FL6
Liberty, FL7
Monroe, FL
Palm Beach, FL
Pinellas, FL
Wakulla, FL1
Wakulla, FL2


Voucher No., Locality
KLK-xx226 (*Lg 51); U.S.: Florida, Leon Co., Meridian Rd, 0.2 km S of Meridian
Hills Rd
UF 95556; U.S.: Florida, Levy Co., 6 mi E of Cedar Key
UF 105383 (*Lg 10, KLK-xx211); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, 3.7 km S of
SR 20
KLK-xx213 (*Lg 26); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., SR 67, just N of Liberty-Franklin
Co. line
KLK-xx239 (*Lg 27); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction of NFR 103 and
116
KLK-xx240 (*Lg 28); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., near junction of NFR 103 and
116
DBM-104 (*Lg 30); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co.
DBM-50 (*Lg 32); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 110 2.9 km S of jct 111
KLK-xx247 (*Lg 58); U.S.: Florida, Liberty Co., NFR 139
UF 123777 (*Lg 36, KLK-xx490); U.S.: Florida, Monroe Co., Key Largo
UF 99739 (KLK-94005); U.S.: Florida, Palm Beach Co., Pahokee
KLK-xx050; U.S.: Florida, Pinellas Co.
KME-ml3 (*Lg 12); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., junction of NFR 313 and 312
KME-f3 (*Lg 14); U.S.: Florida, Wakulla Co., Arren










Table 4-2. Morphological characters of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, used
for cladistic analyses. Note plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-4) conditions.


# Character
1 Dorsal scale rows (Fig. 4-1).
2 Ventralpattern asjuvenile (Fig. 4-
2).


3 Ventralpattern as adult (Fig. 4-2).









4 Dorsalpattern asjuvenile (Fig. 4-2).

5 Ontogenetic dorsalpattern change.



6 Band or ring formation as juvenile
(Fig. 4-2).
7 Placement of light pigment within
band or ring scales asjuvenile (Fig.
4-3).
8 Placement of *ar...-,.. i li .
lightened pigment within dark
interband or ring scales (Fig. 4-4).
9 Red tipping of dorsal scales as
juvenile.
10 Number of light bands or rings as
juvenile (Fig. 4-5).
11 Fraction of light pigment within
band or ring scales asjuvenile (Fig.
4-6).
12 Band or ring width asjuvenile (Fig.
4-7)


Character State (Coding)
25 (0), 23 (1), 21 (2)
(Ordered) Ringed or light with dark lateral margins (0),
tight checkerboard (1), loose checkerboard (2), loose
checkerboard with interspersed bicolored scales (3),
bicolored (4)
(Ordered transformation series) Ringed or light with dark
lateral margins = A, tight checkerboard = B, solid dark = C,
loose checkerboard = D, loose checkerboard with
interspersed bicolored scales = E, bicolored = F
3a. A (0), not A (1)
3b. C (1), not C (0)
3c. A, B or C (0); D, E or F (1)
3d. A, B, C or D (0); E or F (1)
3e. A, B, C, D or E (0); F (1)
(Ordered) Ringed or light striped (0), narrow banded (1),
wide banded (2), dark striped (3), patternless (4)
Ringed or light striped with no change (0), banded with no
change (1), bands becoming solid dark (2), interband
lightening laterally (3), interband lightening over dorsum
(4)
(Ordered) Ringed around body or light striped (0), forked
laterally (1), fused laterally and/or dorsally (2)
(Ordered) Entire scale (0), centered (1), anterior (2)


(Ordered) No lightening (0), centered (1), anterior (2)


(Ordered) Absent (0), present (1)

A (0), B (1), C (2), D (3)

1.00 (0), 0.50 (1), 0.33 (2)


A (0), B (1), C (2), D (3), E (4)












Table 4-3. Data matrix of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula complex, used for cladistic
analyses. See Table 4-2 for character descriptions. Number next to sample indicates that
more than one sample was used from the same general locality.


Sample

San Diego, CA'
San Diego, CA2
Sonora, Mexico
Duval, TX
Terrebonne
Perry, MS
Calloway, KY
Trigg, KY
Dare, NC1
Dare, NC2
Watauga, NC
Charleston, SC1
Charleston, SC2
Greenwood, SC
Jasper, SC
Banks, GA
Echols, GA
Randolph, GA
Thomas, GA
Walton, GA
Bay, FL
Dade, FL
Calhoun, FL
Dixie, FL
Duval, FL
Franklin, FL1
Franklin, FL2
Franklin, FL3
Gadsden, FL
Gulf, FL1
Gulf, FL2
Hernando, FL
Hillsborough, FL
Holmes, FL
Jackson, FL
Jefferson, FL
Lee, FL
Leon, FL1
Leon, FL2
Levy, FL
Liberty, FL1
Liberty, FL2
Liberty, FL3
Liberty, FL4
Liberty, FL5
Liberty, FL6
Liberty, FL7


Character State
3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 2
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 1 3
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 0 2
1 0 1 1 1 4
1 0 1 1 1 3
1 0 1 1 0 2


10 11 12
0 0 0
2 0 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 3
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
3 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 3
1 1 4
2 1 3
2 1 2
2 1 3
2 1 3
2 1 2
3 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 2
3 1 2
2 1 3
2 1 2
2 1 2
2 1 3
2 1 3
2 1 3
2 1 3
1 1 4
1 1 4
2 1 3
212











Table 4-3-Continued.


Sample

Monroe, FL
Palm Beach, FL
Pinellas, FL
Wakulla, FL1
Wakulla. FL2


Character State
1 2 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 3 1 2
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
1 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 3
2 3 1 0 1 1 0 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 3











Wakulla,FL2
Liberty, FL7 0
Liberty, FL5
Liberty, FL4
Liberty, FL3
Liberty, FL2
Liberty FL1
Leon,FL2
Leon,FL1
Jefferson,FL
Jackson FL
Gulf, FL2
GulfFL1
Gadsden FL
Franklin, FL3
Franklin, FL2
Franklin,FL1
Duval,FL
Dixie,FL
Calhoun,FL
BayFL
U) WaltonA I
SMitchell GA
Q_ Randolph,GA I I
Echols GA
E Banks GA
Jasper SC
S Greenwood SC
.. .. Charleston, C2
CJ) Charleston,SC1
Watauga,NC
Dare,NC2 oo
Dare,NC1
Trigg,KY
Calloway, KY
Perry, MS
Terrabonne
Wakulla,FL1
Pinellas,FL
PalmBeach,FL
Monroe,FL
Levy FL -
Lee,FL -
Holmes FL
HillsborouqghFL
Hernando,FL
DadeFL
Duval, TX
Sonora, Mexico
San Diego,CA2 -
San Diego,CA1


21 22 23 24 25

Dorsal Scale Rows (DSR)

Fig. 4-1. Dorsal scale rows (DSR) at midbody in Lampropeltis getula complex. Note plesiomorphic (0) and
apomorphic (1-2) conditions.






82



































Fig. 4-2. Primary dorsal and ventral patterns of kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula
complex. Note that dorsal or ventral patterns might be referred to separately in text.


a -


I


I









A.


C.


Fig. 4-3. Placement of light pigment within light band or ring scales in
Lampropeflis getula complex. Pigment is either A = located on the entire
scale, B = centered or C anterior See Table 4-2 for character stale coding








C


Fig. 4-4. Placement of onlogenetically lightened pigment within dark
interband or ring scales in Lampropeltis getula complex. Their is either
A = no pigment, or pigment is B = centered or C = anterior. See Table 4-2
for character state coding.














PalmBeachFL C I
MonroeFL C D
Lee FL
HillsboroughFL -
Dae'FL I I
Trigg,KY I 1 1
Calloway KY
Perry'aFLL AI
Terrabonne -
DuvalTX -
Sonora, Mexico -
WakullaFL2 -
WakullaFL1
Pinellas FL -
Libe rty ,L7
Liberty FL4 -
Liberty:FL3 I
Liberty, FL2 -
Levy,FL -
LeonFL2 -
Leon'FL1 -
(D Jefferson,FL -
SJackson,FL -
Holmes, FL I
Hernando FL -I 0
Gulf FL2 -
E Gulf:L1 I
?.' Gadsden FL *I
S Franklin, FL3 -
Franklin,FL1 -
Duval.FL oo
Dixie FL -J
Calhoun FL -I
Bay FL -
Walton GA -I I
RandolphGA *
Mitchell GA I I
EcholsGA I
Banks GA -
Greenwood SC O
Charleston,SC2 S
Charleston,SC1 -
WataugaNC I -
Dare, NC2 -
San Diego'CA2 I I
Liberty,FL5
Liberty, FL5 I
Franklin,FL2 -
San Diego,CA1 -

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Number of Bands or Rings as Juvenile


Fig. 4-5. Number of light bands or rings in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. See Table 4-2 for character
state coding.
















San Diego,CA2 r2A fi
San DiegoCA1 -
Wakulla,FL2 -
Wakulla FL1
Pinellas,FL -
PalmBeachFL -
Monroe,FL -
Liberty,FL7 -
LibertyFL6 -
Liberty,FL5 -
Liberty,FL4 I
Liberty,FL3 -
Liberty,FL2 -
Liberty,FL1 -
Levy,FL -
Leon,FL2 -
Leon FL1 -
Lee,FL -
Jefferson,FL
Jackson FL -
Holmes,FL -
(D Hillsborough FL -
Hernando FL -
Gulf,FL2 -
Gulf,FL1 I
E Gadsden FL -
SFranklin,L3 -
(' Franklin,FL2
Franklin,FL1 -
Cf) DuvalFL -
SDixieFL -
Dade ,FL 00
Calhoun,FL I
Bay FL -
Walton GA -
MitchellGA
Randolph GA
EcholsGA
Banks,GA -
Jasper,SC I
GreenwoodSC I
Charleston,SC2
Charleston,SC1 -
WataugaNC -
Dare,NC2 -
Dare,NC1 -
Trigg,KY -
Calloway KY -
Perry, S -
Terrabonne -
Duval,TX -
Sonora,Mexico -


0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

Fraction of Light Pigment Within Ring, Band or Stripe

Scales as Juvenile

Fig. 4-6. Fraction of light pigment within band or ring scales in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. Note
plesiomorphic (0) and apomorphic (1-2) conditions.















Liberty,FL6 -
Liberty,FL5 -
Franklin,FL2 -
Franklin,FL3 -
Wakulla,FL1 -
Franklin,FL1 -
Liberty,FL7 -
Liberty,FL3 -
Leon,FL1
Charleston,SC2 -
Liberty,FL4 -
Gulf,FL2 -
GulfFL1 -
Liberty,FL2 -
Liberty,FL1 -
Wakulla,FL2 -
Leon,FL2 -
Randolph,GA -
Mitchell,GA -
Echols,GA -
CharlestonSC1 -
San Diego,CA2 -
Pinellas,FL -
PalmBeach,FL -
Monroe,FL -
Levy,FL -
Lee,FL
Jefferson,FL
JacksonFL -
HolmesFL -
Hillsborough,FL -
Hernando,FL -
Gadsden,FL -
Duval,FL -
Dixie,FL -
Dade,FL -
CalhounFL -
BayFL -
Walton,GA -
Banks,GA -
Jasper,SC -
Greenwood,SC -
Watauga,NC -
Dare,NC2 -
Dare,NC1 -
Trigg,KY -
Calloway,KY -
Perry,MS -
Terrabonne -
Duval,TX -
Sonora,Mexico -
San Diego,CA1 4


0


Fig. 4-7. Band or ring width
(1-4) conditions.


2 4 6 8 10

Ring or Band Width as Juvenile
in juveniles of Lampropeltis getula complex. plesiomorphic (0) and


200


apomorphic


2











I


0I


14!


































I / /























Toug a








.r.F



h FT
Lew) r,





Ti re1.
Ui" n F J



Dc ItIG









AM
------------ reda f 5 B





-----rrri










................... IbtPl
I--it -aR






I---------------lls ft


"i^l1 I r
---------------------iSW .O I ;




S...................
Ila DIB T! I

Ii B I







420, : ,
', m .






----*'4 ^

-- rI



A, FLT
i.k RA
I-- Fa iFU

_. r L.









PL~ FL





------a4- 3 5




--- I l
r-8 -- 1 ,F a


100






m
l


Fig. 4-. Strict consensus (I- t i majority rule (center) and random single representative of 69 trees (right) from unordered maximurn-parsimony analysis of
morphological data in Lafmpropetis getufa. Maiortv rule (center) illustrates the percentage that nodes are found. Random tree (right) illustrates the number
of steps {above) and bootstrap values (> 50%, below),


r eyr, "

------- Ta--rhfgIm 0
7 Iy I



..---.-- el 9

_tI.1 a

i-- Bsr.-l *r





Ech 4a
r





*I r.C I-,.
-. rA .a
rLa i


S--- R2









S L",l -.
: Pyi lill' 2 .





S -- .i,





-- --- l IIl
r; j .
".-0





----I---C" B
L Lari n






I- ranFL r
f4 a
----- --- CridR | 5





l ____ *- *-,~d-r W
MIR--- B~lf F-
--- U-- RF













San Diego, CA San Diego. CA1 San DiegoCA
a aDeg San DiegoCA2
San Diego, CA2 | D San Diego, CA2 Sa, D ig o on
_Sno a.lexQ c 61 ~ Sonora, exico Sonora, Mexico
Di 59 Calloway, KY L .
Seura I I Trigg. KY (D
Duva- TD Dvai.TX TX
STeroe Terrebonn
Cawa KY I g errbonre
TigoY Per, MS Perr.MS
DaCre. eNCDae NC Dare, NC
re NC2 -Dare. NC2 10 Dare NC
Dara g NC0 0a e S
a S ---------- Charleston. SC'
--- CharleonSC2 i -- GreenwoodSC > _--Chareston,SC2 U" Z
GreeiS Jasper.SC Leon, FL
-- C S r-e Bans6A r Greenwood SC
a apr ----- Es GA Jasaper SC
-- cA ---- Ran oph GA Ba ks
andrph6 Ec 68 Thomas GA Echs, GA
-- GA -G 6BayTFL Thomasi A
a A oBay F > Thomr)A

hou r.F Gadsden, FL BayF
C--- adsFL HoesFL Calhoun, FL
it FL Leon,FL2 2 Gadden.FL
--- o FL 100 Jacson. FL 57 0 Holmes, F.
95 Jaason. FL Leon, FL2
Frackson, FFL
--PJrfrFri' FL. 0 e. ..
Lo, FL Char oni SC2 LefirsonP FL
-- eon, F2 Leon, belyF 00
Fankin, FL -- Franklin, FL1
FCnk FL 72 Fr FL2 m Fran n FL2 r
Lbert.FL5 68 Fr FL Libe L -
b.FL FL5 0 F10q 0 Libely FL 0
Ler_.FL L (D LUbeyFL36 Le F





ryFL Ubedty FL4
SF'an FL3 n bed Fr FL3 bl
GIfFLI M. in,, 1 -1
aU G Wakulf, F L1 t
Gla FL2 F 72 a, FLf2 W- a PL

DIbead- Lbe e.FLl De FL2 ibe .. L2a :
0-- Dfi --.F- DiieF 8
F1aFLd y, eFLy FU
Lberty.F 4U .EL4 --- iibe"iy. L7


Der FL aFL Deae FL
-- lFLl 8 1.1081Y, N

xe, FL Dixie, FL e FL
Dura. FL 1 -HemandoAFL
Ha man-, FL 2 ----- Levy, FL2 1 L e. F
LeE4 WPnelas.FL -- DAFL I
Dadka, FL1
-Levy, FL ^ -- Hilsborough.FL c .
ome FL chLe FL Dakee FL
a c eFLonroe. F.
a BealI Paml ach. FL
Pineis FL Pae m Beach, FL earFL
Fig. 4-9. Sii.,:, consensus (left), .Ti,:c.Ir,' rule (center) and random single representative of 171 trees (right) from ordered maximum-parsimony analysis of
nii:arIpholici:,il data in Lampropeltis getula. Majority rule (center) illustrates the percentage that nodes are found. Random tree r.-li' I illustrates the number
of steps (above) and bootstrap values (> 50%, below).














CHAPTER 5
MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF KINGSNAKES (Lampropeltis getula)



Materials and Methods

I sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a total of 55 L. getula from the

following three eastern U.S. areas: 1) 15 from Atlantic coast, 2) 25 from panhandle

Florida and 3) 15 from peninsular Florida (Table 5-1). Additionally, I sequenced mtDNA

from five midwestern and three western U.S. L. getula to be used as functional outgroups

to eastern U.S. snakes. In order to facilitate comparison of molecular and morphological

phylogenetic results, most of these individuals were the same as those used in

morphological analyses (Table 4-1).


Laboratory Techniques

Mitochondrial DNA samples were obtained from blood, muscle tissue, shed skins

and bone. Between 0.5 and 1.0 ml of blood was taken from the caudal vein of live

specimens and stored in lysis buffer (100 mM Tris-HC1, pH 8: 100 mM EDTA, ph 8; 10

mM NaCl; 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate) in approximately 1:10 blood to buffer ratio

(White and Densmore, 1992). Muscle tissue was taken from salvaged dead on road

(DOR) specimens and stored in SED buffer (saturated NaCl; 250 mM EDTA, pH 7.5;

20% DMSO; Amos and Hoelzel, 1991; Proebstel et al., 1993). Both lysis buffer and

saturated salt solution preserve tissues for genetic analysis for at least one year without

refrigeration and are nontoxic and nonflammable. Shed skins were taken from live