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A Linguistic Introduction to German for the Non-Linguist: An Accompanying Guide to any First-Year Course


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ALINGUISTICINTRODUCTIONTOGERMANFORTHENON-LINGUIST:ANACCOMPANYINGGUIDETOANYFIRST-YEARGERMANCOURSEByJONATHANC.BUSEYATHESISPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOLOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOFMASTEROFARTSUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA2001

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ForJulia,mysoon-to-bewife

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSIwouldliketothankChrisOverstreetandProf.KeithBullivantforpatientlyteachingmeGermanandputtingupwithquestions,andProf.FranzFutterknechtforthemotivationnecessarytoconceptualizeanddesignyetanotherintroductiontoGerman.MotivationcamefromProf.DavidYoung'sunpublishedintroductiontoAncientGreekandDr.RobertUnderhill'sdissertation,TurkishGrammar.Cambridge,Mass.:MITPress,1976. iii

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TABLEOFCONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................. iii LISTOFTABLES ................................. vii LISTOFFIGURES ................................ ix ABSTRACT .................................... xi INTRODUCTION ................................. 1 CHAPTERS .................................... 2 1WORDORDERANDTHEGERMANCASESYSTEM ...... 3 1.1Wordorder ............................ 3 1.2Nominative ............................ 5 1.3TheAccusative ......................... 6 1.4TheDative ............................ 8 1.5TheGenitive ........................... 11 1.6Appositions ........................... 11 2NOUNFORMS ............................. 15 2.1Gender .............................. 15 2.2PronounAgreement ....................... 16 2.3WordFormation ......................... 17 2.3.1N-nouns .......................... 18 2.3.2Composita ........................ 19 3ARTICLES ............................... 21 4PRONOUNS .............................. 24 4.1PersonalPronouns ........................ 24 4.2PossessivePronouns ....................... 25 4.3ReexivePronouns ....................... 26 4.4DemonstrativePronouns .................... 27 4.5RelativeandInterrogativePronouns .............. 28 iv

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5ADJECTIVES .............................. 31 5.1PredicativeAdjectives ...................... 32 5.2AttributiveAdjectives ...................... 32 5.2.1ComparativeandSuperlativeForms .......... 33 5.2.2PossessiveAdjectives .................. 35 5.2.3OrdinalNumbers ..................... 35 6ADVERBS ................................ 37 7VERBS ................................. 39 7.1VerbForms ............................ 39 7.1.1TheInnitive ....................... 39 7.1.2Conjugation ....................... 40 7.1.3IrregularVerbEndings ................. 41 7.1.4VerbPrexes ....................... 42 7.1.5PrexorPreposition? .................. 45 7.2Mood ............................... 46 7.2.1Indicative ......................... 46 7.2.2Imperatives ........................ 46 7.2.3Subjunctive ........................ 51 7.3ModalVerbs ........................... 54 7.3.1Conjugation ....................... 55 7.4Tenses .............................. 58 7.4.1Present .......................... 61 7.4.2Perfect .......................... 62 7.4.3Imperfect ......................... 65 7.4.4Future .......................... 65 7.4.5FuturePerfect ...................... 66 7.4.6PastPerfect ....................... 66 7.5VerbTypes ............................ 67 7.5.1FullVerbs ........................ 67 7.5.2AuxiliaryVerbs ..................... 67 7.5.3ReexiveVerbs ...................... 67 7.5.4PhrasalVerbs ...................... 68 7.6Voice ............................... 72 7.6.1Active ........................... 72 7.6.2Passive .......................... 72 8PREPOSITIONS ............................ 74 8.1AVisualOverviewofthePrepositions ............. 76 8.1.1PrepositionsofMovementandMotion ......... 76 8.1.2PrepositionsExhibitingaStaticState ......... 76 8.2PrepositionsGoverningCase .................. 81 8.2.1Accusative ........................ 81 v

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8.2.2Dative ........................... 81 8.2.3DativeandAccusative ................. 82 8.2.4Genitive ......................... 84 9CONJUNCTIONS ........................... 87 9.1CoordinatingConjunctions ................... 87 9.2SubordinatingConjunctions .................. 87 9.3InnitiveConjunctions ..................... 91 9.4ProportionateConjunctions ................... 92 10NEGATION ............................... 93 11QUESTIONS .............................. 98 APPENDICIES APRONUNCIATION ........................... 100 A.1GuidetoGermanPronunciation ................ 100 A.2BookCoverGuide ........................ 106 BIRREGULARVERBLIST ....................... 108 REFERENCES ................................... 110 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH ............................ 112 vi

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LISTOFTABLES Table page 1.1GuidelinesforGermanWordOrder ................... 4 1.2TheNominativeCase ........................... 6 1.3TheNominativedummy-es ........................ 7 1.4Man ..................................... 8 1.5UsesoftheAccusativeCase ........................ 9 1.6TheAccusativeCase ............................ 10 1.7PossessiveandPersonalProunouns .................... 12 1.8TheDativeCase .............................. 13 1.9TheGenitiveCase ............................. 14 1.10TheGenitiveDeclension .......................... 14 2.1EndingsWhichGiveAwaytheGender .................. 16 2.2SoundsThatJoinWordsinComposita ................. 20 3.1DierencesinGermanandEnglishArticles ............... 22 3.2TheGermanArticle ............................ 23 4.1PersonalPronouns ............................. 25 4.2PronounWordOrderGuidelines ..................... 29 4.3ThePossessivePronouns ......................... 30 4.4ReexivePronouns ............................ 30 4.5DemonstrativePronouns ......................... 30 5.1PrimaryAdjectivalEndings ........................ 31 5.2SecondaryAdjectivalEndings ....................... 32 5.3TheOrdinalNumbers ........................... 36 vii

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6.1Adverbs ................................... 38 7.1ConjugationofRegularVerbs ....................... 40 7.2ConjugationofSomeIrregularVerbs ................... 43 7.3InseparablePrexes ............................ 44 7.4FormationofImperatives ......................... 48 7.5TheMainIrregularVerbs ......................... 48 7.6TheTwoTypesofSubjunctiveinGerman ................ 53 7.7ConjugationofModalVerbsandmochten ................ 56 7.8WhenOneCanLeaveOuttheInnitive ................. 57 7.9ImperfectFormsofseinandhaben .................... 65 7.10PhrasalVerbs ............................... 68 8.1AnOverviewofthePrepositions ..................... 74 8.2The`TwoWayVerbs' ........................... 82 8.3SomeTwo-wayPrepositions ....................... 83 8.4SomeGenitivePrepositions ........................ 85 9.1TheCoordinatingConjunctions ...................... 88 9.2SubordinatingConjunctions ........................ 90 9.3UsesoftheInnitive ............................ 92 10.1Kein .................................... 95 10.2Nicht .................................... 96 A.1GermanPronunciationGuide ....................... 100 A.2ShortPronunciationGuideforGerman ................. 106 viii

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure page 3.1ForanIndeniteArticle ......................... 22 3.2ForaDeniteArticle ........................... 22 7.1AVisualRepresentationofGermanTense ............... 59 8.1anwithAccusative ............................ 77 8.2aufwithAccusative ............................ 77 8.3bis ..................................... 77 8.4durch .................................... 77 8.5gegen .................................... 78 8.6hinterwithAccusative .......................... 78 8.7inwithAccusative ............................ 78 8.8nebenwithAccusative .......................... 78 8.9uberwithAccusative ........................... 78 8.10um ..................................... 78 8.11unteri.e.beneathwithAccusative ................... 79 8.12unteri.e.amongwithAccusative ................... 79 8.13vorwithAccusative ............................ 79 8.14zwischenwithAccusative ......................... 79 8.15anwithDative .............................. 79 8.16aufwithDative .............................. 79 8.17inwithDative ............................... 79 8.18nebenwithDative ............................. 79 8.19uberwithDative ............................. 80 ix

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8.20von ..................................... 80 8.21unteri.e.beneathwithDative ..................... 80 8.22unteri.e.amongwithDative ...................... 80 8.23vor/hinterwithDative .......................... 86 8.24zwischenwithDative ........................... 86 A.1ich ..................................... 105 A.2Radfahren ................................. 105 x

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AbstractofThesisPresentedtotheGraduateSchooloftheUniversityofFloridainPartialFulllmentoftheRequirementsfortheDegreeofMasterofArtsALINGUISTICINTRODUCTIONTOGERMANFORTHENON-LINGUIST:ANACCOMPANYINGGUIDETOANYFIRST-YEARGERMANCOURSEByJonathanC.BuseyDecember2001Chair:KeithBullivantMajorDepartment:GermanicandSlavicStudiesThispapersaimstocomplementotherbeginningGermanlanguagecoursesatdierentlevels:itissetupbothforstudentssearchingforeasierwaystorememberthebasicsandsuccessfullycompletewhatisrequiredofthemintheinitialintroductorysequenceandforthecuriousstudentwhoseeksadeeperexplanationofgrammar,therebymakingastrongerfoundationandlong-termsuccesspossible.Thetargetstudentsrangefrombeginnerswithnoexperience,tothosewhoareatmoread-vancedlevelsandsearchforareferencedocumentingthebasics,tothosehavehadanintroductorycourseanddesirearefresher.Thegrammarisorganizedinanon-cumulativefashionsothatitisnotnecessarytoreadfrombeginningtoend.Rather,itismeanttobeusedtolookupthedesiredinformationonewantsfromeachtopic.Thisisenhancedbycopioushyperlinksintheelectronicversionandcross-referencesintheprintedversion. xi

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ReadingthethesisthroughfrombeginningtoendisdesignedtobebenecialtothestudentswhohavetakenGermanbefore,butissuggestedtothebeginninglearneronlyinconjunctionwithanothercoursewhichincludesdialoguesandexercises.ThemaingoalofthispaperistoprovideanadditionalresourcetostudentsinterestedinlearningGermanatadeeperlevelthanisrequiredinacollegelevelintroductorysequence. xii

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INTRODUCTIONThereisnouniversalperfectsystemforlearninganylanguageorevenanyonelanguage,butbydecidingwhatonewantsfromtheexperience,onecanbemoresuccessful.Onlyafewwilltrulymasteranewlanguageintheiradultlife;mostwanteithertobeabletoreadGerman,speakenoughfortravel,ormerelypronouncethewordssuchasradioannouncersormusichistorians.OnegoalthispaperattemptstoachieveistoenablethestudenttobemoresuccessfullearningGermanbymakingher/himdenewhats/hewantsfromtheknowledge.Theexibilityaninstructionaltextrequiresforthisisachievedinanumberofways:thesummaryinthetableineachsectionshouldmeettheneedsofmostlookingforaquickrefresherorthegeneralguidelinesforaspecicpoint.Inaddition,thelistoftablesandlistofguresaremorespecictablesofcontentswhichthestudentcanusetolocateinformationquickly.Withineachsection,theinformationbecomesincreasinglymorespecic,sothatthegeneral,mostrelevantinformationispresentedrst,andthemorespeciccomesafterwards.Thebenetofthisschemeistwofold:themostimportantpointsarestressedasoneseesthemmostoften,andthestudentisabletostopreadingwhenevers/hehasgonefarenoughintodetail.Thisiswrittenforthecuriousandthoroughstudentwhowishestostartwithagoodfoundation.Nolinguisticknowledgeisrequired.Theconceptsarebasedonlinguisticfun-damentals,butthiswillnotburdenaninexperiencedstudentsincenoattentionisdrawntothis.

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2 Asunitssuchascounting,tellingtime,describingtheweather,answeringWiegeht's?arecoveredintherstdaysofeverycourse,theyarebeyondthescopeofthisdocument.Furthermore,therearenodialoguesorexercises,butcopiousexamples.Thesomewhatunconventionalapproachtothebasicwordcategoriesisanattempttomakethematerialasrelevantandcomprehensibleaspossible.Forexample,wordorderwithdativeandaccusativepronounsareonlyreferencedwithwordorderandhandledindetailunderSection 4.1

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CHAPTER1WORDORDERANDTHEGERMANCASESYSTEM1.1WordorderGermanwordorderismoreexiblethanEnglishwordorder.Sinceeverywordhassomesortofidentifyingmarkerthatidentiesitsfunctioninagivensentence,thecaseendingsreectthegender,number,andwhetherthenounsaresubjectsorobjects,mostofthewordscanberearrangedaccordingtowhatneedstobestressed.Forexample,thefollowingsentencesallhavethesamemeaning,butdierentconnotations: 1. JochenhatdemFahrradhandlerdie15DMgegeben.boththedefaultforJochengavethebikesalesmanfteenmarks"andapos-sibilitytostressthefactthatitwasJochenandnotsomeoneelse 2. DemFahrradhandlerhatJochendie15DMgegeben.forexampleinanswertothequestion:TowhomdidJochengivemoney?" 3. 15DMhatJochendemFahrradhandlergegeben.whendoubtabouttheamountexistsandisbeingclaried,forexampleinanswertothequestion:Howmuchmoneydidhepayforthebike?" 4. and,inspoken:GegebenhatJochendemFahrradhandlerdie15DM.gaveasopposedtoloanedNotonlydoesthisfreedomofplacementmakeiteasiertostresscertainaspectsofasentenceinwrittenGermanwhereintonationisnotpossible,italsocallsforamorestrictadherencetowordendingssincetheyarewhatcarrythegrammaticalmeaningofeachwordinthesentence.WordorderinGermanprincipallyconforms 3

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4 Table1.1:GuidelinesforGermanWordOrder Fortheimpatient: 1. theverbisalwaysinsecondpositionindeclarativesentences 2. coordinatingconjunctionsdonotcountasrstpo-sitionwordsaber,denn,oder,und=Position; 3. verbinsecondpositioninquestionswithinterrog-ativesi.e.werwenwoetc. 4. verbinrstpositioninquestionswithoutinterrog-atives 5. `second'referstopositionandnotnumber{aclausecancountasonepositioni.e.inasubordinateclause,inwhichcasetheverbcomesnext. toonebasicpattern:Inanindicativedeclarativesentencetheverbalwaystakessecondposition.Theverbisunderlinedineachsentencebelow.Katringeht nachMunchen.[KatrinisgoingtoMunich.]Ubrigensbesucht sieauchdenThomas.[Bytheway,sheisalsovisitingThomas.]Notethatquestionsaredierentinversionisused{seeChapter 11 andthatsecondpositionisdierentfrombeingthesecondwordinasentence.Wordsthatarenotplacedatthebeginningforemphasis,forinstancecoordinatingconjunctions,donotcount{thatis,theytakeposition;.Abericharbeite garnichtsoviel.[ButIdon'tworkallthatmuch.]Odervielleichtfahrt sieindieSchweiz.[Ormaybeshe'llbegoingtoSwitzerland.]

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5 Also,aclausecanbeinposition1allbyitself,inwhichcasethenextwordaftertheclausewillbethepredicateinthemainclause,asisthecaseinsubordinateclauses.Forexample:Wennduesihrnichtsagst,muss ichihreswohlsagen.[Ifyoudon'ttellher,I'llhaveto.]TherearealsoguidelinesforimperativesentencesseeSection 7.2.2 ,negationseeChapter 10 ,andinterrogativesentencesseeChapter 11 .TherearetricksforwordorderwhenreplacingnounswithpronounsinsentencescontainingbothdirectandindirectobjectsinSection 4.1 .AnexaminationofthecasesfollowsonebyoneSections 1.2 { 1.5 .AnotherimportantdierencefromEnglishthatGermansentencesfollowisthetimebeforeplaceconcept.InGermanonesays:Siegehtum8nachHause;EriegtnachsteWochenachMunchen;etc.fortheEnglish:She'sgoinghomeateightandHe'syingtoMunichnextweek.1.2NominativeThenominativeisthecaseoneusuallylearnsrstbecauseitoccursinnearlyeverysentence.Thenouninthenominativecaseiswhatdeterminesthedeclensionoftheverb,sinceitisthesubject.WhenonesaysIchheie,theending-ematchestherstpersonsingularofthenominativecase,becauseichisthesubject.Whenthesubjectchangestosiesingular,theverbendingbecomesheittomatchthepersonandnumberofthesubject,whichisalwaysinthenominativecase.ThisisexactlythesameinGermanasinEnglish.ManSomethingoneseesandhearsveryoftenbothinspokenandwrittenGermanisthepronounman.Itisalwaysthesubjectofthesentenceandismostoftentranslated

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6 Table1.2:TheNominativeCase Fortheimpatient: Thenominativecasehas2uses: 1. asthesubjectofasentence 2. asthecomplementofsubjectwhenusingtheverbssein,werden,heienOthernoteworthycharacteristics: TheformissimilartotheaccusativecaseSec-tion 1.3 fortheneuter,feminine,andpluralforms. Itisnevertheobjectofapreposition. Apatternworthnotingisthe-erendingofthemasculineforms:erderweralso,thestrongadjecti-valendingsTable 5.1 :dieserwelchereiner asone,people,orthey.InEnglishwhenonesaysthingssuchasTheysay...,Peopledothatallthetime,itwouldbemaninGerman.1.3TheAccusativeThereareonlythreedierentdeclensionsonehastoknowinordertomastertheaccusativecaseinGerman.Oneisforder,die,das,asecondisfortheein-words,whichincludesallthedemonstrativesthis,that,these,those,interrogativeswhich,negativesnone,notany,no,adjectivalendingstherearenoneinEnglish,possessivesmine,yours,his,hers,its,theirs,our,and,ofcourse,theindenitearticlea,an.ThethirdsetisthesetofpronounsI,you,he,she,it,we,you,they.ThesethreedeclensionsareinTable 1.6 .Noticethattherearenopluralsfortheindenitearticles,justasinEnglishwhichusessome,andthatthesameendingsareusedforallofthewordclasses

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7 Table1.3:TheNominativedummy-es Asidefromtheusesofthenominativeasasubject,thereisalsothedummy-esjustasinEnglish: Esregnet/schneit/donnert.Itisraining/snowing/thundering. Esgibt....[Thereare...] EsistZeit,....Itistimeto... listedabove.Oneonlyneedsthewordstemstoformthem,forexample,thepossessivepronounsareinTable 1.7 .AccusativewithInnitivesOneoftheinstancesinwhichtheinnitiveseeSection 7.1.1 occurswithoutzuiswiththeaccusative.Thisoccursonlyinconjunctionwithafewverbsandexhibitsthefollowingcharacteristics: 1. Intherstinstance,theaccusativeobjectisanagentandthesentencedescribeshowthesubjectiscognizantoftheactionofthisaccusativeagent.Thisisacommonoccurrenceandislimitedtotheverbssehen,horen,fuhlen,andspuren.Thisconstructionisusedtodescribeaninstanceinwhichonesees,hears,feels,orsensessomeonedoingsomething.Thesomeoneisintheaccusativeandthethingistheinnitive.Examples: Dashabeichkommensehen.Isawthatcoming. SiehatihrenSohnSalatessensehen.Shesawhersoneatingsalad. Manhatmichschnarchenhoren.They/Peopleheardmesnoring. 2. Inthesecondinstancetheaccusativeisinitsmoreconventionalrole,namelyasthatofanobject,andhasthesamevalueasitdoesinmodalsentencesseeSection 7.3 butcanbeusedwithother,non-modalverbs: SielatdieStudentenfruhergehen.Sheletsthestudentsgoearly.

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8 Table1.4:Man Fortheimpatient: manisneithermasculine,feminine,orneuter,isonlycapitalizedatthebeginningofasentence,andalwaystakesthemasculineformsofreference.Manmussseine Hausaufgabenmachen. Whenchangingactivesentenceswhosesubjectismanintopassivesentences,mandropscompletelysinceitcannotbecometheobjectoftheprepositionvon. Theaccusativeformofmaniseinen,thedativeiseinem.Mankanneinen nichtglaubenmachen,....Esgibteinem dasGefuhl,.... Ichheiedichwillkommen.roughly:Iwelcomeyou.1.4TheDativeTheDativecaseanswersthequestiontowhom?"and,justliketheaccusativeandnominative,hasendingsthatareaddedtotheein -words,thedenitearticles,andpersonalpronouns.Mostofthetime,thedativecaseisjustare-namingoftheindirectobject.Itisusedtoconveytheideathatsomethingisdoingsomethingtosomethingelse,whichisthepartofthesentencewhichwillappearinthedativecase: Whydon'tyoubuyme anewdictionary? Janicewantedmetoloanher myGermanbook.Noticethatallverbsofgiving,telling,showing,andthelikecantakeindirectobjectsand,likewise,canhavedativeobjectsinGerman,butnoteverysentencehastohaveone{justasinEnglish:Ishowedmystu.

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9 Table1.5:UsesoftheAccusativeCase Fortheimpatient: Theaccusativehas3uses: 1. thedirectobjectofasentenceorcomplementthereofapposition{seeSection 1.6 2. theobjectofpreposition.Forprepositionsthatal-waysgoverntheaccusativecaseseeSection 8.2.1 ,forprepositionsthatsometimesgoverntheac-cusative,sometimesthedativeseeSection 8.2.3 3. anadverbialphrase,suchaswithtimeanddura-tionsoftimeandlength:heuteMorgen,denganzenTag,einenMeterlangOthernoteworthycharacteristics: Apatternworthnotingisthe-enendingofthemasculineforms.ForthisreasontheaccusativecaseisoftencalledtheWen-case:ihndenwenalso,thestrongadjecti-valendingsTable 5.1 :diesenwelcheneinen TheprincipledierencesintheEnglishindirectobjectsandGermandativeob-jectsare: 1. Englishobjectsdonothaveendingswhichreecttheircaseandmustthereforeuseprepositionsandwordordertoshowtheirfunction.Germanhascertainendings,articles,andpronounstodisplaythis: IamgivinghimmyhomeworkORIamgivingmyhomeworktohim.IchgebeihmmeineHausaufgaben. YoucantellthejudgeyourstoryORYoucantellyourstorytothejudge.

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10 Table1.6:TheAccusativeCase Remember:dierentpersonsandnumbersaredesignatedinthefollowingway: number singular plural 1stperson 1stperson person 2ndperson 2ndperson 3rdperson 3rdperson masc fem neut pla nominative der die das die accusative den die das die aallgenders! masc fem neut nominative ein eine ein accusative einen eine ein SiekonnenIhreGeschichtedemRichtererzahlen. 2. TheEnglishwordorderiswhatdeterminesthefunctionofeachsentenceele-ment.Itisverystrict.SinceinGermannounscanbeidentiedeitherbytheirendings,articles,orcontext,wordorderismuchfreerandcanbemovedaroundatwilltochangeemphasis.WordorderofobjectsandpronounsarediscussedSection 4.1 .Thefollowingsentenceshavethesamesemanticmeaninganddieronlyinemphasis: ErsagtdemLehrer,woerseinBuchvergessenhatte.OR DemLehrersagter,woerseinBuchvergessenhatte.AND ErerzahltemirdieGeschichtevonseinerReise.OR MirerzahlteerdieGeschichtevonseinerReise.OR DieGeschichtevonseinerReiseerzahlteermir.

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11 3. Sinceonecanusuallytellinwhichcaseanobjectisbyitsform,thereisadierentiationbetweenanaccusative,adative,oragenitiveobjectafteraprepositionseeSection 8.2.2 formoreinformationaboutprepositionswiththedative.Additionally,thereareseveralprepositionsthatcantakeaccusativeordativeobjects,dependingonwhethertheprepositionisstationarydativeorexpressesmotionaccusative.ThisisexplainedinSection 8.2.3 .1.5TheGenitiveThegenitivecaseisthepossessivecase.Itsuseisbecominglessandlessfrequentandisoftenreplacedbyaprepositionandthedativeusuallyvon.Also,therearemanyprepositionslistedbelowwhich,strictlyspeaking,governthegenitivebutareusedincreasinglyoftenwiththedativecase.Thegenitivecaseisslowlydyingout.1.6AppositionsAppositionsareanotherexampleoftheeciencyandprecisionoftheGermancasesystem.Anappositionisanounphrase,usuallyseparatedfromtherestofthesentencebycommas,whichservestomodifyanothernounorphrase.Itisinthesamecaseasthenounitmodies. ItoldTom,myuncle,thatIwouldbevisitinghiminJune. IchhabeTom,meinemOnkelerzahlt,dassichihninJunibesuchenwurde. ManycastlesandparkfacilitieswerebuiltbyLouistheFourteenth. VieleSchlosserundParkanlagenwurdenvonLudwigdemVierzehntengebaut.NoticeintheseexamplesthatitisexactlythesameasinEnglish.However,sincethisisaparadigmwhichcarriesoverfromonesentencetothenext,ratherthanhavingtoclarifyquestionsbyaddingprepositionsorevenrepeatingentiresentences,inGermanonecananswerthequestionwithanounornounphraseinthecorrectcase,thusthereisalossofambiguityinGerman.

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12 Table1.7:PossessiveandPersonalProunouns 1stperson 2ndperson masculine feminine neuter masc fem neut mein meine mein unser unsre unser dein deine dein Ihr Ihre Ihr sein,ihr,sein seine,ihre,seine sein,ihr,sein ihr ihre ihr Addthesameendingsforsingular,plural,nominative,andaccusativeaswithein.Notethatforallwordsinallthreeofthesetablesthefeminine,neuter,andpluralarethesameinthenominativeasintheaccusative,andthatthemasculineaccusativealwaysendsin`n'. Singular Plural nominative accusative nominative accusative ich mich wir uns du dich ihr euch Sie Sie er ihn sie sie sie sie es es

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13 Table1.8:TheDativeCase Fortheimpatient: Thedativehas2uses: 1. theindirectobjectofasentenceorcomplementthereofapposition{seeSection 1.6 2. theobjectofpreposition.ForprepositionsthatalwaysgovernthedativecaseseeSection 8.2.2 ,forprepositionsthatsometimesgovernthedative,sometimestheaccusativeseeSection 8.2.3 ein-words masc fem neut nom ein eine ein acc einen eine ein dative einem einer einem der-words masc fem neut plural nom der die das den acc den die das die dative dem der dem den Personalpronouns singular plural mir uns dir euch/Ihnen ihm,ihr,ihm ihnen Patternsworthnoting: themasculineandneuterformsendin`m'inthesingular{thisiswhythedativeisoftencalledtheWem-case thefeminineformischaracterizedbyendingin`r' theaccusativeformsforthe1stand2ndper-sonfamiliarinthepluralareidenticaltothedativeformsuns,euch thesecondpersonformalformisidenticaltothethirdpersonpluralform

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14 Table1.9:TheGenitiveCase Fortheimpatient: Thegenitivecasehas3uses: 1. forpossession-thewordorwordphraseinthegenitiveisthepossessor 2. withcertainprepositionsseeSection 8.2.4 3. withcertainverbsItisrecognizableeitherbyits-ssuxformasculineandneuternouns,pronouns,andadjective;orits-ersuxforfemininewhereitlooksjustlikethedativeandnouns,pronouns,andadjectivesintheplural. Table1.10:TheGenitiveDeclension masc. fem. neut. pl. nominative der die das den accusative den die das die dative dem der dem den genitive des der des der masc fem neut nominative ein eine ein accusative einen eine ein dative einem einer einem genitive eines einer eines

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CHAPTER2NOUNFORMSThischaptercoversonlythegendersandplurals.ForinformationonthecasedeclensionsseethesectionfortherespectivecasebeginningwithChapter 1.1 .Itisdiculttostresshowimportantitistolearnthecorrectgenderofeverywordonelearns.Onecannotconsiderawordtobelongtohisorherlexiconvocabularywithoutknowingthegenderandpluralandshouldthereforelearneverywordwithitsarticle.Withoutthegenderonecannotputthewordintocontext.Thatbeingsaid,thenextstepistodevelopamethodforlearningthegendersandplurals.2.1GenderThereareabsolutelynoconcreterulesaboutwhichobjectshavewhichgender.TherearehoweverafewendingswhichcangiveyouclueslistedinTable 2.1 .Allotherpluralsmustbebasicallylearnedwiththevocabularyentry,althoughsomeotherpatternsappear.Germanhasnaturalandgrammaticalgenders.Thenaturalgenderisdeterminedbywhatitis,i.e.derMannordieTochter,andthegrammaticalgenderisusuallybasedonhistoricalusageanddoesnotreectinanywaywhatthenaturalgenderoftheobjectis.ExamplesincludebothdieSonneandderStuhl{whichdonothaveanysortofinherentfeminineormasculinecharacteristicsinthemindsofGermanspeakers{aswelldasFrauleinanddasMadchen,whichareneuterbecauseofthedimunitiveendingsthecomefromdieFrauandtheantiquateddieMagd.IncontrasttotheRomanceandSlaviclanguages,thegenderofGermansub-stantivesarenotmarkedbytheirending.Thegendersmustbelearnedwitheach 15

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16 Table2.1:EndingsWhichGiveAwaytheGender 1. Allnounsendingin-tat,-schaft,-heit,-keit,-ion,and-ungaarefeminineandhavepluralsformedbyaddingtheprex-en. 2. Allnounsendingin-chen,-lein,and-tumareneuter.Theplurallooksandispronouncedexactlythesameasthesingular. 3. Allnounsendingin-ismus,-ist,-antandmanyendingin-eraremasculine.Theirpluralsare:-ismen,-isten,-anten,and;respectively.Additionally,thepluralsofmanyfemininesubstantivesendingin-einthesingularareformedbyaddingthesux-n. aexceptforwordswhichhaveitasapartofthestemandnotasasux,suchasSprunganditsderivates wordasavocabularyentry.Thiscannotbeoveremphasized.Amorecompletelistwouldinclude: masculine -ich,-ig,-ling,-s,-and,-ar,-ast,-eur/or,-ent,-ier,-iker,-ikus,-or feminine -ei,-a,-ade,-age,-aille,-aise/-ase,-ance,-ane,-anz,-elle,-ette,-euse,-ie,-enz,-ere,-ik,-ille,-ine,-isse,-itis,-ive,-ose,-sis/se,-ur,-ure neuter -le,-cht,-tel,-eau,-ett,-ing,-ium,-ma,-ment2.2PronounAgreementThedenitearticlesEng.:theareder,die,dasinthenominative.Theinde-nitearticlesareein,eine,eininthenominative.Thepronounsareer,sie,esinthenominative.Thesethreegroupsapplytoeverysubstantiveandareinterchangeable,

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17 dependingontheintendedmeaning.Thisiswhyitisimportanttoknowthegender:thepronounwilloftentaketheplaceofthesubject: MeineTante wohntinderNahe.!Sie wohntinderNahe. Friederike musseinenComputerkursmachen.!Sie musseinenComputerkursmachen. DasFenster istoen.!Es istoen.Inthesamemanner,wir,ihrandSiecanreplacepluralsubjects:Lauraundich=wir,duundThomas=ihr,SieundIhreFrau=SieLikewise,directobjects,indirectobjects,andtheobjectsofprepositionscanbereplacedbypronouns,justasinEnglish: JuliaundFriederikemusseneinenComputerkurs machen.!Siemussenihn machen. DuundThomas solltmitdemAuto fahren.Ihr seidmitihm inzweiStundendort. IchhabevondiesemAutor nochnichtsgelesen.Er sollabersehrgutsein. KannstdumirmeinDeutschbuch morgenmitbringen?Ichbrauchees jedenTag.2.3WordFormationThemainclassesofsubstantivesusuallydenedare concretenouns concreta{thesewordsdescribeobjects abstractnouns abstracta{thesewordsareusedtodescribeconcepts,thoughts,ideas,etc.everythingelseSincetheconceptofeachisthesameasinEnglishnothingmorewillbesaidaboutthesetwogeneralcategories.Thefocuswillinsteadlieontheformsoftwogroupsofwordswhicharecomposedofmembersfrombothcategories:themasculineN-nounsandcompoundwordscomposita.

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18 2.3.1N-nounsThereisagroupofmasculinenounsthatendsin`-en'inthepluralandeverycasebutthenominative: derMenschdieMenschendenMenschendieMenschendemMenschendenMenschendesMenschenderMenschen Averysimplephenomenon,howevermanylanguagelearnersseemtoforgetitexists,especiallyinthegenitivewhichisdescribedinSection 1.5 .AlsonotethatsomebookscallstheseStudenten-nouns.Onecanrecognizethesewordsastheonesthatarefollowedby-en,-enor-n-ninanydictionary.Therearealsocertainendingsthatfallintothiscategory:-and:Doktorand-en,Habilitand-en,Konrmand-en-ant:Demonstrant-en,Fabrikant-en,Musikant-en,-Praktikant-en-kat:Demokrat-en,Kandidat-en,Soldat-en-ent:Absolvent-en,Delinquent-en,Student-en-et:Athlet-en,Poet-en,Prophet-en-ist:Artist-en,Faschist-en,Jurist-en,Kommunist-en-oge:Geolog-en,Padagog-en-nom:Agronom-en,Astronom-en-soph:Anthroposoph-en,Philosoph-enOnethatdoesnotfallintothecategorybutappearstoexceptinthegenitivesingularisderName,dieNamen:

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19 derNamedieNamendenNamendieNamendemNamendenNamendesNamensderNamenAlsonotethatonewordderHerr,dieHerrenhasadierentsingularandplural: denHerrndieHerrendemHerrndenHerrendesHerrnderHerren2.3.2CompositaNotethatthisisaboveandbeyondwhatanyrstyearcourseshouldrequireofstudents.Nonetheless,forthecurious,Table 2.2 containssomeguidelinesforthepatterns.Therearesomanydierentinstancesthatonecannotspeakofrules"thelistofexceptions"wouldbemuchlongerthanTable 2.2 ,butthetendenciesareworthnoting.Althoughitisnotaveryhardconcepttomaster,manylearnersdonotmaketheeortnecessary,anditisthereforeoftenaneasywaytodistinguishaverygoodnon-nativespeakerfromatruenative.ThereareveryfewwordsinGermancomparedwithEnglish,butthewordformationismuchmoreactivethaninEnglish.ThisisalsowhatmakesGermansuchaproductionlanguage{speakershavetheabilitytobeverycreative.SonntagsnachmittagsspazierfahrtstundethehourduringwhichonetakesawalkonaSundayafternoon,DonaudampfschifahrtskapitanthecaptainofasteamshipontheDonau,andthelike.

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20 Table2.2:SoundsThatJoinWordsinComposita possiblewordjointsa:{en-,{es-,-e-,-er-,-ens-,; Therstelementinthewordisthedeterminingelement.Donotconfusethiswiththeelementwhichdeterminesthegender,whichisalwaysthelastelement. Indeclinablewordssuchasprepositionsandadverbsandadjectivestake-;-.Adjectivesendingin-edropthe-e.e.g.Blodsinn. Whentherstmemberisasubstantive: 1. -;-followsthesuxes-bold,-chen,-en,-ei,-ler,-ner,ge-...-e,-i,-icht,-ig,-lein,-nis,-rich,andallnounswhosepluralendin-s 2. -s-follows-en,-heit,-keit,-ling,-sal,-schaft,-tum,-ung,-ion,-itat 3. -en-follows-in,masculinenounsandmost feminineendingin-e 4. -en-followsthenounswith-en-inthegenitivesingularandplural;feminineandneuternounsendingin-a,andtheneuternounsendingin-it,-on,thepluralformsofallthreegroupsofwhichendin-en. Whentherstmemberisaverb: 1. -;-followsverbsthatendinavowelsound andafterthesounds [p],[pf],[s],[r],[x]b,usually[m],[l],[S],and[ts]consonants+[s] 2. -e-followsalmostexclusivelythevoicedconsonantsb,d,gandthesounds [z],[t],buttherearemanyinstancesinwhich-;-followsthesesounds athisinformationiscondensedexclusivelyfrom[ Fleischer ,136-145]bthesoundattheendofach

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CHAPTER3ARTICLESGermanarticlesandtheiruseareverysimilartoEnglisharticles,sothisshouldnotposeAmericanstudentstoomuchtrouble.ThemaindierencesarelistedinTable 3.1 .Whentalkingaboutarticlesinthissection,thetwoformsdeniteder,die,dasandindeniteein,eine,einaremeant,andnottheentirespectrumofwordsbelongingtoorsometimebelongingtoboththisclassandothers.TheyarediscussedinChapter 4 onPronouns.ThecompleteformsforthetwowordsinthisclassarelistedinTable 3.2 .Notethatmostwordsdeclinedthisway{seeChapter 5 onAdjectivesformoredetails.Fornegation,seeChapter 10 onpage 93 .Notethattheindeniteformsarethesamebutprecededbyak,andthatthereisaplural.TheusesaregenerallythesameasinEnglish;thatis:oneusesdenitearticlestospecifysomethinganddistinguishitfromothersandindenitearticlestopointoutoneofmanythatiswhythereisnoplural.Noticethatthenegativedoeshasapluralbecauseoneistalkingaboutnoneorzero,whichispluralinGermanaswellasinEnglish.Manybooksintroducetheindenitearticleasthearticletousewhensomethingisintroducedforthersttimeandthedenitearticlehereafter.Thismayworkwhenonanalyzeschildren'sstories,buttakealookattheexampleinFigure 3.1 .Thereisonlyoneviablechoicebetweenthecommands:Zeigaufeinen/denKreis![Pointtoa/thecircle.]Likewise,thereisonlyonepossibilityforthesamecommandfortheFigure 3.2 21

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22 Table3.1:DierencesinGermanandEnglishArticles 1. thereisnopluralindenitearticleexceptwhennegatedEnglish:some/any 2. articlesarenotmentionedwithprofessionsthisin-cludesstudentsornationalitiesa. 3. sometimesthearticleisnotpresentwhenanEn-glishspeakerwouldexpectittobeorispresentwhenanEnglishspeakerwantstoomitit.Thisisduetothedierenceinnumberandthecharacter-istic`mass'or`count'insomewords. 4. oftenarticlesareaddedtonamesofpeople.Thisusuallyhasapositivemeaning. asurelybynoweveryonehasheardofthefamousKennedyblunder:IchbineinBerliner. Figure3.1:ForanIndeniteArticle Figure3.2:ForaDeniteArticle

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23 Table3.2:TheGermanArticle Indenitearticle: Singular Plural masculine feminine neuter nominative ein eine ein accusative einen eine ein ; dative einem einer einem genitive eines einer eines Denitearticle: Singular Plural masculine feminine neuter nominative der die das die accusative den die das die dative dem der dem den genitive des der des der

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CHAPTER4PRONOUNS4.1PersonalPronounsPronounsareusedintheplaceofnouns.Theyconformtothesamepatternsasnounsinregardstoagreementandcase.Table 4.1 isanexhaustivelist{noticethatthegentiveareinparenthesesbecausetheyareuncommon.Formoreinformationaboutpronounsandagreement,seeSection 2.2 Strictlyspeaking,pronounsdonotreplacenounssincetheycanofcoursebeusedbeforethenounsareevenmentioned,dependingoncontext.Essentially,pronounshavethefollowingfunction:Sincepeoplewanttosavetimewheneverpossible,theyshorteneverythingcon-textallows.Onethingoneneedstorememberisthatpronounscanreplacelongnounphrasesorevenentireclausessincemanymodiersneednotberepeated.Forexample: 1. IchmochtemitdeinerSchwester indieSchweizfahren...Sie wei,womangutessenkann.IwouldliketogotoSwitzerlandwithyoursister...Sheknowsgoodplacestoeat. 2. DerMannmitdemrotenPullinebenderTreppe ...Er ...Themanwiththeredsweaternexttothestairs...He... 3. Weisstdunoch,alswirdiesesSofa gesehenhaben,dassolangwar ,dasses nichtinmeinerElternWohnzimmergepassthatte ?MeineTantehates gekauft! 24

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25 Table4.1:PersonalPronouns 1stPerson 2ndPerson 3rdPerson familiarformal masc.fem.neut. Singular Nom. ich duSie ersiees Acc. mich dichSie ihnsiees Dat. mir dirIhnen ihmihrihm Gen. meiner deinerIhrer seinerihrerseiner Plural Nom. wir ihrSie sie Acc. uns euchSie sie Dat. uns euchIhnen ihnen Gen. unser euerIhrer ihrer Doyoustillrememberwhenwesawthatcouchthatwassolongthatitwouldn'thavetinmyparents'livingroom?Myauntboughtit!WordorderinsentenceswithmorethanoneobjectTheonlyinconsistencyinTable 4.2 isthethirditem,inwhichtwonounphrasesappearandthedativecomesbeforetheaccustive.Thissentenceillustrateswhy:AndreasgibtseinerSchwestereinenTeller.[Andreasgiveshissisteraplate.]Noticethatsincethefemininedativeandgenitiveformsarethesame,theincorrectorderwouldbeconfusingandleavethelistenerexpectingthesentencetocontinue:AndreasgibteinenTellerseinerSchwester.[Andreasisgivingtheplateofhissister...]4.2PossessivePronounsThepossessiveadjectivesinTable 4.3 areusedjustliketheyareinEnglish.Forgettingaboutgenderandcasesfornow,thinkabouttheactualformsthemselvesi.e.therootsandhowtheycorrespondtothepeoplewhosepossessions"they

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26 describe:Tommytoldhisgrandmotherthathernewcarwasalemon.Hesaiditspaintwasbubblingup.Regardlessofthegenderandcaseofgrandmother,therootoftheGermanpossesiveadjectiveusedwillbesein ,whichrefersbacktotheantecedent,Tommy.Thesamewillbetruewithihr andgrandmotherandsein andcardasAuto.Thedierencethenliesonlyintheendings,whichEnglishdoesnothave.4.3ReexivePronounsReexivepronounsareusedinareciprocalfashion,suchaswithreexiveverbsseeSection 7.5.3 ,andillustrateareferencefromthesubjecttotheaccusativeorda-tiveobject.TheformsareidenticaltothoseofthepersonalpronounsseeTable 4.1 exceptfortheobviouslymissingnominativeforms.Inaddition,the2ndpersonformalall3rdpersonforms,singularandplural,aresich,asillustratedinTable 4.4 .TheEnglishequivalentismyself,yourself,himself,itself,herself,ourselves,them-selvesrespectively.ThetwonotabledierencesfromEnglishare: 1. sichisusuallyusedforeachother,suchasinTheycongratulatedeachother .[Siehabensich gratuliert.] 2. Thedativereexivepronounisusedtoshowpossessioninsteadofthepossessivepronouninreexivesentences.Examples: Erputztsich dieZahne.[Heisbrushinghis teeth.] Siewaschensich dieHande.][Theyarewashingtheir hands.]AlsonotethatthisavoidstheconfusionthatoftenarisesinEnglishwithregardstothepossessor:JustinwasplayingsoccertogetherwithIan.HepushedIanandthenbrokehis arm.Whose armdidJustinbreak?

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27 InGerman:Erhatsich dasBeingebrochenmeanshebrokehisownleg,whileErhatsein Beingebrochenmeanshebrokethelegofsomeoneelse.4.4DemonstrativePronounsDemonstrativesarethepronounsusedtodemonstrate,orpointoutsomething.Englishexamplesarethis,that,these,those.AtthebeginningofChapter 3 ,Ta-ble 3.2 showshowthedeniteandindenitearticlesaredeclined.Thesearealsothedeclensionsfortheein -andder-wordsrespectively.ThenotationintheparenthesesnexttoeachofthefollowingwordgroupsinthissectionandthenextreferstothedeclensionasdepictedinTable 3.2 concerningindeniteanddenitearticles. der,die,das1der{seeTable 4.5 Similarlytothepersonalpronouns,theseareusedinplaceofthesubstantive+article.Daskannmannicht.Dasweissichnicht.Daswirstdumorgenerfahren.Denbraucheich.Derkonnteichnichthelfen.etc.Noticethatthedemonstrativeandrelative{seeSection 4.5 pronounsder,die,dashavetheirownconjugation,asdepictedinTable 4.5 dieser,diese,dieses2derSimilartoarticles,theseareusedwithandpreceedingthesubstantive.Onemightsaythatdies isusedinsteadofthearticleinordertomoreclearlyemphasizethatparticularsubstantive'simportance.DiesenTischndeichamschonsten.SehenSiediesesHausdort...?DiesemMannkonnteichdochnichthelfen. selbst,selbernotdeclinedSelbstandselberareusedasappositionsseeSec-tion 1.6 inordertoexcludeanyotherobjectwhichmighthavecomeintoquestion.IchhabedasBuchselbstgelesen.MeinNeekannsichjetztselber 1alsoderjenige,diejenige,dasjenige,derselbe,dieselbe,dasselbe2alsojener,jene,jenes

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28 waschen.DerPrasidentselbsthateszugegeben.Donotconfusethisusageselbstwiththeoneusedatthebeginningofsentencestomeanevensuchasin:SelbstderFahrerhatihngesehn.Selbstwennichnichtgekommenware....[Eventhedriversawit.EvenifIhadnotcome...].4.5RelativeandInterrogativePronounsRelativepronounsarepronounswhich introducerelativeclauses,suchastheunderlinedwhichinthissentence.Becausetheyarepronouns,theymustreplaceanounornounphrase,andbecausetheygovernrelativeclauses,theyarefoundindependentclausesonly.Interrogativepronounsarequestionwordsusedtoelicitaspecicpieceofinformation.FormoreinformationoninterrogativepronounsandquestionsseeChapter 11 der,die,das der{seeTable 4.5 Theserepresenttherelativecounterparttothedemonstrativepronounsder,die,dasabove.TheconjugationisthesameasinTable 4.5 .Theseareusedonlyrelativelyandnotinterrogatively. welcher,welche,welches derThesecanbeusedbothrelativelyandinter-rogatively.Asarelativepronountheyareusedidenticallyasder,die,dasabove,butaremoreformal.AsinterrogativepronounstheycorrespondtotheEnglish:which. wasfurein notdeclinedUsedinterchangeablywithwelch butlessformal;notethatfurisnotaprepositionhereandthateinisthereforenotnecessarilyintheaccusativecase.WasfureinVaterwurdeseineKinderimEinkaufzentrumvergessen! wer,was notdeclinedcorrespondtoEnglishwhoandwhat.

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29 Table4.2:PronounWordOrderGuidelines Fortheimpatient: 1. Insentenceswith2nounphrases,thedativepro-nouncomesrst. 2. Insentenceswithonepronounandonenounphrase,thepronouncomesrst. 3. Insentenceswith2pronouns,theaccusativepro-nouncomesrst.aExamples: 1. HorsterzahltdenKinderneineGeschichte. 2. HorsterzahltsiedenKindern./Horsterzahltih-nendieGeschichte. 3. Horsterzahltsieihnen. aInshorterterms:WherePispronoun,Nisnounphrase,Aisaccusative,Disdativeand
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30 Table4.3:ThePossessivePronouns mein,dein,etc. 1stpers 2ndpers masc fem neut masc fem neut mein meine mein unser unsre unser dein deine dein Ihr Ihre Ihr sein,ihr,sein seine,ihre,seine sein,ihr,sein ihr ihre ihr Table4.4:ReexivePronouns 1stPerson 2ndPerson 3rdPerson familiarformal masc.fem.neut. Singular Acc. mich dichsich sich Dat. mir dirsich sich Plural Acc. uns euchsich sich Dat. uns euchsich sich Table4.5:DemonstrativePronouns Singular Plural masc fem neut Nom der die das die Acc den die das die Dat dem der dem denen Gen dessen deren dessen deren

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CHAPTER5ADJECTIVESAdjectivesareusedtodescribenouns.Theycanbeusedintwoways:pred-icativelyandattributively,asdescribedinSections 5.1 and 5.2 respectively.Theendingsareonlyforattributeadjectives.Thestrongendingsaretheretosignifythegender,number,andcase,andtheweakendingsarethereforallsubsequentmodiers.Therearetwosetsofendingsfortwodierentcontexts: 1. strongorprimaryendings-adjectivesfollowingindenitearticlesein ,kein ornoarticleatall 2. weakorsecondaryendings-adjectivesfollowingdenitearticlesder,die,das,demonstrativeandinterrogativepronounsdies /jen ,welch Remember:einguterMann,derguteMann Table5.1:PrimaryAdjectivalEndings Primaryendings: Singular Plural masculine feminine neuter nominative -er -e -es -e accusative -en -e -es -e dative -em -er -em -en genitive -en -er -en -en 31

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32 Table5.2:SecondaryAdjectivalEndings Secondaryendings: Singular Plural masculine feminine neuter nominative -e -e -e -en accusative -en -e -e -en dative -en -en -en -en genitive -en -en -en -en Note:theprimaryendingsarethesameasthedenitearticleexceptinthegenitivesingularmasculineandneuter:JuniletztenJahresJuneoflastyear.Manybooksseemtoforgetthispoint.5.1PredicativeAdjectivesThesearenotthetypethatusuallycausestudentsproblems.Usedpredicatively,anadjectiveisnotdeclinedi.e.justasinEnglishandappearsintheformasonendsitinadictionary.Predicateadjectivesgenerallycomeaftertheverb.UnlikeinEnglish,wheremostadverbsendin-lyandthushavedierentformsfromtheiradjectivalcounterparts,predicateadjectivesinGermanlookexactlyastheiradverbialcounterpartsandcanbedierentiatedonlybytheircontext.OnebasicdierencebetweenadjectivesandadverbsisthatadjectivescanbecomparedseeSection 5.2.1 DerKaeschmecktgut. DeineHosesiehtrotaus. DerHundistbraun.5.2AttributiveAdjectivesAttributiveadjectivesaredeclined.Theymodifynounsandmustagreeincase,number,andgender.Onecantelltowhichnountheadjectivebelongsbyitsending,

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33 sinceadjectivesaredeclined.Apartfromthecase,number,andgender,therearetwodierentcategoriesofendingsanadjectivetakes,asindicatedabove:primaryandsecondary.Theprimaryendingsindicatethecase,number,and/orgenderofthenounwhereverpossible.Ifthecaseofthenounisclearthroughanarticleorothermodieranythingwhichisdeclinedanddescribessomethingelse,thesecondaryorweakendingsareusedonallsubsequentmodiers.Examples:einschonesHaus,diesergrosseMannNoticethatsinceeinisthesameformforboththemasculineandneuterinthenominative,thefollowingadjectivemusthaveastrongendinginordertoshowthatthefollowingnounisneuter.Inotherwords,ifanarticleismissingordoesnotclarifywhatthecaseandgenderofanounis,theadjectivetakesonthisresponsibilityintheformofprimaryendings,andwhenevertheprimaryendingsbeginthenounphrase,allothermodierstakethesecondaryendings.IfanindenitearticleintroducesthenounphrasesuchasineinguterVater,allsubsequentadjectivestaketheprimaryendings:einguter,hilfsbereiter,liebenswerterVater.Thegender,number,andcaseofanouncanalmostalwaysbeascertainedfromitsmodiers.Likewise,itisalmostalwaysapparentwheneveroneusesanytypeofmodierwithoutknowingthegenderorcase.Alsonotethatparticiplesarereallyjustadjectivesdirectlyderivedfromverbsandfollowallofthepatternsabove.SeeSection 7.4.2 formoreinformation.5.2.1ComparativeandSuperlativeFormsThebasicformofanattributiveadjectiveiscalledthepositive.Incomparisons,onemustusethecomparativeform,whichisformedininEnglisheitherbyadding-ertotheadjectiveorpreceedingitwithmore,dependingonhowmanysyllablesithas.InGerman,mostadjectivestakethe-erendingandaddanumlauttotherst

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34 vowelwherepossible.Forthesuperlativeform,whichinEnglishischaracterizedbymostortheending-est,Germantakestheumlautasinthecomparativeandadds-st-insteadof-er.Theendingscomeafterthe-erinthecomparativeandafterthe-stinthesuperlativeforms.Examples: lang,langer,langste schnell,schneller,schnellste weit,weiter,weiteste gro,groer,grote modern,moderner,modernsteHerearesomeexamplesofdeclinedadjectivesincontext.Noticethatwithpositvesoneoftenusestheexpressionso wieEnglish:as as,incomparisontheexpres-sion als...English: -erthan...ormore than...,andwithsuperlativesder -steEnglish:the -estorthemost DiesesAutoistschnelleralsdasandere.Aberdasblaueistdasschnellste. EuerHausistgroeralsunseres. DielangsteStundemeinesLebenswarmeinemundlichePrufunginDeutsch.Naja,manchmalistKlavierunterrichtlanger. EsgibteinesehrmoderneGrundschulenebendemnochmodererenApartmen-thaus. DashalichsteHausinunseremWohnviertelliegtsudlichvondemStadthaus.Sometimesonemightseeasuperlativeformwhennocomparisonisbeingdrawn.Thisiscalledtheelativeformandcanusuallybetranlatedasvery .E.g.:BestenDank,hochstintelligent,grotesLobetc.Anotheruseofthesuperlativeiswitham -sten,whichmeansthe ofall:amlangsten,ambesten,amuberraschendstenetc.Someirregularities:

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35 1. hoch,hoher,hochste gut,besser,beste nahe,naher,nachste viel,mehr,meiste wenig,minder,mindesteor :wenig,weniger,wenigstebutregularinthelatterform 2. beideactsasadenitearticle,sothesecondaryendingsfollow:beidealtenComputer 3. viel-andwenig-appearalternatelydeclinedandundeclined,dependingonwhetherthenounisamassoracountnounvielGeld-vieleLeutewenigGeduld-wenigeMenschen 4. adjectivesendingin-enand-eroftenomitthecomparativeandsuperlative-e-inordertoeasepronunciation: ungeheuer-einungeheurerZufall teuer-einteuresSpiel vorhanden-einvorhandenesProblem sauer-einesaureMiene 5. adjectivesendingwith-elomitthevowelwhenanendingisadded:dunkel-eindunklerWald5.2.2PossessiveAdjectivesPossessiveadjectivesisanothernameforpossessivepronounsseeSection 4.2 .Theyareoftencalled`adjectives'becausetheyaredeclinedasadjectivesare.5.2.3OrdinalNumbersOrdinalnumbersareattributeadjectives,hencetheyaredeclined.

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36 Table5.3:TheOrdinalNumbers erst-rst siebt-seventh dreizehnt-thirteenth funfzigst-ftieth zweit-second acht-eighth vierzehnt-fourteenth siebzigst-seventieth dritt-third neunt-ninth funfzehnt-fteenth sechzigst-sixtieth viert-fourth zehnt-tenth zwanzigst-twentieth hunderts-hundredth funft-fth elft-eleventh dreiigst-thirtieth tausentst-thousandth sechst-sixth zwolft-twelfth vierzigst-fortieth millionst-millionth ThepatternisfairlysimplecomparedwithEnglish.Oneneedonlyremember:Therootisthecardinalnumberwith-st+theending,exceptinthecasesofeins,zweianddrei.ThisisjustasinEnglishandmostIndo-Europeanlanguages.The-sisonlynecessarywhenthewordwouldotherwisebeunpronounceable.

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CHAPTER6ADVERBSAdverbsmodifyverbs,adjectives,andotheradverbs.TheycanansweroneofthethequestionsHow?When?Howmuch?Inwhatway?Where?andoftenhavetheending-lyinEnglish,althoughthismustnotalwaysbethecase.InGerman,manyadverbslookexactlylikepredicateadjectivesseeSection 5.1 ,sincetheyremainuninected.Agoodexamplesofthedierencebetweenadjectivesandadverbscanbeillus-tratedwiththeoftenmisusedadjectivegoodandtheadverbwell. *I'mdoinggood.ThishappensinEnglishoften: *Youaredrivingtooslow.Schoncanbeanadverboranadjective,dependingonhowitisused: DasWetteristschon. DeinWagenfahrtsichschon.Adverbsarewritteninthelowercaseunlesstheybeginasentence{theconventioniswhatdierentiatesthemfrommanysubstantives:Abend/abends,Morgen/morgens,etc.Asidefromthewo-,da-compoundsmentionedinTable 6.1 ,somecommonend-ingsare:-s,-eise,-warts,-fach,-mal. 37

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38 Table6.1:Adverbs Type Questionword Examples place wo,woher dort,hin,drauen,irgendwo time wann morgens,gestern,jetzt,manchmal,heute,fruher quantity wieviel viel conjunctional notfalls,dennoch,trotzdem,somit,deshalb,deswegen interrogative { wo,woher/wohin/wann,wie,wieviel,warum,weswegen,we-shalb,wieso pronominalorprepositional woruber,wonach darin,daruber,danach,hiermit,hi-erzu

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CHAPTER7VERBS7.1VerbForms7.1.1TheInnitiveAnInnitiveisthewordorgroupofwordswhichisbuiltfromthepredicateandcontainsthefullmeaningofthepredicate.Thepresentinnitiveistheunconjugatedformoftheverbasonendsitinadictionary.ThiscorrespondstotheEnglishto .TheparticlezutoisalsousedinGermaninspecicinstancesasillustratedbelow.ThecommonestuseoftheinnitiveinGermaniswithmodalverbsseeSection 7.3 ,wheretheparticlezuisnotused.Whenzuisusedwithaninnitive,onewillnditdirectlyinfronttheinnitive.Ifitisinfrontofanadjectiveitisinadverbsuchaszuteuerandinfrontofanounorpronouninthedativeitisaprepositionzuihm,zumMitnehmen,zuderFrau.Also,theinnitivehasothertenses:futureperfect,presentperfect.Thepresentperfectinnitiveformedwiththepresentinnitiveofthecorrecthelpingverbhabenorseinwiththepastparticipleofthemainverb:bezahlthabenforbezahlen,gefahrenseinforfahren.Thefutureperfectinnitiveisformedwiththepresentinnitiveofwerden+thepastparticipleofthemainverb+thepresentinnitiveofthehelpingverbhabenorsein:werdengefahrenseinforfahren,werdengegessenhabenforessen.Notethatallthreeformsofinnitivesmentionedalsohavepassiveforms.Theusesoftheinnitivearecoveredundereachappropriatesection,suchasSection 9.3 forinnitiveconjunctionsandSection 7.3 formodalverbs. 39

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40 7.1.2ConjugationAlmostallverbsareconjugatedasinTable 7.1 .Wherethe[e]inthe2ndand3rdsing,2ndinformalPluralisonlypresentwhenthestemendsinahardconsonantsuchasdort,asintheexample.Onebasicallyhearsaboutstarke/schwache/gemischteVerbenstrong/weak/mixedverbs,besondereVerbenspecialverbs,andverbswithastemvowelchangeAblaut.Additionally,thereareprexverbs,whichmayhaveaseparableorinseparableprex.Hereishowonecanrecognizethem: 1. Strongverbs{pastparticipleendsin-en 2. weakverbs{thesearetheregularverbs;theycomprisemostoftheGermanverbs.Theirpastparticiplesendin-tandtheyhavenostemvowelchangeAblaut 3. mixedverbs{neitherstrongnorweak,theirpastparticiplesendin-tbuttheyhaveavowelstemchangeinthepastparticiple. 4. `special'verbs-eln,-ten,-zen,-s/en,-ien,-ernTheyareonlyspecialbecausetheendingsarenotpronounceablewithoutchang-ingtheorderoradding/removingan`e' 5. Ablaut{Thisisachangeinthevowelofthestemoftheverb.Itmayoccurinthepresenttenseasinlaufen-lauftorinthepasttensedenken-hatgedacht{seeitem`mixedverbs'above. Table7.1:ConjugationofRegularVerbs Fortheimpatient: -e-en-[e]st-[e]t,-en-[e]t-en icharbeitewirarbeitenduarbeitestihrarbeitet,Siearbeitener/sie/esarbeitetsie/Siearbeiten

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41 6. inseparableprexedverbsseeSection 7.1.4 7. separableprexedverbsseeSection 7.1.4 8. outrightirregular seeAppendix B verbssuchassein,werden,andsometimeshaben,allofwhichmustbeexaminedindividuallyNotethattheonlycategorieswhicharemutuallyexclusivearestrong,weak,ormixedverbsandinseparableorseparableverbs{i.e.averbmustbestrong,weak,ormixedbutcannotbeanytwoofthose,andaverbcan beinseparableorseparable,butcannotbebothandmustnotbeeither.Thereare,ofcourse,othergroupsandforms ofverbs,suchasmodalverbsandimperatives,butthesearenotconjugationsandhandledseparatelyintheirrespectivesections.FormoodseeSection 7.2 ;forimperativesseeSection 7.2.2 .TherearenotraditionalconjugationsasinLatin,French,orGreek,butonecandeneGermanverbsintermsofoneormoreoftheeightaforementionedcategories.7.1.3IrregularVerbEndingsAsmentionedabove,therearetwotypesofverbsinGerman:weakandstrongschwachandstark.Theybothtakethesameendings{beingstrongorweakonlyhastodowiththeformoftheverb,notwiththeendings.Anirregularorstrongverbtakesthesameendingsastheweakorregularverbs,buteithertheotherverbformsi.e.thedierenttenses{seeSection 7.4 aredierentorthestemhasanablaut.Thereare,however,verbsthathavespecialendingsbecauseofthestem.Theendingsoftheseverbsdierbecauseotherwisetheywouldnotbepronounceable. innitiveswithstemsendingin`t',`d',and`'arbeiten,scheiden,heien afewothermuchrarerletterscombinationsoccurringintheinnitivestemsuchas`z',`gn',`r',and`l'beizen,regnen,hetzen,tanzen,andern,rudern,sammeln,segelnareexamples habenandtheirregularstrongverbsseinandwerden.

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42 7.1.4VerbPrexesThefactthatnoteveryverbinGermanisuniqueandmadeofsimilarpartsthatmanyotherwordsuseshouldnotbesurprising.InEnglishtherearemanyprexescommontodozensofwords.Oneneedonlythinkabouthowmanywordsarebuiltwithprexes.Noticethatthemeaningstheprexesdenotearerelativeandnotabsolute.Thusteachinganon-nativespeakerthemorpheme-tractwouldnotensurethats/hecoulddeducethemeaningsofattract,detract,subtract,extract.Unfortunately,thesameistrueofGerman.Butluckily,therearenotnearlyasmanyaxesasthereareinEnglishtherearejustasmanysuxes.JustasinEnglish,thereareinseparableprexesandseparableprexescf.Englishphrasalverbssuchastogo/put/eat/workout,tobeat/think/lookup,towork/thinkthroughetc..in-separableprexverbsThesearethecommonestones.be-emp-ent-er-ge-ver-zer-Twoimportantthingstoknowaboutinseparableprexesare: 1. thesyllabledirectlyaftertheprexreceivesthestress,nevertheprexitself 2. inthestrictlyinseparableprexcategorytherearenoprexesthatarewordsinandofthemselvesTable 7.3 summarizestheseparableprexesandmeaningswhichbeginninglearnersneedtoknow.sep-arableprexverbsTheothertypeofprexesareseparable.Theyhavethreeimportantcharacter-istics: 1. theyareindependentwordsandhaveameaningwhentheystandbythemselves 2. theyalwayscomeattheendoftheclause;sometimesthebodyoftheverbremainsattheheadandtheyarethereforeseparated,sometimes,asinmodalsentencesandsubordinateclauses,therestoftheverbalsomustgototheend

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43 Table7.2:ConjugationofSomeIrregularVerbs Fortheimpatient: aregularverb: lieben ichlieb-e wirlieb-en dulieb-st ihrlieb-t/Sielieb-en er,sie,eslieb-t sielieb-en examplesofirregularendings: arbeiten icharbeit-e wirarbeit-en duarbeit-e st ihrarbeit-e t er,sie,esarbeit-e t siearbeit-en beizen ichreiz-e wirreiz-en dureiz-t ihrreiz-t er,sie,esreiz-t siereiz-en

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44 Table7.3:InseparablePrexes be-transitivemarker,itchangesaverbsmeaningfromtodosome-thingtotodosomethingtoXbeschreiben,befahren,benden,etc. emp-internalizestheverb,makesitper-sonalempfangen,empnden,empfehlen ent-givesthesenseofawayfromentfernen,entleeren,entnehmen,etc. er-todosomethingforthersttimeerlernen,erdenken,eronen,ernden,etc. ge-asinseparableprexidiomatic;nopatterngedenken,gefallen,gebrauchen,gebuhren,etc. ver1. connecting,oppositeofent2. tochangeoruseupsome-thing 3. todosomethingincorrectly 4. atypeofintensier 1. verheiraten,verbinden,etc. 2. verarbeiten,verspeisen,verspielen,verandern,ver-brauchen,etc. 3. verschlucken,verfarben,etc. 4. verhelfen,verbleiben,etc. zer1. todivideup 2. toharmordestroy 1. zerteilen,zergliedern,etc. 2. zerstoren,zerreden,etc.

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45 oftheclauseandtheyarereunitedagainExample:Ichstehe dirbei .!Ichmochtedirbeistehen 3. theprextakesthestresssomeofthecommonestseparableprexesare:an-ab-auf-uber-weg-andmanymore!Theconceptissoprevalentandtheexamplessonumerousthatoneshouldnothaveanytroublepickinguptheowofsentenceswithverbsthatbreakapart" Geh dochmalweg !Warumwillstdudennnichteinfachweggehen ? Ichstehe gewohnlichum2Uhrmittagsauf ,weilichabendsarbeitenmuss.Ichmussdochsofruhaufstehen Ichkaufe IhnengernedieganzenApfelab .IchmochtealleIhreApfelabkaufen .7.1.5TellingthedierencebetweenaseparableprexandaprepositionSincetheseparableprexesarealsowordswithanothergrammaticalfunctionwhosemeaningsvarygreatlyfromprepositionaluses,itisimportanttoknowwhichismeant.Luckily,itisnotdiculttodierentiateandtherearenotmanycaseswhichposeproblems.Therulesofthumbare: 1. Separableverbsareseparatedinthepresentandpasttense,inindicativeandimperativemoodbutnotinsubordinateclauses. 2. Theyarenotseparatedintheinnitive,suchaswhenanauxiliaryverbisusedandtheinnitiveappearsattheendofthesentenceasisthecasewithmodals{seeSection 7.1.1 ,orwhenusedasparticiplesSection 7.4.2 3. Prepositionshaveobjects,andmustthereforebefollowedbyanouninthere-spectivecaseseeSection 8.2 .Separableprexesarenotfollowedbyanything.Examples: SiesprachmirMutzu .[prex] Ichhabelangezwischen denBaumengesessen.[preposition]

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46 Ichmochtedasauf schreiben.[prex] KonntenSiedasauf dieKarteschreiben?[preposition] LegenSiedieLebensmittelauf denTisch.[preposition] MeineMutterwarheuteechtgutauf gelegt.[prexinadjectivalparticiple] BUT:Horauf mitderFragerei![prex]Section 7.2.2 7.2MoodMoodisavariantofthewordmodeanddenotesthemannerorwayinwhichaverbexpressesitsaction.AsinEnglish,Germanhasthreemoods:indicative,imperative,andsubjunctive.Eachmoodisdividedintotenses,butmostbookspresentthetensesoftheindicativemood,thenmentiontheothermoodswithoutevenpresentingtheirtenses.7.2.1IndicativeThisisthemoodofregularspeechandwriting.Nearlyeverysentenceinthispaper,includingthisone,iswrittenintheindicativemood.Ifoneisnottellingsomeoneelsewhattodoorsupposingwhatmayormightbebutisnot,chancesareheorsheisspeakingintheindicativemood.7.2.2ImperativesTheimperative,sometimesalsocalledthehortativemood,isusedforgivingcommands.Forthemostpart,oneencountersonly4typesofimperatives: 1. 1stPersonPlural 2. 2ndPersonSingularfamiliar 3. 2ndPersonSingularpolite 4. 2ndPersonPlural

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47 InproperwrittenGermananimperativesentenceisalwaysendedwithanexcla-mationpoint.ThisiswhytheinstructionsinsomeGermantestswrittenbynativespeakersseemharshforAmericanstudents.Rememberthat!FormationTables 7.4 and 7.5 explaintheformationofimperativesandtheformsoftheimperativesfortheirregularformsofsein,werdenandhaben.UseandhistoryArguedtobetherstappearancesofreallanguage,imperativesareverbalthoughtsbelievedtobetheoriginalformsofeachverb.Someexamplesmightbe:lookout!help!leave!.Sincetheseformswereatonepointthecommonestandwereundoubtedlythersttooriginate,itshouldbenosurprisecommandsbothgreatlyresembletheverbswhichsprangforthfromthemandarethemoststubborn"{thatis,theydonotalwayscorrespondtotheconjugatedindicativeformswithrespecttostemchangesAblaut. Sagedoch,wasduwirklichwillst! LiesdeinBuchfurMorgen! Schlafgut!Thebasicverbformineventhemostdissimilaroftheimperatives,namelythe2ndpersonsingular,caneasilyberecognized.Inforeignlanguagelearningweusuallybecomefamiliarwiththeindicativemoodrst,asthosearetheformsusedindeclar-ativesentencessuchasWiegehtesdir?andMeinNameistGotzGeorge.Hencetheimperativeformsaresaidtobebuiltfromtheindicativepresent.Sincethesearetheformsoneusuallylearnsrstandtheoneswithwhichyouarealreadymostfamiliar,wearefollowingthistradition.WhiletheEnglishimperativehasonlytwoforms,theGermanhasfour:oneforthe1stpersonpluralcf.Let'sgoswimming{Gehenwirschwimmen,andoneforeachofthe2ndpersonforms,du,ihr,andSie.The2ndpersonsingularimperative

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48 Table7.4:FormationofImperatives Intherstpersonpluraland2ndPersonformalformsthepro-nounisnotdroppedbuttheorderischangedincomparisonwiththeindicativeform.Theimperativeslookexactlyasquestionsdo.Inthe2ndpersonfamiliarformsthepronounisdropped. Therstpersonplurallooksexactlyasitdoesintheinnitive:essen!Wiressen.!Essenwir! The2ndpersonsingularfamiliarisformedbydroppingthe`t'fromthestemthe3rdPersonsingularformandremovinganyumlautthatdonotoccurintheinnitivea:lesen!Erliest.!Lies! The2ndpersonpluralfamiliarformisidenticaltotheindicativepresent:Lest!Esst!Glaubt! asuchasinschlafenorlaufen;Erschlaft!Schlaf!;Sielauft!Lauf! Table7.5:TheMainIrregularVerbs sein sei seienwir seid seienSie werdena werde werdenwir werdet werdenSie habenb habe habenwir habt habenSie aaveryuncommonimperativebNoticethathabenfollowstheregularpatternofverbs.

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49 isformedbydroppingthe`t'fromthe3rdpersonsingularformandremovinganyumlautthatdoesn'toccurintheinnitive:Trink[e]!Wasch[e]!Geh[e]!Lies!Iss!Sprich!Lern[e]!Whetherornotthe`e'isaddeddependsonthelastconsonant: 1. ifthestemsendsin`d'or`t'the`e'mustbethere:Wartemal!Arbeiteeiiger!BindedeineSchuhezu! 2. ifthestemendsin`m'or`n',the`e'mustbethere,unlessthe`m'or`n'isprecededbym,n,r,lor`h',inwhichcaseitisoptional:Atmelangsam!WidmemireinBuch!Rechneesdochmalaus!BUT:Kamm[e]dich!Qualm[e]nichtso!Lern[e]eiig!Ruhm[e]dichnichtselbst! 3. verbswhoseinnitivesendin-elnor-erndotakean`e'ontheendbutmaylosetheonebeforethel/r,dependingonstyle:Hand[e]le!Samm[e]le!Ford[e]re!Withthe`e'ismoreformalandalmostalwaysusedinwrittenGerman. 4. verbswhose2ndpersonsingularformchangesthecentralvoweltoan`i'donothavethenal`e':Lies!Wirf!Stirb!Verdirb!Iss!Miss!Friss!Sprich!Vergiss!Nimm!Hilf!Quill!Gib!Schilt!Wirb!Sieh!WordOrder 1. whenusedwithasubordinateclause{justasinEnglish:Passauf,wennduetwasuberRadfahrenlernenwillst! 2. regardingavoringparticles{seenextSection 3. negation{nothingunusualhere.FollowspatternsdescribedinChapter 10 MorecomparabletoEnglishthatFrench:Passtnichtauf!Schautnichther...!MachkeineAusreden!etc.

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50 4. anomaly:aufhoren:horaufmit...!insteadofhormit...auf!FlavoringparticlesinimperativesentencesInnormalspeechtherearemanywordswhichnearlyeverynativespeakersusesbutwhichstudentsdonotusuallylearn.Inmostbookstheyarecalledavoringparticles"forlackofamoredescriptiveterm.ExamplesofasimilarEnglishphe-nomenonarelike,sortof,youknow,yousee.InGermantheyaremuchmorecommonandoccurnotonlyinspeech,butalsotosomeextentinformalwriting.Onemustrememberthatpeoplerarelygivestraightcommands,astheyaremuchtooharshandusuallydonotresultinthespeakerobtainingwhats/hewants.Takealookatthefollowingsentences: Bob,cleanyourroom. Alice,tryharderthistime. Justwait!Mostwouldagree,thesecommandswouldsoundalotgentleriftheywerealittlelessdirect.AliceandBobbemorecompliantifonesaidsomethinglike: Bob,whydon'tyoucleanyourroom? Alice,tryjustalittleharderthistime. Waitjustasecond!Naturally,theintonationalsoplaysabigrolehere.OneshouldnotbesurprisedtohearthatGermanhasthesametendencies.Luckilytheimperativeformdoesnotchangeatall,rather,twowordstheso-calledavoringparticles"areadded,usuallyrightaftertheimperativeformi.e.includingthepronouninthepluralforms:dochandmal.ThisgivesaverysimilareecttotheWhydon't...: RaumedochdeinZimmerauf! Bemuhedichdoch! Wartemalkurz!

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51 Althoughsomeinstructorstelltheirstudentstoavoidusingsuchparticlesinthebeginningstages,onewillrarelyhearrealGermancommandswithoutthem,anditisthereforetheopinionoftheauthorthatevenbeginninglearnerstrytousethem.7.2.3SubjunctiveThesubjunctivemoodKonjuntivbelongstothemoreadvancedtopicsandmaybeonlybrieymentionedinsomerstyearcourses.Nonetheless,itmaybeintherstsentenceonehearswhenonearrivesinaGerman-speakingcountryandisofutmostimportanceforanintroductoryGermancourse.Uses: 1. whensomethingdidnothappenorisnotgoingtohappen,orisnottruecon-trarytofact:asif,almost,Iwish... 2. politeness:mochtegern,hattegern,wurdealsoinquestions 3. if,whenclauses 4. whenreportingsomethingthatmayornotbetrue{herthespeaker/authorisdistancinghim/herselffromthecontentofthestatementandwithholdingajudgmentconcerningitsfactualityindirectspeechFormation: 1. forweakverbs,itisthesameastheimperfectpraeteritumform 2. forstrongverbs,onetakesthepraeteritumformchangestherstvoweltoanumlautwherepossible.Therstpersonsingularalsoaddsan-easasux.Therearemanycommonverbsthatareparticularlyoldandthereforeparticu-larlystubborn,suchashelfenhulfe,sterbensturbe 3. theauxiliaryverbwurdenEng.:wouldisoftenusedwiththemainverbasaninnitiveinsteadofformingthesubjunctiveofthemainverb.Thisisparticu-larlycommoninpoliteforms.

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52 4. manyverbshavetwosubjunctiveformsforthetwodierenttypesofsubjunctiveseeTable 7.6 oneisalwaysnotbuiltfromthepraeteritumandmustbelearnedseparatelyForthesubjunctiveformsofmodalverbs,seepage 57

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53 Table7.6:TheTwoTypesofSubjunctiveinGerman ThereareactuallytwotypesofsubjunctiveinGerman: oneforcommandsandindirectspeech oneforpolitenessandoneforconditionsthatarecontrarytofactorthatcouldbetruebutarenotTheyareusuallycalledSubjunctiveorKonjunctiveIandII.Onecantellthemapartby: theirusage:seeabove theirform:subjunctiveIIistheformdescribedaboveorwurden+in-nitive;subjunctiveIischaracterizedbythefactthatthe3rdpersonsingularformlooksliketheindicative1stpersonsingularhabe,verstehe,sehe,mache,etc.{iftheformcannotbedierentiatedfromtheindicativeformsuchaswithhaben,theformforsubjunctiveIIisusedorwurden+innitive nobookshouldcalltheserules,asonecan,atbest,speakoftendenciesinusageainvolvingthevaryingforms a[ Duden ,163]

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54 Examples:Indirectspeech: 1. Ersagt,ichseiseinBruder. 2. Ersagt,ichsollseinBrudersein. 3. InderZeitungstehtes,erhabesienichtgekannt. 4. Manbehauptet,siehattensichfruhergekannt.Commands: 1. Manmogedichherzlichwillkommenheissen. 2. EslebederKonig. 3. Mannehme2Eier...Politeforms: 1. KonntenSiemirhelfen? 2. WurdetihrdieTuroenlassen? 3. Durfteicheinbichenbleiben?Conditionscontrarytofact: 1. Fasthatteeresgeschat! 2. WennichnurmehrGeldhatte... 3. Wenndunichtsolautwarest,konntestduinderKuchespielen. 4. AmTelefonhorstdudichsoan,alsstundestduimnachstenZimmer!7.3ModalVerbsAmodalverbisasortofhelpingverbthatexpressesawish,intention,or{onamorebasiclevel{arelationtotheactioninthesentence.Thisactionisshownbyanotherverbinthesentence,whichmustbeintheinnitive.InGerman,thisinnitivecomesattheendofthesentenceinmainclausesbutnotinsubordinateclauses.Thereare,however,manycaseswheretheintentissoobviousthattheinnitivecanbeomitted-someexamplesarebelowinTable 7.8

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55 7.3.1ConjugationThe1stand3rdsingularformsarealwaysthesameinmodalverbs;thereisanablautinthesingularinallbutsollenandmochten;andthepluralformsof1st,2ndformal,and3rdalwaysidenticaltotheinnitive.Noticethatpatterns:allthe1stand3rdpersonsingularformsareidenticalandtheinnitiveisidenticaltothe1st,3rdpersonspluralandthe2ndpersonformal.Novowelchangesoccurinthepluralbutineverypersoninthesingularinallverbsbutsollen.Thereisanotherverb,mogen,whosesubjunctiveformisverysimilartoandoftenusedasasmodalverb.Assollen,ittoohasnoAblautstemvowelchange.Modalverbsareauxiliaryverbswhichareusuallyaccompaniedbyaninnitive.Theyaresollen,wollen,mochtenspecialcase,durfen,mussen,konnen.thingstolookoutfor. verbsorsubjunctiveformsofverbsthatusuallyactlikemodals:mochten,lassen verbsthathavethemeaningssimilartomodalverbs:mogenseemochtenabove,gernhaben,vermogen.Pasttensesofmodalverbs.Therearetwowaystoindicatemodalactionsinthepast: 1. withthepresentperfecttense{inthiscasethepastparticipleofthemodalverbisonlyusedwhentheinnitivecanbeellidedseeTable 7.8 ,otherwisetheauxiliaryformofhabenisusedandthemodalauxiliaryismovedtotheendoftheclause,i.e.aftertheinnitivecomplement:Dashabeichnichtmachendurfen. 2. withtheimperfect{theshorterandmorecommonwayistousetheimper-fectformofthemodalauxiliarysollten,durften,konnten,mussten,wollten,mochtenandleavetherestofthesentenceasitis:Dasdurfteichnichtmachen.

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56 Table7.7:ConjugationofModalVerbsandmochten Fortheimpatient: durfen ichdarf wirdurfen dudarfst ihrdurft/Siedurfen er,sie,esdarf siedurfen konnen ichkann wirkonnen dukannst ihrkonnt/Siekonnen er,sie,eskann siekonnen mussen ichmuss wirmussen dumusst ihrmusst/Siemussen er,sie,esmuss siemussen wollen ichwill wirwollen duwillst ihrwollt/Siewollen er,sie,eswill siewollen sollen ichsoll wirsollen dusollst ihrsollt/Siesollen er,sie,essoll siesollen mochten ichmochte wirmochten dumochtest ihrmochtet/Siemochten er,sie,esmochte siemochten

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57 Table7.8:WhenOneCanLeaveOuttheInnitive direction Whentheintendedinnitiveexpressesmove-ment,suchasisthecasewithlaufen,fahren,iegen,etc.itmaybeomitted:IchmochtenachFrankreich.IchmussindieSchweiz.Morgenwollenwirzudir. ellipses Whentheintendedinnitiveisclearenoughwithoutbeingstated,itisusuallyomitted:Ichwilldasabernicht[machen].ErkanngutDeutsch[sprechen]. Notethatthepresentperfectwithmainverbsi.e.whentheinnitivecannotbeellidedisusedinfrequentlywiththeindicativemood,andthattheconstructionismostlyusedwithsubjunctiveforms.AcarefulstudentofGermanwillnotmistaketheimperfectuseofmodalswiththeirrealuseofthesubjunctive: 1. Dasdurfteichnichtmachen. 2. Dashatteichnichtmachendurfen.Insentenceone,thespeakerwasnotallowedtodowhateverisbeingspokenabout,andinsentencetwothespeakerdid doitbutshouldnothave.SeeSection 7.2.3 formoreinformation.subjunctiveforms.Therearetwomainusesforthesubjunctiveformsofmodalverbs:contrarytofactandformsofpoliteness. 1. Asmentionedaboveintheprevioussection,thepresentperfectsubjunctiveisjustthepresentperfectindicativewiththesubjunctiveformofhaben.Thus: a Dashabeichnichttunsollen. b Dashatsienichtsagenkonnen. c Manhatmirnichthelfenkonnen.

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58 2. Inordertomakerequestsmorepolite,Germanusesthesubjunctiveformsofthemodalverbs.ThisisconsistentbothwiththetendencytousewurdenwithotherverbsaswellaswiththeEnglishpractice:would,can/could,may/might.Notethat,asmentionedabove,mochtenisnotatruemodalverbbutthesubjunctiveformofmogen.Itisalreadyapoliteform.7.4TensesThetimeinwhichanactiontakesplaceisdenedbythetenseoftheverb.Sincetenseiswithintheverbitself,formsusingauxiliaryverbsputtogetherarenottense .ThusEnglishdoesnothaveafuturetense,sincetheauxiliaryverbwillratherthanwordendingsisusedtosignifyactionswhichtakeplaceinthefuture.AlthoughGermanhasitsownsetoftensesandexpressesthingsinamuchdierentwaythanEnglish,thisisonethingtheyhaveincommon.Whenwespeakoftensehere,asisdoneinmostbooksandcourses,wewillbefocusingonthetimeexpressedandnotonthestrictrulesofform;thereforefuture"ishandledinitsownsectionjustastheothertenses.Thissectionexplainsthemeaningsandusesoftheconceptoftense,whilesomemoreindepthremarksandtheformationofeachtenseishandledindividuallyinSections 7.4.1 { 7.4.6 .Itmustalsobepointedoutthattenseisnotinuencedbynordirectlyrelatedtomoodorvoice,andthateachtensehasdierentformsforthedierentmoodsandvoices.Thetwoimportantpiecesofinformationinregardstoanalyzingtensearethespokentimeandpointofreference.Thespokentimeisnow,orwheneverthesentenceisuttered,andthepointofreferenceisthetimeatwhichthesaideventtakesplace.Examplesofwhentousewhichtense. Itis3:00pm,andourspeakerisgoingtoeatdinnertonightat6:00pm.IchesseheuteAbendum18Uhr.orIchwerdeheuteAbendum18Uhressen.

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59 Figure7.1:AVisualRepresentationofGermanTense WithouttheadverbialphraseheuteAbend,therstsentencehasahabitualasopposedtoaone-timemeaning.Thesecondsentenceisinanyeventmoreresoluteorunwaveringthantherst.Likewise,ifoneweretobeaskedWhenareyougoingtobenished?twopossibleanswersareIchbinum19UhrfertigandIchwerdeum19Uhrfertigsein,wherethesecondgivestheimpressionthatthespeakerwantstodispellanydoubtsthats/hemightnotbenishedbythen. Ifsomeoneweretoinvitethespeakertomakeplansforatimeafterthissched-uleddinner,theanswermightbe:Ichwerdeum19Uhrschongegessenhaben.Asamplesentenceinwhichthespokentimeis4:00pm,theplannedtimetoeatis6:00pm,andthepointofreferenceunderlinedinthissentenceis8:00pm:Bisichdichwiedersehe ,werdeichschongegessenhaben. Ichstehegewohnlichum7Uhrauf.displayshabitualbehaviorwhichisstrengthenedbygewohnlich,whereasthesentence:Ichbinum7Uhraufgestandenmeansthespeakergotuponetimeat7:00am.Withoutapointofreference,itwillbeassumedthatthismorningismeant. Thefollowingsentenceillustrateshowthetimewaslongerinthepast:Ichmuteum10UhrnachWien,alsobinichum7aufgestanden. Thesentence:Ichstandum7Uhraufmostlikelyreferstoageneralactioninthepast,suchasWhileincollege,Igotupat10:00,[butafterIbeganworking...]

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60 At3:00pm,onedescribeswhathedidthismorning{hewillusethepresentperfect,exceptwiththefewverbswhichalmostalwaysareusedintheimperfectformseeSection 7.4.3 Ichbinum7UhraufgestandenundhabemirdieZahnegeputzt.DannhabeichgefruhstucktundNachrichtengehort...Usingimperfectismoreappropriatewhentellingastorythehistoricalpast whichtookplacethismorningbutistoldasastorywitharemovedpointofreference: IchsahdenPolizisten,undersahmich.Erkonntenichtglauben,dassichvordergebrochenenFensterscheibestand,undersagteHalt!"...Notethattheimperfectisnotusedwithaconcretepointofreferenceinthefuture{itmustalwaysbeacompletedactionorahabitualactioninthepastwhichnolongertakesplace.However,thepresentperfecttenseisusedtodescribecompletedactions,eveniftheyhavenottakenplaceyet: Bis...[Bythetime...]andnach...[after...] Biswirunswiedersehen,habeichdieKartenschongekauft. Nach19Uhrhabeichschongegessen.Inthesesentences,thepointofreferenceisinthefutureBiswirunswiedersehen,Nach19Uhr,buttheactionwillbecompletedbythen.Notethatbothofthesesentencesareimpossiblewiththeimperfect: *Biswirunswiedersehen,kaufteichdieKartenschon. *Nach19Uhraichschon.Thisiswhatthepastperfectorplusquamperfectisusedfor.Forexample: NachdemduausdemKinogekommenwarst,sahichdichgleich.Forsimultaneousactionsinthepast,alsisused. AlsduausdemKinokamst,sahichdichgleich.

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61 Notethatthissentencewouldbeimpossiblewiththepresentperfectbecauseitdoesnotrefertoanexactpointintime,butrathertothefactthattheactioniscompleted: *AlsduausdemKinogekommenbist,habeichdichgleichgesehen.OntheorderoftensesinGerman: inpresent-presenttheeventstakeplaceatthesametime inimperfect-imperfecttheeventstakeplaceatthesametime inpastperfect-pastperfecttheeventstakeplaceatthesametime inpastperfect-imperfecttheimperfecteventtookplaceafterthepastperfectevent,andbothareinthepastIchsahdicherst,nachdemduschongewunkenhattest.winken=towave inpresentperfect-presentthepresenteventtookplaceafterthepresentperfectevent,andthepresentperfecteventiscompleted inpresent-futuretheeventinthefuturehasnotyethappened inpresentperfect-futureperfecttheeventinfutureperfectwillbecompletedaftertheeventinthepresentperfecthasbeencompleted,butexactlywhenthatisinreferencetothespokentimedependsupthecontextorthepointofreference.7.4.1PresentThepresenttenseisthetenseusedinthissentenceandanysentenceinwhichtheverbisinthepresenttenseformandthepointofreferenceisthesameasthespokentime.Examplesarebelow:EnglishGermanIameating,Ieat,IdoeatIchesseIsleep,Idosleep,IamsleepingIchschlafeNoticethatinadditiontotense,Englishverbsalsohaveaspect,whichisusedtodetermineifsomethingishabitual,

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62 aonetimeaction,orishappeningatthismomentrightnow.Germanusesadverbsandcontexttoachievethis.Forexample,TheEnglishsentences:Iamsleeping,Idosleep,andIsleepwouldallbetranslatedintoGermanasIchschlafewithoutcontext,butwithinaconversationaneortshouldbemadetomakesurethateverynuancepossibleistranslatedaswell.Inordertoillustratethattheeventishappeningrightnow,suchasthecaseiswiththeEnglishpresentprogressiveIamsleeping,Germanusestheadverbgerade:Ichschlafegerade.Inordertoconveythatanactionishabitual,thepresenttenseoftenusestheadverbgewohnlich: Igetupatsix.!Ichstehegewohnlichumsechsauf.BecauseGermandoesnothaveaspect,thepresenttense"referstoabroaderpossibletimespanthantheEnglishpresenttense"doeswhichisbrokendownintoaspect.InGerman,thepresenttenseisthetenseusedmostoftentorefertoactionsinthefuture.SeeSection 7.4.4 .7.4.2PerfectFormationofthePerfectThepresentperfecttenseinGermanlooksalotliketheEnglishpresentperfectbutusuallyhasadierentmeaning.Itisformedwithanauxiliaryeitherhabenorsein,dependingontheverb{seepage 64 andthepastparticipleoftheverb.Justaswithmodalverbswhicharealsoauxiliaries,theconjugatedformofhabenorseinappearsinitsexpectedpositioninthesentence,andtheparticipleappearsattheend,justliketheinnitiveinamodalpredicate.Forexample:IchhabemeineHausaufgabenschongemacht.Noticetheprexonthepastparticipleand`t'endingofthisregularGermanschwachor`weak'verb.Thisisthedefaultform,butthereareseveralreasonswhymanyoftheverbsyouencounterdonotmatchthispattern: 1. theverbhasaprex,eitherseparableorinseparable

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63 2. theverbisstark`strong',i.e.itjustdoesnotfollowthepatternAlso,combinationsofthetwopossibilitiesabovearenotuncommon.Thereasonwhymostoftherstverbsonelearnsinaforeignlanguageareirregularisbecausetheyareusuallytheoldestandmoststubborn.Insteadofresemblingthepatternswordsfellintowhenthelanguageoriginatedi.e.becamedierentenoughtobecalledalanguageandnolongerjustadialect,thecommonwordsweresodeep-rootedinthespeakers'mindsthatareplacementwouldhavebeenimpossible.ComparethepastparticipleofEnglishwordssuchassleep,drink,think,see,go,etc.tonewerandmorecommononessuchastranspire,type,congure,etc.LearningpastparticiplesTherearetwokeysguidelinesforlearningallthepastparticiplesofalltheverbs: Forweakverbs taketheinnitiveoftheverb,dropthe`-en'endingandadda`-t';adda`ge-'tothebeginningofthenon-prexedverbsorbetweentheprexandtheroottotheverbswithsep-arableprexes.Verbswithinsep-arableprexesaswellasthoseendingin-ierentakenoprexwhatsoever.stellen!gestelltaufstellen!aufgestelltverstellen!verstellt Forstrongverbs andtheso-calledmixedverbsthereareseveralpatternswhichcanhelpyouremembertheformsbuttomake`rules'ofthesewouldbesim-plytooabstractatthispoint.Fornowitisbesttosimplymemorizethem.Notethattherulesfortheabsenceof`ge-'stillapply.Whatmakesthemstrong/mixedisthefactthatthevowelchangesAblaut.Thenal`-en'isnotdroppedandreplacedbya`-t'inthestrongverbsbutisinthemixed.ausziehen!ausgezogen[stark]versehen!versehen[stark]

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64 denken!gedacht[gemischt]bringen!gebracht[gemischt]seinorhaben?Asmentionedabove,theauxiliaryverbforthepresentperfectcanbeeitherhabenorsein,dependingontheverbinquestion{orbetter:dependingonwhethertheverbindicatesachangeinmotionorconditionordoesnot.Iftheverbisamotionverb{suchastorun,togo{oraverbindicatingachangeincondition{suchastobecome,todie,tohappen,tobreak{theauxiliaryistheformofseinthatagreeswiththesubjecti.e.bin,bist,etc.,dependingonnumberandpersonofthesubject.Ifnot,itisconjugatedwiththecorrectformofhaben.Therearealmostnoverbsthatdonotconformtothispatternotherthanseinitself.Notealsothatalltransitiveverbsareconjugatedwithhaben.MeaningAsmentionedabove,thereisadierenceinmeaningbetweentheEnglishandGermanpresentperfecttenses.ThereareseveralusesinGermanforthistense,butallbutonearerelativelyobscureandunimportantforbeginners:Itscommonestuseistosignifythattheactionhastakenplaceandhasalreadybeencompletedatthetimethesentenceisuttered.Thetimetheactwascompletedcanbegivenbyadverbs:IchhabegesterneinFahrradgekauftIchhabeschongegessen.NoticethatinEnglishthismeaningcanrepresentedbyseveraldierentformsas-pectsofthepasttense: Ihaveboughtabike. Iwasbuyingabike[when...]. Iboughtabike. Ididbuyabike.

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65 7.4.3ImperfectOftenreferredtoasthe`simplepast,'the`praeteritum,'orthe`historicpast,'theimperfecttenseconsistseitherofadierentverbformstrongandmixedverbsoraninserted-t-andreferstoeventsthattookplaceinthepasttense.Itisusedbothforhabitualandonetimeactionsinthepast,butnotforactionswhichbeganinthepastandarestillcontinuing.ItismoreoftenusedinwrittenthanspokenexceptwiththeverbsinTable 7.9 ,forwhichitisalsousedinspokenGermanbecausetheverbsoccursooftenandareshorterthanthepresentperfectforms.Inadditionthetheverbsseinandhaben,thefollowingverbsareusedintheimperfectmoreoftenthanthepresentperfectinspokenGermanbecauseoftheirshortforms:denken,nden,einsehen7.4.4FutureAsmentionedinSections 7.4 and 7.4.1 ,thereisnofuturetense"inGermanjustasthereisnoneinEnglish,andthepresenttensewithadverbsoftimeisoftenusedtoexpressthesenseoffutureactions.Examples:I'llmeetyouat8tonight.Ichtreedichum8heuteAbend.IthinkI'llgototheconcertwithyounextweek.Ichglaube,ichgehenachsteWochemitdiraufsKonzert. Table7.9:ImperfectFormsofseinandhaben sein singular plural ichwar wirwaren duwarst ihrwart/Siewaren er,sie,eswaren siewaren haben singular plural ichhatte wirhatten duhattest ihrhattet/Siehatten er,sie,eshatte siehatten

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66 Inadditiontothepresenttensewithadverbsoftime,theverbwerden+innitiveisusedtoexpresseventsinthefuture.Itisnotusedinterchangeablywiththepresenttensetoexpressthefuturetensebecauseitislessdependentoncontextortimeadverbstoexhibititsfuturity.Inaddition,ithasamoreresolutetonethanthepresenttense+atimeadverb.Inadditiontothefuturitywerden+innitive,itcanalsoexhibitanassumptiononthepartofthespeaker.Inthiscase,thesaidevenmaystillbehappeningornothaveevenhappenedyet.DerThomaswirdkranksein.Thomasisprobablysick.Often,adverbssuchaswohl,vermutlich,wahrscheinlich,vielleichtareusedtoenhancethefactthatthespeakerseesthisonlyasapossibilityandnotasfactorthatthespeakercastsdoubtonthestatement: Daswirstduwohlambestenkonnen,nichtwahr? MeinVaterwirdvermutlichdasEssenbezahlen.7.4.5FuturePerfectThefutureperfect,alsoknownas`futureII,'isthefuturecounterparttothepresentperfect.Itnotonlyexhibitsallthecharacteristicsofthepresentperfectinrelationtowhenittakesplace,italsohasthepossibilityaspectthefuturetensehasasexplainedabove.Inthiscase,theeventiscomplete,andthespeakerisspeculatingabouttheoutcomeoranotheraspectoftheevent: MeinVaterwirdfurdasAutobezahlthaben. Ichwerdedichwohlgewarnthaben?!Itisformedwithwerden+presentperfectinnitiveseeSection 7.1.1 .7.4.6PastPerfectThepastperfect,or`plusquamperfect,'isusedtorefertoeventsthatwerecom-pletedbeforeaneventinthepasttookplace.Forexample,ifitisnow3:00pmand

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67 HerrSchmidtcalledhiswifeat11:30amandthenatelunchat12:00pm,onemightsay:Erhatte seineFrauschonangerufen ,bevorerMittaggegessenhat.Noticethatitlooksexactlyasthepresentperfect,buttheauxiliaryverbhaben,whichwouldbeseiniftheverbexhibitedmotionorachangeofcondition,isintheperfect.Thesameistrueforallverbs: 1. Manwarschongegangen,alsSiegekommensind. 2. Wirhattenihnschonsehenkonnen,eheerdieFahnetrug. 3. IhrseiderstzuHausegewesen,nachdemwirangerufenhatten.7.5VerbTypes7.5.1FullVerbsAfullverbisaverbthatcanstandonitsownasapredicateinasentenceandhasalexicalasopposedtojustagrammaticalworth.Thesearethenormalmainverbsonemeansmostofthetimewhenreferringthepredicateofasentence.Ifitisnotanauxiliaryverb,areexiveverb,afunctionverb,amodalverb,oraninnitive,itisafullverb.7.5.2AuxiliaryVerbsAuxiliaryverbs,alsoknownashelpingverbs,aretheverbshaben,sein,andwerdenwhen theyareusedinconjunctionwithmainverbstoperformagrammaticalfunctioninasentence.Thefunctionsincludebuildingthepassive,modalconstruc-tions,andperfectconstructions.7.5.3ReexiveVerbsReexiveverbsareverbsthathavereexivepronounsastheirobjectsseeSec-tion 4.3 .Therearefewverbswhicharetrulyreexive,thatis,verbsthatmustbeusedwithreexivepronouns,althoughthisnumberismuchhigherthaninEnglish.

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68 UsuallywhenonespeaksofreexiveverbsinGerman,onemeansanypredicatethathasareexivepronounasanobject.Thethreemostimportantcharacteristicsofreexiveverbsare: 1. theyaretransitive,whichmeanstheyformtheirperfecttenseswithhaben 2. theyareallactive,sincetheobjectacteduponisacteduponbythesubjectitself 3. asmentionedinSection 4.3 ,reexiveverbsareoftenusedinGermanwhenEnglishwouldusepossessivepronounstoshowpossession: IchputzemirdieZahne. ErhatsichdasBeingebrochen. HastdudirdenFingergeschnitten?7.5.4PhrasalVerbsTherearemanyverbsinGermanwhichtakeonadierentmeaningwhentheyareusedtogetherwithcertainprepositionalphrases.TheseareanalogoustothephrasalverbsinEnglish,andalthoughtheyarenotaseparategrammaticalcategory,theyshouldbehandledasaclassoftheirown.Table 7.10 containsseveralexamplesofthecommonestandmostimportantfunctionverbs.ItisimportantthatoneknownotonlytheverbanditsconjugationbutalsotheprepositionandthecasewhichitgovernsseeChapter 8 Table7.10:PhrasalVerbs verbpreposition+case[perfectinnitive] Englishmeaning samplesentence abhangenvon+dat[abgehangenhaben] todependonsomeoneorsomething EshangtallesvondeinerEinstellungab.

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69 Table 7.10 {Continued verbpreposition+case[perfectinnitive] Englishmeaning samplesentence anfangenmit+dat[angefangenhaben] tostart,tobeginnwithsomeoneorsomething DerArzthatmitderProzedurnochnichtange-fangen. aufhorenmit+dat[aufgehorthaben] tostopwithsomeoneorsomething HorenSiemitderFragereiauf! beginnenmit+dat[begonnenhaben] tostart,tobeginwithsomeoneorsomething MeinBruderhatletztesJahrmitderSchulebe-gonnen. jemandenbittenum+acc[gebetenhaben] toasksomeoneforsome-thing ManhatmichumVerstandnisgebeten. denkenan+acc[gedachthaben] tothinkaboutsomeoneorsomething ManmussoftanseineKinderdenken. nachdenkenuber+acc[nachgedachthaben] tothinkaboutsomeoneorsomething IchhabelangeuberdeineErklarungnachgedacht. jemandemdankenfur+acc[gedankthaben] tothanksomeoneforsome-thing IchmochteIhnenganzher-zlichfurIhreHilfe. jemandenfragennach+dat[gefragthaben] toasksomeoneaboutsomeoneorsomething HabtihrsienacheinerzweitenServiettegefragt? glaubenan+acc[geglaubthaben] tobelieveinsomeoneorsomething IchglaubeanGott.

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70 Table 7.10 {Continued verbpreposition+case[perfectinnitive] Englishmeaning samplesentence jemandenhaltenfur+acc[gehaltenhaben] totakesomeoneforsome-thing IchhabeihnfureinenLugnergehalten. hoenauf+acc[gehothaben] tohopeforsomething SiehoenaufgutesWet-ter. lachenuber+acc[gelachthaben] tolaughaboutsomeoneorsomething Sielachtenalleubermich. leidenan+acc[gelittenhaben] tosuerfromsomething SieleidetoftandemLarmderFlugzeuge. geratenin+acc[geratensein] togetintosomething ErgerietoftinWut,wennichmeinewahreMeinungdazuauere. sichentschuldigenbei+datfur+acc[sichentschuldigthaben] toapologizetosomeoneforsomethingtotellsomeonetobesorryforsomething IchhabemichbeiihnenfurdieUnangenehmlichkeitenentschuldigt. sichfurchtenvor+dat[sichgefurchtethaben] tobeafraidofsomeoneorsomething IchfurchtemichvorSpin-nen. sichfreuenuber+acc[sichgefreuthaben] tobepleasedwithsomeoneorsomething IchhabemichsehruberIhrenAnrufgefreut. sichfreuenauf+acc[sichgefreuthaben] tolookforwardto+gerund SiefreutsichaufeinbaldigesWiedersehen. sichinteressierenfur+acc[sichinteressierthaben] tobeinterestedinsomeoneorsomething ErinteressiertsichnurfurAutos.

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71 Table 7.10 {Continued verbpreposition+case[perfectinnitive] Englishmeaning samplesentence sichkummernum+acc[sichgekummerthaben] totakecareofsomeoneorsomething Siekummertsichumihnnicht. sichkonzentrierenauf+acc[sichkonzentrierthaben] tofocusonsomeoneorsomething SiekonzentriertsichaufihreHausaufgaben. sichsorgenum+acc[sichgesorgthaben] toworryaboutsomeoneorsomething WirsorgenunsumseineFinanzschwierigkeiten. sichverliebenin+acc[sichverliebthaben] tofallinlovewithsomeone Siehatsichinihnverliebt. sichvorbereitenauf+acc[sichvorbereitethaben] toprepareforsomething IchbereitemichaufdieDeutschprufungvor. sorgenfur+acc[gesorgthaben] totakecaresomeoneorsomething Wirsorgenfurihn. sprechenmit+datuber+acc[gesprochenhaben] totalkwithsomeoneaboutsomeoneorsomething IchhabemitihmuberdenPlangesprochen. sterbenan+acc[gestorbensein] todiefromsomething Eristaneinemgebroch-enenHerzengestorben. teilnehmenan+dat[teilgenommenhaben] totakepart,toparticipateinsomething IchmochteamSom-merkursinMannheimteilnehmen. vertrauenauf+acc[vertrauthaben] tohavetrustinsomeoneorsomething IchvertraueaufmeineFre-undeundFamilie.

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72 Table 7.10 {Continued verbpreposition+case[perfectinnitive] Englishmeaning samplesentence verzichtenauf+acc.[verzichtethaben] todowithoutsomething IchhabeaufdenPreisverzichtet. wartenauf+acc towaitforsomeoneorsomething Erwartetaufeuch. 7.6Voice7.6.1ActiveAsentenceisintheactivevoicewhenthesubjectofthatsentenceistheagent.Inotherwords,ifthenouninthenominativeiscommittingtheactionorifthepredicatehasseinasitsmainverb,itisanactivesentence.7.6.2PassiveInpassivesentences,theagentisnotthesubjectofthesentence.Sometimesitistheobjectoftheprepositionvonordurch,butoftenitisnotevenmentioned.Thesubjectisactedupon bysomenamedorunnamedforce,andtheverbwerdenbuildsthepredicateasanauxiliaryverb.Toconvertfromactivetopassive.Onetakesthedirectobjectandmakesitthesubject,payingattentiontothenewwordorderandrememberingtoconjugatetheverbaccordingly.Theindirectobjectdoesnotchange.Ifthereisanactiveagenti.e.notman,itbecomestheobjectofvonanddeclinedforthedativecaseaccordingly;ifmanisthesubjectoftheactivesentence,itissimplyleftoutasitisimplied.Examples: ManbesuchtdiesenTempeloft.!DieserTempelwirdvonLeutenoftbesucht. Manschreit.!Eswirdgeschrieen.noagentcanbenamedhere

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73 AndreasschenktAngelikadasBuch.!BuchwirdvonAndreasAngelikageschenkt.Toconvertfrompassivetoactive.Forchangingpassivesentencesintoactiveones,oneneedonlyreversetheprocessdescribedabove:Objectsoftheprepo-sitionsvonanddurchwillusuallybethesubjectunlessthereisnotsubjectnamed,inwhichcaseitwillusuallybeman.Specialattentionmustbegiventotense,number,andmood.Tellingthedierencebetweenpassiveandfuture.Inpassive,thepar-ticipleisinthepasttenseforfutureintheinnitive,cf.Erwirdesmachen{Eswirdgemacht.Siewirdessen{Siewirdgegessen.Oftenthepassivehasthevon+agentindative.Tellingthedierencebetweenpassiveandfutureperfect.Infutureperfectthepastparticipleispresentbuttheinnitivehabenmustalsobepresent.cf.:Eswirdgegessen{Erwirdbisdanngegessenhaben.Thefutureperfectisarelativelyseldomoccurrence,sooneshouldnotreallyhavemuchtroublewithit.

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CHAPTER8PREPOSITIONSTable 8.1 isanoverviewofthemostcommonlyusedprepositions. Table8.1:AnOverviewofthePrepositions Prep.CasesDenitions nomaccdatgen mostoften: special: an++dat.:at,nexttoonacc.:towards,at seebelow auf++dat.:ontopof,atacc.:towards inplaceofzu,in:e.g.aufdieBank aus-+outof,from madeofX" auer-1+besides,apartfrom withexceptionto bei-+atthehouseofXwhile+gerund bis+-2temporal:until,byspatial:asfaras durch+-through passive:from,by+agent 1seeSection 8.2.2 2seeSection 8.2.1 74

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75 Table 8.1 {Continued Prep.CasesDenitions fur+-for timelimit,compari-son,orsubstitution gegen+-against,towards bothspatialandcomparative hinter++behind in++dat/acc:in,acc:into mit-+with nach-+to,after accordingtoperson neben++ohne+-without seit-+sincetemporal uber++over,above um+-around,at temporal:atspatial:around unter++under,beneath von-+of,from passive+agent:by vor++temporal:before,infrontof canbeusedtempo-rallyandspatially wegen-+3+ because/onaccountof zu-+to seeSection 8.2.2 zwischen++between 3seeSection 8.2.4

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76 Prepositionsareverydiculttotranslateandthereforecausemanystudentsproblems,mainlybecausethereisneveraonetoonecorrespondenceinmeaning.Somanycontextsmakewrotememorizationimpossible.Themaindicultiesarisewhenthestudent: 1. doesnotknowwhichcasefollowstheprepositionandthereforehastroublelocatingtheobject 2. isnotawareofthedierenceinmeaningarisingfromthedierencecasessomeprepositionscangovern 3. forgetsthecommonmeaningorencountersausagenewforhim/herandcannotsurmisethemeaningfromthecontext 4. mistakesaseparableprexforaprepositionorviceversaThersttwoproblemsareeasilyresolvedbystudyingthesections 8.2.1 8.2.2 ,and 8.2.3 andlearningthemeaningswiththepropercases.Thethirdandfourthproblemsarealsoresolvablebuttakealittlemoreeort.Grapplingwithsection 8.1 willhelpagreatdealinconceptualizingthespatialqualitiesoftheprepositions,andwiththesections 7.5.4 onfunctionverbsand 7.1.5 onseparableverbprexesoneshouldbewellonthewaytodealingwithmostprepositionalproblemsonemayencounter.8.1AVisualOverviewofthePrepositionsApictureisworthathousandwords.Thepicturesofprepositionsonthenextvepagesaremeanttodisplaythespatialmeaningofeachprepositionandanddrawattentiontowhatitmeansratherthanhowtotranslateit.8.1.1PrepositionsofMovementandMotionSeeFigures 8.1 { 8.14 .8.1.2PrepositionsExhibitingaStaticStateSeeFigures 8.15 { 8.24

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77 Figure8.1:anwithAccusative Figure8.2:aufwithAccusative Figure8.3:bis Figure8.4:durch

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78 Figure8.5:gegen Figure8.6:hinterwithAccusative Figure8.7:inwithAccusative Figure8.8:nebenwithAccusative Figure8.9:uberwithAccusative Figure8.10:um

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79 Figure8.11:unteri.e.beneathwithAccusative Figure8.12:unteri.e.amongwithAccusative Figure8.13:vorwithAccusative Figure8.14:zwischenwithAccusative Figure8.15:anwithDative Figure8.16:aufwithDative Figure8.17:inwithDative Figure8.18:nebenwithDative

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80 Figure8.19:uberwithDative Figure8.20:von Figure8.21:unteri.e.beneathwithDative Figure8.22:unteri.e.amongwithDative

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81 8.2PrepositionsGoverningCaseBecauseEnglishdoesnothaveacasesystem,onenormallydoesnottakenoteofthedierencesinthenounsinprepositionalphrases.Butinsentenceswithpredicatessuchastogiveandtotell,thedierencebecomesobvious:Igavehimthebook. Itoldhernottoeatanymoreofmydandelionstems. Thehimandtheherclearlyhavedierentfunctionsthanthebook andthephrasalobjectnottoeatanymoreofmydandelionstems .Wecantestthisbyaskingthequestions:What didyougivehim?Towhom didyougivethebook?What didyoutellher?Whom didyoutellnottoeatanymoreofyourdandelionstems?SinceGermandoeshavefourdistinctcasesandprepositionsthatarealwaysfollowedbycertainones,onehastoknowwhichonestouseforwhichpreposition.8.2.1PrepositionsgoverningtheAccusativeTheprepositionswhoseobjectsarealwaysintheaccusativeare:bisdurchfurgegenohneum8.2.2PrepositionsgoverningtheDativeThefollowingprepositionsarefollowedbydativeobjects:ausauerbeimitnachseitvonzunehmenDativ,dasweitDu!auerisaspecialcase.Occasionallyitfulllsthefunctionofaconjunction,andinrareinstances,itcanalsogoverntheaccusativeorgenitivecase.Fornow,theauthorrecommendsthatbeginnerlearnerstreatitasadativeprepositionsincetheotherinstancesaresorare.

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82 8.2.3Two-wayprepositionsApartfromthetwogroupsofprepositionswhichgoverntheaccusativeanddative,thereisanothergroupofprepositionswhichtakeobjectsintheaccusativeordativedependingonthemeaningofthesentence.Thismeaningisdescribedbelow.SemanticsThesecondmajorfunctionofthedativeandaccusativecases,nexttodistin-guishingthedirectobjectsfromtheindirectobjects,istodistinguishbetweenob-jectsshowingmotionaccusativeandthosewhicharestationarydative.Englishdoesnothaveanythingevensimilartothis,butitisanecessarypartofGerman.InEnglishthismotionisexpressedsimplybyusingdierentverbs,asillustratedinTable 8.2 .Notethatthepastparticiplesaredierentforstationaryverbsandverbsofmotion{verbsofmotionhaveweakpastparticiples,whilestationaryverbshavestrongpastparticiples.Fortunately,thereisnotalargenumberofprepositionsthatcangoverneitherthedativeoraccusativeinthisfashion,somemorizingthemshouldbequiteeasy:anaufhinterinnebenuberuntervorzwischenTolearnhowtocorrectlyusethem,oneneedonlytothinkofthetwodierenttypesofcontextstheycouldappearin,asillustratedinTable 8.3 Table8.2:The`TwoWayVerbs' EnglishGermanstationarywithmotionstationarywithmotiontostandtoput/placestehenstellentolietolayliegenlegentositbesittingtositdownsitzensichhinsetzentosittosetsitzensetzentohangtohanguphangenhangen

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83 Table8.3:SomeTwo-wayPrepositions Prep.withaccusative{wohin?withdative{wo? anErgehtandieTafel.ErstehtanderTafel. aufLegesaufdenTisch.EsliegtaufdemTisch. hinterStellenSiedieStuhlehinterdasHaus.ErschlafthinterdemHaus. inSchautindasFensterhinein.IchhabeihnindemBahnhofgesehen. nebenHangedasBildnebendenSpiegel.GeorgsitztnebendemFernse-her. uberErhatuberdasBuchundausdemFenstergesehen.UberjedemHausisteinDach. unterIchhabedieZeitungunterdenTischgelegt.IchhabesieschonuntereinemBaumgelesen. vorMangehtnichtvoreinAuto,dasgeradefahrt.VorderMauerwarenauchvieleLeuteunglucklich. zwischenLaufenwirzwischendieBaumeunduberdenHugel.DeineMilchstehtzwischendenFlaschenaufdemTisch.

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84 Notethattheprepositionsretainthispropertywhethertheyareusedwithtimezeitlichorplaceortlich.8.2.4PrepositionsgoverningtheGenitiveNoneoftheprepositionsgoverningthegenitivecasebelongtothegroupoftwentycommonestpreposition.Nonetheless,Table 8.4 illustratesseveralofthemostimportantonesonemayencounter.Forwrittenpurposes,oneshouldnearlyalwaysseethemwiththegenitivecase,alsothethedativeisslowlyreplacingthegenitive.Inthefeminineandpluralonecannottellwhetherthegenitiveordativecaseisbeingused,butitisevidentwithmasculineandneutersingularnouns.ForlearnersofGermanasaforeignlanguageitisbesttostillsticktothegenitive,asusingadativeformwillonlydrawacorrectionfromanativespeaker.

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85 Table8.4:SomeGenitivePrepositions PrepositionEnglishequivalentCharacteristics wegenbecauseof,onac-countofalsobuiltwithpossessivepronounsseinetwegen,ihretwegen wahrendduringalsoasasubordinatingconjunction,seeTable 9.2 trotzdespite,inspiteofalsotrotzdem anstelleinsteadofnottobeconfusedwithverbanstellen,tohire aufgrundduetofromGrund,reason kraftbyvirtueof,invirtueofprettyseldomlyused lautaccordingto,asperalso:laut=loudadj.,lauter=manyadj angesichtsinviewof,inthefaceoffromGesicht,face dankthanksto zufolgeasaresultoffromFolge,result zwecksforthepurposeoffromZweck,purpose,intention

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86 Figure8.23:vor/hinterwithDative Figure8.24:zwischenwithDative

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CHAPTER9CONJUNCTIONSConjunctionsarethewordsthatconnecttwowordgroupsorclauses.Grammar-iansdivideconjunctionsintofourdierentgroupsaccordingtotheirfunction,butoneusuallylearnsabouttwogroupsforbeginningpurposesandthendiscoversthattwootherconstructionsheisfamiliarwithandusesareactuallyalsoconjunctions.Inthispaperallfourgroupswillbepresentedtogether: 1. coordinatingconjunctions 2. subordinatingconjunctions 3. innitiveconjunctions 4. proportionalconjunctionsAlthougheachgroupcanbefurtherbrokendownintomanysubgroups,eachgroupispresentedbyitselfoverthenextfoursectionsand,withtheexceptionofsubordinatingconjunctions,noattemptismadetocategorizeitsmembers.9.1CoordinatingConjunctionsThereisalimitednumberofcoordinatingconjunctions.Theyareund,aber,oder,denn,nur,sowohl...alsauch,entweder...oder,sondern,allein,doch,jedoch.TheirmeaningsareelucidatedinTable 9.1 .9.2SubordinatingConjunctionsThenumberofsubordinatingconjunctionsismuchlargerthanthenumberofcoordinatingconjunctionsandtheywillnotallbelistedhere.Thetwocharacteristicsthatsubordinatingconjunctionsexhibitwhichdierentiatethemfromcoordinatingconjunctionsare 87

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88 Table9.1:TheCoordinatingConjunctions ThecoordinationconjunctionsdonotchangetheorderofthesentencesanddocountaspositionwordswhendeterminingthelocationoftheverbseeSection 1.1 ConjunctionEnglishequivalentCharacteristics undandnocommabeforeissubjectisthesameinbothclauses aberbutequivalenttoEng.`however' sondernbutratherrequiresasubstitute{Eng.:notXbut ratherX oderor dennbecausecf.denninSection 9.4 {thatonemeansthan nuronly sowohl...alsauchboth...andsometimestranslatedasnotonly...butalsoal-thoughnichtnur...sondernauchismoreaccurateinthatcase entweder...odereither...ornotusedfornegatives{thatrequiresweder...noch{seeChapter 10 alleinalone,onlymorestrengthening/alienatingnur{donotconfusewiththeadjectiveallein{hereithasnoobjectanddoesnotinuencethecaseofthefollowingwords dochbut,howevercontradictswhateverwasjustsaidorbelievedtobethought;canstandonitsownasacontradictorysentence{thenitisaninterjection jedochhoweverinfrequentlyusedastherstwordinasentence

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89 1. theyintroducesubordinateclauses,andsubordinateclausesarecharacterizedbyverb-last 2. subordinateclausesaredependentclauses,whichmeanstheycannotstandontheirownassentencesandtheircontentissubordinatedtothemainclauseonwhichtheyaredependent.Acomparisonofthetwoconjunctionsdennandweilisagoodwaytodemonstratethedierencebetweencoordinatingandsubordinatingconjunctions,theformerbeingacoordinating,thelatterasubordinatingconjunction,bothmeaningbecause. 1. IchmusszumBahnhof,denn meinZugfahrtumfunf. 2. IchmusszumBahnhof,weil ichdenZugumfunfbekommenmochte.Sentenceoneillustratesthatdenndoesnotinuencethewordorderoftheclause.ThetwoindependentclausesIchmusszumBahnhofandmeinZugfahrtumfunfareconnectedatanequivalentlevel{inotherwordscoordinated{bydenn,butneitherisdependenttheother;onecouldjusthaveusedothercoordinatingconjunctionssuchasaber,und,oranotherwithonlyaslightmeaningindierence.Sentencetwoillustratesthataclauseintroducedbyweilsubordinatestothemainclause,causingtheverbtomovetotheendoftheclause.Thereasoningforthemainclauseisexplainedinthisdependentclause:WhydoIhavetogothetrainstation?BecauseIwouldliketocatchthe5o'clocktrain.TheclauseweilichdenZugumfunfbekommenmochteisnotacompletethoughtandcanthereforenotexistonitsown.AllofthesubordinatingconjunctionsinTable 9.2 exhibitthesecharacteristics.Groups: 1. wahrend,indem,solange,sobald,sooft,als,wenn 2. nachdem,seit,als,wenn,sobald,sowie 3. bis,bevor,ehe 4. dass

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90 5. wie,alsob,als/wiewenn 6. weil,zumal,da 7. je...desto,je...umso 8. obwohlalsoobgleich,obschon,obzwar,wennauch 9. damit Table9.2:CommonestSubordinatingConjunctions ConjunctionEnglishequivalentCharacteristics Temporal wahrendwhile,whilstalsoaprepositionusuallyusedwiththegenitive,seeTable 8.4 indemas,while solange1aslongasoftenfollowedbyals sobaldassoonas,once sooftwhenever alswhenusedforonetimeactionsinthepast wennwhenusedforhabitualactionsinthepast nachdemafter seitsinceGermanIchXseitYisIhavebeenXingforYXisverbandYistime bisbythetime,until bevor;ehebefore Comparative wieas

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91 Table 9.2 {Continued ConjunctionEnglishequivalentCharacteristics alsobasif alswennwiewennasif Causal weilbecauseforacomparisonofweilanddenn,seepage 89 zumaldasince Showingcorrelation je...destoje...umsothemoreXthemoreYorTheXertheYer Concessive obwohl2although,eventhough wennaucheventhough Finite damitsothat,therewith dassthat aalsosofernbalsoobgleich,obschon,obzwar 9.3InnitiveConjunctionsStrictlyspeaking,umzushouldbetranslatedintoEnglishasinorderto,butinspeechoneusuallysimpliesthisconstructiontoto.Example:

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92 Table9.3:UsesoftheInnitive 1. umzu...inorderto...IlesedieZeitungjedenTagumdieWeltbesserzuverstehen. 2. ohnezu...without...-ingOhnegesunderzuessenwirstdunichtrichtiggesund. IchkaufedieteuerstenBoxen,umMusiklautspielenzukonnen.Iambuyingthemostexpensivespeakersinordertobeabletoplaymusicloud.Notethatumzuismostoftenusedinconjunctionwithmodals,whereassen-tencessuchas:IwanttoworklatetodaysothatIcanleaveearlytomorrow.donotusetheinnitiveinEnglishorGerman.cf.IwanttoworklatetodayinorderthatImightbeabletoleaveearlytomorrow.OhnezuisrenderedasagerundandnotasaninnitiveinEnglish,i.e.Ohnedichzukennen...isWithoutknowing you....9.4ProportionateConjunctionsAfourthsetofconjunctionsaretheproportionateconjunctions.Theyarerarelytaughtassuchandforthatreasonalonecausebeginningstudentstrouble.Theirnamedescribestheirfunction:theydescriberelations.InEnglish,asandthanaresometimesusedtounitetwopartsofasentencewhenmakingcomparisons.TheseareproportionateconjunctionsinGerman.Theyareumso,desto,als,als,wie,denn,denn,als

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CHAPTER10NEGATIONTherearethreebasicthingsonemightwanttonegateinasentence:anoun,anadjective/adverb,orthewholesentence{i.e.theverb.NoticethatEnglishbasicallyonlyhasno"anditsformsnone,notany,noone,nobody"etc.fornounsandnot"forverbsandadjectives.ThisisexactlythesameinGerman.Ituseskein ",whichisdeclinedjustlikeein ",forthenounsandnicht"fortheadjectives,adverbs,andverbs.Withoutevenunderstandingasentence,onecaneasilypickoutthenegatedpartofsentence.Theformsofkein "comedirectlybeforethenounstheynegate,andnicht"isfound: directlybeforethepredicateadjectivesandpredicatenominatives:DasistnichtmeinHund.DerHundistnichtgrun. beforeadverbsofindenitetime,place,andmanner: IchkannnichtoftFuballspielen. IchdarfnichtbaldwiederindieSchweiz. HerrReinholdistnichtzuHause. ErfahrtnichtmitdemBusvonAmerikanachEuropa. beforeprepositionsthatexpressadirectionorposition: EriegtnichtindieSchweiz. FrauHedewigmochtenichtnachMainz. JacekistnichtzuHause. JurekwohntnichtinPolen. beforetheinnitivesinmodalsentences: Mandarfsienichtsehen. 93

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94 Ihrsolltihnnichtanschreien. afteradverbsofdenitetime: ErjoggtamSamstagnicht. Wirseheneuchum18:00heuteAbendnicht.Itbecomesmoredicultwhenseveralelementsappearinasentenceatonce.Thismightleadtoconfusionregardingthepositionofnicht.Therearetwoadditionalrulesofthumbtokeepinmind: ifnichtreferstoaspecicelementinthesentenceandismeanttonegatejustit,thenitcomesdirectlybeforethiselement,asin:Ichliebenichtdich.i.e.Ilovesomeone,butnotyou ifnichtisnegatinganentiresentenceorclause,ittendstocometowardtheendofthesentence:IchiegeamMittwochnachBerlinnicht.i.e.I'mnotgoingtosaywhenIamyingtoBerlinorwhereI'myingonWednesdayThisthewaymostsentencesinGermanandEnglishare,sometimesonemaywanttonegateonenounandthensuggestanotherinitsplace:Notthegreenones,butratherthe...;Notyourbike,mine.Germanhasthissamefeature.Forinstance:...derzwarnichtmeinVaterwar,dermichjedoch[however]...ThedierencebetweenthesetwoEnglishsentences:Idon'twantanymoney",Idon'twantthat[your/his/etc.]money"isparalleledbytheGerman:IchwillkeinGeld",IchwilldasGeldnicht"isthattherststatesthespeakerdoesnotwantanyGeldofanykind,whereasthesecondmeansthatonlytheGeldinquestionisbeingreferredto.Thenegationcanalsobestrengthenedbyusinguberhauptorgar.Theyessen-tiallyhavethesamemeaning,butuberhauptisslightlystronger.Insteadofnicht,thenegatingparticlenie,meaningnever"mayappear.

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95 Table10.1:Kein kein comesbeforeindenites.indenitearticlesarepreceededbyak: IchwilleineWurstessen!IchwillkeineWurstessen. ErmochteeinenneuenStuhlbesitzen.!ErmochtekeinenneuenStuhlbesitzen.pluralswithnoarticlestakekeine: IhrsehtStuhlevoreuch.!IhrsehtkeineStuhlevoreuch. IchbraucheBucher.!IchbrauchekeineBucher.zeroarticleindenitesmassnouns,e.g.:Geld,Milch,Gemuse,etc.areprecededbykein withtheappropriateendingswhichmatchincase,number,andgender: IchhabeGeld.!IchhabekeinGeld. IchtrinkemorgensMilch.!IchtrinkemorgenskeineMilch. Negatingschon,nochSomesentenceswillnotbeabletobedirectlynegatedbecauseoftheirunusualstructure.Forexample,inEnglishonesays: Ialreadyknowwhathe'sgoingtosayandIstillclaimhe'sthemurderer.butnot: *Ialreadydon'tknowwhathe'sgoingtosay.or *Idon'tstillclaimhe'sthemurderer.rather: Idon'tknowwhathe'sgoingtosayyet .andInolonger claimhe'sthemurderer.Theseareirregularities.Germanhasthesamethingforschonandnoch: Ichweijaschon,wassieglaubt.!Ichweinochnicht ,wassieglaubt. IchessenochKarotten.!Ichessekeine Karottenmehr

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96 Table10.2:Nicht nichtnegateseverythingelse:verbs,adjectives,adverbs,prepositionalphrases,predicatenominativesnichtcomesbefore:adjectivesDerBergiststeil!DerBergistnichtsteil.predicatenominativesDasistHerrSchwarz!DasistnichtHerrSchwarz.adverbsofmanner,indenitetimeandplace: MargitgehtzuFu.!MargitgehtnichtzuFu. Erbesuchtmichoft.!Erbesuchtmichnichtoft. Erwohnthier.!Erwohntnichthier.prepositionalphrasesexpressingdestinationorlocation: SiegehtnachHause.!SiegehtnichtnachHause. ErarbeitetinBerlin.!ErarbeitetnichtinBerlin.innitivesofmodalverbsErkannmichsehen.!Erkannmichnichtsehen.nichtcomesafter:verbs,personalpronouns,anddenitesubjectsanddirectobjects: Ichesse.!Ichessenicht. Manbesuchtmich.!Manbesuchtmichnicht. WergehtmitinsKino?Ichnicht. IchkennedeinenFreund.!IchkennedeinenFreundnicht.expressionsofdenitetime: WirsehenunsheuteAbend.!WirsehenunsheuteAbendnicht. Ichlesejetzt.!Ichlesejetztnicht.

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97 SebastianspieltnochGolf.!SebastianspieltGolfnichtmehr .Notethattheuseofkein ornichtisdeterminedbytheelementwhichisbeingnegatedinthesentence,asdescribedabove.

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CHAPTER11QUESTIONSGermanisaverb-second-language.Thismeansthat,asstatedinTable 1.1 ,theverbisalwaysinthesecondpositionindeclarativesentences.Ininterrogativesentencesquestions,thatisnotalwaysthecase.Therearetwobasictypesofinterrogativesentence: 1. yes/noquestions 2. questionsusinginterrogativeadverbsYes/noquestionsuseinversion;intherstpersonpluralandsecondpersonformalformslooklikeimperatives,otherwisetheyareidenticaltodeclarativesentences.Questionsofthersttypeareessentiallylookingforone-elementanswersandoftenelicitone-wordresponses: Wer hatdasgetan? Was hastdugesagt? Wann bistduzuruckgekommen? Mitwem warstdugestern? Wo habtihrgeparkt?ThisisnodierentfromEnglish,e.g.: Howfar didyoutravel? Whom didyoumeetalongtheway?Additionally,Germanhaswo-compoundsinwhichwo-combineswithaprepo-sitiontoformaquestionparticle: Worauf wartetihr?Whatareyouwaitingon? Womit schreibstdu?Whatareyouwritingwith? 98

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99 Notethatthisisonlyforobjects{peopleandformsofwerareformedasintheprevioussentences.Someinterrogatives:wer,was,wann,wo,wie,warum,wieso,wieviel,wessen,wenn,wo-suchasworauf,womit,wozu,etc.

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APPENDIXAPRONUNCIATIONA.1GuidetoGermanPronunciationThesearethebasicsoundsofGerman.OneshouldbeabletousethesegeneralguidelinestocorrectlypronouncemostGermanwordsoneencounters.Noticethatthethirdcolumncontainsexamplesofthesoundoccuringininitial,middle,andnalpositionwhereavailable. TableA.1:GermanPronunciationGuide Vowels1aaasinAm.Eng.:fa therAchtung,Ventilator,daesimilartotheeinEnglish:beteng,Hexe,Baumeishort:similartothevowelinEnglish:ifich,wolkig,Zwirn`ie'long:similartotheinitialvowelinEng.:evenMikroskop,studieren,Utopie 1TwoprimarydierencestobenoticedintheGermanvowelsystemare 1. InEnglish,wetendtoslurorglidevowelsatthebeginningsofwords,whileallvowelsbeginningsyllablesbeginwithglottalstopsthe`-'inEnglish`uh-oh'inGerman. 2. MostofthevowelsinAmericanEnglisharenotpure,butratherdiphthongs;wemoveourmouthstochangefromonevowelsoundtoarelatedonefeelthisbysayingthewordape"oridle"slowly,whilethevowelsinthissectionarepureandthereforeinvolvenoliporjawmovementfortheirduration. 100

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101 oaverypureosound-nolipmovement!oberachlich,obwohl,Situationalso,Bote,Bootuaverypure,comparativelylongusoundunglaublich,Abrundung,duaverysimilartothevowelsoundinAmericanEnglishbet,butthejawisopenedalittlewiderandthetongueisdownjustabitasch,Schlage,{othetongueandjawareinthesamepositionasine,butthelipsareroundedOkonomie,obszon,Friseuruthetongueisinthesamepositionasinthelongi,butthelipsareveryrounded;sameasFrench`u'short:yuppsilon,Hutte,{long:uber,Besitztumer,{ysameaslongu,butsomepronounceitdialecticallyliketheshorti{,Syntax,{Diphthongseicomposedofthetwovowelsaandi.SimilartotheEng.diphthongthelongiininprize,buttherstvowelisformedalittlefurtherbackinthemouthinGerman.Eisberg,schmeicheln,Prahlereiau/eutheGermanversionoftheAm.Eng.`oi'soundasinboyauerst,Teufel,EfeuauliketheAm.Eng.ouchwithoutnasalityauch,unglaublich,genau

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102 ConsonantsbjustasinEnglish2bringen,[But!:]absagen,Staubc3usuallya`k'soundwhenfoundatthebegin-ningofwordsotherwisefoundinthecombi-nation`ch'Clou/Clique,{,{cheither: 1. theendingsoundin`ich'[seeFigure A.1 ]afterfrontvowelsi,e,o,a,u 2. asinLochafterbackvowelsu,o,a 3. the`sh'soundwehaveinEnglish 4. `k'41:Chemie2:acht3:Chance4:ChordjustasinEnglishdahin[But!:]radfahren,BadfjustasinEnglishfahren,Ae,GrafgjustasinEnglishgrau,[But!:]Wegweiser,Tagh5justasinEnglish+lengthensvowelbeforeitincombinationswithaoouuhelfen,{,{;Mal!MahlWolle!wohl;Muller!Muhle 2butnotethatallconsonantslosetheirvoicingattheendofwordsandsyllables3therulesforthisconsonantarenotasdiculttodealwithastheyatrstappear.Inadictionaryof16,000words,onlyabout60beginwith`c'or`ch',andthemeaningsofmorethanhalfofthemcanbeguessedbecausetheyarespelledexactlyasinEnglish.ThisisbecausenearlyallGermanwordsbeginningwith`c'areloanwords4thedecidingfactorofwhichoftheselasttwovariantsisusedisbasedontheword'sorigin:theFrenchwordsareoftenpronounced`sh'andtheGreekones`k'5inthemiddleandatendofwords`h'lengthenstheimmediatelyprecedingvowel

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103 kjustasinEnglishkaufen,abkriegen,starkjalmostalwayspronouncedjustliketheEn-glish`y',exceptin:Jargon,Job,JazzJulia/jemand,{,{lverysimilartoAmericanEnglish`l'butwiththetonguecontactingabitclosertothefrontofthemouthteethLinguistik,unglaublich/Tollwut,jawohlmjustasinEnglishMutter,kommen,amnjustasinEnglishNuance,Tante,TonpjustasinEnglishPrivileg,Knorpel,Typqfollowedby`u',togethertheymakeasoundlikeEnglish:`kv'quietschen/qualmen,{,{rtherearethreeGermanrs: oneproducedwiththetipofthetongue{usuallyinsong,onstage,andasavariantincertainregions{notethatitisonlyrarelyusedinnormalspeechexceptincertaindialectsFrau/rechts,fahren,Tor thehighGerman"uvular`r',whichislikethesoundyoumakewhenyougargle{itisnotverycommonotherthaninveryformalspeeches themostwidespreadandwhatiscon-sideredstandard"inGermany,thevelar`r'isformedjustahairclosertothebackofthemouththanthe`k'and`g';seeFigure A.2 ;thisistheonemostforeignlanguagelearnerswanttoemulatesbetweenEng.`s'and`z';semi-voicedbegin-ningasyllableandunvoicedafterunvoicedconsonantsandatsyllable-endSonne,[But!:]tagsuber,nachts

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104 tjustasinEnglish,exceptin-tion,whereitispronounced`ts'{seefollowingsectiontausend/trinken/stinken,achtzehn,spatvexceptforafewexceptionsVase,VulkanpronouncedlikeEnglish`f'verfahren,{,{wjustlikeEnglish`v'Wasser,{,{xliketheEnglish`ks'Xenophobie,Xerxes,{zalmostalwayslikeEnglish`ts'Zeit,entnazizieren/Pizza,KreuzMoreTroublemakers-erthishalbvokalsemi-vowelispronouncedhalfwaybetweentheeandavowels.Atanormalspeechratetherisnotheard!er,{,Traumer-ionsoundslikehowGermanswouldpronounce`Jon',iewitha`y'initialconsonantandapurevowel`o'{,national,Ination-ungthereareabout30,000feminine!Germansubstantivesthatcarrythisending.Justrememberthatthe`g'ispronouncedasasoft`k'i.e.voiceless!{,{,Regierung-igthisisnotpronouncedasanormalnalgwhichis[k]asonewouldexpect,butratherthechvariantwhichfollowsfrontvowels[c],Figure A.1 ,whichmeansitispronouncedjustasich{,{,wolkig/Konig

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105 FigureA.1:ich FigureA.2:Radfahren

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106 A.2BookCoverGuide TableA.2:ShortPronunciationGuideforGerman Vowels aaasinAmericanEng.:fa therAchtung,Ventilator,da esimilartotheeinEng.:beteng,Hexe,Baume ishort:similartothevowelin:ifich,wolkig,Zwirn `ie'long:similartothe1stvowelin:evenMikroskop,studieren,Utopie opureosound-nolipmovement!oberachlich,obwohl,Situation upure,relativelylongusoundunglaublich,Abrundung,du asimilarto-ein:bet{jawwiderasch,Schlage,{ olikeewithroundedlipsOkonomie,obszon,Friseur ulongiwithroundedlipsFrench`u'short:yuppsilon,Hutte,{long:uber,Besitztumer,{ ysameaslongu{,Syntax,{ Diphthongs eia+i;longiinprizeEisberg,schmeicheln,Prahlerei au/eutheGermanversionoftheAmericanEng.`oi'soundasinboyauerst,Teufel,Efeu auliketheAmericanEng.ouchauch,unglaublich,genau Consonants bjustasinEng.`p'atsyllableendbringen,[But!:]absagen,Staub c`k'soundatthebeginningofwords;otherwisein`ch'Clou/Clique,{,{ continuedonbackcover

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107 ch1:asin`ich'afteri,e,o,a,u2:asinLochafteru,o,a3:the`sh'soundinEng.4:`k'1:Chemie2:acht3:Chance4:Chor djustasinEng.`t'atsyllableenddahin[But!:]radfahren,Bad fjustasinEng.fahren,Ae,Graf gjustasinEng.`k'atsyllableendgrau,[But!:]Wegweiser,Tag hjustasinEng.lengthensprecedingvowelwithaoouuhelfen,{,{;Mal!Mahl;Wolle!wohl;Muller!Muhle kjustasinEng.kaufen,abkriegen,stark jusuallylikeEng.`y'but:loanwordsJulia/jemand,{,{Job,Jazz lverysimilartoAmericanEng.`l'Linguistik,unglaublich/Tollwut mjustasinEng.Mutter,kommen,am njustasinEng.Nuance,Tante,Ton pjustasinEng.Privileg,Knorpel,Typ qfollowedby`u',soundslikeEng.:`kv'quietschen/qualmen,{,{ rusually:velar{formedabitclosertothebackofthemouththanthe`k'/`g'Frau/rechts,fahren,Tor susually`z';`s'atendofsyllablesSonne,[But!:]tagsuber,nachts tjustasinEng.but:-tion=`tstausend/trinken/stinken,achtzehn vusuallylikeEng.`f'but:loanwordsverfahren,{,{Vase,Vulkan wjustlikeEng.`v'Wasser,{,{ xjustlikeEng.`ks'Xenophobie,Xerxes,{ zalmostalwayslikeEng.`ts'Zeit,Pizza,Kreuz continuedonbackcover

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APPENDIXBIRREGULARVERBLISTTableB.1:Irregularverbsarrangedaccordingtopatterns EnglishGerman3rdsingularPraeteritePerfect topullziehenerziehtzogerhatgezogen tosmellriechenerriechtrocherhatgerochen tolietellalielugenerlugtlogerhatgelogen tospeaksprechenersprichtspracherhatgesprochen tocloseschlieenerschlietschloerhatgeschlossen totakenehmenernimmtnahmerhatgenommen tobegin,startbeginnenerbeginntbegannerhatbegonnen tobegin,startanfangenerfangtannganerhatangefangen tocallupanrufenerruftanriefanerhatangerufen togivegebenergibtgaberhatgegeben towashwaschenerwaschtwuscherhatgewaschen toreadlesenerliestlaserhatgelesen tosleepschlafenerschlaftschlieferhatgeschlafen toseesehenersiehtsaherhatgesehen tocarrytragenertragttrugerhatgetragen tostay,remainbleibenerbleibtblieberistgeblieben todecideentscheidenerentscheidetentschiederhatentschieden tobecalledheienerheithieerhatgehei en toseem;toshinescheinenesscheintschieneshatgeschienen towriteschreibenerschreibtschrieberhatgeschrieben 108

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109 Table B.1 {Continued EnglishGerman3rdsingularPraeteritePerfect tobeseineristwareristgewesen todiesterbenerstirbtstarberistgestorben tobecomewerdenerwirdwarderistgeworden toswimschwimmenerschwimmtschwammeristgeschwommen tocomekommenerkommtkameristgekommen togogehenergehtgingeristgegangen towalk/runlaufenerlauftlieferistgelaufen toyiegeneriegtogeristgeogen toowieenerietoeristgeossen todrivefahrenerfahrtfuhreristgefahren todrinktrinkenertrinkttrankerhatgetrunken tostinkstinkenerstinktstankerhatgestunken toforcezwingenerzwingtzwangerhatgezwungen tosingsingenersingtsangerhatgesungen tondndenerndetfanderhatgefunden toleaveverlassenerverlatverlieerhatverlassen toforgetvergessenervergitvergaerhatvergessen toownbesitzenerbesitztbesaerhatbesessen toeatessenerisstaerhatgegessen todotunertuttaterhatgetan tostandstehenerstehtstanderhatgestanden toliepast=layliegenerliegtlagerhatgelegen tostoptrans.haltenerhalthielterhatgehalten

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REFERENCES [Dreyer] Dreyer,HilkeandRichardSchmidt.APracticeGrammarofGerman.Leipzig:VerlagfurDeutsch.1999. [Wahrig] dtv-WorterbuchderdeutschenSprache.Hrsg.v.GerhardWahrig.Munchen:DeutscherTaschenbuchVerlag.14.Auage1994. [Duden] DudenGrammatikderdeutschenGegenwartssprache.Hrsg.v.GuntherDrosdowski.DerDuden;Bd.4.Mannheim:Dudenverlag,1995. [Fleischer] Fleischer,WolfgangandIrnhildBarz.WortbildungderdeutschenGegenwartssprache.2.Au.Tubingen:MaxNiemeyerVerlag,1995. [Helbig] GerhardHelbig,andJoachimBuschaDeutscheGrammatik.EinHand-buchfurdenAuslanderunterricht.Leipzig:VerlagEnzyklopadie.10.Auage1987. [Rausch] Rausch,RudolfandIlka:DeutschePhonetikfurAuslander.Leipzig:VerlagEnzyklopadie.4.Auage1995. [Quirk] Quirk,RandolphandSidneyGreenbaum:AConciseGrammarofContem-poraryEnglish.NewYork:HarcourtBraceJavanovich,1973. [Zorach] Zorach,CecileandCharlotteMelin.EnglishGrammarforStudentsofGerman,3rded.AnnArbor,Michigan:TheOliviaandHillPress,1994. 110

PAGE 123

111 [ Dreyer ]issomethingeveryoneshouldhavebytheendoftherstsemester.Itis360pageslong,haslotsofexerciseswithkey.Audiocassettes/cdsalsoavailable.[ Wahrig ]isaGerman/Germandictionary.TheauthorstronglyrecommendseveryonewhoeverplanstolearnGermantobuyacopy.Therearemanyexamplesofdierentusagesgiven,whichmakesitindispensableforanystudentofGerman.[ Duden ]isindispensableforanyonewhospeaksorwritesGerman.Itisthe4thof12volumesofbooksdescribingmanyaspectsofGerman.Roughly850pagesinGermanisdicultformoststudents,butafterashortperiodabroaditiscertainlyworthit.[ Helbig ]isinternationalstandardforadvancelearnersofGerman.Inconjunctionwithorafter[ Dreyer ],itisveryuseful.[ Rausch ]isapronunciationandphonology/phoneticsbook.ItistoodicultformostbeginnersasitisinGermanandofatechnicalnature,butitisgoodforseriousstudentsfurtheralongintheirstudies.

PAGE 124

BIOGRAPHICALSKETCHAfterhisrstyearasastudentofGermanattheUniversityofFloridain1995,JonBuseyspentayearabroadattheUniversitatMannheimstudyingGermanLitera-tureandLinguistics.TheDepartmentofGermanicandSlavicstudieswasthengener-ousenoughtohelphimacquirefullnancialsupportforasecondyearinMannheim,duringwhichtimehealsostudiedClassicsattheUniversitatHeidelberg.HeearnedaB.A.inGermanStudiesandLinguisticsfromtheUniversityofFloridain1999.HethentaughttwosemesterssoloofBeginningGermanattheUniversityofFloridaandhelpedthedepartmentdevelopanonlineintroductoryGermancoursewhichbeganinFall2001.AfternishinganM.A.inGermanLiteraturein2001hewillbeginworkingonadegreeinAppliedMathematicsatFloridaStateUniversity.Hishobbiesincludecom-puterassistedlearningtechnologies,chess,homesupercomputing,andcryptography.HispermanentE-mailaddressis: jcbusey@yahoo.com 112


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A LINGUISTIC INTRODUCTION TO GERMAN FOR THE NON-LINGUIST:
AN ACCOMPANYING GUIDE TO ANY FIRST-YEAR GERMAN COURSE















By

JONATHAN C. BUSEY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001

















For Julia, my soon-to-be wife















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank C('i: Overstreet and Prof. Keith Bullivant for patiently

teaching me German and putting up with questions, and Prof. Franz Futterknecht

for the motivation necessary to conceptualize and design yet another introduction to

German.

Motivation came from Prof. David Young's unpublished introduction to Ancient

Greek and Dr. Robert Underhill's dissertation, Turkish Grammar. Cambridge,

Mass.: MIT Press, 1976.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . ..

LIST OF TABLES ........

LIST OF FIGURES . .....

ABSTRACT .. .. ..........

INTRODUCTION . ......

CHAPTERS .. .. ..........

1 WORD ORDER AND THE

1.1 Word order ......
1.2 Nominative ......
1.3 The Accusative .
1.4 The Dative ......
1.5 The Genitive .....
1.6 Appositions . .

2 NOUN FORMS . .

2.1 Gender . .
2.2 Pronoun Agreement .
2.3 Word Formation .
2.3.1 N-nouns. .
2.3.2 Composita .

3 ARTICLES . ....

4 PRONOUNS ........

4.1 Personal Pronouns .
4.2 Possessive Pronouns
4.3 Reflexive Pronouns


GERMAN


4.4 Demonstrative Pronouns .. ......
4.5 Relative and Interrogative Pronouns .


CASE


SYSTEM


page

iii

vii

ix

xi

1

2

3

3
5
6
8
11
11

15

15
16
17
18
19

21

24

24
25
26









5 ADJECTIVES ....................

5.1 Predicative Adjectives .. ..........
5.2 Attributive Adjectives .. ..........
5.2.1 Comparative and Superlative Forms
5.2.2 Possessive Adjectives ...
5.2.3 Ordinal Numbers .. .........

6 ADVERBS ......................

7 VERBS ...........

7.1 Verb Form s .. ...............
7.1.1 The Infinitive .. ...........
7.1.2 Conjugation .. ..........
7.1.3 Irregular Verb Endings .. .....
7.1.4 Verb Prefixes .. ...........
7.1.5 Prefix or Preposition? .. ......


7.2 Mood
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.3 Modal
7.3.1
7.4 Tenses
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
7.4.5
7.4.6
7.5 Verb T
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.5.4
7.6 Voice
7.6.1
7.6.2


Indicative .
Imperatives .
Subjunctive .
Verbs .....
Conjugation

Present .
Perfect .
Imperfect .
Future .
Future Perfect
Past Perfect
ypes .. ...
Full Verbs .
Auxiliary Verbs
Reflexive Verbs
Phrasal Verbs

Active .....
Passive .


8 PREPOSITIONS .. ...............

8.1 A Visual Overview of the Prepositions .
8.1.1 Prepositions of Movement and Motion
8.1.2 Prepositions Exhibiting a Static State
8.2 Prepositions Governing Case .. .......
8.2.1 Accusative .. ............









8.2.2 Dative. .................. ....... .. 81
8.2.3 Dative and Accusative ................ .. 82
8.2.4 Genitive .................. ..... .. 84

9 CONJUNCTIONS .................. ........ .. 87

9.1 Coordinating Conjunctions .................. .. 87
9.2 Subordinating Conjunctions ................. .. 87
9.3 Infinitive Conjunctions ................ .. .. 91
9.4 Proportionate Conjunctions. ................ 92

10 NEGATION ....... ........ .......... ......... 93

11 QUESTIONS ................... ......... 98

APPENDICIES

A PRONUNCIATION .................. ........ .. 100

A.1 Guide to German Pronunciation . . ..... 100
A.2 Book Cover Guide .................. .. .. .. 106

B IRREGULAR VERB LIST ........... ..... . 108

REFERENCES .. ........... .. ........... .. ... 110

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................. ......... .. 112















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

1.1 Guidelines for German Word Order ................. 4

1.2 The Nominative Case .................. .. 6

1.3 The Nominative Ini,,i,,i -es .................. ...... 7

1.4 Man ...... ............. ................ 8

1.5 Uses of the Accusative Case .................. ...... 9

1.6 The Accusative Case. .................. ........ .. 10

1.7 Possessive and Personal Prounouns ............. .. .. .. 12

1.8 The Dative Case .................. ........... .. 13

1.9 The Genitive Case .................. ........ .. .. 14

1.10 The Genitive Declension. .................. ... .. .. 14

2.1 Endings Which Give Away the Gender ................. .. 16

2.2 Sounds That Join Words in Composita ................ .. 20

3.1 Differences in German and English Articles .............. .. 22

3.2 The German Article .................. ......... .. 23

4.1 Personal Pronouns .................. .......... .. 25

4.2 Pronoun Word Order Guidelines .................. ... 29

4.3 The Possessive Pronouns .................. ..... .. 30

4.4 Reflexive Pronouns .................. ......... .. 30

4.5 Demonstrative Pronouns .................. ..... .. 30

5.1 Primary Adjectival Endings .................. .. .. 31

5.2 Secondary Adjectival Endings .................. .. 32

5.3 The Ordinal Numbers ............... ........ .. 36









6.1 Adverbs ................ ........... .. 38

7.1 Conjugation of Regular Verbs... ............ . ..40

7.2 Conjugation of Some Irregular Verbs .... . 43

7.3 Inseparable Prefixes ............... ........ .. 44

7.4 Formation of Imperatives ................ ... ... .. .. 48

7.5 The Main Irregular Verbs ................ ... ... .. .. 48

7.6 The Two Types of Subjunctive in German . . ..... 53

7.7 Conjugation of Modal Verbs and mochten . . ...... 56

7.8 When One Can Leave Out the Infinitive ................ .. 57

7.9 Imperfect Forms of sein and haben ............ ... .. .. 65

7.10 Phrasal Verbs .................. ............ .. 68

8.1 An Overview of the Prepositions .................. .. 74

8.2 The 'Two Way Verbs' .................. ........ .. 82

8.3 Some Two-way Prepositions .................. ... 83

8.4 Some Genitive Prepositions .................. ... .. 85

9.1 The Coordinating Conjunctions .................. ..... 88

9.2 Subordinating Conjunctions .................. ..... .. 90

9.3 Uses of the Infinitive .................. ......... .. 92

10.1 Kein ................. ................ 95

10.2 Nicht .................. ................. .. 96

A.1 German Pronunciation Guide .......... . ..100

A.2 Short Pronunciation Guide for German ... .. . 106















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


3.1

3.2

7.1

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.9

8.10

8.11

8.12

8.13

8.14

8.15

8.16

8.17

8.18

8.19


For an Indefinite Article .. ........

For a Definite Article .. ..........

A Visual Representation of German Tense

an with Accusative .. ...........

auf with Accusative .. ...........

bis . . . . . .

durch . . . . . .

gegen . . . . . .

hinter with Accusative .. .........

in with Accusative .. ..........

neben with Accusative .. .........

iiber with Accusative .. ..........

u m . . . . . .

hunter (i.e. beneath) with Accusative .

hunter (i.e. among) with Accusative .

vor with Accusative .. ...........

zwischen with Accusative .. ........

an with Dative .. ............

auf with Dative .. ............

in with Dative .. .............

neben with Dative .. ............

iiber with Dative .. ...........


page









8.20 von . . . . . . . . .. 80

8.21 hunter (i.e. beneath) with Dative ................ .. .. 80

8.22 unter (i.e. among) with Dative .................. ..... 80

8.23 vor/hinter with Dative .................. ..... .. .. 86

8.24 zwischen with Dative .................. ........ .. 86

A.1 ich ................... .... ............ 105

A.2 Radfahren ....... ......... .......... ....... 105















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts


A LINGUISTIC INTRODUCTION TO GERMAN FOR THE NON-LINGUIST:
AN ACCOMPANYING GUIDE TO ANY FIRST-YEAR GERMAN COURSE





By

Jonathan C. Busey

December 2001

C('!, I: Keith Bullivant
Major Department: Germanic and Slavic Studies

This papers aims to complement other beginning German language courses at

different levels: it is setup both for students searching for easier v- -i-' to remember the

basics and successfully complete what is required of them in the initial introductory

sequence and for the curious student who seeks a deeper explanation of grammar,

thereby making a stronger foundation and long-term success possible. The target

students range from beginners with no experience, to those who are at more ad-

vanced levels and search for a reference documenting the basics, to those have had

an introductory course and desire a refresher.

The grammar is organized in a non-cumulative fashion so that it is not necessary

to read from beginning to end. Rather, it is meant to be used to look up the desired

information one wants from each topic. This is enhanced by copious hyperlinks in

the electronic version and cross-references in the printed version.









Reading the thesis through from beginning to end is designed to be beneficial to

the students who have taken German before, but is s, I-.- --11 to the beginning learner

only in conjunction with another course which includes dialogues and exercises.

The main goal of this paper is to provide an additional resource to students

interested in learning German at a deeper level than is required in a college level

introductory sequence.















INTRODUCTION


There is no universal perfect system for learning any language or even any one

language, but by deciding what one wants from the experience, one can be more

successful. Only a few will truly master a new language in their adult life; most want

either to be able to read German, speak enough for travel, or merely pronounce the

words (such as radio announcers or music historians). One goal this paper attempts

to achieve is to enable the student to be more successful learning German by making

her/him define what s/he wants from the knowledge. The flexibility an instructional

text requires for this is achieved in a number of v--,i- the summary in the table in

each section should meet the needs of most looking for a quick refresher or the general

guidelines for a specific point.

In addition, the list of tables and list of figures are more specific tables of contents

which the student can use to locate information quickly. Within each section, the

information becomes increasingly more specific, so that the general, most relevant

information is presented first, and the more specific comes afterwards. The benefit of

this scheme is twofold: the most important points are stressed as one sees them most

often, and the student is able to stop reading whenever s/he has gone far enough into

detail.

This is written for the curious and thorough student who wishes to start with a

good foundation.

No linguistic knowledge is required. The concepts are based on linguistic fun-

damentals, but this will not burden an inexperienced student since no attention is

drawn to this.







2

As units such as counting, telling time, describing the weather, answering Wie

geht's? are covered in the first d ,v of every course, they are beyond the scope of this

document. Furthermore, there are no dialogues or exercises, but copious examples.

The somewhat unconventional approach to the basic word categories is an attempt

to make the material as relevant and comprehensible as possible. For example, word

order with dative and accusative pronouns are only referenced with word order and

handled in detail under Section 4.1.















CHAPTER 1
WORD ORDER AND THE GERMAN CASE SYSTEM


1.1 Word order

German word order is more flexible than English word order. Since every word

has some sort of identifying marker that identifies its function in a given sentence,

(the case endings reflect the gender, number, and whether the nouns are subjects

or objects), most of the words can be rearranged according to what needs to be

stressed. For example, the following sentences all have the same n,, .ir..:,Y but different

connotations:

1. Jochen hat dem Fahrradhindler die 15 DM gegeben.

(both the default for "Jochen gave the bike salesman fifteen marks" and a pos-

sibility to stress the fact that it was Jochen and not someone else)

2. Dem Fahrradhdndler hat Jochen die 15 DM gegeben.

(for example in answer to the question: "To whom did Jochen give money?")

3. 15 DM hat Jochen dem Fahrradhindler gegeben.

(when doubt about the amount exists and is being clarified, for example in

answer to the question: "How much money did he pay for the bike?")

4. and, in spoken:

Gegeben hat Jochen dem Fahrradhdndler die 15 DM.

(gave as opposed to loaned)

Not only does this freedom of placement make it easier to stress certain aspects

of a sentence in written German (where intonation is not possible), it also calls for

a more strict adherence to word endings since they are what carry the grammatical

meaning of each word in the sentence. Word order in German principally conforms









Table 1.1: Guidelines for German Word Order


For the impatient:
1. the verb is ahv--- in second position in declarative

sentences

2. coordinating conjunctions do not count as first po-

sition words (aber, denn, oder, und = Position 0)

3. verb in second position in questions with interrog-

atives (i.e. wer wen wo etc.)

4. verb in first position in questions without interrog-

atives

5. 'second' refers to position and not number-a clause

can count as one position (i.e. in a subordinate

clause), in which case the verb comes next.


to one basic pattern:

In an indicative declarative sentence the verb always takes second position.

The verb is underlined in each sentence below.

Katrin geht nach Miinchen. [Katrin is going to Munich.]

Ubrigens besucht sie auch den Thomas. [ By the way, she is also visiting Thomas.]

Note that questions are different (inversion is used-see C'! lpter 11) and that

second position is different from being the second word in a sentence. Words that

are not placed at the beginning for emphasis, for instance coordinating conjunctions,

do not count -that is, they take position 0.

Aber ich arbeite j.,, nicht so viel. [But I don't work all that much.]

Oder vielleicht ffihrt sie in die Schweiz. [ Or maybe she'll be going to

Switzerland.]









Also, a clause can be in position 1 all by itself, in which case the next word

after the clause will be the predicate in the main clause, as is the case in subordinate

clauses. For example:

Wenn du es ihr nicht sagst, muss ich ihr es wohl sagen. [ If you don't tell her,

I'll have to.]

There are also guidelines for imperative sentences (see Section 7.2.2), negation

(see Chapter 10), and interrogative sentences (see Chapter 11).

There are tricks for word order when replacing nouns with pronouns in sentences

containing both direct and indirect objects in Section 4.1.

An examination of the cases follows one by one Sections 1.2-1.5.

Another important difference from English that German sentences follow is the

time before place concept. In German one i-,v- Sie geht um 8 nach Hause; Er

fliegt niichste Woche nach Miinchen; etc. for the English: She's going home at eight

and He's flying to Munich next week.


1.2 Nominative

The nominative is the case one usually learns first because it occurs in nearly

every sentence. The noun in the nominative case is what determines the

declension of the verb, since it is the subject. When one -,i- Ich i .!.e, the

ending -e matches the first person singular of the nominative case, because ich is the

subject. When the subject changes to sie (singular), the verb ending becomes i/, .:/

to match the person and number of the subject, which is always in the nominative

case. This is exactly the same in German as in English.


Man

Something one sees and hears very often both in spoken and written German is

the pronoun man. It is ah--,v- the subject of the sentence and is most often translated









Table 1.2: The Nominative Case


For the impatient:
The nominative case has 2 uses:

1. as the subject of a sentence

2. as the complement of subject when using the verbs

sein, warden, i .: en

Other noteworthy characteristics:

The form is similar to the accusative case (Sec-

tion 1.3) for the neuter, feminine, and plural forms.

It is never the object of a preposition.

A pattern worth noting is the -er ending of the

masculine forms:
er dieser
also, the strong adjecti-
der welcher
val endings (Table 5.1):
wer einer


as "one, people, or they. In English when one -,v things such as They say..., People

do that all the time, it would be man in German.


1.3 The Accusative

There are only three different declensions one has to know in order to master

the accusative case in German. One is for der, die, das, a second is for the ein-

words, which includes all the demonstratives (this, that, these, those), interrogatives

(which), negatives (none, not any, no), adjectival endings (there are none in English),

possessives (mine, yours, his, hers, its, theirs, our), and, of course, the indefinite article

a, an. The third set is the set of pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they). These

three declensions are in Table 1.6.

Notice that there are no plurals for the indefinite articles, just as in English

(which uses some), and that the same endings are used for all of the word classes









Table 1.3: The Nominative ii,,i,,,i-es

Aside from the uses of the nominative as a subject, there is also

the dummy-es just as in English:

Es regnet/schneit/donnert. It is raining/snowing/thundering.

Es gibt .... [There are ...]

Es ist Zeit,.... It is time (to) ...


listed above. One only needs the word stems to form them, for example, the possessive

pronouns are in Table 1.7.


Accusative with Infinitives

One of the instances in which the infinitive (see Section 7.1.1) occurs without zu

is with the accusative. This occurs only in conjunction with a few verbs and exhibits

the following characteristics:

1. In the first instance, the accusative object is an agent and the sentence describes

how the subject is cognizant of the action of this accusative agent. This is a

common occurrence and is limited to the verbs sehen, horen, fiihlen, and spiiren.

This construction is used to describe an instance in which one sees, hears, feels,

or senses someone doing some thing. The someone is in the accusative and

the thing is the infinitive.

Examples:

Das habe ich kommen sehen. (I saw that coming.)

Sie hat ihren Sohn Salat essen sehen. (She saw her son eating salad.)

Man hat mich schnarchen horen. (They/People heard me snoring.)

2. In the second instance the accusative is in its more conventional role, namely

as that of an object, and has the same value as it does in modal sentences (see

Section 7.3) but can be used with other, non-modal verbs:

Sie 1'7Pl die Studenten friiher gehen. (She lets the students go early.)









Table 1.4: Man


For the impatient:
man is neither masculine, feminine, or neuter, is

only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence, and

alhv--i takes the masculine forms of reference.

Man muss seine H ri-iuf,,. l' i, machen.

When changing active sentences whose subject is

man into passive sentences, man drops completely

since it cannot become the object of the preposition

von.

The accusative form of man is einen, the dative is

einem. Man kann einen nicht glauben machen, ..

Es gibt einem das Gefiihl, ..


Ich A. .:P: dich willkommen. (roughly: I welcome you.)


1.4 The Dative

The Dative case answers the question "to whom?" and, just like the accusative

and nominative, has endings that are added to the ein_-words, the definite articles,

and personal pronouns. Most of the time, the dative case is just a re-naming of the

indirect object. It is used to convey the idea that something is doing something to

something else, which is the part of the sentence which will appear in the dative case:

Why don't you buy me a new dictionary?

Janice wanted me to loan her my German book.

Notice that all verbs of giving, telling, showing, and the like can take indirect objects

and, likewise, can have dative objects in German, but not every sentence has to have

one-just as in English: I showed my stuff.









Table 1.5: Uses of the Accusative Case


For the impatient:
The accusative has 3 uses:

1. the direct object of a sentence or complement

thereof (apposition-see Section 1.6).

2. the object of preposition. For prepositions that al-

V--,V govern the accusative case see Section 8.2.1,

for prepositions that sometimes govern the ac-

cusative, sometimes the dative see Section 8.2.3.

3. an adverbial phrase, such as with time and dura-

tions of time and length: heute Morgen, den ganzen

Tag, einen Meter lang

Other noteworthy characteristics:

A pattern worth noting is the -(e)n ending of the

masculine forms. For this reason the accusative

case is often called the Wen-case:
ihn diesen
also, the strong adjecti-
den welchen
val endings (Table 5.1):
wen einen


The principle differences in the English indirect objects and German dative ob-

jects are:

1. English objects do not have endings which reflect their case and must therefore

use prepositions and word order to show their function. German has certain

endings, articles, and pronouns to display this:

I am giving him my homework OR I am giving my homework to him.

Ich gebe ihm meine IIaif',i'l,-l., U,

You can tell the judge your story OR You can tell your story to the judge.









Table 1.6: The Accusative Case


REMEMBER: different persons and numbers are designated in the following way:

number

singular plural


person



masc fem neut


nominative der die das die

accusative den die das die


1st person 1st person

2nd person 2nd person


3rd person 3rd person

pl1 masc fern neut


nominative ein eine ein

accusative einen eine ein


a all genders!


Sie kinnen Ihre Geschichte dem Richter erzdhlen.

2. The English word order is what determines the function of each sentence ele-

ment. It is very strict. Since in German nouns can be identified either by their

endings, articles, or context, word order is much freer and can be moved around

at will to change emphasis. Word order of objects and pronouns are discussed

Section 4.1.

The following sentences have the same semantic meaning and differ only in

emphasis:

Er sagt dem Lehrer, wo er sein Buch vergessen hatte. OR

Dem Lehrer sagt er, wo er sein Buch vergessen hatte. AND

Er erzdhlte mir die Geschichte von seiner Reise. OR

Mir erzdhlte er die Geschichte von seiner Reise. OR

Die Geschichte von seiner Reise erzdhlte er mir.









3. Since one can usually tell in which case an object is by its form, there is a

differentiation between an accusative, a dative, or a genitive object after a

preposition (see Section 8.2.2 for more information about prepositions with the

dative.) Additionally, there are several prepositions that can take accusative or

dative objects, depending on whether the preposition is stationary (dative) or

expresses motion (accusative). This is explained in Section 8.2.3.


1.5 The Genitive

The genitive case is the possessive case. Its use is becoming less and less frequent

and is often replaced by a preposition and the dative (usually von). Also, there are

many prepositions (listed below) which, strictly speaking, govern the genitive but are

used increasingly often with the dative case. The genitive case is slowly dying out.


1.6 Appositions

Appositions are another example of the efficiency and precision of the German

case system. An apposition is a noun phrase, usually separated from the rest of the

sentence by commas, which serves to modify another noun or phrase. It is in the

same case as the noun it modifies.

I told Tom, my uncle, that I would be visiting him in June.

Ich habe Tom, meinem Onkel erzdhlt, dass ich ihn in Juni besuchen wiirde.

Many castles and park facilities were built by Louis the Fourteenth.

Viele Schlosser und P,i'l a.,uJi, wurden von Ludwig dem Vierzehnten gebaut.

Notice in these examples that it is exactly the same as in English. However, since

this is a paradigm which carries over from one sentence to the next, rather than

having to clarify questions by adding prepositions or even repeating entire sentences,

in German one can answer the question with a noun or noun phrase in the correct

case, thus there is a loss of ambiguity in German.

















Table 1.7: Possessive and Personal Prounouns


1st person ',J person

masculine feminine neuter masc fern neut

mein meine mein unser unsre unser

dein deine dein Ihr Ihre Ihr

sein, ihr, sein seine, ihre, seine sein, ihr, sein ihr ihre ihr

Add the same endings for singular, plural, nominative, and accusative as with ein.

Note that for all words in all three of these tables the feminine, neuter,

and plural are the same in the nominative as in the accusative, and that

the masculine accusative always ends in 'n'.


Singular Plural

nominative accusative nominative accusative

ich mich wir uns

du dich ihr euch

Sie Sie

er ihn

sie sie sie sie

es es












Table 1.8: The Dative Case


For the impatient:
The dative has 2 uses:

1. the indirect object of a sentence or complement

thereof (apposition-see Section 1.6).

2. the object of preposition. For prepositions that

alv--i- govern the dative case see Section 8.2.2,

for prepositions that sometimes govern the dative,

sometimes the accusative see Section 8.2.3.


ein-words


der-words


masc


femr


neut


nom ein eine ein

ace einen eine ein

dative einem einer einem


masc


femr


neut


plural


nom der die das den

ace den die das die

dative dem der dem den


Patterns worth noting:
the masculine and neuter forms end in 'm' in

the singular-this is why the dative is often

called the Wem-case

the feminine form is characterized by ending

in 'r'

the accusative forms for the 1st and 2nd per-

son familiar in the plural are identical to the

dative forms (uns, euch)

the second person formal form is identical

to the third person plural form


Personal pronouns

. ,:, ,li plural

mir uns

dir euch/Ihnen

ihm, ihr, ihm ihnen














Table 1.9: The Genitive Case


For the impatient:
The genitive case has 3 uses:

1. for possession-the word or word phrase in the genitive is

the possessor

2. with certain prepositions (see Section 8.2.4)

3. with certain verbs

It is recognizable either by its -s suffix for masculine and neuter

nouns, pronouns, and adjective; or its -er suffix for feminine

(where it looks just like the dative) and nouns, pronouns, and

adjectives in the plural.


Table 1.10: The Genitive Declension


masc.


fern.


neut.


masc


nominative ein eine ein

accusative einen eine ein

dative einem einer einem

genitive eines einer eines


nominative der die das den

accusative den die das die

dative dem der dem den

genitive des der des der


feM


neut















CHAPTER 2
NOUN FORMS


This chapter covers only the genders and plurals. For information on the case

declensions see the section for the respective case beginning with C'!i pter 1.1.

It is difficult to stress how important it is to learn the correct gender of every word

one learns. One cannot consider a word to belong to his or her lexicon (vocabulary)

without knowing the gender and plural and should therefore learn every word with

its article. Without the gender one cannot put the word into context. That being

said, the next step is to develop a method for learning the genders and plurals.


2.1 Gender

There are absolutely no concrete rules about which objects have which gender.

There are however a few endings which can give you clues listed in Table 2.1.

All other plurals must be basically learned with the vocabulary entry, although

some other patterns appear.

German has natural and grammatical genders. The natural gender is determined

by what it is, i.e. der Mann or die Tochter, and the grammatical gender is usually

based on historical usage and does not reflect in any way what the natural gender

of the object is. Examples include both die Sonne and der Stuhl-which do not have

any sort of inherent feminine or masculine characteristics in the minds of German

speakers-as well das Frdulein and das Mddchen, which are neuter because of the

dimunitive endings (the come from die Frau and the antiquated die Magd).

In contrast to the Romance and Slavic languages, the gender of German sub-

stantives are not marked by their ending. The genders must be learned with each









Table 2.1: Endings Which Give Away the Gender

1. All nouns ending in -tlit, -schaft, -heit, -keit,

-ion, and -ung" are feminine and have plurals

formed by adding the prefix -en.

2. All nouns ending in -chen, -lein, and -tum are

neuter. The plural looks and is pronounced exactly

the same as the singular.

3. All nouns ending in -ismus, -ist, -ant and many

ending in -er are masculine. Their plurals are:

-ismen, -isten, -anten, and 0 respectively.

Additionally, the plurals of many feminine substantives

ending in -e in the singular are formed by adding the

suffix -n.

except for words which have it as a part of the stem

and not as a suffix, such as Sprung and its derivates


word as a vocabulary entry. This cannot be overemphasized. A more complete list

would include:

masculine -ich, -ig, -ling, -s, -and, -ar, -ast, -eur/or, -ent, -ier, -iker, -ikus, -or

feminine -ei, -a, -ade, -age, -aille, -aise/-ase, -ance, -ane, -anz, -elle, -ette, -euse, -ie,

-enz, -ere, -ik, -ille, -ine, -isse, -itis, -ive, -ose, -sis/se, -ur, -fire

neuter -le, -cht, -tel, -eau, -ett, -ing, -(i)um, -ma, -ment


2.2 Pronoun Agreement

The definite articles (Eng.: the) are der, die, das in the nominative. The indefi-

nite articles are ein, eine, ein in the nominative. The pronouns are er, sie, es in the

nominative. These three groups apply to every substantive and are interchangeable,









depending on the intended meaning. This is why it is important to know the gender:

the pronoun will often take the place of the subject:

Meine Tante wohnt in der Ndhe. -+ Sie wohnt in der Ndhe.

Friederike muss einen Computerkurs machen. -- Sie muss einen Computerkurs

machen.

Das Fenster ist offen. -- Es ist offen.

In the same manner, wir, ihr and Sie can replace plural subjects:

Laura und ich = wir, du und Thomas = ihr, Sie und Ihre Frau = Sie

Likewise, direct objects, indirect objects, and the objects of prepositions can be

replaced by pronouns, just as in English:

Julia und Friederike miissen einen Computerkurs machen. -- Sie miissen ihn

machen.

Du und TI,. ,r.1- sollt mit dem Auto fahren. Ihr seid mit ihm in zwei Stunden

dort.

Ich habe von diesem Autor noch nichts gelesen. Er soil aber sehr gut sein.

Kannst du mir mein Deutschbuch morgen mitbringen? Ich brauche es jeden

Tag.


2.3 Word Formation

The main classes of substantives usually defined are

concrete nouns concrete -these words describe objects

abstract nouns abstract -these words are used to describe concepts, thoughts,

ideas, etc. (everything else)

Since the concept of each is the same as in English nothing more will be said about

these two general categories. The focus will instead lie on the forms of two groups of

words which are composed of members from both categories: the masculine N-nouns

and compound words compositea).









2.3.1 N-nouns

There is a group of masculine nouns that ends in '-(e)n' in the plural and every

case but the nominative:


der Mensch die Menschen

den Menschen die Menschen

dem Menschen den Menschen

des Menschen der Menschen



A very simple phenomenon, however many language learners seem to forget it exists,

especially in the genitive (which is described in Section 1.5). Also note that some

books calls these Studenten-nouns.

One can recognize these words as the ones that are followed by -en, -en or -n -n in

any dictionary. There are also certain endings that fall into this category:
-and: Doktorand-en, Habilitand-en, Konfirmand-en

-ant: Demonstrant-en, Fabrikant-en, Musikant-en, -Praktikant-en

-(k)at: Demokrat-en, Kandidat-en, Soldat-en

-ent: Absolvent-en, Delinquent-en, Student-en

-et: Athlet-en, Poet-en, Prophet-en

-ist: Artist-en, Faschist-en, Jurist-en, Kommunist-en

-oge: Geolog-en, Pddagog-en

-nom: Agronom-en, Astronom-en

-soph: Anthroposoph-en, Philosoph-en
One that does not fall into the category but appears to except in the genitive

singular is der Name, die Namen:










der Name die Namen

den Namen die Namen

dem Namen den Namen

des Namens der Namen
Also note that one word der Herr, die Herren has a different singular and plural:
den Herrn die Herren

dem Herrn den Herren

des Herrn der Herren

2.3.2 Composita

Note that this is above and beyond what any first year course should require

of students. Nonetheless, for the curious, Table 2.2 contains some guidelines for the

patterns. There are so many different instances that one cannot speak of "rules" (the

list of "exceptions" would be much longer than Table 2.2), but the tendencies are

worth noting.

Although it is not a very hard concept to master, many learners do not make

the effort necessary, and it is therefore often an easy way to distinguish a very good

non-native speaker from a true native. There are very few words in German compared

with English, but the word formation is much more active than in English. This is

also what makes German such a production language-speakers have the ability to

be very creative. Sonr, uai-, ,i. II .'lll.-i ',.:, i I'd,, istunde (the hour during which one

takes a walk on a Sunday afternoon), Do,;,. ,,l,''tf ,I.:fahrtskapitdn (the captain of a

steam ship on the Donau), and the like.












Table 2.2: Sounds That Join Words in Composita

possible word joints" : (e)n-, (e)s-, -e-, -er-, -ens-, 0

The first element in the word is the determining element. Do not confuse

this with the element which determines the gender, which is ahl-iv- the

last element.

Indeclinable words (such as prepositions and adverbs) and adjectives take

-0-. Adjectives ending in -e drop the -e. (e.g. Blodsinn).

When the first member is a substantive:

1. -0- follows the suffixes -bold, -chen, -en, -ei, -ler, -ner, ge-...-e, -i,

-ich(t), -ig, -lein, -nis, -rich, and all nouns whose plural end in -s

2. -s- follows -en, -heit, -keit, -ling, -sal, --. 1,./ -turn, -ung, -ion, -itit

3. -en- follows -in, masculine nouns and most feminine ending in -e

4. -en- follows the nouns with -en- in the genitive singular and plural;

feminine and neuter nouns ending in -a, and the neuter nouns ending

in -it, -on, the plural forms of all three groups of which end in -en.

When the first member is a verb:

1. -0- follows verbs that end in a vowel sound and after the sounds [pj,

[pfl sj], fr]f, []b usually [m], [ll, [ff, and [tsl consonants + [sl
2. -e- follows almost exclusively the voiced consonants b, d, g and the

sounds [z], [t], but there are many instances in which -0- follows these

sounds

this information is condensed exclusively from [Fleischer, 136-145]


b the sound at the end of ach















CHAPTER 3
ARTICLES


German articles and their use are very similar to English articles, so this should

not pose American students too much trouble. The main differences are listed in

Table 3.1.

When talking about articles in this section, the two forms definite (der, die,

das) and indefinite (ein, eine, ein) are meant, and not the entire spectrum of words

belonging to or sometime belonging to both this class and others. They are discussed

in C'! lpter 4 on Pronouns.

The complete forms for the two words in this class are listed in Table 3.2. Note

that most words declined this way-see C'!i pter 5 on Adjectives for more details.

For negation, see C'! lpter 10 on page 93. Note that the indefinite forms are the same

but preceded by a k, and that there is a plural.

The uses are generally the same as in English; that is: one uses definite articles to

specify something and distinguish it from others and indefinite articles to point out

one of many (that is why there is no plural). Notice that the negative does has a

plural because one is talking about none or zero, which is plural in German as well

as in English.

Many books introduce the indefinite article as the article to use when something

is introduced for the first time and the definite article hereafter. This may work when

on analyzes children's stories, but take a look at the example in Figure 3.1.

There is only one viable choice between the commands:

Zeig auf einen/den Kreis! [Point to a/the circle.]

Likewise, there is only one possibility for the same command for the Figure 3.2.










Table 3.1: Differences in German and English Articles

1. there is no plural indefinite article except when

negated (English: some/any)

2. articles are not mentioned with professions (this in-

cludes students) or ii 1 ii il i -.

3. sometimes the article is not present when an En-

glish speaker would expect it to be or is present

when an English speaker wants to omit it. This is

due to the difference in number and the character-

istic 'mass' or 'count' in some words.

4. often articles are added to names of people. This

usually has a positive meaning.

a surely by now everyone has heard of the famous

Kennedy blunder: Ich bin ein Berliner.


Figure 3.1: For an Indefinite Article


Figure 3.2: For a Definite Article



















Table 3.2: The German Article

Indefinite article:


masculine


feminine


neuter


nominative ein eine ein

accusative einen eine ein

dative einem einer einem


genitive


eines


einer


eines


Plural


Definite article:


S: ,'i1, Plural

masculine feminine neuter

nominative der die das die

accusative den die das die

dative dem der dem den

genitive des der des der















CHAPTER 4
PRONOUNS


4.1 Personal Pronouns

Pronouns are used in the place of nouns. They conform to the same patterns as

nouns in regards to agreement and case. Table 4.1 is an exhaustive list-notice that

the gentive are in parentheses because they are uncommon.

For more information about pronouns and agreement, see Section 2.2

Strictly speaking, pronouns do not replace nouns since they can of course be used

before the nouns are even mentioned, depending on context. Essentially, pronouns

have the following function:



Since people want to save time whenever possible, they shorten everything con-

text allows. One thing one needs to remember is that pronouns can replace long

noun phrases or even entire clauses since many modifiers need not be repeated. For

example:



1. Ich mochte mit diner Schwester in die Schweiz fahren... Sie ;, .:T wo man

gut essen kann.

I would like to go to Switzerland with your sister... She knows good places to eat.

2. Der Mann mit dem roten Pulli neben der Treppe... Er...

The man with the red sweater next to the stairs... He...

3. Weisst du noch, als wir dieses Sofa gesehen haben, das so lang war, dass es

nicht in miner Eltern Wohnzimmer gepasst hitter? Meine Tante hat es ,/. l, fi'









Table 4.1: Personal Pronouns


Do you still remember when

have fit in my parents' living


we saw that couch that was so

room? My aunt bought it!


Word order in sentences with more than one object

The only inconsistency in Table 4.2 is the third item, in which two noun phrases

appear and the dative comes before the accustive. This sentence illustrates why:

Andreas gibt seiner Schwester einen Teller. [Andreas gives his sister a plate.]

Notice that since the feminine dative and genitive forms are the same, the incorrect

order would be confusing and leave the listener expecting the sentence to continue:

*Andreas gibt einen Teller seiner Schwester. [Andreas is giving the plate of his

sister...]


4.2 Possessive Pronouns

The possessive adjectives in Table 4.3 are used just like they are in English.

Forgetting about gender and cases for now, think about the actual forms themselves

(i.e. the roots) and how they correspond to the people whose p.--. -- they


1st Person .',,. Person 3rd Person

familiar formal masc. fern. neut.

S.:,,il, Nom. ich du Sie er sie es

Ace. mich dich Sie ihn sie es

Dat. mir dir Ihnen ihm ihr ihm

Gen. (meiner) (deiner) (Ihrer) (seiner) (ihrer) (seiner)

Plural Nom. wir ihr Sie sie

Ace. uns euch Sie sie

Dat. uns euch Ihnen ihnen

Gen. (unser) (euer) (Ihrer) (ihrer)


long that it wouldn't









describe:

Tommy told his grandmother that her new car was a lemon. He said its paint was

bubbling up.

Regardless of the gender and case of grandmother, the root of the German possesive

adjective used will be sein_, which refers back to the antecedent, Te,,,,n, The same

will be true with ihr_ and grandmother and sein_ and car (das Auto).

The difference then lies only in the endings, which English does not have.


4.3 Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used in a reciprocal fashion, such as with reflexive verbs

(see Section 7.5.3), and illustrate a reference from the subject to the accusative or da-

tive object. The forms are identical to those of the personal pronouns (see Table 4.1)

except for the obviously missing nominative forms. In addition, the 2nd person formal

all 3rd person forms, singular and plural, are sich, as illustrated in Table 4.4.

The English equivalent is myself, yourself, himself, itself, herself, ourselves, them-

selves respectively. The two notable differences from English are:

1. sich is usually used for each other, such as in

They congratulated each other. [Sie haben sich gratuliert.]

2. The dative reflexive pronoun is used to show possession instead of the possessive

pronoun in reflexive sentences.

Examples:

Er putzt sich die Zahne. [He is brushing his teeth.]

Sie waschen sich die Hdnde.] [They are washing their hands.]

Also note that this avoids the confusion that often arises in English with regards

to the possessor:

Justin was playing soccer together with lan. He pushed lan and then broke his arm.

Whose arm did Justin break?









In German: Er hat sich das Bein gebrochen means he broke his own leg, while

Er hat sein Bein gebrochen means he broke the leg of someone else.


4.4 Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstratives are the pronouns used to demonstrate, or point out something.

English examples are this, that, these, those. At the beginning of C'! Ilpter 3, Ta-

ble 3.2 shows how the definite and indefinite articles are declined. These are also the

declensions for the ein_- and der-words respectively. The notation in the parentheses

next to each of the following word groups in this section and the next refers to the

declension as depicted in Table 3.2 concerning indefinite and definite articles.

der, die, das1 (der-see Table 4.5) Similarly to the personal pronouns, these are

used in place of the substantive + article. Das kann man nicht. Das weiss ich

nicht. Das wirst du morgen if.;il,, Den brauche ich. Der konnte ich nicht

helfen. etc.

Notice that the demonstrative (and relative-see Section 4.5) pronouns der, die,

das have their own conjugation, as depicted in Table 4.5.

dieser, diese, dieses2 (der) Similar to articles, these are used with and proceeding

the substantive. One might -i that dies_ is used instead of the article in order

to more clearly emphasize that particular substantive's importance. Diesen

Tisch find ich am schinsten. Sehen Sie dieses Haus dort... ? Diesem Mann

konnte ich doch nicht helfen.

selbst, selber (not declined) Selbst and selber are used as appositions (see Sec-

tion 1.6) in order to exclude any other object which might have come into

question. Ich habe das Buch selbst gelesen. Mein Neffe kann sich jetzt selber



1 also derjenige, diejenige, dasjenige, derselbe, dieselbe, dasselbe


2 also jener, jene, jenes









waschen. Der Prdsident selbst hat es .;.,/ i, ,, ,.

Do not confuse this usage selbst with the one used at the beginning of sentences

to mean even such as in: Selbst der Fahrer hat ihn gesehn. Selbst wenn ich nicht

1. L.In,, i., ware.... [Even the driver saw it. Even if I had not come...].


4.5 Relative and Interrogative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are pronouns which introduce relative clauses, such as the

underlined which in this sentence. Because they are pronouns, they must replace a

noun or noun phrase, and because they govern relative clauses, they are found in

dependent clauses only. Interrogative pronouns are question words used to elicit a

specific piece of information. For more information on interrogative pronouns and

questions see ('!i plter 11.

der, die, das (der-see Table 4.5) These represent the relative counterpart to the

demonstrative pronouns der, die, das above. The conjugation is the same as in

Table 4.5. These are used only relatively and not interrogatively.

welcher, welche, welches (der) These can be used both relatively and inter-

rogatively. As a relative pronoun they are used identically as der, die, das

(above), but are more formal. As interrogative pronouns they correspond to

the English: which.

was fiir ein (not declined) Used interchangeably with welch_ but less formal; note

that fiir is not a preposition here and that ein is therefore not necessarily in

the accusative case. Was fiir ein Vater wiirde seine Kinder im Einkaufzentrum

vergessen!

wer, was (not declined) correspond to English who and what.
















Table 4.2: Pronoun Word Order Guidelines


For the impatient:
1. In sentences with 2 noun phrases, the dative pro-

noun comes first.

2. In sentences with one pronoun and one noun

phrase, the pronoun comes first.

3. In sentences with 2 pronouns, the accusative pro-

noun comes first.a

Examples:

1. Horst erizhlt den Kindern eine Geschichte.

2. Horst erziihlt si den Kindern. / Horst erzdhlt ih-

nen die Geschichte.

3. Horst erzdiihlt sie ihnen.

a In shorter terms: Where P is pronoun, N is noun

phrase, A is accusative, D is dative and < means "comes

first in sentence"

(a) 2P < D

(b) 1P < P

(c) 2N < A











Table 4.3: The Possessive Pronouns


mein, dein, etc.
1st pers P';.C pers

masc fem neut masc fem neut

mein meine mein unser unsre unser

dein deine dein Ihr Ihre Ihr

sein, ihr, sein seine, ihre, seine sein, ihr, sein ihr ihre ihr




Table 4.4: Reflexive Pronouns

1st Person I';.l Person 3rd Person

familiar formal masc. fern. neut.

S.:ij.i1' Ace. mich dich sich sich

Dat. mir dir sich sich

Plural Ace. uns euch sich sich

Dat. uns euch sich sich


Table 4.5: Demonstrative Pronouns

S:iji Plural

masc fem neut

Nom der die das die

Ace den die das die

Dat dem der dem denen

Gen dessen deren dessen deren















CHAPTER 5
ADJECTIVES


Adjectives are used to describe nouns. They can be used in two v--,- pred-

icatively and attributively, as described in Sections 5.1 and 5.2 respectively. The

endings are only for attribute adjectives.

The strong endings are there to signify the gender, number, and case, and the

weak endings are there for all subsequent modifiers.

There are two sets of endings for two different contexts:

1. strong or primary endings-adjectives following indefinite articles (ein_, kein_)

or no article at all

2. weak or secondary endings-adjectives following definite articles (der, die, das),

demonstrative and interrogative pronouns (dies_/jen_, welch_)

Remember: ein guter Mann, der gute Mann

Table 5.1: Primary Adjectival Endings


Primary endings:
Singular Plural

masculine feminine neuter

nominative -er -e -es -e

accusative -en -e -es -e

dative -em -er -em -en

genitive -en -er -en -en









Table 5.2: Secondary Adjectival Endings


Secondary endings:
Singular Plural

masculine feminine neuter

nominative -e -e -e -en

accusative -en -e -e -en

dative -en -en -en -en

genitive -en -en -en -en


Note: the primary endings are the same as the definite article except in the

genitive singular masculine and neuter: Juni letzten Jahres (June of last year).

AT i,: books seem to forget this point.


5.1 Predicative Adjectives

These are not the type that usually cause students problems. Used predicatively,

an adjective is not declined (i.e. just as in English) and appears in the form as

one finds it in a dictionary. Predicate adjectives generally come after the verb.

Unlike in English, where most adverbs end in -ly and thus have different forms from

their adjectival counterparts, predicate adjectives in German look exactly as their

adverbial counterparts and can be differentiated only by their context. One basic

difference between adjectives and adverbs is that adjectives can be compared (see

Section 5.2.1).
Der Kaffe schmeckt gut.

Deine Hose sieht rot aus.

Der Hund ist braun.
5.2 Attributive Adjectives

Attributive adjectives are declined. They modify nouns and must agree in case,

number, and gender. One can tell to which noun the adjective belongs by its ending,









since adjectives are declined. Apart from the case, number, and gender, there are

two different categories of endings an adjective takes, as indicated above: primary

and secondary. The primary endings indicate the case, number, and/or gender of the

noun wherever possible. If the case of the noun is clear through an article or other

modifier (anything which is declined and describes something else), the secondary or

weak endings are used on all subsequent modifiers.

Examples:

ein schines Haus, dieser grosse Mann

Notice that since ein is the same form for both the masculine and neuter in the

nominative, the following adjective must have a strong ending in order to show that

the following noun is neuter.

In other words, if an article is missing or does not clarify what the case and

gender of a noun is, the adjective takes on this responsibility in the form of primary

endings, and whenever the primary endings begin the noun phrase, all other modifiers

take the secondary endings. If an indefinite article introduces the noun phrase (such

as in ein guter Vater), all subsequent adjectives take the primary endings: ein guter,

hilfsbereiter, liebenswerter Vater.

The gender, number, and case of a noun can almost alv--i be ascertained from

its modifiers. Likewise, it is almost albv--i apparent whenever one uses any type of

modifier without knowing the gender or case.

Also note that participles are really just adjectives directly derived from verbs

and follow all of the patterns above. See Section 7.4.2 for more information.


5.2.1 Comparative and Superlative Forms

The basic form of an attributive adjective is called the positive. In comparisons,

one must use the comparative form, which is formed in in English either by adding

-er to the adjective or proceeding it with more, depending on how many syllables it

has. In German, most adjectives take the -er ending and add an umlaut to the first









vowel where possible. For the superlative form, which in English is characterized by

most or the ending -est, German takes the umlaut as in the comparative and adds

-st- instead of -er. The endings come after the -er in the comparative and after the

-st in the superlative forms.

Examples:

I,/!, 1/7, i I Idngste

schnell, schneller, schnellste

weit, welter, weiteste

grof5 ,ii, ', r,, ,,r ./,:

modern, moderner, modernste

Here are some examples of declined adjectives in context. Notice that with positves

one often uses the expression so ___ wie (English: as ___ as), in comparison the expres-

sion ___ als... (English: ___-er than... or more ___ than...), and with superlatives

der ___-ste (English: the ___-est or the most ___).

Dieses Auto ist schneller als das andere. Aber das blaue ist das schnellste.

Euer Haus ist i,,':,. r als unseres.

Die ldngste Stunde meines Lebens war meine miindliche Priifung in Deutsch.

N ,i. manchmal ist Klavierunterricht 1,'i',.,, .

Es gibt eine sehr moderne Grundschule neben dem noch modereren Apartmen-

thaus.

Das ,,al:/.'. /I,-. Haus in unserem Wohnviertel liegt siidlich von dem Stadthaus.

Sometimes one might see a superlative form when no comparison is being drawn.

This is called the elative form and can usually be tranlated as very ___. E.g.: Besten

Dank, hochst intelligent, i,.':I. Lob etc. Another use of the superlative is with am

___-sten, which means the ___ of all: am lingsten, am besten, am iiberraschendsten

etc.


Some irregularities:









1. hoch, hoher, hochste

gut, besser, best

nahe, ndher, ndchste

viel, mehr, meiste

wenig, minder, mindeste or: wenig, weniger, wenigste

(but regular in the latter form)

2. beide acts as a definite article, so the secondary endings follow:

beide alten Computer

3. viel- and wenig- appear alternately declined and undeclined, depending on

whether the noun is a mass or a count noun

viel Geld viele Leute

wenig Geduld wenige Menschen

4. adjectives ending in -en and -er often omit the comparative and superlative

-e- in order to ease pronunciation:

;n,i 1,, r ein ', /I. i rer Z ffll

teuer ein teures Spiel

vorhanden ein vorhand(e)nes Problem

sauer eine sure Miene

5. adjectives ending with -el omit the vowel when an ending is added:

dunkel ein dunkler Wald


5.2.2 Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives is another name for possessive pronouns (see Section 4.2).

They are often called 'adjectives' because they are declined as adjectives are.


5.2.3 Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers are attribute adjectives, hence they are declined.









Table 5.3: The Ordinal Numbers


erst- first siebt- seventh dreizehnt- thirteenth fiinfzigst- fiftieth

zweit- second acht- eighth vierzehnt- fourteenth siebzigst- seventieth

dritt- third neunt- ninth fiinfzehnt- fifteenth sechzigst- sixtieth

viert- fourth zehnt- tenth zwanzigst- twentieth hunderts- hundredth

fiinft- fifth elft- eleventh dreiBigst- thirtieth tausentst- thousandth

sechst- sixth zw6lft- twelfth vierzigst- fortieth millionst- millionth


The pattern is fairly simple compared with English. One need only remember:

The root is the cardinal number with (s)t + the ending, except in the cases of eins,

zwei and drei. This is just as in English (and most Indo-European languages). The

-s is only necessary when the word would otherwise be unpronounceable.















CHAPTER 6
ADVERBS


Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They can answer one of

the the questions How? When? How much? In what way? Where? and

often have the ending -ly in English, although this must not ahv--, be the case. In

German, many adverbs look exactly like predicate adjectives (see Section 5.1), since

they remain uninflected.

A good examples of the difference between adjectives and adverbs can be illus-

trated with the often misused adjective good and the adverb well.

*I'm doing good.

This happens in English often:

*You are driving too slow.

Schon can be an adverb or an adjective, depending on how it is used:

Das Wetter ist schon.

Dein Wagen fdhrt sich schon.

Adverbs are written in the lower case unless they begin a sentence-the convention

is what differentiates them from many substantives:

Abend/abends, Morgen/morgens, etc.

Aside from the wo-, da- compounds mentioned in Table 6.1, some common end-

ings are: -s, -eise, -warts, -fach, -mal.























Table 6.1: Adverbs


Type Question word Examples

place wo, woher dort, hin, druid, irgendwo

time wann morgens, western, jetzt, manchmal,

heute, friiher

quantity wieviel viel

conjunctional i,./;all- dennoch, trotzdem, somit,

deshalb, deswegen

interrogative wo, woher/wohin/wann, wie,

wieviel, warum, weswegen, we-

shalb, wieso

pronominal or woriiber, wonach darin, dariiber, danach, hiermit, hi-

prepositional erzu















CHAPTER 7
VERBS


7.1 Verb Forms

7.1.1 The Infinitive

An Infinitive is the word or group of words which is built from the predicate and

contains the full meaning of the predicate. The present infinitive is the unconjugated

form of the verb as one finds it in a dictionary. This corresponds to the English to ___.

The particle zu (to) is also used in German in specific instances as illustrated below.

The commonest use of the infinitive in German is with modal verbs (see Section 7.3),

where the particle zu is not used. When zu is used with an infinitive, one will find it

directly in front the infinitive. If it is in front of an adjective it is in adverb (such as

zu teuer) and in front of a noun or pronoun in the dative it is a preposition (zu ihm,

zum Mitnehmen, zu der Frau.

Also, the infinitive has other tenses: future perfect, present perfect. The present

perfect infinitive formed with the present infinitive of the correct helping verb (haben

or sein) with the past participle of the main verb: bezahit haben for bezahlen, i. If/l, ,i.

sein for fahren. The future perfect infinitive is formed with the present infinitive of

werden + the past participle of the main verb + the present infinitive of the helping

verb (haben or sein): werden i. dIl,,. sein for fahren, werden gegessen haben for

essen.

Note that all three forms of infinitives mentioned also have passive forms.

The uses of the infinitive are covered under each appropriate section, such as

Section 9.3 for infinitive conjunctions and Section 7.3 for modal verbs.









7.1.2 Conjugation

Almost all verbs are conjugated as in Table 7.1.

Where the [e] in the 2nd and 3rd sing, 2nd informal Plural is only present when

the stem ends in a hard consonant (such as d or t, as in the example). One

basically hears about starke/schwache/gemischte Verben ( rI.. ,-i- /weak/mixed verbs),

besondere Verben (special verbs), and verbs with a stem vowel change (Ablaut).

Additionally, there are prefix verbs, which may have a separable or inseparable prefix.

Here is how one can recognize them:

1. Strong verbs -past participle ends in -en

2. weak verbs -these are the regular verbs; they comprise most of the German

verbs. Their past participles end in -t and they have no stem vowel change

(Ablaut)

3. mixed verbs -neither strong nor weak, their past participles end in -t but they

have a vowel stem change in the past participle.

4. 'special' verbs (-eln, -ten, -zen, -s/Ben, -ien, -ern)

They are only special because the endings are not pronounceable without chang-

ing the order or .,1.1 ii:- /removing an 'e'

5. Ablaut -This is a change in the vowel of the stem of the verb. It may occur in

the present tense (as in lauf. ,-l.iufl) or in the past tense (denken-hat gedacht

see item 'mixed verbs' above).

Table 7.1: Conjugation of Regular Verbs

For the impatient:


-e -en ich arbeite wir arbeiten

-[e]st -[e]t, -en du arbeitest ihr arbeitet, Sie arbeiten

-[e]t -en er/sie/es arbeitet sie/Sie arbeiten









6. inseparable prefixed verbs (see Section 7.1.4)

7. separable prefixed verbs (see Section 7.1.4)

8. outright irregular (see Appendix B) verbs such as sein, warden, and sometimes

haben, all of which must be examined individually

Note that the only categories which are mutually exclusive are -1 ii weak, or

mixed verbs and inseparable or separable verbs-i.e. a verb must be strong, weak, or

mixed but cannot be any two of those, and a verb can be inseparable or separable,

but cannot be both and must not be either.

There are, of course, other groups and forms of verbs, such as modal verbs and

imperatives, but these are not conjugations and handled separately in their respective

sections. For mood see Section 7.2; for imperatives see Section 7.2.2.

There are no traditional conjugations (as in Latin, French, or Greek), but one can

define German verbs in terms of one or more of the eight aforementioned categories.


7.1.3 Irregular Verb Endings

As mentioned above, there are two types of verbs in German: weak and strong

(schwach and stark). They both take the same endings-being strong or weak only

has to do with the form of the verb, not with the endings. An irregular or strong verb

takes the same endings as the weak or regular verbs, but either the other verb forms

(i.e. the different tenses-see Section 7.4) are different or the stem has an ablaut.

There are, however, verbs that have special endings because of the stem. The

endings of these verbs differ because otherwise they would not be pronounceable.

infinitives with stems ending in 't', 'd', and '13'

arbeiten, scheiden, Ai. Ien

a few other (much rarer) letters combinations occurring in the infinitive stem

such as 'z', 'gn', 'r', and 1'

beizen, regnen, hetzen, tanzen, dindern, rudern, sammeln, segeln are examples

haben and the irregular (strong) verbs sein and werden.









7.1.4 Verb Prefixes

The fact that not every verb in German is unique and made of similar parts

that many other words use should not be surprising. In English there are many

prefixes common to dozens of words. One need only think about how many words

are built with prefixes. Notice that the meanings the prefixes denote are relative

and not absolute. Thus teaching a non-native speaker the morpheme -tract would

not ensure that s/he could deduce the meanings of attract, detract, subtract, extract.

Unfortunately, the same is true of German. But luckily, there are not nearly as many

affixes as there are in English (there are just as many suffixes). Just as in English,

there are inseparable prefixes and separable prefixes (cf. English phrasal verbs such

as to go/put/eat/work out, to beat/think/look up, to work/think through etc.).

in-separable prefix verbs

These are the commonest ones.

be- emp- ent- er- ge- ver- zer-

Two important things to know about inseparable prefixes are:

1. the syllable directly after the prefix receives the stress, never the prefix itself

2. in the strictly inseparable prefix category there are no prefixes that are

words in and of themselves

Table 7.3 summarizes the separable prefixes and meanings which beginning learners

need to know.

sep-arable prefix verbs

The other type of prefixes are separable. They have three important character-

istics:

1. they are independent words and have a meaning when they stand by themselves

2. they always come at the end of the clause; sometimes the body of the verb

remains at the head and they are therefore separated, sometimes, as in modal

sentences and subordinate clauses, the rest of the verb also must go to the end























Table 7.2: Conjugation of Some Irregular Verbs


For the impatient:

a regular verb:

lieben

ich lieb-e wir lieb-en

du lieb-st ihr lieb-t/Sie lieb-en

er,sie,es lieb-t sie lieb-en



examples of irregular endings: beizen

arbeiten Lih ri7_z wi r .7_-n


ersiees arbeit-et sie arbeit-en


ich arbeit-e wir arbeit-en

du arbeit-est ihr arbeit-et


du reiz-t ihr reiz-t

er,sie,es reiz-t sie reiz-en


er,sie,es arbeit-et


sie arbeit-en













Table 7.3: Inseparable Prefixes


be- transitive marker, it changes a

verbs meaning from to do some-

thing to to do something to X

emp- internalizes the verb, makes it per-

sonal

ent- gives the sense of 'i. '; from


er- to do something for the first time



ge- as inseparable prefix idiomatic; no

pattern


beschreiben, befahren, befinden,

etc.



empfangen, empfinden, empfehlen



entfernen, entleeren, entnehmen,

etc.

erlernen, erdenken, er6ffnen,

erfinden, etc.


gedenken, gefallen,

gebiihren, etc.


gebrauchen,


1. connecting, opposite of ent-

2. to change or use up some-

thing

3. to do something incorrectly

4. a type of intensifier






1. to divide up

2. to harm or destroy


1. verheiraten, verbinden, etc.

2. verarbeiten, verspeisen,

verspielen, verandern, ver-

brauchen, etc.

3. verschlucken, verfarben, etc.

4. verhelfen, verbleiben, etc.




1. zerteilen, zergliedern, etc.

2. zerst6ren, zerreden, etc.


ver-














zer-









of the clause and they are reunited again

Example: Ich stehe dir bei. Ich mochte dir beistehen.

3. the prefix takes the stress

some of the commonest separable prefixes are:

an- ab- auf- fiber- weg- and many more!

The concept is so prevalent and the examples so numerous that one should not have

any trouble picking up the flow of sentences with verbs that I I. cp 111

Geh doch mal weg! Warum willst du denn nicht /,r. l, weggehen?

Ich stehe gewohnlich um 2 Uhr mittags auf, weil ich abends arbeiten muss. Ich muss

doch so friih ;,i;-i, bi, ,f

Ich kaufe Ihnen gerne die 'in.. Apfel ab. Ich michte alle Ihre Apfel abkaufen.


7.1.5 Telling the difference between a separable prefix and a preposition

Since the separable prefixes are also words with another grammatical function

whose meanings vary greatly from prepositional uses, it is important to know which

is meant. Luckily, it is not difficult to differentiate and there are not many cases

which pose problems.

The rules of thumb are:

1. Separable verbs are separated in the present and past tense, in indicative and

imperative mood but not in subordinate clauses.

2. They are not separated in the infinitive, such as when an auxiliary verb is

used and the infinitive appears at the end of the sentence (as is the case with

modals-see Section 7.1.1), or when used as participles (Section 7.4.2).

3. Prepositions have objects, and must therefore be followed by a noun in the re-

spective case (see Section 8.2). Separable prefixes are not followed by anything.

Examples:

Sie sprach mir Mut zu. [prefix]

Ich habe Ir,',.- zwischen den Bdiumen gesessen. [preposition]









Ich mochte das ,'f-. -i, T. i, [prefix]

Kdnnten Sie das auf die Karte schreiben? [preposition]

Legen Sie die Lebensmittel auf den Tisch. [preposition]

Meine Mutter war heute echt gut ifi, ,i // [prefix in adjectival participle]

BUT: Hor auf mit der Fragerei! [prefix] (Section 7.2.2)


7.2 Mood

Mood is a variant of the word mode and denotes the manner or way in which

a verb expresses its action. As in English, German has three moods: indicative,

imperative, and subjunctive. Each mood is divided into tenses, but most books

present the tenses of the indicative mood, then mention the other moods without

even presenting their tenses.


7.2.1 Indicative

This is the mood of regular speech and writing. Nearly every sentence in this

paper, including this one, is written in the indicative mood. If one is not telling

someone else what to do or supposing what may or might be but is not, chances are

he or she is speaking in the indicative mood.


7.2.2 Imperatives

The imperative, sometimes also called the hortative mood, is used for giving

commands.

For the most part, one encounters only 4 types of imperatives:

1. 1st Person Plural

2. 2nd Person Singular familiar

3. 2nd Person Singular polite

4. 2nd Person Plural









In proper written German an imperative sentence is ahv--, ended with an excla-

mation point. This is why the instructions in some German tests written by native

speakers seem harsh for American students. Remember that!

Formation

Tables 7.4 and 7.5 explain the formation of imperatives and the forms of the

imperatives for the irregular forms of sein, warden and haben.

Use and history

Argued to be the first appearances of real language, imperatives are verbal

thoughts believed to be the original forms of each verb. Some examples might be:

look out! help! leave!. Since these forms were at one point the commonest and were

undoubtedly the first to originate, it should be no surprise commands both greatly

resemble the verbs which sprang forth from them and are the most "stubborn"-that

is, they do not ah--v-4 correspond to the conjugated indicative forms with respect to

stem changes (Ablaut).

Sage doch, was du wirklich willst!

Lies dein Buch fiir Morgen!

S, l/, if gut!

The basic verb form in even the most dissimilar of the imperatives, namely the 2nd

person singular, can easily be recognized. In foreign language learning we usually

become familiar with the indicative mood first, as those are the forms used in declar-

ative sentences such as Wie geht es dir? and Mein Name ist Gotz George. Hence the

imperative forms are said to be built from the indicative present. Since these are the

forms one usually learns first and the ones with which you are already most familiar,

we are following this tradition.

While the English imperative has only two forms, the German has four: one for

the 1st person plural (cf. Let's go swimming)-Gehen wir schwimmen, and one for

each of the 2nd person forms, du, ihr, and Sie. The 2nd person singular imperative











Table 7.4: Formation of Imperatives

In the first person plural and 2nd Person formal forms the pro-

noun is not dropped but the order is changed in comparison with

the indicative form. The imperatives look exactly as questions

do. In the 2nd person familiar forms the pronoun is dropped.

The first person plural looks exactly as it does in the infinitive:

essen -> Wir essen. -> Essen wir!

The 2nd person singular familiar is formed by dropping the 't'

from the stem (the 3rd Person singular form) and removing any

umlaut that do not occur in the infinitive' :

lesen -E Er list. Lies!

The 2nd person plural familiar form is identical to the indicative

present:

Lest! Esst! Glaubt!

a such as in -. l,.ifen or laufen; Er -.Sl.'f S, /,l.f!; Sie liduft -

Lauf!


Table 7.5: The Main Irregular

WERDENa

werde werden wir

werdet

werden Sie


Verbs

HABENb

habe haben wir

habt

haben Sie


" a very uncommon imperative

b Notice that haben follows the regular pattern of verbs.









is formed by dropping the 't' from the 3rd person singular form and removing any

umlaut that doesn't occur in the infinitive:



Trink[e]! Wasch[e]! Geh[e]! Lies! Iss! Sprich! Lern[e]!

Whether or not the 'e' is added depends on the last consonant:

1. if the stems ends in 'd' or 't' the 'e' must be there:

Warte mal! Arbeite f7. ,C. /.: '' Binde deine Schuhe zu!

2. if the stem ends in 'm' or 'n', the 'e' must be there, unless the 'm' or 'n' is

preceded by m,n,r,l or 'h', in which case it is optional:

Atme .,n, i-.,, In Widme mir ein Buch! Rechne es doch mal aus! BUT:

Kdmm[e] dich! Qualm[el nicht so! Lern[e] fl :/.:' Riihm[e] dich nicht selbst!

3. verbs whose infinitives end in -eln or -ern do take an 'e' on the end but may

lose the one before the 1/r, depending on style:

Hand[elle! Sammc[ele! Ford[ejre!

With the 'e' is more formal and almost ahv--, used in written German.

4. verbs whose 2nd person singular form changes the central vowel to an 'i' do not

have the final 'e':

Lies! Wirf! Stirb! Verdirb! Iss! Miss! Friss! Sprich!Vergiss! Nimm! Hilf!

Quill! Gib! Schilt! Wirb! Sieh!



Word Order

1. when used with a subordinate clause-just as in English:

Pass auf, wenn du etwas iiber R.i firl, ren lernen willst!

2. regarding flavoring particles -see next Section

3. negation -nothing unusual here. Follows patterns described in C'! plter 10

More comparable to English that French: Passt nicht auf! Schaut nicht her...!

Mach keine Ausreden! etc.









4. anomaly: i,'[l,.'ren: hor auf mit... instead of hor mit ... auf!

Flavoring particles in imperative sentences

In normal speech there are many words which nearly every native speakers uses

but which students do not usually learn. In most books they are called "flavoring

par !. for lack of a more descriptive term. Examples of a similar English phe-

nomenon are like, sort of, you know, you see. In German they are much more common

and occur not only in speech, but also to some extent in formal writing. One must

remember that people rarely give straight commands, as they are much too harsh

and usually do not result in the speaker obtaining what s/he wants. Take a look at

the following sentences:

Bob, clean your room.

Alice, try harder this time.

Just wait!

Most would agree, these commands would sound a lot gentler if they were a little

less direct. Alice and Bob be more compliant if one said something like:

Bob, why don't you clean your room?

Alice, try just a little harder this time.

Wait just a second!

Naturally, the intonation also p1 i, a big role here.

One should not be surprised to hear that German has the same tendencies.

Luckily the imperative form does not change at all, rather, two words (the so-called

"flavoring par- !i. ) are added, usually right after the imperative form (i.e. including

the pronoun in the plural forms): doch and mal. This gives a very similar effect to

the Why don't...:

Rdiume doch dein Zimmer auf!

Bemiihe dich doch!

Warte mal kurz!









Although some instructors tell their students to avoid using such particles in the

beginning stages, one will rarely hear real German commands without them, and it

is therefore the opinion of the author that even beginning learners try to use them.


7.2.3 Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood (Ko.,i',l.:') belongs to the more advanced topics and

may be only briefly mentioned in some first year courses. Nonetheless, it may be in

the first sentence one hears when one arrives in a German-speaking country and is of

utmost importance for an introductory German course.

Uses:

1. when something did not happen or is not going to happen, or is not true (con-

trary to fact):

as if, almost, I wish...

2. politeness: michte (gern), hiitte (gern), wiirde (also in questions)

3. if, when clauses

4. when reporting something that may or not be true-her the speaker/author is

distancing him/herself from the content of the statement and withholding a

judgment concerning its factuality (indirect speech)

Formation:

1. for weak verbs, it is the same as the imperfect (praeteritum) form

2. for strong verbs, one takes the praeteritum form changes the first vowel to an

umlaut where possible. The first person singular also adds an -e as a suffix.

There are many common verbs that are particularly old and therefore particu-

larly stubborn, such as helfen (hiife), sterben (stiirbe)

3. the auxiliary verb wiirden (Eng.: would) is often used with the main verb as an

infinitive instead of forming the subjunctive of the main verb. This is particu-

larly common in polite forms.







52

4. many verbs have two subjunctive forms for the two different types of subjunctive

(see Table 7.6) one is ahv-- not built from the praeteritum and must be learned

separately

For the subjunctive forms of modal verbs, see page 57.



















Table 7.6: The Two Types of Subjunctive in German

There are actually two types of subjunctive in German:

one for commands and indirect speech

one for politeness and one for conditions that are contrary to fact or that

could be true but are not

They are usually called Subjunctive or Konjunctive I and II. One can tell them

apart by:

their usage: see above

their form: subjunctive II is the form described above or wiirden + in-

finitive; subjunctive I is characterized by the fact that the 3rd person

singular form looks like the indicative 1st person singular (habe, verstehe,

sehe, mache, etc.) if the form cannot be differentiated from the indicative

form (such as with haben), the form for subjunctive II is used or wiirden

+ infinitive

no book should call these rules, as one can, at best, speak of tendencies

in usage involving the varying forms


a [Duden, 163]









Examples:

Indirect speech:

1. Er sagt, ich sei sein Bruder.

2. Er sagt, ich soil sein Bruder sein.

3. In der Z. .:I,,ij steht es, er habe sie nicht im 1. i,,t.

4. Man behauptet, sie hatten sich friiher /. I.,,lI

Commands:

1. Man moge dich herzlich willkommen heissen.

2. Es lebe der Konig.

3. Man nehme 2 Eier...

Polite forms:

1. Konnten Sie mir helfen?

2. Wiirdet ihr die Tiir offen lassen?

3. Diirfte ich ein b'P ,i. bleiben?

Conditions contrary to fact:

1. Fast hdtte er es /i. 1. ,ifft!

2. Wenn ich nur mehr Geld hdtte ...

3. Wenn du nicht so laut wrest, konntest du in der Kiiche spielen.

4. Am T 1 .',, horst du dich so an, als stiindest du im ndchsten Zimmer!


7.3 Modal Verbs

A modal verb is a sort of helping verb that expresses a wish, intention, or-on

a more basic level-a relation to the action in the sentence. This action is shown

by another verb in the sentence, which must be in the infinitive. In German, this

infinitive comes at the end of the sentence in main clauses (but not in subordinate

clauses). There are, however, many cases where the intent is so obvious that the

infinitive can be omitted-some examples are below in Table 7.8.









7.3.1 Conjugation

The 1st and 3rd singular forms are ah--lv- the same in modal verbs; there is an

ablaut in the singular in all but sollen (and mochten); and the plural forms of 1st,

2nd formal, and 3rd ah--,v- identical to the infinitive.

Notice that patterns: all the 1st and 3rd person singular forms are identical and

the infinitive is identical to the 1st, 3rd persons plural and the 2nd person formal. No

vowel changes occur in the plural but in every person in the singular in all verbs but

sollen. There is another verb, mogen, whose subjunctive form is very similar to and

often used as as modal verb. As sollen, it too has no Ablaut (stem vowel change).

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs which are usually accompanied by an infinitive.

They are sollen, wollen, mochten (special case), diirfen, miissen, konnen.

things to look out for.

verbs or subjunctive forms of verbs that ;-,,.illi act like models: mochten,

lassen

verbs that have the meanings similar to modal verbs:

mogen (see mochten above), gern haben, vermogen.

Past tenses of modal verbs. There are two v-~ to indicate modal actions

in the past:

1. with the present perfect tense-in this case the past participle of the modal verb

is only used when the infinitive can be ellided (see Table 7.8), otherwise the

auxiliary form of haben is used and the modal auxiliary is moved to the end of

the clause, i.e. after the infinitive complement:

Das habe ich nicht machen diirfen.

2. with the imperfect-the shorter and more common way is to use the imper-

fect form of the modal auxiliary (sollten, durften, konnten, mussten, wollten,

mochten) and leave the rest of the sentence as it is:

Das durfte ich nicht machen.



















Table 7.7: Conjugation of Modal Verbs and mochten


For the impatient:


diirfen

ich darf wir diirfen

du darfst ihr diirft/Sie diirfen

er,sie,es darf sie diirfen



miissen

ich muss wir miissen

du musst ihr miisst/Sie miissen

er,sie,es muss sie miissen


k6nnen

ich kann wir k6nnen

du kannst ihr kinnt/Sie konnen

er,sie,es kann sie k6nnen



wollen

ich will wir wollen

du willst ihr wollt/Sie wollen

er,sie,es will sie wollen


sollen

ich soil wir sollen

du sollst ihr sollt/Sie sollen

er,sie,es soil sie sollen


m6chten

ich m6chte wir m6chten

du m6chtest ihr m6chtet/Sie m6chten

er,sie,es m6chte sie m6chten









Table 7.8: When One Can Leave Out the Infinitive

direction When the intended infinitive expresses move-

ment, such as is the case with laufen, fahren,

fliegen, etc. it may be omitted:

Ich mochte nach Frankreich. Ich muss in die

Schweiz. Morgen wollen wir zu dir.

ellipses When the intended infinitive is clear enough

without being stated, it is usually omitted:

Ich will das aber nicht [machenl. Er kann gut

Deutsch [sprechen].


Note that the present perfect with main verbs (i.e. when the infinitive cannot be

ellided) is used infrequently with the indicative mood, and that the construction is

mostly used with subjunctive forms. A careful student of German will not mistake

the imperfect use of models with the irreal use of the subjunctive:

1. Das durfte ich nicht machen.

2. Das hdtte ich nicht machen diirfen.

In sentence one, the speaker was not allowed to do whatever is being spoken about,

and in sentence two the speaker did do it but should not have. See Section 7.2.3 for

more information.

subjunctive forms. There are two main uses for the subjunctive forms of

modal verbs: contrary to fact and forms of politeness.

1. As mentioned above in the previous section, the present perfect subjunctive is

just the present perfect indicative with the subjunctive form of haben. Thus:

(a) Das habe ich nicht tun sollen.

(b) Das hat sie nicht sagen konnen.

(c) Man hat mir nicht helfen konnen.









2. In order to make requests more polite, German uses the subjunctive forms of

the modal verbs. This is consistent both with the tendency to use wiirden with

other verbs as well as with the English practice: would, can/could, may/might.

Note that, as mentioned above, mochten is not a true modal verb but the

subjunctive form of rmgen. It is already a polite form.


7.4 Tenses

The time in which an action takes place is defined by the tense of the verb. Since

tense is within the verb itself, forms using auxiliary verbs put together are not tense.

Thus English does not have a future tense, since the auxiliary verb will rather than

word endings is used to signify actions which take place in the future. Although

German has its own set of tenses and expresses things in a much different way than

English, this is one thing they have in common. When we speak of tense here, as

is done in most books and courses, we will be focusing on the time expressed and

not on the strict rules of form; therefore "future" is handled in its own section just

as the other tenses. This section explains the meanings and uses of the concept of

tense, while some more in depth remarks and the formation of each tense is handled

individually in Sections 7.4.1-7.4.6.

It must also be pointed out that tense is not influenced by nor directly related

to mood or voice, and that each tense has different forms for the different moods and

voices.

The two important pieces of information in regards to analyzing tense are the

spoken time and point of reference. The spoken time is now, or whenever the

sentence is uttered, and the point of reference is the time at which the said event

takes place.

Examples of when to use which tense.

It is 3:00 pm, and our speaker is going to eat dinner tonight at 6:00 pm.

Ich esse heute Abend um 18 Uhr. or Ich were (heute Abend) um 18 Uhr essen.









past perfect imperfect present present/future I future II


<-------------------------------------------
present perfect


Figure 7.1: A Visual Representation of German Tense


Without the adverbial phrase heute Abend, the first sentence has a habitual

as opposed to a one-time meaning. The second sentence is in any event more

resolute or unwavering than the first.

Likewise, if one were to be asked When are you going to be finished? two possible

answers are Ich bin um 19 Uhr fertig and Ich were um 19 Uhr fertig sein, where

the second gives the impression that the speaker wants to dispell any doubts

that s/he might not be finished by then.

* If someone were to invite the speaker to make plans for a time after this sched-

uled dinner, the answer might be: Ich were um 19 Uhr (schon) gegessen haben.

A sample sentence in which the spoken time is 4:00 pm, the planned time to

eat is 6:00 pm, and the point of reference (underlined in this sentence) is 8:00

pm:

Bis ich dich wiedersehe, were ich schon gegessen haben.

* Ich stehe (gewohnlich) um 7 Uhr auf. di-pl 'i- habitual behavior which is

strengthened by gewohnlich, whereas the sentence:

Ich bin um 7 Uhr if',i -4I,-,I., u means the speaker got up one time at 7:00 am.

Without a point of reference, it will be assumed that this morning is meant.

* The following sentence illustrates how the time was longer in the past:

Ich i,,;,npi: um 10 Uhr nach Wien, also bin ich um 7 auf.j -.Ir,.'l, i

* The sentence: Ich stand um 7 Uhr auf most likely refers to a general action in

the past, such as While in college, I got up at 10:00, [but after I began working...]









At 3:00 pm, one describes what he did this morning-he will use the present

perfect, except with the few verbs which almost alv--,v- are used in the imperfect

form (see Section 7.4.3).

Ich bin um 7 Uhr ,ifi, -/lin.',, und habe mir die Zdhne r',l .1 Dann habe ich

,/. f, -i./,.-/, 11 und Nachrichten gehirt...

Using imperfect is more appropriate when telling a story (the historical past)

which took place this morning but is told as a story with a removed point of reference:

Ich sah den Polizisten, und er sah mich. Er konnte nicht glauben, dass ich vor

der gebrochenen Fensterscheibe stand, und er sagte "H ii'...

Note that the imperfect is not used with a concrete point of reference in the

future-it must ah-- i- be a completed action or a habitual action in the past which

no longer takes place. However, the present perfect tense is used to describe completed

actions, even if they have not taken place yet:

Bis... [By the time...] and nach... [after...]

Bis wir uns wieder seen, habe ich die Karten schon ,. 1.i ,fl

Nach 19 Uhr habe ich schon gegessen.

In these sentences, the point of reference is in the future (Bis wir uns wieder

seen, Nach 19 Uhr), but the action will be completed by then.

Note that both of these sentences are impossible with the imperfect:

*Bis wir uns wieder seen, kaufte ich die Karten schon.

*Nach 19 Uhr aft ich schon.

This is what the past perfect (or plusquamperfect) is used for. For example:

Nachdem du aus dem Kino 1. l.,,,,n. ,. warst, sah ich dich gleich.

For simultaneous actions in the past, als is used.

Als du aus dem Kino kamst, sah ich dich gleich.









Note that this sentence would be impossible with the present perfect because

it does not refer to an exact point in time, but rather to the fact that the action is

completed:

*Als du aus dem Kino 1.'i,,,,I ,u bist, habe ich dich gleich gesehen.

On the order of tenses in German:

in present present the events take place at the same time

in imperfect imperfect the events take place at the same time

in past perfect past perfect the events take place at the same time

in past perfect imperfect the imperfect event took place after the past perfect

event, and both are in the past

Ich sah dich erst, nachdem du schon n,.1 ,i hattest. (winken to wave)

in present perfect present the present event took place after the present perfect

event, and the present perfect event is completed

in present future the event in the future has not yet happened

in present perfect future perfect the event in future perfect will be completed

after the event in the present perfect has been completed, but exactly when

that is in reference to the spoken time depends up the context or the point of

reference.


7.4.1 Present

The present tense is the tense used in this sentence and any sentence in which

the verb is in the present tense form and the point of reference is the same as the

spoken time. Examples are below:
English German

I am eating, I eat, I do eat Ich esse Notice that in addition to tense,

I sleep, I do sleep, I am sleeping Ich -. lile


English verbs also have aspect, which is used to determine if something is habitual,









a one time action, or is happening at this moment right now. German uses adverbs

and context to achieve this. For example,

The English sentences: I am sleeping, I do sleep, and I sleep would all be translated

into German as Ich -. I., fe without context, but within a conversation an effort should

be made to make sure that every nuance possible is translated as well. In order to

illustrate that the event is happening right now, such as the case is with the English

present progressive (I am sleeping), German uses the adverb grade: Ich -. 1,1fe grade.

In order to convey that an action is habitual, the present tense often uses the adverb

gewohnlich:

I get up at six. -- Ich stehe (gewlhnlich) um sechs auf.

Because German does not have aspect, the pli -, i' -' i'-, refers to a broader

possible time span than the English lp. --, 1 -'- i-, does (which is broken down into

aspect). In German, the present tense is the tense used most often to refer to actions

in the future. See Section 7.4.4.


7.4.2 Perfect

Formation of the Perfect

The present perfect tense in German looks a lot like the English present perfect

but usually has a different meaning. It is formed with an auxiliary (either haben

or sein, depending on the verb-see page 64) and the past participle of the verb.

Just as with modal verbs (which are also auxiliaries), the conjugated form of haben

or sein appears in its expected position in the sentence, and the participle appears

at the end, just like the infinitive in a modal predicate. For example:

Ich habe mine Il.iu,,if,1il' ,: schon gemacht.

Notice the prefix on the past participle and 't' ending of this regular (German

schwach or 'weak') verb. This is the default form, but there are several reasons why

many of the verbs you encounter do not match this pattern:

1. the verb has a prefix, either separable or inseparable









2. the verb is stark ('strong'), i.e. it just does not follow the pattern

Also, combinations of the two possibilities above are not uncommon. The reason why

most of the first verbs one learns in a foreign language are irregular is because they

are usually the oldest and most stubborn. Instead of resembling the patterns words

fell into when the language originated (i.e. became different enough to be called a

language and no longer just a dialect), the common words were so deep-rooted in the

speakers' minds that a replacement would have been impossible. Compare the past

participle of English words such as sleep, drink, think, see, go, etc. to newer and more

common ones such as transpire, type, configure, etc.

Learning past participles

There are two keys guidelines for learning all the past participles of all the verbs:

For weak verbs take the infinitive of the verb, drop the '-en' ending and add a '-t';

add a 'ge-' to the beginning of the non-prefixed verbs or between the prefix and

the root to the verbs with sep-arable prefixes. Verbs with insep-arable prefixes

as well as those ending in -ieren take no prefix whatsoever.

stellen -- gestellt

aufstellen ;,fi. -1. I l

verstellen verstellt

For strong verbs and the so-called mixed verbs there are several patterns which

can help you remember the forms but to make 'rules' of these would be sim-

ply too abstract at this point. For now it is best to simply memorize them.

Note that the rules for the absence of 'ge-' still apply. What makes them

-I, ii :.- /mixed is the fact that the vowel changes (Ablaut). The final '-en' is not

dropped and replaced by a '-t' in the strong verbs but is in the mixed.

ausziehen ';-p .. '' [stark]

versehen versehen [stark]









denken gedacht [. ',,i-ll i]

bringen gebracht [gemischt]

sein or haben?

As mentioned above, the auxiliary verb for the present perfect can be either

haben or sein, depending on the verb in question-or better: depending on whether

the verb indicates a change in motion or condition or does not. If the verb is a

motion verb-such as to run, to go-or a verb indicating a change in condition-such as

to become, to die, to happen, to break-the auxiliary is the form of sein that agrees

with the subject (i.e. bin, bist, etc., depending on number and person of the subject).

If not, it is conjugated with the correct form of haben. There are almost no verbs that

do not conform to this pattern (other than sein itself. Note also that all transitive

verbs are conjugated with haben.

Meaning

As mentioned above, there is a difference in meaning between the English and

German present perfect tenses. There are several uses in German for this tense, but

all but one are relatively obscure and unimportant for beginners:

Its commonest use is to signify that the action has taken place and has already been

completed at the time the sentence is uttered. The time the act was completed can

be given by adverbs:

Ich habe western ein Fahrrad gekauft

Ich habe schon gegessen.

Notice that in English this meaning can represented by several different forms (as-

pects) of the past tense:

I have bought a bike.

I was buying a bike [when...].

I bought a bike.

I did buy a bike.









7.4.3 Imperfect

Often referred to as the 'simple past,' the 'praeteritum,' or the 'historic past,'

the imperfect tense consists either of a different verb form (strong and mixed verbs)

or an inserted -t- and refers to events that took place in the past tense. It is used

both for habitual and one time actions in the past, but not for actions which began in

the past and are still continuing. It is more often used in written than spoken except

with the verbs in Table 7.9, for which it is also used in spoken German because the

verbs occur so often and are shorter than the present perfect forms.

In addition the the verbs sein and haben, the following verbs are used in the

imperfect more often than the present perfect in spoken German because of their

short forms: denken, finden, einsehen


7.4.4 Future

As mentioned in Sections 7.4 and 7.4.1, there is no "future -,. in German

just as there is none in English, and the present tense with adverbs of time is often

used to express the sense of future actions.

Examples:
I'll meet ;,. '; at 8 tonight. Ich treffe dich um 8 heute Abend.

I think I'll go to the concert with ;,. ', Ich glaube, ich gehe ndchste Woche mit

next week. dir aufs Konzert.


Table 7.9: Imperfect Forms


of sein and haben


sein

:i.jlnii plural

ich war wir waren

du warst ihr wart/Sie waren

er,sie,es waren sie waren


haben

S,..,l., plural

ich hatte wir hatten

du hattest ihr hattet/Sie hatten

er,sie,es hatte sie hatten









In addition to the present tense with adverbs of time, the verb warden + infinitive

is used to express events in the future. It is not used interchangeably with the present

tense to express the future tense because it is less dependent on context or time

adverbs to exhibit its futurity. In addition, it has a more resolute tone than the

present tense + a time adverb.

In addition to the futurity warden + infinitive, it can also exhibit an assumption

on the part of the speaker. In this case, the said even may still be happening or not

have even happened yet.

Der Thomas wird krank sein. Thomas is probably sick.

Often, adverbs such as wohl, vermutlich, wahrscheinlich, vielleicht are used to

enhance the fact that the speaker sees this only as a possibility and not as fact or

that the speaker casts doubt on the statement:

Das wirst du wohl am besten konnen, nicht wahr?

Mein Vater wird vermutlich das Essen bezahlen.


7.4.5 Future Perfect

The future perfect, also known as 'future II,' is the future counterpart to the

present perfect. It not only exhibits all the characteristics of the present perfect in

relation to when it takes place, it also has the possibility aspect the future tense has

as explained above. In this case, the event is complete, and the speaker is speculating

about the outcome or another aspect of the event:

Mein Vater wird fiir das Auto bezahit haben.

Ich were dich wohl ,, 11 ,,,t haben?!

It is formed with warden + present perfect infinitive (see Section 7.1.1).


7.4.6 Past Perfect

The past perfect, or 'plusquamperfect,' is used to refer to events that were com-

pleted before an event in the past took place. For example, if it is now 3:00 pm and









Herr Schmidt called his wife at 11:30 am and then ate lunch at 12:00 pm, one might



Er hatte seine Frau schon i,'. ;, ,fen, bevor er Mittag gegessen hat.

Notice that it looks exactly as the present perfect, but the auxiliary verb haben,

which would be sein if the verb exhibited motion or a change of condition, is in the

perfect. The same is true for all verbs:

1. Man war schon u .q,, als Sie 1.. ,, sind.

2. Wir hatten ihn schon seen konnen, ehe er die Fahne trug.

3. Ihr seid erst zu Hause gewesen, nachdem wir i,/.i ,;fen hatten.


7.5 Verb Types

7.5.1 Full Verbs

A full verb is a verb that can stand on its own as a predicate in a sentence and

has a lexical (as opposed to just a grammatical) worth. These are the normal main

verbs one means most of the time when referring the predicate of a sentence. If it is

not an auxiliary verb, a reflexive verb, a function verb, a modal verb, or an infinitive,

it is a full verb.


7.5.2 Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, are the verbs haben, sein, and

werden when they are used in conjunction with main verbs to perform a grammatical

function in a sentence. The functions include building the passive, modal construc-

tions, and perfect constructions.


7.5.3 Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs are verbs that have reflexive pronouns as their objects (see Sec-

tion 4.3). There are few verbs which are truly reflexive, that is, verbs that must be

used with reflexive pronouns, although this number is much higher than in English.









Usually when one speaks of reflexive verbs in German, one means any predicate that

has a reflexive pronoun as an object. The three most important characteristics of

reflexive verbs are:

1. they are transitive, which means they form their perfect tenses with haben

2. they are all active, since the object acted upon is acted upon by the subject

(itself)

3. as mentioned in Section 4.3, reflexive verbs are often used in German when

English would use possessive pronouns to show possession:

Ich putze mir die Zdhne.

Er hat sich das Bein gebrochen.

Hast du dir den Finger geschnitten?


7.5.4 Phrasal Verbs

There are many verbs in German which take on a different meaning when they

are used together with certain prepositional phrases. These are analogous to the

phrasal verbs in English, and although they are not a separate grammatical category,

they should be handled as a class of their own. Table 7.10 contains several examples

of the commonest and most important function verbs. It is important that one know

not only the verb and its conjugation but also the preposition and the case which it

governs (see ('! plter 8).

Table 7.10: Phrasal Verbs


verb preposition + case English meaning sample sentence

[perfect infinitive]

abhangen von + dat to depend on someone or Es hangt alles von deiner

[abgehangen haben] something Einstellung ab.










Table 7.10-Continued

verb preposition + case English meaning sample sentence

[perfect infinitive]

anfangen mit + dat to start, to begin with Der Arzt hat mit der

[angefangen haben] someone or something Prozedur noch nicht ange-

fangen.

aufh6ren mit + dat to stop with someone or H6ren Sie mit der Fragerei

[aufgeh6rt haben] something auf!

beginnen mit + dat to start, to begin with Mein Bruder hat letztes

[begonnen haben] someone or something Jahr mit der Schule be-

gonnen.

jemanden bitten um + ace to ask someone for some- Man hat mich um

[gebeten haben] thing Verstandnis gebeten.

denken an + ace to think about someone or Man muss oft an seine

[gedacht haben] something Kinder denken.

nachdenken fiber + ace to think about someone or Ich habe lange fiber deine

[nachgedacht haben] something Erklarung nachgedacht.

jemandem danken fiir + to thank someone for some- Ich mochte Ihnen ganz her-

acc thing zlich fiir Ihre Hilfe.

[gedankt haben]

jemanden fragen nach + to ask someone about Habt ihr sie nach einer

dat someone or something zweiten Serviette gefragt?

[gefragt haben]

glauben an + ace to believe in someone or Ich glaube an Gott.

[geglaubt haben] something









Table 7.10-Continued

verb preposition + case English meaning sample sentence

[perfect infinitive]

jemanden halten fiir + ace to take someone for some- Ich habe ihn fiir einen

[gehalten haben] thing Liigner gehalten.

hoffen auf + ace to hope for something Sie hoffen auf gutes Wet-

'[-, !i,, ,! haben] ter.

lachen fiber + ace to laugh about someone or Sie lachten alle iiber mich.

[gelacht haben] something

leiden an + ace to suffer from something Sie leidet oft an dem Larm

[gelitten haben] der Flugzeuge.

geraten in + ace to get into something Er geriet oft in Wut, wenn

[geraten sein] ich meine wahre Meinung

dazu LuBere.

sich entschuldigen bei + to apologize to someone for Ich habe mich bei ihnen fiir

dat fiir + ace something die Unangenehmlichkeiten

[sich entschuldigt haben] to tell someone to be sorry entschuldigt.

for something

sich fiirchten vor + dat to be afraid of someone or Ich fiirchte mich vor Spin-

[sich gefiirchtet haben] something nen.

sich freuen fiber + ace to be pleased with someone Ich habe mich sehr fiber

[sich gefreut haben] or something Ihren Anruf gefreut.

sich freuen auf + ace to look forward to Sie freut sich auf ein

[sich gefreut haben] (+ gerund) baldiges Wiedersehen.

sich interessieren ffir + ace to be interested in someone Er interessiert sich nur ffir

[sich interessiert haben] or something Autos.










Table 7.10-Continued

verb preposition + case English meaning sample sentence

[perfect infinitive]

sich ktimmern um + ace to take care of someone or Sie ktimmert sich um ihn

[sich gektimmert haben] something nicht.

sich konzentrieren auf + to focus on someone or Sie konzentriert sich auf

acc something ihre Hausaufgaben.

[sich konzentriert haben]

sich sorgen um + acc to worry about someone or Wir sorgen uns um seine

[sich gesorgt haben] something Finanzschwierigkeiten.

sich verlieben in + acc to fall in love with someone Sie hat sich in ihn verliebt.

[sich verliebt haben]

sich vorbereiten auf + acc to prepare for something Ich bereite mich auf die

[sich vorbereitet haben] Deutschpriifung vor.

sorgen fiir + acc to take care someone or Wir sorgen fiir ihn.

[gesorgt haben] something

sprechen mit + dat Uiber + to talk with someone about Ich habe mit ihm Uiber den

acc someone or something Plan gesprochen.

[gesprochen haben]

sterben an + acc to die from something Er ist an einem gebroch-

[gestorben sein] enen Herzen gestorben.

teilnehmen an + dat to take part, to participate Ich mochte am Som-

[teilgenommen haben] in something merkurs in Mannheim

teilnehmen.

vertrauen auf + acc to have trust in someone or Ich vertraue auf meine Fre-

[vertraut haben] something unde und Familie.










Table 7.10-Continued

verb preposition + case English meaning sample sentence

[perfect infinitive]

verzichten auf + ace. to do without something Ich habe auf den Preis

[verzichtet haben] verzichtet.

warten auf + ace to wait for someone or Er wartet auf euch.

something


7.6 Voice

7.6.1 Active

A sentence is in the active voice when the subject of that sentence is the agent.

In other words, if the noun in the nominative is committing the action or if the

predicate has sein as its main verb, it is an active sentence.


7.6.2 Passive

In passive sentences, the agent is not the subject of the sentence. Sometimes it

is the object of the preposition von or durch, but often it is not even mentioned. The

subject is acted upon by some named or unnamed force, and the verb warden builds

the predicate as an auxiliary verb.

To convert from active to passive. One takes the direct object and makes

it the subject, p ,iing attention to the new word order and remembering to conjugate

the verb accordingly. The indirect object does not change. If there is an active

agent (i.e. not man), it becomes the object of von and declined for the dative case

accordingly; if man is the subject of the active sentence, it is simply left out as it is

implied.

Examples:

Man besucht diesen Tempel oft. --- Dieser Tempel wird von Leuten oft besucht.

Man schreit. Es wird geschrieen. (no agent can be named here)









Andreas schenkt A,/. l.7., das Buch. Buch wird (von Andreas) A., 1.:l1.,

,/ I, I /

To convert from passive to active. For changing passive sentences into

active ones, one need only reverse the process described above: Objects of the prepo-

sitions von and durch will usually be the subject unless there is not subject named, in

which case it will usually be man. Special attention must be given to tense, number,

and mood.

Telling the difference between passive and future. In passive, the par-

ticiple is in the past tense (for future in the infinitive), cf.

Er wird es machen -Es wird gemacht. Sie wird essen Sie wird gegessen.

Often the passive has the von + agent (in dative).

Telling the difference between passive and future perfect. In future

perfect the past participle is present but the infinitive haben must also be present.

cf.:

Es wird gegessen -Er wird bis dann gegessen haben.

The future perfect is a relatively seldom occurrence, so one should not really

have much trouble with it.















CHAPTER 8
PREPOSITIONS


Table 8.1 is an overview of the most commonly used prepositions.

Table 8.1: An Overview of the Prepositions


1 see Section 8.2.2

2 see Section 8.2.1


Prep. Cases Definitions

(nom) ace dat gen most often: special:

an + + dat.: at, next to (on) see below

ace.: towards, at

auf + + dat.: on (top of), at in place of zu, in:

ace.: towards e.g. auf die Bank

aus + out of, from iln I1 .of X"

auBer 1 + besides, apart from with exception to

bei + at the house of X

while + gerund

bis + -2 temporal: until, by

spatial: as far as

durch + through passive: from, by +

agent










Table 8.1-Continued

Prep. Cases Definitions

fiir + for time limit, compari-

son, or substitution


gegen



hinter

in


3 see Section 8.2.4


against, towards both spatial and

comparative

behind

(dat/acc:) in, (ace:)

into

with

to, after according to (person)



without

since (temporal)

over, above

around, at temporal: at

spatial: around

under, beneath

of, from passive + agent: by

temporal: before, in can be used tempo-

front of rally and spatially

because/on account of

to see Section 8.2.2

between


- +

- +

+ +


mit

nach

neben

ohne

seit

uiber

um


unter

von

vor


wegen

zu

zwischen


- +


+ +









Prepositions are very difficult to translate and therefore cause many students

problems, mainly because there is never a one to one correspondence in meaning.

So many contexts make wrote memorization impossible. The main difficulties arise

when the student:

1. does not know which case follows the preposition and therefore has trouble

locating the object

2. is not aware of the difference in meaning arising from the difference cases some

prepositions can govern

3. forgets the common meaning or encounters a usage new for him/her and cannot

surmise the meaning from the context

4. mistakes a separable prefix for a preposition or vice versa

The first two problems are easily resolved by studying the sections 8.2.1, 8.2.2, and

8.2.3 and learning the meanings with the proper cases. The third and fourth problems

are also resolvable but take a little more effort. Grappling with section 8.1 will help

a great deal in conceptualizing the spatial qualities of the prepositions, and with the

sections 7.5.4 on function verbs and 7.1.5 on separable verb prefixes one should be

well on the way to dealing with most prepositional problems one may encounter.


8.1 A Visual Overview of the Prepositions

A picture is worth a thousand words. The pictures of prepositions on the next

five pages are meant to display the spatial meaning of each preposition and and draw

attention to what it means rather than how to translate it.


8.1.1 Prepositions of Movement and Motion

See Figures 8.1-8.14.


8.1.2 Prepositions Exhibiting a Static State

See Figures 8.15-8.24.



























Figure 8.2: auf with Accusative


Figure 8.4: durch


Figure 8.1: an with Accusative


-- - -


Figure 8.3: bis

































Figure 8.6: hinter with Accusative


(movement towards or into)


Figure 8.7: in with Accusative

(over, above, across)















Figure 8.9: iiber with Accusative


Figure 8.8: neben with Accusative


Figure 8.10: um


Figure 8.5: gegen



















Figure 8.11: unter (i.e. beneath) with
Accusative


Figure 8.12:
Accusative


hunter (i.e. among) with


Figure 8.13: vor with Accusative


Figure 8.15: an with Dative


Figure 8.14: zwischen with Accusative


Figure 8.16: auf with Dative


(in ilthil a space)


Figure 8.18: neben with Dative


(in a place)


Figure 8.17: in with Dative



















(over, above)


Figure 8.19: iiber with Dative


Figure 8.20: von


(among)


(auf)






unter
Figure 8.21: unter (i.e. beneath) with
Dative


Figure 8.22: unter (i.e. among) with
Dative


0C









8.2 Prepositions Governing Case

Because English does not have a case system, one normally does not take note of

the differences in the nouns in prepositional phrases. But in sentences with predicates

such as to give and to tell, the difference becomes obvious:

I gave him the book.

I told her not to eat i,:1 more of my dandelion stems.

The him and the her clearly have different functions than the book and the phrasal

object not to eat any more of my dandelion stems. We can test this by asking the

questions:

What did you give him? To whom did you give the book?

What did you tell her? Whom did you tell not to eat any more of your dandelion stems?

Since German does have four distinct cases and prepositions that are alv--,7-

followed by certain ones, one has to know which ones to use for which preposition.


8.2.1 Prepositions governing the Accusative

The prepositions whose objects are ah--i- in the accusative are:


bis durch fiir gegen ohne um



8.2.2 Prepositions governing the Dative

The following prepositions are followed by dative objects:

aus auf3er bei mit nach seit von zu

(nehmen Dativ, das ,1. DIf Du!)
auBler is a special case. Occasionally it fulfills the function of a conjunction, and

in rare instances, it can also govern the accusative or genitive case. For now, the

author recommends that beginner learners treat it as a dative preposition since the

other instances are so rare.









8.2.3 Two-way prepositions

Apart from the two groups of prepositions which govern the accusative and

dative, there is another group of prepositions which take objects in the accusative or

dative depending on the meaning of the sentence. This meaning is described below.

Semantics

The second in iirP function of the dative and accusative cases, next to distin-

guishing the direct objects from the indirect objects, is to distinguish between ob-

jects showing motion (accusative) and those which are stationary (dative). English

does not have anything even similar to this, but it is a necessary part of German.

In English this motion is expressed simply by using different verbs, as illustrated in

Table 8.2. Note that the past participles are different for stationary verbs and verbs

of motion-verbs of motion have weak past participles, while stationary verbs have

strong past participles. Fortunately, there is not a large number of prepositions that

can govern either the dative or accusative in this fashion, so memorizing them should

be quite easy:

an auf hinter in neben fiber unter vor zwischen

To learn how to correctly use them, one need only to think of the two different types

of contexts they could appear in, as illustrated in Table 8.3.

Table 8.2: The 'Two Way Verbs'

English German

statio,.ni : with motion stat:..'i with motion

to stand to put/place stehen stellen

to lie to lay liegen legen

to sit (be sitting) to sit down sitzen sich (hin)setzen

to sit to set sitzen setzen

to hang to hang up hangen hangen


















Table 8.3: Some Two-way Prepositions


Prep. with accusative wohin?

an Er geht an die Tafel.

auf Leg es auf den Tisch.

hinter Stellen Sie die Stiihle hinter das

Haus.

in Schaut in das Fenster hinein.



neben Hange das Bild neben den

Spiegel.

fiber Er hat fiber das Buch und aus

dem Fenster gesehen.

unter Ich habe die Zeitung unter den

Tisch gelegt.

vor Man geht nicht vor ein Auto, das

gerade fahrt.

zwischen Laufen wir zwischen die Buime

und fiber den Hiigel.


with dative wo?

Er steht an der Tafel.

Es liegt auf dem Tisch.

Er schlaft hinter dem Haus.



Ich habe ihn in dem Bahnhof

gesehen.

Georg sitzt neben dem Fernse-

her.

Uber jedem Haus ist ein Dach.



Ich habe sie schon unter einem

Baum gelesen.

Vor der Mauer waren auch viele

Leute ungliicklich.

Deine Milch steht zwischen den

Flaschen auf dem Tisch.









Note that the prepositions retain this property whether they are used with time

(zeitlich) or place (irtlich).

8.2.4 Prepositions governing the Genitive

None of the prepositions governing the genitive case belong to the group of

twenty commonest preposition. Nonetheless, Table 8.4 illustrates several of the most

important ones one may encounter. For written purposes, one should nearly ahl--i-

see them with the genitive case, also the the dative is slowly replacing the genitive.

In the feminine and plural one cannot tell whether the genitive or dative case is being

used, but it is evident with masculine and neuter singular nouns. For learners of

German as a foreign language it is best to still stick to the genitive, as using a dative

form will only draw a correction from a native speaker.


















Table 8.4: Some Genitive Prepositions

Preposition English Characteristics

equivalent

wegen because of, on ac- also built with possessive pronouns seinetwegen,

count of ihretwegen

wdhrend during also as a subordinating conjunction, see Table 9.2

trotz despite, in spite of also trotzdem

anstelle instead of not to be confused with verb anstellen, to hire

aufgrund due to from Grund, reason

kraft by virtue of, in pretty seldomly used

virtue of

laut according to, as also: laut=loud (adj.), lauter=many (adj)

per

,. -:i. 1, in view of, in the from Gesicht, face

face of

dank thanks to

.1 [.,. as a result of from Folge, result

zwecks for the purpose of from Zweck, purpose, intention
































/ hinterr)


















vor i


Figure 8.23: vor/hinter with Dative Figure 8.24: zwischen with Dative















CHAPTER 9
CONJUNCTIONS


Conjunctions are the words that connect two word groups or clauses. Grammar-

ians divide conjunctions into four different groups according to their function, but

one usually learns about two groups for beginning purposes and then discovers that

two other constructions he is familiar with and uses are actually also conjunctions.

In this paper all four groups will be presented together:

1. coordinating conjunctions

2. subordinating conjunctions

3. infinitive conjunctions

4. proportional conjunctions

Although each group can be further broken down into many sub groups, each group is

presented by itself over the next four sections and, with the exception of subordinating

conjunctions, no attempt is made to categorize its members.


9.1 Coordinating Conjunctions

There is a limited number of coordinating conjunctions. They are und, aber,

oder, denn, nur, sowohl ... als auch, entweder ... oder, sondern, allein, doch, jedoch.

Their meanings are elucidated in Table 9.1.


9.2 Subordinating Conjunctions

The number of subordinating conjunctions is much larger than the number of

coordinating conjunctions and they will not all be listed here. The two characteristics

that subordinating conjunctions exhibit which differentiate them from coordinating

conjunctions are











Table 9.1: The Coordinating Conjunctions


The coordination conjunctions do not change the order of the sentences and

do count as position words when determining the location of the verb (see

Section 1.1).
Conjunction English Characteristics

equivalent

und and no comma before is subject is the same in both

clauses

aber but equivalent to Eng. 'however'

sondern but (rather) requires a substitute-Eng.: not X but (rather) X

oder or

denn because cf. denn in Section 9.4-that one means than

nur only

sowohl ... both ...and sometimes translated as not only ...but also al-

als auch though nicht nur ... sondern auch is more accurate

in that case

entweder ... either ... or not used for negatives-that requires weder ... noch

oder see C!i lpter 10

allein alone, only more strengthening/alienating nur-do not confuse

with the adjective allein-here it has no object and

does not influence the case of the following words

doch but, however contradicts whatever was just said or believed to be

thought; can stand on its own as a contradictory

sentence-then it is an interjection

jedoch however infrequently used as the first word in a sentence