<%BANNER%>

Thermotolerant Variants of Maize Endosperm Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase


PAGE 1

THERMOTOLERANT VARIANTS OF MAIZE ENDOSPERM ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE By BRIAN TIMOTHY BURGER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2001

PAGE 2

Copyright 2001 by Brian Timothy Burger

PAGE 3

To my mother and father, and to the memory of my grandfather, Charles William Burger.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank Dr. Curt Hannah for affording me the opportunity to study in his laboratory. The time spent under his direction has been invaluable and I am indebted to him for his encouragement and support. I would also like to extend thanks to Dr. Tom Greene for his guidance in the earliest and most influential stages of my graduate career. I also thank the members of the Hannah lab for their time and assistance in showing me around the lab. Special thanks go to Dr. Don McCarty and Dr. Rob Ferl for their insight and helpful discussions regarding my thesis. I would also like to thank my family. Their support for my education made this thesis possible, and their pride in my accomplishments made this thesis worthwhile. Finally, I would like to thank Judy Wolfe for her patience, understanding, and sacrifice without which this thesis would not have been possible.

PAGE 5

v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... vi 1 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................1 Starch.................................................................................................................... ..........1 Importance..................................................................................................................1 Structure...................................................................................................................... 1 Biosynthesis................................................................................................................2 Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase...................................................4 Enzymology................................................................................................................4 Structure...................................................................................................................... 6 Regulation...................................................................................................................7 Localization.................................................................................................................8 Heat Stability............................................................................................................ .....9 Background.................................................................................................................9 Heat-Stable Mutant Sh2hs33 .....................................................................................11 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS..................................................................................13 Mutagenesis and Mutant Selection...............................................................................13 Enzymology................................................................................................................ ..17 Gel Filtration Chromatography....................................................................................19 3 RESULTS.................................................................................................................... .21 Sequencing................................................................................................................ ...21 In vitro Enzyme Assays...............................................................................................25 Relative Specific Activities of Heat-Sensitive and Heat-Stable Mutants....................28 4 DISCUSSION...............................................................................................................34 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................39 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................45

PAGE 6

vi Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THERMOLTOLERANT VARIANTS OF MAIZE ENDOSPERM ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE By Brian Timothy Burger December 2001 Chairman: L. Curtis Hannah Major Department: Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) has received considerable study because of its allosteric regulation and rate-limiting role in starch biosynthesis. Further, heat lability of AGPase has been implicated in heat-induced yield loss in cereals. A previous study in this laboratory identified a heat-stable mutant ( Sh2hs33 ) with a single amino acid substitution in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase. In this study bacterial expression of AGPase combined with a novel mutagenesis scheme allowed us to identify temperature sensitive mutants of the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase. Two such mutants, Sh2ts48 and Sh2ts60 fully complement the E. coli glgC(AGPase) mutation at 37C, but not at 30C. We mutagenized these mutants and isolated second-site reversion mutants ( Sh2rts60-1 and Sh2rts48-2 ) with restored glycogen synthesis at 30C. The second-site reversion mutations, separated from their respective parental mutations, confer limited heat stability

PAGE 7

vii to the enzyme. However, combining the mutation of Sh2hs33 with the second-site reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2 results in an enzyme with 83% retention of activity after heat treatment and a nearly three-fold increase in activity compared to wild-type. This study shows the feasibility of isolating mutations affecting enzyme stability, and allows a more focused approach to understanding regions important in the structurefunction relationship of maize endosperm AGPase.

PAGE 8

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Starch Importance In terms of its benefit to humankind, starch can be considered one of the most important products synthesized by plants. Starch constitutes most of the dry matter in the harvested organs of crop plants, and thus serves as the major source of calories in both human and animal diets. That synthesized in the harvested organs of wheat, rice, maize and potato alone exceeds 109 ton yr-1 (Kossman and Lloyd, 2000). Additionally, starch can be considered a renewable resource used in many industrial applications. In the U.S., corn is the major cereal crop, planted on 70 to 80 million acres annually and appearing in more than 1200 items in a typical grocery store (Hallauer, 2001). In addition to foodstuffs, corn is used predominantly as livestock feed, but also in wet and dry milling, and as an export product. In recent years, corn has also been used to produce ethanol for corn-based fuels. The mature corn kernel is approximately 70% starch, and thus its importance is inextricably linked to its starch content. Structure Starch exists in a semi-crystalline state composed predominantly of the glucose polymers amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is an essentially linear polymer whose approximate 1000 glucose units are joined through -1,4-glycosidic bonds. It does

PAGE 9

2 contain roughly 0.1% -1,6-glycosidic branchpoints. Amylose comprises approximately 30% of the composition of starch, but varies among species, varieties, plant organs, developmental age of the plant, and growth conditions. Detherage et al. (1955) found that amylose content ranged from 11to 35% in 51 species studied, and from 20 to 36% in a survey of 399 maize varieties. Amylopectin comprises the remaining approximate 70% of starch. This polymer also consists of -1,4-linked glucan chains, but contains approximately 4% -1,6-glycosidic branchpoints. Amylopectin (107-109 Da) is larger than amylose (105-106 Da), and is sufficient to form starch granules in the absence of amylose (Ball et al., 1996). The remaining components of starch include proteins (0.5% in cereal endosperm and 0.05% in potato tuber), including the enzymes of the starch biosynthetic pathway, and lipids (1% in cereal endosperm and 0.1% in potato tuber) (Martin and Smith, 1995). A highly branched (10%) glucose polymer called phytoglycogen is also present in maize lacking a functional sugary1 ( Su ) allele. Biosynthesis As reviewed in Hannah (1997), elucidation of the starch biosynthetic pathway, particularly in maize, has benefited from the abundance of mutants, their easily scoreable phenotypes, and the large size of the maize seed. Additionally, investigators have gained information about starch biosynthesis through the discovery and subsequent study of transposable elements, through studies brought about by the advent of gene cloning technologies, and through projects aimed at modification of the end product. Despite a large knowledge base, it is unclear whether all starch biosynthesis occurs via the pathway proposed in Figure 1.

PAGE 10

3 PLASTID Amylose ADP-Glc Glc-1-P Glc-6-P CYTOSOL Sucrose UDP-Glc + Fructose Amylopectin Glc-1-P Glc-6-P ADP-Glc Sucrose synthase AGPase Phosphoglucomutase AGPase Phosphoglucomutase Granule bound starch synthase Starch synthase+ Starch branching enzyme UGPase Figure 1. Proposed Starch Biosynthetic Pathway. Adapted from Kossman and Lloyd (2000). However, the required steps committed to starch biosynthesis are known. They are provided by the following enzymes: adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase; EC 2.7.7.27), starch synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.21), starch branching enzyme (SBE; EC 2.4.1.28), and starch debranching enzyme (SDE; EC 3.2.1.68). Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the synthesis of ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and ATP. This reaction represents the first dedicated step in starch biosynthesis and results in the activated glucosyl donor, ADP-glucose. Pyrophosphate produced in the reaction is metabolized by pyrophosphatases, shifting equilibrium of the AGPase reaction in the direction of ADPglucose synthesis.

PAGE 11

4 Starch synthases represent the second committed step in starch biosynthesis, catalyzing the formation of -1,4 linkages between the nonreducing end of a glucan chain and the glucosyl moiety of ADP-glucose. These enzymes can be classified in at least four groups with respect to sequence similarity. Collectively, the starch synthases can utilize amylose or amylopectin as substrates in vitro However the specific role of each class in vivo is unknown. The third dedicated reaction in starch biosynthesis is catalyzed by starch branching enzyme. SBE creates -1,6 linkages between a glucose residue and the reducing end of a previously hydrolyzed -1,4 linkage within a chain. Branching is not random, and enzymes exhibit specificity for glucan chain lengths and for amylose or amylopectin substrates. Starch debranching enzyme plays a role in the final starch structure. By enzymatically cleaving -1,6 linkages, SDE likely strikes a balance between SBEs to produce the starch granule. Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Enzymology Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the reaction resulting in the activated glucosyl donor used to extend the polysaccharide polymer. Historically, this enzyme has received much attention because of its position as the first committed step in starch biosynthesis and its allosteric regulation, reviewed below. Its importance in starch biosynthesis has been confirmed by a number of mutants in the structural genes of AGPase that greatly reduce starch content in mature seeds (reviewed in Nelson and Pan, 1995). Its role as the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis and the

PAGE 12

5 physiological relevance of its allosteric regulation, was demonstrated most convincingly by two experiments. Stark et al. (1992) expressed an allosterically altered AGPase from bacteria in potato tuber and increased starch content 30%. Giroux et al. (1996) used a Ds -induced insertion in an allosterically important region of the maize endospermspecific gene encoding the large subunit of AGPase to condition an 11-18% increase in seed weight. A genetic lesion later shown to affect this enzyme was first described by Mains (1949) in maize endosperm. The mutant gene was designated shrunken-2 ( sh2 ) because of the collapsed endosperm resulting from the presence of the mutant allele in a homozygous state, but distinguishing it from sh described by Hutchinson (1921). The enzymic activity was first isolated from wheat flour by Espada (1962). Early study by Laughnan (1953) noted an unusually sweet flavor associated with the sh2 kernels. An 11-fold increase in sucrose concentration was accompanied by a nearly 75% decrease in starch content in sh2 kernels as compared to wild-type. Tsai and Nelson (1966) first showed a lack of AGPase activity in sh2 mutants synthesizing only 25-30% as much starch as wild type. Further study by Dickinson and Preiss (1969) qualitatively confirmed the findings of Tsai and Nelson, but detected low but measurable amounts of AGPase activity in sh2 and bt2 mutants. Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from sh2 and bt2 mutants differed from wild type and from each other with respect to extent of urea denaturation, Km for Glc-1-P, and types of Glc-1-P saturation curves. This fact led to the hypothesis that sh2 and bt2 were structural genes for the enzyme (Hannah and Nelson, 1976). The fact that E. coli AGPase was known to

PAGE 13

6 be a homotetramer (reviewed in Preiss and Levi, 1980) provided cause for debate on the existence of dissimilar subunits for AGPase in plants. Structure Definitive evidence for the authenticity of dissimilar subunits in plants was provided by the cloning of Sh2 and Bt2 from maize endosperm (Bhave et al., 1990; Bae et al., 1990), and the homologs from other plants, including potato tuber (Okita et al., 1990), rice (Anderson et al., 1991), and pea (Burgess et al., 1997) and reviewed in Smith-White and Preiss (1992). Sh2 encodes the large (54 kDa) subunit and Bt2 encodes the small (51 kDa) subunit of an 22 heterotetramer. Sequence similarity among the large and small subunits of AGPase and between the E. coli AGPase subunit glgC indicates a shared evolutionary origin. Duplication followed by independent mutations within the Sh2 and Bt2 coding regions has resulted in noninterchangeable proteins that have nonetheless retained the ability to interact. That Sh2 and Bt2 are functionally nonduplicate genes is evidenced by complementation studies, in which either protein cannot substitute for loss of function in the other. Despite common ancestry, the rates of divergence among Sh2 and Bt2 homologs vary. Bt2 retains a large degree of sequence similarity in comparison with the small subunits from other AGPases, while large subunits of AGPases have diverged such that many probes do not cross hybridize. The 22 heterotetrameric structure of plant AGPases is more complex than that of the homotetrameric AGPases of prokaryotes, and the dynamics involved in subunit assembly, interaction, and stability are largely unknown. Several studies have indicated that both subunits must be present for maximum stability and enzymic activity (Giroux and Hannah, 1994; Wang et al., 1997; Greene and Hannah, 1998b). Evidence gathered

PAGE 14

7 using a yeast-two hybrid system to monitor subunit interactions between SH2 and BT2 suggests that individual subunits do not interact, and that polymerization involves formation of a heterodimer intermediate (Greene and Hannah, 1998b). Furthermore, yeast-two hybrid analysis showed that the N-terminal region of SH2 and the C-terminal regions of both SH2 and BT2 are required for subunit interaction. Regulation Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase is an allosteric enzyme in virtually all organisms studied to date, although the specific effectors vary among organisms. E. coli AGPase is activated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and inhibited by cAMP, while plant AGPases are activated by 3-PGA and inhibited by phosphate. The extent of regulation differs greatly among plant species, and has defined a clear dichotomy. Leaf and tuber AGPases are quite sensitive to 3-PGA activation, while those of seed origin show variable response to the effectors. Endosperm AGPases from maize (Dickinson and Preiss, 1969; Hannah and Nelson, 1975; Hannah and Nelson, 1976), wheat (Olive et al., 1989), and barley (Kleczkowski et al., 1993; Doan et al., 1999), and developing seeds from pea (Hylton and Smith, 1992) and bean (Weber et al., 1995) show little to no 3-PGA activation. However, AGPase activity from developing rice seeds is dependent on 3-PGA for activity (Sikka et al., 2001). The difference between leaf and endosperm AGPases can be neatly explained by photosynthetic capabilities of the organs. Unlike the situation in leaves, the major carbon assimilatory pathway in developing seeds is likely glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, thus excluding 3-PGA as a metabolite in the cellular environment. The dependence of potato tuber and maize embryo AGPases on 3-PGA for activity are interesting exceptions. As discussed below,

PAGE 15

8 emerging data implicate a relationship between cellular location of AGPase and sensitivity to the allosteric effectors. Localization With an established plastidal localization of AGPase for spinach leaf (Okita et al., 1979) and potato tuber (Kim et al., 1989), it was assumed that endosperm AGPases were localized to the amyloplast. Mounting evidence over the years, however, has pointed to a cytosolic location for endosperm AGPases. Giroux and Hannah (1994) reported that SH2 and BT2 synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte system and that synthesized in the maize endosperm were indistinguishable in size. Further studies of AGPase processing (Villand et al., 1992; Villand and Kleczowski, 1994), and the studies of transporter mutants (Cao et al., 1995; Shannon et al., 1996), cell fractionation (Thorbjornsen et al., 1996; Denyer et al., 1996), immunocytological localization (Brangeon et al., 1997), and metabolic profiling (Beckles et al., 2001) all argue for cytosolic localization of endosperm AGPases. Most recently, targeting of a GFP protein containing the N-terminus of Bt2 also showed cytosolic localization (Choi et al., 2001). Cytoplasmic AGPase localization would facilitate starch synthesis while conserving energy and carbon. Imported sucrose would be metabolized by sucrose synthase in the presence of UDP to form UDP-Glc and Fruc. UDP-Glc, in the presence of PPi, would form UTP and Glc-1-P, the latter being a substrate (+ ATP) to form ADPGlc. In this scenario, the number of high-energy phosphate bonds is conserved. Therefore, it is possible that differences in sensitivity to allosteric effectors are the result of evolution in the presence of different environments of the plastid and cytoplasm.

PAGE 16

9 Heat Stability Background Limited by high summer temperatures to the south and shorter growing seasons to the north, most of the world’s grain is produced in the middle latitudes where average summer temperatures range from 21C to 24C (Thompson, 1975). In a study of corn yield for the years 1975 to 1977, Chang (1981) found the highest yields (kg ha –1) to be at latitudes between 45 and 55. However, variable weather patterns can have a drastic effect on yield. In particular, reduced grain yields due to elevated temperatures have been well documented in a number of historical and climatological studies (Thompson, 1975; Chang, 1981; Thompson, 1986; and Conroy et al., 1994). Studies using growth chamber conditions (Hunter et al., 1977) showed the effect of elevated temperatures on maize grain yield. Despite a higher rate of dry matter accumulation, grain yield was reduced for plants grown at 30C, compared to those grown at 20C, because of a shorter grain-filling period. The work of Tollenaar and Bruulsema (1988) also showed a decrease in kernel weight due to a shortened grainfilling period in plants grown at a day/night temperature regime of 28/18 vs. 21/15C. In vitro studies have corroborated the in planta effects of elevated temperatures on grain yield. Jones et al. (1981), using an in vitro kernel culture system, showed that the increased dry matter accumulation at elevated temperatures is insufficient to compensate for the shortened grain-filling period. Further, the study indicated that adequate sucrose was taken up from the media by the developing kernels at elevated temperatures, thus implicating starch synthesis or sucrose unloading from the pedicel into the basal endosperm transfer cells as the likely cause of decreased yield. Using an in vitro kernel culture system and [14C]sucrose, Cheikh and Jones (1995) showed that

PAGE 17

10 incubation at elevated temperatures resulted in kernels with higher levels of radiolabeled sucroses and hexoses. The results point to carbon utilization, rather than carbon uptake, as the perturbation in kernel growth. In an effort to characterize the effect of increased temperature on starch biosynthetic enzymes, Ou-Lee and Setter (1985) found less AGPase activity in the apical kernels than in the basal kernels of tip-heated ears during the time when most of starch synthesis occurred. Subsequent work on reduced grain yields due to elevated temperatures focused on soluble starch (SSS) synthase in wheat. Rivjen (1986) found that heat treatment reduced the conversion of sucrose to starch in wheat endosperm in vitro, with SSS activity declining rapidly at temperatures above 30C. In contrast, activity of SSS from rice was thermotolerant at 30C, perhaps reflecting a mechanism for the higher temperature optimum for grain development in this cereal. In a broader study of the effect of elevated temperature on starch deposition in wheat endosperm, Keeling et al. (1993) reported the activity of SSS to be the only enzymatic activity affected by temperatures above 20C. Activities of AGPase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, sucrose synthase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, bound starch synthase, and hexokinase remained constant despite elevated temperature. Further studies in wheat (Jenner, 1994; Keeling et al., 1994; Jenner et al., 1995) corroborated the heat lability of SSS, but also recognized the heat lability of AGPase. Further, AGPase activity was partially recoverable after heat treatment by transfer to unheated conditions, indicating the direct effect of temperature on the enzyme rather than that of advancing development. The work of Duke and Doehlert (1996) focused not only on the effect of heat stress on enzyme activities in maize kernels in vitro, but on transcript levels of these

PAGE 18

11 enzymes as well. Decline in AGPase activity was most apparent and corresponded with the decline in the mRNA levels for its respective subunits. Heat-Stable Mutant Sh2hs33 A bacterial expression system developed by Iglesias et al. (1993) allows subunits for AGPase to be expressed on compatible vectors in an AGPase deficient E. coli strain to produce a functional enzyme able to complement the mutant phenotype. This bacterial expression system has been used in a number of studies aimed at elucidation of the structure-function relationship of AGPase. Using this system, Ballicora et al. (1995) determined that a 10 amino acid region of the N-terminus of the potato tuber small subunit is important for heat stability. The role in heat stability of the Cys residue at position 12 in the small subunit of potato tuber was also determined through the bacterial expression system (Ballicora et al., 1999). This residue is the location of a disulfide bridge implicated in enzyme stability. However, one mutant in particular has shed insight into the mechanisms involved in heat lability in maize endosperm AGPase. Using this system in conjunction with chemical mutagenesis, Greene and Hannah (1998a) were able to isolate mutations in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase that conferred heat stability to the enzyme in vitro A single base pair mutation, arising repeatedly in the study and conferring the highest degree of heat stability, resulted in an amino acid change from His to Tyr at position 333 in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase. This mutant was designated Sh2hs33 Interestingly, the large subunit of heat-stable potato tuber AGPase contains a Tyr residue at the corresponding location. Sh2hs33 retained 76% activity after heat treatment at 60C for 5 min, compared to 25% for wild-type and 90% for heat-stable potato tuber AGPase. Further, specific activity of AGPase in crude extracts of Sh2hs33

PAGE 19

12 was 2-fold higher than wild-type before heat treatment. Glycerol density gradient analysis of heated and nonheated Sh2hs33 and wild-type crude samples showed that the mutation in Sh2hs33 stabilizes heterotetrameric AGPase formation. Results of this study suggest a single amino acid change is sufficient to condition heat stability in the maize endosperm, and increased stability may be modulated through enhanced subunit interactions. The objective of this project is to identify additional mutations in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGP that alter enzyme stability. Mutants isolated in a previous study in this lab (Greene and Hannah, 1998a) repeatedly contained the His-to-Tyr mutation of Sh2hs33 The protocol employed in this study varies from the one used previously, and should yield different mutants. In brief, the methodology consists of using chemical mutagenesis in conjunction with a bacterial expression system to first identify temperature sensitive mutants. Specifically, these mutants have lost the ability to produce glycogen at 30C, but retain AGPase activity at 37C. These mutants were then used to screen for second-site revertants following subsequent rounds of chemical mutagenesis. Isolation of second-site reversion mutations, in the absence of the negative parental mutations, confers varying degrees of heat stability to the enzyme and increase activity of the enzyme in the absence of heat. However, the second-site reversion mutations are inferior to the mutation identified in Sh2hs33 By combining the mutations discovered in this study with the mutation arising in Sh2hs33 heat stability and pre-heat treatment activity are increased more than Sh2hs33 alone.

PAGE 20

13 CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Mutagenesis and Mutant Selection Mutagenesis of plasmid DNA containing the coding region of wild-type Sh2 cDNA was performed for 48 hours as described by Greene et al. (1996). Treated Sh2 plasmid DNA was then electroporated into Escherichia coli strain AC70R1-504 containing the wild-type Bt2 coding region on a compatible vector. Antibiotic resistance conditioned by plasmid DNA containing Sh2 and Bt2 cDNA allowed for selection of putative transformants on agar plates containing 75 mg mL-1 spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin. Colonies were incubated at 30C on enriched medium plates (0.85% [w/v] KH2PO4, 1.1% [w/v] K2HPO4, 0.6% [w/v] yeast extract, 1% [w/v] glucose, and 1.5% [w/v] agar) containing 75 mg mL-1 spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin and stained with iodine. Approximately 6,000 colonies were screened. The original screen to isolate colonies with activity as evidenced by iodine staining at 30C but not at 37C proved unsuccessful. Instead 66 colonies with varying degrees of abnormal activity at 30C were isolated. These colonies were streaked in duplicate at 30C and 37C on enriched medium plates. Of these, twenty colonies were identified with activity at 37C but not at 30C. Based on reproducibility and intensity of staining patterns six mutants were selected by their inability to complement the glgCmutation at 30C. Wild-type is fully able to complement at both temperatures. That the six mutants

PAGE 21

14 exhibited positive iodine staining at 37C indicates that we have isolated temperature sensitive mutants of maize endosperm AGPase. Two of the temperature sensitive mutants, Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48 were randomly selected for further analysis. Coding regions of Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48 were subcloned into unmutated vectors as 1553 bp Nco I/ Sst I fragments. The use of Nco I and Sst I allows isolation of the coding region in its entirety, without vector (Figure 2). Figure 2. Restriction map of Sh2 coding region. Restriction enzymes shown are those used in isolation of entire coding region and in creation of double and triple mutants. Mutations are indicated with asterisks (*). At this point, plasmids were single-pass sequenced at the University of Florida DNA Sequencing Core Facility, with the following primers: G10-2: 5’-CCCTCTAGAAATAATTTTG-3’; LH28: 5’-GAGTGGCGATCAGCTT-3’;

PAGE 22

15 LH21: 5’-TCACGTGTCAGCTCT-3’. Sequence alignments with wild-type were performed using MultAlin (Corpet, 1988). To isolate second-site revertants of Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48 the plasmids were treated with hydroxylamine, transformed into E. coli AC70R1-504 cells containing wildtype Bt2 and selected for antibiotic resistance on LB plates as described above. Colonies were streaked in duplicate on enriched medium plates containing 75 mg mL-1 spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin, and incubated at 30C and 37C. Mutants were selected by their restored ability to complement the glgCmutation at 30C. Five second-site revertants of Sh2ts60 and three second-site revertants of Sh2ts48 were isolated. Focus was restricted to only one randomly selected revertant each for Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48 : Sh2rts60-1 and Sh2rts48-2 Coding regions from Sh2rts60-1 and Sh2rts48-2 were subcloned into unmutated vectors as Nco I/ Sst I fragments, sequenced, and aligned as described above. Sequence analysis of Sh2ts60 revealed two point mutations: one mutation generated a Glu to Lys change at amino acid 324, while an additional mutation resulted in an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 359. It was desirable to separate the two mutations of Sh2ts60 to determine the effect of the single mutations. However, the absence of a unique cloning site between the mutations necessitated use of site-directed mutagenesis. The Transformer Site-Directed Mutagenesis kit (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) and protocol were used with the following primers (5’ phosphorylated): TS60E324K: 5’-CATGACTTTGGATCTAAAATCCTCCCAAGAGC-3’; TS60A359V: 5’-CTTTGATGCAAACTTGGTCCTCACTGAGCAGCC-3’; JSSh2mutSstI: 5’-GGGTCTGTCATATAGTGAGCACGGTACCCGGGG-3’.

PAGE 23

16 The resulting plasmids containing the separated mutations of Sh2ts60 were designated Sh2e324k and Sh2a359v Site-directed mutagenesis was also employed to separate the second-site reversion mutation present in Sh2rts60-1 from the parental mutations of Sh2ts60 using the primers (5’ phosphorylated): RTS60-1A396V: 5’-GCAAGATGAAATATGTATTTATCTCAGATGGTTGC3’, and JSSh2mutSstI: 5’-GGGTCTGTCATATAGTGAGCACGGTACCCGGGG-3’. The resulting plasmid containing only the reversion mutation of Sh2rts60-1 was designated Sh2a396v The second-site reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2 was subcloned from the parental mutation of Sh2ts48 as a 584 bp Nco I/ Xho I fragment into an unmutated vector (Figure 2). The resulting plasmid containing only the reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2 was designated Sh2a177v A subcloning strategy was designed to study the effects of the mutations in combination with Sh2hs33 and with each other. To combine the mutations of Sh2a177v and Sh2a396v the plasmids were digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of Sh2a177v was exchanged for the corresponding fragment of Sh2a396v (Figure 2). The resulting plasmid was designated Sh2-177-396 A similar strategy was used to combine the mutation of Sh2a177v with the mutation identified in Sh2hs33 Plasmids were digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of Sh2a177v was exchanged for the corresponding fragment of Sh2hs33 The resulting plasmid was designated Sh2-177-33 To combine the mutation of Sh2a396v with the mutation identified in Sh2hs33 the plasmids were digested with Mun I/ Kpn I and a 390 bp fragment of Sh2a396v was

PAGE 24

17 exchanged for the corresponding fragment of Sh2hs33 (Figure 2). The resulting plasmid was designated Sh2-396-33 In order to combine the mutations of Sh2a396v and Sh2a177v with the mutation identified in Sh2hs33 Sh2-396-33 and Sh2a177v were digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of Sh2a177v was exchanged for the corresponding fragment of Sh2-396-33 The resulting plasmid was designated Sh2-177-396-33 Final sequencing of all plasmids was performed using six primers to cover the entire Sh2 coding region in both directions. Primers used are as follows: LHBB1 (5’ 3’): 5’-CGACTCACTATAGGGAGACC-3’; LH27 (5’ 3’): 5’-CCCTATGAGTAACTG-3’; LH9 (5’ 3’): 5’-TATACTCAATTACAT-3’; LHBB2 (3’ 5’): 5’-GTGCCACCTGACGTCTAAG-3’; LH2135 (3’ 5’): 5’-CAGAGCTGACACGTG-3’; LH32 (3’ 5’): 5’-AAGCTGATCGCCACTC-3’. Enzymology To obtain quantitative data for the mutants described above, activity was measured with the synthesis (forward) assay that measures incorporation of [14C]Glc-1-P into the sugar nucleotide ADP-Glc. Assays were performed on crude enzyme extracts prepared as described below. Aliquots (10 mL) of LB containing 75 mg ml-1 of spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 of kanamycin were inoculated from glycerol stocks of E. coli AC70R1-504 cells expressing mutant or wild-type AGPase, and grown overnight at 37C with shaking at 225 rpm. These cultures were used to inoculate 250 mL of LB containing 75 mg mL-1 of

PAGE 25

18 spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin. Cultures were grown to an OD600= 0.5-0.6 at 37C with shaking at 225 rpm, then induced with 0.2 mM isopropyl B-D-thiogalactoside and 0.02 mg mL-1 nalidixic acid for 6.5 h at 23C with shaking at 200 rpm. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 3500 x g for 10 min at 4C, and stored at –80C. Cell pellets were resuspended in 1mL of extraction buffer: 10mM KPO4, pH 7.5, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM EDTA, 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate, and 20% (w/v) sucrose. DTT (1 mM), 50 mg mL-1 lysozyme, 1 mg mL-1 pepstatin, 1 mg mL-1 leupeptin, 1 mg mL-1 antipain, 1 mg mL-1 aprotinin, 10 mg mL-1 chymostatin, 1mM phenylmethylsulonyl fluoride, and 1 mM benzamidine were added to extraction buffer just before use. Resuspended cells were sonicated 3 times with a Branson 450 Sonifier (Branson Ultrasonics Corporation, Danbury, CT) for 7 seconds at 60% duty cycle and output control level 3, with incubation on ice between sonications. Samples were centrifuged for 1 min at 13,000 rpm at 4C, and supernatants were removed and used for assays. Heat treatment consisted of incubation at 60C for 5 min. The ADP-Glc synthesis reaction measures incorporation of [14C]Glc-1-P into ADP-Glc. The reaction mixture contained 80 mM HEPES, pH 7.5m, 1 mM Glc-1-P, 4 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin, 10 mM 3-PGA, and 15,000 cpm of [14C]Glc-1-P. Reaction volume was 50 mL. Assays were initiated by addition of 1.5 mM ATP. Reaction was incubated for 30 min at 37C and terminated by boiling for 2 min. Unincorporated Glc-1-P was cleaved by addition of 0.3 U of bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ) and incubation for 2.5 h at 37C. A 20 mL aliquot of the reaction mixture was spotted on DEAE paper,

PAGE 26

19 washed with distilled water three times, dried, and quantified in a liquid scintillation counter. Gel Filtration Chromatography In order to assess the effect of mutations on enzyme assembly and/or subunit interactions, it was necessary to separate the enzymes by size. Crude extract, prepared as above except that extraction buffer also contained 10 mM MgCl2, 5% (v/v) glycerol, and 200 mM KCl, was loaded on a Pharmacia Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, NJ) connected to an FPLC system (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) at 4C. The column was previously equilibrated with 2 volumes of buffer containing 10 mM MgCl2, 5 mM EDTA, 5% (w/v) sucrose, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, and 200 mM KCl and filtered through a 0.45 M filter (Gelman Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI). Flow rate was 0.5 mL min-1 and loading volume was 200 mL. Fractions of 250 mL were collected. The column was calibrated with the following markers, dissolved at 1 mg mL-1 in equilibration buffer (50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5, 100 mM KCl, and 5% (v/v) glycerol), and filtered at 0.45 M: apoferritin (443 kD), -amylase (200 kD), alcohol dehydrogenase (150 kD), BSA (66 kD), and carbonic anhydrase (29 kD). Flow rate was 0.5 mL min-1 and loading volume was 200 mL. A void volume of 8 mL was determined using blue dextran. To verify size and quantify relative amounts of AGPase present, proteins were separated on a Novex NuPAGE 7% Tris-Acetate polyacrylamide gel (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) using a Novex XCell II Mini-Cell electrophoresis unit (Invitrogen). SDSPAGE standards for SYPRO Orange Stain-Broad Range were used in conjunction with SYPRO Orange Stain (Bio Rad, Hercules, CA). Gel was stained for 0.5 h. Protein was

PAGE 27

20 visualized with UV light and an AlphaImager 2200 digital imaging system (Alpha Innotech Corporation, San Leandro, CA). Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose (Micron Separations Inc., Westborough, MA) with a Hoefer TE 70 Series SemiPhor semi-dry transfer unit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Membrane and filter paper used in transfer were soaked in Towbin transfer buffer: 25 mM Tris, pH 8.3, 192 mM glycine, 20% (v/v) methanol, and 0.1% (w/v) SDS. Transfer time was one hour. Membranes were washed three times for ten minutes each in Tris-buffered saline Tween (TTBS) solution: 100 mM Tris-Cl, pH 6.8, 150 mM NaCl, and 0.1% (v/v) Tween 20. Membranes were blocked for one hour in TTBS containing 5% (w/v) BSA. Membranes were incubated for one h with primary antibodies (1:1000) directed against BT2 (Giroux and Hannah, 1994). Excess antibodies were removed by washing membrane three times for ten min each in TTBS solution. Primary antibodies were detected by incubation for one h with 1:5000 dilution of horseradish peroxidase conjugated to donkey anti-rabbit IgG (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) in TTBS solution containing 5% (w/v) BSA. Excess antibodies were removed by washing three times for ten min each in TTBS solution. Blots were visualized by ECL chemiluminescent detection (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). To quantify relative amounts of AGPase present, films were scanned using a Hewlett Packard (Palo Alto, CA) scanner in conjunction with Alpha Ease software (Alpha Innotech Corporation). Densitometry was determined using auto background settings.

PAGE 28

21 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Sequencing The mutagenesis and mutant selection strategy made use of hydroxylamine and a bacterial expression system. Hydroxylamine preferentially hydroxylates the amino nitrogen at the C-4 position of cytosine, resulting in a GC to AT transition (Suzuki et al., 1989). While hydroxylamine can induce only two of the possible twelve base pair substitutions, the nature of the mutagen ensures no direct base pair reversions, an advantage utilized in searches for second site suppressors. The bacterial expression system uses E. coli strain AC70R1-504, a strain lacking endogenous bacterial AGPase activity ( glg C). Using cDNA clones of the large and small subunits of potato tuber AGPase, Iglesias et al. (1993) showed that expression of both subunits complements the mutation, while either subunit alone is unable to do so. Complementation is easily visualized by staining colonies with iodine. Colonies with restored glycogen production stain brown, as iodine chelates with glycogen, to produce an easily detectable indication of complementation. Complementation of the E. coli AC70R1-504 mutation with cDNA clones of the large and small subunits of maize endosperm AGPase has also been demonstrated (Giroux et al., 1996). Sequencing of Sh2ts48 identified a single mutation at amino acid 426, a Leu to Phe substitution. The Leu residue is conserved among the large subunits of rice

PAGE 29

22 endosperm, developing wheat grain, barley endosperm, sorghum, and potato tuber AGPases (Figure 3). F 426 [Zea] S V I G V C S R V S S G C E L K D S V M M G A D I [Sorghum] S V I G V C S R V S Y G C E L K D C V M M G A D I [Rice] S V I G I S S R V S I G C E L K D T M M M G A D Q [Barley] S I I G V R S R L N S G S E L K N A M M M G A D S [Wheat] S I I G V R S R L N S G S E L K N A M M M G A D S [Potato] S I V G E R S R L D C G V E L K D T F M M G A D Y consensus S i G v r S R s s G c E L K d m M M G A D Figure 3. Mutation identified in Sh2ts48 Mutation is a Leu to Phe substitution at amino acid 426. Two point mutations were identified in Sh2ts60 (Figure 4). One mutation generated a Glu to Lys change at amino acid 324. This Glu is conserved in the large subunits of rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. An additional mutation in Sh2ts60 resulted in an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 359. This Ala is conserved in the large subunits of rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. Of significance, the mutations of Sh2ts60 flank the mutation (His to Tyr at amino acid 333) arising in Sh2hs33 a heat-stable variant of maize endosperm AGPase (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). Sequencing of the Sh2ts48 second-site revertant, Sh2rts48-2 identified an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 177 (Figure 5). The Ala is conserved in the large subunits of rice, wheat, and barley AGPases. The mutation is 249 amino acids in the N-terminal direction from the parental mutation, and maps to the same site as the mutation in Sh2hs13 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). The mutation in Sh2hs13 is an Ala to Pro substitution, and confers some degree of heat stability, indicating this region is important in AGPase heat stability.

PAGE 30

23 A. K 324 [Zea] L K S K Y T Q L H D F G S E I L P R A V L D H S V [Sorghum] L K S K Y T Q L H D F G S E I L P R A V L E H N V [Rice] L K S K Y A H L Q D F G S E I L P R A V L E H N V [Barley] L K S R Y A E L H D F G S E I L P R A L H D H N V [Wheat] L K S R Y A E L H D F G S E I L P R A L H D H N V [Potato] L K W S Y P T S N D F G S E I I P A A I D D Y N V consensus L K s k Y a l h D F G S E I l P r A v l d h n V B. V 359 [Zea] D V G T I K S F F D A N L A L T E Q P S K F D F Y [Sorghum] D V G T I K S F F D A N L A L T E Q P S K F D F Y [Rice] D I G T I K S F F D A N L A L T E Q P P K F E F Y [Barley] D I G T I R S F F D A N M A L C E Q P P K F E F Y [Wheat] D I G T I R S F F D A N M A L C E Q P P K F E F Y [Potato] D I G T I K S F Y N A S L A L T Q E F P E F Q F Y consensus D i G T I k S F f d A n l A L t e q p p k F e F Y Figure 4. Mutations identified in Sh2ts60 A. One mutation is a Glu to Lys substitution at amino acid 324. B. The second mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 359. V 177 [Zea] V L A A T Q M P E E P A G W F Q G T A D S I R K [Sorghum] V L A D T Q M P E E P D G W F Q G T A D S V R K [Rice] V L A A T Q M P D E P A G W F Q G T A D A I R K [Barley] V L A A T Q M P G E A A G W F R G T A D A V R K [Wheat] V L A A T Q M P G E A A G W F R G T A D A V R K [Potato] V L A A T Q T P G E A G K K W F Q G T A D A V R K consensus V L A a T Q m P g E a g W F q G T A D a v R K Figure 5. Mutation identified in Sh2rts48-2 Mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 177. Sequencing of the Sh2ts60 second-site revertant, Sh2rts60-1 identified an Ala to Val mutation at amino acid 396 (Figure 6). This Ala is conserved in the large subunits of rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. This mutation is 37 and 42 amino acids in the C-terminal direction from the parental Sh2ts60 mutations. In addition, the

PAGE 31

24 mutation is four amino acids away from one of two mutations found in Sh2hs14 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). All mutations identified in this study, and the mutation in Sh2hs33 are shown in Figure 7. V 396 [Zea] L P P T Q L D K C K M K Y A F I S D G C L L R E C [Sorghum] L P P T Q L D K C K I K D A S I S D G C L L R E C [Rice] L P P A R L E K C K I K D A I I S D G C S F S E C [Barley] L P P T K S D K C R I K E A I I S H G C F L R E C [Wheat] L P P T K S D K C R I K E A I I S H G C F L R E C [Potato] L P P T K I D N C K I K D A I I S H G C F L R D C consensus L P P t k l d k C k i K d A i I S G C f l r e C Figure 6. Mutation identified in Sh2rts60-1 Mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 396. Sh2 TYLEGGINFA DGSVQVLAAT QMPEEPAGWF QGTADSIRKF Sh2rts48-2 V(177) Sh2 IWVLEDYYSH KSIDNIVILS GDQLYRMNYM ELVQKHVEDD Sh2 ADITISCAPV DESRASKNGL VKIDHTGRVL QFFEKPKGAD Sh2 LNSMRVETNF LSYAIDDAQK YPYLASMGIY VFKKDALLDL Sh2 LKSKYTQLHD FGSEILPRAV LDHSVQACIF TGYWEDVGTI Sh2ts60 K(324) Sh2hs33 Y(333) Sh2 KSFFDANLAL TEQPSKFDFY DPKTPFFTAP RCLPPTQLDK Sh2ts60 V(359) Sh2 CKMKYAFISD GCLLRECNIE HSVIGVCSRV SSGCELKDSV Sh2rts60-1 V(396) Sh2ts48 F(426) Figure 7. Mutations identified from sequence analysis in temperature sensitive mutants, revertants, and Sh2hs33

PAGE 32

25 In vitro Enzyme Assays The ADP-Glc synthesis (forward) reaction provided quantitative data on the activity of Sh2ts48 Sh2rts48-2 and Sh2a177v as compared to wild-type (Table 1). The assay was performed with undiluted, 1:2 diluted, and 1:4 diluted samples. All dilutions were assayed in duplicate. Controls (minus ATP) were subtracted before multiplication by dilution factors and averaging. Table 1. Activity (AGPase) in Sh2 wild-type, Sh2ts48 Sh2rts48-2 and Sh2a177v Sh2ts48 is the original temperature sensitive mutant. Sh2rts48-2 is a revertant of Sh2ts48 and contains a second-site suppressor mutation, in addition to the mutation found in Sh2ts48 Sh2a177v contains only the second-site suppressor mutation from Sh2rts48-2 Activity is assayed at 37C. EnzymeActivity SEMaNbSh2 wt20883776 Sh2ts48 11282706 Sh2rts48-2 12464556 Sh2a177v 21033936 a standard error of the mean b number of experimental replicates This data set clearly illustrates the effectiveness of the screening procedure used to identify mutants. A single mutation ( Sh2ts48 ) causes a loss of activity when compared to wild-type. It is interesting to note that while activity of the enzyme containing a second-site reversion mutation ( Sh2rts48-2 ) does not return to wild-type levels with regards to the in vitro enzyme assay, iodine staining in Sh2rts48-2 is restored to wild-type or near wild-type levels. Isolation of the second-site reversion mutation in the absence of the parental mutation ( Sh2a177v ) does not significantly increase activity of the enzyme compared to wild-type. The data not only provide quantitative data supporting earlier qualitative data, but also show the ability of the screening procedure to effectively identify mutations altering enzyme activity.

PAGE 33

26 The ADP-Glc synthesis (forward) reaction also provided quantitative data on the activity of Sh2ts60 Sh2rts60-1 Sh2e324k Sh2a359v and Sh2a396v as compared to wild-type (Table 2). The assay was performed with undiluted, 1:3 diluted, and 1:6 diluted samples. All dilutions were assayed in duplicate. Controls (minus ATP) were subtracted before multiplication by dilution factors and averaging. The data presented also illustrate the effectiveness of the protocol in identifying mutants affecting enzyme activity. Here, the mutations in Sh2ts60 clearly affect the activity of AGPase. Upon separation of the two mutations present in Sh2ts60 the mutation present in Sh2e324k appears to be responsible for the phenotype of Sh2ts60 Table 2. Activity (AGPase) in Sh2 wild-type, Sh2ts60 Sh2e324k Sh2a359v Sh2rts60-1 and Sh2a396v Sh2ts60 is the original temperature sensitive mutant. Sh2e324k contains only one of two mutations found in Sh2ts60 Sh2a359v contains the second of two mutations found in Sh2ts60 Sh2rts60-1 is a revertant of Sh2ts60 and contains a second-site suppressor mutation, in addition to the mutations found in Sh2ts60 Sh2a177v contains only the second-site suppressor mutation found in Sh2rts60-1 Activity is assayed at 37C. EnzymeActivity SEMaNbSh2 wt 13985206 Sh2ts60 84496 Sh2rts60-1 109436 Sh2e324k 67426 Sh2a359v 9962416 Sh2a396v 24104216 a standard error of the mean b number of experimental replicates The percentage of activity remaining after heat treatment at 60C for 5 min is presented in Table 3. Genotypes in the data set are Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 Sh2a396v Sh2a177v Sh2-396-177 Sh2-396-33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh2-396-177-33 Activity of Sh2 wild-type and Sh2hs33 are in agreement with earlier reports (Greene and Hannah, 1998a).

PAGE 34

27 Sh2a396v Sh2a177v Sh2-396-177 Sh2-396-33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh2-396-177-33 are not significantly different in terms of heat stability. Table 3. Percent Activity Remaining After Heat Treatment. Heat treatment consists of incubation at 60oC for 5 min. Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2a396v is the second-site reversion mutation found in Sh2rts60-1 Sh2a177v is the second-site reversion mutation found in Sh2rts48-2 Sh2-396-177 is a double mutant of Sh2a396v and Sh2a177v Sh2-396-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a396v and Sh2hs33 Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a177v and Sh2hs33. Sh2-396-177-33 is a triple mutant of Sh2a396v Sh2a177v and Sh2hs33 Enzyme% Activity SEMaNbSh2 wt32113 Sh2hs33 6977 Sh2a396v 6113*2 Sh2a177v 6463 Sh2-396-177 7721*2 Sh2-396-33 6993 Sh2-177-33 8383 Sh2-396-177-33 72113 a standard error of the mean b number of experimental replicates represents range, rather than S.E.M. Activity before heat treatment for Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 Sh2a396v Sh2a177v Sh2-396-177 Sh2-396-33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh2-396-177-33 is shown in Table 4. Sh2hs33 has 2.1 fold more activity than does Sh2 wild-type. This is in agreement with previous data (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). Both Sh2a177v and Sh2a396v show a 1.4 fold increase in activity. Their double mutant contains a 1.9 fold increase in activity. While the combination of the two mutants increases activity, the double mutant does not experience synergistic effects. The mutation of Sh2a396v when combined with that of Sh2hs33 experiences an additive effect, raising activity 3.4 fold compared to Sh2 wildtype. The mutation of Sh2a177v in combination with that of Sh2hs33 exhibits a slightly

PAGE 35

28 smaller increase to 2.9 fold. Interestingly, the triple mutant shows a slightly greater increase than either second-site reversion mutation alone, but less than the double mutant between second-site revertants. Table 4. Fold Increase in Activity. Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2a396v is the second-site reversion mutation found in Sh2rts60-1 Sh2a177v is the second-site reversion mutation found in Sh2rts48-2 Sh2-396-177 is a double mutant of Sh2a396v and Sh2a177v Sh2-396-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a396v and Sh2hs33 Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a177v and Sh2hs33 Sh2-396-177-33 is a triple mutant of Sh2a396v Sh2a177v and Sh2hs33 EnzymeFold increaseRange NbSh2 wtn/an/an/a Sh2hs33 2.1 0.2a3 Sh2a396v 1.401 Sh2a177v 1.401 Sh2-396-177 1.90.22 Sh2-396-33 3.401 Sh2-177-33 2.90.12 Sh2-396-177-33 1.80.12 a standard error of the mean b number of experimental replicates n.a. not applicable Relative Specific Activities of Heat-Sensitive and Heat-Stable Mutants Gel filtration chromatography was used to isolate heterotetrameric AGPase from other size fractions of its subunits. To test the effectiveness of the column for separation, individually collected fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE and western blotting. A western blot of Fractions 1-14 is shown in Figure 8. Low levels of BT2 protein are detected in Fractions 1 –8. Beginning with Fraction 9 there is a steady increase in the amount of BT2 present. Higher molecular weight proteins present in Lanes 1-6 are possibly due to transcriptional run-on and have been observed previously (Hannah, personal communication). Fraction 11 is considered to be the heterotetrameric fraction as

PAGE 36

29 predicted by molecular mass markers. The presence of BT2 protein in Fractions 10 and 12-14 suggest that the heterotetrameric peak is split among fractions. However, by using Fraction 11 as the heterotetrameric fraction, contamination by AGPase dimers is unlikely as higher numbered fractions contain lower molecular weight molecules. Figure 8. Western blot of Sh2hs33 gel filtration fractions. Fractions 1-14 of Sh2hs33 were subjected to SDS-PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and hybridized with antibody to BT2. Fraction 11 is the heterotetrameric fraction as determined by molecular mass markers. Isolation of the heterotetrameric fraction, followed by relative quantitation of active enzyme through SDS-PAGE and western blotting, allowed an estimate of specific activities. The first of two western blots used to estimate specific activities is shown in Figure 9. The specific activities calculated using in vitro enzyme assays and relative amounts of AGPase present in Figure 9 are shown in Table 5. The second of two western blots used to estimate specific activities is shown in Figure 10. Specific activities calculated using the forward assay from gel filtration purification fractions and relative amounts of AGPase protein present in Figure 10 are shown in Table 6. Following gel filtration chromatography of heated and nonheated samples of Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh-2177-396-33 aliquots of the heterotetrameric

PAGE 37

30 fraction were subjected to SDS-PAGE. SDS gels were transferred to nitrocellulose and probed with antibody to BT2. Films were digitally scanned and relative amounts of protein determined using densitometry software. We loaded 12 and 6 L to monitor linearity of AGPase signal. Lack of detectable protein for both heated and nonheated samples of Sh2 wild-type made determination of relative protein amounts, and subsequent specific activity calculations, impossible. Specific activities decrease as stability increases (Table 5), and although no specific activity for Sh2 wild-type is given, enzyme assays of Sh2 wild-type suggest the highest specific activity in the group. To verify results shown in Figure 9 and Table 5, a slightly modified version of the experiment was performed. Enzymes used were Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 and Sh2-17733 Heat-treatment was excluded from the experiment. The heterotetrameric gel filtration fractions and the succeeding fraction were used. Two fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE in Figure 10 to evaluate contamination by dimers. That specific activities of both fractions from each enzyme are similar suggests no contamination by dimeric AGPase subunits. In contrast to the previous experiment, specific activities increase with increasing stability, with Sh2 wild-type exhibiting the lowest specific activity and Sh2-177-33 exhibiting the greatest specific activity. The discrepancy between experiments is discussed below.

PAGE 38

31 Figure 9. Western blot of gel filtration fractions to calculate specific activities. Samples of heterotetrameric fraction, separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and hybridized with antibody to BT2 protein. Lanes 1 and 2: Sh2 wild-type, 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 3 and 4: heat-treated Sh2 wild-type, 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 5 and 6: Sh2hs33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 7 and 8: heat-treated Sh2hs33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 9 and 10: Sh2-177-33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 11 and 12: heat-treated Sh2-177-33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 13 and 14: Sh2-177-396-33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 15 and 16: heat-treated Sh2-177-396-33 12 L and 6 L, respectively.

PAGE 39

32 Figure 10. Western blot of Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 and Sh2-177-33 gel filtration fractions. Lanes1-6: gel filtration fractions corresponding to the heterotetrameric fraction. Lanes 7-12: gel filtration fractions corresponding to the succeeding heterotetrameric fraction. Fractions separated by SDSPAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and hybridized with antibody to BT2 protein. Lanes 1, 2, 7, and 8: Sh2 wild-type, 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 3, 4, 9, and 10: Sh2hs33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Lanes 5, 6, 11, and 12: Sh2-177-33 12 L and 6 L, respectively. Table 5. Specific Activities of Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh2-177-396-33 Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a177v (second-site reversion mutation) and Sh2hs33 Sh2-396-177-33 is a triple mutant of Sh2a396v (second-site reversion mutation), Sh2a177v and Sh2hs33 EnzymeHeat treatActivityProtein amt.Sp. activity Sh2 wtno2291n.d.n.d. Sh2hs33 no845522384 Sh2-177-33 no707138.5184 Sh2-177-396-33 no713149.5144 Sh2 wtyes7709n.d.n.d. Sh2hs33 yes78886.81160 Sh2-177-33 yes892720.5435 Sh2-177-396-33 yes787847168 n.d. not determined

PAGE 40

33 Table 6. Specific Activities for Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33 and Sh2-177-33 Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2a177v (second-site reversion mutation) and Sh2hs33. EnzymeFractionActivityProtein amt.Sp. activity Sh2 wt125861345 Sh2hs33 1218432671 Sh2-177-33 1221882395 Sh2 wt137501647 Sh2hs33 13187022.583 Sh2-177-33 13219021.5102

PAGE 41

34 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION It is well known that single amino acid polymorphisms in the coding region of enzymes can alter properties. The work of Greene and Hannah (1998a) showed that a single amino acid change in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase can affect subunit interactions and heat stability. The aim of this project was to identify other mutations affecting enzyme stability. Through sequence comparison of mutants from this study and mutants identified by Greene and Hannah (1998a), regions important in enzyme stability both in the presence and absence of increased heat are becoming apparent. Because the coding region of Sh2 is by no means mutation saturated, at this point only two regions of importance can be tentatively identified. The first region spans 113 amino acids, from residue 104 to residue 217. Amino acid 217 was first identified by Greene and Hannah (1998a) as one (Arg to Pro) of two mutations in Sh2hs47 a heatstable mutant retaining approximately 60% activity after incubation at 60C for 5 min. However, because the two mutations in Sh2hs47 were not separated to determine their individual effect on stability, no definitive conclusions about this amino acid can be drawn. Also identified by Greene and Hannah (1998a) was residue 114 in Sh2hs16 An Arg to Thr substitution at this position conditions retention of approximately 40% activity after heat treatment. Amino acid 177 is the site of the mutation (Ala to Pro) identified in Sh2hs13 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). This mutant was isolated in the screening procedure and presumably confers some degree of heat stability, although no quantitative data were given. Amino acid 177 is also the location of the second-site reversion

PAGE 42

35 mutation present in Sh2rts48-2 An Ala to Val substitution at this residue confers retention of approximately 64% activity after heat treatment. That residue 177 has been identified in two studies, lends credence to the importance of this residue in stability of maize endosperm AGPase. The second region of importance in terms of AGPase stability is a 136 amino acid stretch between residues 324 and 460. Mutations in this study include those identified in Sh2ts48 and Sh2ts60 at residues 324, 359, and 426. Data presented illustrate the importance of these residues, particularly 324 and 426, in enzyme stability as evidenced by the concomitant conditional phenotype upon mutation of these residues. Also identified in this study is residue 396, the location of the second-site reversion mutation of Sh2ts60 An Ala to Val substitution at this residue confers approximately 61% retention of activity following heat treatment. The remaining residues that define this region were identified in Greene and Hannah (1998a) and include residues 333 (His to Tyr), 400 (Asp to His), 454 (Val to Ile), and 460 (Thr to Ile). The His to Tyr mutation at residue 333 was repeatedly encountered in the study, and its importance in stability has been shown in both the original and the present study. Comparison of the mutations identified here show an interesting pattern. Of the five mutations, three are Ala to Val substitutions. Further, both second-site reversion mutations are Ala to Val substitutions. Whether the over-representation of Ala to Val substitutions is because of the relatedness of the codons for these amino acids, the limited range of substitutions possible through hydroxylamine mutagenesis, or reflects the accessibility of these particular Ala codons to the mutagen is unclear.

PAGE 43

36 As stated above, with the limited number of mutations in the coding region of Sh2 it is difficult to identify regions of importance with any certainty. In fact, there is no compelling reason to include residue 217 with residues 177 and 104 rather than with the remaining mutations other than distance between the next closest mutations is smaller. It remains to be seen whether the residues identified can in fact be divided into two regions or whether the mutations are isolated. The two tentatively identified regions may be divided further, their domains expanded or contracted, and their relative importance verified as more mutants become available. However, the mutations have given us a starting point to further study the interactions of the subunits and their role in the stability of this important enzyme. The mechanism by which the mutation of Sh2hs33 enhances heat stability is not definitively known. Glycerol density gradient centrifugation and SDS-PAGE/western blotting provided evidence that Sh2hs33 increases heat stability through stabilizing heterotetrameric AGPase formation (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). Certainly this result is in agreement with earlier reports (Giroux and Hannah, 1994; Wang et al., 1997) in which both subunits must be present for maximum stability. Perhaps Sh2hs33 stabilizes heterotetrameric AGPase formation, thus forming an enzyme more resistant to stress and with more activity in the absence of stress, because of an increased affinity for heterotetrameric formation. This scenario presents a testable hypothesis. If Sh2hs33 and heat-stable variants identified in this study enhance stability by shifting equilibrium of subunit interaction in the direction of heterotetrameric formation, activity per heterotetramer should be equal to wild-type and to each other. Using techniques developed previously in this lab the question has been addressed.

PAGE 44

37 Using heated and nonheated samples of Sh2 Sh2hs33 Sh2-177-33 and Sh2-177396-33 (Figure 9), specific activities were calculated (Table 5). Specific activities decrease as stability increases. Although no numerical values were given for Sh2 wildtype because of undetectable amounts of protein, enzyme assays suggest a higher specific activity than the other enzymes. Heat treatment increases specific activities but does not change the underlying observation. In a slightly modified experiment to confirm earlier results, differing results were obtained. Using Sh2 Sh2hs33 and Sh2-177-33 (Figure 10) specific activities were calculated (Table 6). In contrast to the previous experiment, specific activities increase with increasing stability. Without further experimentation, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Activity levels in the first experiment were higher than the second experiment (Table 5 vs. Table 6). Whether this reflects differences in enzyme preparations, enzyme integrity during gel filtration chromatography, assay conditions, or other phenomena is unknown. The differing data do provide an interesting opportunity to speculate about the reasons behind the possible final outcomes. As discussed above, if the mechanism by which the various mutants increase stability occurs via a shift in equilibrium of subunit interactions towards heterotetrameric AGPase formation, specific activities per heterotetramer should be equal. Existing data for Sh2hs33 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a) suggest that heterotetrameric AGPase formation is increased. In order to explain differences in specific activities per heterotetramer, however, other mechanisms must be at work. According to data presented in Figure 10 and Table 6, it appears possible that mutations have rendered the enzymes more efficient. By increasing subunit interactions equilibrium has not only shifted in favor of heterotetramers, but the mechanisms by

PAGE 45

38 which substrates are converted to product are altered. A change in conformation of active site due to conformational changes in enzyme structure is but one explanation. Undoubtedly, 3-D structure of the enzyme would offer insight as to the placement of the amino acids and the plausibility of their effect on enzyme structure. Lack of crystal and 3-D structure, and the unequivocal data presented in this study, relegate these musings to mental exercises.

PAGE 46

39 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson JM, Larsen R, Laudencia D, Kim WT, Morrow D, Okita TW, Preiss J (1991) Molecular characterization of the gene encoding a rice endosperm-specific ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit and its developmental pattern of transcription. Gene. 97: 199-205. Bae JM, Giroux M, Hannah LC (1990) Cloning and characterization of the brittle-2 gene of maize. Maydica. 35: 317-322. Ball S, Guan HP, James M, Myers A, Keeling P, Mouille G, Buleon A, Colonna P, Preiss J (1996) From glycogen to amylopectin: a model for the biogenesis of the plant starch granule. Cell. 86: 349-52. Ballicora MA, Fu Y, Frueauf JB, Preiss J (1999) Heat stability of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase: role of Cys residue 12 in the small subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 257: 782-6. Ballicora MA, Laughlin MJ, Fu Y, Okita TW, Barry GF, Preiss J (1995) Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase from potato tuber. Significance of the N terminus of the small subunit for catalytic properties and heat stability. Plant Physiol. 109: 245-51. Beckles DM, Smith AM, ap Rees T (2001b) A cytosolic ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is a feature of graminaceous endosperms, but not of other starch-storing organs. Plant Physiol. 125: 818-27. Bhave MR, Lawrence S, Barton C, Hannah LC (1990) Identification and molecular characterization of shrunken-2 cDNA clones of maize. Plant Cell. 2: 581-8. Brangeon J, Reyss A, Prioul JL (1997) In situ detection of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase expression during maize endosperm development. Plant Physiol Biochem. 35: 847-58. Burgess D, Penton A, Dunsmuir P, Dooner H (1997) Molecular cloning and characterization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA clones isolated from pea cotyledons. Plant Mol Biol. 33: 431-44. Cao H, Sullivan TD, Boyer CD, Shannon JC (1995) Bt1, a structural gene for the major 39-44 kD amyloplast membrane polypeptides. Physiol Plant. 95: 176-86.

PAGE 47

40 Chang JH (1981) Corn yield in relation to photoperiod, night temperature, and solar radiation. Ag Meteor. 24: 253-262. Cheikh N, Jones RJ (1995) Heat stress effects on sink activity of developing maize kernels grown in vitro Physiol Plant. 95: 59-66. Choi SB, Kim KH, Kavakli IH, Lee SK, Okita TW (2001) Transcriptional expression characteristics and subcellular localization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the oil plant Perilla frutescens Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 146-53. Conroy JP, Senemeera S, Basra AS, Rogers G, Nissen-Wooller B (1994) Influence of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature on growth, yield and grain quality of cereal crops. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 741-58. Corpet F (1988) Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucl Acids Res. 16: 10881-90. Denyer K, Dunlap F, Thorbjornsen T, Keeling P, Smith AM (1996) The major form of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in maize endosperm is extra-plastidial. Plant Physiol. 112: 779-85. Detherage WL, MacMasters MM, Rist CE (1955) A partial survey of amylose content in starch from domestic and foreign varieties of corn, wheat, and sorghum and from some other starch-bearing plants. Trans Am Assoc Cereal Chem. 13: 31-42. Dickinson DB, Preiss J (1969) ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase from maize endosperm. Arch Biochem Biophys. 130: 119-28. Doan DNP, Rudi H, Olsen OA (1999) The allosterically unregulated isoform of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase from barley endosperm is the most likely source of ADP-glucose incorporated into endosperm starch. Plant Physiol. 121: 965-75. Duke ER, Doehlert DC (1996) Effects of heat stress on enzyme activities and transcript levels in developing maize kernels grown in culture. Environ Exp Botany. 36: 199-208. Espada J (1962) Enzymic synthesis of adenosine diphosphate glucose from glucose-1phosphate and adenosine triphosphate. J Biol Chem. 237: 3577-81. Giroux MJ, Hannah LC (1994) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in shrunken-2 and brittle-2 mutants of maize. Mol Gen Genet. 243: 400-8. Giroux MJ, Shaw J, Barry G, Cobb BG, Greene T, Okita T, Hannah LC (1996) A single mutation that increases maize seed weight. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93: 5824-9.

PAGE 48

41 Greene TW, Chantler SE, Kahn ML, Barry GF, Preiss J, Okita TW (1996) Mutagenesis of the potato ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and characterization of an allosteric mutant defective in 3phosphoglycerate activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93: 1509-13. Greene TW, Hannah LC (1998a) Enhanced stability of maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is gained through mutants that alter subunit interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95: 13342-7. Greene TW, Hannah LC (1998b) Maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase SHRUNKEN2 and BRITTLE2 subunit interactions. Plant Cell. 10: 1295-306. Hallauer AR (2001) In : Hallauer AR (ed.) Specialty Corns. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL. Hannah LC (1997) Starch synthesis in the maize endosperm. In : Larkins B A Vasil I K (eds.) Advances in cellular and molecular biology of plants, vol. 4. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Hannah LC, Nelson OE, Jr. (1976) Characterization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from shrunken-2 and brittle-2 mutants of maize. Biochem Genet. 14: 547-60. Hunter RB, Tollenaar M, Breuer CM (1977) Effects of photoperiod and temperature on vegetative and reproductive growth of a maize (Zea mays) hybrid. Can J Plant Sci. 57: 1127-33. Hutchinson CB (1921) Shrunken endosperm. J Hered. 12: 76-83. Hylton C, Smith AM (1992) The rb mutation of pea causes structural and regulatory changes in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing embryos. Plant Physiol. 99: 1626-34. Iglesias AA, Barry GF, Meyer C, Bloksberg L, Nakata PA, Greene T, Laughlin MJ, Okita TW, Kishore GM, Preiss J (1993) Expression of the potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 268: 1081-6. Jenner CF, Denyer K, Guerin J (1995) Thermal characteristics of soluble starch synthase from wheat endosperm. Aust J Plant Physiol. 22: 703-9. Jenner CF (1994) Starch synthesis in the kernel of wheat under high temperature conditions. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 791-806. Jones RJ, Gengenbach BG, Cardwell VB (1981) Temperature effects on in vitro kernel development of maize. Crop Sci. 21: 761-6.

PAGE 49

42 Keeling PL, Bacon PJ, Holt DC (1993) Elevated temperature reduces starch deposition in wheat endosperm by reducing the activity of soluble starch synthase. Planta. 191: 342-8. Keeling PL, Banisadr R, Barone L, Wasserman BP, Singletary GW (1994) Effect of temperature on enzymes in the pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat and maize grain. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 807-27. Kim W, Franceschi V, Okita T, Robinson N, Morell M, Preiss J (1989) Immunocytochemical localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in developing potato tuber cells. Plant Physiol. 91: 217-20. Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Luthi E, Olsen OA, Preiss J (1993) Insensitivity of barley endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase to 3-phosphoglycerate and orthophosphate regulation. Plant Physiol. 101: 179-86. Kossman J, Lloyd J (2000) Understanding and influencing starch biochemistry. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 19: 171-226. Laughnan JR (1953) The effect of the sh2 factor on carbohydrate reserves in the mature endosperm of maize. Genetics. 38: 485-99. Mains EB (1949) Linkage of a factor for shrunken endosperm with the a1 factor for aleurone color. J Hered. 40: 21-4. Martin C, Smith AM (1995) Starch biosynthesis. Plant Cell. 7: 971-85. Nelson OE, Pan D (1995) Starch synthesis in maize endosperms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Bio. 46: 475-96. Okita TW, Greenberg E, Kuhn DN, Preiss J (1979) Subcellular localization of the starch degradative and biosynthetic enzymes of spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 64: 187-92. Okita T, Nakata P, Anderson J, Sowokinos J, Morell M, Preiss J (1990) The subunit structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol. 93: 78590. Olive MR, Ellis RJ, Schuch WW (1989) Isolation and nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphsorylase polypeptides from wheat leaf and endosperm. J Mol Bio. 12: 525-38. Ou-Lee TM, Setter TL (1985) Effect of increased temperature in apical regions of maize ears on starch-synthesis enzymes and accumulation of sugars and starch. Plant Physiol. 79: 852-5.

PAGE 50

43 Preiss J, Levi C (1980) Starch biosynthesis and degradation. In : J Preiss (ed.) Biochemistry of Plants, vol. 3. Academic Press, New York. Rijven AHGC (1986) Heat inactivation of starch synthase in wheat endosperm tissue. Plant Physiol. 81: 448-53. Shannon JC, Fang-Mei P, Kang-Chein L (1996) Nucleotides and nucleotide sugars in developing maize endosperms. Plant Physiol. 110: 835-43. Sikka VK, Choi SB, Kavakli IH, Sakulsingharoj C, Gupta S, Ito H, Okita TW (2001) Subcellular compartmentation and allosteric regulation of the rice endosperm ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Sci. 161: 461-8. Smith-White BJ, Preiss J (1992) Comparison of proteins of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from diverse sources. J Mol Evol. 34: 449-64. Stark DM, Timmerman KP, Barry GF, Preiss J, Kishore GM (1992) Regulation of the amount of starch in plant tissues by ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Science. 258: 287-92. Suzuki DT, Griffith AJF, Miller JH, Lewontin RC (1989) In Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 4th Ed. Freeman, New York. Thompson LM (1975) Weather variability, climatic change, and grain production. Science. 188: 535-41. Thompson LM (1986) Climatic change, weather variability, and corn production. Agron J. 78: 649-53. Thorbjornsen T, Villand P, Denyer K, Olsen O, Smith AM (1996a) Distinct isoforms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase occur inside and outside the amyloplast in barley endosperm. Plant J. 10: 243-50. Tollenaar M, Bruulsema TW (1988) Effects of temperature on rate and duration of kernel dry matter accumulation of maize. Can J Plant Sci. 68: 935-40. Tsai CY, Nelson OE (1966) Starch-deficient maize mutant lacking adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Science. 151: 341-3. Villand P, Aalen R, Olsen OA, Luthi E, Lonneborg A, Kleczkowski LA (1992) PCR amplification and sequences of cDNA clones for the small and large subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley tissues. Plant Mol Biol. 19: 381-9. Villand P, Kleczkowski LA (1994) Is there an alternative pathway for starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds? Z Naturforsch. 49c: 215-19.

PAGE 51

44 Wang S, Chu B, Lue W, Yu T, Eimert K, Chen J (1997) adg2-1 represents a missense mutation in the ADPG pyrophosphorylase large subunit gene of Arabidopsis thaliana Plant J. 11: 1121-6. Weber H, Stitt M, Heldt HW (1995) Cell-type specific, coordinate expression of two ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in relation to starch biosynthesis during seed development of Vicia faba L. Planta. 195: 352-61.

PAGE 52

45 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian Timothy Burger was born to Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Burger on June 4, 1976 in Tampa, FL. He was raised throughout Florida and, with the exception of the first two years of college, has remained a Florida native. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Botany from the University of Florida in December, 1998. Upon completion of a Master of Science degree he will attend the University of California San Diego to pursue a PhD in Biology. His mother and father remain in Oldsmar, FL. His sister, Kristin, attends the University of Florida.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0000307/00001

Material Information

Title: Thermotolerant Variants of Maize Endosperm Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0000307:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0000307/00001

Material Information

Title: Thermotolerant Variants of Maize Endosperm Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0000307:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











THERMOTOLERANT VARIANTS OF MAIZE ENDOSPERM ADENOSINE
DIPHOSPHATE GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE

















By

BRIAN TIMOTHY BURGER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001




























Copyright 2001

by

Brian Timothy Burger


























To my mother and father, and to the memory of my grandfather, Charles William Burger.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to thank Dr. Curt Hannah for affording me the opportunity to

study in his laboratory. The time spent under his direction has been invaluable and I am

indebted to him for his encouragement and support.

I would also like to extend thanks to Dr. Tom Greene for his guidance in the

earliest and most influential stages of my graduate career. I also thank the members of

the Hannah lab for their time and assistance in showing me around the lab. Special

thanks go to Dr. Don McCarty and Dr. Rob Ferl for their insight and helpful discussions

regarding my thesis.

I would also like to thank my family. Their support for my education made this

thesis possible, and their pride in my accomplishments made this thesis worthwhile.

Finally, I would like to thank Judy Wolfe for her patience, understanding, and sacrifice

without which this thesis would not have been possible.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

ABSTRACT ............... ................... .......... .............. vi

1 IN TR OD U CTION ................................. .. ... ... ....... .... ............ ..
S ta rc h ....................................................... 1
Im p o rta n c e ............................................................................................................ 1
Structure .............. ......... .......................................................................... .............. 1
Biosynthesis .................. ................... .. ............................... ......... 2
Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase .................................... 4
E n zy m o lo g y .................................................................. ................................ . 4
S tru ctu re .................................................... 6
Regulation ................. ...................... ........................... 7
L ocalization ............................ ............. ...... 8
H eat Stability ....................... .......................................................... 9
B ack group n d .......................................................................................... . 9
Heat-Stable Mutant .\,h_'2,33........................... ........ ......... 11

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS................................. ................... 13
Mutagenesis and Mutant Selection ................................. ......................... ...13
E n zy m o lo g y ............................................................................................ .............. 17
Gel Filtration Chromatography ....................................... .. .............. 19

3 R E S U L T S ..................................................................2 1
S equ en cin g ..................................................... 2 1
In vitro Enzyme Assays ................................................ .............. 25
Relative Specific Activities of Heat-Sensitive and Heat-Stable Mutants .................. 28

4 D ISC U S SIO N ............................................................................... 34

LIST O F REFEREN CE S ..................................................................................................39

BIO G RA PH ICA L SK ETCH ..................................................................................... 45
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

THERMOLTOLERANT VARIANTS OF MAIZE ENDOSPERM
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE

By

Brian Timothy Burger

December 2001

Chairman: L. Curtis Hannah
Major Department: Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology

Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) has received

considerable study because of its allosteric regulation and rate-limiting role in starch

biosynthesis. Further, heat liability of AGPase has been implicated in heat-induced yield

loss in cereals. A previous study in this laboratory identified a heat-stable mutant

(.\'h/i2/3) with a single amino acid substitution in the large subunit of maize endosperm

AGPase. In this study bacterial expression of AGPase combined with a novel

mutagenesis scheme allowed us to identify temperature sensitive mutants of the large

subunit of maize endosperm AGPase. Two such mutants, Sh2ts48 and Sh2ts60, fully

complement the E. coli glgC- (AGPase) mutation at 370C, but not at 300C. We

mutagenized these mutants and isolated second-site reversion mutants (Sh2rts60-1 and

Sh2rts48-2) with restored glycogen synthesis at 300C. The second-site reversion

mutations, separated from their respective parental mutations, confer limited heat stability









to the enzyme. However, combining the mutation of./h'h/,'33 with the second-site

reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2 results in an enzyme with 83% retention of activity

after heat treatment and a nearly three-fold increase in activity compared to wild-type.

This study shows the feasibility of isolating mutations affecting enzyme stability, and

allows a more focused approach to understanding regions important in the structure-

function relationship of maize endosperm AGPase.

















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Starch

Importance

In terms of its benefit to humankind, starch can be considered one of the most

important products synthesized by plants. Starch constitutes most of the dry matter in the

harvested organs of crop plants, and thus serves as the major source of calories in both

human and animal diets. That synthesized in the harvested organs of wheat, rice, maize

and potato alone exceeds 109 ton yr- (Kossman and Lloyd, 2000). Additionally, starch

can be considered a renewable resource used in many industrial applications.

In the U.S., corn is the major cereal crop, planted on 70 to 80 million acres

annually and appearing in more than 1200 items in a typical grocery store (Hallauer,

2001). In addition to foodstuffs, corn is used predominantly as livestock feed, but also in

wet and dry milling, and as an export product. In recent years, corn has also been used to

produce ethanol for corn-based fuels. The mature corn kernel is approximately 70%

starch, and thus its importance is inextricably linked to its starch content.

Structure

Starch exists in a semi-crystalline state composed predominantly of the glucose

polymers amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is an essentially linear polymer whose

approximate 1000 glucose units are joined through a-1,4-glycosidic bonds. It does









contain roughly 0.1% a-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints. Amylose comprises approximately

30% of the composition of starch, but varies among species, varieties, plant organs,

developmental age of the plant, and growth conditions. Detherage et al. (1955) found

that amylose content ranged from 1 Ito 35% in 51 species studied, and from 20 to 36% in

a survey of 399 maize varieties. Amylopectin comprises the remaining approximate 70%

of starch. This polymer also consists of a-1,4-linked glucan chains, but contains

approximately 4% a-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints. Amylopectin (107-109 Da) is larger

than amylose (105-106 Da), and is sufficient to form starch granules in the absence of

amylose (Ball et al., 1996). The remaining components of starch include proteins (0.5%

in cereal endosperm and 0.05% in potato tuber), including the enzymes of the starch

biosynthetic pathway, and lipids (1% in cereal endosperm and 0.1% in potato tuber)

(Martin and Smith, 1995). A highly branched (10%) glucose polymer called

phytoglycogen is also present in maize lacking a functional sugary] (Su) allele.

Biosynthesis

As reviewed in Hannah (1997), elucidation of the starch biosynthetic pathway,

particularly in maize, has benefited from the abundance of mutants, their easily scoreable

phenotypes, and the large size of the maize seed. Additionally, investigators have gained

information about starch biosynthesis through the discovery and subsequent study of

transposable elements, through studies brought about by the advent of gene cloning

technologies, and through projects aimed at modification of the end product. Despite a

large knowledge base, it is unclear whether all starch biosynthesis occurs via the pathway

proposed in Figure 1.










I
Sucrose Amylopecti
SSucrose synthase Starch synthase+
I Starch branching
enzyme
UDP-Glc + Fructose enzyme

UGPase ADP-Glc
/ GUe Pase

Glc-1-P
Phospho-
glucomutase
Glc-6-P

CYTOSOL

Figure 1. Proposed Starch Biosynthetic Pathway.
(2000).


n


Amylose
V Granule bound
starch synthase


ADP-Glc
t AGPase

Glc-1-P
Phospho-
glucomutase
Glc-6-P

PLASTID


Adapted from Kossman and Lloyd


However, the required steps committed to starch biosynthesis are known. They

are provided by the following enzymes: adenosine diphosphate glucose

pyrophosphorylase (AGPase; EC 2.7.7.27), starch synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.21), starch

branching enzyme (SBE; EC 2.4.1.28), and starch debranching enzyme (SDE; EC

3.2.1.68).

Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the synthesis of

ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and ATP. This reaction

represents the first dedicated step in starch biosynthesis and results in the activated

glucosyl donor, ADP-glucose. Pyrophosphate produced in the reaction is metabolized by

pyrophosphatases, shifting equilibrium of the AGPase reaction in the direction of ADP-

glucose synthesis.









Starch synthases represent the second committed step in starch biosynthesis,

catalyzing the formation of a-1,4 linkages between the nonreducing end of a glucan

chain and the glucosyl moiety of ADP-glucose. These enzymes can be classified in at

least four groups with respect to sequence similarity. Collectively, the starch synthases

can utilize amylose or amylopectin as substrates in vitro. However the specific role of

each class in vivo is unknown.

The third dedicated reaction in starch biosynthesis is catalyzed by starch

branching enzyme. SBE creates a-1,6 linkages between a glucose residue and the

reducing end of a previously hydrolyzed a-1,4 linkage within a chain. Branching is not

random, and enzymes exhibit specificity for glucan chain lengths and for amylose or

amylopectin substrates.

Starch debranching enzyme plays a role in the final starch structure. By

enzymatically cleaving a-1,6 linkages, SDE likely strikes a balance between SBEs to

produce the starch granule.


Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase

Enzymology

Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the reaction

resulting in the activated glucosyl donor used to extend the polysaccharide polymer.

Historically, this enzyme has received much attention because of its position as the first

committed step in starch biosynthesis and its allosteric regulation, reviewed below. Its

importance in starch biosynthesis has been confirmed by a number of mutants in the

structural genes of AGPase that greatly reduce starch content in mature seeds (reviewed

in Nelson and Pan, 1995). Its role as the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis and the









physiological relevance of its allosteric regulation, was demonstrated most convincingly

by two experiments. Stark et al. (1992) expressed an allosterically altered AGPase from

bacteria in potato tuber and increased starch content 30%. Giroux et al. (1996) used a

Ds-induced insertion in an allosterically important region of the maize endosperm-

specific gene encoding the large subunit of AGPase to condition an 11-18% increase in

seed weight.

A genetic lesion later shown to affect this enzyme was first described by Mains

(1949) in maize endosperm. The mutant gene was designated shrunken-2 (sh2) because

of the collapsed endosperm resulting from the presence of the mutant allele in a

homozygous state, but distinguishing it from sh described by Hutchinson (1921). The

enzymic activity was first isolated from wheat flour by Espada (1962). Early study by

Laughnan (1953) noted an unusually sweet flavor associated with the sh2 kernels. An

11-fold increase in sucrose concentration was accompanied by a nearly 75% decrease in

starch content in sh2 kernels as compared to wild-type. Tsai and Nelson (1966) first

showed a lack of AGPase activity in sh2 mutants synthesizing only 25-30% as much

starch as wild type. Further study by Dickinson and Preiss (1969) qualitatively

confirmed the findings of Tsai and Nelson, but detected low but measurable amounts of

AGPase activity in sh2 and bt2 mutants. Adenosine diphosphate glucose

pyrophosphorylase from sh2 and bt2 mutants differed from wild type and from each other

with respect to extent of urea denaturation, Km for Glc-1-P, and types of Glc-1-P

saturation curves. This fact led to the hypothesis that sh2 and bt2 were structural genes

for the enzyme (Hannah and Nelson, 1976). The fact that E. coli AGPase was known to









be a homotetramer (reviewed in Preiss and Levi, 1980) provided cause for debate on the

existence of dissimilar subunits for AGPase in plants.

Structure

Definitive evidence for the authenticity of dissimilar subunits in plants was

provided by the cloning of Sh2 and Bt2 from maize endosperm (Bhave et al., 1990; Bae

et al., 1990), and the homologs from other plants, including potato tuber (Okita et al.,

1990), rice (Anderson et al., 1991), and pea (Burgess et al., 1997) and reviewed in

Smith-White and Preiss (1992). Sh2 encodes the large (54 kDa) subunit and Bt2 encodes

the small (51 kDa) subunit of an o2P2 heterotetramer. Sequence similarity among the

large and small subunits of AGPase and between the E. coli AGPase subunit glgC

indicates a shared evolutionary origin. Duplication followed by independent mutations

within the Sh2 and Bt2 coding regions has resulted in noninterchangeable proteins that

have nonetheless retained the ability to interact. That Sh2 and Bt2 are functionally

nonduplicate genes is evidenced by complementation studies, in which either protein

cannot substitute for loss of function in the other. Despite common ancestry, the rates of

divergence among Sh2 and Bt2 homologs vary. Bt2 retains a large degree of sequence

similarity in comparison with the small subunits from other AGPases, while large

subunits of AGPases have diverged such that many probes do not cross hybridize.

The o232 heterotetrameric structure of plant AGPases is more complex than that

of the homotetrameric AGPases of prokaryotes, and the dynamics involved in subunit

assembly, interaction, and stability are largely unknown. Several studies have indicated

that both subunits must be present for maximum stability and enzymic activity (Giroux

and Hannah, 1994; Wang et al., 1997; Greene and Hannah, 1998b). Evidence gathered









using a yeast-two hybrid system to monitor subunit interactions between SH2 and BT2

suggests that individual subunits do not interact, and that polymerization involves

formation of a heterodimer intermediate (Greene and Hannah, 1998b). Furthermore,

yeast-two hybrid analysis showed that the N-terminal region of SH2 and the C-terminal

regions of both SH2 and BT2 are required for subunit interaction.

Regulation

Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase is an allosteric enzyme in

virtually all organisms studied to date, although the specific effectors vary among

organisms. E. coli AGPase is activated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and inhibited by

cAMP, while plant AGPases are activated by 3-PGA and inhibited by phosphate. The

extent of regulation differs greatly among plant species, and has defined a clear

dichotomy. Leaf and tuber AGPases are quite sensitive to 3-PGA activation, while those

of seed origin show variable response to the effectors. Endosperm AGPases from maize

(Dickinson and Preiss, 1969; Hannah and Nelson, 1975; Hannah and Nelson, 1976),

wheat (Olive et al., 1989), and barley (Kleczkowski et al., 1993; Doan et al., 1999), and

developing seeds from pea (Hylton and Smith, 1992) and bean (Weber et al., 1995) show

little to no 3-PGA activation. However, AGPase activity from developing rice seeds is

dependent on 3-PGA for activity (Sikka et al., 2001). The difference between leaf and

endosperm AGPases can be neatly explained by photosynthetic capabilities of the organs.

Unlike the situation in leaves, the major carbon assimilatory pathway in developing seeds

is likely glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, thus excluding 3-PGA as a

metabolite in the cellular environment. The dependence of potato tuber and maize

embryo AGPases on 3-PGA for activity are interesting exceptions. As discussed below,









emerging data implicate a relationship between cellular location of AGPase and

sensitivity to the allosteric effectors.

Localization

With an established plastidal localization of AGPase for spinach leaf (Okita et al.,

1979) and potato tuber (Kim et al., 1989), it was assumed that endosperm AGPases were

localized to the amyloplast. Mounting evidence over the years, however, has pointed to a

cytosolic location for endosperm AGPases. Giroux and Hannah (1994) reported that SH2

and BT2 synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte system and that synthesized in the maize

endosperm were indistinguishable in size. Further studies of AGPase processing (Villand

et al., 1992; Villand and Kleczowski, 1994), and the studies of transporter mutants (Cao

et al., 1995; Shannon et al., 1996), cell fractionation (Thorbjornsen et al., 1996; Denyer et

al., 1996), immunocytological localization (Brangeon et al., 1997), and metabolic

profiling (Beckles et al., 2001) all argue for cytosolic localization of endosperm

AGPases. Most recently, targeting of a GFP protein containing the N-terminus of Bt2

also showed cytosolic localization (Choi et al., 2001).

Cytoplasmic AGPase localization would facilitate starch synthesis while

conserving energy and carbon. Imported sucrose would be metabolized by sucrose

synthase in the presence of UDP to form UDP-Glc and Fruc. UDP-Glc, in the presence

of PPi, would form UTP and Glc-1-P, the latter being a substrate (+ ATP) to form ADP-

Glc. In this scenario, the number of high-energy phosphate bonds is conserved.

Therefore, it is possible that differences in sensitivity to allosteric effectors are the result

of evolution in the presence of different environments of the plastid and cytoplasm.









Heat Stability

Background

Limited by high summer temperatures to the south and shorter growing seasons to

the north, most of the world's grain is produced in the middle latitudes where average

summer temperatures range from 21C to 240C (Thompson, 1975). In a study of corn

yield for the years 1975 to 1977, Chang (1981) found the highest yields (kg ha 1) to be at

latitudes between 45 and 55. However, variable weather patterns can have a drastic

effect on yield. In particular, reduced grain yields due to elevated temperatures have

been well documented in a number of historical and climatological studies (Thompson,

1975; Chang, 1981; Thompson, 1986; and Conroy et al., 1994).

Studies using growth chamber conditions (Hunter et al., 1977) showed the effect

of elevated temperatures on maize grain yield. Despite a higher rate of dry matter

accumulation, grain yield was reduced for plants grown at 300C, compared to those

grown at 200C, because of a shorter grain-filling period. The work of Tollenaar and

Bruulsema (1988) also showed a decrease in kernel weight due to a shortened grain-

filling period in plants grown at a day/night temperature regime of 28/18 vs. 21/150C.

In vitro studies have corroborated the in plant effects of elevated temperatures

on grain yield. Jones et al. (1981), using an in vitro kernel culture system, showed that

the increased dry matter accumulation at elevated temperatures is insufficient to

compensate for the shortened grain-filling period. Further, the study indicated that

adequate sucrose was taken up from the media by the developing kernels at elevated

temperatures, thus implicating starch synthesis or sucrose unloading from the pedicel into

the basal endosperm transfer cells as the likely cause of decreased yield. Using an in

vitro kernel culture system and [14C]sucrose, Cheikh and Jones (1995) showed that









incubation at elevated temperatures resulted in kernels with higher levels of radiolabeled

sucroses and hexoses. The results point to carbon utilization, rather than carbon uptake,

as the perturbation in kernel growth.

In an effort to characterize the effect of increased temperature on starch

biosynthetic enzymes, Ou-Lee and Setter (1985) found less AGPase activity in the apical

kernels than in the basal kernels of tip-heated ears during the time when most of starch

synthesis occurred. Subsequent work on reduced grain yields due to elevated

temperatures focused on soluble starch (SSS) synthase in wheat. Rivjen (1986) found

that heat treatment reduced the conversion of sucrose to starch in wheat endosperm in

vitro, with SSS activity declining rapidly at temperatures above 300C. In contrast,

activity of SSS from rice was thermotolerant at 300C, perhaps reflecting a mechanism for

the higher temperature optimum for grain development in this cereal. In a broader study

of the effect of elevated temperature on starch deposition in wheat endosperm, Keeling et

al. (1993) reported the activity of SSS to be the only enzymatic activity affected by

temperatures above 200C. Activities of AGPase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase,

sucrose synthase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, bound starch

synthase, and hexokinase remained constant despite elevated temperature. Further

studies in wheat (Jenner, 1994; Keeling et al., 1994; Jenner et al., 1995) corroborated the

heat liability of SSS, but also recognized the heat liability of AGPase. Further, AGPase

activity was partially recoverable after heat treatment by transfer to unheated conditions,

indicating the direct effect of temperature on the enzyme rather than that of advancing

development. The work of Duke and Doehlert (1996) focused not only on the effect of

heat stress on enzyme activities in maize kernels in vitro, but on transcript levels of these









enzymes as well. Decline in AGPase activity was most apparent and corresponded with

the decline in the mRNA levels for its respective subunits.

Heat-Stable Mutant ./h/h,33

A bacterial expression system developed by Iglesias et al. (1993) allows subunits

for AGPase to be expressed on compatible vectors in an AGPase deficient E. coli strain

to produce a functional enzyme able to complement the mutant phenotype. This bacterial

expression system has been used in a number of studies aimed at elucidation of the

structure-function relationship of AGPase. Using this system, Ballicora et al. (1995)

determined that a 10 amino acid region of the N-terminus of the potato tuber small

subunit is important for heat stability. The role in heat stability of the Cys residue at

position 12 in the small subunit of potato tuber was also determined through the bacterial

expression system (Ballicora et al., 1999). This residue is the location of a disulfide

bridge implicated in enzyme stability.

However, one mutant in particular has shed insight into the mechanisms involved

in heat liability in maize endosperm AGPase. Using this system in conjunction with

chemical mutagenesis, Greene and Hannah (1998a) were able to isolate mutations in the

large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase that conferred heat stability to the enzyme in

vitro. A single base pair mutation, arising repeatedly in the study and conferring the

highest degree of heat stability, resulted in an amino acid change from His to Tyr at

position 333 in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase. This mutant was

designated .\,h2hs33. Interestingly, the large subunit of heat-stable potato tuber AGPase

contains a Tyr residue at the corresponding location. .\h/2/,33 retained 76% activity after

heat treatment at 600C for 5 min, compared to 25% for wild-type and 90% for heat-stable

potato tuber AGPase. Further, specific activity of AGPase in crude extracts of .\/,/h,33









was 2-fold higher than wild-type before heat treatment. Glycerol density gradient

analysis of heated and nonheated .\/h2h,/33 and wild-type crude samples showed that the

mutation in .\,//7\33 stabilizes heterotetrameric AGPase formation. Results of this study

suggest a single amino acid change is sufficient to condition heat stability in the maize

endosperm, and increased stability may be modulated through enhanced subunit

interactions.

The objective of this project is to identify additional mutations in the large subunit

of maize endosperm AGP that alter enzyme stability. Mutants isolated in a previous

study in this lab (Greene and Hannah, 1998a) repeatedly contained the His-to-Tyr

mutation of.\/h/h,33. The protocol employed in this study varies from the one used

previously, and should yield different mutants. In brief, the methodology consists of

using chemical mutagenesis in conjunction with a bacterial expression system to first

identify temperature sensitive mutants. Specifically, these mutants have lost the ability to

produce glycogen at 300C, but retain AGPase activity at 37C. These mutants were then

used to screen for second-site revertants following subsequent rounds of chemical

mutagenesis. Isolation of second-site reversion mutations, in the absence of the negative

parental mutations, confers varying degrees of heat stability to the enzyme and increase

activity of the enzyme in the absence of heat. However, the second-site reversion

mutations are inferior to the mutation identified in .\'2/h,33. By combining the mutations

discovered in this study with the mutation arising in .\/,2/,/33, heat stability and pre-heat

treatment activity are increased more than .\,h2/h,33 alone.














CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS


Mutagenesis and Mutant Selection

Mutagenesis of plasmid DNA containing the coding region of wild-type Sh2

cDNA was performed for 48 hours as described by Greene et al. (1996). Treated Sh2

plasmid DNA was then electroporated into Escherichia coli strain AC70R1-504

containing the wild-type Bt2 coding region on a compatible vector. Antibiotic resistance

conditioned by plasmid DNA containing Sh2 and Bt2 cDNA allowed for selection of

putative transformants on agar plates containing 75 mg mL-1 spectinomycin and 50 mg

mL-1 kanamycin.

Colonies were incubated at 300C on enriched medium plates (0.85% [w/v]

KH2PO4, 1.1% [w/v] K2HPO4, 0.6% [w/v] yeast extract, 1% [w/v] glucose, and 1.5%

[w/v] agar) containing 75 mg mL-1 spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin and

stained with iodine. Approximately 6,000 colonies were screened. The original screen to

isolate colonies with activity as evidenced by iodine staining at 300C but not at 370C

proved unsuccessful. Instead 66 colonies with varying degrees of abnormal activity at

300C were isolated. These colonies were streaked in duplicate at 300C and 370C on

enriched medium plates. Of these, twenty colonies were identified with activity at 370C

but not at 300C. Based on reproducibility and intensity of staining patterns six

mutants were selected by their inability to complement the glgC- mutation at 300C.

Wild-type is fully able to complement at both temperatures. That the six mutants









exhibited positive iodine staining at 370C indicates that we have isolated temperature

sensitive mutants of maize endosperm AGPase. Two of the temperature sensitive

mutants, Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48, were randomly selected for further analysis.

Coding regions of Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48 were subcloned into unmutated vectors as

1553 bp Nco ISst I fragments. The use of Nco I and Sst I allows isolation of the coding

region in its entirety, without vector (Figure 2).

Sh2 coding region, 1548 bp

1553

584

9 390
4 ........ ................ -- i
>

altS
*
ur a


a77
al177v


h333y
(Sh2hs33)


a396v


Figure 2. Restriction map of Sh2 coding region. Restriction enzymes shown are those
used in isolation of entire coding region and in creation of double and triple
mutants. Mutations are indicated with asterisks (*).


At this point, plasmids were single-pass sequenced at the University of Florida

DNA Sequencing Core Facility, with the following primers:

G10-2: 5'-CCCTCTAGAAATAATTTTG-3';

LH28: 5'-GAGTGGCGATCAGCTT-3';









LH21: 5'-TCACGTGTCAGCTCT-3'.

Sequence alignments with wild-type were performed using MultAlin (Corpet, 1988).

To isolate second-site revertants of Sh2ts60 and Sh2ts48, the plasmids were

treated with hydroxylamine, transformed into E. coli AC70R1-504 cells containing wild-

type Bt2, and selected for antibiotic resistance on LB plates as described above. Colonies

were streaked in duplicate on enriched medium plates containing 75 mg mL-1

spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin, and incubated at 300C and 370C. Mutants

were selected by their restored ability to complement the glgC- mutation at 300C. Five

second-site revertants of Sh2ts60 and three second-site revertants of Sh2ts48 were

isolated. Focus was restricted to only one randomly selected revertant each for Sh2ts60

and Sh2ts48: Sh2rts60-1 and Sh2rts48-2. Coding regions from Sh2rts60-1 and

Sh2rts48-2 were subcloned into unmutated vectors as Nco I/Sst I fragments, sequenced,

and aligned as described above.

Sequence analysis of Sh2ts60 revealed two point mutations: one mutation

generated a Glu to Lys change at amino acid 324, while an additional mutation resulted in

an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 359. It was desirable to separate the two

mutations of Sh2ts60 to determine the effect of the single mutations. However, the

absence of a unique cloning site between the mutations necessitated use of site-directed

mutagenesis. The Transformer Site-Directed Mutagenesis kit (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA)

and protocol were used with the following primers (5' phosphorylated):

TS60E324K: 5'-CATGACTTTGGATCTAAAATCCTCCCAAGAGC-3';

TS60A359V: 5'-CTTTGATGCAAACTTGGTCCTCACTGAGCAGCC-3';

JSSh2mutSstI: 5'-GGGTCTGTCATATAGTGAGCACGGTACCCGGGG-3'.









The resulting plasmids containing the separated mutations of Sh2ts60 were designated

.\/l,2324k and .\h/,l359v.

Site-directed mutagenesis was also employed to separate the second-site reversion

mutation present in Sh2rts60-1 from the parental mutations of Sh2ts60, using the primers

(5' phosphorylated):

RTS60-1A396V: 5'-GCAAGATGAAATATGTATTTATCTCAGATGGTTGC-

3', and JSSh2mutSstI: 5'-GGGTCTGTCATATAGTGAGCACGGTACCCGGGG-3'.

The resulting plasmid containing only the reversion mutation of Sh2rts60-1 was

designated .\ht 396v.

The second-site reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2 was subcloned from the

parental mutation of Sh2ts48 as a 584 bp Nco I/Xho I fragment into an unmutated vector

(Figure 2). The resulting plasmid containing only the reversion mutation of Sh2rts48-2

was designated .h\//2,t/77v.

A subcloning strategy was designed to study the effects of the mutations in

combination with .\/h2/h,33, and with each other. To combine the mutations of, //-/177v

and .,\lh,396v, the plasmids were digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of

,h\/,1/77v was exchanged for the corresponding fragment of ,\hI,396v (Figure 2). The

resulting plasmid was designated Sh2- 77-396. A similar strategy was used to combine

the mutation of,\/2,/177v with the mutation identified in .\lh1,\33. Plasmids were

digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of .\/2_,/77v was exchanged for the

corresponding fragment of .\lh2h,33. The resulting plasmid was designated Sh2-177-33.

To combine the mutation of .\lh,396v with the mutation identified in .\l/h2h33, the

plasmids were digested with Mun I/Kpn I and a 390 bp fragment of .l\2,396v was









exchanged for the corresponding fragment of ,hl2lh,33 (Figure 2). The resulting plasmid

was designated Sh2-396-33. In order to combine the mutations of,\lh2,396v and

,s\/h1/77v with the mutation identified in ,h/2h/,33, Sh2-396-33 and ,s\/h1/77v were

digested with Eco RV and a 339 bp fragment of ,/h,/1/77v was exchanged for the

corresponding fragment of Sh2-396-33. The resulting plasmid was designated

Sh2-177-396-33.

Final sequencing of all plasmids was performed using six primers to cover the

entire Sh2 coding region in both directions. Primers used are as follows:

LHBB1 (5'-3'): 5'-CGACTCACTATAGGGAGACC-3';

LH27 (5'-3'): 5'-CCCTATGAGTAACTG-3';

LH9 (5'3--'): 5'-TATACTCAATTACAT-3';

LHBB2 (3'-5'): 5'-GTGCCACCTGACGTCTAAG-3';

LH2135 (3'-5'): 5'-CAGAGCTGACACGTG-3';

LH32 (3'-5'): 5'-AAGCTGATCGCCACTC-3'.


Enzymology

To obtain quantitative data for the mutants described above, activity was

measured with the synthesis (forward) assay that measures incorporation of [14C]Glc-1-P

into the sugar nucleotide ADP-Glc. Assays were performed on crude enzyme extracts

prepared as described below.

Aliquots (10 mL) of LB containing 75 mg ml-1 of spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1

of kanamycin were inoculated from glycerol stocks of E. coli AC70R1-504 cells

expressing mutant or wild-type AGPase, and grown overnight at 370C with shaking at

225 rpm. These cultures were used to inoculate 250 mL of LB containing 75 mg mL-1 of









spectinomycin and 50 mg mL-1 kanamycin. Cultures were grown to an OD600= 0.5-0.6 at

370C with shaking at 225 rpm, then induced with 0.2 mM isopropyl B-D-thiogalactoside

and 0.02 mg mL-1 nalidixic acid for 6.5 h at 230C with shaking at 200 rpm. Cells were

harvested by centrifugation at 3500 x g for 10 min at 40C, and stored at -800C. Cell

pellets were resuspended in ImL of extraction buffer: 10mM KPO4, pH 7.5, 50 mM

HEPES, pH 7.5, 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM EDTA, 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate, and 20%

(w/v) sucrose. DTT (1 mM), 50 mg mL-1 lysozyme, 1 mg mL-1 pepstatin, 1 mg mL-1

leupeptin, 1 mg mL-1 antipain, 1 mg mL-1 aprotinin, 10 mg mL-1 chymostatin, ImM

phenylmethylsulonyl fluoride, and 1 mM benzamidine were added to extraction buffer

just before use. Resuspended cells were sonicated 3 times with a Branson 450 Sonifier

(Branson Ultrasonics Corporation, Danbury, CT) for 7 seconds at 60% duty cycle and

output control level 3, with incubation on ice between sonications. Samples were

centrifuged for 1 min at 13,000 rpm at 40C, and supernatants were removed and used for

assays. Heat treatment consisted of incubation at 600C for 5 min.

The ADP-Glc synthesis reaction measures incorporation of [14C]Glc-1-P into

ADP-Glc. The reaction mixture contained 80 mM HEPES, pH 7.5m, 1 mM Glc-1-P, 4

mM MgCl2, 0.5 mg mL-' bovine serum albumin, 10 mM 3-PGA, and 15,000 cpm of

[14C]Glc-1-P. Reaction volume was 50 mL. Assays were initiated by addition of 1.5 mM

ATP. Reaction was incubated for 30 min at 370C and terminated by boiling for 2 min.

Unincorporated Glc-1-P was cleaved by addition of 0.3 U of bacterial alkaline

phosphatase (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Lakewood, NJ) and incubation for

2.5 h at 370C. A 20 mL aliquot of the reaction mixture was spotted on DEAE paper,









washed with distilled water three times, dried, and quantified in a liquid scintillation

counter.


Gel Filtration Chromatography

In order to assess the effect of mutations on enzyme assembly and/or subunit

interactions, it was necessary to separate the enzymes by size. Crude extract, prepared as

above except that extraction buffer also contained 10 mM MgC12, 5% (v/v) glycerol, and

200 mM KC1, was loaded on a Pharmacia Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (Amersham

Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, NJ) connected to an FPLC system (Amersham

Pharmacia Biotech) at 40C. The column was previously equilibrated with 2 volumes of

buffer containing 10 mM MgC12, 5 mM EDTA, 5% (w/v) sucrose, 50 mM HEPES, pH

7.5, and 200 mM KC1 and filtered through a 0.45 jtM filter (Gelman Sciences, Ann

Arbor, MI). Flow rate was 0.5 mL min-1 and loading volume was 200 mL. Fractions of

250 mL were collected. The column was calibrated with the following markers,

dissolved at 1 mg mL-1 in equilibration buffer (50 mM Tris-C1, pH 7.5, 100 mM KC1, and

5% (v/v) glycerol), and filtered at 0.45 [tM: apoferritin (443 kD), 3-amylase (200 kD),

alcohol dehydrogenase (150 kD), BSA (66 kD), and carbonic anhydrase (29 kD). Flow

rate was 0.5 mL min1 and loading volume was 200 mL. A void volume of 8 mL was

determined using blue dextran.

To verify size and quantify relative amounts of AGPase present, proteins were

separated on a Novex NuPAGE 7% Tris-Acetate polyacrylamide gel (Invitrogen,

Carlsbad, CA) using a Novex XCell II Mini-Cell electrophoresis unit (Invitrogen). SDS-

PAGE standards for SYPRO Orange Stain-Broad Range were used in conjunction with

SYPRO Orange Stain (Bio Rad, Hercules, CA). Gel was stained for 0.5 h. Protein was









visualized with UV light and an Alphalmager 2200 digital imaging system (Alpha

Innotech Corporation, San Leandro, CA).

Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose (Micron Separations Inc.,

Westborough, MA) with a Hoefer TE 70 Series SemiPhor semi-dry transfer unit

(Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Membrane and filter paper used in transfer were soaked

in Towbin transfer buffer: 25 mM Tris, pH 8.3, 192 mM glycine, 20% (v/v) methanol,

and 0.1% (w/v) SDS. Transfer time was one hour. Membranes were washed three times

for ten minutes each in Tris-buffered saline Tween (TTBS) solution: 100 mM Tris-C1, pH

6.8, 150 mM NaC1, and 0.1% (v/v) Tween 20. Membranes were blocked for one hour in

TTBS containing 5% (w/v) BSA. Membranes were incubated for one h with primary

antibodies (1:1000) directed against BT2 (Giroux and Hannah, 1994). Excess antibodies

were removed by washing membrane three times for ten min each in TTBS solution.

Primary antibodies were detected by incubation for one h with 1:5000 dilution of

horseradish peroxidase conjugated to donkey anti-rabbit IgG (Amersham Pharmacia

Biotech) in TTBS solution containing 5% (w/v) BSA. Excess antibodies were removed

by washing three times for ten min each in TTBS solution. Blots were visualized by ECL

chemiluminescent detection (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech).

To quantify relative amounts of AGPase present, films were scanned using a

Hewlett Packard (Palo Alto, CA) scanner in conjunction with Alpha Ease software

(Alpha Innotech Corporation). Densitometry was determined using auto background

settings.















CHAPTER 3
RESULTS


Sequencing

The mutagenesis and mutant selection strategy made use of hydroxylamine and a

bacterial expression system. Hydroxylamine preferentially hydroxylates the amino

nitrogen at the C-4 position of cytosine, resulting in a GC to AT transition (Suzuki et al.,

1989). While hydroxylamine can induce only two of the possible twelve base pair

substitutions, the nature of the mutagen ensures no direct base pair reversions, an

advantage utilized in searches for second site suppressors. The bacterial expression

system uses E. coli strain AC70R1-504, a strain lacking endogenous bacterial AGPase

activity (glg C-). Using cDNA clones of the large and small subunits of potato tuber

AGPase, Iglesias et al. (1993) showed that expression of both subunits complements the

mutation, while either subunit alone is unable to do so. Complementation is easily

visualized by staining colonies with iodine. Colonies with restored glycogen production

stain brown, as iodine chelates with glycogen, to produce an easily detectable indication

of complementation. Complementation of the E. coli AC70R1-504 mutation with cDNA

clones of the large and small subunits of maize endosperm AGPase has also been

demonstrated (Giroux et al., 1996).

Sequencing of Sh2ts48 identified a single mutation at amino acid 426, a Leu to

Phe substitution. The Leu residue is conserved among the large subunits of rice









endosperm, developing wheat grain, barley endosperm, sorghum, and potato tuber

AGPases (Figure 3).

F 426
[Zea] S V I GV C S RV S S G C E L KD S V M M G A D I
[Sorghum] S V I G V C S R V S Y G C E L K D C V M M G A D I
[Rice] S V I G I S S R V S I G C E L K D T M M M G A D Q
[Barley] S I I GVR S R L N S G S E L KNAMMM GADS
[Wheat] S I I G VR S R L N S G S E L K N A M M M G A D S
[Potato] S I V G E R S R L D C G V E L K D T F M M G A D Y
consensus S i G v r S R s s G c E L K d m M M G A D

Figure 3. Mutation identified in Sh2ts48. Mutation is a Leu to Phe substitution at amino
acid 426.



Two point mutations were identified in Sh2ts60 (Figure 4). One mutation

generated a Glu to Lys change at amino acid 324. This Glu is conserved in the large

subunits of rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. An additional mutation in

Sh2ts60 resulted in an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 359. This Ala is conserved in

the large subunits of rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. Of significance,

the mutations of Sh2ts60 flank the mutation (His to Tyr at amino acid 333) arising in

./hh/,/\33, a heat-stable variant of maize endosperm AGPase (Greene and Hannah, 1998a).

Sequencing of the Sh2ts48 second-site revertant, Sh2rts48-2, identified an Ala to

Val substitution at amino acid 177 (Figure 5). The Ala is conserved in the large subunits

of rice, wheat, and barley AGPases. The mutation is 249 amino acids in the N-terminal

direction from the parental mutation, and maps to the same site as the mutation in

.sh/2/v713 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). The mutation in .\/lhv13 is an Ala to Pro

substitution, and confers some degree of heat stability, indicating this region is important

in AGPase heat stability.













[Zea]
[Sorghum]
[Rice]
[Barley]
[Wheat]
[Potato]
consensus


L K
L K
L K
L K
L K
L K
L K


[Zea]
[Sorghum]
[Rice]
[Barley]
[Wheat]
[Potato]
consensus


Y T
Y T
YA
YA
YA
Y P
Ya


G T
G T
G T
G T
G T
G T
G T


Q LHD
Q LHD
HLQD
E LHD
E LHD
TSND
. h D


KS
KS
KS
R S
R S
KS
k S


F G
F G
F G
F G
F G
F G
F G


FDAN
FDAN
FDAN
FDAN
FDAN
YNAS
f dAn


K 324
EIL
EIL
EIL
EIL
EIL
E II
El 1



V 359
ALT
ALT
ALT
ALC
ALC
ALT
ALt


PRAV
PRAV
PRAV
PRA L
PRA L
PAA I
PrAv


E Q
E Q
E Q
E Q
E Q
Q E
e q


P S
P S
P P
P P
P P
F P
P P


LDHS V
LEHNV
LEHNV
HD H NV
HD H NV
DD Y NV
1 d h nV


K F
K F
K F
K F
K F
E F
k F


D F
D F
E F
E F
E F
Q F
e F


Figure 4. Mutations identified in Sh2ts60. A. One mutation is a Glu to Lys substitution
at amino acid 324. B. The second mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at
amino acid 359.


V 177


[Zea]
[Sorghum]
[Rice]
[Barley]
[Wheat]
[Potato]
consensus


VLAA
VLAD
VLAA
VLAA
VLAA
VLAA
VLAa


TQMP
TQMP
TQMP
TQMP
TQMP
TQTP
TQmP


E E
E E
D E
G E
G E
G E
g E


PA
PD
PA
AA
AA
A G
. a


W F
W F
W F
W F
W F
KW F
. W F


Q G
Q G
Q G
R G
R G
Q G
q G


TAD SIR
TADS VR
TADA I R
TADAVR
TADAVR
TADAVR
TAD avR


Figure 5. Mutation identified in Sh2rts48-2. Mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at
amino acid 177.



Sequencing of the Sh2ts60 second-site revertant, Sh2rts60-1, identified an Ala to

Val mutation at amino acid 396 (Figure 6). This Ala is conserved in the large subunits of

rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, and potato AGPases. This mutation is 37 and 42 amino

acids in the C-terminal direction from the parental Sh2ts60 mutations. In addition, the










mutation is four amino acids away from one of two mutations found in .,s//-/v14 (Greene

and Hannah, 1998a). All mutations identified in this study, and the mutation in ./1/-'33,

are shown in Figure 7.


[Zea]
[Sorghum]
[Rice]
[Barley]
[Wheat]
[Potato]
consensus


V 396
L P P TQ LD KC KM KYAF I S D G C L L R E C
L P P TQ LD KC K I KDAS I S D G C L L R E C
LPPAR LE KC K I KDA I I S D G C S F S E C
L P P T KSD KC R I KEA I I S HG C F L R E C
L P P T KSD KC R I KEA I I S HG C F L R E C
L P P T K IDNC K I KDAI I SHG C F L RDC
L P P t k d k C k i KdAi S G Cf re C


Figure 6. Mutation identified in Sh2rts60-1. Mutation is an Ala to Val substitution at
amino acid 396.



Sh2 TYLEGGINFA DGSVQVLAAT QMPEEPAGWF QGTADSIRKF
Sh2rts48-2 V(177)


IWVLEDYYSH KSIDNIVILS GDQLYRMNYM ELVQKHVEDD

ADITISCAPV DESRASKNGL VKIDHTGRVL QFFEKPKGAD

LNSMRVETNF LSYAIDDAQK YPYLASMGIY VFKKDALLDL

LKSKYTQLHD FGSEILPRAV LDHSVQACIF TGYWEDVGTI
K(324)
Y(333)


Sh2 KSFFDANLAL TEQPSKFDFY DPKTPFFTAP
Sh2ts60 V(359)

Sh2 CKMKYAFISD GCLLRECNIE HSVIGVCSRV
Sh2rts60-1 V(396)
Sh2ts48


RCLPPTQLDK


SSGCELKDSV

F(426)


Figure 7. Mutations identified from sequence analysis in temperature sensitive mutants,
revertants, and .,'//-3\3.


Sh2

Sh2

Sh2


Sh2
Sh2ts60
Sh2hs33









In vitro Enzyme Assays

The ADP-Glc synthesis (forward) reaction provided quantitative data on the

activity of Sh2ts48, Sh2rts48-2, and ,\/_'/177v as compared to wild-type (Table 1). The

assay was performed with undiluted, 1:2 diluted, and 1:4 diluted samples. All dilutions

were assayed in duplicate. Controls (minus ATP) were subtracted before multiplication

by dilution factors and averaging.

Table 1. Activity (AGPase) in Sh2 wild-type, Sh2ts48, Sh2rts48-2, and Sh2al 77v.
Sh2ts48 is the original temperature sensitive mutant. Sh2rts48-2 is a revertant of Sh2ts48
and contains a second-site suppressor mutation, in addition to the mutation found in Sh2ts48.
Sh2al 77v contains only the second-site suppressor mutation from Sh2rts48-2.
Activity is assayed at 37C.
Enzyme Activity SEMa Nb
Sh2 wt 2088 377 6
Sh2ts48 1128 270 6
Sh2rts48-2 1246 455 6
Sh2al77v 2103 393 6
standard error of the mean
" number of experimental replicates


This data set clearly illustrates the effectiveness of the screening procedure used

to identify mutants. A single mutation (Sh2ts48) causes a loss of activity when compared

to wild-type. It is interesting to note that while activity of the enzyme containing a

second-site reversion mutation (Sh2rts48-2) does not return to wild-type levels with

regards to the in vitro enzyme assay, iodine staining in Sh2rts48-2 is restored to wild-type

or near wild-type levels. Isolation of the second-site reversion mutation in the absence of

the parental mutation (.\s,_'1/77v) does not significantly increase activity of the enzyme

compared to wild-type. The data not only provide quantitative data supporting earlier

qualitative data, but also show the ability of the screening procedure to effectively

identify mutations altering enzyme activity.









The ADP-Glc synthesis (forward) reaction also provided quantitative data on the

activity of Sh2ts60, Sh2rts60-], ,\/l2e324k, .\/ii359v, and .,/hl2396v as compared to

wild-type (Table 2). The assay was performed with undiluted, 1:3 diluted, and 1:6

diluted samples. All dilutions were assayed in duplicate. Controls (minus ATP) were

subtracted before multiplication by dilution factors and averaging. The data presented

also illustrate the effectiveness of the protocol in identifying mutants affecting enzyme

activity. Here, the mutations in Sh2ts60 clearly affect the activity of AGPase. Upon

separation of the two mutations present in Sh2ts60, the mutation present in .\lh1324k

appears to be responsible for the phenotype of Sh2ts60.

Table 2. Activity (AGPase) in Sh2 wild-type, Sh2ts60, Sh2e324k, Sh2a359v, Sh2rts60-1,
and.\li',1396v. Sh2ts60 is the original temperature sensitive mutant. Sh2e324k contains only
one of two mutations found in Sh2ts60. Sh2a359v contains the second of two mutations
found in Sh2ts60. Sh2rts60-1 is a revertant of Sh2ts60 and contains a second-site
suppressor mutation, in addition to the mutations found in Sh2ts60. Sh2al 77v contains only
the second-site suppressor mutation found in Sh2rts60-1. Activity is assayed at 37C.
Enzyme Activity SEMa Nb
Sh2 wt 1398 520 6
Sh2ts60 84 49 6
Sh2rts60-1 109 43 6
Sh2e324k 67 42 6
Sh2a359v 996 241 6
.\1i',396v 2410 421 6
Standard error of the mean
" number of experimental replicates


The percentage of activity remaining after heat treatment at 600C for 5 min is

presented in Table 3. Genotypes in the data set are Sh2 wild-type, .\/i2/i-33, .\/i2396v,

.\/,l/2 77v, Sh2-396-177, Sh2-396-33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh2-396-177-33. Activity of Sh2

wild-type and .\/,/h,33 are in agreement with earlier reports (Greene and Hannah, 1998a).









.\h',1 396v, .\',1h t77v, Sh2-396-177, Sh2-396-33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh2-396-177-33 are

not significantly different in terms of heat stability.

Table 3. Percent Activity Remaining After Heat Treatment.
Heat treatment consists of incubation at 600C for 5 min. Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant
(Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2a396v is the second-site reversion mutation found in
Sh2rts60-1. Sh2al 77v is the second-site reversion mutation found in Sh2rts48-2.
Sh2-396-177 is a double mutant of .\/i',396v and Sh2al 77v. Sh2-396-33 is a double
mutant of .\'/iL396v and Sh2hs33. Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2al 77v and
Sh2hs33. Sh2-396-177-33 is a triple mutant of Sh2a396v, Sh2al 77v, and Sh2hs33.
Enzyme % Activity SEMa Nb
Sh2 wt 32 11 3
Sh2hs33 69 7 7
.\1i,1396v 61 13* 2
Sh2a177v 64 6 3
Sh2-396-177 77 21* 2
Sh2-396-33 69 9 3
Sh2-177-33 83 8 3
Sh2-396-177-33 72 11 3
Standard error of the mean
number of experimental replicates
* represents range, rather than S.E.M.


Activity before heat treatment for Sh2 wild-type, .\,'/-,\33, .,\/i2396v, .\/,h,/177v,

Sh2-396-177, Sh2-396-33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh2-396-177-33 is shown in Table 4.

.\,h/h\,33 has 2.1 fold more activity than does Sh2 wild-type. This is in agreement with

previous data (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). Both .,\l/,177v and .,\lh,396v show a 1.4

fold increase in activity. Their double mutant contains a 1.9 fold increase in activity.

While the combination of the two mutants increases activity, the double mutant does not

experience synergistic effects. The mutation of .,\l2,396v when combined with that of

.\,/2/,\33 experiences an additive effect, raising activity 3.4 fold compared to Sh2 wild-

type. The mutation of ,\l/h2177v in combination with that of.\,h2h,33 exhibits a slightly









smaller increase to 2.9 fold. Interestingly, the triple mutant shows a slightly greater

increase than either second-site reversion mutation alone, but less than the double mutant

between second-site revertants.

Table 4. Fold Increase in Activity.
Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). .\/i2l396v is the second-site
reversion mutation found in Sh2rts60-1. Sh2al 77v is the second-site reversion mutation found
in Sh2rts48-2. Sh2-396-177 is a double mutant of .\/i h396v and Sh2al77v. Sh2-396-33
is a double mutant of .\'/ir396v and Sh2hs33. Sh2-177-33 is a double mutant of Sh2al 77v
and Sh2hs33. Sh2-396-1 77-33 is a triple mutant of .\h/i2396v, Sh2al 77v, and Sh2hs33.
Enzyme Fold increase Range Nb
Sh2 wt n/a n/a n/a
Sh2hs33 2.1 0.2a 3
.\/ h ,396v 1.4 0 1
Sh2al77v 1.4 0 1
Sh2-396-177 1.9 0.2 2
Sh2-396-33 3.4 0 1
Sh2-177-33 2.9 0.1 2
Sh2-396-177-33 1.8 0.1 2
Standard error of the mean
" number of experimental replicates
n.a. not applicable



Relative Specific Activities of Heat-Sensitive and Heat-Stable Mutants

Gel filtration chromatography was used to isolate heterotetrameric AGPase from

other size fractions of its subunits. To test the effectiveness of the column for separation,

individually collected fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE and western blotting. A

western blot of Fractions 1-14 is shown in Figure 8. Low levels of BT2 protein are

detected in Fractions 1 -8. Beginning with Fraction 9 there is a steady increase in the

amount of BT2 present. Higher molecular weight proteins present in Lanes 1-6 are

possibly due to transcriptional run-on and have been observed previously (Hannah,

personal communication). Fraction 11 is considered to be the heterotetrameric fraction as









predicted by molecular mass markers. The presence of BT2 protein in Fractions 10 and

12-14 suggest that the heterotetrameric peak is split among fractions. However, by using

Fraction 11 as the heterotetrameric fraction, contamination by AGPase dimers is unlikely

as higher numbered fractions contain lower molecular weight molecules.

Gel filtration fractions


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14



62 kD 1 *----



Figure 8. Western blot of .lh2lh,33 gel filtration fractions. Fractions 1-14 of Sh2hs33
were subjected to SDS-PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and hybridized
with antibody to BT2. Fraction 11 is the heterotetrameric fraction as
determined by molecular mass markers.



Isolation of the heterotetrameric fraction, followed by relative quantitation of

active enzyme through SDS-PAGE and western blotting, allowed an estimate of specific

activities. The first of two western blots used to estimate specific activities is shown in

Figure 9. The specific activities calculated using in vitro enzyme assays and relative

amounts of AGPase present in Figure 9 are shown in Table 5. The second of two western

blots used to estimate specific activities is shown in Figure 10. Specific activities

calculated using the forward assay from gel filtration purification fractions and relative

amounts of AGPase protein present in Figure 10 are shown in Table 6.

Following gel filtration chromatography of heated and nonheated samples of Sh2

wild-type, .\/hhs33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh-2177-396-33 aliquots of the heterotetrameric









fraction were subjected to SDS-PAGE. SDS gels were transferred to nitrocellulose and

probed with antibody to BT2. Films were digitally scanned and relative amounts of

protein determined using densitometry software. We loaded 12 and 6 jtL to monitor

linearity of AGPase signal. Lack of detectable protein for both heated and nonheated

samples of Sh2 wild-type made determination of relative protein amounts, and

subsequent specific activity calculations, impossible. Specific activities decrease as

stability increases (Table 5), and although no specific activity for Sh2 wild-type is given,

enzyme assays of Sh2 wild-type suggest the highest specific activity in the group.

To verify results shown in Figure 9 and Table 5, a slightly modified version of the

experiment was performed. Enzymes used were Sh2 wild-type, .\/,h2,33, and Sh2-177-

33. Heat-treatment was excluded from the experiment. The heterotetrameric gel

filtration fractions and the succeeding fraction were used. Two fractions were subjected

to SDS-PAGE in Figure 10 to evaluate contamination by dimers. That specific activities

of both fractions from each enzyme are similar suggests no contamination by dimeric

AGPase subunits. In contrast to the previous experiment, specific activities increase with

increasing stability, with Sh2 wild-type exhibiting the lowest specific activity and

Sh2-177-33 exhibiting the greatest specific activity. The discrepancy between

experiments is discussed below.












xi =

a U

^-. ; *
3 -isiIea
3,N J ^ **


^- 0
CO -

MLii
-
j t
,-,h v v

IOP,
VJ q L


52 keD Mr.WW k6 &P* BED 0* am



Figure 9. Western blot of gel filtration fractions to calculate specific activities. Samples
of heterotetrameric fraction, separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred to
nitrocellulose, and hybridized with antibody to BT2 protein. Lanes 1 and 2:
Sh2 wild-type, 12 jEL and 6 jEL, respectively. Lanes 3 and 4: heat-treated Sh2
wild-type, 12 jEL and 6 jaL, respectively. Lanes 5 and 6: .\/h2,/33, 12 jaL and 6
IEL, respectively. Lanes 7 and 8: heat-treated .\h2/,/33, 12 jaL and 6 EL,
respectively. Lanes 9 and 10: Sh2-177-33, 12 jaL and 6 jaL, respectively.
Lanes 11 and 12: heat-treated Sh2-177-33, 12 jaL and 6 jaL, respectively.
Lanes 13 and 14: Sh2-177-396-33, 12 jaL and 6 jaL, respectively. Lanes 15 and
16: heat-treated Sh2-177-396-33, 12 jaL and 6 jaL, respectively.


iLi
3a u
is
I-

i
-s









Table 5. Specific Activities of Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh2-177-396-33
Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2-177-33 is a double
mutant of Sh2al77v (second-site reversion mutation) and Sh2hs33. Sh2-396-177-33 is
a triple mutant of Sh2a396v (second-site reversion mutation), Sh2al77v, and Sh2hs33.
Enzyme Heat treat Activity Protein amt. Sp. activity
Sh2 wt no 2291 n.d. n.d.
Sh2hs33 no 8455 22 384
Sh2-177-33 no 7071 38.5 184
Sh2-177-396-33 no 7131 49.5 144
Sh2 wt yes 7709 n.d. n.d.
Sh2hs33 yes 7888 6.8 1160
Sh2-177-33 yes 8927 20.5 435
Sh2-177-396-33 yes 7878 47 168
n.d. not determined



Heleaiowtrrmsre gal Hate~tramMs rlm c ge
filtration frctkon filtration fraction +1


















Figure 10. Western blot of Sh2 wild-type, ./h2h,33 and Sh2-177-33 gel filtration
fractions. Lanesl-6: gel filtration fractions corresponding to the
heterotetrameric fraction. Lanes 7-12: gel filtration fractions corresponding
to the succeeding heterotetrameric fraction. Fractions separated by SDS-
PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and hybridized with antibody to BT2
protein. Lanes 1, 2, 7, and 8: Sh2 wild-type, 12 tL and 6 jtL, respectively.
Lanes 3, 4, 9, and 10: .Nh2h,33, 12 jtL and 6 ItL, respectively. Lanes 5, 6, 11,
and 12: Sh2-177-33, 12 tL and 6 tL, respectively.
and 12: Sh2-1 77-33, 12 |L and 6 |L, respectively.









Table 6. Specific Activities for Sh2 wild-type, Sh2hs33, and Sh2-177-33
Sh2hs33 is a heat stable mutant (Greene and Hannah, 1998). Sh2-177-33 is a double
mutant of Sh2al77v (second-site reversion mutation) and Sh2hs33.
Enzyme Fraction Activity Protein amt. Sp. activity
Sh2 wt 12 586 13 45
Sh2hs33 12 1843 26 71
Sh2-177-33 12 2188 23 95
Sh2 wt 13 750 16 47
Sh2hs33 13 1870 22.5 83
Sh2-177-33 13 2190 21.5 102














CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

It is well known that single amino acid polymorphisms in the coding region of

enzymes can alter properties. The work of Greene and Hannah (1998a) showed that a

single amino acid change in the large subunit of maize endosperm AGPase can affect

subunit interactions and heat stability. The aim of this project was to identify other

mutations affecting enzyme stability. Through sequence comparison of mutants from this

study and mutants identified by Greene and Hannah (1998a), regions important in

enzyme stability both in the presence and absence of increased heat are becoming

apparent. Because the coding region of Sh2 is by no means mutation saturated, at this

point only two regions of importance can be tentatively identified. The first region spans

113 amino acids, from residue 104 to residue 217. Amino acid 217 was first identified by

Greene and Hannah (1998a) as one (Arg to Pro) of two mutations in ,\/l2/v47, a heat-

stable mutant retaining approximately 60% activity after incubation at 600C for 5 min.

However, because the two mutations in ,\s/l2v47 were not separated to determine their

individual effect on stability, no definitive conclusions about this amino acid can be

drawn. Also identified by Greene and Hannah (1998a) was residue 114 in ,\s//-/v6. An

Arg to Thr substitution at this position conditions retention of approximately 40% activity

after heat treatment. Amino acid 177 is the site of the mutation (Ala to Pro) identified in

\,s/h/v713 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). This mutant was isolated in the screening

procedure and presumably confers some degree of heat stability, although no quantitative

data were given. Amino acid 177 is also the location of the second-site reversion









mutation present in Sh2rts48-2. An Ala to Val substitution at this residue confers

retention of approximately 64% activity after heat treatment. That residue 177 has been

identified in two studies, lends credence to the importance of this residue in stability of

maize endosperm AGPase.

The second region of importance in terms of AGPase stability is a 136 amino acid

stretch between residues 324 and 460. Mutations in this study include those identified in

Sh2ts48 and Sh2ts60 at residues 324, 359, and 426. Data presented illustrate the

importance of these residues, particularly 324 and 426, in enzyme stability as evidenced

by the concomitant conditional phenotype upon mutation of these residues. Also

identified in this study is residue 396, the location of the second-site reversion mutation

of Sh2ts60. An Ala to Val substitution at this residue confers approximately 61%

retention of activity following heat treatment. The remaining residues that define this

region were identified in Greene and Hannah (1998a) and include residues 333 (His to

Tyr), 400 (Asp to His), 454 (Val to Ie), and 460 (Thr to Ie). The His to Tyr mutation at

residue 333 was repeatedly encountered in the study, and its importance in stability has

been shown in both the original and the present study.

Comparison of the mutations identified here show an interesting pattern. Of the

five mutations, three are Ala to Val substitutions. Further, both second-site reversion

mutations are Ala to Val substitutions. Whether the over-representation of Ala to Val

substitutions is because of the relatedness of the codons for these amino acids, the limited

range of substitutions possible through hydroxylamine mutagenesis, or reflects the

accessibility of these particular Ala codons to the mutagen is unclear.









As stated above, with the limited number of mutations in the coding region of Sh2

it is difficult to identify regions of importance with any certainty. In fact, there is no

compelling reason to include residue 217 with residues 177 and 104 rather than with the

remaining mutations other than distance between the next closest mutations is smaller. It

remains to be seen whether the residues identified can in fact be divided into two regions

or whether the mutations are isolated. The two tentatively identified regions may be

divided further, their domains expanded or contracted, and their relative importance

verified as more mutants become available. However, the mutations have given us a

starting point to further study the interactions of the subunits and their role in the stability

of this important enzyme.

The mechanism by which the mutation of.\h1/,2/33 enhances heat stability is not

definitively known. Glycerol density gradient centrifugation and SDS-PAGE/western

blotting provided evidence that .\,//7\33 increases heat stability through stabilizing

heterotetrameric AGPase formation (Greene and Hannah, 1998a). Certainly this result is

in agreement with earlier reports (Giroux and Hannah, 1994; Wang et al., 1997) in which

both subunits must be present for maximum stability. Perhaps .\/2h,/33 stabilizes

heterotetrameric AGPase formation, thus forming an enzyme more resistant to stress and

with more activity in the absence of stress, because of an increased affinity for

heterotetrameric formation. This scenario presents a testable hypothesis. If Sh2hs33 and

heat-stable variants identified in this study enhance stability by shifting equilibrium of

subunit interaction in the direction of heterotetrameric formation, activity per

heterotetramer should be equal to wild-type and to each other. Using techniques

developed previously in this lab the question has been addressed.









Using heated and nonheated samples of Sh2, .\h2lh,33, Sh2-177-33, and Sh2-177-

396-33 (Figure 9), specific activities were calculated (Table 5). Specific activities

decrease as stability increases. Although no numerical values were given for Sh2 wild-

type because of undetectable amounts of protein, enzyme assays suggest a higher specific

activity than the other enzymes. Heat treatment increases specific activities but does not

change the underlying observation. In a slightly modified experiment to confirm earlier

results, differing results were obtained. Using Sh2, .\lh2h,33, and Sh2-177-33 (Figure 10)

specific activities were calculated (Table 6). In contrast to the previous experiment,

specific activities increase with increasing stability. Without further experimentation, no

definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Activity levels in the first experiment were higher than the second experiment

(Table 5 vs. Table 6). Whether this reflects differences in enzyme preparations, enzyme

integrity during gel filtration chromatography, assay conditions, or other phenomena is

unknown. The differing data do provide an interesting opportunity to speculate about the

reasons behind the possible final outcomes. As discussed above, if the mechanism by

which the various mutants increase stability occurs via a shift in equilibrium of subunit

interactions towards heterotetrameric AGPase formation, specific activities per

heterotetramer should be equal. Existing data for .h\/2/h33 (Greene and Hannah, 1998a)

suggest that heterotetrameric AGPase formation is increased. In order to explain

differences in specific activities per heterotetramer, however, other mechanisms must be

at work. According to data presented in Figure 10 and Table 6, it appears possible that

mutations have rendered the enzymes more efficient. By increasing subunit interactions

equilibrium has not only shifted in favor of heterotetramers, but the mechanisms by






38


which substrates are converted to product are altered. A change in conformation of

active site due to conformational changes in enzyme structure is but one explanation.

Undoubtedly, 3-D structure of the enzyme would offer insight as to the placement of the

amino acids and the plausibility of their effect on enzyme structure. Lack of crystal and

3-D structure, and the unequivocal data presented in this study, relegate these musings to

mental exercises.















LIST OF REFERENCES


Anderson JM, Larsen R, Laudencia D, Kim WT, Morrow D, Okita TW, Preiss J
(1991) Molecular characterization of the gene encoding a rice endosperm-specific
ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit and its developmental pattern of
transcription. Gene. 97: 199-205.

Bae JM, Giroux M, Hannah LC (1990) Cloning and characterization of the brittle-2
gene of maize. Maydica. 35: 317-322.

Ball S, Guan HP, James M, Myers A, Keeling P, Mouille G, Buleon A, Colonna P,
Preiss J (1996) From glycogen to amylopectin: a model for the biogenesis of the
plant starch granule. Cell. 86: 349-52.

Ballicora MA, Fu Y, Frueauf JB, Preiss J (1999) Heat stability of the potato tuber
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase: role of Cys residue 12 in the small subunit.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 257: 782-6.

Ballicora MA, Laughlin MJ, Fu Y, Okita TW, Barry GF, Preiss J (1995) Adenosine
5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase from potato tuber. Significance of the
N terminus of the small subunit for catalytic properties and heat stability. Plant
Physiol. 109: 245-51.

Beckles DM, Smith AM, ap Rees T (2001b) A cytosolic ADP-glucose
pyrophosphorylase is a feature of graminaceous endosperms, but not of other
starch-storing organs. Plant Physiol. 125: 818-27.

Bhave MR, Lawrence S, Barton C, Hannah LC (1990) Identification and molecular
characterization of shrunken-2 cDNA clones of maize. Plant Cell. 2: 581-8.

Brangeon J, Reyss A, Prioul JL (1997) In situ detection of ADPglucose
pyrophosphorylase expression during maize endosperm development. Plant
Physiol Biochem. 35: 847-58.

Burgess D, Penton A, Dunsmuir P, Dooner H (1997) Molecular cloning and
characterization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA clones isolated from
pea cotyledons. Plant Mol Biol. 33: 431-44.

Cao H, Sullivan TD, Boyer CD, Shannon JC (1995) Btl, a structural gene for the
major 39-44 kD amyloplast membrane polypeptides. Physiol Plant. 95: 176-86.









Chang JH (1981) Corn yield in relation to photoperiod, night temperature, and solar
radiation. Ag Meteor. 24: 253-262.

Cheikh N, Jones RJ (1995) Heat stress effects on sink activity of developing maize
kernels grown in vitro. Physiol Plant. 95: 59-66.

Choi SB, Kim KH, Kavakli IH, Lee SK, Okita TW (2001) Transcriptional expression
characteristics and subcellular localization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in
the oil plant Perillafrutescens. Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 146-53.

Conroy JP, Senemeera S, Basra AS, Rogers G, Nissen-Wooller B (1994) Influence of
rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature on growth, yield and
grain quality of cereal crops. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 741-58.

Corpet F (1988) Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucl Acids
Res. 16: 10881-90.

Denyer K, Dunlap F, Thorbjornsen T, Keeling P, Smith AM (1996) The major form
of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in maize endosperm is extra-plastidial. Plant
Physiol. 112: 779-85.

Detherage WL, MacMasters MM, Rist CE (1955) A partial survey of amylose content
in starch from domestic and foreign varieties of corn, wheat, and sorghum and
from some other starch-bearing plants. Trans Am Assoc Cereal Chem. 13: 31-42.

Dickinson DB, Preiss J (1969) ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase from maize endosperm.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 130: 119-28.

Doan DNP, Rudi H, Olsen OA (1999) The allosterically unregulated isoform of ADP-
glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley endosperm is the most likely source of
ADP-glucose incorporated into endosperm starch. Plant Physiol. 121: 965-75.

Duke ER, Doehlert DC (1996) Effects of heat stress on enzyme activities and transcript
levels in developing maize kernels grown in culture. Environ Exp Botany. 36:
199-208.

Espada J (1962) Enzymic synthesis of adenosine diphosphate glucose from glucose-1-
phosphate and adenosine triphosphate. J Biol Chem. 237: 3577-81.

Giroux MJ, Hannah LC (1994) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in shrunken-2 and
brittle-2 mutants of maize. Mol Gen Genet. 243: 400-8.

Giroux MJ, Shaw J, Barry G, Cobb BG, Greene T, Okita T, Hannah LC (1996) A
single mutation that increases maize seed weight. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93:
5824-9.









Greene TW, Chantler SE, Kahn ML, Barry GF, Preiss J, Okita TW (1996)
Mutagenesis of the potato ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and characterization of
an allosteric mutant defective in 3- phosphoglycerate activation. Proc Natl Acad
Sci USA. 93: 1509-13.

Greene TW, Hannah LC (1998a) Enhanced stability of maize endosperm ADP-glucose
pyrophosphorylase is gained through mutants that alter subunit interactions. Proc
Natl Acad Sci USA. 95: 13342-7.

Greene TW, Hannah LC (1998b) Maize endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
SHRUNKEN2 and BRITTLE2 subunit interactions. Plant Cell. 10: 1295-306.

Hallauer AR (2001) In: Hallauer AR (ed.) Specialty Corns. CRC Press LLC, Boca
Raton, FL.

Hannah LC (1997) Starch synthesis in the maize endosperm. In: Larkins B A, Vasil I K
(eds.) Advances in cellular and molecular biology of plants, vol. 4. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Hannah LC, Nelson OE, Jr. (1976) Characterization of ADP-glucose
pyrophosphorylase from shrunken-2 and brittle-2 mutants of maize. Biochem
Genet. 14: 547-60.

Hunter RB, Tollenaar M, Breuer CM (1977) Effects of photoperiod and temperature
on vegetative and reproductive growth of a maize (Zea mays) hybrid. Can J Plant
Sci. 57: 1127-33.

Hutchinson CB (1921) Shrunken endosperm. J Hered. 12: 76-83.

Hylton C, Smith AM (1992) The rb mutation of pea causes structural and regulatory
changes in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing embryos. Plant
Physiol. 99: 1626-34.

Iglesias AA, Barry GF, Meyer C, Bloksberg L, Nakata PA, Greene T, Laughlin MJ,
Okita TW, Kishore GM, Preiss J (1993) Expression of the potato tuber ADP-
glucose pyrophosphorylase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 268: 1081-6.

Jenner CF, Denyer K, Guerin J (1995) Thermal characteristics of soluble starch
synthase from wheat endosperm. Aust J Plant Physiol. 22: 703-9.

Jenner CF (1994) Starch synthesis in the kernel of wheat under high temperature
conditions. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 791-806.

Jones RJ, Gengenbach BG, Cardwell VB (1981) Temperature effects on in vitro kernel
development of maize. Crop Sci. 21: 761-6.









Keeling PL, Bacon PJ, Holt DC (1993) Elevated temperature reduces starch deposition
in wheat endosperm by reducing the activity of soluble starch synthase. Planta.
191: 342-8.

Keeling PL, Banisadr R, Barone L, Wasserman BP, Singletary GW (1994) Effect of
temperature on enzymes in the pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing
wheat and maize grain. Aust J Plant Physiol. 21: 807-27.

Kim W, Franceschi V, Okita T, Robinson N, Morell M, Preiss J (1989)
Immunocytochemical localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in
developing potato tuber cells. Plant Physiol. 91: 217-20.

Kleczkowski LA, Villand P, Luthi E, Olsen OA, Preiss J (1993) Insensitivity of barley
endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase to 3-phosphoglycerate and
orthophosphate regulation. Plant Physiol. 101: 179-86.

Kossman J, Lloyd J (2000) Understanding and influencing starch biochemistry. Critical
Reviews in Plant Sciences. 19: 171-226.

Laughnan JR (1953) The effect of the sh2 factor on carbohydrate reserves in the mature
endosperm of maize. Genetics. 38: 485-99.

Mains EB (1949) Linkage of a factor for shrunken endosperm with the al factor for
aleurone color. J Hered. 40: 21-4.

Martin C, Smith AM (1995) Starch biosynthesis. Plant Cell. 7: 971-85.

Nelson OE, Pan D (1995) Starch synthesis in maize endosperms. Annu Rev Plant
Physiol. Plant Mol. Bio. 46: 475-96.

Okita TW, Greenberg E, Kuhn DN, Preiss J (1979) Subcellular localization of the
starch degradative and biosynthetic enzymes of spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 64:
187-92.

Okita T, Nakata P, Anderson J, Sowokinos J, Morell M, Preiss J (1990) The subunit
structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol. 93: 785-
90.

Olive MR, Ellis RJ, Schuch WW (1989) Isolation and nucleotide sequence of cDNA
clones encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphsorylase polypeptides from wheat leaf
and endosperm. J Mol Bio. 12: 525-38.

Ou-Lee TM, Setter TL (1985) Effect of increased temperature in apical regions of
maize ears on starch-synthesis enzymes and accumulation of sugars and starch.
Plant Physiol. 79: 852-5.









Preiss J, Levi C (1980) Starch biosynthesis and degradation. In: J Preiss (ed.)
Biochemistry of Plants, vol. 3. Academic Press, New York.

Rijven AHGC (1986) Heat inactivation of starch synthase in wheat endosperm tissue.
Plant Physiol. 81: 448-53.

Shannon JC, Fang-Mei P, Kang-Chein L (1996) Nucleotides and nucleotide sugars in
developing maize endosperms. Plant Physiol. 110: 835-43.

Sikka VK, Choi SB, Kavakli IH, Sakulsingharoj C, Gupta S, Ito H, Okita TW
(2001) Subcellular compartmentation and allosteric regulation of the rice
endosperm ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Sci. 161: 461-8.

Smith-White BJ, Preiss J (1992) Comparison of proteins of ADP-glucose
pyrophosphorylase from diverse sources. J Mol Evol. 34: 449-64.

Stark DM, Timmerman KP, Barry GF, Preiss J, Kishore GM (1992) Regulation of
the amount of starch in plant tissues by ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Science.
258: 287-92.

Suzuki DT, Griffith AJF, Miller JH, Lewontin RC (1989) In Introduction to Genetic
Analysis, 4th Ed. Freeman, New York.

Thompson LM (1975) Weather variability, climatic change, and grain production.
Science. 188: 535-41.

Thompson LM (1986) Climatic change, weather variability, and corn production. Agron
J. 78: 649-53.

Thorbjornsen T, Villand P, Denyer K, Olsen O, Smith AM (1996a) Distinct isoforms
of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase occur inside and outside the amyloplast in
barley endosperm. Plant J. 10: 243-50.

Tollenaar M, Bruulsema TW (1988) Effects of temperature on rate and duration of
kernel dry matter accumulation of maize. Can J Plant Sci. 68: 935-40.

Tsai CY, Nelson OE (1966) Starch-deficient maize mutant lacking adenosine
diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Science. 151: 341-3.

Villand P, Aalen R, Olsen OA, Luthi E, Lonneborg A, Kleczkowski LA (1992) PCR
amplification and sequences of cDNA clones for the small and large subunits of
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from barley tissues. Plant Mol Biol. 19: 381-9.

Villand P, Kleczkowski LA (1994) Is there an alternative pathway for starch
biosynthesis in cereal seeds? Z Naturforsch. 49c: 215-19.






44


Wang S, Chu B, Lue W, Yu T, Eimert K, Chen J (1997) adg2-1 represents a missense
mutation in the ADPG pyrophosphorylase large subunit gene of Arabidopsis
thaliana. Plant J. 11: 1121-6.

Weber H, Stitt M, Heldt HW (1995) Cell-type specific, coordinate expression of two
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in relation to starch biosynthesis during
seed development of Viciafaba L. Planta. 195: 352-61.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brian Timothy Burger was born to Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Burger on June 4, 1976

in Tampa, FL. He was raised throughout Florida and, with the exception of the first two

years of college, has remained a Florida native.

He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Botany from the University of

Florida in December, 1998. Upon completion of a Master of Science degree he will

attend the University of California San Diego to pursue a PhD in Biology.

His mother and father remain in Oldsmar, FL. His sister, Kristin, attends the

University of Florida.