• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Historic note
 Table of Contents
 Adopt these six factors
 Florida's grow healthy chick...
 Management of chicks and growing...
 Diseases and parasites of growing...
 Reference














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultual Extension Service ; no. 94
Title: Growing healthy chicks and pullets
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000455/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing healthy chicks and pullets
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 48 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mehrhof, N. R ( Norman Ripley ), b. 1899
Emmel, M. W ( Mark Wirth ), b. 1895
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 48).
Statement of Responsibility: by N.R. Mehrhof and M.W. Emmel.
General Note: "February, 1938".
General Note: "Revision of bulletin 79".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF90000455
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570893
oclc - 44697435
notis - AMT7207

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Historic note
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Adopt these six factors
        Page 4
    Florida's grow healthy chick program
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Management of chicks and growing stock
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Diseases and parasites of growing chicks
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Reference
        Page 48
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







February, 1938


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
Wilmon Newell, Director


Revision of
no. e(o
gg Lq 3;L


GROWING HEALTHY CHICKS

AND PULLETS

By
N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultry Husbandman
and
M. W. EMMEL, Veterinarian, Florida Experiment Station


Fig. 1.-These pullets have plenty of good, clean range.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


(Revision of Bulletin 79)


Bulletin 94







BOARD OF CONTROL

R. P. TERRY, Acting Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialistl
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman1
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economistl
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist1
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1Part-time.








CONTENTS
PAGE
PART I. FLORIDA'S GROW HEALTHY CHICK PROGRAM ............................ 5
H atch E arly ............................................................................ 5
Clean Eggs and Chicks ........................................................ 7
Clean Brooder H ouses ............................................................ 8
Clean Land ........................................................... ................ 8
Balanced R nations .................................................................... 9
Separation of Pullets from Cockerels ............................... 9
Summary of Healthy Chick Campaign .............................. 10
PART II. MANAGEMENT OF CHICKS AND GROWING STOCK ...................... 12
N um ber of Chicks N eeded .................................................... 12
Equipm ent ................................................................................ 12
Pullets N eeded ........................................................................ 12
Selecting H watching E ggs ........................... ......................... 13
W ays to Get Chicks ................................................................ 14
Brooder H house Suggestions .................................................. 14
Brooding Devices .................................................................. 16
Colony Brooders .............................................................. 16
H ot W ater Brooders ........................................................ 16
Battery Brooders ........................... ............. .............. 16
Stoves --.. ... ... --............................................................. 19
Wire Floor in the Brooder House ........................................ 20
Sun Parlors ................... ......................................................... 21
Litter .......................................................................................... 21
D isinfectants and A ntiseptics .............................................. 22
D isinfectant Pan or Box .............................................. 23
Fire Gun ............................................................................ 23
Feeding ................................................. .................. ........... 23
V itam ins A and D .......................................................... 24
M ilk Products ................................................................. 24
Cod-Liver Oil .................................................................... 24
Chick Feeding .................................................................. 25
Fattening Cockerels ........................................................ 28
Sum m er Shelters and R anges .............................................. 30
Developing the Pullets for Winter Eggs ............................ 30
H housing the Pullets ................................................................ 31
Egg Prices ................................................................................ 32
Prices of Fryers ..................................................................... 33
PART III. DISEASES AND PARASITES OF GROWING CHICKS .-.................. 34
D iarrhea ...................................................................... ............ 34
Pullorum D disease .................................................................... 34
Brooder Pneum onia ............................................................... 35
Rickets ........................................................................................ 35
Perosis ........................................................................................ 36
Cannibalism ............................................................................. 36
Colds .......................................................................................... 36
Roup .......................................................................... ............. 37
Infectious Laryngotracheitis ........................................... 38
Chickenpox and Vaccination ................................................ 40
Fow l Paralysis and Leukem ia ............................................. 41
Coccidiosis ................................................................................ 42
Other Internal Parasites ........................................................ 43
Roundw orm s ...................................................................... 43
Tapew orm s ...................................................................... 43
W orm Treatm ents ........................... ............ ............ 44
External Parasites ........................................ ........................ 45
Chicken M ites ................................................................. 45
Sticktight Fleas ................................................................ 46
Lice .................................................................................... 46
REFERENCES .......... ..... ......... ...... .. ................ ....... .................. 48















ADOPT THESE SIX FACTORS


Florida's "Grow Healthy Chick" program includes six
factors, as follows:
1. Hatch early.
2. Clean eggs and chicks.
3. Clean brooder houses.
4. Clean land.
5. Balanced rations.
6. Separation of pullets from cockerels.
Poultrymen and women following this program have
found that the adoption of these six factors on their
farms is worth while. It results in healthier chicks, and
consequently healthier pullets, which will come into
laying earlier and will lay more eggs. As these factors
are neglected, results obtained are not so profitable.
It is suggested that all poultry raisers in Florida be
very careful to see that these six factors are adopted on
their farms.
HEALTHY CHICKS MEAN HEALTHY CHECKS.
KEEP CHICK MORTALITY BELOW 10 PERCENT.








Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets
By N. R. MEHRHOF and M. W. EMMEL*

PART I.
FLORIDA'S GROW HEALTHY CHICK PROGRAM

The growing of strong, healthy chicks is dependent upon the
adoption and carrying to completion of a very definite sanitary
program. Success in the poultry business is dependent largely
on the production of clean, healthy chicks. The poultry raiser
can purchase hatching eggs, baby chicks, pullets, or breeding
stock, but he cannot buy sanitation. It must be practiced at
all times.
The Grow Healthy Chick Program was started in Florida in
1928. The main purpose was to reduce chick mortality, and so
produce better quality pullets. It must be remembered that the
quality of the pullet put in the laying house will influence any
returns that may be expected in the form of egg production.
According to one poultry authority, "As the chick is started, so
the pullet is inclined". Thus it is paramount that poultry raisers
pay strict attention to the management of baby chicks.
HATCH EARLY
The three months of February, March and April generally are
considered the most desirable months for hatching chicks to
produce pullets for winter egg production.
The poultry producer who is planning to raise chicks should
consider carefully these questions: How long will it take pullets
to mature and come into production? When should pullets start
laying? Are any of the pullets to be used as breeders next
spring? When is the peak of egg prices reached? How can
surplus cockerels be disposed of to best advantage?
The early hatched pullet gets a good start before hot weather
begins. She develops rapidly through the summer months and
comes into production in the early fall, thus being in full produc-
tion during the period of high priced eggs.
Average egg production in most poultry flocks during the
winter months is low, and prices for eggs during the same
months range higher. Wholesale quotations on the Jacksonville
market from 1921 to 1937, as reported by the State Marketing
*The authors are deeply indebted to Dr. E. F. Thomas, E. F. Stanton,
and E. G. Pattishall for their suggestions in the preparation of this bulletin.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Bureau, show that highest prices for eggs are reached during
the months of September, October, November, December, and
January. Of the 16 years the peak price was in November
during 8, in December 4, in October 3, in September 1, and
during 1934-35 the price was the same for November and De-
cember. (See Fig. 2 and Table 7.)


60 -___

50










Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. ay June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Fig. 2.-Average wholesale prices of white eggs at Jacksonville, Flor-
ida, October, 1921-September 30, 1937, as quoted by State Marketing
Bureau. Quotations based on jobbers' average selling prices, their buying
prices being a margin lower.

It is desirable, therefore, to secure increased egg production
during the winter if possible. In a survey of a large number of
Florida poultry farms it was found that the average production
per bird for the three months November, December and January
on the 10 most profitable farms was 32 eggs, while on the 10
least profitable farms it was only 17 eggs.
That increased winter egg production can be secured is evident
from records of flocks in the Calendar Flock Records covering
a period of several years. Considerable variation in number
of winter eggs per bird is found, indicating that it is possible
to obtain higher production.
One way of increasing winter egg production is to cull the
older birds and let the flock consist of a high percentage of early-
hatched pullets. The late-hatched pullet will not be developed
sufficiently to produce many eggs during the months of high
prices, but will come into heavy production during the early
spring months.
spring months.







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


Another reason for hatching early is that early-hatched cock-
erels can be sold for better prices. During the 16 years 1921-
1937 wholesale prices on the Jacksonville market for colored
fryers were highest during April, except during the years 1923,
1924 and 1935, when the peak was reached in May, in 1932
when the peak was reached in March, and in 1929 when the
peak was reached in December. (See Fig. 3 and Table 8,
page 33.) To command these peak prices, chicks for fryer
production should be hatched early.


40 5 a 1921-26

0 35

30 "- 5 y. av. 26-31

5 2




Jan. Feb. Mao. Ar. A : June July AUg. Sept. Oct. Nov. pg.
Fig. 3.-Average monthly wholesale prices of colored fryers at Jackson-
ville, Florida, October, 1921-September 30, 1937, as quoted by the State
Marketing Bureau. Quotations are jobbers' average selling prices, their
buying prices being a margin lower.

Each poultryman should study his marketing conditions and
be guided by them in determining the most opportune time to
hatch. It should be remembered that early-hatched chicks grow
faster and mature more quickly, the broilers are ready to sell
when prices are up, and pullets come into production when egg
prices are high.
CLEAN EGGS AND CHICKS
For success in the poultry business, it is important that the
start be made properly. Hatching eggs and baby chicks should
be obtained only from flocks that are free of disease and from
breeding birds which are strong, healthy and vigorous, as well
as of standard breeding and having high egg producing ability.
In other words, the eggs or chicks should be of excellent quality
and free of diseases.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The initial cost is secondary in deciding where to buy eggs
or chicks, while quality is of primary importance. Oftentimes
cheap chicks are the most expensive in the long run. One should
look for quality and should remember that it costs the breeder
or hatcheryman more to produce first-class chicks than to pro-
duce poor quality chicks.
Weak chicks should not be put in the brooder house. It is
better to destroy them. Results of the first Grow Healthy Chick
Campaign illustrate this clearly. Producers who did not use
quality chicks had a mortality much higher than those who used
well-bred, healthy chicks.
CLEAN BROODER HOUSES
Cleanliness in the brooder house is most important. The
interior of each house should be thoroughly cleaned and disin-
fected before a new crop of chicks is put in it, and before it
is moved to new land. The brooder house should receive a
thorough cleaning once a week during the entire brooding
season.
To be sure that the brooder house is in sanitary condition for
the baby chicks-
1. Remove all the movable equipment and clean it outside of
the house.
2. Carefully brush the ceiling and walls, removing all dust
and dirt.
3. Thoroughly scrub the lower part of the walls and floor
with a brush or broom and water to which concentrated lye
has been added (one pound of lye in 40 gallons of water).
4. Spray the entire interior of the house with a good disin-
fectant. (See page 22 for list of disinfectants.)
5. Clean and disinfect all equipment, such as water dishes,
milk dishes, mash boxes, brooder stoves, and hover.
6. Do all cleaning before houses are moved to clean ground.
The results in the first Grow Healthy Chick Campaign showed
the importance of clean brooder houses. Mortality was as high
as 41% when this factor was disregarded.
CLEAN LAND
With the more intensive methods of poultry production that
have come into practice in the past few years, more care must
be employed in the rearing of young chicks. Soil contamination
has been responsible for a large percentage of chick mortality.







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


Land is generally considered "clean" for the purpose of rais-
ing chicks when no chicks have been allowed to run on it and no
poultry manure has been spread upon it for a period of at least
one year. Land previously used should be cultivated, cropped
and reseeded. It is still more desirable and safer to practice a
three or four-year rotation.
Avoid land that is contaminated by drainage water from a
poultry range or land where poultry manure has been spread.
Houses containing adult birds, manure piles or any poultry
refuse near enough to the chick range to allow flies to travel back
and forth would be potentially a dangerous source of infection.
Well drained soil with some shade is best for a chick range.
The shade may be either temporary or permanent.
New methods of chick production help avoid soil contamina-
tion. Battery brooders and brooder houses with wire floors
and sun parlors are being used more each year. The chicks
are allowed to run on hardware cloth, and are kept confined
from three to 10 weeks or longer. If one is having trouble
with soil contamination it would pay to investigate this method.
Records for two years illustrate the value of clean land. Five
producers reared chicks on contaminated land and mortality
was as high as 37 percent, while 17 producers reared chicks
on clean land and mortality ranged from 1 to 10 percent.

BALANCED RATION
For normal growth and development of baby chicks proper
feeding of a balanced ration is necessary. There are a number
of different methods of feeding baby chicks and most of them
have given the desired results. The important thing in feeding
baby chicks is to adopt a suitable feeding practice and follow
it in detail. Changing from one method to another is not always
conducive to normal chick development. A discussion of feeds
will be found later in this bulletin.

SEPARATION OF PULLETS FROM COCKERELS
The normal development of pullets is of paramount importance
and should receive careful consideration by all poultry producers.
It is best to separate pullets from cockerels as soon as possible.
The cockerels are usually larger, eat more and grow faster. If
the cockerels are to be used for broilers they should be kept in
limited quarters and fed a fattening ration until sold.
The growing pullets should be placed on clean range, and
supplied with green feed and some shade. The use of small







Florida Cooperative Extension


colony houses scattered about the range will help avoid crowding
of the pullets. Summer shelters are also comfortable and satis-
factory, and should be provided for the growing pullets. (See
Extension Bulletin 77, Poultry Houses and Equipment.)

SUMMARY OF HEALTHY CHICK CAMPAIGN
A summary of the results obtained in the first four years of
the Grow Healthy Chick Campaign is contained in Tables 1, 2,
3 and 4 and the following discussion.

TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF PRODUCERS, CHICKS, PERCENT CHICK MORTALITY IN
THE GROW HEALTHY CHICK CAMPAIGN, 1928-1931.
1 1928 1929 1930 I 1931
Number of producers ................................. 35 38 28 21
Number of chicks- ........---- ... ---- 30,000 22,000 28,500 16,649
Av. No. chicks per farm ................ 857 579 1,017 793
Av. percent mortality first 8 weeks ....... 24.26 13.87 14.25 12.76
No. of farms with mortality over 20%..- 15 8 8 4
Percent mortality on farms where all
6 factors were adopted ....- .... 7.29 5.03 9.49 8.33


TABLE 2.-FOUR-YEAR AVERAGE RESULTS, GROW HEALTHY CHICK CAM-
PAIGN, SHOWING IMPORTANCE OF ADOPTING THE SIX FACTORS.
Factors Adopted I Number Chicks ] Number Dying I Percent Mortality
6 47,577 3,217 6.76
5 35,686 7,873 22.06
4 11,240 3,318 29.51


In Table 1 the number of producers, the number of chicks
brooded, the average percent mortality at 8 weeks, the number
of farms with chick mortality of over 20 percent, and the chick
mortality for the producers who adopted the six factors are
shown. (See page 4 for the six factors.)
In Table 2 the percent chick mortality grouped according to
number of factors adopted is shown. As producers did not
adopt the factors listed in the Grow Healthy Chick Campaign,
chick mortality increased. The 4-year average chick mortality
was 6.76% where all six factors were adopted.
Clean brooder houses and clean land were shown to be the
two most important factors. Some high percentages of mor-
tality were due to some phase of poultry management, such as
chilling, heating, etc.






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


Every effort should be exerted to keep total chick mortality
below 10 percent.

TABLE 3.-WEEKLY CHICK MORTALITY IN THE GROW HEALTHY CHICK
CAMPAIGN, 1928-1931.
No. 1 Percent
Week Chicks No. Chicks Died Weekly
SAlive Each Week 1 Total I Mortality*
Start .............................. 85,709 .
End of 1st week ........... 82,100 3,608 3,608 4.21
End of 2nd week ............ 78,938 3,162 6,770 3.85
End of 3rd week ......... 76,882 2,056 8,826 2.60
End of 4th week .......... 75,517 1,365 10,191 1.77
End of 5th week ........... 74,704 813 11,004 1.07
End of 6th week ......... 74,127 577 11,581 .77
End of 7th week ......... 73,657 470 12,051 .63
End of 8th week ......... 73,251 406 12,457 .55

*Figured on the basis of number of chicks at beginning of each week.

Table 3 shows the weekly chick mortality for the first eight
weeks, as obtained from figures submitted by a total of 114
farms over a period of four years, 1928-1931. The mortality was
greatest during the first week and gradually decreased through
the eighth week. Some farms did not report weekly but reported
total mortality. During the four years there were a total of 178
farms reporting total chick mortality for the first eight weeks,
and it averaged 16.28 percent.

TABLE 4.-RELATION OF CHICK MORTALITY IN 1928 TO EGG PRODUCTION,
ADULT MORTALITY AND RETURNS IN 1929.*

Percent Mortality Eggs per Bird Value of Eggs
Chicks Layers 1929 Over Feed
1928 1929 1929

8 9 168 2.80
15 10 155 2.49
26 12 143 2.15
35 13 140 2.00
55 19 116 1.66

Av. 26 11 145 2.29

*These data were obtained by F. W. Brumley, Extension Economist-
from records kept by Florida poultrymen.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II.

MANAGEMENT OF CHICKS AND GROWING STOCK
NUMBER OF CHICKS NEEDED
Each year the poultry raiser is confronted with the problem
of knowing just how many chicks to purchase or hatch. Im-
portant factors to be considered are:
1. Amount of equipment, both brooder houses and laying
houses.
2. Number of pullets needed-including hen replacement and
proportion of pullets and hens.
EQUIPMENT
Amount of Equipment:-The amount of floor space in brooder
equipment will determine to a great extent the number of chicks
that should be purchased. It is undesirable and unprofitable to
crowd chicks in brooder houses. The type of house, ventilation,
sunshine and age at which cockerels are removed affect the
amount of floor space needed per chick.
Table 5 furnishes some interesting data concerning floor space
and mortality of chicks.
TABLE 5.-RELATION BETWEEN FLOOR SPACE AND MORTALITY OF CHICKS.*
Floor Space per Number of Number of I Percent Mortality to
100 Chicks j Chicks Deaths 3 Months of Age
35 sq. feet or less ...... 73,077 19,257 26.3
35-50 sq. feet ................ 25,371 4,122 16.2
50 sq. feet or more ........ 25,044 3,484 13.9
*Cal. Agricultural Extension Circular 28-Brooding and Pullet Manage-
ment-W. E. Newlon and M. W. Buster.
PULLETS NEEDED
The number of pullets needed to fill the laying house and to
replace cull birds will determine the number of chicks to pur-
chase or hatch. The flock should be composed of 50 to 75 per-
cent pullets, the percentage of pullets being determined to a
large extent by the average egg yield per bird, and replacement
costs.
As a rule the percentage of pullets developed in any lot of
baby chicks will average about 50%. Figuring hatchability at
60%, chick mortality which may average about 20% (it should
be below that figure) and about 5 to 10% for eliminating in-






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


ferior pullets, it will take about 5 hatching eggs or 21/. to 3
chicks to get one good pullet. In other words, if 500 pullets
are wanted, it would be necessary to purchase 2,500 hatching
eggs or from 1,250 to 1,500 baby chicks.
Another factor to be considered is the replacement in the
laying flock of birds that have died and those that have been
sold as unprofitable. Mortality in the laying flock, according
to records in the Calendar Flock Record Program and farm
management surveys in Florida, show that the adult mortality
averaged 10 to 12 percent, but in recent years has increased,
averaging about 16 percent (1935-36).

SELECTING HATCHING EGGS
Hatching eggs should be selected carefully, for the kind of
eggs incubated will determine to a great extent the quality of
chicks hatched. Select eggs that are uniform in shape, size
and color, from hens that are well bred for production and true
to breed standards.
Size of Egg:-It is not desirable to use eggs weighing less than
two ounces each for hatching purposes. According to a number


Fig. 4.-A cabinet type of incubator. (Courtesy Smith Incubator Co.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


of research workers there is a high correlation or relationship
between size of egg and size of chick hatched. With the con-
tinued use of small eggs for hatching purposes the constitu-
tional vigor of the laying and breeding flock will be depleted.
Also there will be a decrease in the size of eggs produced.
Shell Color:-With breeds of chickens producing white eggs,
do not use eggs for hatching purposes that have tints of color,
but select chalk-white eggs. It is necessary to select continu-
ously for this characteristic if tinted or off-colored eggs are to
be bred out of the flock.
Eggs that are soiled should not be washed. Washing tends
to open the pores and hasten evaporation.
Do not hold hatching eggs more than seven to 10 days. The
shorter the time the better. When eggs are being held for
hatching purposes, keep them in a cool place. If they are kept
too warm, incubation will commence.

WAYS TO GET CHICKS
In purchasing chicks, consider quality first and price last.
Spending a few cents additional to obtain good chicks is a good
investment.
1. The producer can hatch or can have chicks hatched from
his or her own breeding stock. In this manner the producer
is able to know the health of the breeding stock, egg production,
size and color of egg, and many other important factors.
2. The producer can purchase chicks from a successful
breeder or hatcheryman. Demand quality always.
Many producers are purchasing day-old chicks, while others
find it desirable to buy starter chicks, four to six weeks old
pullets or eight to 12 weeks old pullets.

BROODER HOUSE SUGGESTIONS
Land for brooder houses, yards and ranges should be well
drained and have a southern slope. Proper air and water
drainage is important. The brooder houses should be well con-
structed.
Brooder houses are generally of two types, stationary and
portable. The average size is 10'x12' to 12'x14'. Portable
houses should be constructed on skids or runners. A wooden
floor, made of tongue and groove lumber, is desirable for a port-
able house, while a concrete floor is desirable for a stationary







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


house. The walls should be tightly constructed of drop siding
or tongue and groove material. If rough lumber is used the
cracks should be ceiled. The lower walls may be ceiled to
provide better insulation. The corners should be rounded to
keep chicks from crowding and piling.
The roof should be made waterproof, using either roofing
paper, shingles or metal.



















Fig. 5.-Brooder house, 10'x12', capacity 250 or 300 chicks.

Ventilation in the brooder house can be secured by having an
opening and windows in the front. It is desirable to have in the
rear of the house near the plate a ventilator which can be opened
or closed, depending on weather conditions and age of chicks.
Have the brooder house and equipment in good working con-
dition two or three days before chicks arrive. The temperature
around the colony brooder stove should be between 90 and 100
degrees at the start. The comfort of the chicks is a better guide
than a thermometer. Watch the conditions of the chicks and
govern the temperature accordingly.
Teach chicks to roost early. Provide perches made of 1"x2"
strips with wire on the underside when chicks are three or four
weeks old. Raise the perches as chicks get older. This will
prevent crowding and give a better circulation of air. (See
Extension Bulletin 77, Poultry Houses and Equipment.)







Florida Cooperative Extension


BROODING DEVICES
With the development of the poultry industry many changes
have taken place. From the mother hen with her chicks, ad-
vances have been made to the latest method known as battery
brooding. The fireless brooder is satisfactory for a small num-
ber of chicks, and so is the broody hen. Only artificial methods
of brooding will be discussed here.
No matter what type of brooding equipment is used, it is
imperative that it be in first-class condition before the chicks
arrive. Examine the equipment carefully, see that it is thor-
oughly repaired, cleaned and disinfected. In other words, be
ready for the chicks when they arrive.
Do not put chicks of different ages under the same brooder.

COLONY BROODERS
This method employs movable brooder houses and a suitable
heating device for each house. These houses are usually built
on skids so that they can be moved to clean ground each year.
In Florida this system is used more extensively than the con-
finement system.
HOT WATER BROODERS
With the more intensive poultry farms, where a great many
chicks are brooded, a long type brooder house may be used with
a hot water heating device. Such a system reduces the cost of
heat and labor in caring for chicks. (Fig. 6.)







-
Fig. 6.-Long brooder house with a two-story battery brooder room in
center. A hot water brooding system is used, and the house has a screened
porch.
BATTERY BROODERS
Brooding chicks in batteries is the latest development in brood-
ing. It consists of having a battery of chick trays, one above
another. The chicks are on wire bottom trays and under each
tray is a metal pan which collects the droppings. The feed and




Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


1- Ii ji


Iin


-HmmNTUI


PaM
Crluima M~ll



tiluesithg


Fig. 7.-Battery brooder, unheated type. (Courtesy Smith Incubator Co.)


- - -VA


* w







Florida Cooperative Extension


water vessels are on the outside of the tray and this makes it
impossible for the chicks to contaminate them with their drop-
pings. It is recommended that when chicks are started in
battery brooders, at least 10 square inches of floor space be
allowed for each chick. (Fig. 7.)
There are many types of battery brooders on the market, the
principal ones being those with (1) heated compartments and
(2) unheated compartments. In the former type, each com-
partment is heated and the heat is regulated by a thermostat.
This type generally has two sections, one warm and one cool.
In the latter type the room is heated and a fan is located in
the room to circulate the air.
Battery brooding appears to be very successful for the first
few weeks. With advancements in types of brooders and
methods of management, perhaps they will be used for a longer
period. They are being used for the production of broilers and
fryers. The length of time that pullets can be kept in the
batteries for best results is variable.
After the chicks are removed from the battery brooder they
can be put in either the colony or the long type brooders until
they are ready to go on range.


Fig. 8.-Interior of brooder house. Note rounded corners.
(Courtesy USDA.)







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


STOVES
Brooder stoves are meant primarily to control heat in the
brooder house. The common brooder stoves used in Florida are
oil burning. Other stoves are heated by electricity or coal. As
a rule capacity of brooder stoves now on the market is overrated.

HOME-MADE BRICK BROODER STOVES
Recently in West Florida and in some sections of North and
Central Florida home-made brick brooders have come into use,
and are giving satisfaction. They are easily constructed. The
following method has been suggested for their erection and
operation:


Fig. 9.-Home-made brick brooder stove, which is inexpensive, easily
constructed and satisfactory.

Bill of Material:-150 bricks, new or used, 25 pounds of lime,
1/2 sack cement, 1/% yard sand, 5 heavy iron rods, 3 or 4 joints
of 6-inch stove pipe, 1 stove pipe damper, 1 piece of tin or other
metal 12"x16" for door, and 1 roof flange.
How to Build:-A mortar mixture of 1 part lime, 1 cement,
and 2 sand is used. Make mortar joints 1/4-inch thick and break
joints with bricks. Lay bricks on flat side. After six rows of
brick are up, lay irons across top to support a seventh layer of
brick entirely across the top. The cap bricks should be placed
1/4-inch apart. A thin mortar should be run over entire top
about 3 inches thick.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Angle iron, heavy wagon tires, road scraper blades, and similar
materials make splendid cross bars to support the cover layer
of bricks and mortar. Arrange these bars so as to support the
ends of the cap bricks.
Enough lengths of stove pipe should be used to project the
pipe above the roof about two lengths, or sufficiently to secure
proper draft. The damper should be placed in the first length
of pipe.
Secure a piece of sheet metal or an old stove door 12"x16"
in size which will fit very closely against the face of bricks so
that operator can regulate draft. It is an added convenience
to attach a light chain or wire from the door through a pulley
or staple which may be placed in the roof. A weight attached
to the other end of this wire enables the operator to raise and
lower the door more readily when it is hot.
A properly placed roof flange should remove any danger of
fire starting around the roof. Cut the roof away three or four
inches from stove pipe and insulate with tin or asbestos as a
special precaution.
Operation:-Start a fire about two days before chicks are
ready to go into the house. This will enable the operator to
get experience in firing and controlling the draft. Usually it is
necessary to fire three times daily, morning, noon, and night,
or more often during unusually cold spells.
Capacity:-A brood of 500 chicks may be successfully cared
for with a brick brooder six bricks long, seven bricks high, and
three bricks wide.
WIRE GUARD
A ring 12" to 18" high (wire or roofing material) about 2
feet from the edge of the hover will prevent the chicks from
straying too far from the heat during the first few days. The
size of the ring should be increased as chicks become older.
If wire is used clean burlap bags should cover the wire to pre-
vent floor drafts.
WIRE FLOOR IN THE BROODER HOUSE
In the interior of some brooder houses to keep the chicks away
from the droppings and to reduce the danger of coccidiosis, wire
floors are being used quite successfully. Small frames are made
and covered with 1/2-inch hardware cloth. These frames should
be made small to prevent sagging in the middle. They may
be made of 1"x4" or 2"x4" on edge, the top edge being beveled
to prevent accumulation of droppings.







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


Fig. 10.-Wire floor in interior of a colony brooder house. Note the small
frames and the colony brooder stove. (Courtesy Larrowe Milling Co.)

SUN PARLORS

After poultry have been raised several years on one location
the soil becomes contaminated, and it is desirable to keep young
chicks off the ground. Wire-floored platforms (about %" to 1"
wire) are built in front of the house to get the chicks out in
the direct rays of the sun and so that the droppings will pass
through. The sun parlor is enclosed by wire on all sides and
top. Some use a concrete platform that can be easily washed
with a hose to prevent contamination.
The sun parlor generally has a floor space equal to one-half or
more of the floor space inside the brooder house.

LITTER

Most poultrymen are using litter of some type on the floor.
The litter must be CLEAN, free of mold and mustiness. Brooder
pneumonia is caused by a mold, and it is possible to have the







Florida Cooperative Extension


mold in the litter. From a sanitary viewpoint, it is important
to remove litter at least three times weekly.

'


Fig. 11.-Sun parlor in front of brooder house used in rearing chicks in
confinement. (Courtesy Larrowe Milling Co.)


Planer shavings, cut
times sand are used.
have plenty to eat so
litter material.


straw, cut alfalfa, peat moss, and some-
It is important to see that the chicks
that they will not consume any of the


DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS
Among the disinfectants recommended for use around poultry
farms are the following:
1. Creolin-2 percent solution (51/2 tablespoonfuls to one gal-
lon of water).
2. Compound solution cresol.
3. Lysol.
S4. Other coal-tar disinfectants with a phenol coefficient
above 5.
Antiseptics that may be used in drinking water are:
1. Bichloride of mercury (6 to 7 grains-1 tablet-in 1 gal-
lon of water). Do not use metal containers.
2. Hypochlorite solution, such as B.K., sterilac, chlorazene,
etc. Use as directed on containers.







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


A DISINFECTANT PAN OR BOX
Many poultry producers realize that "an ounce
is worth a pound of cure", and have placed
disinfectant pans in front of the doors of
their brooder houses and occasionally also
their laying houses. Such a disinfecting
device is made by using a shallow pan or
wooden box, placing a feed bag in the bot-
tom of it, and pouring a disinfectant solution
into it. To enter the brooder house, the
poultryman walks through the pan of disin-
fectant. This serves as a further protection
to the chicks. I


of prevention

W 1


FIRE GUN
This implement (blow torch or fire gun)
is an efficient means of disinfecting. It
generates intense heat (approximately
2,000 F.), which kills instantly all bac-
teria and parasite eggs subjected to it. Fig. 12.-Disinfect-
It is effective only on clean surfaces which ant pan in front of
brooder house prevents
are thoroughly dry. On wooden surfaces, contamination from be-
one should guard against setting the struc- ing carried in on the
feet of workmen.
ture afire. (Courtesy Poultry
Tribune.)


Fig. 13.-Fire gun used in cleaning and disinfecting.

FEEDING

In the feeding of chicks it is very important to see that they
secure the right kind of feed and that it is fed properly.


"
r






Florida Cooperative Extension


To make a chick grow off well, the feed should be balanced.
A balanced ration is "a combination of feeds furnishing the
several nutrients in such proportion, amount, and form as will,
without waste, properly nourish a given group of birds for a
specific time". A good ration contains protein, carbohydrates,
fats, minerals, and vitamins, all of which should be fed in the
correct proportion.
Poultry rations may be either all mash or mash and grain fed
separately. There are many feed formulas available and appar-
ently many satisfactory methods of feeding chicks. The main
consideration is the use of a balanced ration, and a satisfactory
feeding plan.
In chick rations, the protein is generally obtained from milk
and meat scraps, used for growth and development; the minerals
are supplied by bone meal, calcium carbonate (lime), and salt
for bone development; and the carbohydrates and fat are sup-
plied by the cereals and their by-products. The vitamins are
supplied in these feeds and green material.
There are a number of well balanced commercial feeds obtain-
able and generally used by some poultrymen. Other poultrymen
prefer to mix their own feeds. When only a few chicks are
raised it is less trouble to use a commercial feed.

VITAMINS A AND D
Vitamin A, the growth-promoting vitamin, is found in such
materials as fresh greens, dried greens, yellow carrots, cod-liver
oil, shark-liver oil, yellow corn. Vitamin D, the antirachitic
vitamin, is found in cod-liver oil. Exposure of the birds to
ultra-violet rays or direct sunlight causes the formation of this
vitamin in the chick's body.
MILK PRODUCTS
In figuring quantities of different types of milk products to
use, the following will serve as a guide: 1 pound skimmilk
powder equals at least 3.3 pounds of semi-solid or condensed
skimmilk or 11/4 gallons of fresh skimmilk. Apparently there
is no difference in the feeding value between sweet and sour
milk.
COD-LIVER OIL
This material is rich in vitamins A and D and if chicks are
kept indoors and do not come in contact with direct rays of
the sun, it should be added to the ration. Cod-liver oils vary
in the number of units of vitamins A and D. The amount to






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


be added to the mash is determined by the number of units,
method of feeding and method of management. (Follow in-
structions on container.) Use tested cod-liver oil. Vitamin D
is necessary for utilization of calcium and phosphorus in bone
formation.
CHICK FEEDING
Chicks are ready for food and water just as soon as they are
put in the brooder. The previous practice has been to starve the
chick until it is from 48 to
72 hours old. Investigators
have found, however, that
early feeding is not harm- /,
ful. Chicks may be fed as ,.
soon as they are fluffed out
without influencing either
rate of growth or mortality.
Small mash hoppers are
desirable for early chick
feeding, or the chicks may
be fed first on newspapers,
boxlids, or pie plates.
Mash feed is recom-
mended for baby chicks for
at least the first two or
three weeks. Scratch feed
then may be added and fed Fig. 14.-A desirable type of water or
from hoppers. Chicks need milk vessel for young chicks.
a high protein ration at the
start (mash feed) and as they become older the proportion of
scratch to mash may be increased.
All feed formulas given here are recommendations from
USDA Farmers Bulletin No. 1541.
A suggested chick mash for first three weeks, which has been
used with splendid results at the University of Florida, is:
Parts by
Mash Weight
Yellow corn meal ................................... ............ 40
Bran ............................. ........ ..- ....... ---- .......... 15
Middlings (or ground wheat) ......... ............... 10
Meat or fish meal (53.9 percent protein) ................ 10
Rolled oats (or oat groats) ........ ......... .... ........ 10
Dried milk (34.6 percent protein) ......... .....-. .. 10
Alfalfa leaf meal ................ .......... ..................
Ground limestone .................... ........--- ..----.--- ...... 2
S alt ...................................... ............. .......... ....- .... 1
Total (protein 18.6 percent) ................................. 100






Florida Cooperative Extension


When chicks do not have much access to direct rays of the
sun or cannot get sufficient green feed frequently they show
early signs of leg weakness. Add a tested brand of cod-liver oil
(1 to 2 pints to 100 pounds of feed, or the amount as recom-
mended on the container) to the mash. Mix only a small
quantity at a time.
When chicks are about three weeks old scratch feed can be
added to their ration. This may be composed of equal parts
of fine cracked corn and fine cracked wheat. Only a small
percentage of scratch is used at first, this amount being in-
creased slowly until equal parts of mash and scratch are fed
when the chicks are 10 weeks of age. This method of feeding
reduces the total protein in the feed. If an all-mash ration
is fed, use the above mash until the chicks are five to six
weeks old, then the following all-mash ration may be used:
All-Mash Ration
Parts by Parts by
Ingredient Weight Ingredient Weight
Yellow corn meal .................... 50 Ground limestone .................... 3
Middlings (or ground wheat) 18 Alfalfa leaf meal .................... 2
Bran ............................................ 15 Salt ...................... ................... 1
Meat or fish meal .................... 8
Dried milk ................................ 3 Total (protein 15.7 percent) 100


Chicks at about eight
and cracked corn.


weeks of age will eat whole wheat


Fig. 15.-A good
..ot>rj,lo r hopper for
ihe range.


A sufficient amount of feeding space is very important. Have
enough room so at least one-half of the chicks can eat at one
time. This will bring about a more uniform growth and develop-
ment. It has been suggested that one square foot of mash
hopper space be allowed for 50 chicks for the first four weeks;







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


followed by one square foot of mash hopper space to each 25
chicks until the larger self-feeding hoppers can be used. A
feeder three feet long will take care of 100 chicks the first
three weeks very comfortably, but more space should be allowed
after that time. Adding feed to the hopper frequently and
stirring the mash two or three times a day will have a tendency
to encourage consumption.


Fig. 16.-Home-made fattening crate for broilers and fryers.

Water dishes should be placed on wire frames just as soon as
the chicks are old enough to make their way up on the frames.
This will help to keep the litter dry around the water fountain
and keep chicks from eating soiled litter. Use 1/2-gallon water
fountain for each 50 chicks.
Large hoppers should be used as the chicks become older.
Feed hoppers may be made as follows:
CHICK FEEDER-REEL TYPE
4" wide, 30" long, 1%" high.
A 1"xl" reel is made, using heavy wire on either end for support of reel.
Put small lath lip on inside to prevent waste.
PULLET FEEDER
6" wide x 4' long x 3'4" high.
1A4"x1A4" reel using heavy wire on either end for support of reel.
If this feeder is used inside there is no need for a cover, but if put
on the range it should be covered to protect the feed.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FATTENING COCKERELS
Young cockerels that are to be sold for meat purposes should
be well fattened. If they are fat and well fleshed when taken
from the range more fattening may be unnecessary. However,
if the birds are thin they should be placed in the fattening pen
and finished before being marketed.

TABLE 6.-FEED CONSUMPTION (INCLUDING MILK SOLIDS) AND WEIGHT OF
BIRDS BY WEEKS.*


Feec
Bird


White L
d per
Lbs.


.09
.28
.57
.94
1.42
1.96
2.71
3.51
4.41
5.40
6.45
7.53
8.64
9.74
10.93
12.11
13.54
14.93
16.38
17.91
19.39
20.83
22.29
23.84


Leghorns
SWeight per
Bird Lbs.

.08
.11
.18
.26
.38
.50
.69
.90
1.09+
1.22
1.41
1.56
1.80
1.93
2.06
2.20
2.36
2.49
2.63
2.72
2.90
3.05
3.12
3.22
3.28


Rhode Island Reds
Feed per Weight per
Bird Lbs. Bird Lbs.

.08
.10 .11
.29 .16
.56 .26
.95 .36
1.48 .53
2.18 .73
2.96 .96
3.94 1.22
4.95 1.52
6.02 1.80
7.15 2.01
8.39 2.29$
9.62 2.39
10.83 2.56
12.14 2.76
13.58 2.90
15.17 3.13
16.82 3.26
18.38 3.43
20.12 3.68
21.89 3.85
23.68 4.03
25.41 4.16
27.24 4.29


*The data were compiled from Connecticut Agricultural Experiment
Station Bulletin 96, being the averages of three experiments with a total
of 1,028 White Leghorns and 865 Rhode Island Red chicks. Birds had
skimmilk to drink and no water during the first 10 weeks, after which
both milk and water were supplied. An outdoor range was provided.
tLeghorn cockerels were removed at the end of the eighth week.
TRhode Island Red cockerels were removed at the end of the twelfth
week.

SUGGESTED FATTENING RATIONS
No. 1 No. 2
Corn meal ................ ........ 6 pounds Corn meal ........................ 6 pounds
Rolled oats ..................... 3 pounds Ground oats ...............-...... 2 pounds
Middlings .......................... 1 pound Middlings .......................... 2 pounds
Either of the above rations should be fed with milk, using
2 pints (pounds) of milk to 1 pound of mash. If liquid milk


Week


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


is not fed, add 1 pound of dried milk or 1/2 pound of meat
scrap to 10 pounds of mash.
When the broilers are first put in the fattening crates great
care should be taken not to overfeed. They should have a keen
appetite and be given increasing amounts of feed as the broilers
fatten and grow.
Usually from seven to 16 days for fattening are required,
depending on condition of the birds when placed in the crates.
Broilers sometimes are fattened in battery brooders in which
the chicks are kept until marketed. The mash is kept before
the birds at all times.

SUGGESTED BROILER MASH
(Parts by weight)


Yellow corn meal ........................ 35
Ground wheat .............................. 20
Corn gluten meal ........................ 9
Dried buttermilk ....-................... 9
Meat meal ................................... 9
Rice bran ..................................... 10


Fine oyster shell ...................... 3
Alfalfa leaf meal .................... 2.5
Yeast ........................................ 2
Salt .......................................... .5
Total (protein 19.6 percent) 100


Wheat middlings may be substituted for the ground wheat,
oat meal for the corn gluten meal, and wheat bran for rice bran.


Fig. 17.-Cool and comfortable pullet range. Note summer shelters,
shade, outside hoppers, covered water vessel, and method of conveying
water barrels to range.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMER RANGES AND SHELTERS
When the cockerels are marketed, cull the slow, runty pullets
and all birds not likely to develop into profitable layers. Place
the remaining pullets on a range that is clean and with a
moderate amount of shade and a good supply of green feed.
Provide a suitable light movable summer shelter with a good
circulation of air. Do not crowd. (See Fig. 17.) These shelters
are about 8'x10' or 10'xl0' with wire on all four sides, perches
and a wire floor (1" mesh poultry netting). Sometimes a wood-
en floor with screening under the perches is used.
Keep young chicks and growing pullets away from old birds.

DEVELOPING THE PULLETS FOR WINTER EGGS
It is from the growing pullets that winter egg production is
expected. It is desirable to have the pullets in production when
eggs are high and it is necessary to develop these young birds
properly.
In feeding the growing pullets, grain generally is fed when
they are eight weeks of age. Placing the grain in hoppers is
more sanitary than scattering it out on the range. In addition,
pullets should receive about 6 pounds of succulent green feed
per 100 pullets daily.
Water vessels on the range should be covered so as to keep
the chickens out and at the same time keep the water cooler.
The water vessels should be placed on wire frames made of
2"x4" lumber to prevent puddles and to keep birds out of filth
which collects near the fountain. A barrel with a drip system
attached will provide a good water supply.
Allow about 12 feet hopper space and 3 feet drinking space
for each 100 birds.
The pullets should be in good flesh. They should have a
sufficient amount of fat on their bodies to enable them to with-
stand the strain of egg production. As the pullets reach ma-
turity (indicated by comb development) they should be kept
in good flesh. It may be necessary to feed more scratch feed
or a fattening mash in addition to the regular feed if the pullets
are developing too rapidly. Too much protein in the feed given
pullets will bring them into production too early.
Keep the birds free of external and internal parasites, colds,
and other ailments.






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


HOUSING THE PULLETS

The pullets should be moved to their permanent laying houses
just as soon as they begin laying. Moving them after they are
in production may result in a setback, a false moult, and a
cessation of egg production.
The pullets should not be placed on the same range that was
occupied by the hens. A double yarding system is desirable.


Fig. 18.-Pullets reared under sanitary conditions are ready for high
winter egg production.

Laying houses for pullets should be thoroughly cleaned and
disinfected (similar to method suggested in cleaning brooder
house for chicks).
Table 7 on quotations of white eggs will give an idea as to
when pullets should come into production.











TABLE 7.-WHOLESALE PRICES OF WHITE EGGS IN JAKSONVILLE*, 1921-22 TO 1936-37.
No- De- Feb- Sep- Yearly Index 1926-
Year Octo- vem- cem- Jan- ru- March April May June July Au- ter- Aver- 27 to 1928-
ber her ber uary ary gust ber age 29 = 100
Cents per dozen

1921-22 ........ 59.4 64.8 60.0 48.0 40.7 28.5 29.4 28.3 34.7 37.5 37.5 52.8 43.3 105
1922-23 ....... 55.9 62.8 53.9 49.6 36.0 30.0 29.5 29.0 33.8 39.3 42.6 49.8 42.7 104
1923-24 ....... 56.3 59.3 58.0 47.4 44.6 26.6 25.8 28.5 32.5 39.0 43.6 52.1 42.8 104
1924-25 ........ 62.0 66.2 64.9 56.8 45.3 30.2 33.5 30.3 38.6 44.0 48.4 55.2 48.0 117
1925-26 ....... 54.0 65.6 67.0 57.2 42.1 31.3 34.1 32.5 36.1 41.6 44.4 51.8 47.3 115

1926-27 ........ 62.2 61.0 57.1 47.6 35.9 28.0 29.2 27.9 29.7 33.9 41.4 49.0 41.9 102
1927-28 ........ 52.1 55.0 50.4 48.0 32.4 30.0 29.7 28.2 33.4 36.5 41.7 48.3 40.5 99
1928-29 ........ 54.8 55.0 48.5 42.2 34.3 35.1 29.2 30.2 33.7 39.3 43.2 45.2 49.0 100
1929-30 ... 54.1 55.3 54.0 47.1 35.4 28.5 27.0 27.0 27.0 30.6 34.9 38.2 38.3 93
1930-31 ........ 45.1 43.9 40.9 32.0 22.0 23.0 22.0 20.0 21.0 25.0 28.5 32.0 29.6 72

1931-32 ... 37.5 38.0 33.5 28.3 17.4 17.7 15.5 14.7 18.3 21.0 25.0 28.5 24.4 59
1932-33 31.5 32.6 35.2 23.5 17.0 15.5 15.5 17.3 16.3 22.9 25.5 31.4 23.7 58
1933-34 ..... 33.0 32.0 34.4 28.7 25.61 19.2 19.8 20.1 23.5 28.0 31.6 36.8 27.7 67
1934-35 ....... 38.0 40.0 40.0 35.8 31.8 23.0 24.9 26.3 26.8 31.5 35.6 39.0 32.7 80
1935-36 ...-.. 39.3 37.0 40.6 33.5 31.2 23.5 22.9 24.1 25.7 21.9 34.0 37.5 31.8 77
1936-37 ....... 38.4 41.9 43.4 29.4 27.5 25.1 25.5 24.2 25.8 30.1 33.0 37.2 31.8 77

*As quoted by the Florida State Marketing Bureau and based on jobbers' average selling prices, their buying prices
being a margin lower.








TABLE 8.-WHOLESALE PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS IN JACKSONVILLE*, 1921-22 TO 1936-37.
S- No- De- Feb- I Sep- Yearly Index 1926-
Year Octo- ve- cem- Jan- ru- March April May June July Au- ter- Aver- 27 to 1928-
ber her her uary ary I gust ber age 29 = 100
Cents per dozen

1921-22 ..... 35.5 29.1 29.0 29.0 29.5 38.4 40.0 40.0 35.5 31.5 29.0 31.0 33.1 91
1922-23 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.5 31.0 36.5 37.0 39.8 36.7 30.0 50.0 33.0 32.5 89
1923-24 32.4 31.0 31.0 32.7 36.6 37.8 42.0 42.5 37.4 32.7 30.7 34.0 35.1 96
1924-25 ..... 33.0 31.5 34.3 41.4 44.0 45.6 45.9 43.7 39.4 36.0 35.0 38.0 39.0 107
1925-26 ..... 39.0 37.0 38.6 43.5 48.0 49.7 50.0 48.3 39.3 37.8 35.3 35.0 41.7 114

1926-27 ....... 35.0 35.3 37.1 42.0 45.0 45.0 45.3 43.0 36.1 31.8 30.0 30.0 38.0 104
1927-28 ... 31.1 33.1 35.8 37.0 36.2 38.9 39.0 39.0 38.1 34.5 31.2 33.0 35.6 97
1928-29 35.3 36.3 35.7 36.0 36.2 39.1 42.8 37.7 37.5 31.0 31.1 35.0 36.1 99
1929-30 ........ 34.2 36.1 36.8 33.1 32.9 33.6 36.7 32.7 32.8 24.5 27.4 29.0 32.5 89
1930-31 .. 29.0 29.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 37.0 40.0 37.0 35.0 20.0 27.0 27.5 31.7 87

1931-32 ........ 26.0 24.5 24.5 24.4 23.2 27.1 26.8 23.9 23.5 18.0 17.3 18.0 23.1 63
1932-33 ... 18.7 17.3 14.9 14.8 20.4 22.2 24.3 22.1 18.0 15.4 16.1 17.0 18.4 50
1933-34 ........ 17.0 15.7 16.1 17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9 22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.1 55

1934-35 --. 20.0 20.5 20.5 21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 26.4 23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.6 62
1935-36 .. 22.4 23.2 23.2 25.5 25.6 27.0 27.2 25.7 23.5 23.1 22.6 22.3 24.3 66
1936-37 ........ 21.2 20.5 20.0 22.3 24.0 24.1 27.0 24.1 25.3 25.5 24.5 25.8 23.7 65

*As quoted by the Florida State Marketing Bureau and based on jobbers' average selling prices, their buying prices
being a margin lower.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III.

DISEASES AND PARASITES OF GROWING CHICKS

In many instances mortality in flocks of growing chicks as
the result of diseases and parasites is higher than it should be.
In general, individual treatment of diseased birds is not re-
garded with favor unless the birds are being treated for para-
sites. There are few specific remedies for these various diseases,
the cost of an individual bird is small and unless a remedy can
be given as a flock treatment considerable labor is involved in
administering to diseased birds.
The keynote to control of diseases of growing chicks is pre-
vention, which depends in a large measure upon sanitation. It
should be understood also that proper management and selection
of breeding stock have an important bearing on the vigor and
vitality of baby chicks. Only eggs of normal shape and size
should be used for hatching purposes. Hatching eggs from large
families inclined to long life are desirable.

DIARRHEA
Diarrhea may not be a symptom of pullorum disease but an
indication of a derangement of the digestive organs. This type
of diarrhea often is called "non-specific diarrhea", since it may
be caused by faulty feeding, crowding and exposure to extreme
temperatures, such as overheating or chilling. When diarrhea
from these causes is encountered, correction of these conditions
usually will prove effective as a control measure.
While often being a cause of diarrhea in baby chicks, these
factors also tend to lower the resistance of birds. With lowered
resistance baby chicks become increasingly susceptible to any
agent causing disease. These factors can be controlled by
proper management and brooding practices.

PULLORUM DISEASE
(Bacillary White Diarrhea, B. W. D.)
Pullorum disease is caused by a specific bacterium, Salmonella
pullorum, a member of the paratyphoid group of bacteria. In
baby chicks the organism causes a septicemic disease, and birds
die in from 24 to 48 hours after showing symptoms of the dis-
ease. The organisms can be isolated easily from the tissues
of affected chicks. Some chicks survive the infection and grow
to maturity. The infection becomes localized in the ovaries.






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


A variable percentage of the eggs laid by infected hens contains
the organism which causes pullorum disease. The disease in
baby chicks usually originates from eggs laid by infected hens.
Incubation may be a source of infection, particularly during
hatching. The infection may be carried readily from infected
to healthy chicks. Greatest losses from pullorum disease are
experienced during the first three weeks. After this period
the disease becomes chronic and the bird may develop to ma-
turity with no indications of being infected.
Symptoms of pullorum disease are sleepiness, a tendency to
huddle together under the brooder, labored respiration, drooping
wings, diarrhea, and a general unthrifty appearance. Lesions
of the disease are gray areas in the lungs, gray nodules in the
heart muscle, congested intestines, unabsorbed egg yolk, and
small pin-point red or brown spots on the surface of the liver.
The control of an outbreak depends upon rigid sanitary meas-
ures. Twelve percent dry whey or 15 percent dry skimmilk
or buttermilk added to the regular mash will tend to prevent
the spread of the disease from sick to healthy birds. Secure
chicks from eggs laid by hens that are free of the disease.
Pullorum disease can be detected in adult birds by testing their
blood.
BROODER PNEUMONIA ASPERGILLOSISS)
Brooder pneumonia is a respiratory disease caused by a mold
which grows on moldy litter and trash. The mold spores are
inhaled with contaminated dust and locate in the lungs, air
passages and air sacs. The growth of this mold in the air
passages produces difficult breathing associated with other
symptoms such as diarrhea, droopy wings, weakness, and
"going light". It is a common infection in young chicks and
often has been mistaken for pullorum disease.
Postmortem findings are a greenish-gray exudate and yel-
lowish cheesy masses in the air sacs.
There is no effective treatment for this trouble. The brooder
house, litter and feed should be kept dry so that molds will
not find a favorable place to grow. This is an important factor
in the prevention of the disease.

RICKETS
Rickets is caused by deficiency of one or more of the follow-
ing substances, vitamin D, calcium or phosphorus. The dis-
ease is common in young chickens which do not have access






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to sunshine and which do not receive an adequate amount of
green feed. Calcium and phosphorus deficiencies commonly do
not occur when the birds receive a good grade commercial feed.
Treatment of rickets consists in allowing birds access to sun-
shine and green feed. Cod-liver oil should be added to the ration.
When these measures are followed rickets can be prevented.

PEROSIS (SLIPPED TENDON)
Perosis occurs frequently in battery-fed birds. One or both
legs becomes deformed. It has been shown recently that rations
containing an adequate amount (50 parts per million) of man-
ganese prevent the development of perosis; four ounces of man-
ganese sulfate should be added to a ton of mash. This amount
is not considered to be harmful or toxic.
Adequate amounts of manganese also are considered to be
necessary for good hatchability. The level fed to hens should
be the same as that fed to growing chicks.
Green feed unless grown on a manganese-deficient soil is con-
sidered to be high in manganese content.

CANNIBALISM
Cannibalism usually occurs in battery-kept birds or birds in
close confinement; it is more common in the light breeds than
in the heavy breeds. Tail feathers are pulled, which results
in bleeding; the body is then attacked, which eventually results
in the death of the bird. In other instances bare portions of
the body are attacked.
Since it occurs frequently in overcrowded, closely confined,
and restless chicks these conditions should be corrected. When
birds are left too long in a well-lighted room without food,
cannibalism usually occurs. Injured chicks should be removed
from the flock.
Painting the windows red and the use of a ruby-colored bulb
in the electric brooder or brooder room tends to correct can-
nibalism. Increasing the percentage of common salt in the
ration has remedied this condition in some instances. One
investigator regards cannibalism as the result of an unsatisfied
appetite which can be remedied by feeding oats as the sole
cereal in the ration.
COLDS
Simple catarrh, commonly called "colds", is a mild inflam-
mation of the nasal passages, and is common to all kinds of
domesticated birds.






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


There is no definite causative agent for colds. Weak, under-
nourished birds and those suffering from other diseases are
more likely to be attacked than strong, healthy individuals.
Exposure to drafts, rain, dampness, and other unfavorable con-
ditions seems to lower the resistance of the nasal mucous mem-
branes as well as to produce a congestion of these membranes
and allow simple catarrh to develop. The disease is recognized
by a watery discharge from one or both nostrils. This watery
discharge may disappear in two or three days, or it may be-
come thick and close the nostrils so that the birds breathe
through the mouth.
Treatment for colds usually is not necessary, since recovery
will take place without any other assistance if the predisposing
causes are corrected.
ROUP
Roup is the result of chronic colds. The mucous secretions
become cheesy in consistency and obstruct the nasal passages.
The secretions have a characteristic offensive odor. The mucous
membranes of the nasal passages are inflamed and the passages
are often completely obstructed by the thick discharge, com-
pelling the bird to breathe through the mouth. The membranes


Fig. 19.-The eye of a hen with an advanced case of roup. The eyelids
have cheesy accumulations underneath them.






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of the eyes are congested and inflamed, the inflammation being
accompanied by a thick discharge of pus. The eyelids are ex-
tensively swollen and often closed. When the eyelids are closed
a cheesy exudate develops under the lids and as a result of
the infection, the eyeball itself may become diseased. When
the eyeball is diseased, it is opaque at first, followed by the
formation of deep ulcers. Finally the eyeball is completely
destroyed. Swollen areas may develop just below and in front
of the eye on one or both sides as a result of the infection
gaining entrance into the lacrimal or tear duct.
All sick birds should be removed from the flock and put in
a dry, well ventilated room free of drafts. Affected membranes
of the eyes, mouth, and nostrils should then be treated with
antiseptic solutions. The solution may be forced into these
areas with a syringe or a medicine dropper. Dipping the bird's
head into a basin of the solution is sometimes beneficial. Potas-
sium permanganate, one teaspoonful to a pint of water, is a
suitable antiseptic solution. In cases where the eyes are badly
affected a few drops of 15 percent argyrol solution introduced
between the eyelids twice daily is beneficial. All cheese-like
accumulations should be removed before treatment. In cases
in which the swellings are confined to the lacrimal duct the
contents may be pressed out through the eyes or mouth. When
this cannot be done a bold incision should be made into the
swelling and the contents removed, after which the wound should
be swabbed with tincture of iodine.
INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS
Infectious laryngotracheitis commonly is called infectious
bronchitis. The chicken has been found to be more susceptible
to this disease than any of the other feathered animals, although
the disease is found to affect turkeys, ducks, pigeons, quail,
blackbirds, and sparrows. This disease will attack fowls of
any age. Younger birds seem to be affected more severely and
consequently the mortality is highest in such birds. The mor-
tality caused by the disease varies between wide limits. The
disease is usually more prevalent in the fall and winter months.
Poor physical condition due to parasitism or other diseases in-
fluences the susceptibility of the individual bird. The disease
occurs frequently as a complicating factor in many outbreaks
of roup and fowl pox.
Infectious laryngotracheitis appears suddenly, spreads rapidly,
and after a duration of four to 12 days often terminates as






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


quickly as it began. Affected birds may die in from one to
three days. The disease has been produced in young chicks
by artificial means in less than 36 hours, but the incubation
period in natural outbreaks is thought to be seven to 12 days.
Chronic cases may occur and are occasionally terminated by
sudden death. Death in such instances is due to cheesy masses
in the trachea becoming dislodged and obstructing the passage
of air, causing suffocation.
The symptoms of the disease are watery eyes, lack of appe-
tite, difficult breathing manifested by gasping with whistling
sounds, elevation of temperature and decreased egg production
The symptoms often are marked at night when birds are on
the roost.
Postmortem lesions usually are confined to the trachea. The
trachea is found to have accumulations of mucus in its lumen.
Occasionally this mucus becomes hardened and cheesy in ap-
pearance. Frequently the eyes and bony cavities of the head
are involved.
Infectious laryngotracheitis is caused by a virus found in
the tracheal exudate. The disease is transmitted easily by in-
stilling some of the virus-containing exudate into the trachea
of a healthy bird.
Birds that recover from the infection are found to harbor
the contagion for only 12 to 15 days. A high degree of im-
munity is developed in individuals that have recovered from
the disease.
Various commercial preparations may be sprayed over the
birds while they are on the roost. Many of these preparations
give beneficial results. Individual bird treatment usually gives
excellent results. Several drops of a mixture of oil of eucalyptus
and mineral oil are placed in a medicine dropper, the nose of
the dropper is inserted in the V-shaped opening on the floor of
the bird's mouth and the contents are quickly expelled into the
trachea. Affected birds should be treated twice daily.
Prevention of this disease necessitates strict sanitary condi-
tions. New birds have been found to be important sources of
introduction of the disease. All new birds brought on the
premises should be held in quarantine for at least two weeks.
A method of vaccination has been perfected which is giving
satisfactory results in the prevention of this disease. Since
the vaccine is capable of spreading the disease if improperly
handled, extreme caution should be exercised in its use.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CHICKENPOX AND VACCINATION
Chickenpox is an infectious disease of fowls which is char-
acterized by reddish-gray nodules, ulcer-like sores and crust-
like scabs which usually occur on the unfeathered portions of
the head and may occur on other unfeathered portions of the
body. This has been known by many names, such as: sorehead,
contagious epithelioma, avian variola, and canker. The disease
oftentimes is complicated with cheese-like deposits in the mouth
and in the upper respiratory passages. Often roup and in-
fectious laryngotracheitis are associated with chickenpox. In
this climate the disease itself seldom induces death of the bird
but secondary complications bring about death in many cases.
Vaccination as a preventive measure is quite successful. Two
methods, the stick or stab method and the follicle method, are
used. The most opportune time for vaccination is at the age
of eight to 10 weeks or when the pullets usually are separated
from the cockerels. At least, birds should be vaccinated before
reaching maturity.
The vaccine contains the live virus and requires considerable
care in handling as it is capable of spreading the disease. Only
birds that are well, strong and vigorous should be vaccinated.
Heavily parasitized birds should not be vaccinated. The weak-
lings should be culled from the flock and allowed to become
strong before being vaccinated. If any other diseases are pres-
ent in the flock, the birds should not be vaccinated. If such
birds are vaccinated bad results begin seven to 14 days after
vaccination, often resulting in death.
The location to apply the vaccine by the follicle method is
on the leg about two inches above the hock joint. Pluck about
four to six feathers and apply the vaccine with a small camel's
hair brush by dipping in the vaccine and rubbing it over the
defeathered part. Always follow the directions given with the
vaccine.
In the stick method the vaccine may be applied to either
the web of the wing or the triangular unfeathered area high
up on the leg where the feathers of the leg, breast and back
meet. A sharp instrument is dipped into the vaccine and the
area is stuck. In six to eight days the reaction of the vaccine
appears in the form of a scab at the point of vaccination.
The immunity has been found to last from six months up
to death of the bird. Birds should be examined 10 days after






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


vaccination to note the number of "takes", which are deter-
mined by the presence of a well-formed scab at the site of
each vaccination.
It is not advisable to treat only a part of a flock. The vac-
cination should be applied to all birds that have not had the
disease or have not been vaccinated previously. Vaccinated birds
should be isolated for three weeks.
Pigeon pox vaccine may be used on flocks in which the dis-
ease is occurring. The use of pigeon pox vaccine on a laying
flock does not result in a severe reduction in egg production.
Pigeon pox vaccine, however, does not result in as lasting im-
munity as in cases in which fowl pox vaccine is used.
Turkeys may be vaccinated against pox by following the
same procedure as described above.
FOWL PARALYSIS AND LEUKEMIA*
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station has announced
recently that certain organisms of the paratyphoid and typhoid
groups of bacteria are the primary cause of these two diseases
and that a number of other conditions commonly associated
with outbreaks of fowl paralysis and leukemia are also caused
by these same organisms.
It has been shown also by repeated experiments that diseases
of this group, although caused by germs, occur most frequently
only in birds in which there is an inflammation of the intestinal
tract most commonly caused by roundworms, coccidia, tape-
worms, and capillaria. In other words, the presence of inflam-
mation of the intestinal tract opens an avenue of infection for
the causative organism which must gain access to the blood
stream in order to induce one of this group of diseases.
Blindness or "gray eyes", paralysis of one or both legs, lame-
ness, incoordinated gait, paralysis of a wing and twisting of
the neck are common symptoms of paralysis. Leukemic birds
show paleness of the comb and wattles and a general unthrifty
appearance. A postmortem examination of leukemic birds re-
veals a "big liver" and occasionally an enlarged spleen. In
most instances other organs appear normal.
Birds should be examined immediately for parasites when
the first symptoms of paralysis or leukemia appear. It is ad-
visable also to place birds on a 15 percent dry whey ration
for a period of 10 days after they have been treated for the
*This discussion does not pertain to the occurrence of these diseases
under battery conditions.






Florida Cooperative Extension


parasite or parasites present. In cases in which the milk treat-
ment is given for coccidiosis this is not necessary. Rigid sanita-
tion including frequent disinfection of the houses and feeding
equipment should be practiced.
The prevention of fowl paralysis and leukemia depends upon
the extent to which one is able to control intestinal parasites.

COCCIDIOSIS
Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan organism of the genus
Eimeria, which gains entrance into the chick's body through
the mouth with food and water. There are a number of species
of Eimeria, one species attacking the ceca (blind pouches),
while the remainder attack the first portion of the intestine
(duodenum). The most common source of infection is the
adult bird which becomes a "carrier" of the parasite. Cocci-
diosis may be carried over from year to year in this manner.
Soil infected by a previous outbreak often serves as a source
of infection. It is possible also that the infection be carried
from one place to another by animals or individuals coming
in contact with contaminated areas.
In young birds the symptoms of coccidiosis are droopy wings
and ruffled feathers; the birds crowd together under the brooder
and usually have no appetite; a diarrhea often develops which
may or may not be tinged with blood; the bird presents a gen-
eral unthrifty appearance. In cecal coccidiosis the droppings
are always bloody. The disease progresses rapidly after the
onset and unless treatment is started immediately the mortality
may be severe.
Postmortem findings, of chicks that die of coccidiosis, depend
upon the portion of the intestinal tract affected. If the duo-
denum is affected this part of the intestine will be slightly
thickened with numerous hemorrhagic areas over the surface.
If the ceca are affected similar conditions will be noted with
blood clots usually in the contents of this organ, causing the
organ to be enlarged and have a dark appearance. A micro-
scopic examination of the contents or scrapings of the affected
intestinal wall will show the presence of coccidia. Such a micro-
scopic examination often is necessary to make a positive diag-
nosis of coccidiosis.
To control and prevent the spread of a disease which is as
easily transmitted as coccidiosis it is necessary to use strict and
rigid sanitation. A smooth floor that can be thoroughly and






Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


mechanically cleaned every other day or a hardware cloth floor
should be provided for the birds. Ordinary disinfectants in
strengths commonly in use should not be employed. Since in-
fection can be carried from infested premises to healthy flocks
on the shoes of people, it is important not to allow visitors in
houses and yards where chicks are kept.
In treating the disease, birds should be fed a ration con-
sisting of 40 percent dry skimmilk or buttermilk added to the
regular mash. If the birds are laying, dry whey should be
used so the protein balance of the feed will not be materially
disturbed. If dry whey is used the percentage should be reduced
to 25 percent, as it contains a higher percent of lactose. In
severe outbreaks of coccidiosis it is often advisable to place the
birds on a straight diet of dry milk for a day or two, after
which they are placed on the ration described above. The birds
should have access to plenty of clean water. Scratch grain
should not be fed. The milk treatment should be continued
for at least 10 days or longer if necessary.
OTHER INTERNAL PARASITES
The common roundworm, tapeworm, cecal worm and capil-
laria are the common worms infesting the intestinal tract of
chickens. The cecal worm is not of great importance. Capil-
laria are assuming more importance and they may be controlled
by the same measures that control roundworms.
Roundworms:-The female roundworm in the intestinal tract
of the bird lays eggs which are expelled in the droppings. A
few days after being voided with the droppings a small coiled
embryonic worm is formed within the shell of the worm egg.
If this embryonated egg is eaten by the chick, it will develop
into a mature worm in four to eight weeks.
An important factor in the control of parasites is to attempt
to break their life cycle. This may be accomplished in the case
of roundworms by allowing the chicks to have access to yards
relatively free from roundworm eggs. It is advisable to remove
the droppings at least every other day to guard against spread-
ing an infestation of roundworms that may have gained entrance
into the flock. As soon as the chicks are put on the roosts,
the dropping boards should be wired with poultry netting so
they do not have access to the droppings. Grain should be
fed in troughs rather than on the ground or in the litter.
Tapeworms:-All tapeworms attach themselves by hooks or
suckers to the intestinal wall and grow into lengths varying






Florida Cooperative Extension


from 1/16 inch to seven or eight inches, depending upon the
species. They are flat and consist of a series of segments. When
the segments have reached maturity, they become detached and
are expelled with the droppings. Each segment of the tapeworm
contains many eggs. The
.... '" I membrane of the seg-
ment disintegrates, ex-
posing the eggs. Flies,
earthworms, b e e t e s,
snails or slugs may eat
the eggs. The parasite
then reaches what is
called the "cyst" stage
of development in these
hosts. This is the infec-
tive stage of the parasite
for the chicken. The
tapeworm must complete
its life cycle in an inter-
S- f mediate host. The inter-
mediate host is specific
for each tapeworm. Birds
become infested w i t h
Fig. 20.-On post-mortem examination, tapeworms only by eat-
this bird was found to be infested with ing the intermediate
roundworms and tapeworms.
hosts.
A clean range and the daily removal of droppings is just
as essential in the control of tapeworms as of roundworms. It
is necessary also that the houses and ranges be located away
from breeding places for flies. The cow stall and horse stable,
as well as other chicken pens where droppings are allowed to
accumulate, furnish breeding places for flies. All such manure
should be removed often and scattered thinly over fields or
placed in fly-tight manure pits. Chicken droppings should never
be placed on land on which green feed for chicks is grown. Good
drainage is important, since snails, slugs and earthworms usually
are abundant in damp or wet areas.
Worm Treatments:-The presence of worms in the intestinal
tract creates catarrhal inflammation by irritation of the mucous
membrane lining of the intestinal tract. In many cases of worm
infestation the parasite becomes embedded in mucous which
handicaps the action of drugs. It is an impossible task to keep







Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets


a laying hen absolutely free of intestinal parasites. It is pos-
sible, however, by the judicious use of reliable worm remedies,
sanitation and rotation of yards to keep the parasitic infesta-
tion so low that the flock will not be handicapped. A four-yard
rotation system for adult birds is efficient in most instances.
The birds should be moved from one yard to the next every 30
days. The vacated yard should be cleaned of rubbish and plowed
and, if possible, planted to green feed.
The treatment recommended by the U. S. Department of Ag-
riculture for roundworms is a 1 cc. capsule of tetrachlorethylene
for adult birds, and a reduced dose for younger birds.
For mass treatment, the California Agricultural Experiment
Station recommends adding to the mash 2 percent by weight
of tobacco dust containing at least 1.5 percent nicotine. This
mixture is fed to the flock for a period of three weeks. The
treatment may be repeated at three-weeks' intervals as often
as necessary.
The treatment recommended for tapeworms is kamala. The
average dose for adult birds is one gram, but this should be
reduced for younger fowls and weakened birds.
If both roundworms and tapeworms are present, give one cc.
of tetrachlorethylene and follow in three days with a one-gram
dose of kamala. Dosing with tetrachlorethylene and kamala at
different times is more efficient than dosing with both drugs
at the same time.
Iodine vermicide is also efficient in treating birds for round-
worms and tapeworms. The remedy is given with a catheter
and placed directly into the gizzard, from which point it floods
the intestinal tract. The parasites with which the drug comes
in contact are killed. The administration is not difficult, but
it does require care.
The thought must always be borne in mind that however
efficient a worm remedy may be the flock owner must exercise
precautions to keep the flock from becoming reinfested.
EXTERNAL PARASITES
Chicken Mites:-The common red or gray chicken mite is a
blood-sucking parasite that feeds on the chickens at night and
hides beneath the roost poles and in other cracks during the
daytime. Usually its presence is first noticed when some of
the mites get on the poultryman's hands. A careful examina-
tion will reveal masses of the mites hiding in the cracks in the






Florida Cooperative Extension


roost and other parts of the poultry house. In heavily infested
houses the chickens may become droopy and weak from loss of
blood. Sitting hens will desert their nests when the nests be-
come heavily infested.
The mites are difficult to reach in their hiding places. The
nest material should be removed and burned, and all loose, un-
necessary boards removed. A spray of creosote oil may be used;
it should be forced into the cracks. Other products effective
against mites are crude petroleum, waste crank-case oil, car-
bolineum and sulfur.
Sulfur should be dusted on the litter in case the house is
not cleaned. The birds will work the sulfur into the cracks
of the floor. The nests and dropping boards also should be
treated with sulfur; when the house is cleaned sulfur may be
dusted on the floor before the litter is placed in the house.
This treatment of the house with sulfur is a good preventive
measure. Contact with sulfur will kill the mites as they emerge
from their hiding places.
Sticktight Fleas:-To understand the results to be expected
from any control measure used against sticktight fleas it is
necessary to know something about their life cycle. The eggs
are deposited by the adult flea while it is attached to the host.
They fall under roosts in chicken houses or under sheds fre-
quented by poultry, where they continue to develop. When
dogs and cats are infested the immature stages develop largely
in the material used by the animals for bedding. Fleas require
comparatively dry material in which to develop, but a large
amount of air moisture is favorable to them. Adults continue
to emerge from infested trash for four to five months after
all chickens have been removed. This explains why houses
remain infested with sticktight fleas after being unused for con-
siderable periods.
The birds may be fed 5 percent of sulfur in their mash for
a period not to exceed three weeks in instances in which the
birds have access to plenty of sunlight. Sulfur should be dusted
on the soil, since the parasite often breeds in sand and reinfesta-
tion from this source occurs.
Dipping birds in 2 percent common dip will free birds of fleas.
Dipping, however, should be done on a warm day and early in
the day so birds will dry before night.
Lice:-The lice found on poultry have biting mouth parts
and feed on portions of feathers or on debris from the skin.





*
Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets 47

They are unlike the mite in that they spend their lives on the
chicken, and will live for only a few hours off the body of the
chicken. Several drugs have been found that will destroy lice
on chickens. The two outstanding ones are sodium fluoride and
a 40 percent solution of nicotine sulfate.
Sodium fluoride may be secured in the powdered form. It
may be applied either in the powdered form by the pinch method
or by making a solution and dipping the chickens. In the pinch
method the dust is applied by holding the chicken with one
hand and placing the sodium fluoride among the feathers with
the other hand as follows: one pinch on the head, one on the
neck, two on the back, one on the breast, one below the vent,
one on the tail, one on each thigh, and one scattered on the
underside of each wing when spread. Each pinch should be
spread among the feathers as the material is released. By hold-
ing the chicken over a large pan some of the drug that would
ordinarily be lost is saved and can be used again.
The dipping method should be used only on warm days and
then should be used early in the day so that the chickens will
dry before night. If properly used it is more effective than
the pinch method. The solution for dipping is made by dissolv-
ing 3/4 to 1 ounce of sodium fluoride in each gallon of water.
The water should be slightly warm. It is not necessary to keep
the chicken under the solution longer than 20 to 30 seconds and
the head only an instant. The feathers should be ruffled while
the body is beneath the water so as to allow the solution to
penetrate to the skin.
The 40 percent nicotine solution is used by applying undiluted
to the roost poles 30 minutes before the chickens go to roost.
Directions for its use will be found on the container and should
be followed carefully.
Feeding 5 percent of sulfur in the mash will reduce the in-
festation of lice in instances in which birds have access to plenty
of sunlight. Sulfur should not be fed longer than three weeks.
Press bulletins on poultry diseases available from the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station:
Number Title
475 Colds and Roup in Poultry
476 Infectious Laryngotracheitis (infectious bronchitis)
in Poultry
477 Coccidiosis in Chickens
505 Blackhead in Turkeys
506 Chickenpox
511 Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry







Florida Cooperative Extension


REFERENCES

Care and Management of Baby Chicks. New Jersey Experiment Station
Circular 169. W. C. Thompson and N. R. Mehrhof.
Brooding and Pullet Management. California Agri. Extension Circular,
28. W. E. Newlon and M. W. Buster.
How to Raise Chicks. Purdue Extension Bulletin 177. C. W. Carrick.
When Should Chicks Be Given First Feed. Poultry Science Vol. VII, No. 5.
R. E. Roberts.
The Influence of Starving and Feeding Mash and Scratch Grain, Respec-
tively, at Different Times on Yolk Absorption in Chicks. Poultry
Science Vol. IX, No. 5. B. W. Heywang and M. A. Jull.
Feeding Chickens. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 1541. M. A. Jull and A. R.
Lee.
Raising Chicks. Ohio Agricultural Extension Bulletin 59. R. E. Craig
and C. M. Ferguson.
Poultry Husbandry. McGraw Hill Book Company. M. A. Jull.
The Home Made Brick Brooder. Alabama Agricultural Extension Circular
111. G. A. Trollope and M. T. Gowder.




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