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Title: Hog-lot equipment for Florida
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Title: Hog-lot equipment for Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Crown, R. M.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1939
Copyright Date: 1939
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Bibliographic ID: UF90000451
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7693 - LTQF
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Bulletin 101


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





HOG-LOT EQUIPMENT


FOR FLORIDA

By R. M. CROWN
Assistant Animal Husbandman, Florida Experiment Station


Fig. 1.-Adequate equipment aids in the production of thrifty pigs.



Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


May, 1939









BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extensionl
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor1
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager1
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A, E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist1
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Asst. Economist, Farm Management
RUBY BROWN, Asst. Home Economist
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationisti
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

IPart-time.











HOG-LOT EQUIPMENT FOR FLORIDA

By R. M. CROWN

CONTENTS
PAGE
COLONY H OUSE ........................................ ....... ...... ............... ..... 4
SANITARY HOG W ATERER ........... ... ....... ....... ............. 7
SELF-FEEDERS AND MINERAL BOXES ....... ............................... 10
SH ELTERS ......... ......... ........ .. ............ .. ........ 14
Pio T ROUGH S ..... ................. ................ ...... .. ...... ... ... 14
H URDLES .......................... .... .............. .. ......... .... 15
LOADING CHUTE .... .................................. 17
BREEDING CRATE 1....................... .... .. ............... 19

INTRODUCTION

Since Florida has a mild climate and expensive hog houses
are not necessary, farmers have raised market hogs and main-
tained their swine breeding herds with little or no hog-lot equip-
ment. In many cases the lack of proper equipment has made
swine production unprofitable. Certain items of equipment are
necessary in the production of healthy hogs. In recent years
there has been an increasing number of requests for plans for
farrowing houses, loading chutes, sanitary hog waterers, and
other equipment. These requests indicate a desire to improve
conditions under which hogs are raised and show that efforts
are being made to raise healthy pigs on many farms at this time.
Hogs can be raised successfully without expensive equipment.
Heavy overhead investments in expensive equipment and extra
labor cost above the amount actually needed have been respons-
ible for much of the financial loss experienced by farmers who
raised hogs in past years. Adequate equipment must be pro-
vided, but the swine producer should attempt at all times to
keep overhead costs at a minimum. In constructing much of
the equipment it is often possible to use odd pieces of boards,
timbers and other materials already available on the premises.
Experimental work at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion1 and other stations shows that it is possible to raise a high
percentage of the pigs that are farrowed if proper equipment
is used and a system of rotation of annual feed crops is pro-
vided. The inexpensive equipment illustrated in this bulletin
will aid in the proper handling of hogs and greatly reduce in-
juries which sometimes are very costly.

'Fla. Exp. Sta. Bul. 236.








Florida Cooperative Extension


COLONY HOUSE

In this bulletin a colony house is considered as a small
portable house to be used primarily for one brood sow and
litter. Such houses also can be used for shelter for dry sows
and market hogs.
The kind of house to build is always a problem. Of the many
points to consider, low cost, sanitation and adaptability to
Florida climate are most important. Low overhead expense


-IMP.


Fig. 2.-The colony house is constructed on skids in two five-foot sections which may
be transported easily. Three stove bolts are used to hold the tin roofing securely where it
overlaps in the center of the house.


Fig. 3.-Interior of farrowing house. Note the guard rails around the edge of the pen
for the protection of the pigs.








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


is not a new problem, but most hog raisers in Florida have
come to realize that sanitary methods must be adopted in rais-
ing thrifty pigs to weaning age, and in producing high quality
hogs. These practices contribute to making pig raising pro-
fitable. Sanitary methods include a rotation of pastures which
requires the use of movable houses, shelters, and other equip-
ment.


Fig. 4.-Extreme left (No. 9), bin for minerals. Numbers 10 and 11, built-in self-
feeders. Feed is poured in between the baffleboard and the back of the house. The baffle-
board is adjusted to furnish a supply of feed in the trough at all times.

The type of house suggested is a general-purpose house. It
is well ventilated to meet Florida conditions, and in extremely
cold weather a temporary windbreak may be provided easily.
It may be used as a farrowing house (Figs. 2 and 3) and as a
shelter for sow and pigs on pasture. Self-feeders, and a min-
eral box are built-in (Fig. 4), thereby greatly reducing the
cost of constructing self-feeders.

r 1 K K,____ _ ly ,". .."


Fig. 5.-Front view of the colony house.








Florida Cooperative Extension


When the pigs are large enough to eat a grain ration2, a
partition is placed in the center of the house. This affords a
creep for the pigs, and the sow has a pen in which she may be
fed separately. This arrangement aids in keeping the pigs
from becoming infested with internal parasites, thereby allow-
ing maximum growth and preventing many injuries.
When the pigs are weaned and turned into new grazing areas,
this house should be used as a shelter and also may provide




















Fig. 6.oor pan of the coony house.
Fig. 6.-Floor plan of the colony house.


Fig. 7.-Side view of the colony house.

'Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bulletin 518.








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


ample feeding space for several litters of pigs. At this time
some of the extra houses may be used for shelter for the dry
sows.
The same house may be used to afford shade, shelter and self-
feeders for minerals and protein supplements when the pigs
are turned into fields of fattening crops.
With the exception of a sanitary hog waterer, the colony
house described provides all of the equipment needed by the
sow and pigs from the time the pigs are farrowed until they
are marketed. The house and the details of construction are
illustrated in Figs. 5, 6 and 7.

BILL OF MATERIALS FOR COLONY HOUSE
Pieces
4 4" x 6" 10'10" long heart cypress or
pine poles skids.
20 1" x 6"- 10' long floor.
4 4" x 4" 63" long front uprights.
4 4" x 4"-51" long--back uprights.
8 1" x 6" 10' long sides.
6 1" x 6"-10' long (includes gates).
1 2" x 3" 10' long gate guide.
1 2" x 6" 10' long gate runner.
2 1" x 6" 28" long gate braces.
8 1" x 6" 3' long braces.
4 1" x 6" 7' long braces.
2 2" x 4"- 12' long plates.
6 2" x 4" 13' long roof supports.
5 1" x 4" 13'8" long sheeting.
8 Sheets of 24" corrugated sheetmetal roofing -14'
long.
3 2" x 6" 10' long guard rails.
1 2" x 6" 5' long -guard rails.
5 1" x 6"-10' long back of house (solid back).

Feeders (back of house serves as back of feeders)
8 1" x 6" 31" long ends.
3 1" x 6" 56" long braces and trough.
2 1" x 6"- 12" long -end braces (top).
2 1" x 6"-14" long -end of feeder at bottom.
All lumber above is No. 2, rough.

SANITARY HOG WATERER

A sanitary hog waterer (Fig. 8) may be constructed at very
little cost, and will pay for itself many times in providing clean
water free from disease germs and parasite eggs, thereby reduc-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ing loss in pigs. Filthy mudholes often are responsible for
digestive disturbances in pigs, and serve as a source from which
they may become infested with internal parasites. With a sani-
tary waterer such ailments and infestations are prevented in
large measure. Further, an adequate water supply can be main-
tained and water may be provided easily in cultivated fields
when the sanitary waterer is used. A design for such a waterer
is shown in Figs. 9 and 10.


Fig. 8.-The sanitary waterer furnishes fresh, clean water at all times.


The wood or metal barrel used must be air-tight. A hole
about one-half inch in diameter is made in the barrel about six
inches from the bottom and through this hole the water flows
from the barrel into the trough, filling the trough with water.
The barrel is filled through an opening in the top. A tight-
fitting plug must be used in this hole, for if air gains entrance
into the barrel, all the water will flow out through the hole at
the bottom. In filling the barrel the small hole near the bottom
must be plugged temporarily and the plug removed immediately
after the barrel is filled. The trough may be built on skids that
it may be easily transported.


1$8~

~.A~









Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


BILL OF MATERIALS FOR SANITARY HOG WATERER
Pieces
Skid
2 4" x 6" 6'6" long runners.
12 2" x 6" 48" long floor.

Basin


Barrel


2" x 8" -20" long id.
2" x 8" -33" long sides
2" x 8"- 33" long tongue and groove (floor).
1" x 1%"-9" long-strips.


Steel drum -50 gallon.


Fig. 9.-Elevation and sectional view of the sanitary hog waterer.


Fig. 10.-Top view of the sanitary waterer.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SELF-FEEDERS AND MINERAL BOXES
In constructing self-feeders it is more economical to build the
double-trough type where the pigs may feed from both sides,
thereby giving double feeding space (Fig. 11).
The self-feeder illustrated in Fig. 12 is enclosed by panels of
fence bolted to the skid platform, forming a very satisfactory
feed creep for suckling pigs. The pigs have access to a grain
ration at all times, but the sow cannot enter the creep. This
makes a very satisfactory self-feeder for pigs that have been


Fig. 11.-A self-feeder in use with pigs on succulent grazing crops.


Fig. 12.-A satisfactory feeding creep for pigs.








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


weaned and are grazing
on succulent grazing
crops. This type of
feeder as illustrated in
Fig. 13 has- a partition
down the center in order
that a different kind of
feed may be fed on each
side in compartments 1
and 2. If a feeder of this
type is used for swine
grazing on sweet pota-
toes, corn or chufas, min- I
erals may be fed on one
side and protein supple-
ment on the other. De-
tails for the construction
of this feeder are given
in Figs. 14 and 15.
Swine in Florida
should have access to
minerals3 at all times. r
Minerals should be kept .
in a sheltered box that
they may be kept dry. I
Minerals that have been
exposed to excessive
moisture soon become Fig. 13.-End view of self-feeder. Different feeds
may be placed in bins 1 and 2.
unpalatable. A satisfac-
tory type of mineral box is illustrated in Fig. 16. A detailed
plan for the construction of a mineral box is given in Fig. 17.

BILL OF MATERIALS FOR SELF-FEEDER
Pieces
Skid
2 4" x 6" 8'6" long runners.
16 2" x 6" 40" long floor.
Feeder
5 2" x 8" 24" long floor.
4 2" x 12" 26" long ends.
6 1" x 9" 40" long baffles.
4 1" x 6" 40" long center board.
2 1" x 5" 40" long bevel board.
'Fla. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 507.









Florida Cooperative Extension

1" x 2" 12" long- blocks.
Bolts 5" long.
2" x 8"-28" long- trim.
2" x 8"- 40" long trim.
Strap hinges for roof.
End pieces for roof 2" material.
1" x 5" 40" long sheeting.
1" x 3" 40" long overhang on roof.
2" x 6" block (beveled) for roof stop.
L 3-,' "'


Fig. 14.-Sectional view of the self-feeder.


1. ---------- 3' 4-"


Fig. 15.-Side view of the self-feeder.









Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


A.


Fig. 16.-A sheltered mineral box.











I-1


- J -.- ---i'"



Fig. 17.-Sheltered mineral box, front and side views.

BILL OF MATERIALS FOR SHELTERED MINERAL BOX
Pieces
1 2" x 12"-18" long floor.
4 1" x 12"- 38" long sides.
4 1" x 8" 34" long sheeting, roof.
2 1" x 5" 20" long- front plates.
4 1" x 5" 32" long back.
2 1" x 2" 18" long braces.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SHELTERS
A shelter constructed of corrugated iron roofing on a wooden
framework can be provided quite cheaply. It can be dismantled
and moved to other locations quite readily. If further pro-
tection is desired, boards may be nailed on the north and west
sides. If this type of shelter is used for young pigs it is well
to provide a board floor,


Fig. 18.-A brush shade is satisfactory if no other is available. It is easily and
cheaply constructed.
It is necessary to provide shade during the warm summer
days while grazing hogs in cultivated fields. Cheaply constructed
brush shades may be used over a wooden framework as illus-
trated in Fig. 18. If the iron top shade is used in summer,
it is sometimes beneficial to pile brush or straw on top of the
tin to lower the temperature under the shade. These shelters
and shades should be built high enough to allow for proper
circulation of air beneath them.

PIG TROUGHS
Where self-feeders are not used the small pigs will need a
feeding trough for a balanced grain ration about three weeks
after they are farrowed. An inexpensive trough and creep is
illustrated in Fig. 19. The wooden floored creep affords sani-








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


tary conditions which aid in the production of thrifty pigs. It
is desirable to cover this creep with a cheaply constructed gal-
vanized iron roof to provide cooler conditions in the summer
and to keep the feed dry.


Fig. 19.-An inexpensive but satisfactory pig trough.


If mature hogs are to be fed in a trough or on wooden floors,
a strongly constructed trough should be used as illustrated in
Fig. 20.


Fig. 20.-Note the heavy material and construction of the trough with end removed.

HURDLES
In the production of swine it is very important to have
necessary equipment for the proper handling of hogs to prevent
overheating, bruising or severely injuring the animals. In
grazing swine, as is practical in Florida, the hogs often are








Florida Cooperative Extension


kept far away from any pens which may be used for confining
the animals for treating or handling them in any way. It is
necessary to have animals confined to treat them properly, to
prevent infestations of external parasites, or to vaccinate them
against diseases. Pens made by using several hurdles fastened
together and pinned with rods of iron as illustrated in Fig. 21
may be used for many purposes. Details for the construction
of hurdles are given in Fig. 22.


Fig. 21.-Putting rings in the nose of a brood sow to prevent her from rooting deep
holes which may serve as death traps for the young pigs when the sow lies down. Rings
also prevent the sow from rooting up succulent grazing crops. A lariat rope is placed
in the sow's mouth and she is tied to a post. The sow will pull back on the rope with all
of her weight, holding herself securely for any operation one wishes to perform.


SU iron


Fig. 22.-Hurdle, side view. (Each end of hurdle has 2 U irons.)


Pieces
4
6
2


BILL OF MATERIALS FOR HURDLES


1" x 4"-12' long.
1" x 4"-30" long.
1" x 4" 7' long.


4 U irons 1" wide x 15" long.
1 1/2" rod-3 %' long.
16 %" x 3" bolts and nuts.


1 11.4,








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


t6a---


Fig. 23.-A driving hurdle.


The small driving hurdles (Fig. 23) can be used to advantage
in driving pigs into the pens (Fig. 24) and in loading. These
hurdles prevent bruises and other injuries. The driving hurdle
also affords protection for the attendant while handling boars
or any vicious hogs.


Fig. 24.-Using hurdles to drive hogs into a portable pen made of two hurdles
placed in the corner of a field.

LOADING CHUTE
When loading, hogs should be driven up a chute rather than
being caught by their legs and lifted into the wagon or truck.
Rough handling in loading often breaks a leg or otherwise
severely injures the animal and thus greatly reduces its market








Florida Cooperative Extension


value. Aside from the danger of injuries, catching and lifting
hogs into a wagon or truck requires excessive labor. A loading
chute can be constructed very cheaply. A stationary chute may
be built in a place easily accessible to wagon or truck (Fig. 25).
However, when hogs are grazing in Florida they are not always
convenient to the chute, and a portable loading chute, to be used
in connection with portable pens formed by hurdles (Fig. 26),


Fig. 25.-A cheaply constructed stationary loading chute.


Fig. 26.-Loading hogs with a portable chute. Note the two hinged, substantial legs
that support the front of the chute when a high truck is loaded. When low trucks or
wagons are used. the truck is backed under the end of the chute.








Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida


is satisfactory. The portable chute illustrated in Fig. 27 is con-
structed of heavy material so that it may be used for loading
cattle and horses in addition to hogs. This chute can be trans-
ported easily behind a wagon or truck (Fig. 28).

BILL OF MATERIALS FOR LOADING CHUTE


8" 12'
2" 30"
6" 42"
8" 12'
6" -12'
6" 42"


long floor.
long cleats.
long uprights.
long sides.
long sides.
long kegs.


2" x 6"-36" long braces.
Pieces of angle iron braces.
Strap hinges, heavy.
%" x 5" bolts and nuts.
%" x 3" bolts and nuts.
%" washers.


K---' "-H-


Fig. 27.-PoI


_____________ ''---5-' __ __
Gt----'----- "-"" ---
216





K- /<--'
L~ c1
\b l

-table loading chute, end and side views.


Fig. 28.-This loading chute may be mounted on any set of wheels that is available.

BREEDING CRATE

The herd boar may become too large to breed to a gilt with-
out injuring her. It is not good herd management to stunt the
boar or to dispose of a serviceable animal simply because he is


Pieces
4
12
8
2
6
2









Florida Cooperative Extension


too heavy. A large mature boar may be bred to young gilts
by the use of an inexpensive breeding crate. The construction
of a practical breeding crate is illustrated in Fig. 29. A gilt
in the completed breeding crate is shown in Fig. 30.


Fig. 29.-Breeding crate, with one side removed.
The cleated inclined rails are to support the weight
of the boar. Note the removable end-gate in the
front of the crate which may be adjusted to fit
the length of the sow.


Fig. 30.-The small pipe
placed behind the gilt prevents
her from backing out of the
crate.


BILL OF MATERIALS FOR BREEDING CRATE

Pieces
2 2" x 4" -5' long -front uprights.
1 2" x 4"-2'6" long- brace at top of uprights.
2 2" x 4" 40" long back uprights.
3 2" x 4" -2' long floor support.
4 1" x 6"- 4'6" long floor.
2 1" x 6" 4'9" long incline rails.
14 %1" x 1" -6" long -cleats.
2 2" x 4"- 8" long- front supports of incline rails.
2 2" x 4" 12" long middle supports of incline
rails.
2 2" x 4" 15" long -rear supports of incline rails.
6 1" x 6"- 4'6" long- sides.
4 1" x 6" 2'6" long -back of crate.
6 1" x 6"- 18" long stops of end gate.

Gate
2 1" x 6" 22" long.
2 1" x 6" 26" long.
2 1" x 6" 18" long batten.




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