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Dissolved-solids concentrations and loads in Florida surface waters ( FGS: Map series 77 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000335/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dissolved-solids concentrations and loads in Florida surface waters ( FGS: Map series 77 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 77 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 41 x 51 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dysart, Joel E
Goolsby, D. A. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Water Resources Management
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Fla. Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water -- Composition -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water -- Composition -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1977   ( local )
Water quality -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1977   ( local )
Water -- Composition -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1977   ( local )
Water quality -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1977   ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1977   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Joel E. Dysart and Donald A. Goolsby ; prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation.
Bibliography: Bibliography.
General Note: Also shows water quality data stations.
General Note: Includes text, 2 graphs, and 2 tables of water composition data.
Funding: Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001811834
oclc - 07693882
notis - AJN5717
lccn - 80695095 /MAPS
System ID: UF90000335:00001

Full Text

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


82"


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


81"


DISSOLVED-SOLIDS CONCENTRATIONS AND
LOADS IN FLORIDA SURFACE WATERS


By
Joel E. Dysart and Donald A. Goolsby

Prepared by the
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

Tallahassee, Florida
1977
INTRODUCTION
Historical dissolved-solids data were analyzed to evaluate their
real distribution and to compute the loads transported by major
rivers, canals and springs in the State of Florida The concentration
of dissolved solids is a measure of the amount of inorganic and
organic material in solution, and, therefore, it is one of the most
common and useful measurements of water quality The concentra-
tion of dissolved solids is of major importance for any water used for
public consumption or for agricultural purposes. This atlas is
designed to provide interested persons and agencies with a summary
of dissolved-solids data from about 1,000 sampling sites in major
rivers, canals and springs in Florida
Material transported by streams is either dissolved or sus-
pended The load camed by surface water has been used to estimate
rates of denudation of the land surface by erosion (Dole and Stabler,
1909, Livingstone, 1963: Judson and Ritter, 1964; Curtis and others,
1973) However, Judson and Ritter (1964, p 3399) emphasized that
the dissolved load may be greater than the suspended load under
certain conditions of climate and rock type The region of the United
States delineated by them as the "South Atlantic and Eastern Gulf of
Mexico," which includes Florida, had an estimated dissolved-solids
load of 175 (T/mi)/yr, whereas the suspended-solids load was 139
(T/mi)/yr.
Much of the material transported by surface water has a
destination in large bodies of water such as the Atlantic Ocean and
the Gulf of Mexico Here, the accretion of solid material cared in
suspension can build vast deposits, such as deltas, which will alter
the configuration of the coastline. The dissolved material, along with
streamflow, govern the salinity balance of estuarine water and is a
major source of nutrient material for estuarinne and marine
organisms. The concentrations, nature, and loads of dissolved
material are therefore of interest to marine scientists, hydrologists,
and pollution control officials

NATURE AND SOURCE OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS
In Florida surface water, the dissolved solids consist mainly of
bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates of calcium, magnesium, sodium,
and, in lesser amounts, potassium The dominant ions and water
types in Florida surface water have been discussed by Kaufman
(1972) The water also contains carbonate, phosphorus, and nitrogen
- compounds and dissolved organic material, as well as trace amounts
of iron, manganese and other substances However, these latter
compounds are not usually principal constituents of the dissolved
sohlds
The nature and concentrations of the dissolved species are
influenced by many interrelated factors the climate, type of rocks
and soils which the water contacts, vegetation, biological activities,
adsrption-desorption processes, chemical concentration of the ram-

dissolved material
PROCEDURE AND TECHNIQUES
Dissolved-solids concentrations in most Florida surface water

pies of dissolved solids-specific conductance relations for the St
Johns River near Cocoa, Fla (station 17) and the Suwannee River at
Branfod, Fl (station 7) are shown in figure 1 Dissolved-solids
concentrations ohown on the large map were determined by multi
plying the mean specific conductance at each station by a factor of
0 65 Approximately 20,000 specific conductance measurements
made at about 1,000 stations between 1960 and 1975 were used in
constructing the map
The average annual dissolved-solids loads were computed for 57
sampling stations shown, representing the major streams, canals
and springs in the state The load calculations were based on actual
laboratory measurements of dissolved-solids residue at 180 Celsius
IBrown and others, 1970) Each station had at least 5 years of daily
discharge data and a minimum of four dissolved-solids analyses
annually for at least 5 years Dissolved-solids loads contributed by
springs were also considered, but the dissolved-solids and discharge
values are less variable and consequently the criteria for selection of
springs were not as rigid as those for streams and canals.
The average annual dissolved-solids loads were computed for
each station from a regressoaion analysis of daily dissolved solids loads
versus daily discharge Daily dissolved-solids loads, the dependent
variable, were computed as the product ofdissolved-solids concentra-
tion, daily discharge in l Vs, and 0 0027, a conversion factor Log-log
plots of daily dissolved-solids loads versus daily discharge and the
computed least-squares regression line for two stations are shown in
figure 2 A regression equation of the following form was developed
for each station:
log (dissolved-solids load in tens/day) = (b x log Q) + log a
where Q is the daily discharge, a i the intercept, and b is the slope of
the regression line Annual dissolved-solids loads at the average
discharge rates for the period of record were computed by sub-
stituting the average daily discharge into the regression equations
and multiplying the resulting load by 365 Annual loads discharged
at the mouth of the major basins were estimated from loads at
upstream stations using differences mi drainage areas to estimate
additional inflow below the gaged site The annual loads for the
major streams and canals are shown on the large map.

RESULTS
Concentrations
The estimated average concentrations of dissolved solids in
milligrams per liter for Florida surface waters are shown on the map


concentration, 1,490 mg/1, is at Homosassa Springs in Citrus County
(station 15)
Average dissolved-solids concentrations in surface water are
generally less than 200 mg/1 in central and western Florida
Concentrations generally were greater than 200 mg/1 in the St
Johns River basin and in subbahins south of Lake Okeechobee
Estimates of average concentrations for stations in the St. Johns
River basin ranged from 140 to 830 mg/1 and at three stations
average concentrations exceeded 500 mg/1.
The dissolved-solids concentration in water from Florida's
springs is highly variable with Rainbow Springs and Homosassa
Springs representing the extremes (table 1) Concentrations in
individual springs, however, exhibit only minor variations with
respect to time of sampling.


The
in water
for station
estimated
in Indian
(> 500m
highest d
Florida o
cultural P


Est..
dischargi
the Atlan
dischargi
tl ,

River (5.6
the Suwa
rivers rep
Beca
concentr
reflected
annual lo
selected s
high prim
water is 1
has muc
higher av
load. The
dissolved
loads cali
low by co
concentr
In or
size, yield
shows tha

probably

10)
Load
contribute
springs, B
the St Jo
Oklawah
the Suma
year to th
Cana
south FIo

(station 2
discharge
hatchee R
bea cana


Disso
consider
canal sys
major spi
less than
Abou
carried to
Apalach"
annual lo


Blesecker
1975


Brown, E
1970



Curtis, W
1973


Dole, R
1909


Judson,
1964

Kaufman
1972

Leifeste,
1974

Livingsto
1963 i


Slack, L
1973 (


Snell, L .
1970 (


.. .. .. .,R

o ~ ---

004. l

It '^ ? irr -i ^ :: I1 ..-... :" ," "






Z--tO ST 'sue





onC. .. --



mates of dissolvwd-solids loads, in millions of tons per year, o -
ng from Flond surface water into the Gulf of Mexico and I
ntic Ocean are siown on the map. The average annual load TABLE 1-Dissolved solids concentratios and loads for C, 1 ^- t f<: --
ng into these two bodies of water is about 13 million tons of selected springs of Flornda. s
-i i.' Lonstansto the
theSt Johns Average Average Average
6 million tons), Apalachicola River (1.6 million tons), and Map load, tons discharge concentration
annee River (14 million tons)l the combined load of all other no. Spring per year (ft/s) (mg/1) H 1.40 i

cause load is a fnction of both flow and dssolved-solds 8 Ichatucknee Springs 140,000 361 175 -'^ S i i i-
itio. changes neither or both parameters would be 10 Rainbow Springs 80000 763 91
in the load calculation Load, flow. concentrations, and 11 Silver Springs 210,000 820 26 & 9
od per square mile of drainage area are shown on tahle 2 for 13 Blur Springs 135,0 162 827
stions. The load delivered by he Apalach a River 15 HooaSprings 175,000 06a 1,490 -
manrly as aresul of sthe high volumeofstreaflow; but the 16 oWeekwachae Springs 30,000 176 0 169 0 .
low in dissolved solids concentration. The Suwannee laver 1 h eS g06
less volume o' flow than the Apalachicola, but it hasn a aComputed discharge for main spring only 7 .
average dissolved-solids concentration, resulting in a high *
St Johns River with both high flow volume and high -.
-solids concentrations generates the greatest load The _
oulated for the other stations shown in table 2 are relatively
prison, but also show the relation to flow volume uad TABLE 2 -Dssolved-solids cocen.trtons and loads for seletevd rirs and coals n FloridaI A<
order to compare rates of denudation of basins of different Average Average Average Yield, tons "" ". '"
Is in tons per sqsaore mile per year, were calculated Table 2 Map load, tons discharge nntration per square mile
t the rates of e ratesofdr udation vary fromabout 60 to 140 ton per no Station per year (ft/) (mg1) peryear
i d c o .... i -n d~o -i 1 Escambia River nearCentury 370,000 6,033 66 96(104)a -
due to the dissclved-solids contributions of Silver Springs 3 Choctawhatchee River at Caryvlle 270,000 5328 54 76 I
S. r 1 i rom he 4 ApalachicolaveratChattahoche 1200,000 22,100 58 7064) "
i r 1970 p 6 Withlacoochee Rver near Pmeitta 130,000 1,645 139 61 '
7 Suwannee River at Branford 980,000 6,920 161 16 "
s carried by springs were computed only for springs 9 St Marys River near Macclenny 40,000 689 69 64 '
ig substantially o rivers considered for thi map Of such 12 St Johns River near DeLand 1,900,00 ,212 643 614(583)
Blue Springs adds about 135,000 tonstothe annual load of 14 Withlacoochee River near Holder 190,000 1,146 181 104 ,, --
hns River, Sllve-Springs about 210000 ons peryear to the 19 Kisimmee River near Okeechobee 150,000 2,188 92 Indeterminate '

a River, lchtucnee Springs about40,000 tonsperyear t 20 St. Lucie Caal near Stuart 470,000 1,105 439 Indeterminate ( )| '
nee River, an Wakulla Springs about 60,000 tons per 21 Peace Riever atArcadia 190,000 1,212 208 138 I ,
he St. Marks River (table 1). 22 Myakka River near Sarasota 20,000 260 93 93 :
Is are the main conduits for dissolved-sohds discharge for 24 Tamiami Canal near Miami 50,000 252 238 Indeterminate L :
rida The total oad discharged by the canals to the ocean -' N,'. s .21 '% r .*o.-..sa "
-r .,Th to l -. .-dishargd year or 17 percent aData in parentheses computed from Leifeste (1974) !_-_ "
S" .of Martin County 0.12
201 and the Caloosahatchee River in Lee County (station 23) '
e about 470,000 and 550,000 tons respectively The Caloosa- a a m. .. ', ': 's 1 \"
iver is a controlled nverand,in this report, is considered to i s 0

SUMMARY i... olm it 0. o4o oso0 c
ilved-solds concentrations in Florida surface waters show n iis e s w w E 0
able statewide wriatior +. i ,-C
tem of south Frinda, tii i. .. o .-
rings Other Florida surface waters have concentrations of o a 000 w i.l -
200mg/1 wo I.:L
ut sixty-six perovnt of the annual dissolved-solids load is I. so -.La -
the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean by the St Johns, S o -
cola, and Suwannee Rivers. About seventeen percent of the ti 1 S I -
ad is carriedby ianals and 17 percent bythe smallerrivers DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 00 5 /
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
SELECTED REFERENCES | i BUREAU OF GEOLOGY :
r. E public document was promulgated at a total _
(and Leifeste, i K ) Water quality in hydrologic bench 1n Tlis public document was promulgated at a total 4
marks-n indocator of afterr quality in the natural *s i --- n cost of $789.95 or a per copy cost of $.39 for the
environment: U 3 Geol Survey Circ 460-E, 21 p purpose of disseminating hydrologic data.

(and Skougstad, M W and Fishman, M J) Methods for I ..../ \
collection and analysts of water samples for dissolved si s- as...us--- --s --- e so
manerads and gases US Geol Survey Techniques Water- 4 24,, e e 5
Resources Inv., lok 5, chap Al., p 144-147 SEcFIC COnDsCTC, N Ui MOOS ra CnTITER AT zs c a 0.16

and Culbertson J. K and Chase, E B Flu al sediment Figure 1.-Relation between dissolved-solids load and specific conductance EXPLANATION
discharge to the ean from the conterminous United States for the St. Johns River near Cocoa, Fla. (station 17) and the .E.. E E [ .. // /
US. Gool Survey Cira 670, 17 p Suwanntee River at Branford, Fla. (station 7). ESTIMATED AVERAGE CONCENTRATIONS \'
B OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS, IN MILLIGRAMS -
(and Stabler, Herman) Denudaton im Papers on the PER LITRE -
conservation of toter resources US Cool. Survey Water- s o i -oi soe so s o ie is0 -1s
Supply Paper 234,78-93 p Less than 100 200-350
Sheldon 11iss o
/and Ritter, D F.) Ratos of denudations in the United ., ,'"'200
States:Jour. Geophys. Research,v. 69, no. 16,p3395-401. 100-200 35 00 -
,M I .sin
... ... Greater than 500

DR K t "o -AVERAGE LOAD OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS,
Dlssolved-sotlds discharge to the o.eans from the con- g '" IN TONS PER YEAR
terms United State US ol Survey Circ 685, 8 p. IN TON PER YEAR
.ne, D A l 1,000-10,000 500,000-1,000,000
Chemcal compttion of rivers and lakes in Data of 1"0
geochemistry (6th ed.) US Geol Survey Prof Paper 440-G,
Gl-G4 p 10,000-100,0 00,000ooo -5,0oo00,00ooo

(and Kanfman, Matthew I ) Specific conductance of water in s 0 l 5 --0 1, _. o -
Florida streams and canals Florida Dept Nat. Resources, 100,000-500,000 5,000,000-10,000,000
Map Ser. 58 I
J. ESTIMATED DISSOLVED SOLIDS, IN MILLIONS '
(and Anderson, Warren) Water resources of northeast --I_.-- -- --- 9 0.16,- OF TONS PESR YEAR tTSICHARG.ED TO CGTT.LF


Florida. Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Rept. Inv 54, 77 p.


LOO OF DISCHARGE, IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 2.-Relation between dissolved-solids load and stream-flow for the
Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee, Fla. (station 4) and the
Myakka River near Sarasota (station 22).


OF MEXICO OR ATLANTIC OCEAN
WATER QUALITY DATA STATIONS
Numbered Stations Referenced in Text, Tables, or Figures
02 STREAM OR CANAL
6 SPRING

I I


87.


o 40 SO MILES


I


at-


s(


82.


r31


27"


FLORIDA GEO-O) 1C SURVE-Y MAP


~P


SERIES !OCT,'

A


MAP SERIES NO. 77


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