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Chemical quality of water used for municipal supply in Florida, 1975 ( FGS: Map series 82 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000330/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chemical quality of water used for municipal supply in Florida, 1975 ( FGS: Map series 82 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 82 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 41 x 51 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Phelps, G. G
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Water Resources Management
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Fla. Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water quality -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water -- Composition -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Water -- Composition -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Water quality -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Water -- Composition -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G. G. Phelps ; prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Bureau of Water Resources Management.
Bibliography: Bibliography.
General Note: Includes text, notes, 2 insets, and table of water composition data.
Funding: Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001818875
oclc - 07693879
notis - AJP2836
lccn - 80695094 /MAPS
System ID: UF90000330:00001

Full Text


MAP SERIES NO. 82


87-


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


a85 -84


81"


28+


26'


25s


CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER USED
FOR MUNICIPAL SUPPLY
IN FLORIDA, 1975

By
G. G. Phelps

Prepared by
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
BUREAU OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Tallahassee, Florida
1978

INTRODUCTION
All surface and ground waters contain dissolved chem-
ical constituents. The rocks at and near land surface,
through such processes as solution and erosion, are the
principal source of these chemical constituents. Not only
rock type, but also solubility, size and purity of mineral
crystals, rock texture, porosity, and regional structure
control the chemical composition of the hydrologic environ-
ment. However, only a few (generally less than 10) chemi-
cal constituents are present in water in appreciable con-
centrations. Among the most abundant constituents are
calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sul-
fate, and chloride. Of these, calcium, magnesium, sodium
and potassium are termed cations (positively charged) and
the others are termed anions (negatively charged). Many
other elements or combinations of elements (compounds)
occur in water but-except where sometimes introduced by
man-usually are present in very low concentrations.
In 1975, the Geological Survey collected water sam-
ples from wells and streams used by more than 120 Florida
municipalities. Included in the collection program was a
sample at each county seat in the state. Water samples
were analyzed mainly for the common chemical constitu-
ents given above; the concentration of several selected
trace constituents were also determined.
The large map shows the proportions of major
constituents in water from each county in Florida. The
concentrations are plotted in percentages of milli-
equivalents per liter, a valid procedure inasmuch as in all
water the positive and negative ions are in balance. This
graphical method of representation is sometimes referred
to as a "pie diagram." When several water supplies in the
same county were sampled, the sample with the highest
dissolved solids concentration is shown. This was done only
to emphasize areas where the poorest quality water is
found, at least with regard to dissolved solids. Therefore,
the dissolved solids in water from other parts of a parti-
cular county is probably equal or less in concentration.

QUALITY OF UNTREATED WATER
Throughout virtually all of Florida, water is of a mixed
anion-cation type with calcium and bicarbonate generally
predominating. Such a predominance of calcium and bi-
carbonate gives rise to a water with a fairly high hardness.
As figure 1 shows, most of the water in the state has a
hardness of at least 180 mg/L (milligrams per liter) The
rocks at and near land surface-those that are a major
influence on chemical composition of water-are of lime-
stone (CaCO) and therefore the fact that Florida's water is
high in hardness is to be expected.
As discussed earlier, water contains a large number of
chemical constituents. Information about some of them,
and their significance, is summarized in table 1.

BASIS FOR QUALITY RECOMMENDATIONS
Information about the quality of surface and ground
water used for municipal supply is important to the public
and to water managers alike. When the dissolved solids
concentration in a water is high some of the material can
come out of solution (precipitate) during transport, or
storage, resulting in a buildup of scale on the inside
surface of piping-sometimes so thick that flow ceases.
Water containing high concentrations of some constituents
can corrode pipes and exposed metal surfaces, or at
least stain plumbing fixtures. Staining is common when
porcelain plumbing fixtures are exposed to a water whose
concentration of iron is more than 0.3 mg/L (fig. 2).
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has de-
fined water-quality recommendations for untreated (raw)
water in order to allow the production of a "safe, clear,
potable, aesthetically pleasing and acceptable public water
supply after treatment" (National Academy of Sciences and
National Academy of Engineering, 1973, p. 50-51).
The need for such recommendations is obvious: the
chemical quality of untreated water is important because
often its quality determines the quality of the treated water
piped to a home for drinking and for domestic use. For
example, water treatment by most municipalities consists
of filtration, aeration, and disinfection with chlorine; proce-
dures that do not, for example, cause the dissolved solids
concentration in the treated water to be significantly less
than what it was in the untreated water. A high concen-
tration of dissolved solids is undesirable because of taste,
possible physiological effects, economic consequences of
corrosion, scale buildup, and excessive consumption of soap.
In 1962, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended a
limit of 500 mg/L of dissolved solids in water intended for
domestic use. The basis. for that limit, along with the
foregoing, was the assumption that if the concentration
were higher, the water might contain some constituents
undesirable to some users. However, because in many areas
it is not economically feasible to provide water with a
dissolved solids concentration as low as 500 mg/L and
because no ill effects have been observed from the use of
water exceeding 500 mg/L in dissolved solids, no recom-
mendation has been made to limit the concentration of
dissolved solids (National Academy of Sciences and Na-
tional Academy of Engineering, 1973, p. 90).


- -7-


Water hardness is another property of interest to con-
sumers, but for which no recommended limits have been
established. Calcium and magnesium ions are the primary
causes of hardness, which is usually reported as equivalent
concentrations of calcium carbonate.
The pH of water (hydrogen ion activity) is important
because it affects the rate and magnitude of many chemical
reactions in water, which can affect treatment processes.
The pH of most untreated (raw) waters ranges from 5.0 to
9.0 and it is recommended (National Academy of Sciences
and National Academy of Engineering, 1973) that water
whose pH is outside this range should not be used for public
supplies. All the samples of untreated water supplying
municipalities had a pH that is within the recommended
range.
The physical properties of untreated water, such as
color and turbidity, are also important quality characteris-
tics, particularly from an esthetic standpoint. Frequently,
color is caused by humic, fulvic, and other acids similar in
structure, and their removal is generally expensive and
impractical. Sometimes color at an aesthetically objection-
able level can be reduced by coagulation, sedimentation,
and filtration. Because color in water is aesthetically un-
desirable, a maximum of 75 platinum-cobalt color units is
recommended (National Academy of Sciences and National
Academy of Engineering, p. 63). Because many factors
determine the ease with which turbidity can be removed
from water, and also because it has been found not prac-
ticable in most circumstances to establish a turbidity rec-
ommendation in terms of turbidity units, no turbidity limit
has been established for untreated water. For example, a
water with 30 turbidity units may coagulate more rapidly
than one with 5 or 10 units. Conversely, water with 30
turbidity units sometimes may be more difficult to coagu-
late than water with 100 units (National Academy of
Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, 1973,
p. 90).
In summn-ry, nearly all the untreated water from both
surface-water and ground-water sources in Florida meets
the recommended limits of the EPA for chemical and
physical properties as described in National Academy of
Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (1973) and
cited in table 1. Those counties where exceptions occur, with
respect to iron and ammonia concentrations, are shown in
figure 2. In a few counties some of the water supply contains
more than 0.3 mg/L of iron and 0.5 mg/L of ammonia (as
nitrogen); however, this does not necessarily mean that the
water from these counties is not usable for most purposes
after adequate treatment.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Causey, L. V.
1965 Availability of ground water in Talladega County,
Alabama: Geol. Survey of Alabama Bull. 81, 63 p.
Durfor, C. N., and Becker, Edith
1964 Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in
the United States, 1963: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1812, 364 p.
Healy, H. G.
1977 Public water supplies of selected municipalities of
Florida, 1975: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Resources
Inv. 77-53, 309 p.
Hem, J. D.
1970 Study and interpretation of the chemical charac-
teristics of natural water: U.S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1473. 363 p.
National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of
Engineering
1973 Water quality criteria 1972: (U.S.) Environmental
Protection Agency rept. EPA R3 73 033,594 p.
U.S. Public Health Service
1962 Drinking water standards, 1962: U.S. Public
Health Service Pub. 956, 61 p.


DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

This public document was promulgated at a total
cost of $792.00 or a per copy cost of $.39 for the
pureose of disseminstins hvdroloeic data.


EXPLANATION

The symbols show the dissolved solids concentrations of the poorest quality municipal supply water
sampled in each county (see text). The size of the symbol indicates dissolved solids concentration












Calcium + Magnesium Sulfate

adi Sodium + Potassium [- Chloride

SBicarbonate


The concentration of a constituent is not shown if less than 1 percent. Concentrations are in milli
equivalents per literThe location of the symbol is ot necesaly that ofthe sampling point. Data for











*Han n a

mnaw mB icabnt
Monroe County represents analysis of saline water pumped for use by desalination plant



itunit Source and () ..alub sity roEffoots o' ra:g/L Content Source od ) oubilty Effects
Moat abundant elent m Cas role in Arsenic DOaolved from rocks Inufficient data but



0. .b.. .. ... vo
to oAlutnn d mrb.o blade water ontaho; g










dllby plea s ui Klp0 p
Vy au elh, Sm aud a 1se
e abundant tha h ,, Sta. laudr0 y and- Ctro.ium U .ally from dusal .siseto
estin owe porcelan, ]mpart ,plea, 0 05 6 p Pollihon dat
0. .,t tate,o Copper Widely distributed Trace .mouts
Ds solved from most element e ntial to phant
c espe ally l .- Cau s b d e ] a- d mla ut -
o and dolite00 forms boiler ale.,. uS- .0a0
0m4s-e s-1 troctur anl -

,ana w. 5.^, i gl.1w. rhow i .id,
D _________from_4l., 0n ao Mead Diilvad indu tpeal Poitonois to
ci.., h yo n'.0 reo oess s J *
Aa .d l dolo0 boilers and e-bso water
m -te and ils0. eme0t f boier steel



l Sparingly double, seldom Small a'modns a !d 142c4c' d,.oi'.d
found n -sol p t deed Zinc Industra. wase, ga- Unleasat tate
wases exep as pl- dcy ihCD nwtrvna ie sle
age, soeswg etaio a eprtr ro abnt of


Nitrate(. N) s ... -so m- Ca. hae m iot ong mo m
decompostion, bateia 0r0ns. Can ren.
pollution
Amnioma Aniimal wastes, sewage or Hinders the ability
ndcecelal ho,.. 0,f, ch~obn 0...


Hardness (mg/L)


0-60
61-120
- 121-180

Greater
than 180


soft

moderar't l. ardO
hard


very hard


K


C

cx
'1-
a A

r~C.


Re0o esnoude


005



oopl..x

,teractlo.


poau water
50


1'


~1.


0.1, 0,,d byho.,,, S... .d Co ..b~bcaii
,.a.,O,, mll, ~ l 0.,.oiicdd h ~ .0.,,
Th~bd,5 .'.dhy eocl. C. 0 iy .7
6jis ,hc0...i, ,coceO
10 ,.0,.cio012

oz. .. .


SIron concentration
exceeds 0.3 mg/L



Ammonia concentration
exceeds 0.5 mg/L


Iron concentration
exceeds 0.3 mg/L and
ammonia concentra-
tion exceeds 0.5 mg/L

Figure 2.-Counties in which one or more sources of municipal
water supply exceed recommended concentration limits for iron and
ammonia (see Table 1) (U.S. Public Health Service, 1962).
I I


I G S
FLORIDA GEOLOGIC SURVEY MAFP



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G 3931
.CI1
No .82
1975
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