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Temperature of Florida streams ( FGS: Map series 43 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000273/00001
 Material Information
Title: Temperature of Florida streams ( FGS: Map series 43 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 43 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 40 x 50 cm.
Scale: Scale [ca. 1:2,000,000]
Language: English
Creator: Anderson, Warren
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: Florida Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1975
Edition: Rev. 1975.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Rivers -- Temperature -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water temperature -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rivers -- Temperature -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Water temperature -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Rivers -- Temperature -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Water temperature -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1975   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Polygon: 31 x -88, 25 x -88, 25 x -80, 31 x -80 ( Map Coverage )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Warren Anderson ; prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources.
Bibliography: "Reference."
General Note: "1971."
General Note: Includes text, 5 graphs, and statistical table.
Funding: Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001824531
oclc - 09598403
notis - AJP8562
System ID: UF90000273:00001

Full Text



MAP SERIES NO. 43


REVISED


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


89 as* 87* 86* 50S4* 63*8
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TEMPERATURE OF FLORIDA STREAMS

by
Warren Anderson

Prepared by
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1971
REVISED 1975


1-1"


26-1-


25- -


The variations in air temperatures and stream temperatures in northern and
southern Florida are compared in figures 2 and 3. Although the range in air
temperature fluctuations is much greater than that in water temperature
fluctuations, the monthly average temperatures of the air and streams differ little
in either northern or southern Florida. The average difference between the mean
monthly maximum and the mean monthly minimum air temperatures is about 50
percent greater in northern Florida than in southern Florida. This indicates the
secondary importance of heat transfer between a stream and the air.
The percentage of days that the diurnal range in water temperature of
Sopchoppy River and Taylor Slough equals or exceeds a specific number of
degrees is shown by figure 4. A curve prepared for Santa Fe River so closely
resembles the curve for Sopchoppy River that it is not shown on figure 4. The
two curves on figure 4 also show that the diurnal water temperature is more stable
in north Florida than in south Florida. The distribution of diurnal temperature
variations of most Florida streams will probably fall within the limit defined by
the two curves on figure 4 except for those fed by springs. Also, though not
indicated by figure 4, the number of days during which no change in water
temperature occurred ranged from 25 percent of the days of the record for
Sopchoppy River to 16 percent for Santa Fe River and only 2 percent for Taylor
Slough.
The percentage of days that temperatures are likely to be equaled or
exceeded in northern and southern Florida are shown in figure 5. The average
water temperature for a day for the Miami Canal is apt to be slightly less than the
observed daily temperatures indicated by the Miami Canal curve because daytime
temperatures average slightly higher than the average for the day. The curves for
the Sopchoppy River show the percent of days the daily maximum and minimum
water temperatures are likely to be equaled or exceeded. Additional data on
temperature duration characteristics of Florida streams are given in table 1 for 12
streams distributed throughout the State. This table shows the average number of
days per year that selected water temperatures were equaled or exceeded, October
1, 1964 to September 30, 1967.
REFERENCE

U.S. Weather Bureau,
Climatological Data, Florida: Monthly summaries, 1959-68, v. 63-72,
nos. 1-12.


The temperature of Florida's streams influence to some extent their use for
all purposes. Temperatures are an important property of water to consider when
planning for municipal, industrial, power generation, and other uses.
Temperatures affect the chemical, physical, and biological condition of a stream.
The amounts of solids and gases dissolved by a stream depend partly on its
temperature and thus temperature influences the suitability of a stream for
aquatic life. Further, through its influence on mineral and gas content and on
biological activity, temperature affects the taste, odor, and appearance of water.
Thus, stream temperatures are of interest in some measure to almost everyone.
Stream temperatures tend to fluctuate daily and seasonally with air
temperatures but over a smaller range. Shallow slow-flowing nonshaded streams
exhibit a greater daily and seasonal fluctuation in temperature than deeper
fast-flowing shaded streams. Ground-water inflow to a stream tends to reduce the
range of its temperature fluctuations. The long-term average temperature of a
natural stream is normally about the same as the long-term average air
temperature in the vicinity of the stream. However, appreciable inflow of
geothermally heated water from deep aquifers raises average stream temperatures
above average air temperatures at places in Florida. Further, inflow of artificially
__ heated waters such as from power plants, industries, and effluent from cities also
increases the maximum and average temperatures of a stream.
Natural warming of streams is primarily by solor radiation insolationn) and
secondarily by heat transfer from the air and stream bed. A stream occasionally
may be warmed slightly by vapor condensation at its surface. Cooling is largely by
radiation augmented by surface evaporation and heat transfer to the air and
stream bed.
The long-term average temperature of Florida streams within 4 degrees F is
approximated by the zones delineated on the map. The accompanying graphs and
the table show how air and water temperatures vary with respect to each other, to
time, and to geographic location. In general, the patterns of variation in
temperature of Florida streams are similar to and within the range encompassed
by the graphs and table. Stream temperatures were obtained at the 140 sites
shown on the map, generally between 1956 and 1968 as a part of the hydrologic
monitoring network and do not represent an intense study. The data consist of an
average of 70 temperature readings collected at 4- to 8-week intervals at 92 sites,
daily temperature readings at 43 sites and thermograph records at 5 sites. The
periodic and daily temperature readings were taken during daylight hours when
water temperatures generally were higher than the average for the day. These data
were adjusted to reflect 24-hour averages.
The zones delineated on the map show north-to-south increase in stream
temperatures. The position of the lines separating the zones are generalized and
were determined by the adjusted long-term average water temperature at the 140
sites. The northwestward bulges of the 68-72 and 72-76 degree zones may be
attributed to inflow from the artesian aquifer to streams in these areas. The causes
of the slightly warmer water temperatures in the western part of the 72-76 degree
bulge are not apparent but they may be associated with several large lakes, at
least one of which receives water from the artesian aquifer.
The highest and lowest stream temperatures observed in Florida since 1956
were 100 degrees F for Fisheating Creek near Venus (Station 2560) and 34
degrees F for Ochlockonee River near Havana (Station 3290). The Sopchoppy
River in northern Florida and Miami Canal in southern Florida were selected to
show how water temperatures vary with time, location and air temperatures. The
range in observed temperatures of these streams, 40 degrees F to 98 degrees F,
encompasses the range in temperature likely to occur elsewhere in the State.
The effect of geographic location on the seasonal variation in stream
temperatures is demonstrated by figure 1. Although the seasonal pattern of
temperature fluctuation is somewhat similar, the seasonal range in temperatures is
greater in northern Florida than in southern Florida with temperatures much
lower in the north than in the south in winter and more nearly the same
throughout the State in summer. Also, the peak of the average monthly
temperature in the south is in September, 3 months later than in the north, even
through average monthly maximums coincide in June.
Streams that derive a significant part of their flow from deep aquifers do
not conform to this seasonal pattern. Instead, such streams exhibit more stable
temperatures and are lower in summer and higher in winter than those of adjacent
streams unaffected by aquifer inflow. The location of many of the first and
second magnitude springs that influence the temperatures of some Florida
streams, especially when their flow constitutes a major part of the stream
discharge, are shown on the map.


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 IK
PERCENT OF DAYS VARIATION WAS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED
Figure 5. Cumulative frequency curves of daily temperature of water
in Sopchoppy River (June 1964 to September 1968) and Miami
Canal (December 1958 to December 1967).


86*


DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
This public document was promulgated at a total
cost of $269.00 or a per copy cost of $.11 for the
purpose of disseminating hydrologic data.


FLORIDA GEOLOGIC SURVEY MAP SERIES


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Figure 1. Average monthly means and extremes in water temperatures atof Figure 3. Average monthly means and extremes in air temperature at ---
Sopchoppy River (June 1964 to September 1968) a n d Miami Canal Miami International Airport and waterily temperature varof Miation
(December 1958 to September 1967). Canal (December 1958 to September(June 1967).4 to September 1968) COLL tR
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n 3290. O e hlockonee River 364 341 242 150 9 0 oeecoee


























SR1 p 6m3215. Santa Fe River 365 358 291 193 34 0 A Periodic Water-Temperature Readings
I e t t3205. Suwannee River 3658 361 307r 205 1590 (at selected sites)7. NDIA
__3034. Cypress Creek 365 365 339 243 116 0 Weather Bureau Air-Temperature













SSOPCHOPPY RI AVER AGE MONTHLY MAXIMUM 430 2745. Taylor Creek 365 365 361 311 1 4 LEE HENDRY BEACH
-- 2565. Fisheating Creek 365 364 359 256 72 0 Spring (First Or Second Magnitude)
S- 2385. Oklawaha River 365 364 324 218 116 0

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of water in Sopchoppy Rer r (June 1964 to September 1968) 00 i u ( T \ 3680 1 Numer(SeTbl1















S50 2956.37 Peace River 365 364 343 240 131 0 Records
SOPCHOPPY RIVER 0 2745. Taylor Creek 365 365 361 311 185 4

-M--- Oklawaha River 365 364 324 218 116 01
-Fa SO 2324. St. Johns River 365 364 351 257 140 0 3680 Station Number (See Table 1) 1
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