Average flow of major streams in Florida ( FGS: Map series 34 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000263/00001
 Material Information
Title: Average flow of major streams in Florida ( FGS: Map series 34 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Map series 34 )
Physical Description: 1 map : col. ; 40 x 50 cm.
Scale: Scale [ca. 1:2,000,000]
Language: English
Creator: Kenner, William E
Hampton, E. R
Conover, Clyde Stuart, 1916-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: The Bureau
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1969
Subjects / Keywords: Stream measurements -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Stream-gaging stations -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Streamflow -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Stream measurements -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Stream-gaging stations -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Streamflow -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Stream measurements -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Stream-gaging stations -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Streamflow -- 1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
1:2,000,000 -- Florida -- 1967   ( local )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
single map   ( marcgt )
Maps   ( lcsh )
Polygon: 31 x -88, 24 x -88, 24 x -80, 31 x -80 ( Map Coverage )
Statement of Responsibility: by W.E. Kenner, E.R. Hampton, and C.S. Conover ; prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources.
General Note: "Average flow is for the period of record prior to September 30, 1967 ..."
General Note: Also shows gaging stations.
General Note: Includes text.
Funding: Map Series (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001853069
oclc - 09685120
notis - AJS7429
lccn - 83693768 /MAPS
System ID: UF90000263:00001

Full Text


89 88a 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 800

Al AP SER I ES NO. 34, 1969

published by BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


W. E. Kenner, E. R. Har

in cooperate
The flow of streams varies daily, seasonally, and from year to
year, depending upon the weather and climate. Because of these
variations, determination of a fairly reliable average flow requires
at least a 5 year record of flow. The degree of reliability of the
average increases with the length of record used; about 30 years
of record is considered sufficient for most natural streams.
In Florida a major stream (as used in this study) is one that
has an average flow of at least 1,000 cfs (cubic feet per second),
equivalent to 646 mgd (million gallons a day) or 1,983 acre-feet
a day. Defined thusly and based on estimated flows at mouths or
outlets, Florida has 11 major streams.
The average flow of major streams in Florida is shown on the
attached map by the blue overprint. Average flow is for the
period of record prior to September 30, 1967, which is generally
25 or more years for each stream. The flow of some smaller
streams is also shown in order to better portray the areal range
of average flow. Flows of the larger canals in southern Florida
also have been depicted, though usually the canals are not
classed as streams, and their flow is regulated.
The average flow of a stream depends on size of drainage
basin, topography, climate, geology, and land development. In
general, the drainage basins in northern Florida are large
compared with those in southern Florida; topographic relief is
greater, evaporation rate is lower, lakes are fewer, and the land is
developed to a lesser degree. In general, therefore, average flow
of streams in northern Florida is greater than that for streams in
southern Florida. Four of Florida's five largest streams are in
northern Florida. They are the Apalachicola, Suwannee,
Choctawhatchee, and Escambia Rivers. The third largest stream,
the St. Johns River, drains both southern and northern Florida.
Except for the St. Johns River, all five of the largest rivers derive
flow from beyond the borders of Florida.
Florida's largest stream, the Apalachicola River, is formed by
the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers at the
Georgia-Florida line. The Apalachicola River drains 19,600
square miles, of which 17,200 square miles are in Alabama and
Georgia and 2,400 square miles in Florida. At the Florida line
the average flow of the Apalachicola River is 22,000 cubic feet
per second, or about 14,000 mgd. Jim Woodruff Dam, at the
Georgia-Florida line, impounds the river to form Lake Seminole
(about 37,500 acres). Other large reservoirs upstream include
Lake Sidney Lanier and Lake Harding in Georgia. At the Gulf of
Mexico the average flow of the Apalachicola River is about
16,000 mgd.
The Chipola River is the largest of the Florida tributaries to
the Apalachicola River. The average flow of the Chipola River
near Altha is 980 mgd.
The Suwannee River, which drains about 10,000 square miles,
is the second largest river in Florida. The Suwannee River heads
in the Okefenoke Swamp of southern Georgia and flows
southward to the Gulf of Mexico. At the Georgia-Florida line the
flow averages about 1,000 mgd and increases rapidly
downstream because of contributions from the numerous
springs. The Suwannee River has two main tributaries, the
Withlacoochee and the Santa Fe Rivers. The Withlacoochee
River drains about 2,300 square miles in Florida and southern
Georgia and adds about 1,100 mgd to the flow of the Suwannee.
The Santa Fe River drains about 1,600 square miles in northern
Florida and adds about 1,500 mgd. The Santa Fe River is
unusual because the river enters the ground near Oleno State
Park and emerges about three miles downstream to continue its
course as a surface stream. The average flow of the Suwannee
River, at its mouth, is about 11,000 mgd.
Large springs that flow into the Suwannee River or its
tributaries include White Springs, Suwannee Springs, Troy
Spring, Ichatucknee Spring, Rock Bluff Spring, Fannin Spring,
and Manatee Spring. Four of these springs- Troy, Ichatucknee,
Fannin and Manatee, are first magnitude springs with flows
averaging at least 100 mgd, and together discharge an average of
about 500 mgd to the Suwannee.
The St. Johns River, the third largest river in the state, heads
in the marshes west of Vero Beach and meanders northward 275
miles, roughly paralleling the east coast and flowing into the


0 to 20 30 40 50 MILES


_Lake Sidney Lan/er -A

SSSANTAM IOS AR M O Gracov He Ile- t \

WALTON Coryv druff Dom Okefenokee
n aS.OKALOOSA | y -- O--OEN -- --"T''-- ----
Atlatic Ocea- e of JaksnOe IL ,a b os o m
SJEFFERSOHA MLTON UVAL No net discharge to ocean from St. Johns
Theao t Ok aha lh s sAY O p Whie River for periods of 30 days or more.



npton, and C. S. Conover "--- J


EE, FLORIDA Lake Orngef
)69 1 % OIonlt
Atlantic Ocean east of Jacksonville. Its principal tributary is the For purposes of comparison, the flow during the month of b L _ge
Oklawaha River, which has an average flow of 1,400 mgd and lowest flow of record is shown for Florida's five largest MARI / ON LoeQ
drains nearly 2,900 square miles in the northeastern part of the streams. The lowest monthly flow of the Escambia River is Lake, VOL USI
peninsula. The St. Johns drains about 9,400 square miles and its 477 mgd, and that of the Oklawaha River, a principal Yonkeeto r e
average flow exceeds 3,700 mingd. tributary of the St. Johns, is 500 mgd-about the smallest a 0
The main stem of the St. Johns River connects several large value that can be shown at the scale of this map. The abrupt L3LAKE
lakes, which, in downstream order, are Lakes Washington, increase in the flow during the month of lowest flow of 4Ki11- L.
Poinsett, Harney, Monroe, Beresford, Dexter, and Lake George. record of the Choctawhatchee and Suwannee Rivers occurs ab tUS L. Dora 'n
The major tributary, the Oklawaha River, also has large tributary below points of substantial spring in flow. The break in lowL.
and channel lakes, including Lakes Apopka, Dora, Eustis, Louisa, flow on the Santa Fe River, the principal tributary of the SUMTER
Minnehaha, Harris, Griffin, Orange, and Lochloosa. Suwannee, occurs in a three-mile reach below O'leno State 'I SEMINOLE.
The Choctawhatchee River is the fourth largest stream in the Park where the River flows under ground. No low flow to the HEA No L.ke Apop
state. With headwaters in southeastern Alabama it enters Florida ocean is shown for the St. Johns River because for periods of ORANGE
near Graceville and flows southwestward into Choctawhatchee a month or more, the net flow of the River at Jacksonville is ooo,
Bay at the Gulf. It drains about 4,600 square miles, of which inland. Green
about 3,100 square miles are in Alabama and 1,500 square miles PS
are in Florida. At Caryville, 15 miles south of the state line, the o
average flow of the Choctawhatchee River is about 3,500 mgd; -. -ITo %'k\li
at its mouth the average flow exceeds 4,500 mgd. B e L. Htchineho r rthopLt*.n
The major tributaries to the Choctawhatchee River in Florida OSCEOLA
include Wrights Creek, Sardy Creek, Holmes Creek, and Pine
Log Creek. Holmes Creek, the largest, has an average flow of 40 HILLSBOROUGH 0. ~
million gallons a day. POLK
The Escambia River in extreme northwestern Florida is the L. W yokop -
fifth largest stream in the state. Escambia Creek and the -
Conecuh River join a few miles south of the Alabama-Florida c NDIAN RIVER
line to form the Escambia River, which flows southward into Vero Beech
Pensacola Bay. The river forms the boundary between Escambia ..- HIGHLANDS
and Santa Rosa counties. The Escambia River and its tributaries H -ARDEE-
drain 3,760 square miles in Alabama and 440 square miles in OKEE CHOBEE
Florida. The average flow of the Escambia River at the mouth of about ST. LUCTE
exceeds 4,000 million gallons a day. Pine Barren Creek and SARASOT ST.LUCIE
Canoe Creek are two of the largest tributaries to the Escambia in
In central peninsular Florida the largest stream is the S Co
Kissimmee River. With headwaters in southern Orange County, it a AT
flows southward and empties into Lake Okeechobee. It drains Lake r
approximately 3,000 square miles and has an average flow of .... .
about 1,500 mgd. Included among the large lakes in the CHARLOTTEGLADES Oeecobee
Kissimmee River basin are Lakes East Tohopekaliga, Coloosollaebe onal
Tohopekaliga, Hatchineha, Weohyakapka, and Kissimmee, which P r o
lie in the upper part, and Lakes Jackson, Istokpoga, Wihar of ble b o o Beach Co/.
June-in-Winter, and Placid, which lie in the lower part. e HE NY
Other large streams in central Florida include the LEEHENRY BEACH
Withlacoochee River, the Hillsborough River, and the Peace -L m
River. The Withlacoochee River drains about 2,000 square miles
and flows northwestward from headwaters in the Green Swamp 3 o
area into the Gulf of Mexico near Yankeetown. The average flow
at the mouth of the Withlacoochee River is about 1,300 mgd. EXPLANATION
The Hillsborough and Peace Rivers also have headwaters in the eowaR
Green Swamp area. The Hillsborough River, which flows C
westward into Tampa Bay, drains about 690 square miles and COLE R
has an average discharge at the mouth of about 460 mgd. The
Peace River flows southward into Charlotte Harbor. The average GagingStation
flow of the Peace River, which drains about 2,400 square miles, G gn St io

In southern Florida, streams for the most part are poorly -- Oule
developed and most of the drainage is through a system of canals -MONROEDA
that have been expanded and improved to relieve high water AE
conditions as the area has grown in population. Two of the larger 10-
canals in the area, the St. Lucie Canal (average discharge
1951-66, about 800 mgd) and the Caloosahatchee Canal average0
discharge 1938-66, about 700 mgd), drain excess water from 0
Lake Okeechobee, and together with the lake form a navigable Width of blue ribbon shows average flow of stream. Width
cross-state waterway. The discharge of the Caloosahatchee River
at the mouth is probably twice that of the canal, which carries of white ribbon shows flow during the month of lowest flow
only flow from Lake Okeechobee. Other important canals in of record for the five largest streams. Scale values, thousands-
southern Florida include the West Palm Beach Canal, the
Hillsboro Canal, the North New River Canal, and the Miami of million gallons per day.
Canal, which discharge, on the average, 600, 250, 350, and 350
mgd, respectively, to the ocean. In southernmost Florida the
Tamiami Trail outlets discharge an average of about 700 mgd
southward and westward toward the Gulf of Mexico.




250 L


-- 28B



- 2S-



G 39
0 (2