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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GELGIA SUVE MA SEIE NO.- 27 CT -0
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
published by DIVISION OF Gn E OLOY
CHEMICAL CHARACTER OF WATER IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
IN SOUTHERN PEACE RIVER BASIN, FLORIDA
M. I. Kaufman and N.P. Dion
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Figure 1. Location of ae
The chemie character of water from the artesi0n Floridan
eaquifer underlying the southern Peace River basic varies con-
siderably both really and vertically. Water from this aquifer is
used extensively throughout the southern Peace River basin,
with the primary use being for irrigation. In addition, most muni-
cipal and some industrial and domestic water is obtained from
the Floridan aquifer.
One factor that governs the use of water for various pur-
poses is its chemical quality Knowledge of variations in the
chemical character of water really, vertically, and with time
is needed to properly develop .water commensurate with its in-
tended use. Such knowledge is i obtain a better
understanding of the geologic the hydrologic
system in general and the ground-water flow pattern in part,
This report (1) portrays and discusses the real and ver.
tal variations in chemical quality. (2) analyzes the variations
in chemical character, and (3) presents a possible interpretation
of the observed patterns of distribution in terms of the hydrolo-
gic flow system The hydrologic parameters discussed include
the piezometric surface and directions of ground-water flow, the
temperature and chemical character of water in the Floridan
aquifer, and the related statigraphy.
The Peace River is in west-central Florida and drains an
area of approximately 2,000 square miles extending southward
from the Green Swamp area in northern Polk County to Charlotte
Harbor on the Gulf of Mexico The southern Peace River basin
e covered here, see figure ciludes all of Hardee and
and De Soto counties and most of Charlotte County.
The principal source of ground water in the southern Peace
River basin is the Floridan aquifer which is composed of marine
limestones and dolomites, Eocene to Miocene in age. Formations
that comprise the aquifer are, from oldest to youngest, the Lake
City Limestone, the Avon Park Limestone, the Ocala Group, the
Suwannee Limestone, the Tampa Formation, and the lower,
permeable zones of the Hawthorn Formation (see figure 2).
These formations dip gently and thicken to the south and west.
It should be noted that the nomenclature used in this report is
that of the Florida Geological Survey and not necessarily that
of the U.S. Geologcal Survey.
Variations in vertical and horizontal permeability occur
within the Florida aquifer throughout the area covered by thi
report. These variations along with aiatiors inarte man pres-
sure in the different zones of the aquifer control to some degree
the ground-water flow pattern and the hydrologic interconnection
among the several formations comprisismg the aquifer, andthere
fore, in part, control the water chemistry and temperature dis
MOVEMENT OF WATER
Figure 3 shows the pieaometrio surface of the upper part of
the Floridan aquifer in May 1965 and the generalized area of
arte ian flow. The principal recharge area for the south
Peace River basin is to the northeast and east along the Lake
Wales and Highlands ridges in Polk and Highlands counties.
The regional direction of ground-water movement is tothe south-
The patenormf artesianoth flo s tri o contours. The irregolr
shapeofrthe contours ep dcates devttians fo dtheoargi ona
direction of ppostmeation addition, pressure withal peth occursebi
lityhe viinity of the Peace River and withain the area of aroe-
nthate ters are under cauhigher pressures with increased depth.
donogadient directionof flow.
roe byvaratoion artesoian pore ith depth eth aho Ithe
Floridae aquifer. Wooded (1964) noted a decreaae in ortesine
prossre nwith depth of penetration into the aquifer in northwret
Harder and northeast Manatie ounces, This deor.ae in arte-
sian pressure nith depth creas a potential for downward mool-
meit of artesian te and p atesi local recharge. Similschargeon
dit in the uppedr part of the Floridan theaquifer to 14.6 feeCounty
An opposite elaion of artesian press or with depth occur,
ofthe ground watry of the Peace River and in parithi by theareavy ground-
water loportrayed from thigure aquifer. InThe fat threat the troughs indicate
thatowatr o ar ndoe higher pessr moth inprae d depth.
Thise ncrse ineirteliln preelmy h lh depth ,cealtes apoten-
tial for upward movement of arteoan water and loc Ial discharge.
rn(1966, p 97) reports tha pieometric were obseralongved tohe Peace
reae.from f4 land surface at a welldepth of510
feetupwardn the paper part of the riv loidn aer quiftoer4.6feetater
waterll depth ofn several varAles, such as yieldcomposition of thelow
has been n contact wth the aqui from 50and the overallons per
lution ghof the qupifer mineralsurfac in the downgradvicinty of the
PIeace P iaer (figure d) are cused i part by the upwar d leakage
depths of ground-water circulation part by heavygound
watplec pmpe and cthe .umical Th t andf he the tghypes
of analysesar available. The chemical charter and teimplythe of
eceofateis depicted both atilyhighy ndti n se action in figureng
s ened by waer from .dischge from the of d epth whilewar
(1the sections p 97) reportray vertical variations withinog the Paquifer across
yield wateinPolk County, odi tely o the ae siad by
upward leakage along the river.
CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER
In genmicral, he arater portrayed chemical charactro of ground
caused by combinationevels of the sble,veral uchvariacompobles motion of the
qfe, distance from rechag e ars, residence time these waterich
ha be i contact with the aqufer, and th eral withpaten the
grooud-wter circulation. Ic.nroes to mineral oon.ent relate to
directionoofwatrflow, allowing greateropportunityfor dis-
lotion of the aquifermmeoral in the dmwpadnmoent direction.
Inceres rin temperature we related primarily to increased
depths of ground-mater circulation.
the distributi of well, sam-
plec 0 end chemical nod the type.
of analysen asailahle. The chemical chacnter and temperature of
l nater is depicted both ,really and in section in figures
.I. The me, 0 tion an repre-
seeted by mater from 0 0 of depth while
the aenti.os pororay vertical variation. within the aquifer a.ross
the Peate R e instance. eral formations cay
yield mater to 0 T: ., .
water varoee both really and t,, 0 ewter
from welel being dependent upon location and depth.
The patterns of distribution of temperatue, ,mineral content,
and chemical character portrayed in figures 5 through 11 are
_aused by combination of the several variable mentioned
0, 0 0 0 comple, be-
S 0 0 0 eor within.the
.'.. 0 0 h-before befog
0 ugh I1 in more detailo1.
patties are caused in part by variationin vertical and orih-
zontl permeability and in part by artesian piessuore differences
within the aquifer, resulting in large variatios in the movement
of ground water thin the Floridan aquifer xaminaton of the
maps indicates that an approximate northeast-outhwest trending
linear one of relatively warm, highly m i eraozed water occur
In the general vicinity of the Peace River nd also in north
western De Soto and southetern Saurasota counties
To obtain an insight into the chemical character of artesia
atereinthe southern Pace a tre ri om thverln water ampls
w ereclassified into three major types, brIed on percent equl
valents per million. (See figure 10). A lassifation bt y chemical
types aids n understanding the origin and movement of the
are el an water.
Wa ter in western and eastern Hardee County and eastern
DeoSoto County is primarily a calcium bicarbnate type. In the
vicln"ty of the Peace River in central Hardee Couty and wes-
tern Desoto and sout eastern Srasota cones, the water is
predominantly a alciu oagnesiumon sulfate type, whereas, in
most of Charlotte County, the water is of a sodum chloride type.
lnterpmtation of these maps and a hetterudertanding of
the hydrogen hemical relations within the souhern Peace River
basin given by the threo.e tions showug hen vertial dis r
baton of temperature, total disoly d solids, and sulfate orn-
tent. The sections are at right angles to the Peace Reor in
central Hardee County (see figure 1 ).
The patterns on the section of figure 11 suggest an upward
coning of warm, mineralized water beneath the Perace River
An N-S line source of water into the aqufer from depth which is
different in quality and temperature from the overlyg waters
i therefore ndcated. Water in the Floridan aquifer underlying
the Peace River is generally higher in taemperatue and mineral
content than at equivalent depths somewhat to theeastor west
of the river. For example we olls drilled in toe vicnty of the
Peace River to depths of 600 to 700 feet below mI (mean sea
level) yield water wath a dissolved solids content greater than
500 ppm (parts per million), whereas wells drilled east or west
of the river to depths greater than 1,000 fee below m l yield
water with les than 250 ppm dissolved solids. The warm, min-
eralied water, as it ascend and moves awayfromits source
tends to e diluted by the addition of water circulating at more
The fact that the nhesr zonesof hgh temperature and high
minal content that underlie the Po tveri generally coincide,
and that the high mineral content is pimtaril due to calcor
nagnesoim, and oulfate suggests deep ground-wt oirculatio
and active solution of evaporites.
The Lake City and younger (ovelying) formation, that
comprie othe Floridan equifer co ntain little oror aporites
owthin the area of the report. According to Chen (1965, p. 44,
48, figures 27, 31), the underlying Cedar Keys Limestone of
Paleooene age and the Oldema Limestone of early Bocene age
contain extensie evaporites (gypsum and anhydrite) in the
southern Peace River basin area. These formations occur below
the loridan aqufer and repre ene the prhater oc for the
celium-magnes-.um sulfateoater The higher temperatures of
thesewaters reflect theirdeeperirculation
The coicidence, inortheastManteendnortmeatd
northeast Pardo couti o relativey low temperature,o
in coniurtionwthopr uredhaeddrcreaseith depth, indi-
,Itesdm=uown dmoveet f'artenianotwoatmr aodo loel rechgre.
The oindoore' i he viity oftheteacRRiverofrelatively
high temperature, high mineral content and a calciummnoagnesium
slfatetypeater ocurring oi conjunction lithad pressure
head incrs ithdepth, doai atesupwardmomoentof artean
water and localndischarge.
Based on the above analysis, artesan water from the Flora-
doaquifer in the vicinity of the Peace Ri should be both
older and more saturatedmoth repactto alci carbcon.atoethan
arte ian waters located in areo to the east and to the west-
noothwrst of the riers
The natural variations in permeability and ar -
gradients cause local deviations the general
system and result in a complex pattern of grond-water ircula-
tion. The circulation in turn is responsible for the observed
chemical character and temperature distribution patterns in the
southern Peace River basin
The temperature and chemical doistributions appear to .nd-
a deep grunted r roul aton and a-iveesolution of evo
rtos at depth, possibly in the Cedar Key. or tte Olddmar Limo.
tone and indicate thatctheos wter ascent along a lin.er
aone (fal ) I greater ertical permeability. The temperature
and chemical daa are cooa.stoot thb t] 0
which suggest that a fracture of relatively
bilty exists and acts a a line source of discharge from the
Floridan aqu fer,
An analysis of temperature and water oemitry distribu-
toons, 0 f the piezometrr
surface variations with
depth, leads to a more thorough understanding of the hydrologic
IIow system. Also, it provides an explanation for the observed
variations in water quality and the hydrochemical mapping
indicates the existence of a subsurface fracture or fault.
From the practical standpoint of water utihzation the maps
and sections indicate ranges in concentrations and temperatures
and should permit the water user to determine if the water is
suitable for his need In general, waters in the area of Influence
of the ascending artesan water will be of a piorer quality than
waters outside this area, excluding the sodium chloride waters
of Charlotte County. Large quantities of water, meeting the
recommended limit for potable water (U.S. Public Health SerwIe,
1962), may be obtained in northeast Manatee county northwest
and ea st Hardee counties, and northeast DeSgoto County.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Cheomicalo character of Florlda'sa
wars-13951: Florida State Bd. Conrerv. Div. Water
Survey and Research Paper 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black, A.P.)
1965 The region lthostreaeigtephic anaolois of Paleaocene
and Eocene roeks of Florda: Floilda Geol. Survey
lJ.B.) Some physical l and chemical charac-
teristics of elected Floida wa uters: Florida State
Bd. Health, Jacksonville.
1959 o f the chemal 'haeras-r
,.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
... .., 0 0000,00 00 -, ,
Figure 3. Pieomec surface f the upper art of the Floridan quifer,
0<5 Z II
- .. '
__t .' _. __ 1.
-1. 0 ** _0 9<
i fmifl.i *
I I ... Fort Meoae 9 o0
Hllsborouah CGo. oo 7 8 Po lk _
Monotre CeoIj.,- o o *H -
l Wouchulos 11190
eIS o ... .o- o.
"I '" o I
I 9 91089
S 110 *0 514
I *l o9 o;
0 A 468 oslo *Ia1
Sorosoto Co. J
Chorlotte Co 5900
0\ 9., 0oo 55os ,
1470 e 97 097 5 es5 EXPLANATION
\ in feet below land
\ *Ioo *5 1 compete, source.
0200* 0 0Port1 0 81 0 ^-:te
o9 68 o 45 81mles
8215' 8200' 45' 8 30'
Figure 4. Distrbuotion and depth of wellsm ampld fo water temperature
end hemi..Ietermo t~on
Figure 2. oeneralised N-o geologic section across the southern
Peace River basin.
Figure 6 Temperature of wa er n the Floridan aufer.
ire 8 Sulfate content of water in the Floridan aquifer.
A A A'
>85 (see fig 6 )
a I .. ., .r F -
Figue 5- Chloride content of water in the Floridan aquifer.
MAP SERIES NO. 27 OCTC,-- ..--
E] 100 PPM
C. Control point