Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 57
Title: Herbaceous perennials for Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000116/00001
 Material Information
Title: Herbaceous perennials for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: 1930
 Subjects
Subject: Perennials -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J.V. Watkins.
General Note: "January, 1930".
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Bibliographic ID: UF90000116
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570538
oclc - 47284856
notis - AMT6851
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
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or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida
























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BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Setretary, Tallahassee



STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary


COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DE BUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman


COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Extension Nutritionist


NEGRO WORK

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
JULIA MILLER, Local District Home Demonstration Agent










HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS


PERENNIALS FOR BLUE FLOWERS


Name


Page


A ngelonia ...................
Blue flag ....................
Blue sage ...................
L iriope .....................


Adam's needle
Banana .....
Blanket flower
Cacti .......
Canna ......
Cardinal's gua
Century plant.
Chrysanthemum
False dragonhe
Four-o-clock ..
Morea .......


.Name Page

Stokes' aster ................. 31
Strobilanthes ................ 33
Verbena ..................... 34
V iolet ....................... 35


PERENNIALS FOR THE SUNNY GARDEN

............... 10 Pampas grass ......
............. 12 Periw inkle ........
............... 12 Sage ..............
............. 15 Shasta daisy.......
................ 15 Slipper plant ......
rd ............. 16 Spanish bayonet ....
............... 18 Stokes' aster .......
mI ............. 18 Strobilanthes ...
ead ............ 22 Tall cup flower .....
........... 23 Transvaal daisy ....
............... 27 V erbena ...........

PERENNIALS FOR YELLOW FLOWERS


Blanket flower ...............
C acti .......................
C anna ......................
Chrysanthemum .............


D ay lily ....................
Four-o-clock .................
Golden glow .................


PERENNIALS FOR THE SEASHORE GARDEN


Adam's needle ...............
B anana .....................
C acti .......................
Cardinal's guard .............
Century plant ...............
C oontie .....................
Day lily ....................
Four-o-clock .................


Japanese snake's beard........
L iriope .....................
Periw inkle ..................
Sage ........................
Slipper plant .................
Spanish bayonet .............
Strobilanthes ................
V iolet .......................


PERENNIALS FOR FOLIAGE EFFECTS


Adam's needle ...............
A spidistra ...................
B anana .....................
Begonia .....................
Blue flag ....................
C acti .......................
Century plant ...............
Coontie .....................
Cyperus .....................
Day lily ................... .
F erns .......................


G inger ......................
Ginger-lily ..................
Japanese snake's beard .......
L iriope ......................
M orea ......................
Pampas grass ...............
Selaginella ..................
Slipper plant .................
Spanish bayonet ..............
Tradescantia .................
V'inca major .................


PERENNIALS FOR WINDOW BOXES


A spidistra ................. .
B egonia .....................
C oontie .....................
F ern s ......................
Japanese snake's beard .......


L iriope .....................
Selaginella ..................
Verbena .....................
Viica major ................


. .. . .

..........
. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .
.. ... .. .
. .. .. .. .
.. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. .









PERENNIALS FOR THE SHADY GARDEN


Name Page
Aspidistra ................... 11
Begonia .................... 12
Blue flag .................... 12
Coontie ..................... 19
Ferns ...................... 23
Ginger ...................... 23


Name Page
Ginger-lily .................. 23
Japanese snake's beard........ 25
Liriope ..................... 26
Selaginella .................. 29
Tradescantia ................. 33
V iolet ....................... 35


PERENNIALS FOR GROUND COVER


Ferns ....................... 23
Japanese snake's beard ....... 25
Liriope ...................... 26
Selaginella ................... 29


V erbena .....................
Vinca major .................
Violet ................. .....


PERENNIALS FOR THE WATER GARDEN
Blue flag .................... 12 Ginger-lily ..................
Cyperus ..................... 20 Japanese snake's beard .......
D ay lily ..................... 20 Liriope .....................
Ferns ....................... 23 Selaginella ...................
Ginger ...................... 23


PERENNIALS FOR CUT FLOWERS


Angelonia ...................
Blanket flower ...............
Chrysanthemum ...........
D ay lily .....................
False dragonhead ............
Ginger-lily ..................


Shasta daisy .................
Stokes' aster .................
Transvaal daisy ..............
V erbena .....................
V iolet .......................












HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS FOR FLORIDA
By JOHN V. WATKINS*

Florida gardens depend largely upon annuals for color, with
the result that herbaceous perennials are often entirely lacking
in the design. This is unfortunate in view of the fact that a
wealth of mid-summer and early fall bloom is available through
the use of well selected herbaceous perennials. It is true that
winter color through the use of annuals and, in the far south,
exotic flowering shrubs is most desirable, but cheerful colors
during the late summer and early fall are sorely needed to fill
the vacancies left in our plantings when the showy annuals are
through blooming.
For Florida planting the choice of herbaceous perennials is
quite restricted as compared to the North and the East. Never-
theless, there are some 40 kinds that have been successfully
grown at the horticultural grounds of the College of Agriculture
in Gainesville. Many more perennials, such as common garden
irises, delphiniums, foxgloves, hollyhocks, columbine, hardy
phlox, phlox subulata, perennial pinks, thyme, mallow and lily
of the valley have been tried and have, for one reason or another,
proved unsatisfactory in our tests. In this paper we shall con-
sider only the species that have been truly successful.

HOW TO USE THEM
Considering our wealth of hardy broadleaved evergreens and
beautiful flowering shrubs, it seems best that herbaceous peren-
nials be used in shrubbery bays subordinate to the woody things
rather than by themselves, excepting in the cases of carpet bed-
ding which is very little done, and in enclosed formal gardens.
Certainly herbaceous perennials alone should not be depended
upon for foundation plantings, but they do add a completeness, a
finishing touch, to any design.
By a judicious choice of materials one may have perennials in
bloom from May until frost.
Herbaceous perennials are most valuable in bold, closely planted
masses for the color effect and are really most successful when
*Assistant in horticulture. Florida College of Agriculture.








Florida Cooperative Extension


grown thus rather than spotted about with a great deal of dis-
tance between individual plants.
All bulbous plants and all vines have been treated in other
bulletins, so the discussion here will refer either to the plants
that die to the ground each winter but bloom year after year, or
evergreen non-woody herbs.

PROPAGATION
A decided advantage in favor of this group of plants is that
once the garden is laid out, the plants need not be propagated
every year. Furthermore, the foliage of many perennials is
delightful in itself when the plants are out of bloom.
This group is, as a whole, extremely easy to propagate by
divisions, seeds or cuttings. A note regarding the common
method of propagation of each plant will be found under the dis-
cussion of species.
Division: Propagation by division is the easiest, quickest and
best way to increase most herbaceous perennials. Dig the plants,
























Photograph by U. S. D. A.
Fig. 1.-Dividing a herbaceous perennial to provide more plants.








Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


shake off the dirt and it will be apparent that they will divide
up into units or small plants all having roots, stems, buds or
leaves. These units may be separated and planted. The beds
should be thoroughly prepared beforehand and abundant water
should be added to pack the soil well about the roots. Plants are
best divided after the blooming season, but with care they may
be so increased at any time.
Cuttings: This method is much used also in the propagation of
perennials and it is not at all difficult if a good grade of sharp,
clean sand and plenty of water are used.
Old stems are cut in three or four inch lengths. The two cuts
are made just beyond buds or nodes. The leaves on the upper
nodes should be very much reduced. Usually, one-half of one or
two leaves is left on the upper node. Care should be taken to use
a sharp knife that will make a clean, neat cut.
Use a box containing four or five inches of clean, sharp sand
with crocks over holes for drainage. Place the cuttings in the
sand almost up to the upper node where one-half of the leaf
remains, pack well and use enough water to thoroughly firm the
sand about the cuttings. Shade the cuttings and keep the sand
moist at all times. When the roots are about one inch long, set
the young plants in fertile soil that can be readily watered, and
protect them from the hot sun or cold until they are well estab-
lished.
Seeds: The plants discussed herewith vary a great deal in
facility of propagation by seeds. Some set seed readily and are
so much at home that chance seedlings are found scattered about
the parent plant. Others seldom or never set seed and propaga-
tion of these is by division or cuttings.
Under most conditions the seeds should be planted as they
become ripe. They may be planted in open seedbeds protected
from cold or the direct rays of the sun, or, better still, in shallow
boxes. In any case, the soil should be well supplied with humus,
such as very old cow manure or peat moss. A good mixture for
seedbeds or seed boxes is loamy soil and fine peat in equal
amounts. Plant the seeds very thinly and lightly cover with
sifted soil, peat moss or sand to a depth of about four times their
diameter. Very small seeds may be dropped in rows and pressed
into the soil with a board. It is a desirable practice to cover the
seedbeds or seed boxes with sacks until the seeds germinate. A
very fine spray under light pressure is used in watering. It is








Florida Cooperative Extension


important that seedbeds have an adequate water supply at all
times.
The young plants should be potted off or set out before they
crowd, as over-crowding greatly reduces the vigor in young seed-
lings and often encourages damping-off.

CULTURE
For a successful garden of herbaceous perennials, the land
must, in most cases, be especially prepared. The soil from the beds
should be enriched with well rotted cow manure and good woods
soil. Bone meal, tankage, cottonseed meal and peat moss are
often added to advantage. Thorough preparation in advance is
essential, as the plants in a perennial garden will often stand as
long as three or four years without being moved. Side-dressings
of complete commercial fertilizers furnishing nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid and potash during growing seasons are important.
The writer is a firm believer in a heavy mulch for this type of
garden and for the purpose, peat moss, very well rotted manure,
or even oak leaves are excellent. The mulch preserves moisture,
keeps the roots cool during the heat of the summer and discour-
ages weed growth. Each spring the old mulch may be worked
into the soil and new mulch added.
Weeds must be checked when very young and should never be
allowed to gain a foothold. Hoeing is often impossible or danger-
ous where the plants are grown very close together, so hand-
weeding is to be preferred in the perennial garden.
One great disadvantage of this type of garden is that main-
tenance is a 12 months' proposition and the gardener is often
inclined to neglect weeding, mulching, and applying the essential
side-dressings of complete fertilizers during the summer when
this work is most important.

ZONES

Florida may be arbitrarily divided into three general zones for
the purpose of discussing the value of herbaceous perennials for
the winter effect. It will be realized, of course, that the lines
separating the zones cannot be hard and fast. Tender species
may be grown near lakes and in protected places farther north
than they can be in exposed places in the interior.
Zone 1 will include all of West Florida and North and East
Florida as far south as St. Augustine and Gainesville, Zone 2








Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


Fig 2.-A coldframe with a slat shade and water supply nearby is used
in starting young perennial seedlings.

will extend about to Titusville, Orlando and Tampa, while Zone 3
will be the part of the state from there south.
Flowering herbaceous perennials are most valuable for the
summer and early fall bloom, and in most cases they are cut to
the ground by early winter frosts in Zone 1 and parts of Zone 2.
In Zone 3, although often unharmed by cold, they are not always
dependable for a winter effect.
If low temperatures are anticipated the plants may be covered
with boxes or barrels of straw, or burlap sacking.

SPECIES AND VARIETIES

In the following pages are listed a number of species and
varieties of herbaceous perennials which can be grown success-
fully in Florida. The common name appears first, with the scien-
tific name of each species immediately following. Often the
country of origin of the species follows in close order.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ADAM'S NEEDLE (Yucca filamentosa).
This is a common native yucca. Although the plant when not
in bloom is stiff and foreboding, the tall spikes of white flowers
are valuable in the garden scheme.


Fig. .-Native Adam's needle used as a border for a drive.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


Hardy throughout all of Florida. Propagation is by offsets or
seeds.
The thorns should be removed. There is a variegated variety.

ANGELONIA (Angelonia grandiflora). S. America.
A graceful perennial of about two feet in height, with lance-
pointed, toothed leaves some three inches long.
The flowers are dark blue, white centered, handsome in long
terminal racemes from May until frost cuts the plants to the
ground. Angelonia quickly recovers, however, in the spring. If
the winter is mild and the plant is not killed, it seems best to cut
it back for new, fresh wood.
This plant is one of the very best perennials, withstanding
adverse conditions, but responding favorably to abundant water
and fertilizer.
An excellent subject which is propagated by division or by
cuttings.

ASPIDISTRA (Aspidistra lurida). China.
The Aspidistra enjoys well deserved popularity as a pot plant,
window box subject and ground cover for densely shaded situa-
tions. It probably
withstands more
abuse than any
other plant, as
shade seems to be
its only require-
ment.
Stiff, shiny
green leaves, 15-
20 inches long,
grow in thick
masses from rhi-
zones which are
just under the
surface of the
ground.'
It is undoubted- -
ly hardy in Zones
2 and 3 but may Fig. 4.-Aspidistra as a pot plant.
winter kill in the colder sections of Zone 1.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BANANA (Musa spp.).
These large herbaceous perennials are quite widely grown in
Florida gardens both for fruit and for their tropical or exotic
effect. Valuable in North Florida as garden subjects when used
behind walls or behind hardy shrubbery. When planted thus,
their unsightliness due to winter killing is hidden until new
growth starts in the spring. Usually dependable the year round
in the southern part of Zone 3.
There are many interesting horticultural varieties.
Propagation is by division of the suckers from the parent plant.

BEGONIA (Begonia spp.).
The begonias are one of the most popular groups of plants for
the house and for the conservatory, but given good conditions and
proper care, their usefulness extends to the out-of-doors in Flor-
ida. They must have a soil rich in humus and plant food, an
abundant water supply at all times and a shady or semi-shady
situation. Protection from frost by covering with boxes, barrels,
straw or gunny sacks is important.
Propagation is by division, cuttings or seeds.

BLANKET FLOWER (Gaillardia aristata). W. North America.
An erect perennial to two feet, bearing showy yellow and red
daisy-like flowers two to three inches across on stiff straight
stems. It is difficult to distinguish this species from the annual
sorts.
The blanket flower requires full sun for optimum development
and seems to be satisfied with almost any soil that is not too wet.
Blooms may be had the first year from seed and during the
second or third year the plants may be divided.
BLUE FLAG (Iris hexagona). Native.
The common garden irises do not thrive in Florida, excepting
on the clay hills of the western end of the State. In Northeast
Florida swamps, however, is the native blue flag that is valuable
for mass plantings in the water garden.
A water-loving herb two feet in height that bears lovely blue
or lilac flowers in the spring. Large numbers are most success-
ful as there are few flowers to each plant and the effect will be
weak unless many are seen together. Useful for foliage alone
when planted in or near the lily pool.
Propagation is by division.








Herbaceous Perennials for Florida 13















































Photograph by Harold Mrowrs

Fig. 5.-The blanket flower is
a good perennial for cut flowers.







14 Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 6.-Blue sage (Salvia farinaceae).







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


BLUE SAGE (Salvia spp.). United States.
There are two forms of blue flowering sages, S. azurea and
S. farinaceae. These are dependable and quite charming both for
cutting and for the garden in late summer and early autumn.
There is a white flowered form.
The sages are propagated by division or cuttings.
CACTI (Opuntia, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, Echinocereus,
etc.). Southern U. S.
As a result of the
present day seeking of ':
the unusual, the cacti
have become quite
fashionable. The kinds
of cacti available from
collectors and nursery-
men are endless and
they can be grown
quite easily if given
full sun and poor soil
well drained.
On account of their
stiff, grotesque habit
they do not blend with
other plants, so it seems
best to establish a sep-
arate cactus garden.
CANNA (Canna, many
species).
Recent years have
witnessed remarkable
development in the
garden canna. Today
one may have flowers
of red, yellow, white,
buff or pink and foli-
age of green or bronze.
Varieties vary in
height from 18 inches
to seven or eight feet.
Cannas are quite
happy anywhere in the Fig. 7.-The ever-popular canna.







Florida Cooperative Extension


sun if there be an abundant supply of water and plant food.
A pyrethrum spray frequently applied controls the canna leaf
roller, Geslina cannalis, an insect that causes unsightly injury to
the leaves.
The root stocks should be divided every two or three years to
prevent undue crowding. This is best done when the plants are
killed to the ground by cold.
CARDINAL'S GUARD (Jacobinia coccinea). Brazil.
Herbs to five feet with large, remarkably shiny green opposite
leaves, that bear through the summer numerous showy spikes of


Fig. 8.-The cardinal's guard can be used to add a splash of crimson
color to the border.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


crimson tubular flowers. The plant offers very bright color in
the garden and is best grown in bold clumps.
Of easiest culture, requiring little or no attention. Propagated
by cuttings or division.


Photograph by Dr. A. S. Rhoads
Fig. 9.-A variety of century plant (in the foreground).







Florida Cooperative Extension


CENTURY PLANT (Agave spp.).
The century plant is so easy of cultivation that there is little
wonder that it is found in so many varieties, growing almost
everywhere in Florida. Probably not hardy in the northern part
of Zone 1.
It is valuable when used sparingly to lend an exotic effect.
Propagation is by suckers arising from the old plants.
CHRYSANTHEMUM (Chrysanthemum hortorum).
Thanks to the plant hybridizer, we find Chrysanthemum flow-
ers in multitudinous forms ranging from single daisy-like blooms


Photognrph by David G. A. Kclbert


I,'~~::~

Ih~~


Fig. 10.-These small-flowered Chrysanthemums were grown in Florida.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


through the pom-poms, anemones and spidery Japanese sorts to
the huge globular flowers so popular at football games.
Many varieties, from all of the groups listed above, have been
quite successfully grown out of doors in Florida.
Divide the plants when growth starts in the spring, or better
still, take greenwood cuttings from sound, disease-free sprouts
in May or June. They will root in about two weeks and should
give good sturdy plants if properly handled.
Strong stakes should be used for supports to prevent injury
from wind or breaking under the load of water-filled blossoms.
"Mums" prefer full sun and as they are gross feeders, they
demand abundant food and water.
Aphids on Chrysanthemums may be controlled by the use of
Black Leaf 40.

COONTIE (Zamia floridana). Native.
This is a hardy Florida perennial with long pinnate leaves,
valuable in the subtropical scheme, and as a winter-box subject.
Apparently content under most conditions. It is often seen in
great patches in the pine woods.
Propagated by seeds, division or offsets.


Fig. 11.-Native coontie, which is ideal for shady situations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CYPERUS (Cyperus spp.).
These graceful sedges are useful subjects for striking foliage
effects when used in or near water plantings. They grow well
when planted in water a few inches deep.
Although low temperatures usually cut the stems to the ground
they quickly rally in warm weather. They are probably ever-
green in most of Zone 3.
There are two important species as follows:
The Egyptian paper plant (C. papyrus) is probably the more
desirable species, although more tender. Stout three angled
stems to a height of eight feet bear attractive clusters of small,
wiry leaves,about
S. five inches long at
.., .their tips.


Fig. 12.-Potted umbrella plant. This plant is ad-
mirably adapted to use near the lily pool.


The umbrella
plant (C. alterni-
folius) is the more
widely grown
species, probably
because it is more
robust. However,
it is not so strik-
ing in appearance
as is the Egyptian
paper plant. A
water loving pe-
rennial to four or
five feet that
grows in thick
clumps.
Variety gracilis
Hort. is 'smaller
and more slender.
Variety variega-
tum Hort. is
striped with
white.


Propagation of both species is by division.
DAY LILY (Hemerocallis in several species).
Florida gardeners seem to be slow in discovering the charming
day lilies. They comprise one of the hardiest and best groups of


\
*;-




Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


^*Ofl^KK

yssypG
^S^:


Fig. 13.-False dragon-head, a native of eastern North America that
should be more widely grown.






Florida Cooperative Extension


herbaceous perennials and should, by all means, be widely
planted in Florida as they are in the East.
Many striking hybrids are now offered by nurserymen and by
carefully selecting varieties, one may have day lilies in bloom for
May, June and July. Even after the lemon or orange lily-like
blossoms have disappeared, the clumps of narrow grass-like
foliage are attractive in the garden scheme.
Propagation is by division. The heavy clumps should be di-
vided every two or three years to prevent undue crowding.

FALSE DRAGON-HEAD (Physostegia virginiana). Eastern
North America.
Vigorous, hardy native herb about three feet in height that
has the characteristic square stems and toothed leaves of the mint
family. The white, pink or lilac flowers are borne in a striking
four-sided spike and are useful by virtue of the fact that they
come in the autumn.


Photograph by Dr. A. S. Rhoads.
Fig. 14.-An artistic grouping of ferns and other tender herbaceous plants.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


It is not particular as to soil, but responds well to good culture.
It is best adapted to Zone 1 and the northern part of Zone 2.
Propagation is by division.

FERNS in a variety are ever valuable for moist, shady loca-
tions. Splendid kinds such as the cinnamon fern, Osmunda cin-
namnonea, and the different maidenhair ferns (Adiantln spp.)
may be collected in the woods. Scores of horticultural varieties
of ferns are happy outdoors in Florida, although they should be
protected from extremely low temperatures.
Thoroughly enriched beds or borders containing peat or muck
on the north side of walls are ideal situations for ferns.
Soil moisture, of course, is of prime importance in fern-grow-
ing. Propagation is by division.
FOUR-O-CLOCK (Miriabilis jalapa). Tropical America.
An erect bushy herb easily grown from the large black seeds.
The fragrant funnel-shaped flowers in shades of red, yellow,
white or striped, borne in late summer and early fall, open in
cloudy weather or late afternoon and close in the morning.
Tolerant of partial shade.
Four-o-clocks are killed to the ground by even light frosts. In
the spring, however, they quickly recover.
Propagation is by seeds which are produced in large quantities.
Chance seedlings are usually found about the parent plant.
GINGER (Zingiber officinale). Orient.
The gingers are large striking perennial herbs, growing from
rhizomes which are widely used in cooking and in medicine. In
Florida, however, the gingers find their greatest use in the orna-
mental field. They thrive in shady, moist locations and are im-
portant factors in the exotic effect so much in demand today.
Usually winter-killed to the ground in Zone 1 but dependable the
year round in Zone 3.
Propagation is by division of the rhizomes.
GINGER-LILY (Hedychium coronarium). Tropical Asia.
The ginger-lily is an herb with canna-like leaves, about three
inches across, that grows to a height of four to six feet. A water
loving plant that is admirably adapted to use in the lily pond
planting. The leaves are killed by a temperature of about 250 F.
so the foliage effect is usually dependable the year round only in
Zone 3.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The long-tubed, white flowers in September and October are
extremely fragrant, and seem to be much admired.

GOLDEN GLOW (Rudbeckia laciniata). North America.
A hardy herb whose flower stalks in the late fall rise to a height
of four or five feet and bear large, full, double, lemon yellow


Fig. 15.-The golden glow is valuable for North Florida flower gardens.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


flowers in great profusion that are excellent both for garden
decoration and for cutting.
Golden glow seems to prefer north and west Florida (Zone 1)
to the southern part of the state. In Alachua County, it succeeds
quite well, but it is not especially successful in Zones 2 or 3.
A half day's sun with shade in the heat of the afternoon suits
the plant very well. When used in bold clumps, on the east side
of a north-south hedge or wall, the effect is very striking.
An abundance of plant food and water is required.
Propagation by division should be repeated every year or two.

JAPANESE SNAKE'S BEARD (Ophiopogon japonicus). Orient.
Perennial stemless herbs of about a foot in height growing
from rhizomes and creeping by means of stolons. The white or
violet flowers are inconspicuous.
Like its close relative, the Liriope, this grass-like plant is very
useful as a ground cover, a window-box subject, border or edging
plant. It seems to be quite content under the most trying con-
ditions of sun or shade, heat or cold, drought or humidity.
The snake's beard is an evergreen that should be used exten-
sively. There is a variegated variety.
Propagation is by division.


Fig. 16.-Japanese snake's beard (lower foreground) used as an edging.







Florida Cooperative Extension


LIRIOPE (Liriope spp.).
A member of the lily family with graceful grass-like foliage a
foot high that is exceptionally fine as a ground cover, a window-
box subject, a border or informal edging plant. The Liriope is
not particular as to its situation and seems to thrive on most soils
either in the shade or in full sun. It bears its tiny blue flowers
best, however, in the sun. Apparently free from pests and tol-
erant of heat and cold.
Propagation is by division.


Fig. 17.-Morea takes the place of the iris in Florida gardens.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


MOREA (Morea iridioides). South Africa.
A beautiful iris-like plant whose leaves grow in fan-shaped
basal rosettes. Apparently hardy, vigorous and easy of culture
in Gainesville, although it is not yet widely grown in Florida
gardens. The clumps should be divided every two or three years.
Propagation is by division or seeds.
PAMPAS GRASS
(Cortaderia
argentea).
Pampas grass
is popular in Flor-
ida, where it usu-
ally is found as
a lawn specimen.
It grows in large
graceful clumps
to 10 feet in
height, bearing,
in the fall, strik-
ing plumes which
rise to a height of
some 12 feet. A
gross feeder that
requires full sun
for best develop-
ment.
Valuable as a
screen or when
used in connec-
tion with clumps
of bamboo. Often
the blades are
browned by low
temperatures, but
this does not im-
pair the screen-
ing value of Pam-
pas grass. New
growth quickly
starts in warm Photograph by Harold Mowry
weather. Fig. 18.-The common but ever-useful periwinkle.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The variety Rio des Roses has rose colored panicles.
Propagation is by division.
PERIWINKLE (Vinca rosea). Tropics.
A robust, erect, everblooming perennial to two feet that is seen
everywhere in Florida. Of easiest culture, it has escaped culti-
vation and may be seen in old fields and about abandoned houses.
In spite of the fact that it is so common, the periwinkle deserves
a place in most gardens. It is sure to give a cheerful mass of
color, even without attention. Very useful and satisfactory when
used in borders. Usually an annual in Zone 1 where it is killed
out in the winter.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. Chance seedlings abound
year after year.
V. major variegata is a reclining or creeping perennial that is
much used in window-boxes and hanging baskets and is quite
hardy in Florida.

SCARLET SAGE (Salvia splendens). Brazil.
This is undoubtedly the most widely cultivated sage in Florida.
A vigorous perennial that furnishes bright scarlet spikes through-
out the summer until cut down by frost. In Zone 1 it is usually


Fig. 19.-The variegated Vinca used as a window box subject.








Herbaceous Perennials for Florida 29

treated as an annual, unless it is protected from cold. Almost 20
horticultural varieties have been recognized. Often over-used.

SELAGINELLA (Selaginella spp.).
A large family of fern-like plants that contains many species
that succeed outdoors in Florida. They are much prized in plant
collections for their delicate, feathery effect. Closely allied to the
ferns, they enjoy practically the same culture.


Photograph by Dr. A. F. Camp
Fig. 20.-The scarlet sage, a vigorous perennial through
most of Florida.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The resurrection plant (S. lepidophylla) is often dried and later
put into luke-warm water where it expands and grows. It cannot
be resurrected over and over, however, because it usually dies
after a half dozen times.
SHASTA DAISY (Chrysanthemum maximum).
The Shasta daisy is a perennial that is truly at home in Zones 1
and 2, although growers find difficulty in carrying the plants
through the summer in Zone 3.
Large pure white, yellow centered daisies borne on stiff leafy
stems a foot and one-half in height, are produced in profusion in
the spring. These daisies prefer full sun and careful cultivation.
The plants stand a temperature as low as 250 F. without apparent
injury. Propagation is by division in the fall.
SLIPPER PLANT (Pedilanthus spp.). Tropical America.
Tender, succulent herbs to six feet which exude a milky juice
when bruised or crushed. Although members of this group are
very tender, they stand adverse cultural conditions and are val-
uable in South Florida gardens when a bizarre effect is wanted.
There are variegated varieties.
SPANISH BAYONET (Yucca aloifolia). Gulf States.
This familiar subject warrants no special discussion. Valuable


a nuu apnJ uy Ir. A. A. inoas
Fig. 21.-Spanish bayonet lending a tropical effect in a wall planting.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


when massed for the subtropical effect, especially where it is too
dry for many perennial plants to thrive. The many branched
spikes of fragrant white blooms are very striking.
Hardy throughout all of Florida.
Propagation is by offsets from old plants.
The thorns on the tips of the leaves should be removed by
pruning shears to prevent injury to gardeners and visitors.
There is a variegated form.

STOKES' ASTER (Stokesia laevia). United States.
This plant is without question one of the best native American
perennials that succeeds in Florida.
The plants are about a foot high, growing in strong clumps and
bearing blue aster-like flowers three inches across on stout stems
throughout the summer.
Although Stokes' aster prefers high, well-drained, rich, sandy


Fig. 22.-Stokes' aster can be used for beautiful blue cut flowers during
most of the summer.






32 Florida Cooperative Extension





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~^1&149W


Photograph by Harold Mowry
Fig. 23.-Strobilanthes, a perennial that is at home throughout Florida.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


loam, it will persist in poor, light sand, blooming year after year.
Extremely valuable for garden decoration and for cutting.
There are also white and yellow forms.
Propagation is by division, which should be practised every
three years.
STROBILANTHES (Strobilanthes isophyllus). India.
A coarse, erect herb to three feet that has attractive light blue
funnel-shaped flowers from May until frost. When grown in
large clumps the effect is very striking from sunrise until noon.
Unfortunately, the flowers fade in the sun.
Prolific and cosmopolitan, Strobilanthes will endure almost any
hardship and seems to succeed anywhere in the state.
Propagation is easy by division, cuttings or seeds. Volunteer
seedlings are found in numbers about the parent plant.
TALL CUP FLOWER (Nierembergia frutescens). Chile.
A graceful shrubby perennial herb to three feet high. Hand-
some cup-like white flowers tinted with blue are borne in pro-
fusion in early summer. They are easily bruised by the heavy
rains.
Apparently the cup-flowers are little used, but they undoubt-
edly warrant more extensive planting.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.
TRANSVAAL DAISY (Gerbera jamesoni).
Within recent years Florida has discovered this superb peren-
nial. The plants which grow in large clumps about six to eight
inches in height are vigorous, deep-rooted and quite resistant to
disease, insects and drought.
The large but delicate daisy-like flowers ranging in color from
white or cream to rose red, are borne on stiff stems a foot or more
in length. The flowers are produced continually if not cut down
by frost and have excellent keeping quality.
Propagation is by seeds or division. The latter method seems
best as there has been difficulty in germinating seeds.
Divide at least every three years into well enriched soil.
TRADESCANTIA (Tradescantia reginae). Peru.
A stiff upright tender foliage plant whose long lance-pointed,
strap-shaped leaves, purple below, grow horizontally or nearly so.
Unusual in appearance and consequently prized as a conserva-
tory plant. However, it succeeds in a moist, shady outdoor loca-








Florida Cooperative Extension


tion in Florida, but should be protected from the cold. In Zone 1
it is advisable to lift the plants in the fall and carry them through
the winter in pots indoors.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne in clusters protected by
purplish, leaf-like bracts in the form of tiny boats which grow
very close to the upright stem.


Photograph by Harold
Fig. 24.-The Transvaal daisy is rapi
creasing in popularity throughout Florida


J

.e


Propagated by
separating the
young offsets from
the parent plant, or
by seeds.

VERBENA (Ver-
bena Hybrida).
(Pictured on cover.)
The present-day
garden verbena in
many charming col-
ors, is a result of the
hybridization of
four species.
Usually perennials
in Florida, verbenas
are low, creeping
herbs, of the sim-
plest culture, that
are dependable for
strong color notes in
the garden. Attacks
of red spider can be
forestalled by dust-
ing the plants with
sulphur or syring-
ing them with heavy
pressure from the
water hose. Valu-
able for ground cov-
Ser in a sunny place
Mowry and for window-box
.dly in- work.







Herbaceous Perennials for Florida


A


Photograph by Dr. A. F. Camp
Fig. 25.-Tradescantia used as a pot plant.


Propagation of choice kinds should be by cuttings, but if no
special color is desired, the seeds may be planted.
Moss verbena (V. erinoides) is proving valuable as a self-seed-
ing subject for bold masses of lilac color. Similar to the above,
but not so highly developed as to flower size.

VIOLET (Viola odorata). Europe.
Everyone loves the violets and everyone can have them out of
doors in southern gardens. An acid soil abounding in humus and
plant food, moisture and shade are all that the violet requires.
The deliciously perfumed flowers are numerous from October
until May, unless extremely low temperatures are experienced.







36 Florida Cooperative Extension

Divide the old plants each year or two, in August or September
after they are through blooming.
The variety Princess of Wales is the one grown most widely in
Florida.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author in indebted to Major W. L. Floyd, Vice-Dean of
the College of Agriculture, for criticisms and for help in obtain-
ing many of the photographs used in the work; to Mr. Harold
Mowry for criticisms and photographs; and to Doctor A. F. Camp
and Dr. A. S. Rhoads for photographs.
Doctor L. H. Bailey's nomenclature has been used.




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