Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 52 (rev. of 31)
Title: Lessons for pig club members
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000115/00001
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Title: Lessons for pig club members
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 44 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blacklock, R. W
Clayton, H. G ( Harrold Gray )
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1929
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Subject: Agricultural education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by R.W. Blacklock and H.G. Clayton.
General Note: "May, 1929".
General Note: "Revision of Bulletin 31".
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Bibliographic ID: UF90000115
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570479
oclc - 47284689
notis - AMT6790
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not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
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site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







(Revision of Bulletin 31)


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




LESSONS FOR PIG CLUB MEMBERS

BY R. W. BLACKLOCK AND H. G. CLAYTON


,.1


"Oh, see that pig," said Sam's best girl,
"Why has his tail that corkscrew curl?"
"His tail," said Sam, "is curled with joy,
For he belongs to a pig club boy."
-Selected.


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Agricultural Extension
Division, Gainesville, Florida


May, 1929


Bulletin 52












BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.SC.. Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent
MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent










LESSONS FOR PIG CLUB MEMBERS


BY R. W. BLACKLOCK AND H. G. CLAYTON

LESSON I

THE BREED

The beginner in pig club work must give thought to the selec-
tion of the breed of hogs which he expects to raise.
In choosing a breed, the most important point is to select
a breed you like. If there is something about a breed that you
do not like, do not try to raise that one, as you probably will
never be satisfied with it. On the other hand, it would be unwise
to select a breed which does not meet essential requirements
simply because you like that particular one best.
Study the question well before you decide. There is no one
best breed. Any of the breeds which are popular in Florida will
pay if you select the right type of individual and do your part
in feeding and caring for it. By all means select a breed that
produces the type of hog that the market demands. If there
is a well established breed in your community, giving good re-
sults, you cannot do better than select that one. If it has proven
a money maker to your neighbors, it can do the same for you.
You will be able to sell the best individuals for breeding purposes
if the breed is popular locally. When you have selected a breed,
stick to it. It is unwise to try switching from one to another
each year. Raise only one breed. No one wants to buy breeding
animals from the man with two or three breeds on his farm.
Types. Hogs are generally divided into two types, the lard
and bacon types. The lard-type hog is fairly compact, deep and
smooth. It is known for its depth and thickness rather than its
length. This type will produce a large amount of lard when
slaughtered. The bacon type is longer in leg and body, is narrow
of body and lighter in shoulder, neck and jowl.
Due to a changing market demand in meat, a type somewhat
between the lard and the bacon type is being developed. The
hog desired is one that will give the largest amount of high
priced cuts when weighing from 175 to 225 pounds and one which
will reach this weight at an early age. The new standard is
being sought through using the lard type hog and selecting the
individuals showing length and depth with less thickness.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The most popular breeds of the lard type found in Florida are
Berkshire, Duroc-Jersey, Hampshire, Poland China, and Spotted
Poland China. It is best that club members choose one of these,
as good breeding stock of these breeds is easiest to secure.
Lesson II will tell you how to select the right type of individual.
The Tamworth is the most popular bacon-type hog in Florida,
although there are a few Yorkshires.

QUESTIONS
1. Why is it best to choose a breed popular in your com-
munity ?
2. What are the two types of hogs?
3. What type does the market want? Why?
4. What breeds belong to the lard type? to the bacon type?


LESSON II

SELECTION OF PIGS FOR BREEDING PURPOSES

It is not easy to select the best pig out of a litter. There are
no two pigs of the same litter exactly alike. The younger the
pigs the nearer alike are they and the more difficult is the task
of selecting the best one. The older the pigs get the more pro-
nounced become the defects and the good points. The largest
pig in the litter is often selected as the best, because size is sure
to catch your eye and it is often hard for us to turn down the
big pig.
POINTERS ON SELECTION
There are several points which always should be kept in mind
in the selection of pigs for breeding purposes.
(1) They must be TRUE TO BREED TYPE. By this we
mean the pigs selected should possess in a marked degree the
typical characteristics of the breed.
(2) Good SIZE is wanted but not at the expense of all other
qualifications. For example, you would not select the largest
Hampshire pig in a litter, if it lacked the white belt, because it
then would not possess all the breed requirements.
(3) The breeding pig should have big strong BONE, which
is indicated by fairly large legs and the pig's standing well up
on its toes. If an animal has poor feet as a pig, it will have worse







Lessons for Pig Club Members


feet when it grows older. Long pasterns are objectionable.
Crooked legs should be avoided.
(4) Good BACKS are desirable. An arched back is stronger
than a straight one and strong backs are needed to carry the
increased weight of the grown animal.
(5) SIDES should be deep, smooth and even from shoulders
to hams. The hog is primarily a meat animal and a long, deep
side is desirable.
(6) HAMS should be wide and the flesh should come well
down on the hocks. Pigs with light hams seldom outgrow this
defect.
(7) HEARTGIRTH. Good width is wanted between the
forelegs. This in-
dicates a chest
with a wide floor.
A pig should not
be pinched or
narrow behind
t h e shoulders.
Good heartgirth
is necessary to
give plenty of
room for the
heart and lungs
to function prop-
erly so the pig
can grow into a ...
big hog. Such
pigs usually
possess good
feeding quality.
(8) HEAD. A
pig should have
a head that is
broad between
the eyes. The
eyes should be
large, wide open
and clear. Heavy
and clear. Heavy Fig. 1.-A coarse, rough pig is shown at top; a
jowls are objec- smooth, desirable type pig at bottom.
tionable as they
indicate coarseness. As the boar pig grows older its head will







Florida Cooperative Extension


become masculine in appearance, while there is but little change
in the head of the sow pig. By masculine head we mean that if
you should see only the head of the animal, you would im-
mediately know that that head belonged only to a boar. The
boar's head is not as smooth as that of the sow's.
(9) QUALITY. Quality is indicated by the hair, which
should be smooth and fine. Style is also an indication of quality.
Pigs should carry themselves well and not slouch around.
(10) CONDITION. We want pigs which are in good flesh
(not too fat) and which carry their flesh evenly from shoulders
to hams. Pot bellies and rough shoulders are objectionable. A
large tail is usually an indication that the pig will make a large
hog.
Boar pigs are not likely to be as smooth as sow pigs. Sow
pigs should have at least 10 teats, the more the better. A good
disposition, as indicated by quietness and a well-shaped head, is
much desired.
Study the pictures of good type pigs.
In selecting your pig, bear the above points in mind. From a
number of pigs eliminate all but three or four best ones. Then
get these together in a small pen where they can be compared
carefully one with another and point by point, and finally select
the best one.
It is not what a pig is that counts, but what it will grow to be.
The above points will help you to pick the right kind.

QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by breed type?
2. Why should you select a pig with
(a) Good bone?
(b) A strong arched back?
(c) Deep, smooth sides?
(d) Good heartgirth?
3. What kind of head do you want on a boar? on a sow?
4. How is quality indicated?
5. How do you go about selecting the best pig in a litter?







Lessons for Pig Club Members


LESSON III

EQUIPMENT NEEDED BY A PIG CLUB MEMBER

You wish your pig to make a profit for you. The hog that
must make a living for itself on the open range without shelter
or care will not have much chance to make anything for its owner.
Give your pig all the advantages you can; provide shelter in
winter, shade in summer, a clean pen and the needed equipment
for feeding.
This equipment need not be anything extra or at all expensive.
A boy who is handy with a hammer and saw can make everything
that is necessary.





















Shelter. From November to March your pig needs a place
where it can keep warm and dry. A simple shed facing the
south, closed on the north and west with the other two sides
open, will do. Locate the house in a well-drained spot, so that
the floor can be kept dry, so it can be cleaned easily, and so sun-
light can get into it. Remember that sunlight is the cheapest
and best disinfectant. A house which can be moved easily is
ideal.
Troughs. Make two good troughs, one for feed and one for
water. These should be light so you can handle and clean them







Florida Cooperative Extension


easily. Troughs so made that the pig cannot lie down in them
are best. The sanitary hog waterer which is fastened to a barrel
is good and can be bought at a reasonable price, but a trough
kept full is good enough.
Creep. If you are raising a litter from your sow, a creep is
a big help, as pigs thrive better after they are about three weeks
old, if they are given something to supplement the mother's
















_if-----_--..--



Fig. 3.-A good type of creep pen. The openings are high and narrow,
the pigs are not forced to crawl under.

milk. This extra feed should be fed in a place where larger hogs
cannot reach it. A pen or creep with two or more openings
through which the pigs can pass but too narrow for a hog, can be
made with little trouble. Make the openings narrow but high. Do
not make the pigs crawl under a fence, as this has a tendency to
produce low backs. The creep should be equipped either with
a small self-feeder or a trough low enough that the pigs can eat
out of it.
Something to Keep Down Lice. Some hog raisers use a
wallow with crude oil on the water, while others use a sand
wallow. Some boys depend on applying oil to their pigs with a
rag or brush, while others set up a post wrapped with sacks
saturated with oil. Any method which keeps off the lice is all







Lessons for Pig Club Members


that is necessary. Waste oil that is drained from automobiles
is fine for killing lice.
Hurdle. Every boy who hopes to show his pig, especially if
he is raising a boar, should have a hurdle. A hurdle helps in
handling a pig and
will save a boy much im
trouble. A hurdle,
should be about 31/2 a S x3/
feet long and 21, ces qI
feet high. It must
be light and strong. "-
Half an old buggy
wheel rim makes the
framework for an i 3'- q '
excellent hurdle. The
rim is covered with
3/", boards. Fig. 4 .- o"..---
shows some simple .- -- / yl3'/t"
hurdles. /- U cei"91
QUESTIONS
1. What makes
a suitable shelter?
2. What is needed 4' o" -
in summer? Fig. 4.-Two good types of hurdles.
3. What equip-
ment is necessary?
4. How would you control lice?


LESSON IV

SANITATION
It is difficult to treat a hog for disease, so you must do all you
can to keep disease away. A lousy, mangy pig will not make you
as much money as will one that is free from these pests. Sani-
tation or cleanliness around your hog lot is of prime importance.
The hog is naturally a clean animal. It does not like to sleep
in a wet filthy place. When given a chance it will bed in a clean
dry place and will keep its bed clean.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Most diseases are caused by germs or bacteria, forms of life
too small to be seen with the naked eye. Old piles of manure,
half-rotted straw, and the like generally are full of these germs
if pigs have been allowed access to them. Lice and worms find
a good hiding place in trash. From this filth, the germs and
worms infest the hogs and the lice continue to annoy them, even
though there is an oil wallow on the farm. Many germs can live
a long time in such filth. Do not think that because hogs have
not been living in the place for some time there are no germs
there. Give your pig an even chance by giving it clean quarters.
How to Have Sanitary Quarters. Sunlight is the best dis-
infectant or germ killer. If the sun shines on all parts of the
lot and sleeping quarters for at least half an hour a day, and if
manure piles and mud wallows are not allowed, the lot will be
fairly sanitary. There are always places where the sun cannot
reach, such as the bottom of troughs and inside of houses. Use
other disinfectants, such as some of the coal tar dips, lime, etc.
A coating of whitewash applied to the inside of the buildings is
always helpful. Freshly slaked lime scattered thickly over the
ground helps control wet places. Troughs should be washed out
occasionally with a good disinfectant and then placed bottom
upward in the sun.













W AT IEl-TI iT T-fW o
43tRUNAERs qVUTrLET 2'TRo0
^^ B',oTTol Or 5AAREL.


Fig. 5.-A sanitary pig watering arrangement.







Lessons for Pig Club Members


Dry dust under buildings is likely to be full of diesase germs
and lice. Therefore, never allow your pig under buildings. A
few boards nailed around the openings will keep it out.
First see that the place where you expect to keep your pig
is clean and free from germs and vermin; then DO NOT put a
lousy, mangy pig into it. See that your pig is free of disease
and lice before you put him into the clean quarters. This is
MOST IMPORTANT. If, when you get your pig, it is not
healthy and free of vermin, put it in a temporary pen for a few
days and clean it up before putting into permanent quarters.
Your success in keeping sanitary quarters will depend upon this
step. SAFETY FIRST, a clean pig put into clean quarters plus
feed and care should spell profit.
If disease gets into your herd, separate the sick from the well.
Clean up the premises thoroughly. Burn everything possible.
Use plenty of lime and other disinfectants. It is best not to
put pigs into quarters where other pigs have died, until at least
a year. Sometimes, of course, it cannot be avoided. If neces-
sary to use such pens, clean up and do it thoroughly.

DISEASES AND PARASITES
The 4-H pig club member who is up to the minute will have
little trouble with his pig from disease or parasites. If you take
proper precautions in handling your pig, it should stay well. Of
course, every club pig is inoculated against hog cholera and
aside from that disease, the fault will be yours if your pig gets
sick. Follow the instructions as to sanitation, and in Lesson VI
as to feeding. Keep in mind that CLEAN PIGS put on CLEAN
LOTS and PASTURES will stay well.
CAUTION: If your pig does get sick, it is best to call a
veterinarian or your county agent. They will know what to do.
DO NOT TRY TO STUFF A SICK PIG. Cut down the amount
of feed instead of trying to tempt the appetite with extra feed.
The pig does not want it, and it will do more harm than good.
When you have found the trouble and remedied it, bring the pig
back to full feed gradually.
Do not try to drench your pig. Many pigs have been killed
by trying to drench them. Doctoring a sick hog is unsatisfactory
at best. Get definite instructions from your county agent or a
capable veterinarian.







Florida Cooperative Extension


QUESTIONS
1. What causes most diseases?
2. Where are germs generally found?
3. Why should everything be open to the sun?
4. What disinfectant can be used?
5. Why is dry dust bad for pigs?
6. What should be done if diesase gets into your herd?
7. How do you prevent hog cholera?
8. How should you feed a sick pig?


LESSON V

FEEDS AND PASTURES

The questions what to feed and how to mix a ration are always
hard for the club boy to answer. This lesson will teach you about
the common feeds.
KINDS OF FEED
CORN: Corn is the most common feed for hogs in America.
As a part of the ration it has no superior, but experiment sta-
tions have found that corn alone is not economical. Corn is
excellent for supplying carbohydrates, which furnish heat and
energy and produce fat. But there are other things just. as
necessary for the growth of a pig which corn alone does not
supply. This is particularly true with young pigs. Mature hogs
can be finished for market fairly well on corn alone, but still
better results will be secured if a supplement, such as tankage
or fish meal, is added.
SHORTS: This is the most commonly used mill feed. It is
especially desirable for brood sows and growing pigs, since it is
high in protein, which builds muscle. Shorts should be high
grade, fresh, and sweet.
OATS: Rolled oats or oat middlings make a good addition
to a ration for feeding young breeding stock, as they are high in
protein and ash. (Ash helps to build bone.) Whole oats or
ground oats, unless the hulls are sifted out, have too much
fiber for young pigs.







Lessons for Pig Club Members


Fig. 6.-Club pigs on a carpet grass pasture.


SKIMMILK: As a supplement to grain, particularly for
young pigs, skimmilk and clabber have no superior, unless we use
whole milk, and that is too expensive. Milk is a perfect food for
young animals but even pigs soon reach the age where some
grain is economical. Too much milk will gorge and distend the
pig's digestive tract and make it pot bellied. For best results,
do not feed over three pounds (three pints) of skimmilk or
clabber for each pound of grain fed. If the grain is ground,
mix milk and grain together.
TANKAGE: This feed is made from meat scraps, bones and
waste products of the packing plants and is very high in
mineral matter and protein, so rich that only a very small
amount is needed. If you do not have skimmilk, tankage or a
similar protein feed is essential if you are to get the most
economical gains and the best developed animal. The price may
seem high, but if you note how little is required in each hundred
pounds of feed, you will see that it is not expensive. There are
two grades of tankage, but we advise using high grade or that
which contains 60 percent protein.
FISH MEAL: This feed is similar to tankage. It has the
same qualities and will give approximately the same results.
Experiments at the Florida Experiment Station gave results
slightly in favor of fish meal over tankage. Only the high grade
fish meal should be used. The mineral content of fish meal is
valuable in supplying bone building material. The decision as
to which to use, tankage or fish meal, should rest upon the cost
of each.







Florida Cooperative Extension


COTTONSEED MEAL: We once thought that cottonseed
meal was unsafe to use for feeding hogs. Experiments have
shown that when cottonseed meal composes only 10 percent or
less of the grain ration, there is no danger. Fed judiciously,
cottonseed meal is a valuable supplement to corn, especially for
older hogs. We would not advise feeding as much as 10 per-
cent cottonseed meal in the ration unless the pig also had the
run of a good pasture.
SWEET POTATOES: Potatoes contain about 70 percent
water, so they are called a bulky feed. They are valuable when
fed with peanuts and may be used in place of PART of the corn
in the ration, using about four pounds of potatoes in place of
a pound of corn. It is not best to make potatoes a large part of
the ration. They are valuable as a change to give variety to the
feed and should be used only in that way.
PASTURES
If you wish to produce pork as cheaply as possible, you must
use good pastures. One experiment station found that it took
five and one half pounds of corn to produce a pound of pork when
fed in a dry lot, while three and one half pounds of corn pro-
duced a pound of pork when pigs were given the run of a good
pasture. Pastures help in keeping the pigs in a thrifty, growing
condition. This does not mean that you can raise a good pig on


Fig. 7.-A brood sow on pasture.







Lessons for Pig Club Members


pasture only. The best pasture, alone, will furnish hardly
enough feed to enable a pig to hold its weight. During the gesta-
tion period (while the sow is carrying her pigs) sows must have
some green feed for the proper development of the litter. Boys
who do not have a pasture should supply some green feed, which
is next best to pasture.
There are two kinds of pasture, permanent (one that lasts
all the time) and temporary (one that lasts for short periods
only). One of the best permanent pasture grasses in Florida
is Bermuda. A quarter of an acre or less of Bermuda, if
on rich land, will furnish enough grazing for a sow or boar.
Carpet grass also makes a good permanent pasture. Temporary
pastures can be grown from cowpeas, sorghum, rape, oats, rye,
beggarweed and Sudan grass. The grasses which come in the
fields, such as crabgrass, Florida or Mexican clover and beggar-
weed, make good summer pastures at times. Rape, rye and oats
make the best winter pastures.
KITCHEN WASTE: The value of kitchen waste as feed
depends upon what it contains. Dish water is not a suitable
feed for pigs, especially when washing powder or strong lye
soap is used. Feed only solid waste such as bread, rice, grits,
etc., which have been discarded from the table. The waste parts
from vegetables are good, if the pig is not on pasture. By all
means kitchen wastes should be fed fresh and not allowed to
sour. The amount to use in place of a pound of grain depends
upon the amount of feed in the slop, but will be generally about
two quarts instead of a pound of grain.
QUESTIONS
1. Is corn alone a good ration for a pig? Why not?
2. What feeds produce bone and muscle?
3. What is the best supplement to grain?
4. What should be fed, if skimmilk is not available?
5. How should kitchen waste be fed?
6. Why is a pasture valuable?
7. What grasses make good permanent pasture?
8. What crops make good winter pasture?







Florida Cooperative Extension


LESSON VI

GROWING THE BREEDING PIG

When you have chosen the breed you want, selected your pig
and made the quarters sanitary, freed you pig of any lice or skin
diseases, and had it treated for cholera, you are ready to begin
feeding.
Breeding stock should not be pampered but should be kept
growing well, as you do not want either a stunted pig or one
that is too fat. Feed as much as you can on feeds produced on
the farm, using grazing crops to the fullest extent. This advice
does not mean that you should avoid buying any feed what-
ever, as it is economy to buy feeds such as shorts, fish meal or
tankage to supplement the corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes and
pastures grown on the farm. You should carry your pig to
breeding age upon feeds that produce growth and vigor. A
little fat is all right, but the development of frame, muscles and
vital organs are most important. Pastures, sanitation, exercise
and proper feed will do the work.
Feeds for Growing Pigs: To produce bone and muscle and
develop the digestive tract you must use feeds that do this, and
not those which produce fat. A balanced ration is required. The
cost of raising your pig must also be watched. Use the cheapest
of the following rations and you ought to be able to raise a
good pig.
SUGGESTED RATIONS
1. Cornmeal ......................50 pounds 4. Cornmeal ......................60 pounds
Ground oats .......-- ........25 pounds Shorts ..........................-- ---30 pounds
Shorts ....................-.......20 pounds Cottonseed meal.......... 5 pounds
Fishmeal or tankage.... 5 pounds Fishmeal ...................... 5 pounds
Pasture Pasture
2. Cornmeal ....................80 pounds 5. Cornmeal ... ---................ 1 pound
Shorts ..........................20 pounds Skimmilk ..............2 to 4 pounds
Skimmilk Pasture
Pasture
3. Cornmeal ....................30 pounds 6. Cornmeal ......................50 pounds
Shorts ..........................30 pounds Shorts ........................ 35 pounds
Ground oats ...-............30 pounds Fishmeal or tankage..15 pounds
Fishmeal or tankage..10 pounds
Pasture
RULES FOR FEEDING
1. Be Careful in Feeding: Do not over feed. A pig weigh-
ing 50 pounds should eat at least two pounds of grain a day plus






Lessons for Pig Club Members


good pasturage. Give what it will clean up twice a day. No
fixed rule can be given for the amount of feed a pig should get;
you must watch and feed accordingly.
2. Gain: A pig ought to gain about a pound a day, but be
careful that it does not get too fat. If your pig is getting too
fat, reduce the proportion of corn and increase the proportions
of shorts, fishmeal or tankage. A pig can gain a pound a day
without putting on too much fat.
3. Caution: Do not change from one ration to another
abruptly. Change gradually or you may throw the pig off feed.
4. Water: A young growing pig needs plenty of water. See
that yours gets it and that it is fresh.
5. Care: Feed regularly. Keep pig clean and free from
lice and mange. See that it takes exercise. Give it shelter in
winter and shade in summer.
MINERAL MATTER: The present popular type of hog is
one with large frame, and it takes mineral matter to build bone.
Your pig must get plenty of mineral matter. Most feeds are
lacking in this necessary element. It must be supplied in ad-
dition. THIS IS IMPORTANT. The United States Department
Df Agriculture recommends the following mixture:
Steamed bone meal................................................. 50 pounds
Ground limestone or air slaked lime..................25 pounds
16% superphosphate .............................................25 pounds
Common salt .............................. ...... .... 5 pounds
"Very often wood ashes are available and may be incorporated
in the mineral mixture to advantage. When added to the above
mixture ashes may be used to the extent of one-third the mixture
by weight. Thus 35 pounds would be the correct quantity to
add to the ingredients listed."-U. S. Farmers Bulletin 1437.
The mineral mixture should be kept before the pig at all times.
It should be kept dry. Feeding from a small self-feeder is
the ideal method, but a small amount kept in a trough and re-
placed when it becomes wet will answer. The 105 pounds of the
mixture suggested will last you a long time.
The following mixture may be used:
Charcoal ........................... .................. ......... .1 bushel
Wood ashes ................................. .....1 bushel
Slaked lime ............ ..-............................4. pounds
Salt ...............................................................8 pounds
Copperas ....... ...............................................2 pounds
Sulphur --.......... ................. ......4 pounds






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Mix the charcoal, ashes, lime, salt and sulphur together. Dis-
solve the copperas in a quart of hot water and sprinkle over the
mixture. Store the mixture in the barn where it is dry and keep
a supply of it in the lot at all times, either in a small self-feeder
or in a trough.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of feeds do growing pigs need?
2. Why is a balanced ration needed?
3. Give two good balanced rations, each to contain tankage.
4. Give two good balanced rations, each to contain skimmilk.
5. Give five rules for feeding.
6. Why does a pig need mineral matter?
7. Give a good mineral mixture and tell how it should be fed.


LESSON VII

CARE OF THE BROOD SOW

When your pig has grown into a strong, stretchy gilt and is
about 12 months old, she is ready to raise a litter of pigs. Upon
the selection of a boar to mate to her largely depends the quality
of her pigs. Here is where too many club boys make their great
mistake. They mate their gilts to poor boars and expect the
pigs to be as good as their mothers. This cannot be done. If
you want your gilt to raise good pigs, you must breed her to a
first-class boar. Find a boar of good type and of good breeding
and that is not too close kin to your gilt.
If possible, breed your gilt so she will farrow (bring pigs) in
March or April, or in September or October. If born in March
or September, your pigs will be at the best age for showing at the
fairs in the fall or winter, since pigs born in January are shown
against pigs born in September and pigs born in June are shown
against those born in March. The following table will tell you
when to breed your sow in order to have her bring pigs at a
definite time:
Gestation Table for Sows.-About 114 days after breeding,
your sow will drop pigs. By studying the following table you
will learn how to figure out the time the pigs will be born:







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Sows bred Should farrow
Nov. 5 ......................... Feb. 27
Nov. 10 ........................ Mar. 4
Nov. 17 ....-..-......--..... Mar. 11
Nov. 24 ............. .. ........ M ar. 18
Dec. 1 ....................... .. .. M ar. 25
Dec. 8 ........................ Apr. 1
Dec. 15 ......................... Apr. 8
Dec. 22 ............................ A pr. 15
Dec. 29 ...................... Apr. 22


Sows bred Should farrow
May 7 ....................... Aug. 29
May 14 ....................... Sep. 5
May 21 ......................... Sep. 12
May 28 ......................... Sep. 19
June 4 ....................... Sep. 26
June 11 .......................... Oct. 3
June 18 ...................... Oct. 10
June 25 ....................... Oct. 17
July 3 ......................... Oct. 24


Note: Farrowing may vary a few days either way.

Feed, Shelter and Care During Gestation.-Upon the care of
your gilt from breeding until farrowing will depend the size and
the vigor of the pigs. This is an important period in the life of
your gilt and you must not neglect her. You must give her
good feed, shelter and shade and plenty of exercise.
A good pasture is more necessary during the gestation period
than at any other time. A good pasture not only furnishes
valuable green feed but induces the gilt to take necessary
exercise. Some boys feed their gilts in one place, water them in
another and have their beds in still another. This forces the
gilt to take exercise and is a good plan.


Fig. 8.-Brood sow in proper condition for farrowing.

The amount of grain to be fed will depend upon the condition
of the gilt. She should gain in size and weight but should not be
allowed to become too fat. It is not meant that you want her to







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be lean, for she must lay on some fat to supply milk for the pigs
when they arrive. If your gilt takes plenty of exercise, she is
not likely to get too fat. A gilt weighing around 250 pounds
should have about five pounds of grain a day in addition to pas-
ture. Do not feed too much corn. It produces fat and is likely
to cause the gilt to have trouble at farrowing time. Your gilt
must be fed protein and mineral matter not only to keep up her
own body but to develop bone and size in the litter. Your gilt
has great need for the mineral mixture mentioned in Lesson VI.
The following ration ought to be satisfactory, if the gilt is
on a good pasture, has plenty of water, mineral mixture and
exercise: Two pounds of grain should be fed daily for each 100
pounds live weight of your gilt.

M ix: Shorts .......................... ...-.. ................ 80 pounds
Fish meal or tankage ............-............................ 20 pounds
For a 250 pound gilt, feed three pounds of this mixture in slop
and two pounds of ear corn a day. Feed the slop in the morning
and ear corn at night.
Another good ration would be:
Corn meal ..........-................ ....... ---- ..... 60 pounds
Shorts ..............---......------- ---. ..... ... -- 30 pounds
Fish meal ..-........... --.. .... -----... ......... 10 pounds
Feed five pounds of this a day; best to feed half at night and
half at morning.
The boy who has some skimmilk can decrease the amount of
fish meal a little and feed the milk in addition. If you have but
a small amount of milk, we would not advise changing the
ration. Feed the milk extra.
DO NOT feed corn ALONE. Experiments have shown that
when a sow is fed corn alone, the pigs are not as strong as when
some animal protein is given in addition. Skimmilk and fish
meal or tankage are really essential for best results.
FARROWING TIME
Preparation-About 10 days before farrowing time, put your
sow where she will not be disturbed. It is found that best re-
sults will be secured if certain precautions are taken at this time.
If possible put your sow into a fresh place-one that is strictly
clean and free from lice. A planted pasture is much superior to
a permanent one for a farrowing lot; there is less chance for






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infestation of worms or lice. A lot which has been plowed and
planted to oats or rye in November or December is ideal for the
spring farrow. One plowed in July and planted to beggarweed,
cowpeas and sorghum is what you need for the fall farrow.
Before putting your sow in the new quarters, wash her with
soap and water containing a good disinfectant. See that she
takes no lice to the new pen with her. A lousy, scratching sow is
much more liable to step on her pigs.
If the time is March or April, give her a shelter where she
can keep warm and dry. Give her some pine straw or leaves for
a bed-enough to keep the pigs off the ground or floor but not so
much that they may be smothered. If in a pen, have a guard
rail about 6 inches from the floor and 6 inches from the sides of
the pen so that the sow cannot crowd them against the side
when she lies down. In September or October, only shade and
a quiet place are necessary at farrowing time. If you use a
house, see that it has plenty of ventilation.
Feeding-Two or three days before farrowing, the sow's feed
should be cut down to a thin slop, and not over a pound of shorts
a day should be fed in the slop. It is well to give her something
to move the bowels about this time. For this purpose there is
nothing better than Epsom salts. Three tablespoonsful is the
right dose. Give this in the feed about 24 hours before she is
due to farrow.
Farrowing-While the sow is farrowing, do not disturb her
unless she has trouble. In this case get some one to help her.
If everything goes all right, as is usually the case, let her alone.
In cold weather, it might pay to see that the pigs are not chilled
when first born. Some breeders use heated bricks wrapped in
sacks in the bottom of a box or basket, placing the pigs in the
box until they are warm and dry. Any work of this sort must be
done very gently, to avoid exciting the young sow.
AFTER FARROWING
Trouble after farrowing generally comes from one or two
causes,-too much feed, and wet bedding. Too much feed causes
fever in the sow's udder and the pigs die from scours. Wet
bedding makes the sow's udder sore, causes the pigs' tails to
get sore, and oftentimes causes both pigs and sow to catch cold.
Cold draughts blowing on the pigs in March and April are






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dangerous and liable to cause pneumonia. For the first 24 hours
give no feed. However, give plenty of water.
Feeding: Do not get the sow on full feed until the pigs are
at least 10 days old. Feed a thin slop made of shorts and water,
or skimmilk, with maybe an ear of corn a day after the second
day. Increase the amount of shorts each day until the sow is
eating all she will clean up twice a day at the end of 10 days.
Either of the rations given for the gilt before farrowing will do.
Watch your pigs, and if they begin to scour, cut down the sow's
feed, and add lime water. This water is prepared by mixing
together unslaked lime and water, letting the solution settle and
then drawing off the clear water.
Exercise-After pigs are two days old they must take some
exercise. The sow usually takes them out, but if she does not,
you should drive them out into the sunshine for a short time
each day. If the sow is on a pasture where she belongs, you will
have little trouble on this score.


Fig. 9.-Winter vetch makes good grazing for young pigs.
Teeth-At birth pigs have four sharp teeth which sometimes
cause trouble by making the sow's udder sore and scratching
the faces of the other pigs. Take the pigs by the back of the







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neck, force the mouth open and break off these teeth. This can
be done easily with a pair of pliers. (Do not pull the teeth;
break them off.)
Feeding-When pigs are young is not the time to spare feed.
Remember that your sow must eat not only enough for her own
body but also enough to keep the young pigs growing. During
the first three weeks the pigs will be entirely dependent upon
the mother, and you must feed her all she will eat after the
first 10 days. Her feed should be made up of milk-producing
feeds, such as shorts, corn meal and tankage.


Fig. 10.-Teaching them to eat early.






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CARE OF YOUNG PIGS
Feeds-After a week or so you will notice that the young pigs
are beginning to hunt feed on their own account. You will see
them trying to eat out of the mother's trough and picking up
scattered feed. Now is the time to build a creep as explained in
Lesson III. Then the pigs can get away by themselves and learn
to eat. Start pigs on soaked shelled corn with a little skimmilk
if possible. When about two weeks old, you can begin to use the
same ration for the pigs that you are giving the sow, in slop
with milk if you have it. A good mixture for the pigs is six
pounds corn meal, 4 pounds rolled oats, 4 pounds shorts, and 1
pound fish meal or tankage. Remember that after five or six
weeks, the sow cannot produce enough milk for a fair sized litter,
so you must feed the pigs extra.
Other Feeds-Young pigs need pasture and mineral matter
to make them grow frame and muscle. Keep some of the
mineral mixture recommended in Lesson V in the creep at all
times. Young pigs need more water in proportion to their size
than do older ones.
Keep your pigs growing. A day without gain is a day lost.
However, do not try to keep them too fat. If they appear to be
getting too fat, cut down the percentage of corn and increase the
shorts and fish meal. You must develop frame and not fat. Read
the lesson on weaning to learn how to care for the pigs from this
time on.
Sanitation-In feeding young pigs you must watch the
cleanliness of things. Do not feed them in a muddy, filthy place.
See that the troughs are kept clean and sweet. In this climate
slop sours very quickly and in this condition, causes trouble. Do
not feed any more than they will clean up readily. Scald the
troughs or clean with a disinfectant once in a while. Turn them
bottom upward in the sun every day or so. If you see any lice,
get busy. Wash the old sow and dip the pigs.
CARE OF SOW AFTER PIGS ARE WEANED
After the pigs are weaned the sow should be bred and turned
on pasture with the same kind of feed as when she was carrying
the first litter. A mature sow does not need as much feed from
the time she is bred until the pigs come as does a gilt, due to the
fact that the gilt has to grow her own body as well as carry the
litter. Some breeders put their sows on good pasture with just







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enough ear corn to keep them in condition until three weeks be-
fore farrowing. It is best to give the sows some fish meal or
tankage with the corn. If plenty of milk is available, ear corn
and pasture do very well.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of boar should you use to mate with your gilt?
2. What dates are best for farrowing, or for the pigs to come?
3. Why should your gilt have a good pasture?
4. Why should a gilt be fed protein feeds and mineral matter?
5. How much feed should a 250-pound gilt get a day?
6. Give two rations suitable for a gilt or sow, providing she
is on pasture.
7. How much bedding should be used at farrowing time?
8. How should a sow be fed before farrowing? after far-
rowing?
9. How much should a sow with pigs be fed?
10. How much water should be given?
11. After weaning, how should the sow be cared for?


LESSON VIII

WEANING THE PIGS

The most important period in a pig's life is the few weeks
during weaning. Upon your ability to properly feed and care
for the litter at this time depends your profit.
If you have followed instructions given in Lesson VII, your
pigs will have come to depend largely upon themselves.
The age at which to wean depends upon the size and vigor of
the pigs and whether you have plenty of skimmilk for feeding.
If you let them stay with the sow too long, you weaken her for
the next litter. Still, you must not take them away too soon.
If you have milk for them, you can wean at eight weeks of age;
but if not, it is best not to wean them until they are 10 weeks
old, or even older, if they are not healthy and robust.
Watch both sow and pigs after they are separated. Put the
sow far enough away that she cannot hear the pigs. Cut her
feed sharply, feeding only dry corn for a few days before and
after weaning. This will tend to stop the milk flow. Watch her






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and, if her udder begins to swell or harden, let the pigs come
back once or twice to suck her dry. After this she ought to dry
up without further trouble.
Watch the feeding of the pigs carefully at first. If you can
keep them with good appetites and on slightly increased and
properly balanced rations for 30 days, your success is assured.
Feed a little less than they will naturally clean up, and feed
often-at least three times a day at first. Pigs at this age like
their feed as a slop. Slop sours quickly in our warm climate,
so watch the troughs and keep them sweet and clean, or the pigs
are liable to be troubled with scours. Do not change feed ab-
ruptly, as that is liable to cause digestive troubles. Watch the
sanitary conditions of the pen and lot. See that the pigs have
a place to sleep which is warm and dry and free of dust. More
pigs are ruined by dust at this age than are at any other age.
Keep them free of lice and mange. A good pasture, a shelter
against rain, cold and sun, plenty of good feed and fresh water
will keep the pigs in good health and growing. Pigs should be
given the double treatment against cholera about 10 days after
weaning.
Feeds for Weaning Pigs.-If you have skimmilk, feed a slop
made of cornmeal 2 parts, shorts 2 parts, and skimmilk, 2 pints
to a pound of the meal and shorts. The pigs should have been
fed this a week or so before weaning, so that their stomachs will
have become accustomed to it.
If you have no milk, feed a mixture of cornmeal 3 parts, shorts
4 parts, tankage 1 part.
After you have the pigs safely by the weaning stage, the feed
to use will depend upon whether the pigs are to be fed out for
pork or for breeding animals. If for breeding animals, follow
instructions in Lesson VI; if for pork, follow Lesson X.
Caution.-There is one word of caution about feeding after
weaning; the pigs will have greedy appetites and, if allowed to
do so, will gorge themselves and develop pot bellies. Feed often
and not quite all they will eat. Green feed is of great value at
this stage and you should make every effort to supply it to the
pigs, either as a pasture or as green grass or crops cut from
the fields.
QUESTIONS
1. At what age should pigs be weaned?
2. How should you wean pigs?







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3. What things should be watched in feeding weaned pigs ?
4. Give two good rations for weaning pigs.
5. Give caution in feeding pigs after weaning.


LESSON IX

THE BOAR

If you raise a boar, the feed and care for the first few months
will be the same as for a gilt.
The boar should be separated from the gilts soon after wean-
ing, at least by the time he is five months old. The boar is now
laying the foundation for his future usefulness and must be fed
muscle and bone-building materials. The rations given in Les-
son VI will do for the young boar. Feed just a little less than
he will clean up. Watch your boar and give him the ration that
gives best results. If he is laying on too much fat, cut down the
proportion of corn in the ration, and if he is too thin, increase
the proportion of corn. Sometimes a change of feed is necessary.
There is no rule that will fit all cases and you must keep studying
until you find the right method.
In addition to a grain feed your boar must have pasture, plenty
of water and mineral matter. Exercise also is necessary, if you
want to grow the right kind of boar.
The Breeding Season.-Do not use your boar before he is
eight months old and do not give him much to do until he is
at least a year old. One sow a day is the limit for a young boar.
Let him cover the sow only once during one period of heat. In
the breeding season feed your boar a high-protein ration; such
as, rations 1, 2, 5 or 6, Lesson VI. Do not turn your boar in the
pasture with the sows but bring them to him. In this way you
will save your boar and will know the exact date the pigs will
come.
Care Between Seasons.-When out of service do not feed the
boar as heavily as during the breeding season. The feed now
should contain less protein. The same ration given a brood
sow on pasture is about right for the boar at this time. Give
him the run of a small pasture and enough grain in addition to
keep him in growing condition. He should not be kept fat dur-
ing the off season but as the time for service approaches, in-







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crease his feed and put a little fat on him, if he is expected to
serve several sows.


Fig. 11.-Mature boar in breeding condition.


Exercise.-You cannot raise a strong active boar without exer-
cise. Neither can you keep him in shape for service without
exercise. A a rule, if on pasture, a boar will take plenty of exer-
cise; but, if he does not, make him. Drive him around the pas-
ture several times a day, if necessary. A good plan is to have
the shelter at one end and the feed troughs at the other end of
the pasture. Exercise tends to prevent the laying on of excessive
fat and assists in developing stamina and vigor which are
necessary, if your boar is to sire large litters of strong, vigorous
pigs.
QUESTIONS
1. How should the boar be fed and cared for until 12 months
old ?
2. If the boar is getting too fat, what should you do?
3. What is necessary in addition to feed?
4. How old should the boar be before he is used?
5. Give a good ration for the boar during breeding season.
6. How should the boar be fed between breeding seasons?
7. Why is exercise necessary?







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LESSON X

FATTENING PIGS

After weaning, the pigs selected for fattening should be fed
in two periods. The first one may be called the frame-growing
period. This begins at weaning time and continues till the pigs
weigh about 125 pounds. The second one may be called the
fattening period. This begins at the close of the first, and ends
with marketing.
The Growing Period.-During the first period give your fat-
tening pigs good pasture, plenty of water, shade, mineral mixture
and one of the rations suggested in Lesson VI. These rations are
suggested because the fattening pigs need about the same feed
during this period as do the breeding pigs. Ration number 2 or
5, Lesson VI, will likely be best, as they will produce a little more
fat than some of the others. The object during this period is to
grow frame and to develop a good digestive system, but more
fat is allowed than in the case of a pig kept for breeding pur-


Fig. 12.-A well fed per of barrows.







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poses. By all means do not forget the mineral mixture and the
sanitaton.
The Fattening Period.-When the pig has developed a
strong frame, with plenty of room for the vital and digestive
organs, it is ready to fatten. Average daily gains of over two
pounds a day have been obtained by club boys, and you should
not be satisfied with anything less than a gain of a pound and
a half a day during the finishing period.
Pigs that have reached a weight of 125 pounds and which
have developed plenty of frame and stretch should not be fed
much longer than 10 weeks, as they would be too fat for present
market requirements. Six to eight weeks would be better. In
this period the pigs should be induced to drink lots of water and
should be given plenty of mineral mixture recommended in
Lesson VI.
Growing Feed for Pigs.-The only way to make a good profit
with fattening pigs is to grow most of the feed. Every member
of this kind of pig club should grow feed crops. For winter and
early spring pasture, oats, rye and rape are the best crops to
grow. For summer and fall, corn and peanuts are our best home-
grown feeds. For early summer feeding, plant prolific corn and
peanuts or cowpeas. Do not gather the corn, let the pigs have
this.
Feeds to Use.-Fattening pigs need a variety of feeds to make
the best and cheapest gains. At this period you should feed more
fat-producing feeds, such as corn and peanuts, and less muscle-
building feeds, such as shorts and tankage, but do not feed all
of one kind. Feed all the pig will clean up twice a day. If you
keep your pigs in a small pasture, one of the following rations
is suggested:

No. 1: Cornmeal ............95 pounds No. 2: Cornmeal ..........70 pounds
Tankage or Shorts .................26 pounds
Fishmeal ............5 pounds Tankage ............... 4 pounds
No. 3: Cornmeal ................1 pound
Skimmilk ..............2 pounds
The addition of kitchen waste to any of the above rations will
be advisable. Do not feed much dishwater. If you want to use
sweet potatoes, you may substitute 4 pounds of them for a pound
of corn. Never depend upon potatoes to replace over 25 percent
of the corn in a ration. Even then the ration should contain
considerable corn.







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Corn, tankage and shorts in a self-feeder make a ration that
is hard to beat. Let the pigs eat what they want, as they will
balance their own ration better than you can do it for them.
With a self-feeder you must see that the feed does not give out
and that plenty of water is kept before the pigs.
Peanut Pasture.-If you want to turn your pigs on peanuts,
you may do so to good advantage. If you have a small patch
fenced off, you have an ideal arrangement. Shade, water, and
mineral mixture and some supplementary feeds will be necessary.
Pigs on peanuts will do much better if given corn, sweet potatoes,
tankage or skimmilk to balance up the peanuts. A self-feeder
with shelled corn and tankage is fine. A good feed of corn once
a day will help. Sweet potatoes in a self-feeder, or fed once a
day, are good. In fact, anything to vary the diet will help.
If you must turn your pigs out in a big peanut field with other
hogs, you should build a pen where you can separate your pigs
and feed them the supplementary feeds. If the entire herd is
fed a balanced ration, it will be all right to let yours run with
the rest.
Corn and Peanuts.-It is much more satisfactory to let the
pigs have both corn and peanuts, rather than peanuts alone.
Peanuts alone are not a balanced ration, and while pigs will
thrive on them for a short time, they will do better if they get
some corn. To feed out barrows, especially those to go on the
early market, do not gather the corn; let the pigs have both the
corn and peanuts.
The experience of those in the fat-barrow club has been that
the boy or girl who feeds his or her pig some skimmilk or tank-
age gets the largest and most economical gains. Do not feed too
much skimmilk; two quarts a day to each pig is the limit. More
than this amount will develop too much belly, a thing not wanted
by the packers, butcher or yourself.
QUESTIONS
1. Name two periods for fattening pigs.
2. What do you want your pig to do during the first period?
3. What feeds should be fed during the first period?
4. How long should the second period last?
5. Give some good rations for finishing a pig.
6. How should a pig be fed, if it is on a peanut pasture?
7. Give caution about feeding skimmilk.







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LESSON XI

PREPARING PIGS FOR SHOW

Condition.-Pigs that have been properly cared for and cor-
rectly fed require little additional preparation to make them
ready for exhibiting at fairs. First of all, a pig should be well-
grown for its age. To secure this, we must start when the pig
is small and see that it receives, regularly, plenty of nourishing,
growth-producing feed.
Rolling-fat pigs do not show to advantage in the judging ring.
This is usually caused by being fed too much corn, or from being
kept in the peanut and chufa fields too long. On the other hand,
we do not want thin and run-down pigs, because such pigs do not
look their best. Pigs that have been made real fat and then al-
lowed to fall off in flesh, usually show wrinkles in their sides and
flanks. What the judges most desire is for the pigs to carry just
enough flesh to be smooth and well rounded out. Pigs in this
condition walk easily and freely and show to the very best ad-
vantage.
Handling.-Pigs that have not been handled are inclined to
be wild and, therefore, do not show to best advantage; they run
into the corners of the judging ring or try to climb over the
fence. The judge seldom pays any attention to such pigs. Lazy
pigs lie down and slouch around when put in the show-ring and,
therefore, do not appear favorably before the judge. Such pigs
have been spoiled by too much scratching and petting.
A pig to show properly must have been taught to drive and
move around at the will of its owner. A buggy whip, cane or
stick about four feet long should be used in driving the pig
every day for at least two weeks before sending it to the fair.
Pigs are quick to learn and a careful boy can soon teach
one to be driven as suggested. Some good showmen walk their
hogs at least half a mile every day for several days before
they go out on the show circuit. The exercise is beneficial to the
pigs and at the same time they learn what is expected of them.
A light hurdle is often found useful, especially the first few times
the pig is driven.
Grooming.-Brush the pigs daily for at least two or three
weeks before fair time, using a good stiff brush. This makes







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the hair lie close to the body and puts it in best condition. If the
feet have grown out too long, pare off the toes with a pocket
knife so the pig can stand evenly on its feet. Before the show,
clip the hair from the inside and outside of the ears (this makes
the head look neat) and trim the hair off the tail down to the
brush. This gives the hams the appearance of being thicker than
they really are. Give your pig a good bath with soap and water
before the show, using a brush to scrub it clean. Then take a
rag and some light oil and rub over the body. This leaves
the hair slick and shiny and should be repeated just before the
judging. A little lamp black may be added to the oil for black
hogs.


Fig. 13.-Ready for the show-ring.


Shipping Instructions.-If your pig is to be hauled on a truck
or wagon or shipped by train, feed little, if any, just before ship-
ping. If shipped in the morning, do not give it anything except
plenty of fresh water. If to be shipped in the afternoon, give
only a light breakfast. This is done so that the pig will reach
its destination in good condition and be ready for its feed. Pigs







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shipped with a full stomach will probably get sick and go off
feed from the shaking up they get while traveling.
Ship in a strong but light crate and mark the address plainly.
Put your name and address on the crate.

QUESTIONS
1. In what condition should pigs be for showing?
2. How do you train a pig so that it will handle well in the
show-ring ?
3. How do you groom a pig for show?
4. How should a pig be fed before shipping?
5. What kind of crate should be used?
6. How should it be addressed and marked?


LESSON XII

EXHIBITING PIGS

Properly showing a pig is an art. A few points about showing
always should be borne in mind. First, study your pig at home


Fig. 14.-Sow in good show-ring position.







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and see how you can make it look its best. Some pigs show best
while walking, others while standing still. Keep it before the
judge in the position which makes it look best. Second, re-
member that the judge wants to see the pig and not the boy
showing him; therefore, keep the pig between you and the judge.
Third, watch the judge and keep showing your pig every minute
it is in the ring.
Study the illustrations which indicate correct and incorrect
showing.
Show-Ring Classifications.-These classifications are compiled
to meet the requirements of the leading shows and fairs for 1929.

AGED SOWS AND BOARS
Animals two years old or over make up this class.
SENIOR YEARLINGS
By senior yearling is meant an animal farrowed on or after September
1, 1927, and before March 1, 1928.
JUNIOR YEARLINGS
By junior yearling is meant an animal farrowed on or after March 1,
1928 and before September 1, 1928.
SENIOR PIGS
By Senior pig is meant an animal farrowed on or after September 1, 1928
and before March 1, 1929.
JUNIOR PIGS
By junior pig is meant an animal farrowed on or after March 1, 1929.
For showing in later years add one year to these dates, for
each additional year.
QUESTIONS
1. Why should you study your pig at home?
2. What three things should you remember in showing your
pig?
3. In what class does your pig show?







Florida Cooperative Extension


LESSON XIII

JUDGING HOGS

There are two kinds of judging, (1) score-card judging and
(2) comparative judging.
Score-Card Judging is using a scale of points as issued by the
breed association for the breed to which the pig belongs, and
scoring the pig by it. A perfect pig would score 100 and a good
one about 90 points. The purpose of this kind of judging is to
teach the different parts of the hog and the relative weight in
figures that one part bears to another. This training is useful
because it teaches you to look at each part of the animal. Study
the following score card for breeding hogs:


Fig. 15.-Study this illustration to know the different parts of a hog.
1, snout; 2, eye; 3, ear; 4, face; 5, jowl; 6, forehead; 7, neck; 8, shoulder; 9,
foreleg; 10, pastern; 11, toe; 12, dew claw; 13, back; 14, loin; 15, side; 16,
belly; 17, fore flank; 18, hind flank; 19, rump; 20, ham; 21, hind leg; 22, tail.

SCORE CARD FOR LARD HOGS-BREEDING


Standard of Excellence


Perfect Score


A. General Appearance-40 Points.
Weight, 6 months, 200 lbs.; one year, 400 lbs.; 2
years, 800 lbs. .................--..............--- ................- 6







Lessons for Pig Club Members


Form, deep, broad, long, moderately low set, sym-
metrical, compact, standing squarely on legs-... 7
Quality, hair fine; bone strong but not coarse; skin
smooth; even covering of flesh, free from lumps
and wrinkles; features refined but not delicate... 6
Condition, thrifty, well-fleshed, but not excessively
fat ..-............-.---------------.....----- ...--- 4
Constitution, chest capacious; brisket advanced
and low; flanks full and well let down .......-....... 8
Disposition, quiet, gentle --------...............................--- 1
Breed type, having all characteristics of breed........ 5
Coat, fine, straight, bright, smooth, evenly distrib-
uted, lying close to body, no swirls----...................... 3
B. Head and Neck-11 Points.
Eyes, full, mild, bright, not obscured by wrinkles.... 2
Face, short, broad between eyes, dished or straight
according to breed, cheeks smooth ..................----.... 2
Ears, fine texture, medium size, neatly but firmly
attached, carriage according to breed-----............... 2
Jowl, smooth, firm, medium size...........------------......... 2
Neck, short, deep, thick, narrow at nape, thicken-
ing toward and joining smoothly to shoulder-.......- 3
C. Forequarters-10 Points.
Shoulders, broad, deep, full but not heavy, on a line
with sides .......------....... ...------.-- ------- -- 5
Legs, straight, medium length, strong, tapering,
set well apart, bone large, strong and smooth,
joints clean, pasterns upright, feet medium size,
not sprawling, squarely placed .-....--...----.--.------ 5
D. Body-20 Points.
Back arched, loin long, of even width, thickly and
evenly fleshed --------............. ......-----.----------.. 9
Sides, deep, long, full, free from wrinkles; ribs,
long and well sprung .....................----........---.......-- 7
Belly, straight, level, not flabby, proportionate in
width .......-............-....--...............-- ...------- 2
Flank, full and even with body, not cut up----............ 2
E. Hindquarters-19 Points.
Rump, long, wide, evenly fleshed, rounding from
loin to root of tail; neat, high tail setting----............ 3







Florida Cooperative Extension


Hams, plump, full, deep broad, no roughness, not
cut up, well fleshed to hock..-..-.................-.......... --10
Legs, straight, of medium length, strong, tapering,
set well apart; bone large, strong and smooth,
joints clean, pasterns upright; feet, medium size,
not sprawling, squarely placed ...-.........................- 5
Tail, medium size and length, smooth and tapering 1

Total ......-..----- ..--. .. ..-........---......... ..---- ..-..... 100
Comparative Judging is the placing of several animals in their
correct rank, as first, second, third, etc., by comparing one with
another. In this method, which is more advanced than the score-
card method, we should never for an instant lose sight of the
purpose for which the animal is intended. The ability to con-
vert a given amount of feed into a large amount of high-priced
pork products is the aim sought. This should always be kept
in mind.
Usually four animals are used for this type of judging, espe-
cially in judging contests. Reasons for your placings are given
after the placings are completed. This is really the test of what
you know, because a boy might accidentally guess the proper
placing; but, if he did not know WHY he had so placed them, it
would simply be a guessing instead of a judging contest.
The procedure in comparative judging is briefly as follows:
1. Stand off 15 or 20 feet from the animals and get a general
impression of all of them. Note size, bone, the way they stand,
backs, depth, heads, etc.
It is usually noticed from this observation that either (a) one
animal stands out as the best of all; or (b) one animal is poorer
than all others; or (c) the class divides itself into one or two
pairs of animals which closely resemble each other. Get these
firmly fixed in your mind.
2. Examine the animals now more closely and see, if on
close inspection, they bear out what you observed from a dis-
tance. Remember the points mentioned under the chapter on
selection of pigs for breeding purposes.
3. If you find the best animal on close examination fails to
disclose any defects, place it first in your mind. Then, if you







Lessons for Pig Club Members


have a poorest animal, put it in fourth place. Then take the
pair which are nearest being equal and study them side by side
and make up your mind which is the better of the two and place
it in second place and the other one in third place.
Sometimes a class naturally divides itself into two pairs of
animals, the pairs should then be kept together and a little ob-
servation will show you which is the better pair. Then it re-
mains only to find the better animal of each pair and you have
all placed.
Comparative judging requires both study and practice to be-
come expert. Study to keep up with the approved types because
they change from time to time. The results of the best shows
teach us which type will win.
Practice is necessary to become quick and sure of your de-
cisions.
QUESTIONS
1. What are the two kinds of judging?
2. What should always be kept in mind in comparative
judging?
3. What is the first step in judging a ring of pigs?
4. What is the second step?
5. What is the third step?

LESSON XIV

HOW TO PLAN YOUR WORK

The boy who makes a real success of his pig club work will
furnish a demonstration in hog raising that will have influence
on his neighbors. You want to carry out your demonstration in
the best way possible. It will take some fencing of small fields,
the building of some equipment and the planting of crops to
furnish as much of the feed as possible. The work required and
the expense will not be impossible for a great many boys. If
Florida farmers are to get the most money from raising hogs,
they must have these things. It is up to our 4-H club boys to
demonstrate that more money can be made by spending some for
a few fences.
The following schedule can be used as a basis for planting your
crops and managing your pig. It is not required that this








Florida Cooperative Extension


schedule be followed. It is offered as a guide. The outline in
the left column is for a boy starting with a junior pig. If you
start with an older pig, plan your pasture with your county
agent. The second column is for the boy who has raised a gilt
and expects to raise some barrows. Your county agent will tell
you what changes may be best to make.

Schedule of work by months for Schedule of work by months for
breeding pig. sow and litter.
NOVEMBER.- NOVEMBER Early in month
plant at least one acre in oats or
rye for pasture next March. This
should be planted in a field by itself
near the house as this lot will be
used as a farrowing lot for a year
or two at least. GILT should be
bred to a good boar as soon after
November 6 as possible. She
should have run of permanent pas-
ture if possible, or else a small
pasture of rape or oats which were
planted in September. Do not put
her in farrowing lot pasture.
(Study Lesson VII.)

DECEMBER.- Gilt should continue on pasture
with one of the rations in Lesson
VII. Don't forget the mineral
mixture.
JANUARY Join the 4-H Pig Gilt or sow should continue on
Club. Pasture with mineral mixture.
FEBRUARY S t u d y bulletin. Prepare farrowing house in oats
Select your breed. Find out where or rye pasture. See that every-
a pig can be bought. Study any thing is in shape-house, guard
other bulletins on hogs you can rail, clean troughs, bedding, etc.
get. About 10 days before sow is due
to farrow, wash her thoroughly
and put her into farrowing pas-
ture.
MARCH-Select lot for grazing- Re-read Lesson VII. Watch sow's
1/ acre will be enough. Plant to rations before and after farrowing.
cat-tail millet or other pasture Build creep for pigs. Plant two
crop. It is well for pig club boy acres to Early Dent corn and
to be in corn club also and plant Spanish peanuts and two acres to
an acre of corn for fall feeding, field corn and runner peanuts in
A few rows of Early Dent corn fields where the pigs can be turned
planted at this time will come in in July.
handy in July and August.
APRIL-Cultivate your millet and Watch the feeding of the sow and
corn. pigs. Extra feed should be kept in
the creep for the pigs, especially if
there are many in the litter. Culti-
vate corn and peanuts.








Lessons for Pig Club Members


Schedule of work by months for Schedule of work by months for
breeding pig.I sow and litter.
MAY Prepare shade, trough, When pigs are about 8 to 10 weeks
fences, self-feeder for mineral mix- old, they should weigh around 35
ture, etc. Have everything ready. pounds. Wean them. Sow should be
Mix a supply of one of the mineral put on another pasture (a per-
mixtures given in Lesson VI. Order manent one is best) and bred for
your pig. Study Lessons II, III, a fall litter. She should be bred
and IV. as soon after May 10 as possible.
Pigs can be left on oat pasture.
Crab grass and the like will come
after the oats are gone. The best
of the pigs can be sold or saved for
breeding purposes. Those saved
for breeding purposes should be
cared for under schedule for first
year work. Pigs to be fattened
should be inoculated and fed ac-
cording to Lesson X.

JUNE-Get feed and prepare one Keep sow on permanent pasture
of the rations given in Lesson VI. and some grain; fattening pigs on
Get your pig; weigh it; start your oat pasture and fed as directed in
record book. Be certain that your Lesson X. Keep mineral mixture
pig has been inoculated against before them. Take all pigs off
cholera, dip or wash it so there will farrowing pasture as soon as first
be no lice. Put it in the millet corn and peanuts are ready.
pasture and start your work in
earnest. A LITTLE MILK WILL
HELP.
JULY-Feed and water pig reg- (Start record in barrow project.)
ularly. Keep mineral mixture be- Plant farrowing pasture to cow-
fore it. Your Early Dent corn will peas and sorghum for use when
now supply part of the feed. Weigh sow farrows her fall litter. Plant
pig. It should gain about 1 pound in rows and cultivate.
per day. A little milk will help. Keep sow on permanent pasture
with some grain. Fattening pigs
should be turned into early corn
and Spanish peanuts as soon as
corn is in dough stage. Keep
mineral mixture in self-feeder.
AUGUST-Feed and water reg- Fattening hogs should be turned
ularly. Keep record book up-to- into field corn and runner peanuts
date. Pig should be gaining at about middle of August. First
least a pound per day. field should be planted to rape and
oats for winter grazing as soon as
possible.
Farrowing house should be
thoroughly cleaned and all equip-
ment made ready. If your lot was
plowed and planted and no hogs
allowed on it since pigs were taken
off in May or June, it is clean.
About 10 days before sow is due
to farrow, take her from per-
manent pasture, wash her and put
her into farrowing pasture.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Schedule of work by months for
breeding pig.
SEPTEMBER- Feed and water
pig regularly. Watch supply of
mineral mixture. Keep your record
book up-to-date. A few peanuts
pulled and fed to the pig will help.
OCTOBER-Don't let your pig get
too fat. It should be gaining at
least a pound per day but gain
should be in bone and muscle most-
ly. Begin to train pig to show.
Study Lessons XI and XII. Plant
some winter pasture.
NOVEMBER-Fit pig for show.
Study Lessons XI, XII and XIII.
See that record book is up-to-date.
Exhibit at county contest. If your
gilt is well grown, you can breed
her as soon as possible after No-
vember 6 for a spring litter. You
are now starting the sow and
litter work, so do the things sched-
uled at the beginning of the other
column.


Schedule of work by months for
sow and litter.
Sow and litter should be handled
as in spring litter. See that house
has plenty of ventilation. Fatten-
ing hogs continue on corn and
runner peanuts.
Sow and pigs continue on farrow-
ing lot pasture. Fattening hogs
should be sold early in October.
The second field can be planted to
winter pastures or to vetch, etc.
Record book of fat barrow project
should be completed.
Wean pigs and turn sow back onto
permanent pasture after breeding
for spring farrow. Pigs good
enough for breeding purposes can
be put on oats or rape pastures
and fed according to Lesson VI.
Pigs to be fattened can be turned
onto peanuts-or better, on corn
and peanuts. Fall pigs should be
ready for market in March, April,
or May.


LESSON XV

KEEPING RECORDS

When you have chosen your breed, selected your pig, cared
for it properly, fed it correctly, fitted it for show, you have not
completed your pig-club work. Unless you have a record of how
you fed your pig, how much you fed it, together with the cost
of the feed and the amount of gain, you have not completed
what you agreed to do when you joined the club. The success-
ful livestock farmer knows the business end of hog production,
and you must know how much your pig has cost.
A complete record is necessary and you should keep this in
the book furnished by your county agent. The record is not
hard to keep, if you use a few minutes each week and keep it up
to date. Every time you mix up feed, put down on page 2 the
date, the number of pounds and the cost. Once a month set down
on page 3 the value of the kitchen waste and milk you fed dur-
ing that month. Weigh the pig once a month and set down
the weight. Do this throughout the year and you will have an
accurate record of what it cost to raise your pig.







Lessons for Pig Club Members


There is one point in keeping a record that seems to bother
most boys and girls. They have no platform scales and think
it too much trouble to weigh their pigs once a month. You will
find the pig club more interesting and you can do better work,
if you know just what your pig is gaining. If it is not gaining
what it should, you will find it out and can change the feed ac-
cordingly. Nearly every farm has a pair of cotton balances, and
with a weighing sling, every club member can easily weigh his
or her pig.
The story of how you raised your pig is important. Just write
it as if you were writing to some friend about your club work
and tell what you have done. Remember it takes the story
to complete your work. Some boys have lost valuable prizes be-
cause they failed to write this story.
Remember that in all your club work you have your county
agent to help you. Do like the boy in the picture (Fig. 16);
he got his county agent to assist him with his record book.


Fig. 16.-Checking up records with the county agent.







44 Florida Cooperative Extension

QUESTIONS
1. Why should you keep a record of your pig club work?
2. What is the easiest and best method to follow in keeping
a record?
3. Why should you weigh your pig once a month?
4. How can you do this without platform scales?
5. How should you write the story of raising your pig?
6. What use should you make of your county agent?




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