Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 30
Title: Lessons for pig-club members
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF90000114/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lessons for pig-club members
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: R. W. Blacklock
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: February 1922
 Subjects
Subject: Swine
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF90000114
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 47285701
notis - ABC8180
lccn - 77357854
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




31
Bulletinm February, 1922

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




LESSONS FOR PIGCLUB MEMBERS
By R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent
and H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent



















INTRODUCTION
The pig club should be of interest to every boy and many girls
living on Florida farms where hogs are raised. The boys and
girls of Florida have done much toward placing better livestock
on the farms of the state. Since the work was begun over five
thousand Florida boys and girls have raised club pigs. Many of
these were on farms where the club pig was the first purebred
animal. The value of this work can hardly be estimated in dol-
lars and cents but the greatest value is the training received by
the boys and girls.
These lessons have been prepared to assist the thousands of
boys and girls in Florida who will do pig club work in the future.
It is hoped that the study of these simple lessons will enable them
to produce better pigs at a greater profit to themselves.









LESSON I
THE BREED
In selecting a pig to raise animals for breeding purposes or for
pork, you must give thought to the breed.
In choosing a breed the most important point is to select one
you like. If there is something about a breed that you do not
like, do not try to raise that breed as you will never be satisfied
with it.
If you have no preference, it is well to study the question be-
fore you decide. There is no one best breed. Any breed will pay
you, if you do your part in feeding and caring for it. If there
is a well-established breed in your community, giving good re-
sults, you cannot do better than to select that one. It has proven
a money maker to your neighbors and will do as much for you.
You will be able to sell the best individuals for breeding purposes,
if this breed is popular in your community. Visits to county
fairs will help you in determining what breed is liked best in the
section where you expect to sell your pigs.
Two Types.-Hogs are generally divided into two general
types, the lard and the bacon types. The lard-type hog is com-
pact, thick, deep and smooth. It is remarkable for its depth and
thickness rather than its length. This type will produce a large
amount of lard when slaughtered. The bacon type is longer in
leg and body, has less thickness of body and is lighter in shoulder,
neck and jowl.
The lard type has been the most popular but due to the in-
creased use of vegetable oils, such as, peahut and cottonseed oil,
in place of lard, the demand for a hog approaching the bacon
type is growing. The tendency' of breeders of the lard type is to
develop more length and less thickness of body to satisfy this
market requirement. The lard type is more numerous in Florida
and is selected by nearly all club boys.
The breeds of the lard type found in Florida are Berkshire,
Duroc-Jersey, Hampshire and Poland-China. It is best that club
members choose one of these because good pigs of these breeds
are easiest to secure and there is usually a ready sale for the
produce of these more common breeds.
The Tamworth is the most popular bacon-type hog for Florida.
The Yorkshire is also a favorite in some sections.






Florida Cooperative Extension


QUESTIONS
1. Why is it best to choose a breed popular in your com-
munity ?
2. What are the two types of hogs?
3. What type is used by most club members?
4. What breeds belong to the lard type? to the bacon type?


LESSON II

SELECTION OF PIGS FOR BREEDING PURPOSES
It is not easy to select the best pig out of a litter. There are
no two pigs of the same litter exactly alike. The younger the
pigs the nearer alike are they and the more difficult is the task
of selecting the best one. The older the pigs get the more pro-
nounced become the defects and the good points. The largest
pig in the litter is often selected as the best, because size is sure
to catch your eye and it is often hard for us to turn down the
big pig.
POINTERS ON SELECTION
There are several points which always should be borne in mind
in the selection of pigs for breeding purposes.
(1) They must be TRUE-TO-BREED TYPE. By this we
mean the pigs selected should possess in a marked degree the
typical qualifications of the breed.
(2) Good SIZE is wanted but not at the expense of all other
qualifications. For example, you would not select the largest
Hampshire pig in a litter, if it lacked the white belt, because it
then would not possess all the breed's qualifications.
(3) The breeding pig should have big strong BONE which
is indicated by fairly large legs and the pig's standing well up
on its toes. If an animal has poor feet as a pig, it will have worse
feet when it grows older. Long pasterns are objectionable.
Crooked legs are to be avoided.
(4) Good BACKS are desirable. An arched back is stronger
than a straight one and strong backs are needed to carry the
increased weight of the grown animal.
(5) SIDES should be deep, smooth and even from shoulders
to hams. The hog is primarily a meat animal and a long, deep
side is desirable.
(6) HAMS should be wide and the flesh should come well







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


PIC SHOWING GOODBACK
AND SMOOTH, EVEN SIDE


SPi IQWNG FLAT BACK.


A PIG SHOWING IDEAL TYPE


Fig. 1.-Study these illustrations and be able to know a good pig when
you see one


K?


_ 77






Florida Cooperative Extension


down on the hocks. Pigs with light hams seldom outgrow this
defect.
(7) HEART GIRT. Good width is wanted between the fore
legs. This indicates a chest with a wide floor. A pig should not
be pinched or narrow behind the shoulders. Good heart girt is
necessary to give plenty of room for the heart and lungs to func-
tion properly so the pig can grow into a big hog. Such pigs
usually possess good feeding quality.
(8) HEAD. A pig should have a head that is broad between
the eyes. The eyes should be large, wide open and clear. Heavy
jowls are objectionable as they indicate coarseness. As the boar
pig grows older its head will become masculine in appearance,
while there is but little change in the head of the sow pig. By
masculine head we mean that if you should see only the head
of the animal, you would immediately know that head belonged
only to a boar. The boar's head is not as smooth as that of the
sow's.
(9) QUALITY. Quality is indicated by the hair which
should he smooth and fine. Style is also an indication of quality,
pigs should carry themselves well and not slouch around.
(10) CONDITION. We want pigs which are in good flesh
(not too fat) and which carry their flesh evenly from shoulders
to hams. Pot bellies and rough shoulders are objectionable. A
large tail is usually an indication that the pig will make a large
hog.
Boar pigs are not likely to be as smooth as sow pigs. Sow
pigs should have at least ten teats, the more the better. A good
disposition, as indicated by quietness and a well-shaped head, is
much desired.
Study the pictures of good type pigs.
In selecting your pig, bear the above points in mind. From a
number of pigs eliminate all but three or four best ones. Then
get these together in a small pen where they can be compared
carefully one with another and point by point, and finally select
the one best one.
It is not what a pig is that counts, but what he will grow to be.
The above points will help you to pick the right kind.
QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by breed type?
2. Why should you select a pig with
(a) Good bone?






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


(b) A strong arched back?
(c) Deep, smooth sides?
(d) Good heart girth?
3. What kind of head do you want on a boar? on a sow?
4. By what is quality indicated?
5. How do you go about selecting the best pig in a litter?


LESSON III
EQUIPMENT NEEDED BY A CLUB MEMBER
In Florida hogs are sometimes raised by turning them on the
range to make a living for themselves. The hog that has to
make a living in this way does not have much chance to make
anything for his owner. If your pig is to make money for you,
give it all the advantages you can; provide shelter in winter,
shade in summer, and a clean pen and trough from which it can
eat and drink.
The equipment need not be anything extra or at all expensive.
Any boy who is handy with a saw and hammer can make every-
thing that is necessary.


Fig. 2.-Good-type hog shelter for Florida






Florida Cooperative Extension


Shelter.-From November to March your pig needs a place
where it can keep dry and warm. A simple house facing
south, closed on the north and west with the other two sides
open, will do. Locate the house in a well-drained spot, so that
the floor can be kept dry, so it can be cleaned easily and so sun-
light can get into it. Remember, sunlight is the best and cheap-
est disinfectant.
In summer shade is absolutely necessary. In Florida, if your
pig has a good shade furnished by trees, a shelter is not neces-
sary in summer. You can use the house you had for winter or
build a shade by putting four posts in the ground, making a
square, laying cross pieces on top and piling on brush or pine
tops until you have a good shade.


Fig. 3.-Some of the necessary equipment for the pig-club boy

Troughs.-Make two good troughs, one for feed and one for
water. These should be light so you can handle and clean them
easily. The sanitary hog waterer which is fastened to a barrel
is good and can be bought at a reasonable price, but a trough
kept full is good enough.
Something to keep down the lice is needed.-Some hog raisers
use a wallow with crude oil on the water, while others use a







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


sand-oil wallow. Some boys depend on applying oil to their pigs
with a rag or brush, while others use a rubbing post. Any
method that keeps the lice off is all that is necessary.
The equipment you need is a brush to keep the pig's coat in
good shape, a box to keep feed in, a pair of scales for weighing
feed, a feed bucket, a hurdle and a weighing sling.

QUESTIONS
1. What makes a suitable shelter?
2. What is needed in summer?
3. What equipment is necessary?


LESSON IV
SANITATION
The hog is a hard animal to treat for disease so you must do
all you can to keep disease away. Altho not given credit as such,
the hog is naturally a clean animal. He does not like to sleep
in a wet, filthy place. When given a chance he will bed in a
dry place and keep his bed clean.
Most diseases are caused by germs or bacteria, little forms of
life too small to be seen with the naked eye. Old piles of manure,
half-rotted straw, and the like, are generally full of these germs.
From this filth they get into the body of the hog thru the mouth
or nostrils. Many of these germs can live a long time in filth;
therefore, do not think that because the hogs have not been
allowed to run over the filth for some time there are no germs
in it. Do not make your pig stay in a filthy place. "Safety first"
is a good rule to follow when it comes to keeping your pig lot
and pen clean.
How to Have Sanitary Quarters.-Sunlight is the best disin-
fectant or germ killer. If the sun shines on all parts of your
pig's lot and sleeping quarters for at least half an hour a day
and if manure piles and mud wallows are not allowed, your lot
will be fairly sanitary, and you will have little to fear from dis-
eases. There are always places the sunlight cannot reach; such
as, the bottom of troughs and inside of houses. Use other disin-
fectants; such as, some of the coal-tar dips, lime, etc. There are
several dips on the market which will give results, if used ac-
cording to directions. A coating of whitewash applied to the
inside of buildings will be satisfactory. Freshly slaked quicklime







Florida Cooperative Extension


scattered thickly over the ground is always a help. Troughs
should be washed out occasionally with a disinfectant and then
placed bottom upward in the sun for a few hours. Old wallows
should be drained and given a heavy sprinkling of lime.
Dry dust under buildings is usually full of disease germs.
Therefore, never allow your pig under buildings. A few boards
nailed around will keep him out.
If disease gets into your herd, separate the sick from the well
animals. Clean the old quarters thoroly and burn all litter and
trash. Disinfect thoroly, using care that all corners and crevices
are reached. It is better not to put pigs back where disease has
been until the sunshine has had a chance to do its work. If a
pig dies, burn the carcass. After disease has been on a place it
takes more effort to make and keep the place sanitary.
Dry straw, brush, leaves, etc., may be used for bedding but
should be cleaned up every ten days or two weeks and either
burned or plowed under in the fields. Do not let the dust get
bad under the shelter. Moisten with crude oil, if possible. If
you cannot get crude oil, use water to keep down the dust.

QUESTIONS
1. What causes most diseases?
2. Where are these germs generally found?
3. Why should everything be open to the sun?
4. What disinfectants can be used?
5. Why is dry dust bad for pigs?
6. What should be done, if disease gets into your herd ?


LESSON V
FEEDS AND PASTURES
The questions of what to feed and how to mix a ration are
always hard for the club boy to answer. This lesson will teach
you about some of the common feeds.

KINDS OF FEEDS
Corn.-Corn is the most common feed for hogs in America.
Corn is excellent for supplying carbohydrates, that which fur-
nishes heat and energy and produces fat. However, there are
other things to supply and do not feed corn alone. Corn alone,
as well as almost any other single feed, will not grow a good pig.







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


Shorts.-This is the most commonly used mill feed. It is
especially desirable for brood sows and growing pigs, since it is
high in protein, that which builds muscles. Shorts should be
high grade, fresh and sweet.
Oats.-Rolled oats or oat middlings make a good addition to
a ration for feeding young growing stock as they are high in
protein and ash. (Ash helps to build bone.) Whole oats or
ground oats, unless the hulls are sifted out, have too much fiber
for young pigs.
Peanut Meal.-One of the South's own feeds and one of the
best is peanut meal. The more general use of this feed by club
members is advocated. It is high in protein; it is one of the best
sources of vegetable protein. There are several grades, the
highest is made from hulled peanuts and runs around 47 percent
crude protein, the lowest is made from unhulled nuts and runs
about 28 percent crude protein. There are several grades be-
tween these two; in these part of the hulls have been sifted out.
Low-grade peanut meal, or 28 percent protein meal, while not to
be used for young pigs as it contains too much fiber, is good feed
for sows and may be used in place of part of the shorts to good
advantage. For young pigs use only high-grade meal and then
only with some other feed such as cornmeal or shorts.
Skimmilk.-Skimmilk and clabber are the best things to be
used with grain. They are high in mineral matter and protein.
(Mineral matter builds bone and tissue.) They are watery and
bulky and pigs relish them, which make it necessary that they
be fed with care. If fed too much, the pig will gorge and distend
his digestive tract and become pot-bellied. For best results, do
not feed over three pounds (three pints) of skimmilk or clabber
for each pound of grain fed.
Tankage.-This feed is made from meat scraps, bones and
waste products of the packing plants and is very high in mineral
matter and protein. It is so rich that but little is needed. If
you do not have skimmilk, by all means feed a little tankage.
The price may seem high but, if you notice how little of it is
required in 100 pounds of feed, you will see that it is not very
expensive. It is hard to grow a good breeding animal without
tankage or skimmilk. Of tankage there are two grades, but we
advise using the high-grade or that which contains 60 percent
of protein.
Sweet Potatoes.-About 70 percent of sweet potatoes is water,
so they are called a bulky feed. They are valuable when fed







Florida Cooperative Extension


with peanuts and may be used in place of part of the corn in a
ration using about four pounds of potatoes in place of a pound
of corn. It is not best to make potatoes a large part of the ration.
They are valuable as a change and should be used in that way.
Kitchen Waste.-The value of kitchen waste as pig feed de-
pends upon what is in it. Dish water is not a suitable feed for
pigs, especially when washing powders or strong lye soap is
used. It is best to feed only the solid waste; such as, bread, rice,
grits, etc.; which has been thrown out from the table. The
refuse parts of vegetables are good, if the pig is not on pasture.
By all means it should be fed fresh and not allowed to sour. The
amount to feed to take place of a pound of grain depends upon
the amount of food in the water but will generally be about two
quarts in place of a pound of grain.
PASTURES
The value of pastures for pork production must not be over-
looked. Without pasture feed costs will be too high. This does












Fig. 4.-Permanent pasture of Burmuda and Carpet grasses
not mean that you can raise pigs profitably on pasture alone. The
best of pasture alone will hardly furnish enough feed to enable
a pig to hold his weight. If you have a pasture that will about
support the pig, all the grain you feed will go for growth. By
all means have a pasture for young pigs. During the gestation
period (while the sow is carrying pigs) sows must have some
green food for the proper development of the litter. Boys who
do not have a pasture should provide green feed, which is next
best to a pasture.
There are two kinds of pastures, permanent (one that lasts
all the time) and temporary (one that lasts for short periods






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


only). The best permanent pasture in Florida is one of Bermuda
grass. A quarter of an acre or less of Bermuda, if on rich land,
will furnish grazing for a sow and young litter. Carpet grass
also makes a good permanent pasture. Temporary pastures can
be grown from cowpeas, sorghum, rape, oats, rye, beggarweed
and Sudan grass. The grasses which come in the fields; such
as, crab grass, Florida or Mexican clover and beggarweed; make
good summer pastures at times. Rape, rye, and oats make the
best winter pastures.

















Fig. 5.-Oats make a good winter pasture
QUESTIONS
1. Is corn alone a good ration for a pig?
2. What feeds produce bone and muscle?
3. What is the best supplement to grain?
4. What should be fed, if skimmilk is not available?
5. How should kitchen waste be fed?
6. Why is a pasture valuable?
7. What grasses make good permanent pasture?
8. What crops make good winter pasture?

LESSON VI
THE BREEDING PIG
When you have chosen the breed you want, selected your pig
and made the quarters sanitary, you are ready to begin feeding.
Breeding stock should not be pampered but should be kept grow-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ing as you do not want stunted pigs. Feed as much as you can
on feeds produced on the farm, using grazing crops to the fullest
extent. This does not mean that you should not buy any feed,
as it is economy to buy feeds such as shorts and tankage to sup-
plement the corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes and pastures grown
on your farm. You want to carry your pig to breeding age upon
feeds that produce growth and vigor. A little fat is all right
but the development of frame, muscles and vital organs are most
important. Pastures, sanitation, exercise and proper feed will
do it.


Fig. 6.-Good pasture and plenty of feed make them grow

Feeds for Growing Pigs.-To produce bone, muscle and develop
the digestive tract you must feed the feeds that do this, and
not those which produce fat. A balanced ration is required. The
cost of raising your pig must be watched. Use the cheapest of
the following rations:







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


No. 1: Shorts ........................40 pounds
Cornmeal ................30 pounds
Oat middlings, or
rolled oats ...........20 pounds
Tankage .................10 pounds
Salt .......................... pound.
No. 3: Cornmeal ................40 pounds
Shorts .............-.......40 pounds
*Peanut meal ...........20 pounds
Salt ......................1/2 pound.
No. 5: Cornmeal ......-.........50 pounds
Shorts ...................30 pounds
Oat middlings, or
rolled oats ............20 pounds
Salt :....................1/2 pound.
Skimmilk in addition.


No. 2: Cornmeal .............40 pounds
Shorts ...................40 pounds
*Peanut meal ............15 pounds
Tankage .................. 5 pounds
Salt ............-.......-...... pound.

No. 4: Cornmeal ..................50 pounds
Shorts ......................40 pounds
Tankage ................. 10 pounds
Salt ..........................- pound.
No. 6: Cornmeal ..................50 pounds
Shorts ......................30 pounds
*Peanut meal ............20 pounds
Salt ......................... pound.
Skimmilk in addition.


*Use only high-grade peanut meal.
For pigs weighing from 35 to 105 pounds, ration number 1,
5 or 6 is best. Pigs weighing 100 pounds and up can be fed any
of these rations and with good results, as a rule.
Kitchen waste can be fed as a substitute for part of the grain.
Feed two quarts of this in place of a pound of grain.
RULES FOR FEEDING
1. Be careful in feeding.-If possible, find out what your pig
has been fed on and start with that ration, changing gradually
to the ration selected.
2. Amount of feed.-Do not over-feed. A pig weighing 50
pounds should eat at least two pounds of grain a day plus pas-
turage. Give it what it will clean up twice a day. No rule can
be given for the amount of feed a pig should get. You must
watch and feed accordingly.
3. Gain.-A pig ought to gain about a pound a day, but be
careful that it does not get too fat. If your pig is getting too
fat, reduce the proportion of corn and increase the proportions
of shorts, peanut meal and tankage. A pig can gain a pound a
day without putting on too much fat.
4. Water.-A young growing pig needs plenty of water. See
that yours gets it and that it is fresh.
5. Care.-Feed regularly. Keep the pig clean and free from
lice and mange. See that it takes exercise. Give it shelter in
cold weather and shade in warm weather.
Mineral Matter.-A pig needs mineral matter and lots of it,
if it is to grow strong bones and a big frame. Most feeds are







Florida Cooperative Extension


lacking in this necessary element. It must be supplied in addi-
tion to the feed. This is very important. The following mixture
should be kept in front of your pigs at all times:
Charcoal ................. .....................1 bushel
W ood ashes ......................... ............... 1 bushel
Slaked lime ........ ...... .. ............ ........... 4 pounds
Salt -................ ....... .................. .8 pounds
Copperas ....-................. .. .................... 2 pounds
Sulphur ..-............. ................-............. 4 pounds.
Mix the charcoal, ashes, lime, salt and sulphur together. Dis-
solve the copperas in a quart of hot water and sprinkle over the
mixture. Store the mixture in the barn where it is dry and keep
a supply of it in the lot at all times, either in a small self-feeder
or in a trough.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of feeds do growing pigs need?
2. Why is a balanced ration needed?
3. Give two good balanced rations, each to contain tankage.
4. Give two good balanced rations, each to contain skimmilk.
5. Give five rules for feeding.
6. Why does a pig need mineral matter?
7. Give a good mineral mixture and tell how it should be fed.


LESSON VII
CARE OF THE BROOD SOW
When your pig has grown into a strong, stretchy gilt and is
about 12 months old, she is ready to raise a litter of pigs. Upon
the selection of a boar to mate to her largely depends the quality
of her pigs. Here is where too many club boys make their great
mistake. They mate their gilts to poor boars and expect the
pigs to be as good as their mothers, which cannot be. If you
want your gilt to raise good pigs, you must breed her to a first-
class boar. Find a boar of good type and of good breeding and
that is not of close kin to your gilt.
If possible, breed your gilt so she will farrow (bring pigs) in
March or April, or in September or October. If born in March
or September, your pigs will be at the best age for showing at
the fairs in the fall or winter, since pigs born in January are
shown against pigs born in September and pigs born in June are
shown against those born in March (see show ring classifications






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


in Lesson XII). The following table will tell you when to breed
your sow in order to have her bring pigs at a certain time:
Gestation Table for Sows.-About 114 days after having been
bred your sow will drop pigs. By studying the following table
you will learn how to figure out the time your pigs will be born:


Sows bred Should farrow
Nov. 5 ..-.......................... Feb. 27.
Nov. 10 ........................~....- Mar. 4.
Nov. 17 ..........-................ Mar. 11.
Nov. 24 ........................... Mar. 18.
Dec. 1 .............................. Mar. 25.
Dec. 8 ................... ..... Apr. 1.
Dec. 15 ...............-............. Apr. 8.
Dec. 22 ...-....................... Apr. 15.
Dec. 29 .......-.................. Apr. 22.


Sows bred
May 7 ..............
May 14 ..............
May 21 ...........
May 28 ............
June 4 .............
June 11 ...-........
June 18 ...........-
June 25 .............
July 3 ..............


Should farrow
.............. Aug. 29.
-.........- Sep. 5.
............ Sep. 12.
.............. Sep. 19.
............. Sep. 26.
.............. Oct. 3.
-............. Oct. 10.
............. Oct. 17.
............. Oct. 24.


Note. Farrowing may vary a few days either way.
Feed, Shelter and Care During Gestation.-Upon the care of
your gilt from breeding until farrowing will depend the size and
vigor of the pigs. This is an important period in the life of your
gilt and you must not neglect her. You must give her good feed,
shelter and shade and plenty of exercise.
A good pasture is more necessary during the gestation period
than at any other time. A good pasture not only furnishes valu-
able green feed but induces the gilt to take necessary exercise.
Some boys feed their gilts in one place, water them in another


"' '
:i


t1r


Fig. 7.-Bred gilt on pasture





Florida Cooperative Extension


and have their beds in still another. This forces the gilt to take
exercise and is a good plan.
The amount of grain to be fed will depend upon the condition
of the gilt. She should gain in size and weight but should not
be allowed to become too fat. It is not meant that you want her
to be lean, for she must lay on some fat to supply milk for the
pigs when they come. If your gilt takes plenty of exercise, she
is not likely to get too fat. A gilt weighing around 250 pounds
should have about five pounds of grain a day in addition to pas-
ture. Do not feed too much corn. It produces fat and is likely
to cause the gilt to have trouble at farrowing time. Your gilt
must be fed protein and mineral matter not only to keep up her
own body but to develop bone and size in the litter. Your gilt
has great need for the mineral mixture mentioned in Lesson VI.
The following ration ought to be satisfactory, if the gilt is on
a good pasture, has plenty of water, mineral mixture and exer-
cise. Two pounds of grain should be fed daily for each 100
pounds live weight of your gilt.
Mix: Shorts 7.............. ........--. .. ...... 70 pounds
Peanut meal .... -............ .......-... ..... .25 pounds
Tankage ....................... ............... 8 pounds
Salt ........ ........ ............... ........ 1 pound.
For a 250-pound gilt feed three pounds of this mixture in slop
and two pounds of ear corn a day. Feed the mixture in the morn-
ing and the corn at night.
Another good ration would be:
Shorts ... ................ ............- ...---- 70 pounds
Peanut meal ... ..-........ ...------- 30 pounds
Salt ........................ ......-... .-- ------- 1 pound.
Skimmilk should be added.
Feed 3 pounds of this mixed with 2 quarts of skimmilk in the
morning and 2 pounds of corn at night.
Do not feed corn alone. Experiments have shown that when a
sow is fed corn alone the pigs are not as strong as when some
animal protein feed is given in addition. Tankage, skimmilk or
some other animal protein is essential.
FARROWING TIME
Preparation.-A few days before farrowing time, put your
sow where she will not be disturbed. If in March or April, give
her a shelter where she can keep warm and dry. Give her some
pine straw or leaves for a bed,-enough to keep the pigs off the






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


Atl / ,


Fig. 8.-Brood sow in proper condition for farrowing


ground but not enough that they may be smothered. If in a pen,
have a guard rail around the sides about eight inches from the
ground and six inches from the side of the pen so that the sow
cannot lay on the pigs. In September or October none of these
things, except plenty of shade and a quiet place, are necessary.
Feeding.-A few days before farrowing, the sow's feed should
be cut down to a thin slop. Do not feed your sow over a pound
of shorts a day in a thin slop. It is well to give her something to
move the bowels about this time. For this purpose there is noth-
ing better than epsom salts.- Three tablespoonfuls is a dose.
Give the dose about 24 hours before she is due to farrow.
Farrowing.-While the sow is farrowing do not disturb her
unless she has trouble. In this case get some one to help her.
If everything goes off all right, as is usually the case, let her
alone.
AFTER FARROWING
Trouble after farrowing generally comes from one or two
causes,-too much feed and wet bedding. Too much feed causes
fever in the sow's udder and the pigs die from scours. Wet bed-
ding makes the sow's udder sore, causes the pig's tails to get sore
and oftentimes causes pigs and sow to catch cold. Cold draughts






Florida Cooperative Extension


blowing on the pigs in March and April are dangerous and liable
to cause pneumonia. For the first 24 hours give no feed. How-
ever, give plenty of water.
Feeding.-Do not get the sow on full feed until the pigs are
at least ten days old. Feed a thin slop made of shorts and water,
or skimmilk, with maybe an ear of corn a day after the second
day. Increase the amount of shorts each day until the sow is
eating all she will clean up twice a day at the end of ten days.
Watch your pigs and, if they begin to scour, follow directions
given in Lesson XIV.
Exercise.-After pigs are two days old they must take some
exercise. The sow usually takes them out but, if she does not,
you should drive them out into the sunshine for a short time each
day. If the sow is on a pasture where she belongs, you will have
little trouble on this score.
Teeth.-At birth pigs have four sharp teeth which sometimes
cause trouble by making the sow's udder sore and scratching the
faces of the other pigs. Take the pigs by the back of the neck,
force the mouth open and break off these teeth. This can be
done easily with a pair of pliers. (Do not pull the teeth; break
them off.)
Feeding.-When pigs are young is not the time to spare feed.
Remember that your sow must eat not only enough for her own
body but also enough to keep the young pigs growing. The first
three weeks the pigs will be entirely dependent upon the mother
and you must feed her all she will eat after the first ten days.
Her feed should be made up of milk-producing feeds.
Either of the following will make good rations for a suckling
sow:
Shorts ....................---....... 45 pounds Shorts ......-- ........ --.. .------45 pounds
Cornmeal ........................25 pounds Cornmeal ................. .. 25 pounds
Peanut meal ..................25 pounds Rolled oats, or
Tankage ...-..................... 5 pounds oat meal .. ----....................25 pounds
Salt ............................... --1 pound. Tankage .......................... 5 pounds
Salt ............... .... .---- --- 1 pound.
CARING FOR THE YOUNG PIGS
Feeds.-When the pigs are about three weeks old they will
begin to hunt feed on their own account. You will see them
trying to eat out of the mother's trough and picking up scattered
feed. Provide a place where the pigs can get away to eat by
themselves. Remember, all the pigs eat in this way is that much
the mother does not have to eat and make into milk. Scatter a






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


little shelled corn or have a shallow trough with skimmilk and
shorts, or shorts and tankage, made into a slop with water. Mix
together a pound of shorts and 3 pints of skimmilk; or mix 8
pounds of shorts and 2 pounds of tankage. Either is good for
young pigs. Rolled oats fed dry or in a thin slop are good also.
Other Feeds.-Young pigs need pasture and mineral matter
to make them grow frame and bone. Young pigs need more
water in proportion to their size than do older pigs. See that
yours have plenty of these things, and that the water is fresh.














Fig. 9.-Sow and pigs on oats in January

Keep your pigs growing. A day without gain is a day lost.
However, do not try to make them fat. If they appear to be
getting too fat, decrease the amount of corn fed and increase the
shorts and tankage. You must develop frame and not fat. Read
the next lesson on weaning to learn how to care for the pigs from
now on.
Sanitation.-In feeding young pigs you must watch the clean-
liness of things. Do not feed them in a muddy, filthy place and
see that the troughs are kept clean and sweet. In this climate
slop sours quickly and, in this condition, causes trouble. Do not
feed more than they will clean up readily and always clean the
troughs before feeding. Scalding the troughs with hot water
once in a while and putting them in the sun will help.
CARE OF SOW AFTER WEANING
After weaning the pigs the sow should be bred and turned on
pasture with the same kind of feed as when she was carrying
her first litter. A mature sow does not need as much feed from
the time she is bred till the pigs come as does a gilt, due to the






Florida Cooperative Extension


fact that the gilt had to grow some herself as well as to carry the
litter.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of boar should you use to mate with your gilt?
2. What dates are best for farrowing, or for the pigs to come ?
3. Why should your gilt have a good pasture?
4. Why should a gilt be fed protein feeds and mineral matter?
5. How much feed should a 250-pound gilt get a day?
6. Give two rations suitable for a gilt or sow, providing she
is on pasture.
7. How much bedding should be used at farrowing time?
8. How should a sow be fed before farrowing? after far-
rowing?
9. How much should a sow with pigs be fed?
10. Give two good rations for a suckling sow.
11. How much water should be given?
12. After weaning how should the sow be cared for?


LESSON VIII
WEANING THE PIGS
The most important period in a pig's life is the few weeks
during weaning. Upon your ability to properly feed and care
for the litter at this time depends your profit.


Fig. 10.-Pigs ready to wean


If you have followed instructions given in Lesson VII, your
pigs will have come to depend largely upon themselves.
The age at which to wean depends upon the size and vigor of






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


the pigs and whether you have plenty of skimmilk for feeding.
If you let them stay with the sow too long, you weaken her for
the next litter. Still, you must not take them away too soon.
If you have milk for them, you can wean at eight weeks of age;
but if not, it is best not to wean them until they are ten weeks
old, or even older, if they are not healthy and robust.
Watch both sow and pigs after they are separated. Put the
sow far enough away that she cannot hear the pigs. Cut her
feed sharply, feeding only dry corn for a few days before and
after weaning. This will tend to stop the milk flow. Watch her
and, if her udder begins to swell or harden, let the pigs come
back once or twice to suck her dry. After this she ought to dry
up without further trouble.
Watch the feeding of the pigs carefully at first. If you can
keep them with good appetites and on slightly increased and
properly balanced rations for 30 days, your success is assured.
Feed a little less than they will naturally clean up, and feed
often-at least three times a day at first. Pigs at this age like
their feed as a slop. Slop sours quickly in our warm climate,
so watch the troughs and keep them sweet and clean, or the pigs
are liable to be troubled with scours. Do not change feed ab-
ruptly as that is liable to cause digestive troubles. Watch the
sanitary conditions of the pen and lot. See that the pigs have
a place to sleep which is warm and dry and free of dust. More
pigs are ruined by dust at this age than are at any other age.
Keep them free of lice and mange. A good pasture, a shelter
against rain, cold and sun, plenty of good feed and fresh water
will keep the pigs in good health and growing. Pigs should be
given the double treatment against cholera about ten days after
weaning.
Feeds for Weaning Pigs.-If you have skimmilk, feed a slop
made of cornmeal 2 parts, shorts 2 parts, and skimmilk, 2 pints
to a pound of the meal and shorts. The pigs should have been
fed this a week or so before weaning, so that their stomachs
will have become accustomed to it.
If you have no milk, feed a mixture of cornmeal 3 parts, shorts
4 parts, tankage 1 part.
After you have the pigs safely by the weaning stage, the feed
to use will depend upon whether the pigs are to be fed out for
pork or for breeding animals. If for breeding animals, follow
instructions in Lesson VI; if for pork, follow Lesson X.






Florida Cooperative Extension


- ig. 11. Weaned and growing
Fig. 11.--Weaned and growing


Caution.-There is one word of caution about feeding after
weaning; the pigs will have greedy appetites and, if allowed to
do so, will gorge themselves and develop pot bellies. Feed often
and not quite all they will eat. Green feed is of great value at
this stage and you should make every effort to supply it to the
pigs, either as a pasture or as green grass or crops cut from
the fields.
QUESTIONS
1. At what age should pigs be weaned?
2. How should you wean pigs?
3. What things should be watched in feeding weaned pigs?
4. Give two good rations for weaning pigs.
5. Give caution in feeding pigs after weaning.

LESSON IX
THE BOAR
If you raise a boar the feed and care for the first few months
will be the same as for a gilt.
The boar should be separated from the gilts soon after wean-
ing, at least by the time he is five months old. The boar is now
laying the foundation for his future usefulness and must be fed
muscle- and bone-building materials. The rations given in Les-
son VI will do for the young boar. Feed just a little less than
he will clean up. Watch your boar and give him the ration that


earr MI 12h'_&' _%b





Lessons for Pig-Club Members


gives best results. If he is laying on too much fat, cut down the
proportion of corn in the ration and; if he is too thin, increase
the proportion of corn. Sometimes a change of feed is necessary.
There is no rule that will fit all cases and you must keep studying
until you find the right one.













.. ... /.

I




Fig. 12.-Young Berkshire boar in show condition
In addition to a grain feed your boar must have pasture, plenty
of water and mineral matter. Exercise is also necessary, if you
want to grow the right kind of boar.
The Breeding Season.-Do not use your boar before he is
eight months old and do not give him much to do until he is
at least a year old. One sow a day is the limit for a young boar
and do not let him cover the sow but once during one period of
heat. In the breeding season feed your boar a high-protein ra-
tion; such as, rations 1, 2, 5 or 6, Lesson VI. Do not turn your
boar in the pasture with the sows but bring them to him. In
this way you will save your boar and will know the exact date
the pigs will come.
Care Between Seasons.-When out of service do not feed the
boar as heavily as during the breeding season. The feed now
should contain less protein. The same ration given a brood
sow on pasture is about right for the boar at this time. Give
him the run of a small pasture and enough grain in addition to





Florida Cooperative Extension


keep him in growing condition. He should not be kept fat dur-
ing the off season but, as the time for service approaches, in-
crease his feed and put a little fat on him, if you expect to serve
several sows.


I9s...-- .. -p. -


Fig. 13.-Mature Duroc-Jersey boar in breeding condition

Exercise.-You cannot raise a strong active boar without exer-
cise. Neither can you keep him in shape for service without
exercise. As a rule, if on pasture, a boar will take plenty of exer-
cise; but, if he does not, make him. Drive him around the pas-
ture several times a day, if necessary. A good plan is to have
the shelter at one end and the feed troughs at the other end of
the pasture. Exercise tends to prevent the laying on of excessive
fat and assists in developing stamina and vigor which are neces-
sary, if your boar is to sire large litters of strong, vigorous pigs.
QUESTIONS
1. How should the boar be fed and cared for until 12 months
old?
2. If the boar is getting too fat, what should you do?
3. What is necessary in addition to feed?
4. How old should the boar be before he is used?
5. Give a good ration for the boar during breeding season.
6. How should the boar be fed between breeding seasons?
7. Why is exercise necessary?





Lessons for Pig-Club Members


LESSON X

FATTENING PIGS

After weaning, the pigs selected for fattening should be fed in
two periods. The first one may be called the frame-growing pe-
riod and, beginning at weaning time, continues till the pigs weigh
about 125 pounds. The second one may be called the fattening
period and, beginning at the end of the first, ends with mar-
keting.
The Growing Period.-During the first period give your fat-
tening pigs good pasture, plenty of water, shade, mineral mix-
ture and one of the rations suggested in Lesson VI. These
rations are suggested because the fattening pigs need about the
same feed during this period as do the breeding pigs. Ration
number 3 or 4, Lesson VI, will likely be best, as it will produce
a little more fat than some of the others. The object during
this period is to grow frame and to develop a good digestive
system, but more fat is allowed than in the case of a pig for
breeding purposes. By all means do not forget the mineral mix-
ture and the sanitation.
The Fattening Period.-When you have developed a strong
frame, with plenty of room for the vital and digestive organs,
your pig is ready to fatten. Average daily gains of over two
pounds a day have been obtained by club boys and you should
not be satisfied with anything less than a gain of a pound and
a half a day during the finishing period.
Pigs that have reached a weight of 125 pounds and which have
developed plenty of frame and stretch should not be fed much
longer than 10 weeks, as they will be too fat for present market
requirements. Six to eight weeks would be better. In this
period the pigs should be induced to drink lots of water and
should be given plenty of the mineral mixture recommended in
Lesson VI.
Feeds to Use.-Fattening pigs need a variety of feeds to make
the best and cheapest gains. At this period you should feed more
fat-producing feeds; such as, corn and peanuts; and less muscle-
building feeds; such as, shorts and tankage; but do not feed all
of one kind. Feed all the pig will clean up twice a day. If you
keep your pigs in a small pasture, one of the following rations
is suggested:






Florida Cooperative Extension


No. 1: Cornmeal ...............95 pounds
Tankage ....................5 pounds.

No. 3: Cornmeal ............ 1 pound
Skimmilk ............... 2 pounds.


No. 2: Cornmeal ...............70 pounds
Shorts ................. 26 pounds
Tankage ............... 4 pounds.

No. 4: Cornmeal ................86 pounds
Peanut meal ......-...14 pounds.


Fig. 14.-This 350-pound Duroc-Jersey barrow won the grand championship
at the 1920 club show
The addition of kitchen waste to any of these suggested rations
will be advisable. Do not feed much dish water. If you want
to use sweet potatoes, you may substitute 4 pounds of them for
a pound of corn. Never depend upon potatoes to replace over 25
percent of the corn in a ration. Even then the ration should
contain considerable corn.
Corn, tankage, sweet potatoes and shorts in a self-feeder make
a ration that is hard to beat. Let the pigs eat what they want
as they will balance their own ration better than you can do
it for them. With a self-feeder you must see that the feed does
not give out and that plenty of water is kept before the pigs.
Peanut Pasture.-If you want- to turn your pig on peanuts,
you may do so. If you have a small patch fenced off, you have
an ideal arrangement. Shade, water and mineral mixture and
some supplementary feeds will be necessary. Pigs on peanuts will
do much better, if given corn, sweet potatoes, tankage or skim-







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


Fig. 15.-This 200-pound Poland-China barrow won the grand championship
at the 1921 club show
milk to balance up the peanuts. A self-feeder with ear corn and
tankage is fine. A good feed of corn once a day will help. Sweet
potatoes in a self-feeder, or fed once a day, are good. In fact,
anything to vary the diet will help.


Fig. 16.-Home-made self-feeder






Florida Cooperative Extension


If you have to turn your pigs out in a big peanut field with
other hogs, you ought to build a pen where you can pen your
pigs and feed them the supplementary feeds. If the entire herd
is fed a balanced ration, it will be all right to let yours run with
the rest.
The experience of those in the fat-barrow club has been that
the boy or girl who feeds his or her pig some skimmilk or tankage
gets the largest and most economical gains. Do not feed too
much skimmilk; two quarts a day to each pig is the limit. More
than this amount will develop too much belly, a thing not wanted
by the packer, butcher or yourself.
In preparing your barrow for show, use the instructions given
in Lesson XI.
QUESTIONS
1. Name two periods for fattening pigs.
2. What do you want your pig to do during the first period?
3. What feeds should be fed during the first period?
4. How long should the second period last?
5. Give some good rations for finishing a pig.
6. How should a pig be fed, if it is on a peanut pasture?
7. Give caution about feeding skimmilk.

LESSON XI
PREPARING PIGS FOR SHOW
Condition.-Pigs that have been properly cared for and cor-
rectly fed require little additional preparation to make them
ready for exhibiting at fairs. First of all, a pig should be well-
grown for its age. To secure this, we must start when the pig
is small and see that it receives, regularly, plenty of nourishing,
growth-producing feed.
Rolling-fat pigs do not show to advantage in the judging ring.
This is usually caused by feeding too much corn, or from being
kept in the peanut and chufa fields too long. On the other hand,
we do not want thin and run-down pigs; because such pigs do not
look their best. Pigs that have been made real fat and then al-
lowed to fall off in flesh, usually show wrinkles in their sides and
flanks. What the judges most desire is for the pigs to carry just
enough flesh to be smooth and well rounded out. Pigs in this con-
dition walk easily and freely and show to the very best advantage.
Handling.-Pigs that have not been handled are inclined to






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


be wild and, therefore, do not show to best advantage; they run
into the corners of the judging ring or try to climb over the
fence. The judge seldom pays any attention to such pigs. Lazy
pigs lie down and slouch around when put in the show ring and,
therefore, do not appear favorably before the judge. Such pigs
have been spoiled by too much scratching and petting.
A pig to show properly must have been taught to drive and
move around at the will of his owner. A buggy whip, cane or
stick about four feet long should be used in driving the pig
every day for at least a couple of weeks before sending him to
the fair. Pigs are quick to learn and a careful boy can soon
teach one to be driven as suggested. Some good showmen walk
their hogs at least half a mile every day for several days before
they go out on the show circuit. The exercise is beneficial to the
pigs and at the same time they learn what is expected of them.
A light hurdle is often found useful, especially the first few times
the pig is driven.




















Fig. 17.-Champion junior yearling, Poland-China boar, Florida State Fair,
1921; grand champion club pig for state, 1921
Grooming.-Brush the pigs daily for at least two or three
weeks before fair time, using a good stiff brush. This makes
the hair lie close to the body and puts it in best condition. If the
feet have grown out too long, pare off the toes with a pocket
knife so the pig can stand evenly on its feet. Before the show,






Florida Cooperative Extension


clip the hair from the inside and outside of the ears (this makes
the head look neat), and trim the hair off the tail down to the
brush (this gives the hams the appearance of being thicker than
they really are. Give your pig a good bath with soap and water
before the show, using a brush to scrub it clean. Then take a
rag and some sweet or other light oil and rub over it. This leaves
the hair slick and shiny and should be repeated just before the
judging. A little lamp black may be added to the oil for black
hogs.


Fig. 18.-Hampshire gilt, under-six-months class


Shipping Instructions.-If your pig is to be hauled on a truck
or wagon or shipped by train, feed little, if any, just before ship-
ping. If shipped in the morning, do not give it anything except
plenty of fresh water. If to be shipped in the afternoon, give
only a light breakfast. This is done so that the pig will reach
its destination in good condition and be ready for its feed. Pigs
shipped with a full stomach will probably get sick and go off
feed from the shaking up they get while traveling.
Ship in a strong but light crate and mark the address plainly.
Put your name and address on the crate.








Lessons for Pig-Club Members


QUESTIONS
1. In what condition should pigs be for showing?
2. How do you train a pig so that it will handle well in the
show ring?
3. How do you groom a pig for show?
4. How should a pig be fed before shipping?
5. What kind of crate should be used?
6. How should it be addressed and marked?

LESSON XII

EXHIBITING PIGS

Properly showing a pig is an art. A few points about showing
should always be borne in mind. First, study your pig at home
and see how you can make it look its best. Some pigs show best
while walking, others while standing still. Keep him before the
judge in the position which makes him look best. Second, re-
member that the judge wants to see the pig and not the boy
showing him; therefore, keep the pig between you and the judge.
Third, watch the judge and keep showing your pig as long as it
is in the ring.
Study the illustrations which indicate correct and incorrect
showing.
Show-Ring Classifications.-These classifications are compiled
to meet the requirements of the leading shows and fairs for 1922:
AGED SOWS AND BOARS
Animals two years old or over make up this class.
SENIOR YEARLINGS
By senior yearling is meant an animal farrowed on or after September
1, 1920, and before March 1, 1921.
JUNIOR YEARLINGS
By junior yearling is meant an animal farrowed on or after March 1,
1921, and before September 1, 1921.
SENIOR PIGS
By senior pig is meant an animal farrowed on or after September 1, 1921,
and before March 1, 1922.
JUNIOR PIGS
By junior pig is meant an animal farrowed on or after March 1, 1922.
For showing in 1923 add one year to these dates, and one year
for each additional year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


.--r a, '.~~

-Q,

El"


Fig. 19.-Study these illustrations and know how to show your pig







Lessons for Pig-Club Members


QUESTIONS
1. Why should you study your pig at home?
2. What three things should you remember in showing your
pig ?
3. In what class does your pig show?


LESSON XIII
JUDGING HOGS
There are two kinds of judging, (1) score-card judging and
(2) comparative judging.
Score-Card Judging is the taking of a scale of points as issued
by the breed association for the breed to which the pig belongs
and scoring the pig by it. A perfect pig would score 100 and a
good one about 90 points. The purpose of this kind of judging
is to teach the different parts of the hog and the relative weight
in figures one part bears to another. This training is useful
because it teaches you to look at each part of the animal. Study
the following score card for breeding hogs:

SCORE CARD FOR LARD HOGS-BREEDING
Standard of Excellence Perfect Score
A. General Appearance-40 Points.
Weight, 6 months, 200 lbs.; one year, 400 lbs.; 2
years, 800 lbs. ...--..................------ ---------- 6
Form, deep, broad, long, moderately low set, sym-
metrical, compact, standing squarely on legs-..... 7
Quality, hair fine; bone straight not coarse; skin
smooth, even covering of flesh, free from lumps
and wrinkles; features refined but not delicate.... 6
Condition, thrifty, well-fleshed, but not excessively
fat -----..........-...... ......... ....-------- ---- 4
Constitution, chest capacious; brisket advanced
and low; flanks full and well let down..-...----..-....- 8
Disposition, quiet, gentle .-....-....-......-......-------------... 1
Breed type, having all characteristics of breed....-. -5
Coat, fine, straight, bright, smooth, evenly distrib-
uted, lying close to body, no swirls-------...................... 3
B. Head and Neck-11 Points.
Eyes, full, mild, bright, not obscured by wrinkles.... 2







Florida Cooperative Extension


Face, short, broad between eyes, dished according
to breed, cheeks smooth ............................- ..--.... 2
Ears, fine texture, medium size, neatly but firmly
attached, carriage according to breed ..-....--..---..- 2
Jowl, smooth, firm, medium size.....-...........--..-.......-- 2
Neck, short, deep, thick, narrow at nape, thicken-
ing toward and joining smoothly to shoulder .... 3
C. Forequarters-10 Points.
Shoulders, broad, deep, full but not heavy, on a line
with sides ....................-- .......-....-.... .- -- ... ----.. 5
Legs, straight, medium length, strong, tapering,
set well apart, bone large, strong and smooth,
joints clean, pasterns upright, feet medium size,
not sprawling, squarely placed ................----.......... 5
D. Body-20 Points.
Back arched, loin long, even width, thickly and
evenly fleshed ......... ---....... -- -- --................................ 9
Sides, deep, long, full, free from wrinkles; ribs,
long and well sprung ........-........-- ..- ......-- ..... .-- 7
Belly, straight, even, not flabby, proportionate in
width ------------......... ............. -----............ 2
Flank, full and even with body, not cut up-----.......... 2
E. Hindquarters-19 Points.
Rump, long, wide, evenly fleshed, rounding from
loin to root of tail, neat, high tail setting-..--... 3
Hams, plump, full, deep, broad, no roughness, not
cut up, well fleshed to hock..-.................-- .....-.-- .... 10
Legs, straight, medium length, strong, tapering,
set well apart, bone large, strong and smooth,
joints clean, pasterns upright; feet, medium size,
not sprawling, squarely placed ..........---................-- 5
Tail, medium size and length, smooth and tapering 1

Total ..........- ..--- ....-- --........--..--......- --. .... 100

Comparative Judging is the placing of several animals in their
correct positions; as first, second, third, etc.; by directly compar-
ing one with another. In this method, which is more advanced
than the score-card method, we should never for an instant lose
sight of the purpose for which the animal is intended. The abil-
ity to convert a given amount of feed into a large amount of






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


high-priced pork products is the aim sought. This should always
be kept in mind.
Usually four animals are used for this type of judging, espe-
cially in judging contests. Reasons for your placings are given
after the placings are complete. This is really the test of what
you know, because a boy might accidentally guess the proper
placing; but, if he did not know WHY he had so placed them, it
would simply be a guessing instead of a judging contest.
The procedure in comparative judging is briefly as follows:
1. Stand off 15 or 20 feet from the animals and get a general
impression of all of them. Note size, bone, the way they stand,
backs, depth, heads, etc.
It is usually noticed from this observation that either (a) one
animal stands out as the best of all; or (b) one animal is poorer
than all others; or (c) the class divides itself into one or two
pairs of animals which closely resemble each other. Get these
firmly fixed in your mind.
2. Examine the animals now more closely and see, if on
close inspection, they bear out what you observed from a distance.
Remember the points mentioned under the chapter on selection
of pigs for breeding purposes.
3. If you find the best animal on close examination fails to
disclose any defects, place it first in your mind. Then, if you
have a poorest animal, put it in fourth place. Then take the
pair which are nearest being equal and study them side by side
and make up your mind which is the better of the two and place
it in second place and the other one in third place.
Sometimes a class naturally divides itself into two pairs of
animals, the pairs should then be kept together and a little ob-
servation will show you which is the better pair. Then it re-
mains only to find the better animal of each pair and you have all
placed.
Comparative judging requires both study and practice to be-
come expert. Study to keep up with the approved types because
they change from time to time. The results of the best shows
teach us which type will win.
Practice is necessary to become quick and sure of your de-
cisions.
QUESTIONS
1. What are the two kinds of judging?
2. What should always be kept in mind in comparative
judging?






Florida Cooperative Extension


3. What is the first step in judging a ring of pigs?
4. What is the second step?
5. What is the third step?


LESSON XIV
DISEASES AND PARASITES
When your pig gets sick, it is best to call a veterinarian or
your county agent, if the trouble appears serious. And remem-
ber this caution, DO NOT STUFF A SICK PIG. Cut down the
amount of feed when the pig gets sick, instead of trying to
tempt his appetite with a lot of extra feed. He does not want
it then and it will do him more harm than good. Reduce his feed
and perhaps give him a little physic, or something to move his
bowels. When you have found the trouble and remedied it, bring
him back to full feed gradually.
DISEASES
Below are some of the more common diseases and their treat-
ment, which may help you in caring for your pig.
Cholera.-Of course all club pigs are inoculated against cholera
at the start. Therefore, you will hardly have any trouble from
this disease. Do not try to raise a pig unless it has been properly
inoculated.
Mixed Infection.-This is a disease which is causing much
trouble among hogs. It is hard to tell from cholera and is best
prevented by sanitation. If your pig has been properly inocu-
lated against cholera and has symptoms similar to those of chol-
era the chances are it has one of the many diseases going under
the name of mixed infection. Call your veterinarian or your
county agent who will know what to do.
Thumps.-Thumps is usually caused by indigestion. In young
pigs it can be caused by a too liberal supply of feed and too little
exercise. Sometimes the mother gives too much and too rich
milk. The treatment is mainly preventive. Always change feed
gradually. See that young pigs, especially, take plenty of exer-
cise. If thumps appear, it is a sign that something is wrong
with your care or feed. In case of suckling pigs reduce the sow's
feed and see that the pigs take more exercise. With older pigs,
reduce their feed and give a laxative. Another cause of thumps
is worms. The lung worm will cause a pig to thump as well as






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


a severe case of some other worms. Thumps caused by worms
can hardly be cured but may be prevented.
Scours.-Scours often appear the first few days after the pigs
are born and several may die before the trouble is checked. This
disease may be caused by over feeding the sow, by a sudden
change in rations or by sour slop. It often comes from the pigs'
being kept in damp and filthy quarters. Prevention is the thing.
If you follow the instructions on feeding and management given
for care of sow and litter in Lesson VII, you are not liable to be
troubled with scours. The best remedy is to see that the quar-
ters are clean and dry; then cut down the feed of the sow at
once. Add limewater to the sow's feed. This water is prepared
by mixing together air-slaked lime and water, letting the solution
settle and then drawing off the clear water.
Scours is sometimes caused by feeding in dirty troughs and
keeping slop in dirty barrels. In this case clean and scald all
troughs and barrels. Cut down the feed, and mix the feed given
with limewater until the trouble has stopped.
When pigs are weaned they often scour on slop and skimmilk.
This is not liable to happen, if you follow the directions for wean-
ing in Lesson VIII. If it does happen, mix limewater with the
feed until the trouble has stopped. Also reduce the amount of
feed for a few days.
How to Give Medicine.-It is best to give medicine in the feed,
if the pig has not lost its appetite. Drenching a hog is hard
to do. Many good pigs have been killed by their owners' attempt-
ing to drench them. There are two ways to drench a pig safely.
One is to hold the pig's mouth open and pour the medicine on
the tongue a little at a time. Never pour medicine down a pig's
throat as this strangles it. The other way is to attach a rubber
hose to a bottle containing the medicine, put one end of the hose
into the pig's mouth and let him chew it. As he chews pour the
medicine, a little at a time, down thru the hose into his mouth.
PARASITES
Lice.-The most common parasite of hogs is lice. The lice
suck the blood of the pig, and, therefore, the pig has to eat
enough for itself and the lice. Keep your pig free of them.
Sanitation is the best preventive. Keeping the pig's quarters
clean is a help. But this will not be enough. You must put oil
or disinfectant on your pig, if you want it free of these robbers.
You can use crude oil or common engine oil on a rubbing post or






Florida Cooperative Extension


you can apply it with a brush or rag, taking care to get it behind
the ears and under the flanks. The coal-tar disinfectants, if
used in a spray or dip, will kill the lice.
One of the best mixtures for lice is made by mixing together
a half pint of kerosene oil and a pound of lard. Rub this over
the entire body of the pig. This mixture is also good for mange.
Remember that you cannot get all the lice by one treatment.
Dip, spray or oil your pig every ten days, in order to kill the
young lice as soon as they hatch.
Skin Diseases.-There are several skin diseases which are
caused by "mites." When a pig's skin becomes rough and pimply
and the hair loses its smoothness, something is wrong. This is
probably a skin disease. As with other hog troubles, prevention
is better than cure. To prevent, keep the pig's quarters clean,
and occasionally disinfect them with crude oil.
Skin diseases can be cured by the application of a mixture of
a half pint of kerosene oil and a pound of lard. The best way
to apply this to one pig is with a brush or cloth, being careful
to get all the pig covered, especially the inside of the ears and
between the legs. If there are pimples or little swellings, be
sure that they are greased well. Crude oil is good as a cure as
well as a preventive. Some of the coal-tar dips are also good.
Remember the following precautions in treating for skin dis-
eases: After greasing, do not move the pig too rapidly; do not
let it get too warm or too cold-leave for a few hours in a warm,
dry and shady place.
Intestinal Worms.-The most troublesome parasites of the pig
are intestinal worms. 'Pigs that become infested with intestinal
worms usually live in dirty quarters, feed from dirty troughs, lie
in dirty wallows, root in old manure piles, and graze over infested
pastures. These pigs do not grow off well but become pot-bellied,
worthless runts. Sanitation is the best preventive. Keep pigs
in clean quarters and, if possible, change their quarters once in
awhile. The mineral mixture recommended in Lesson VI will act
as a preventive.
1. Treatment for Intestinal Worms.-If you have reason to
think your pig is troubled with worms get rid of the worms and
your pig will grow faster and you will make more money. In all
cases where you are treating for worms apply the following gen-
erally successful rules: Do not feed anything but water for
24 hours before giving the medicine; put the pig in a small pen,
away from where it is usually kept, so that the worms which






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


are expelled can be destroyed; keep the pig in this pen for a
day or two after giving the medicine, so that it will not scatter
infection over the lot; rake up and destroy all expelled worms;
do not feed anything for six hours after giving the medicine as
it will take that long for the medicine to get into the intestines
where the worms are. The pigs should be placed in another pen
after this treatment; but, if this is not possible, thoroly disinfect
the old quarters, especially any muddy places, since it is in these
places that the eggs of the worms live longest.
2. Medicines to Use for Intestinal Worms.-The best medi-
cine to give for intestinal worms is "oil of chenopodium" which
is commonly called "oil of American wormseed." This can be
purchased at any drug store. Never give this oil to a pig with-
out giving castor oil at the same time, as it might kill the
pig. A dose for a 50-pound pig is 15 drops of oil of chenopodium
to a tablespoonful of castor oil. A grown hog should get 30
drops of the oil and two tablespoonfuls of castor oil. The best
way to give this is to drop a little of the medicine at a time on
the pig's tongue.
Turpentine is also good for intestinal worms. Give a teaspoon-
ful once a day for three days for each 80 pounds of live weight,
following on the fourth day with epsom salts, two teaspoonfuls
for a pig and from two to six tablespoonfuls for a grown hog.
Both can be given in feed as the pig will be hungry and will eat
it, if not fed for 24 hours. There is this caution to remember
about turpentine,-never give it to a pregnant sow.
Another good worm remedy is "santonin" and calomel. As
one dose, give two and a half grains of santonin and two and a
half grains of calomel for every hundred pounds of live weight.
Remember to always keep feed away from pigs for 24 hours
before and six hours after giving worm medicine.
Lung Worms.-A serious internal parasite of pigs, and perhaps
the hardest to control, is the lung worm. This worm is small
and thread-like, and infests the lungs. When a pig coughs a
great deal and looks unthrifty, it is a good indication of lung
worms. No medicine can be given for these worms, since they
are down in the lungs where medicine cannot reach. Prevention
is the best thing,-keep the pig out of dusty places. Old pastures
around hog lots are likely to be a constant source of infection,
as the worms hatch from eggs expelled thru the nostrils of in-
fested pigs. These worms are then taken up by the grazing pigs.
If your pig becomes infected, you should move him to a fresh






Florida Cooperative Extension


lot every ten days. Do not use the same lot twice under 45 days.
By this method the pig becomes practically free of lung worms.
It seems that only young animals are seriously bothered by this
parasite.
QUESTIONS
1. What is the great caution to be observed in caring for a
sick pig?
2. How would you handle thumps in a litter?
3. What would you do in case your pig had scours?
4. How is the best way to give medicine?
5. How can you rid your pig of lice?
6. What should you do to cure a skin disease?
7. How do pigs infested with intestinal worms look?
8. What steps should you take in treating pigs for worms?
9. Give three remedies for intestinal worms.
10. How do you handle pigs infested with lung worms?


LESSON XV
KEEPING RECORDS
When you have chosen your breed, selected your pig, cared
for him properly, fed him correctly, fitted him for show, you have
not completed your pig-club work. Unless you have a record of
how you fed your pig, how much you fed him, together with the
cost of the feed and the amount of gain, you have not completed
what you agreed to do when you joined the club. The success-
ful livestock farmer knows the business end of hog production
and you must know how much your pig's gain has cost.
A complete record is necessary and you want to keep one in
the book furnished by your county agent. The record is not
hard to keep, if you use a few minutes each week and keep it up
to date. Every time you mix up feed, put down on page 2 the
date, the number of pounds and the cost. Once a month set
down on page 3 the value of the kitchen waste and milk you
fed during that month. Weigh the pig once a month and set
down the weight. Do this thruout the year and you will have an
accurate record of what it cost to raise your pig.
There is one point in keeping a record that seems to bother
most boys and girls. They have no platform scales and think
it too much trouble to weigh their pigs once a month. You will
find the pig club more interesting and you can do better work,






Lessons for Pig-Club Members


Fig. 20.-Where there's a will there's a weigh
if you know just what your pig is gaining. If he is not gaining
what he should, you will find it out and can change the feed ac-
cordingly. Nearly every farm has a pair of cotton balances and,
with a weighing sling, every club member can easily weigh his
or her pig. You can do as some Florida club boys are doing in
the accompanying picture.
The story of how you raised your pig is important. Just write
it as if you were writing to some friend about your club work
and tell what you have done. Remember it takes the story
to complete your work. Some boys have lost valuable prizes be-
cause they failed to write this story.
Remember that in all your club work you have your county
agent to help you. Do like the boy in the picture on the next
page; he got his county agent to assist him with his record book.
QUESTIONS
1. Why should you keep a record of your pig-club work?
2. What is the easiest and best method to follow in keeping
a record?
3. Why should you weigh your pig once a month?
4. How can you do this without platform scales?
5. How should you write the story of raising your pig?
6. What use should you make of your county agent?







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 21.-This boy got his county agent to help him


CONTENTS
N
T H E B REED ................................. ...... .... ........--
SELECTION OF PIGS FOR BREEDING PURPOSES......-......-.- ....
EQUIPMENT NEEDED BY A CLUB MEMBER...........................
SANITATION .................... ---------
FEEDS AND PASTURES.........................- ----
THE BREEDING PIG..................... ---. ----... ----
CARE OF THE BROOD SOW................---.........------....
WEANING THE PIGS...................... --------- ------
THE BOAR ...............-....... -- --------------. .----
FATTENING PIGS .........-----....... ..--.-----------
PREPARING PIGS FOR SHOW................. ........---.
EXHIBITING PIGS ......-----------...
JUDGING HOGS ............ ..-- ---- .. ---.
DISEASES AND PARASITES....................- ------
KEEPING RECORDS ................ -- ----.. ---


LESSO]
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.


AGE
3
4
7
9
10
13
16
22
24
27
30
33
35
38
42


PA




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs