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An analysis of strategies for adaptation to sea level rise in Florida /

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Title:
An analysis of strategies for adaptation to sea level rise in Florida /
Physical Description:
140 p. : col. ill., maps ; 22 x 28 cm.
Language:
English
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Volk, Michael
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School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
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Subjects / Keywords:
Sea level -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Coasts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape Architecture terminal project, M.L.A
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Terminal project (M.L.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Includes abstract.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael Volk.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
alephbibnum - 004728057
oclc - 437364067
Classification:
lcc - LD1780.1 2008 .V916
System ID:
UF00103364:00001

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
An analysis of strategies for adaptation to sea level rise in Florida /
Physical Description:
140 p. : col. ill., maps ; 22 x 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Volk, Michael
Publisher:
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sea level -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Coasts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape Architecture terminal project, M.L.A
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Terminal project (M.L.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Includes abstract.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael Volk.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
alephbibnum - 004728057
oclc - 437364067
Classification:
lcc - LD1780.1 2008 .V916
System ID:
UF00103364:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Part One: Introduction
        Page 6
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    Part Two: Research summary
        Page 29
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    Part Three: Results and conclusions
        Page 35
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    Part Three: Results and conclusions
        Page 40
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    Part Four: Bibliography and appendices
        Page 80
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    Back Cover
        Page 144
Full Text



an analyss strat
sea level rise im


Ualptation to
















Produced By:
Michael Volk, MLA Candidate, University of Florida
April 2008



























0


ARCHS
RINE ARTS
LtBRARIC


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AN ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO SEA LEVEL RISE IN FLORIDA

Michael Volk, MLA Candidate












PART ONE: INTRODUCTION


8 Abstract

9 Introduction

13 Methodology
Project Setup
Research Methodology
Strategies and Recommendations Methodology
Mapping Methodology
Integration of Ecological Sustainability
Integration of Financial Sustainability

25 Study Area Overview
Characteristics of Study Area and Existing Coastal Ecology
Effects of Sea Level Rise on Study Area





ABSTRACT


This paper examines strategies for adaptation to sea level rise
in Florida. The majority of the scientific community now agrees
that sea levels are rising at greater than historic rates due to
anthropogenic climate change. Though precise estimates are not
possible, the International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007
report projects a sea level rise of 7 to 23 inches by the year 2100.
Other analysis predict a rise that could be closer to 36 inches.
This rise in sea level will create a variety of issues including land
use conflicts caused by seawater inundation, property loss and
damage, saltwater intrusion into freshwater bodies, increased
coastal erosion, and increases in storm surge. The Treasure
Coast Regional Planning Council in a 2005 report summarizes
the importance of planning for sea level rise in Florida by stating
that, "the prospect of sea level rise is of particular concern to the
State of Florida because of its expansive coastline, low elevations
and flat topography, economic dependence of the tourism industry
on beaches and coastal resources, and significant public and
private investment in coastal areas" (TCRPC 2005). The necessity
to respond to sea level rise in Florida is undeniable, and these
responses must be guided by long range planning that addresses
a variety of complex issues such as habitat conservation and
working waterfront industries.

At risk development may respond to sea level rise through
shoreline protection and hardening, adaptation and
accommodation, or by retreating from the coastline. Discussion
of how to respond to sea level rise has generally focused on the
concept of managed retreat and associated policies. Managed
retreat is essentially the act of moving development away
from coastal hazards in a planned and controlled manner, and
this document recommends managed retreat as basis for all
responses to sea level rise. Discussions on managed retreat
do not generally propose solutions for shoreline management
that anticipate the inevitable coastal protection that will occur,


particularly in areas of high density and high value development.
Ecologically and financially sustainable shoreline management
strategies that address coastal protection must be seriously
explored. Realistic solutions to sea level rise also need to be
explored from a design and graphic standpoint and applied to
specific sites.

The purpose of this study is to explore ecologically and financially
sustainable recommendations and strategies for coastal
development response to rising sea levels in Florida. The focus
is on the effects caused by inland sea water inundation with
a secondary focus on shoreline erosion, and increased storm
events. Managed retreat and shoreline protection strategies are
graphically examined for various coastal conditions. Additional
tools and information are outlined for the use of policy makers
including information on policy options, goals and objectives,
design guidelines for 'areas likely to be inundated', and step-by-
step recommendations for response.


PatOe ntouto





INTRODUCTION


Anthropogenic Sea Level Rise and the Need for
Adaptation

The majority of scientists agree that sea levels are rising due to
anthropogenic global climate change. This is caused by both the
thermal expansion of water and the melting of terrestrial glaciers
and ice sheets inspired by the warming of the atmosphere (Han-
sen 2003). Changes in sea level are part of natural processes and
have occurred throughout earth's history. However, the rate of sea
level rise is projected to increase dramatically in the next century
primarily due to historic and continuing greenhouse gas emissions
from human activities. An immediate cease in greenhouse gas
emissions would still not halt the processes of climate change and
sea level rise. Many coastal ecosystems will have difficulty adapt-
ing to this rate of sea level rise, and coastal development will face
increased hazards from flooding, erosion, and more numerous
storm events. Therefore it is essential for the citizens and com-
munities of Florida to determine methods of responding to sea
level rise that maintain natural ecosystems, mitigate hazards, and
preserve important resources and functions.

The International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) projects a
relative sea level rise of approximately 7 to 23 inches by 2100,
though this will vary geographically. Based on more recent data
and analysis, actual rise could be closer to 36 inches (Mulkey
2007: 9). Figure 1.1 shows what this means in terms of overall
land inundation in Florida. A rise of three feet will inundate many of
the most developed areas in the state with South Florida receiving
the most far-reaching inundation.

Sea level rise will have a variety of effects on coastal
development. Inundation of uplands will create a variety of
issues for developed areas including land use conflicts caused
by nmnArtv In.ss and inland development miaration. saltwater


intrusion into freshwater bodies, increased coastal erosion, and
increases in the effects of storm surge. A rough estimate of the
possible erosion caused by sea level rise is 100 to 1000 feet of
inland erosion for each 1 foot rise in sea level (Titus 1989). Both
coastal and inland developed areas will be at risk and required to
respond to these issues.

The impacts of sea level rise on high density and value properties
such as Miami Beach and Palm Beach are one of the most difficult
conflicts to resolve. Retreat for these land uses is difficult as
is ecologically and financially sustainable protection of coastal
properties. Agricultural land uses will be impacted by land loss and
saltwater intrusion. Water dependent land uses may experience
increased competition for the use of coastal land if the amount of
developable coastal land is decreased (Coburn 2008). Strategies
for the relocation or protection of cultural resources will need to
be devised, and in many situations cultural resources may be
lost (Berenfeld 2008). The allocation of funds and resources for
the protection or adaptation of these resources will need to be
carefully assessed. Holistic waterfront planning will be essential
that approaches response through inter-temporal and phased
strategies. It will be important and difficult to balance public
goals such as waterfront access, private property issues such as
property loss, and conservation goals such as allowing for wetland
retreat.

It is still unclear to what extent anthropogenic climate change will
affect coastal ecosystems (Mulkey 2007), but, "in most if not all
cases, global climate change impacts act in negative synergy with
other threats... and can be the factor sending ecosystems over
the threshold levels of stability and productivity" (De Guenni et
al. 2005). A prominent example where sea level rise may cause
major ecological changes is in the Everglades, and the goals of
the Everglades restoration project should be carefully examined








Figure 1.1: Inundation caused by a One
Meter Sea Level Rise
This map shows the inundation caused
by a one meter rise in sea level, and the
conflicts caused with Ecological Greenway
priority lands.

Map Sources:
Gap_lcov 2000, Whittle 2008, Oetting and
Hoctor 2007


Critical Ecological Greenways- defined by CLIP analysis
(Oetting and Hoctor 2007)
Inundated lands outside of critical ecological greenways
Inundated lands within critical ecological greenways


FnL-nI I I Miles
0 20 40 80 120 160


Part One: Intr'oductio







with this in mind. The effects of sea level rise on ecosystems in
Florida are already being seen in the deaths of Sabal Palm and
other trees along the coast between Cedar Key and Homosassa
Springs due to saltwater contamination of the soils. Coastal forest
loss will probably increase as sea levels rise leaving shorelines
more exposed to the effects of storms and erosion (Mulkey 2007).
Proactive human intervention will be necessary to minimize
ecosystem loss (Hansen 2003). One of the important ways for this
to occur is through enabling ecosystem retreat by making lands
available and prohibiting coastal protection.

There are several factors that exacerbate the issues caused
by sea level rise. One of these is the state subsidization of
coastal property insurance. The price associated with state
sponsored coverage is below the true cost of the coverage. As
a consequence, "owners of high risk properties with significant
coastal exposure do not pay the true cost of the risks associated
with those properties... and the below market prices associated
with developing the coast will lead to overdevelopment of high-risk
areas" (Jerry 2008). Overdevelopment and inflated property values
in coastal areas will increase the cost of damage from storm
events and other effects of sea level rise. This cost is shifted to the
general taxpayer base because it is subsidized by the state.

Response to sea level rise can occur through protection, retreat,
or accommodation, which allows for the use of vulnerable lands
without preventing flooding or inundation (TCRPC 2005). High
property values create the likelihood that owners will want to
protect their property rather than retreating or accommodating
inundation. This is the least ecologically and financially sustainable
method of response, and coastal development will only experience
increased hazards caused by sea level rise. This will compound
the loss of property, insurance cost, and inland property owner tax
burdens.


Discussion of how to respond to sea level rise has generally
focused on the concept of managed retreat and associated
policies. Neal et al. define managed retreat as, "the application
of coastal zone management and mitigation tools designed to
move existing and planned development out of the path of eroding
coastlines and coastal hazards" (Neal et al. 2005, 602). It is
essentially moving development out of harm's way in a planned
and controlled manner, and can be used as a proactive method
of adapting human development to rising sea levels. This study
recommends managed retreat as basis for all responses to sea
level rise. Typical discussions on managed retreat do not provide
solutions for the inevitable coastal protection that will occur in
response to sea level rise, except to discuss ways of disallowing it.
It is a reality that protection will occur (Titus 1991, TCRPC 2005).
Serious discussion of strategies for protection must be explored
that address ecologically and financially sustainable coastal
management to the extent possible.

These strategies must also be holistically explored for specific
sites from a design and graphic standpoint that includes
consideration of sound waterfront design and management
principles. The research defined few landscape architectural or
architectural projects that realistically address sea level rise in
this way. In their January 2008 article in the Harvard Design
Magazine, "Design for Rising Sea Levels", Jonathan Barnett and
Kristina Hill write that, "As far as we can tell, most designers and
planners aren't thinking seriously about climate change in the
U.S. unless they work closely with the insurance industry, which
is dropping tens of thousands of East Coast customers and
raising rates on the rest, in part as a result of climate predictions.
Ecologists all over the world also know that it's a very big deal.
The World Bank knows. But building and landscape architects,
engineers, and planners don't seem to have connected the dots"
(Barnett 2008).


I








They write that, "While some governments and their engineers
are thinking in terms of enormous barriers, some architects
have been thinking of altering buildings instead. The Rotterdam
Architecture Biennale of 2005 brought together a cross section of
architectural ideas in an exhibit specifically on water and cities.
Using the past as a point of departure and displaying extreme
real-world examples of constructed coastlines such as the Palm
Jumeirah in Dubai, the exhibit was in some ways a valuable
eye-opener. But when design concepts for dealing with climate
change were requested from various practitioners around the
world, the proposals that came back were more about shock than
strategy. Perhaps that was the intent of the organizers. But the
idea that glass-fronted buildings could and should detach from
stilt-like supporting piers and float during floods won't exactly
appeal to insurance companies: Under what weather and terrain
circumstances would floodwaters come without significant winds,
waves, and debris? Architects, engineers, landscape architects,
urban designers, and planners owe the public a serious discussion
of how to deal concretely with the effects of sea-level rise up to at
least 2060, as well as a look beyond to protections that would last
until the end of the century" (Barnett 2008).

As stated by Dr. Stephen Mulkey in a 2007 report to the Century
Commission for a Sustainable Florida, "Florida has yet to begin
developing a portfolio of strategies for adaptation to climate
change. While to some extent this depends on acquiring a better
understanding of how Florida's climate may change over the
present century, lessons can be learned from cases where past
climate change has resulted in changes in natural systems and
human economies...Florida could develop a plan for strategic
retreat from the coast, and develop proactive adaptive scenarios
for preserving critically threatened coastal habitat and human
infrastructure" (Mulkey 2007).


The purpose of this study is to explore ecologically and financially
sustainable recommendations and strategies for coastal
development response to rising sea levels in Florida. The Village
of North Palm Beach and the adjacent barrier island form the
study area, and retreat, adaptive, and protective response
possibilities are examined. The focus is on defining methods of
responding to sea inundation with a secondary focus on erosion
and storm events, though the three are inextricably linked.
Protective and managed retreat strategies are examined for
various coastal conditions. Additional tools and information are
outlined to inform policy makers including information on policy
options, goals and objectives, design guidelines for 'areas likely to
be inundated', and step by step recommendations for response.


PatOe ntouto






METHODOLOGY


The following section defines the basis for this research and
the methodology used. The overall project goal was to explore
ecologically and financially sustainable design strategies for
coastal development in response to rising sea levels. The bubble
diagram in Figure 1.2 outlines the project research approach
as well as directions for future research. The following section
will describe the approach that was developed and limitations and
assumptions that were used.

Project Setup

Operational Definitions

Ecological Sustainability: The level to which coastal
management strategies support and maintain fully
functional natural coastal processes and healthy riparian,
littoral, and aquatic ecosystems.

Financial Sustainability: The ability of governments
and private land owners to fund and maintain coastal
management strategies without undue financial costs
over the life of the project. Undue financial costs could be
defined by the value of the coastal management strategy
as evaluated against alternative strategies and within the
framework of a broader budget.

High/Low Energy Shoreline: Defined by the amount of
wave energy recieved along a shoreline.

Protection: Shoreline stabilizing or hardening techniques
such as seawalls and beach nourishment that attempt to
maintain a static shoreline position.


Accommodation: The use of strategies that allow for land
use in areas vulnerable to coastal hazards to continue, but that
do not attempt to prevent flooding or inundation using shoreline
protection.

Managed Retreat: Moving development out of the way
of coastal hazards in a planned and controlled manner
using techniques such as property abandonment, structure
relocation, and hazard avoidance.

Assumptions

The project is founded on the assumption that based on scientific
evidence sea levels are rising at rates that exceed historic sea
level fluctuations. The inundation caused by sea level rise is
permanent for all practical purposes and is treated as such in this
paper. The necessity of planning, design, and policy actions that
address sea level rise in Florida is discussed in Part 1, Study Area
Overview.

Sea Level Rise Projections Used

Although accurate projections are not possible and actual changes
will vary depending on location, the IPCC 2007 report projects a
relative rise of 7 to 23 inches by 2100. However, projections vary,
have generally increased over recent years, and are generally
agreed to be imprecise. Based on more recent data and analysis,
a actual rise could be closer to 36 inches, and this estimate was
found in several sources through the course of research (Mulkey
2007: 9). For the purposes of the diagrams and maps in Part 3,
a projection of 5 feet in 100 years was used. This was for several
reasons including:

It is slightly higher than most current sea level rise

























Section 4.2C: Adaptation Strategies
based on Case Studies
Apply to Design Solutions Sections 2.7, 2.8


:Regional Analysis
* Land Use Conflicts caused by In-
S Migration from Inundation
Conflicts with Strategic Conservation
S Lands (See Section 3.3.3)



S S
mai imiSlinme ll~ium li


Figure 1.2: Research Process Diagram: Dashed
sent areas for potential continuing research


Section: 23 Goals and Objectives
Based on Research





Iu.u..............................
Scientific Research
Feasibility of vegetative stabilization below
the mean low tide line on high energy
shorelines


aI* IISan ... a ...........I


boxes repre-


PatOe nrdci


Section 3: Research
Waterfront design principles
Ecosystem processes and services
Managed Retreat and other current literature on sea level response
Traditional coastal stabilization methods
Policies
Case Study Projects


1


Site Scale Analysis
Define strategies for protection,
adaptation, and retreat for vari-
ous coastal sections.







projections, so planning that addresses this level of rise will
likely be adequate for lower levels that actually occur.

* A higher sea level rise estimate used for planning purposes
can begin to address the effects of erosion, which will cause
coastlines to recede in excess of the line established by
inundation. This erosion will cause topographic maps to be
less precise and reliable without regular revision. Therefore an
estimate of 5 feet takes into account the additional intrusion of
the sea caused by erosion, as well as the potential inaccuracy
of topographic maps (Ellis 2008).
* The Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council sea
level rise planning maps consider all land below the 10 foot
contour in their studies. These maps were referenced in the
conclusions for this paper, and the rational for their project
setup was also considered appropriate for this study. This was
because: 5' contour information can be gathered statewide;
existing tidal influences can extend almost to the 5' contour,
so the 10 foot contour would be approximately the highest
elevation inundated by tides at a sea level rise of several feet
thus taking into account long range projections; statewide
most land below 5' is already below the base flood elevation
for a 100 year storm and will experience greater flooding due
to sea level rise; and topographic contours are not completely
accurate (TCRPC 2005).

* Sea level rise is unpredictable and estimates are not
precise. Planning for a five foot rise begins to take into account
the possibility of ice cap melting, though by no means does
it address the full potential of sea level rise from ice melt (Tol
2005).


Project Focus

The research identified several major gaps in the work done on
this topic to date, and these issues defined the scope and focus
of this project. In a nutshell these gaps are design application and
sustainable protection strategies.

Research identified few if any solutions to coastline
protection from sea level rise that are ecologically and
financially sustainable. Of course there is a long history of
engineered responses to coastal hazards. None of these
provides an ecologically and financially sustainable solution
to sea level rise inundation. However, there may exist other
innovative solutions that can be adapted to respond to sea
level rise, but due to time constraints these were not found.

Research identified few projects that address inundation
due to sea level rise, in particular from a design point of view.
None of these projects are in Florida. There are projects that
consider periodic flooding, which is not the same as designing
solutions for permanent inundation. Information was also found
to be lacking on design guidelines and direction for specific
community action and use.

Graphic Illustration: Proposed responses to sea level rise
such as managed retreat are often presented in scholarly
papers. Research indicates that these ideas have not been
graphically illustrated and applied to a specific site, at least not
within a publication that is readily available. This is particularly
true in Florida.

It was determined that development responses to coastal hazards
can be broken down into three basic categories: protection,
accommodation, and retreat as defined above. Based on these








findings and the gaps in research to date, the following necessary
products and recommendations were identified.


Natural Coastal Condition
Mangrove Swamp Coastal Strand Wetland Inlet
ow %
gh% slope slope
Urban
H Density Fg 3.7, 3.12
SDensity __Fig 3.10-11 Fig 3.7,3.12 Fig 3.10-11
L Density Fig 3.7, 3.12

Conservation __Fig 3.13 Fig 3.13


Figure 1.3: Shoreline Types Matrix: This matrix identifies unique
shoreline types each requiring a different approach towards
adaptation. This matrix is by no means complete, but illustrates a
basic process for identifying necessary strategies for adaptation.

High Energy Low Energy
Shoreline Shoreline
Fe g 3.7,3.12 Fig 3.8-3.13
Developed.
Fig 3.7, 3.12 Fig 3.8-3.13
Undeveloped

Figure 1.4: This matrix was developed from Figure 1.3 to identify
in broader categories the major shoreline types requiring different
methods of response.


* It was determined that the primary project focus should be
on identifying ecologically and financially sustainable solutions
for coastline response to sea level rise and that all design
solutions should be linked to policy solutions where possible.

* It was determined that protective responses would receive
additional focus and be graphically explored for a specific study
area. This is not because these responses are necessarily
appropriate but because they are inevitable. This research is
included in Part 3, Protection.

* It was determined that a managed retreat strategy would
be graphically explored for a specific study area from a design
standpoint. This is because managed retreat is probably the
best long-term response and has not to my knowledge been
addressed in this manner for Florida. This is included in Part 3,
Managed Retreat.

* It was determined that general design guidelines would
be identified. This is because sea level rise response has not
been addressed from a design point of view, particularly in
a manner that can be used and adopted by communities in
Florida. This is included in Part 3, Accommodation.


To this end, shoreline protection strategies are examined for
various coastal conditions and a managed retreat strategy is
diagrammed for a low energy coastline. Additional tools and
information are outlined for the use of policy makers including
information on policy options, goals and objectives, design
guidelines for 'areas likely to be inundated', and step-by-step
recommendations for response.


Par On: ltro ucton:


Developed
Condition







Limitations

The project scope was necessarily limited with regards to the
effects of sea level rise. The project focus was primarily on
seawater inundation resulting from a relative rise in sea level.
Possible related scenarios such as barrier island breaches and
the effects from increased storm surge were not the focus. Sea
level rise will have many inland effects including erosion, inland
seawater inundation, and saltwater intrusion into fresh water
bodies, and causes, effects, and necessary responses to these
are inextricably linked. The associated hazards of erosion and
storms received secondary focus. This is for the following reasons:

Erosion estimates are difficult, imprecise, and accurate
estimates were not located for the study area. Erosion is also
inextricably linked to seawater inundation and both can be
considered with similar land planning measures.

With regard to saltwater intrusion into freshwater bodies,
inland seawater inundation has more obvious land use
planning implications than saltwater intrusion. Though both are
important issues, the focus of this paper was on planning and
design issues and the choice was made to focus on seawater
inundation.

With regard to increased storm surge, time was not allocated
to identify changes in storm surge caused by sea level rise,
and such predictions may not exist. This is an important issue
that should recieve focus, but due to time constraints, recieved
secondary focus in this study.


Choice of Study Area
North Palm Beach was chosen as a study area. The study area
also contains some areas outside and to the south of the Village
of North Palm Beach, but the majority of the study area lies within
the Village boundaries. The reasons for this choice are:

North Palm Beach is an area that the author is familiar
with, and therefore was able to make more informed
recommendations. Time constraints also limited the practicality
of an extensive site analysis in an area with which the author
was not familiar.

It possesses a variety of shoreline types including low
energy developed coasts, low energy undeveloped coasts,
high energy undeveloped coastlines, and high energy
developed coastlines on the barrier islands. These basic
categories of shoreline types are illustrated in Figures 1.3 and
1.4.







Research Methodology

Preliminary research was conducted on waterfront design
principles, coastal ecosystems and processes, traditional
engineering and development responses to coastal hazards,
and managed retreat as a response to coastal hazards. Further
research was then undertaken to locate real world or design
projects (case study projects) addressing sea level rise and policy
options for response.

Research on waterfront design principles was used to inform the
illustrative managed retreat and protective response strategies.
Principles were compiled from a variety of sources, commonalities
were searched for, and these were combined into a composite list.
There is no need to reinvent the wheel in this research; research
on principles already defined by other cities and organizations as
well as through consultation with planners and policy advisors was
used to form these principles. This said, these principles are by no
means all inclusive or completely applicable to all communities,
and each community will have different issues and solutions
for their waterfront. The implementation of managed retreat will
increase the necessity for sound and holistic waterfront planning
and design. New waterfronts will constantly be created and
evolving over time due to new mean high water levels and shifting
coastlines, and the development or non-development of these
coastlines should be planned. Design principles such as public
access and allowance for water-dependent uses will be more
important than ever.

Coastal ecosystems and processes research was necessary for
an understanding of the dynamics affecting coastal development,
ecosystems, and their response to sea level rise. An attempt
was made to focus on the responses of ecosystems to sea level
rise and associated ecosystem services with the idea that these


processes could inform development response strategies. The
research showed that geographic and vegetative differences in
coastlines would cause each coastline to respond differently to
sea level rise, even between two coastlines that are seemingly
identical. These variations create the necessity for varying human
responses as well. The tables in Figures 1.3 and 1.4 were formed
to help understand what land uses located in varying coastal
conditions needed to be addressed. This may be adapted for
individual use.

The research on traditional engineering and development
responses focused on the pros and cons of these approaches.
This research informed the writing of design guidelines for "areas
likely to be inundated" and the analysis of protective responses.

Managed retreat as a response to sea level rise was researched.
Particular focus was placed on identifying issues associated
with its implementation. While the scope of this research could
not allow complete analysis of solutions to these issues, some
solutions and ideas are presented.

Research on policy options focused on addressing the issues
associated with managed retreat. There are several options that
can be used to address these issues, but based on the research,
rolling easements as discussed in Part 4, Rolling Easements
seem to be one of the most suitable options. Minimal focus was
placed on inventing new public policies related to sea level rise
because more qualified researchers have already investigated
this topic. However, it was determined that graphic design
application of these policies is lacking. It was also determined
that recommendations should be made for an overall policy
approach and that this approach should inform the strategies
and recommendations in Part 3. The resulting design strategies
reference or are linked to policy options.


Part One: Introduction]








Case study research was focused on projects that specifically
address sea level rise. These are few, but particular focus was
placed on identifying strategies to respond to seawater inundation.
Projects that address erosion control and periodic inundation
are also included with a brief commentary on potential issues or
interesting solutions. These case study projects are included in
Part 4, Appendix E.

Strategies and Recommendations Methodology

Focus and Considerations

The previously described research informed the
recommendations and strategies included in Part 3. The following
section describes the guiding considerations and overall focus of
the strategies and recommendations in Part 3.

The primary goal of all recommendations and strategies was
to address financially and ecologically sustainable coastal
management solutions. Potentially unsustainable elements of
the recommendations and strategies are identified. Solutions
that are primarily unsustainable are immediately discounted.
The research identified financial and ecological sustainability
as the primary challenges of traditional engineering responses
to sea level rise.

The focus of the recommendations and strategies
was on solutions to sea level rise that can be functional
and sustainable over the long and short term. Project
phasing and adaptation were important components of the
recommendations formed. Natural succession of plant and
animal communities were part of this consideration.


* Research focus was placed on adaptable strategies that use
natural or ecological systems to mitigate rising sea levels, and
endeavor to maintain functional riparian and littoral zones,
in part through the use of living shoreline principles. These
include maintaining connections between riparian, intertidal
and aquatic areas and endeavoring to maintain natural
processes including tidal exchange, sediment flows, plant
community transitions and groundwater flow. This approach
is in contrast to traditional protective strategies such as sea
walls and groins that will likely be ecologically and financially
unsustainable in the face of sea level rise.

* Responses to sea level rise can be broken down into three
main categories: protection, accommodation/adaptation, and
retreat. The focus of the solutions developed was on protection
and retreat. Accommodation or adaptive responses were
assumed to be essential parts of either protection or retreat
and were incorporated into all solutions. Accommodation
was addressed primarily in the design guidelines in Part 3,
Accommodation. Protective and managed retreat responses
were diagrammed for North Palm Beach. With regard to
protective responses, three primary coastal sections were
examined: high energy/open coast shorelines such as barrier
islands like Singer Island, low energy/sheltered coastlines such
as along the Intracoastal Waterway, and wetland protection
such as for the estuaries of MacArthur Beach State Park. As
described in these sections, protection of conservation lands
through hard or soft devices is not recommended, however
there may be situations where this is appropriate.

* The concept of managed retreat has been chosen as a basis
for all design recommendations where possible. There are
a variety of ways that human development has traditionally
responded to coastal hazards and changes including hard







stabilization structures such as seawalls, soft stabilization
methods such as beach renourishment, abandonment and
rebuilding, and retreat. Managed retreat is essentially the
process of moving development out of harm's way (away
from areas of sea water intrusion) in a planned and controlled
manner, and can be used as a proactive method of adapting
human development to rising sea levels. Practically there
are many reasons for using managed retreat as a basis for
design and planning responses to sea level rise. These include
less vulnerability to hazards over the long run, continuation
of natural shoreline processes and beach preservation, and
lower overall cost (Neal et. al. 2005). There may however be
situations where managed retreat is not entirely feasible or
desirable. In these situations other design strategies will be
necessary.

A final consideration in this document is that the perception
of sea level rise as something by definition negative and
detrimental to human society and natural systems needs to be
reexamined. Sea level rise is inevitable and must be addressed
as a process of change over time that requires response and
adaptation with many costs but also some benefits. To achieve
the most positive outcomes, these benefits must be creatively
sought.

Limitations.

The following section describes limitations placed on the scope
of the recommendations and strategies. There are a variety of
ways that development can respond to sea level rise that were not
explored in this research.

Strategies that were not ecologically or financially sustainable
were immediately discounted.


* One of these strategies deemed to be unsustainable is the
possibility of building a lock across the Palm Beach and Jupiter
Inlets converting the Lake Worth Lagoon into an inland water
body. Regulated tidal exchange strategies could be used to
maintain a level of tidal fluctuation. However, it is possible that
the valuable estuaries and ecosystems within the lagoon would
be eliminated because of limited tidal exchange and changes
in salinity. The construction and maintenance of such locks
would also be very expensive, and would not mitigate risks
borne by barrier island development. Barrier island erosion and
the potential for breach would still exist. If such a breach were
to occur, the lock would be ineffective, and damage to coastal
development would be very high if not already prepared for the
possibility of a breach or higher waters.

* Adaptive strategies that are not part of an greater managed
retreat plan were not explored because they are generally
deemed to be financially and ecologically unsustainable.
An example is allowing barrier island high rise development
to remain, but discontinuing habitation of lower floors, and
converting lower floor use to adaptable uses such as for
parking. Such a strategy would have negative ecological
effects if coastal protection is continued (as would be
necessary to protect the foundations of the building). This
strategy would ultimately place the building occupants at
greater levels of risk, and the financial burden placed on the
property owner would probably be great (adaptation of utilities,
loss of revenue from rentable floor space, protection of the
building shoreline erosion and storms). Another strategy not
addressed because of its ecological and financial implications
was raising of land through fill in order to elevated lands above
sea level. This could be finanically feasible for a small site,
but would be impractical at a large scale due to the amount
of fill required. It would be difficult and expensive to adapt


PatOe ntouto








existing construction to a raise in elevation. Its ecological
impacts would include covering terrestrial ecosystems with
fill, which would likely kill many of the existing species, effects
on the region where the sediment is taken, and interruption of
drainage patterns.

* The focus of this study was on adaptation to inundation
caused by sea level rise. Related considerations such as
erosion, the effects of storms, and saltwater intrusion were
considered but did not recieve primary focus. Major ecological
or geological changes that could occur due to sea level rise
were researched, but did not factor heavily into the strategies
for adaptation. The difficulty of predicting these scenarios,
the resulting difficulty of making a comprehensive study of
them, and time constraints did not enable study and prediction
of these possible scenarios. One of these scenarios is the
possibility of a barrier island breach at MacArthur Beach State
Park. If a breach were to occur, it could be allowed to remain
in the State Park, but evacuation routes and particularly SR
A1A would be repaired and protected (TCRPC 2005). This
probability should be studied as it would change the ecology of
the Lake Worth Cove, and would affect development response
to sea level rise. For example, the protective strategies for
low energy shorelines discussed in Part 3 may or may not be
suitable for use in the Lake Worth Lagoon in the event of a
barrier island breach. The change in wave energy affecting the
shoreline would be a primary factor in this determination.

* It was not within the scope or ability of this research to
conclusively recommend species suitable for ecosystem
reestablishment. These recommendations should be made
by shoreline ecologists and other researchers. However,
some species are described within the recommendations and
strategies based on research indicating their suitability.


Mapping and Diagramming Methodolgy


GIS and Adobe applications were used for producing the maps
contained in this section. Topographic information was based
on statewide topographic data which is in five foot increments.
Additional site information was based on GIS land use and land
cover datasets as well as on-site data gathering. Maps produced
by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council (Figure
1.8) provided a basis for assumptions of probable shoreline
management responses. This information was used in Figure
3.5, which diagrams protection and adaptation potential for the
study area. The tidal data for the site that was applied to many
of the diagrams was gathered through on-site measurement and
affirmed through research on tidal fluctuation data for the study
area (Myers 1990, NOAA 2008). On-site measurement was
essential in order to ascertain low and high tide levels relative
to existing seawalls in the study area before shoreline diagrams
could be made. These measurements were taken at 11:00 low
tide on March 3, 2008. Tidal fluctuations are taken into account
in all diagrams, with the exception of maps defining the study
area because of the scale and less necessity. None of the maps
incorporate erosion because accurate estimates were not located,
particularly for the study area region. The use of a five foot sea
level rise for mapping studies is slightly higher than most sea
level rise projections, so can begin to address the additional
level of shoreline retreat that might occur due to erosion. The
recommendations and notes contained in the diagrams were
produced through design and analysis based on considerable
research. These recommendations have been loosely confirmed
through consultation with a variety of researchers in the field, but
should by no means be considered scientifically accurate or relied
upon without additional research and consultation. An attempt was
made to delineate between facts verified through other research
and those determined through this research.







Integration of Ecological Sustainability

Ecological sustainability was integrated within the
recommendations and strategies in Part 3 using principles of living
shoreline restoration. In short, these are to maintain functional
natural processes, and to support healthy coastal ecosystems.
Natural processes that were considered include sediment flows,
tidal exchange, and plant community transitions. Support of
healthy ecosystems was considered in terms of both ecosystem
restoration and management of existing ecosystems. The
following discusses the integration of these components in terms
of the three methods of response described in this paper: retreat,
protection, and accommodation.

Retreat


Managed retreat is potentially the most ecologically sustainable
method of response to sea level rise because it allows natural
processes and ecosystem responses to sea level rise to take
place unimpeded. The key elements that will allow this to happen
are as follows, and these elements are incorporated in the
recommendations and strategies discussing managed retreat in
Part 3.

Shoreline protection policies must be discontinued, and
development should adopt a policy of gradual retreat from the
coast in keeping with sea level rise and coastal erosion. This
can be implemented through rolling easement policies, and has
already been addressed most notably in Texas through the Texas
Open Beaches Act. These policies are assumed to be in place in
the managed retreat strategies discussed in Part 3.

Additional components of ecologically sustainable managed
retreat are addressed in Part 3. Of these, several of the orimarv


recommendations are as follows. Certain lands would be zoned
"Likely to be Inundated", based on sea level rise and storm
surge projections. The regulations within these lands would
allow for creation and migration of an alongshore buffer for
proactive ecosystem management, adaptation, and retreat. This
buffer would allow for natural shoreline migration to occur while
decreasing hazards to coastal development. Ecosystem and
shoreline restoration would occur within this area where natural
shorelines do not exist. Best management practices would have to
be developed for the removal and reuse of structures inundated by
shoreline retreat to mitigate ecological and other hazards. These
and other policies are discussed in Part 3 and are important parts
of ecologically sustainable managed retreat.

Protection


Shoreline protection is the least ecologically sustainable method
of response to sea level rise. Since protective strategies were
a primary focus of this study, methods were considered for
minimizing their negative effects on coastal ecology but still
allowing for shoreline protection from sea level rise. Some of the
primary components of these strategies are as follows.

Maintaining Functional Natural Processes
None of the strategies proposed involves hard stabilization
methods using materials such as concrete, rubble, or sandbags.
This approach precluded the proposal of breakwaters, offshore
barriers, seawalls, groins, sills, or dikes, particularly directly
adjacent to the shoreline. In addition to a variety of financial
and hazard related issues, hard stabilization causes beach
loss and alters sedimentation patterns, so these methods were
not proposed. Offshore shoreline protection was also avoided
because its interference with sediment and tidal flows, affecting
tidal ecosystems.


PatOe 3tout







Maintaining Healthy Ecosystems
The maintenance of healthy ecosystems was approached in
three ways: the maintenance of functional natural processes as
described above, ecosystem reestablishment along developed
shorelines, and existing ecosystem management through
allowance for ecosystem retreat.

Ecosystem reestablishment and restoration were investigated
for all protective strategies as methods of stabilizing shorelines
and protecting development. It was determined that the feasibility
of these methods varies depending on coastal conditions.
Restoration of functional ecosystems is very difficult (Hansen
2003), but was set as a goal for shoreline protection strategies
where possible to increase the level of ecological sustainability.
The approach to this was as follows.

Only species that would occur in the study area naturally were
examined for reestablishment. More in-depth research as to
appropriate species for reestablishment needs to be conducted,
as a variety of variables must be considered due to changes
in shoreline conditions caused by sea level rise. This research
was not possible due to time constraints and for this reason,
recommendation of specific species is minimized. It was however
possible to make general assumptions based on the existing
natural communities in the area.

The natural shoreline conditions in which species native to the
study area thrive were considered including shoreline gradient,
tidal and salinity influx, and wave energy and erosion. An attempt
was made to maintain these conditions within the strategies
proposed, though this is by no means completely possible.

Plant community succession was assumed to occur over
time in response to sea level rise, and this would hopefully


occur in tandem with upland ecosystem retreat. Ecosystem
retreat and succession are considered on a large scale in the
managed retreat strategy with the proposal of an alongshore
buffer and design guidelines for development and use of lands
"Likely to be Inundated". These two elements are important in
allowing ecosystems to retreat and succession to occur without
total elimination of upland ecosystems. The consideration of
succession and retreat are diagrammed on a smaller scale in the
protection strategies in the strategies for protection of existing
developed low energy shorelines (Figures 3.10-3.11). This
strategy proposes the reestablishment of shoreline ecosystems
along the protected shoreline and for the gradual removal of
the hard protective structures (sea walls in this example). While
maintaining the existing shoreline position, ecosystem retreat is
allowed by beginning ecosystem reestablishment seaward of the
line of protection. Land is created between the revegetated line
and the line of protection through artificial fill (where sediment
supply is low). Fill is added in keeping with the rate of sea level
rise, allowing the established vegetation to retreat upland and
inland, lowland succession to occur, and maintaining a vegetated
riparian edge. This strategy also has a variety of pitfalls, which are
discussed in Part 3.

Accommodation

Accommodation is addressed through design guidelines for 'areas
likely to be inundated'. Maintenance of healthy ecosystems and
functional natural processes is approached in much the same
way as described above for protection and managed retreat. The
guidelines are however founded on the principle of managed
retreat and do not recommend protection. New construction is
not recommended in areas where inundation is likely unless it
can accommodate sea level rise in an ecologically and financially
sustainable manner. Options that increase the ecological







sustainability of land use in these areas include construction of
relocation friendly buildings, non-permanent structures and land
uses, or land uses that evolve as sea level rises. Accommodation
does not imply permanent land use unless these uses allow
natural shoreline processes to continue. It is through this approach
that the adaptive methods discussed in Part 3 address ecological
sustainability.

Integration of Financial Sustainability

There are many levels at which shoreline management strategies
can be analyzed for their financial sustainability, but in this study,
ecological aspects received greater focus than did financial
aspects of coastal management. The following summarizes the
financial considerations that were taken into account in the retreat,
protection, and accommodation strategies included in this study.

Managed Retreat

The financial sustainability of retreat is compared to that of
protection, and it is determined that over the long term, retreat
will generally cost less than protection (Coburn 2004, Titus 1991).
Within the proposed recommendations and strategies limitation
of public investment in coastal zone development is briefly noted.
The role of insurance policies in discouraging retreat is also noted.
These issues are directly related to the financial sustainability of
coastal development patterns.

Protection

One of the most important cost considerations when protecting
development from sea level rise is the long term public and private
costs that will be incurred from increases in coastal hazards.


This cost is addressed in this paper but not integrated within the
strategies for protection in Section Three. These strategies were
based on the assumption that protection is occurring, regardless
of potential costs from coastal hazards. The focus of the protective
strategies in this paper is on the financial costs of the direct costs
of strategy itself, not the overall regional and statewide financial
implications.

In protective strategies, the primary considerations with relation
to financial sustainability were the costs of constructing and
maintaining a coastal protection structure. For example, several
of the strategies proposed require artificial fill, which could be
prohibitively expensive in terms of the amount required to protect
long distances of shoreline. Therefore, the costs of any of the
protective strategies in this study would have to be compared
against the value of the resource being protected.

The use of ecosystem restoration as part of shoreline protection
strategies was considered to have potential financial value. This
would be true if ecosystems are able to adapt to sea level rise
with minimal human intervention while still providing protective
services.

Accommodation

The financial sustainability of accommodation is not directly
addressed, but is considered in the design guidelines proposed
for 'areas likely to be inundated'. Land use practices are
recommended that are either non-permanent, or are able to
accommodate inundation. These practices will minimize the costs
of repairing and protecting coastal development.


PatOe nrdci





STUDY AREA OVERVIEW


Characteristics of Study Area and Typical Coastal
Ecology

The study area is located in northern Palm Beach County and
the jurisdictions falling within this area are the Village of North
Palm Beach and Palm Beach Shores, the latter of which is
located on the barrier island. The development within the region
consists primarily of single family residential, condominium, and
commercial development of relatively high economic value. The
exception to this is John D. MacArthur State Park, a conservation
area of approximately 437 acres. The primary transportation
corridors within the study area are US Hwy 1 and A1A. The
mainland coastline within the study area is sheltered by a barrier
island system, and within the study area this is called Singer
Island. The shoreline of this barrier island consists of a sandy
beach and a primary dune with tropical maritime forests occurring
on the backdune where it is not developed. To the west of
Singer Island is the 20 mile long Lake Worth Lagoon a valuable
recreational amenity that contains highly productive estuaries. The
Lake Worth Lagoon is connected to the Indian River Lagoon to the
north by the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, an inland navigation
channel traversing the east coast of Florida. The Jupiter Inlet and
Palm Beach inlets are to the north and south outside of the study
area. To the west outside of the study area and parallel to the
Lake Worth Lagoon is the Atlantic coastal ridge. This represents
an ancient line of dunes, formed 100,000 years ago when the sea
was 30 feet higher, and is composed of well-drained sandy soils.
(TCRPC 2005) The highest elevation within the limits of the study
area, which are drawn just west of the Lake Worth Lagoon and US
Hwy 1, is approximately 20 feet.

Longshore sediment flow along the Atlantic Coast of Florida and
within this region is north to south. Precise understanding of
sedimentation and erosional processes within this area is difficult


due to the substantial shoreline alterations and protections that
have occurred (Thieke 2008). The Atlantic coast within the study
area is considered a high energy shoreline, while the coasts
within the Lake Worth Lagoon could be considered low energy
shorelines.

In North Palm Beach, much of the low energy mainland shoreline
bordering the Intracoastal Waterway consists of seawalls with
some small areas where natural shorelines exist. With the
exception of John D MacArthur State Park, there are few large
contiguous lands containing natural communities and shorelines
in coastal Palm Beach County. The park is within the study area
and adjacent to North Palm Beach. It contains both high and low
energy shorelines, and was used as a model of what would likely
be the natural condition of the developed shorelines within the
study area. For these reasons, this area provides a suitable basis
for an understanding of the ecology of the lagoon and barrier
island that compose most of the study area.

John D. MacArthur State Park is located on Singer Island, the
barrier island sheltering North Palm Beach, and includes the
beach and dunes, bayside estuary, and islands. The park includes
almost 2 miles of sandy beaches and dunes populated by dune
species including Railroad Vine and Bay Bean, which stabilize the
beach after a storm so that other species such as Sea Oats can
grow. Sea grapes grow behind the Sea Oats further up and on the
backside of the dune.

The backdune includes an intermittent strip of tropical maritime
hammock. Mature tropical maritime hammock occurs further
inland within the park on the strip of land between Lake Worth
Cove and A1A. Some of the species occurring within these
hammocks are Gumbo Limbo, Cabbage Palm, Mastic, Strangler
Fig, and Live Oak (MacArthur Plants 2008). These forests


















achGardens \ No Im ach, .SHigh ne.
9e aOttion
I S ger Island
Palm Beach County Palm each Shores
Location of .n,' -
Study Area Be
I. .i.,.
r ,0


1.,u-;-Palm ac.oh.
=. : -- ,.ngs fVillage of M
0.... osrth.... ,,l tNorth
oPalm Beach



-N-1




Part One: Introdh cti









01000 20000 *0000
Coiours i 5laterval















I Mangrove
I Swamp I
I I


Maritime Forest


Backdune Sea Oats
SSea grape I Foredune I
I Scrub I


Lake Worth Cove


Primary Dune


Atlantic Ocean


Figure 1.6: Section through Existing High Energy Shoreline Ecosystems: This is a section cut through the barrier island at

MacArthur Beach State Park. Map Sources: McHarg 1967, MacArthur 2008, Meyers 1990, TOPO 1997


SI'


Mean Hign Tide
Mean Low Tiae
in i in l- l <-If 1-1 --


High marsh and transition to upland vegetation
Species Include:
Juncus roemerianus (Black Needlerush) I

Further upland species include: I
Distichlis spicata (Salt Grass)
Borrichea arborescens (Sea Oxeyes)
I


Laguncularia
racemosa
(White
Mangrove)


Avicennia g
(Black Ma


High Marsh


erminans
ngrove)
I


Rhizophora
mangle
(Red
Mangrove)


Salt Marsh- intermittent
along shoreline
Common Species:
Spartina altemiflora


Berm I Low Marsh


Figure 1.7: Section through Existing Low Energy Shoreline Ecosystems
Map Sources: MacArthur 2008, Myers 1990


Intermittent
Salt Marsh


81-01 13-0"
4'-0'

2 '-( r Y -0 "







constitute the northernmost extant remaining of tropical forest
growing on a sandy substrate (Myers 1990). Mangroves and
saltwater marshes border the estuaries within Lake Worth Cove
and the Intracoastal Waterway. Patches of seagrass occur in many
locations throughout the estuaries (gaplcov 2000) (seagrs_2003
2003). The tide fluctuates such that mudflats are exposed in some
of these estuaries at low tide.

Effects of Sea Level Rise

The following section discusses sea level rise in terms of its
specific effects on the study area. It is important to recognize that
sea level rise is unpredictable and could change drastically due
to sudden changes in the global environment. Even moderate
amounts of sea level rise will begin to have effects on coastal
ecosystems and development.

The amount of sea level rise that is projected to occur in various
regions throughout the world varies, and there are some locations
where sea levels are actually projected to decrease. Within
Florida, a rise of 36 inches by 2100 is feasible (Mulkey 2007), and
a rise of 60 inches was used for the analysis in this study (TCRPC
2005). The relative sea level rise per century for the study area
has been about 28 cm (Myers 1990) and has occurred at about
2-3 mm per year. For comparison, mangroves are able to accrete
sediment at about 1.5-2 mm per year (Clark 2008) and may be
flooded if sea level rise rates increase. Depending on the shoreline
gradient, a 1 foot rise in sea level can cause a shoreline retreat
of 1000 feet or more (Bush et al. 2004). The study area has the
greatest percent probability for the entire Atlantic and Gulf Coasts
for hurricane occurance, and a 100 year storm surge projection
of 7.7 feet (Bush et al. 2004). The tidal range for the study area is
about three feet (Myers 1990). Storm surge, tidal range, and sea
level rise should all be taken into account when defining 'areas


likely to be inundated' within the study area.

In a report by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
(TCRPC), "Sea Level Rise in the Treasure Coast Region", the
gravity of the effects of sea level rise on Florida are summarized
as, "the prospect of sea level rise is of particular concern to the
State of Florida because of its expansive coastline, low elevations
and flat topography, economic dependence of the tourism
industry on beaches and coastal resources, and significant public
and private investment in coastal areas. The 2004 population
estimates indicate that Florida has about 17.5 million residents
and the majority of these people live and work near coastal areas.
The ramifications of sea level rise in Florida could be far reaching.
In areas with a gently sloping shoreline the horizontal advance of
the sea can be 150 to 200 times the vertical rise. This can cause
increased erosion, flooding, and raise the frequency and severity
of storm surges. Additionally, rising sea levels can contaminate
freshwater supplies by causing saltwater intrusion into river
systems, canals, groundwater aquifers, and low lying coastal
wetlands such as the Everglades ecosystem" (TCRPC 2005).

The following is an excerpt from the House of Representatives
Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming
site on the effects of sea level rise in Florida.

"By 2100, sea levels along Florida's coast could rise as much as
20 inches; possibly even more if the Greenland or West Antarctica
ice sheets break up more rapidly than predicted. It is estimated
that a rise in sea level of 12 inches would flood coastal real estate
100 to 1000 feet inland, devastating coastal populations and
economies".

"Sea-level rise also puts a tremendous strain on Florida's
ecosystems. Rising sea level threatens the beaches, wetlands,


Partiw One I*.0I!I I IJI







and mangrove forests that surround the state. Some of the small
islands of the Florida Keys could completely disappear due to
rising sea levels. Inland ecosystems will also suffer as salt water
intrusion into the Everglades or up rivers impacts freshwater
plants and animals. Critical habitats for fish and birds, as well
as endangered species like the key deer, American alligator and
Florida panther, will be severely reduced and could disappear
altogether".

"America's biggest living coral reef, a popular tourist attraction,
is found in the Florida Keys. Florida's coral reefs are already
experiencing bleaching a potentially irreversible process due
to environmental stresses, including warmer ocean temperatures.
Additionally, carbon dioxide absorbed by the ocean from the
atmosphere alters the chemical balance of sea water, threatening
coral health".

"All of these changes pose devastating consequences to Florida's
economy. Areas facing inundation from climate change attract
4 million tourists a year, who generate $3.4 billion a year for the
state. Rising sea levels could destroy the beaches that bring in
$15 billion of revenue a year. A decreasing wildlife population
could threaten the $6.2 billion hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing
industry that employs over 120,000 Floridians. In addition, more
intense hurricanes could spell economic disaster for Florida".
(House Energy Committee 2008)

The EPA has initiated a nationwide program promoting planning
for and awareness of sea level rise. In 2000 the Southwest Florida
Regional Planning Council received an EPA grant to coordinate
the study of sea level rise throughout the state and in 2002
contracted the TCRPC to conduct a study within the Treasure
Coast Region. The TCRPC produced the above referenced report,
similar to those produced by other regional planning councils,


which creates maps of the Treasure Coast Region distinguishing
shores likely to be protected from sea level rise from those
shores unlikely to be protected where natural shoreline retreat will
probably occur. These designations were made based on strict
criteria and with the input of local planners, but are by no means
public policy. The study area for these maps is everything below
the 10 foot contour or within 1000 feet of the shore. The map
projecting responses in Palm Beach County is shown in Figure
1.8.

Palm Beach County does not currently have policies that
specifically deal with sea level rise, but these will be considered
in the next comprehensive plan update in 2009. The maps
created by the TCRPC confirm determinations made in this study
by designating most of the North Palm Beach study area as
"Protection Almost Certain". MacArthur Beach State Park, which
is located on the barrier island east of North Palm Beach, is an
exception to this and is designated as receiving no protection.
This is because it is projected that management of publicly owned
conservation areas will allow natural responses to sea level rise.
The report states that it would be possible for the barrier island to
be breached at this point without interrupting travel on SR A1A,
which runs on the west side of the barrier island, but that SR A1A
would be protected as necessary. One method of protecting travel
on SR A1A would be to elevate the road, allowing tidal movement
beneath it, and increasing protection from flooding. Local planners
also state that roads necessary for hurricane evacuation on
the barrier islands would be repaired. The report states that the
adequacy of flood control structures in the canals in the area
should be evaluated. Further information on the effects of sea
level rise on Palm Beach County and the Treasure Coast Region
outside of the study area can be gained from this report. (TCRPC
2005)















































Prepared by the
South Florida Regional
Planning Council
09127/05
www.sfrpc.com k ,, ro
NOAA FDEPF Pam Beacn Cany. SFRPC.
FFigure 1.9: Inundation Caused by Five Feet of Inundation
Map Sources: gap_lcov 2000, TOPO 1997, LABINS 2008


*t









PART TWO: RESEARCH SUMMARY

32 Florida Coastal Ecology

33 Coastal Management

34 Conflict Analysis between Conservation Lands and Sea Level Rise

35 Case Studies

35 Excerpts from Publications





RESEARCH SUMMARIES


The following section includes a summary and excerpts from the
research sections in Part 4, Appendices and is included for ease
of reference.

Florida Coastal Ecology

Ecosystem Services with Potential to Mitigate the Effects of
Sea Level Rise

The purpose of this research is to describe ecosystem services
that may aid in either flood attenuation, mitigation of the intrusive
and erosive effects of sea level rise, or to minimize the destructive
effects of storm surge. This serves several purposes. The first is to
underscore the importance of coastal ecosystems to people living
in Florida and that active human involvement in the preservation
and adaptation of these ecosystems in the face of sea level rise
must be a priority. This however is not the primary focus as the
values and intricacies of ecosystem services are discussed in
far greater depth in other publications. The second and more
important purpose for discussion of ecosystem services is based
on the idea that an understanding of the ways ecosystems
respond to coastal hazards can inform human design responses
to these hazards. This can be manifested in use of the ecosystem
itself as part of a design response to sea level rise or through use
of the underlying principles of the ecosystem service reinterpreted
through design.

The conclusions of this research are that preservation of
coastal ecosystems is important to maintain essential regulatory
ecosystem services such as sediment collection and wave energy
reduction. It is also hypothesized based on this and other research
that attempts to replicate these services through designed and
engineered artificial structures could be an unwise approach


to coastal shoreline management. This is because engineered
shoreline stabilization and protection structures frequently fail to
function, are often financially unsustainable, create an incentive
for development within hazard zones, and generally have negative
ecological side effects.

It was also concluded that carbon sequestration services may
become a particularly important part of ecosystem valuation and
preservation through value added in the carbon offset market.

Adaptation of Florida Coastal Ecosystems to Sea Level Rise

This research focuses on the effects of sea level rise on
ecosystems and their ability to adapt. The overall ability of
ecosystems to adapt and recover is discussed, followed by
description of the ability of specific ecosystems to adapt to sea
level rise. This is followed by research on strategies for ecosystem
adaptation. The focus of this research is on land based or near
shore ecosystems.

It was concluded that though it is uncertain to what extent sea
level rise will affect ecosystems, it is likely that degradation and
overall loss of coastal ecosystems will occur. The ability for
ecosystems to recover and persist will depend on their ability
to make permanent structural or functional changes, either by
relocating or by adapting. The ability for ecosystems to adapt to
projected sea level rise will be hindered by two primary factors:
coastal development that limits the ability for ecosystems to retreat
inland, and greater than historic rates of climate change and
sea level rise, which exceed abilities for ecosystems to accrete
sediment, retreat, or otherwise adapt.

Strategies for ecosystem adaptation are discussed including
facilitation of ecosystem retreat, alongshore easements, and


Par Two Reeac Su mr







construction of living shorelines. The research concluded that
proactive human planning and intervention will be necessary
to facilitate ecosystem adaptation. One way of assisting in
ecosystem adaptation to sea level rise is through facilitation of
ecosystem retreat. Ecosystem retreat could be defined as the
upland or landward shift of ecosystems (in response to sea level
rise). A primary component of this is prohibition of shoreline
protection and hardening structures. Another component is setting
aside uplands for lower elevation ecosystems to retreat to.

Alongshore easements are one method of setting aside land for
ecosystem retreat, adaptation, and management. The depth of
this area would vary according to location. In addition to being an
area for ecosystem management, it would also function as a buffer
between development and the sea, reducing the impact of coastal
hazards, and could be held in public trust as parkland or reserved
for water dependent uses. With the exception of strategies to aid
in ecosystem adaptation, coastal hardening would be prohibited
in these areas and shoreline retreat would be allowed. The land
would probably be in 'areas likely to be inundated' by seawater,
and it would probably be necessary to incorporate additional land
further upland as seawaters inundate. The management of this
land would incorporate the idea that it is in transition, and the
guidelines in Part 3, Accomodation could be applied.

To create this easement, governments and land trusts could focus on
the purchase of properties or development rights of properties where
there is a significant hazard to development, but which has value as
land for ecosystem retreat or restoration. Purchase of development
rights on properties more than fifty percent damaged could be a
way to limit rebuilding in coastal hazard zones at a lower cost.
Development disincentives or sale incentives could also encourage
the sale of these rights. Rolling easements and deed restrictions on
shoreline hardening'may also be policy components.


Living shorelines are discussed as an ecologically sustainable
approach to shoreline restoration, which would occur within
alongshore easements. Construction of a living shoreline is
an alternative to traditional coastal stabilization methods. The
Virginia Institute of Marine Science Center for Coastal Resources
Management describes living shorelines in the following excerpt.

"A "Living Shoreline Treatment" is a shoreline management
practice that addresses erosion by providing for long-term
protection, restoration or enhancement of vegetated shoreline
habitats. This is accomplished through the strategic placement of
plants, stone, sand fill and other structural and organic materials.
Living Shoreline Treatments do not include structures that sever
natural processes & connections between riparian, intertidal and
aquatic areas such as tidal exchange, sediment movement, plant
community transitions & groundwater flow" (Living Shorelines
2008).

The use of this approach will help maintain regulatory ecosystem
services such as erosion reduction and water and air pollution
filtration, while providing animal habitat, aesthetic, and recreational
value.

Coastal Management

Managed Retreat Overview and Issues

The process of managed retreat and its associated issues were
researched for this study. Managed retreat is essentially the
practice of moving development out of harm's way in a planned
and controlled manner and can be used as a proactive method
of adapting coastal development to rising sea levels. Neal et
. ., L L -.1 J







including abandonment, relocation, setbacks and easements, land
acquisition, and avoidance. Managed retreat is recommended as
a basis for all coastal management responses, and the associated
issues are discussed in the research contained in Part 4.

Controlled Inundation Areas and Managed Realignment

This section briefly discusses controlled inundation and managed
realignment as methods for designating and planning areas that
will be inundated. Controlled inundation areas (CIA) are defined
as areas which are generally protected but are allowed to be
inundated in times of flooding. Managed realignment is defined as
discontinuing the protection of certain tracts of land as identified
through comprehensive planning. Both methods could be used
as part of overall protective strategies or as part of a phased
managed retreat strategy.

Strategies for Responding to Coastal Hazards and Sea Level
Rise

This section includes a list of traditional strategies for response
to sea level rise, which was useful in organizing this paper, and is
helpful in understanding the variety of shoreline response options
and terminology.

Rolling Easements and Additional Policy Options

Policies that can be used to implement managed retreat were
researched. Based on the research done for this paper, rolling
easements seem be the most simple and logical starting point
for managed retreat policy. In rolling easement policies, coastal
protection is prohibited, and the definition of public lands as lands
below the mean high water mark is enforced. Since shorelines


are no longer protected, the mean high water line will migrate
landward in response to sea level rise. With the exception of
coastal protection measures, property owners are allowed to use
coastal lowlands as they choose, but a legal mechanism is set up
to ensure that the land is abandoned as it is inundated.
James Titus describes rolling easements in the following
quote. "Although compensation may be required, this approach
(implementation of rolling easements) would cost less than
1 percent as much as purchasing the land, and would be
(1) economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to
incorporate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional
by compensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by
pleasing people who care about the long-term fate of the coastal
environment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned
about the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise" (Titus
1991).

There are also issues associated with rolling easements that could
make their use more difficult in certain situations. One of these is
the potential for 'takings', which could be claimed by a property
owner who feels that property value or developable land has been
lost due to rolling easement policies. This is discussed further in
Part 4.

Conflict Analysis between Conservation Lands and
Sea Level Rise

Arc GIS was used to analyze conflicts between conservation land
priorities and various levels of sea level rise. The conservation
lands were defined by the Critical Lands/Water Identification
Project (CLIP), a project that identifies and priorities Florida's
essential ecosystems for the purpose of land use planning. This
data was received from Dr. Tom Hoctor, University of Florida


Pr Two R a S







Geoplan Center. Sea level rise data was obtained from Andrew
Whittle, University of Kentucky.

Case Studies

The focus of this case study research is on design based projects
demonstrating adaptation to sea level rise, although projects
responding to flood risks have also been included. The primary
focus is on responses on developed coastlines, though some
projects in non-developed areas have been included.

A variety of sources were reviewed for information on case study
projects including journals, websites, books, and magazines, but
no definitive source exists discussing projects related to sea level
rise. Very few projects were found that address sea level rise,
though many projects address periodic inundation. Projects that
were of value were the Salt Pond Restoration Project in the San
Francisco Bay, a 15,100 acre tidal wetland restoration project in
South San Francisco Bay. The project is specifically addressing
sea level rise in its planning process. The redevelopment of the
Anterp, Belgium Quays was also a valuable case study project as
it is one of the few located addressing sea level rise with a design
based approach. The Room for the River project, sponsored
by the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water
Management, is also valuable, which investigates strategies
for dealing with higher river discharges on the Rhine River in
combination with higher sea levels. Dike strengthening is looked at
as a last option, and strategies are explored for creating room for
the river to expand rather than increasing shoreline protection and
hazard risk.


Excerpts from Publications

Several excerpts from publications are included that could not be
included within the general text of this document, but that were
deemed important references. These include an excerpt from the
description of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in the
San Francisco Bay, an excerpt from a report titled, "Anticipatory
Planning for Sea Level Rise along the Coast of Maine", which
contains an assessment of the vulnerability of the State of Maine
to sea level rise and recommendations for response, and an
excerpt from a 2008 article written by Jonathan Barnett and
Kristina Hill and titled, "Design for Rising Sea Levels", in the
Harvard Design Magazine.





























Pa rt Two: Research Sum









PART THREE: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


38 Introduction

39 Options and Recommendations for Coastal Management
Comparison of Protective, Managed Retreat, and Adaptative Responses to Coastal Hazards
Recommended Goals and Objectives for Coastal Management Responses to Sea Level Rise
How to Proceed Step by Step

46 Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise
Introduction
48 Managed Retreat
S Introduction
S Strategy for retreat based on intact barrier island
54 Protection
Introduction
Protection of Critical Lands
High Energy Shoreline Development Protection
Low Energy Development Protection through Ecosystem Restoration
Beach Protection through Nourishment
Low Energy Shoreline Conservation Land Protection
72 Accommodation
Introduction
Design Guidelines for Areas Likely to be Inundated


78 Conclusions and Areas for Further Research






INTRODUCTION
This section forms the recommendations and strategies defined
through the research, which can be used to inform coastal policy
and land use planning. The focus was on exploring protection,
accommodation, and retreat strategies as applied to a specific site
and on presenting information that can be used by planners and
policy makers to respond to sea level rise.

The coastline of North Palm Beach, Florida was used as a
study area, and these conclusions must not be taken as directly
applicable to any community other than that of the study area.
They can be used as a starting point to develop strategies for
response to sea level rise.

The first section, Options and Recommendations for Coastal
Management begins with a comparison of managed retreat,
protection, and accommodation as potential responses to sea
level rise. This comparison forms the basis of the ultimate
recommendation for managed retreat over shoreline protection
or accommodation responses that aren't part of an overall retreat
strategy. This section is followed by a description of sample goals
and objectives. The following section contains some basic steps
that should be taken to begin to address sea level rise response.

The second section, Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise,
examines in greater detail protective, managed retreat, and
accommodation strategies at a community scale through plans,
sections, and design guidelines. The feasibility of protection
on high and low energy coastlines and for various shoreline
conditions is examined (i.e. shorelines with an existing seawall, a
beach, or shorelines encompassing a critical conservation area).
The final section contains the study's conclusions, and areas
identified for further research.






OPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COASTAL MANAGEMENT


Comparison of Protective, Managed Retreat, and
Adaptive Responses to Coastal Hazards

The goal of this section is to summarize and compare shoreline
protection, managed retreat, and accommodation as methods of
responding to coastal hazards and sea level rise. The conclusion
of this section is to recommend managed retreat as a long term re-
sponse, because it is the most ecologically and financially sustain-
able solution over the long term. Accommodation is recommended
as a short term response to sea level rise. Shoreline protection is
not recommended outside of certain unique circumstances and as
a part of a longer term plan for retreat or adaptation. The following
sections describe the basis for this conclusion.

Shoreline Protection

Shoreline or coastal protection is the use of, "structural, defensive
measures to protect the land from the sea, so that land use can
continue" (TCRPC 2005). The goal is to maintain a stable shore-
line position, and a variety of methods of protection exist includ-
ing 'hard' and 'soft' methods. Examples of hard methods include
seawalls, groins, and breakwaters. Soft methods include beach
nourishment and elevating surfaces with fill (TCRPC 2005). Beach
nourishment is particularly used in locations where the beach is
a valuable public or private amenity. The drawbacks of hard and
soft shoreline protection methods are summarized below (Cobum
2004):

(1) Unable to perform as planned
(2) Unsustainably expensive on both local and regional scales
(3) An inequitable distribution of public funds
(4) Harmful to coastal ecosystems
(5) Damaging to the recreational value of the beach
(6) Catalysts of increased hazard-zone development


An unpublished paper from the Duke Program for the Study of
Developed Coastlines summarizes the negative ecological effects
of coastal protection in the following quote, "Engineered solutions
(i.e. hard and soft stabilization) actively modify the beach, ultimate-
ly disturbing both natural processes and habitat. Jetties, groins,
breakwaters, and seawalls destroy both the natural beach and the
beach ecosystem by modifying transport mechanisms and in-
creasing erosion rates. Nourishment introduces foreign sediment,
which disturbs natural processes, kills *swashzone organisms,
hinders sea bird feeding, obstructs sea turtle nesting, raises the
surface temperature of the beach, and increases nearshore turbid-
ity. Moreover, nourishment frequently results in the emplacement
of sharp shells, gravel, and mud that inconvenience beachgoers
and detract from the recreational experience" (Cobum 2004).

As sea levels rise, the negative ecological effects of coastal pro-
tection will become even more damaging. As sea levels rise,
shorelines, barrier islands and wetlands often respond by moving
in a landward direction. The use of hard structures for shoreline
protection makes this landward movement possible, causing flood-
ing and eventual collapse of of shoreline ecosystems. A moderate
increase in sea level can lead to the gradual extinction of many
shoreline ecosystems and species (Titus 1991). It is for this reason
that discontinuation of coastal protection and provision of lands for
coastal ecosystem retreat is extremely important.

One of the most important problems with continuing coastal pro-
tection or 'holding the line' is that sea level rise will only increase
coastal hazards and the risk bore by development and habita-
tion in coastal hazard zones. The sea is an unconquerable force
whose dynamic processes will continue regardless of human

* The swashzone is the area upon the shoreline where wave uprush and
retreat occur.







activity. Increased storm frequency, erosion, and higher water
levels will likely cause the repair, construction, and maintenance
of coastal protective devices to become more financially unsus-
tainable as sea levels rise. Coastal development will experience
increased damage, and if protection occurs, greater potential risk
from overtopping or deterioration of protective devices. The alloca-
tion of public funds in hazard areas and current insurance industry
policies will likely become increasingly inequitable. Coastal de-
velopment protection encourages development in hazard areas,
exacerbating the issues described above.

Functionally, one important issue that will need to be addressed
by any strategy for protection is the allowance for upland drain-
age. Protective structures such as dikes that allow existing inland
grades to remain the same run the risk of creating a bathtub, with
sea water on the outside, and water on the inside with nowhere to
go. Mechanical devices can be used to drain water from behind
the dike, but these would be expensive along long expanses of
shoreline and run the risk of failure.

Managed Retreat

An alternative to coastal protection is managed retreat. This
method is the ultimate recommendation of this study for response
to sea level rise because it is the most financially and ecologically
sustainable method of response over the long term. Neal et al. de-
fine managed retreat as, "the application of coastal zone manage-
ment and mitigation tools designed to move existing and planned
development out of the path of eroding coastlines and coastal haz-
ards" (Neal et al., 602). It is essentially moving development out of
harm's way in a planned and controlled manner, and can be used
as a proactive method of adapting human development to rising
sea levels. Retreat may occur in a variety of ways including aban-
donment, relocation, implementation of setbacks, land acquisition,


and avoidance of hazards in the first place (Neal et al. 2005).

Retreat has none of the disadvantages of coastal protection, al-
though it has its own associated issues. It does not negatively im-
pact the natural beach or the beach ecosystem, and in fact creates
opportunities for ecosystem retreat, which is an important compo-
nent of ecosystem adaptation to sea level rise. "Retreat protects a
natural resource and the economy dependent upon that resource
without degrading either, an objective that shoreline stabilization
consistently fails to achieve. Retreat is a policy of living with the
shoreline, rather than living on the shoreline" (Coburn 2004).
The goals of retreat can be summarized as (Coburn 2004):

* Protect coastal natural resources from development
induced harm
* Minimize damage and loss of property
* Maximize the value of coastal property
* Distribute the costs of managed retreat policies equitably

Over the long term, retreat will also likely be the most financially
sustainable response to sea level rise. This is because it removes
development from the coastal hazard zone, where high costs will
be incurred from storm, inundation, and shoreline erosion (Coburn
2008). These costs are currently inequitably spread to non-coastal
property owners through Florida insurance policies (Jerry 2008).
Retreat also eliminates the expense of coastal protection, which
will only increase due to sea level rise.

Retreat policies do create a variety of issues. The most obvious of
these is the loss of property by retreating owners and land uses.
This creates potential conflicts caused by in-migration of popula-
tions (Brody 2007). There are political issues such as appealing to
constituencies with high economic investment in coastal properties
and constitutional issues with the potential for 'takings'. A 'takings'


Part Three: Results and Conclusions







could be claimed by a property owner who feels that managed
retreat policies, such as shoreline setbacks, rolling easements, or
prohibition of protection, result in a loss of developable land or
land value for their property.

Additional issues include a potential loss of tourism when protec-
tion or nourishment activities are discontinued in place of retreat.
Key West and Miami Beach are locations that could suffer from
discontinuation of these policies. There is also a concern among
some communities that retreat will cause a loss of tax base and
property revenue (Coburn 2008). The short term cost of retreat
versus protection, as well as the incentives for coastal develop-
ment created by the insurance industry and consumer demand are
additional factors working against the implementation of retreat re-
sponses to sea level rise. Solutions to these issues are discussed
in Part 4, Managed Retreat Overview and Issues.

One method of implementing retreat policies is through rolling
easements. These are created by prohibiting structures that in-
terfere with naturally migrating shores and by enforcing the mean
high water line as the extent of publicly owned lands. This solution
deals with several potential issues associated with retreat. It is
"economically efficient by enabling real estate markets to incorpo-
rate expectations of future sea level rise; (2) constitutional by com-
pensating property owners; and (3) politically feasible by pleasing
people who care about the long term fate of the coastal environ-
ment without disturbing people who either are unconcerned about
the distant future or do not believe sea level will rise" (Titus 1991).
This and other policy approaches may be implemented as part
of planning for sea level rise and as an alternative to continued
coastal protection.

Reference Part 4, Rolling Easements and Other Policy Options


Accommodation

Accommodation of sea level rise is defined as the use of
strategies that allow for the use of vulnerable lands to continue,
but that do not attempt to prevent flooding or inundation with
shoreline protection (TCRPC 2005). It is a realistic combination
of protective and retreat methods. Accommodation strategies are
addressed in Part 3, Accommodation, which outlines strategies
and design guidelines for the use of "areas likely to be inundated".
Some examples include elevation of buildings or discontinuing
habitation of lower floors, construction of buildings that are
relocation friendly, and land uses that are temporary or can be
inundated without excessive damage. The allowance for natural
shoreline processes to continue is a key element of adaptive
strategies.

Accommodation strategies may be suitable for land uses such as
public parks or certain aquaculture industries in order to maintain
the use of vulnerable lands. They are not a substitute for managed
retreat where most other land uses are concerned such as
residential or many industrial uses. This is because continuation
of these land uses will either require protection, or if not protected,
will experience increased coastal hazards and will likely be
financially and ecologically unsustainable.








Goals and Objectives for 'areas likely to be
inundated'

Coastal management strategies and development responses to
sea level rise inundation must be based on well-founded goals
and objectives with consideration of a variety of factors. Goals for
management strategies must be formed with consideration of time
and lifespan in relation to the rate of sea level rise and inundation.
For example, the goals of a project designed to be temporary
may not require them to adapt to levels of rise projected far in the
future. The value of a solution must also be a consideration of its
cost versus its longevity.

In the adaptation strategies explored in this study, the over arching
goals were financial and ecological sustainability with a focus on
maintaining the highest possible level of natural coastal system
functionality. The achievement of these goals is not possible in all
situations or at all time scales.

The following are sample goals and objectives for coastal
responses to sea level rise that can be used as a starting point
for forming goals for individual projects and management plans.
These goals are based on a long term strategy of retreat, and
should be referenced in tandem with Part 3, Accommodation,
which outlines design guidelines for 'areas likely to be inundated'.
Goals defined by other coastal management plans should also be
referenced.


Coastal Management and Development Response Goals and
Objectives

Overall goals for coastal management and development response
should incorporate the following considerations: Ecological
sustainability, financial sustainability, and hazard mitigation.

Coastal management responses should:

Create no negative effects on coastal ecosystems and
processes and support and enhance natural ecosystem and
shoreline response to sea level rise.

Minimize immediate negative impacts on coastal
properties and land owners.

Be financially sustainable over the short and long term

Plan for varying rates and levels of sea level rise by being
either adaptable or temporary.

Consider a variety of factors including allowance for public
access, support for water dependent businesses, and
minimizing impact on historic and cultural resources.

Use creative design, planning, and policy strategies to
reap benefits from the effects of sea level rise.


Part Th: R t an C







The following are draft goals for managed retreat defined in
Coburn 2004. They have been included for reference and
comparison, but are taken from a draft report and should be
referenced as such.

Protect Coastal Resources
To protect barrier beaches that serve as the basis for coastal
economies, policymakers and property owners must allow

*shorelines to migrate landward in response to sea level rise
*dunes and dune grasses to move landward with the beach
*storms to overwash and deposit sand behind dunes
*inlets to open, close, and switch channels

Furthermore, local or state governments must mandate the
removal of all hard stabilization (including sandbags) artificially
holding the shoreline in place.

Minimize Property Damage
To minimize damages to coastal properties, federal, state, and
local lawmakers must

*identify hazard-prone structures
*implement policies that promote the gradual, strategic
removal of threatened structures
*redirect funding allocated for 'shoreline erosion and
protection projects' to retreat projects
*improve monitoring of coastal development through the
enforcement of existing regulations
*plan for the retreat of successive rows of shorefront
structures through land use plans that enforce stricter
building codes
*encourage development in lower hazard areas (i.e.
topographic highs and the mainland)


*account for continuous, rapid, and unpredictable changes in
environmental conditions

Maximize Coastal Property Value
To maintain the recreational beach necessary to maximize the
value of coastal properties, policymakers and property owners
must

*protect barrier beach systems in their natural state
*remove or relocate structures vulnerable to erosion, thus
limiting hazard-induced damages
*mandate construction of relocation-friendly buildings and
infrastructure

Distribute Costs Equitably
To ensure that the beneficiaries of coastal development bear
the associated costs, federal, state, and local policymakers
must

*internalize costs through sales, property, and occupancy
taxes on coastal development and tourism
*use property owner funded programs, such as the
National Flood Insurance Program, to supplement public
expenditures
*provide incentive to retreat through local zoning ordinances
and state policies that distribute funds based upon
community preparedness







How to Proceed Step by Step

The following steps should be taken by state and local
governments as part of their sea level rise response.

* Inundation Maps: Create high resolution maps illustrating sea
level rise projections for upland inundation that can be used
for regional land use planning (Ankersen 2007). A consistent
methodology should be adopted statewide for the creation of
these maps though regions can adapt this methodology for
their own uses. Maps should be based on the most likely worst
case scenario projections in order to minimize risk, and the line
of projected inundation should be based on mean high water
levels rather than the mean sea or tide levels. If possible, erosion
and storm surge estimates should be incorporated. The maps
produced by the South Florida Regional Planning Council present
a starting point for these purposes (See citation TCRPC 2005 and
Figure 1.8).

* Shoreline Assessment: The state and counties should undertake
comprehensive assessments of likely changes to shorelines,
coastal processes, and ecosystems due to sea level rise.
These should be scientifically based studies and should inform
Comprehensive Plans and Future Land Use Maps.

* Suitability Analysis: Conduct a land use suitability analysis to
inform Future Land Use Maps, local Comprehensive Plans, and
state policies as the basis for defining response strategies on a
regional basis. This analysis should be based on the shoreline
assessment described above and other applicable research such
as CLIP (Critical Lands/Water Identification Project). This analysis
should do the following:


Determine which areas are most appropriate for development
protection and retreat.
Determine which areas are most appropriate for ecosystem
protection and retreat
Determine which areas are most appropriate for seawater
inundation or will be allowed to adapt naturally.

* Define goals and objectives based on the results of the suitability
analysis and incorporate these goals and objectives into the
comprehensive plan and future land use map.

* Define policies to implement the goals and objectives relative
to region specific issues. Policies for response to sea level rise
are discussed in Part 4, Appendix C. The consideration of rolling
easements is recommended through this study.

* The following are some important considerations and actions that
should be taken.

Improve early warning systems and flood hazard mapping for
storms.
Reassess coastal floodplain designations based on sea level
intrusion projections.
Continue close monitoring for changes in coastal systems
using GIS (Alongi 1998)
Identify land use measures to ensure that wetlands and other
ecosystems migrate as sea level rises where possible. (EPA
2008)
Develop plans for increased afforestation of wetlands in
suitable areas (Alongi 1998)
Develop policies to help protect freshwater supplies from
contamination by saltwater.


t T e 0







* Coastline protection may be prohibited as discussed in Titus
1998. If this is not decided, local governments should analyze
the environmental consequences of shore protection and
promote shore protection techniques that do not destroy all
habitat. (EPA 2008). Any allowance of protection should be
informed by the suitability analysis as described earlier.
* Governments should take active roles in encouraging
relocation of urban, agricultural, maricultural activities (Alongi
1998)






STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO SEA LEVEL RISE
Introduction

This section contains strategies for adaptation to sea level rise
in various shoreline conditions including high and low energy
coastlines, and developed and undeveloped coastlines. Strategies
for retreat, protection, and accommodation are discussed. The focus
is on ecologically and financially sustainable solutions to coastal
management.

Coastal management strategies, in particular if protection is
considered, must be unique for each site and set of shoreline
characteristics including coastal ecology, wave and erosive
energy, shoreline gradient, and sedimentation availability.

Figure 3.1 shows the locations of the high and low energy
shorelines within the study area. Maps such as this that diagram
the types of coastal conditions and ecosystems within a region
must be used to form appropriate strategies for adaptation to sea
level rise.












Figure 3.1: Location of High and Low Energy Shorelines
This map is based on the 2008 shoreline locations
Map Sources: gapl Icov 2000, TOPO 1997, LABINS 2008 o 5 U N HighL EnergyShorehne
Low Energy Shoreline







Figure 3.2: Five Foot Inundation and Location of Coastal
Sections used for Strategies: This map identifies the study
area and important site information. It also identifies the locations
of maps and diagrams in later sections. The blue overlay is a
rough representation of sea level inundation with a rise of five
feet as used in the following sections. This map does not take into
account tidal fluctuations or erosion estimates.

Map Sources: gap_lcov 2000, TOPO 1997, LABINS 2008


Stm Peg Aoo






MANAGED RETREAT


Introduction


The diagrams in this section illustrate managed retreat from a five
foot sea level rise in the study area. Issues, strategies, and poli-
cies are noted and diagrammed. The diagrams assume a policy of
no shoreline protection and natural shoreline retreat. This strategy
was also formed with consideration of basic principles of water-
front design such as allowance for public access. Implementation
of some of the recommendations in the following diagrams could
occur over time or as part of a phased response, possibly trig-
gered by certain benchmarks of rise. Others should be pursued
immediately as planning responses to sea level rise projections.

Some of the primary components of these strategies are as
follows. Plans for managed retreat should define areas "likely
to be inundated" based on sea level rise, erosion, and storm
surge projections. These areas would have unique regulations
attached for development, and new construction that cannot
accommodate sea level rise would not be allowed. An alongshore
buffer/easement would be reserved for ecosystem adaptation and
retreat.

For the purposes of this example, storm surge projections were
not incorporated in defining the 'areas likely to be inundated'. This
is because projected storm surge covers the entire study area and
would make it unuseable for the purposes of this example. For
this reason, the line of inundation and area of potential inundation
defined in the following diagrams should be considered as rolling
lines, and not considered entirely accurate for the study area.


Ecosystem Management and Reestablishment as Dart of
Managed Retreat

Within the managed retreat strategies proposed, ecological
considerations are incorporated through the provision of an
alongshore buffer for ecosystem management, adaptation, and
retreat. The buffer allows for natural shoreline migration to occur
while also decreasing hazards to coastal development, since new
permanent construction would be prohibited. This buffer could be
created through a variety of methods including rolling easement
policies, land acquisitions, and deed restrictions. Managed
retreat coupled with proactive management of ecosystems is
the most ecologically sustainable method of responding to sea
level rise, because it removes barriers that prevent ecosystems
and shorelines from retreating. Figure 3.4 illustrates a section
through this buffer and the adjacent area likely to be inundated
on a low energy shoreline. The illustration of the retreating
shoreline ecosystems is based on the premise that the geologic
structure and the retreating ecosystems would remain similar to
what exists on current shorelines at current sea levels. This could
be a relatively accurate projection in this study area because
of its geology and consistent shoreline gradient. With regard to
beaches, the Bruun rule proposes that a beach moves up and
back and retains the same profile as sea level rises, though
there are researchers who disagree with this rule (Pilkey 2000). If
accurate, it supports the maintenance of a similar coastal profile
over the long term in response to sea level rise as is shown in
Figure 3.4. In reality, the structure of shoreline ecosystems may
vary quite drastically due due to species die-offs, thinning or
expansion of certain ecosystems, and species succession. It is
not certain what the effects of sea level rise will be on shoreline
ecosystems. Research indicates that it is feasible that similar
species and ecosystems will continue to exist within the study are ]
if ecosystems are allowed to retreat, but this is not conclusive.


Part Three: Results an lusios









P ~i-.


Lake Worth
Lagoon


II 0



1


0 50 100 300 N
This map was based on a 5 foot sea level rise
but could be applicable to any level of rise. The
notes on this page should be considered as part
of a rolling strategy adapting to a retreating
shoreline.


-* .-. ; Figure 3.3a



Figure 3.3b






















SStructures to be removed

SStructures to remain temporarily


'Area Lkely to
be Inundated


**; -:'
,,













d structuresremoved as per rolling easment policies. See

Sii fund for. purchasee of structures. Structures purchased and
ed here no ongr useable due to infrastructure loss or where in
a er of undation. Csider incentiveslfor voluntary sale of properties.
structure
r u clsholreline conditions when structures are removed.
struct e vinShoefl es
able t
ot Wh' Iin asetlies, higher feasibility exists for stabilization
nfrastruir elevation of land with fill, and beach
case This is not recommended. See Part 3,
rotection, Managed Retreat, and Adaptation




o ssary infrastructure in areas likely to be inundated or
d. Remove or reconfigure hazardous building elements
St0 sid0r reuse of building foundations for flood
Sso res stabilization where appropriate, or other reuse.





o Structures to be removed
Structures to remain temporarily
.." ". .I







m-


Orie
towards
b
enhani
frontal
!



Rem'
inundal


Do not pi

**Potenti
shol
Temp
or |
irr
(Plazz
or im
relocate!
Inund


0 50' 100' 300' N

This map was based on a 5 foot sea level rise
but could be applicable to any level of rise. The
notes on this page should be considered as part
of a rolling strategy adapting to a retreating
shoreline.


m*m
!line that should be managed using
inciples such as allowing public
dependent uses.Use existing
)r a waterfront that can adapt to
Suse of existing infrastructure to
:erfront access, which can retreat
id. Roads parallel to the shore
' alongshore public access.
f lands parallel to the shore as an
or ecosystem management,
I will vary according to location. This
development and the sea and may
land. It is essentially a rolling town
llis 2008).See Part 3, Adaptation and
d Alongshore Easements. This may
access and should be connected to


.8 o
( &

*Area Likely to
be Inundated


*The "Area Likely to be Inundated" was defined based
,:ith jriSftFba je and refers to 'areas likely to be
infBdhteiaikily storm surge or future sea level rise.The
actual worst case storm surge for Palm Beach County
is 7.5' for a Category 3 storm and 10.9' for a Category 5
storm (Brand 2005). This number wasn't used because
a 7-10' storm surge would inundate the entire study area
making it unusable for the purposes of this exercise. In
reality, due to a projected increase in storm events, areas
vulnerable to storm surge should be classified "Likely to be
Inundated" and adopt guidelines similar to those in Part 3,
Accommodation.

*Protection from storm surge above the mean high water
mark could result in shoreline hardening and inhibit natural
shoreline retreat if these structures are not removed as sea
level rises. Care should be taken to avoid these results










Inland Development Retreat


Estimated line of inundation
from storm surge or
projected sea level rise
(10' contour in this
example*
















Figure 3.4, Managed Retreat: Section Through Area Likely to be Inundated: This section is cut through the low
energy shoreline in North Palm Beach and shows the proposed alongshore buffer and "Area likely to be Inundated".
The diagram is based on the premise that shoreline protection would be prohibited and development would retreat
from the shoreline. The resulting shore would contain an alongshore buffer for ecosystem adaptation and retreat
created through land purchases, deed restrictions, and the use of a rolling easement. Upland of this buffer an area
would be zoned "Likely to be Inundated" based on storm surge, sea level rise, and erosion projections. Design
guidelines and restrictions would be instituted for the use of this area (see Part 3, Accommodation).


Part Three: Resultsa d o clso l.


I








Upland Ecosystem Retreat

I
I





MHT @ 5' Sea Level Rise
.. MLT @ 5' Sea Level Rise





PROTECTION


Introduction

The following pages examine shoreline protection in response
to sea level rise on high and low energy coastlines. Protective
strategies are discussed for various coastal conditions such
as beaches, developed areas, and conservation areas. These
have been formulated based on a projected response of coastal
protection as described in by the Treasure Coast Regional
Planning Council study.

The science of coastal engineering and protection is well
advanced and there are probably protective solutions for
most coastal conditions. However, the basic problem with
coastal development and shoreline protection in general
is that it attempts to fix or make static an environment that
is inherently dynamic and shifting These attempts result
in ecologically and financially unsustainable shoreline
environments.

The general conclusion and recommendation outlined in this
section is that managed retreat policies should be a starting
point for all actions taken in response to hazards caused by
sea level rise. However, it is recognized that there are places
on the coast requiring at least temporary shoreline protection
or where shoreline protection is almost certain to occur. For this
reason, strategies should be explored for shoreline protection that
are more financially and ecologically sustainable than traditional
coastal protection strategies. This section proposes and explores
the feasibility of several such strategies.


intertemporal and phased management and planning that
incorporates change is vital.

In areas of high density and high land value such as Miami Beach,
property owners and policy makers should plan for retreat over
the long term. If instead protection is chosen as the long-term
approach, communities must attempt to stabilize the coastline
against erosive processes and from a protective standpoint use
strategies similar to those used in the Netherlands. Strategies like
those being proposed in the Netherlands would be implemented
in phases over a long period of time, possibly in response to
predetermined benchmarks of sea level rise or other financial or
political benchmarks (See Klijn 2001).

Policy makers who allow temporary protection measures should
be careful that they don't become permanent measures that
encourage further development and disencourage retreat.

Finally, a number of researchers and professors have been
consulted in the formulation of these strategies, and their viability
has been loosely confirmed. The feasibility of these strategies has
also been explored through other research and uncertainties have
been noted where they exist. This said, they are still only concepts
and require much more research to verify their suitability.


It is also important to recognize that strategies for response
are site specific and time dependent. Strategies that will work
in one site will not work in another seemingly identical site. The
functionality of a strategy will also change over time and therefore

Part Three: Re0slts a C lusions







Realistic Goals for Shoreline Protection
Several researchers were asked to define realistic goals for
shoreline protection and the information below summarizes this
information.

The definition of goals depends on the rate and amount of
rise, and the necessary response (based on existing land use
requirements) over a period of time.

Feasiblity of short term protection goals- Stabilization is generally
possible, but the level of financial and ecological sustainability and
the lifespan of the coastal protection strategy depend on coastal
dynamics and the strategy used. Nourishment for example may be
relatively long lasting on certain shorelines but less so on others.

Feasibility of long term protection goals- The feasibility of
protection depends on the rate and level of sea level rise and
coastal dynamics. Protection will not be possible after a certain
point and retreat will be the only option because of cost (example:
10 feet of rise due to ice cap melting). Protection will probably not
be ecologically sustainable, particularly on high energy coastlines.


Guidelines used in the Development of Protective Design
Strategies

The following goals were used for the development of the
protective design strategies included in this study.
Strategies should be financially and ecologically
sustainable as defined in this paper.
Strategies should be specific and tangible. One should be
able to draw it.
Strategies should be informed by and keyed to policies
and research.
Horizontal protective strategies should be explored that
preserve connections between uplands and the waterfront.
Focus should be on onshore anthropocentric response,
though offshore systems are an important consideration.
This is merely to limit the scope of research, not to imply
priorities.
In protective shore conditions, attempt to restore natural
conditions in such a way as to allow the shore to adapt and
retreat if and when possible.
Strategies should address intertemporal implementation
and management








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ine ine result of
ireat. with
ore


Areas to be protected- Critical
conservation areas, cultural or historic
sites, etc.






Line of inundation if no protection
were to occur


Figure 3.6: Critical Lands Protection: Not to Scale
This diagram illustrates the use of managed realignment and selective protection to preserve critical
lands from inundation. Examples of critical lands could be historic St. Augustine or a conservation
priority one land as defined by the Critical Lands/Waters Identification Project. No critical lands of
this type were identified in the study area. In almost all situations, this approach should be seen as
part of a longterm managed retreat policy. There will be situations where this may be more difficult
such as in the case of St. Augustine.


IgP







High Energy Shoreline Development Protection
Areas defined by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
as Protection Almost Certain (Brown)

Definition of High Energy Shoreline
Shorelines within the study area that border the Atlantic Ocean are
classified as high energy open coastlines. These shorelines occur
both on barrier islands and on the mainland along the Treasure
Coast. These coasts experience more dynamic wave action and
sediment flow than sheltered low energy coasts such as within the
Intracoastal Waterway. As such, sustainable protection measures
for these shorelines will vary in type and feasibility from those on
low energy coastlines.

Example: Town of Palm Beach and Singer Island

Feasibility of Protection

Summary
Sustainable shoreline protection in response to sea level rise is
probably not feasible. Property owners on barrier islands and on
mainland coasts where inundation is projected must ultimately
plan for retreat. Hard stabilization methods in particular should
be avoided. Protective methods if used should be limited to soft
protection such as beach nourishment.

Further Description
Damage to coastal structures and properties is almost certain due
to projected increases in storms and higher storm surge caused
by sea level rise. Protective methods will ultimately be temporary
and economically and ecologically unsustainable due to coastal
dynamics magnified by sea level rise. The reasons for this are
briefly discussed below.


"On coasts with a low shoreline gradient, the natural response of
barrier islands and beaches to sea level rise at its projected rate
will be to retreat at a rate of 100-1000 feet for each foot of sea
level rise. On barrier islands, the natural response is to become
thinner and migrate landward. Cross island overwash (of sea
water) over dunes is important in allowing islands to retreat-
sediment from the front of the island is washed to the backside"
(Pilkey 2000: 94). Coastal hardening due to development hinders
these natural processes limiting the ability of coastlines to adapt
to sea level rise. However, the processes will still occur causing
increasing damage and threat to development and increasing cost
for protection, particularly along high energy coastlines. This will
cause coastal protection to be ultimately temporary and financially
unsustainable. Maintaining 2008 shoreline positions on barrier
islands will not be possible after a certain level of sea level rise,
such as 10 feet resulting from ice cap melt (Thieke 2008). An
interesting approach to enabling barrier island migration is given in
Pilkey 2000, which involves placing fill on the mainland side of the
island and allowing the seaward side of the island to migrate. This
could be used in conjunction with a type of rolling property line
(Clark 2008), but the implementation of this strategy has not been
explored and seems to have a variety of issues.

In addition to being functionally unsustainable, coastal hardening
will have ecological impacts. Hard stabilization methods in
particular should be avoided (Pilkey 2000, p 98, Coburn 2004).

Soft stabilization methods were also considered including beach
nourishment and vegetative stabilization. Nourishment is a viable
option for certain coastlines in the short term. Its main drawback
is that it can be financially unsustainable, and there may also be
negative ecological effects. Vegetative stabilization is discussed as
follows.


Part Three: Result and Concl







r


Overwashing


Shoreline and dune
processes inhtiited
---- ----*

i .. N-


Beach sediment
replenishment by wind
not enough to balance
wave erosion


*-.*.Wave and tidal action U
. scours beach from front of'
seawall '
.'~~~:" '," ':" lf': ..4..'', -"


If a seawall is placed in front of the dune, the beach will be scoured away. The property will experience increased risk from storms as waves
from rising sea levels overtop the seawall and since the natural buffer provided by the beach and dune no longer exists.
Figure 3.7 High Energy Shoreline Dynamics: Not to Scale
The purpose of this diagram is to illustrate the difficulty and inappropriateness of protection on high energy coastlines







Ecosystem Reestablishment and Stabilization of High Energy
Protected Shorelines

Maintainence of functional ecosystems and reestablishment of
ecosystems on protected high energy shorelines in the face of
sea level rise is probably not feasible. The dynamic tendency
for shoreline migration in response to sea level rise is discussed
in many other publications and is counter to maintenance of
a static shoreline position (see Bush et al. 2004). Ecosystem
reestablishment as a method of stabilizing shorelines and
protecting development was investigated. It is the determination of
this research that the tendency for shorelines to migrate, coupled
with the high wave and erosion energy on open shorelines, does
not allow for vegetative shoreline stabilization and survival of
shoreline ecosystems while maintaining a static shoreline position
(Bush et al. 2004). Thus, reestablishment of ecosystems as
part of high energy shoreline protection measures will likely be
unsuccessful over the long term.

Vegetative stabilization of dunes is discussed in Section 8.5 of the
3rd ed of the FEMA Coastal Construction Manual. The Manual
states that success of stabilization depends in large part on the
condition of the beach waterward of the dune, and that projects on
eroding shorelines will be shortlived (as will likely occur due to sea
level rise) (FEMA Coastal Construction Manual).

Vegetative stabilization of the beach below the mean low tide level
was investigated as a way of maintaining the beach, and hence
the upland dune. as well. This may be possible in the short term
if such vegetation occurs naturally, but not in the long term after
a certain amount of sea level rise. The feasibility of vegetative
stabilization below the low tide level would be a particularly good
direction for research continuation, but was not confirmed in this
research.

Pat T: Rs ad C







Low Energy Shoreline Development Protection
Areas defined by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
as Protection Almost Certain (Brown)

Definition of Low Energy Shoreline
Low energy coastlines within the study area are those that recieve
less wave energy and less dynamic sediment flows than those of
high energy coastlines. Within the study area these are primarily
coastlines bordering the Intracoastal Waterway.

Example: Village of North Palm Beach: Development along Intra-
coastal Waterway

Feasibility of Protection

Summary
Property owners should ultimately plan for coastline retreat.
Temporary protective measures may be possible that are relatively
financially and ecologically sustainable as described in Figures
2.3 2.6, but the viability of these strategies needs to be further
examined.

Further Description
Due to the reasons previously outlined developed areas should
plan for retreat. Sea level rise is unpredictable and rates could
quickly change drastically due to factors such as melting of the
Greenland and Antarctic ice caps (Tol 2005). Sea level rise wil cre-
ate additional hazards for coastal development including inunda-
tion, erosion, and increased storm surge. Therefore, development
should adopt an approach of gradual retreat from the coastline
and interim adaptive measures if retreat is not immediately
possible (See Part 3, Accommodation). Sea level rise projections
can help guide this retreat, possibly by triggering actions based on
certain benchmarks of rise, but as stated above do not necessarily


provide a reliable basis for policies due to their imprecision.
If protective measures are to be implemented along sheltered or
low energy coastlines as projected by the Treasure Coast Region-
al Planning Council (TCRPC 2005), there may be an opportunity
to design coastal protection systems that are relatively ecologically
and financially sustainable. This is in part due to differences in
coastal dynamics between sheltered and open coastlines such as
less wave action and erosion, as well as to differences in vegeta-
tive communities and land formations.

The following sections investigate strategies for protection of the
existing shoreline position in North Palm Beach with the goal of
pursuing higher levels of ecological and financial sustainability.
This was seen as an opportunity for shoreline restoration if suit-
able alternatives could be found to seawall construction and
strengthening in response to sea level rise. Figure 3.8 is a diagram
of the existing seawall, which is typical along much of the shore-
line. Figure 3.9 diagrams heightening of the existing seawall and
Figures 3.10 3.11 diagram alternative solutions to heightening
the seawall based on the above outlined goals. Figures 3.12 and
3.13 diagram beach nourishment and conservation land protection
respectively.













Ex +5'-0" contour-
approximate elevation

TEx grade varies


* _+6'-6" MHT @ 5' Sea Level Rise

4'-6" MHT @ 3' Sea Level Rise

-6" 2008 Mean High Tide (MHT)
vel (MSL)
ide (MLT)


Figure 3.8: Section through Existing Seawall: This diagram shows tidal fluctuations in relationship to a
seawall assumed typical for North Palm Beach. Sea level rise of three and five feet is shown based on the 2008
mean high tide. Tidal levels were measured on site at low tide on March 3, 2008 at 11:00 am, and verified by
research. On-site measurements were essential in order to determine tide levels relative to the height of the
existing seawall. Seawalls are a common condition along much of the developed coast of North Palm Beach, so
this shoreline condition was chosen for primary focus in this section.


*.M I:


W5-01"


4'-0" !




o'-o"
VE.


S3'-0"













81-011-- -p15'.0"












41-Oll 7'-O"









2.-01T

01-0..


+9'-9" Top of Wall if built to the same
elevation above sea level as existing seawall


-6'-6 Mean High Tide @ 5' Sea Level Rise


Figure 3.9: Extension of the existing seawall in response to a five foot sea level rise


I-a







Ecosystem Reestablishment on Low Energy Protected Shorelines

The following section discusses the approach adopted towards
the reestablishment of vegetation and ecosystems as diagrammed
in the following pages. Within the protective strategies proposed,
living shoreline principles are reflected through the restoration of
vegetative stabilizing species that replace the existing seawall and
form foundations for a living shoreline.

On low energy shorelines it may be possible to maintain re-
established ecosystems, while still maintaining existing shoreline
positions in the face of sea level rise. This is because low energy
shorelines recieve less wave and erosive energy than do high
energy shorelines. The caveat to this is that ecosystems must
still be able to retreat in response to sea level rise. This may be
possible through establishment of ecosystems seaward of the
existing shoreline, which can retreat up to the existing shoreline
position. This option for ecosystem retreat creates several issues,
the primary being the source of sediment on sediment starved
shores, and the filling in of waterways, which could constitute a
taking of public land.

Another option for ecosystem retreat is to allow retreat inland from
existing shorelines. Shoreline protection must be discontinued
for this to occur. This method creates issues because protection
of the existing shoreline must be prohibited creating the potential
for 'takings', the area required for retreat reduces the area of
developable land on private properties, and because the retreat of
ecosystems may be blocked by upland structures.

In the following diagrams, the first method of ecosystem retreat
was used as a basis because it allows protection of existing
shoreline positions. Based on the existing natural communities in
the study area, marsh and mangrove communities are probably


most suitable for ecosystem reestablishment. The ability of
these communities to stabilize sediment makes them particularly
appropriate for use in strategies for sea level rise adaptation.
Salt marshes are often most extensive in areas with low gradient
and high tidal range, and for this reason were chosen as more
suitable for establishment in wide intertidal zones (Myers 1990).
Marsh grasses such as Spartina are often the first species to
colonize an intertidal zone, and are succeeded by mangroves that
eliminate the grass by shading (Myers 1990). Mangroves were
determined to be more suitable for re-vegetation where shoreline
gradients are higher because they do not require a low shoreline
gradient for retreat as much as provision of land to retreat to
(Clark 2008), and because the typical ecology of the study area
has grasses occurring in areas of lower shoreline gradient, and
mangroves occurring upland of this. In the event of a barrier island
breach, these species may no longer be appropriate because of
their inability to withstand higher wave energy and erosion.

Introduction to Figures 3.10-3.11

Figures 3.10 and 3.11 refer to the same existing seawall
diagrammed on the previous pages. They illustrate an alternative
strategy to strengthening of the existing seawall as shown in
Figure 3.9. The goal of the strategies proposed in the following
diagrams was to explore an ecologically and financially
sustainable option for protection of existing shoreline positions,
primarily where seawalls currently exist. The reconstruction
of an adaptable riparian corridor was examined as a method
of achieving these goals, with the objective of providing the
same level of protection as would be achieved through seawall
construction.

The ultimate sustainability of these solutions needs to be
researched further, and one of the primary issues is the source of


Part~-'-. The :R sls0n o cu







the sediment required to implement the strategies, particularly on
sediment starved coasts (Putz 2008). A choice would have to be
made between bringing in sand from other sources and trapping
sand, which interferes with natural sediment flows. Other important
issues include the taking of sovereign submerged lands, and
the allowance for upland drainage to avoid a bathtub effect. The
specifics of construction, such as choice of vegetative species,
needs to be carefully evaluated. The performance and impacts
of this strategy below the mean low tide level also need to be
researched.


Figures 3.11a and 3.11b demonstrate ecosystem retreat by
establishing ecosystems seaward of the existing shoreline and
seawall. They do this by creating an offshore berm upon which
vegetation can be established in shallow waters and gradually
placing fill behind this berm in keeping with the rate of sea level
rise, creating land up which ecosystems can retreat. In places
where a seawall exists, this option can be used to create a shallow
gradient for ecosystem retreat, while maintaining the shoreline
position defined by the seawall.

Another alternative that does not require this offshore berm is
shown below in Figure 3.10. This option involves placement of
fill closer to the existing shoreline and seawall, thereby reducing
the amount of fill required and takings of submerged land, but
creating a steeper shoreline gradient. A third option is to remove
the existing seawall and restore a natural shoreline gradient and
ecosystems. This would however cause a loss of land for coastal
property owners and does not protect existing shoreline positions,
so was not diagrammed here.


Mean High Tide @5'Sea Level Rise

11 l Unland ecosystem


4 .I ..











-o- 15n- de ;


84-0" Existing Seawall
u-jBear. H.gr. r,,e PMA.T)
2.-0" V-0" D e -. sed, r of .. 2o08 Me .E E Le.er ,I .- L I
.0sea 1 1 -6 2008 Mean Lo. 1 ,e le MILTII








Figure 3.11a: Protection of Existing Low Energy Shoreline through Ecosystem Restoration: Low Shoreline Gradient

Steps for Implementation

The following are steps that could be taken to implement the shoreline protection strategy shown above. The objective of this strategy is to
provide the same level of protection as would be gained by building a dike or strengthening the seawall. The financial cost would be high, but
spread over a long period of time. The ecological sustainability of this strategy is debatable, as discussed previously.

1. Prohibit additional coastal hardening or construction of seawalls. Offer incentives for removal of existing shoreline protection
structures as they require maintenance and restore a sloped shore profile. Establish vegetative stabilization along the shoreline.
2. Establish Mangroves or other stabilizing vegetation in shallow waters offshore on low berms as required to elevate plants within the
tidal zone. Create breaks and adjust the height of berms to allow tidal flow.
3. In the space between the mainland and offshore plantings establish salt marsh grasses or other appropriate wetland species as
necessary to maintain functional ecosystems. Within this area, deposit sediment at rate the required to allow wetland plantings to
adapt to the rate of sea level rise (rate of sea level rise minus the accretion rate of the plantings).
4. Costs should be shared between public and private sources. Private property owners can contribute the money that would normally
be spent on privately funded protective structures, with the understanding that the organization providing the remainder of the
funding is providing a shoreline stabilization service.


Par Thee Reut an Concusio,',
















M 7 '- 0 v % =o n
~14' -9 fill over 100
years
F '.Deposit godiment at rate of -
sea levelise .








Figure 3. 11b: Protection of Existing Low Energy Shoreline through Ecosystem Restoration: Low Shoreline Gradient

Additional Notes:

The viability of this solution was informally verified through consultation with several researchers, but additional study is
required. In order to adapt to sea level rise, mangroves and other shoreline plants need a place within the tidal zone in
which to retreat, and their ability to adapt to sea level rise is in large part a function of the rate of sea level rise being roughly
equivalent to the rate of accretion. Artificially enhanced accretion through placement of fill could accomplish this goal. It may
also be possible to place fill directly on top of mangrove plantings, killing the old but allowing new seedlings to grow.
This would decrease the area and amount of fill needed to implement this strategy (Clark 2008).

Dimensions shown in this diagram will vary based on site conditions. For example, depending on site conditions it may not be
necessary to create an offshore berm, but rather to add or remove fill along the existing shoreline creating a sloped shoreline
profile up which ecosystems can retreat. The height of the dune in this example was based on providing the same level of
vertical protection as if the existing seawall was heightened. Construction of a dune may not be appropriate based on natural
shoreline conditions or sediment availability, but if not, another suitable alternative should be found that provides the same
level of protection.


8'-0" -







Beach Protection
Areas defined by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
as Protection Almost Certain (Brown) or Protection Reasonably
Likely (Red)

Example: Riviera Beach

Feasibility of Protection

Summary
Beach management should incorporate plans that allow natural
shoreline migration and processes. Beaches should not be pro-
tected.

Further Description
Figure 3.12 illustrates beach nourishment of an existing mainland
beach in the Intracoastal Waterway in North Palm Beach. Nourish-
ment may have negative ecological effects and can be financially
unsustainable depending on the project location. Sea level rise
may exacerbate these difficulties. Protection of beaches through
nourishment is not recommended in lieu of natural shoreline
migration, however there are beaches that directly abut valuable
development or that have high recreational value. Protection of
these beaches through nourishment on low energy shorelines may
be relatively long lasting and financially sustainable. Protection
of high energy coastlines through nourishment will likely by short
term solutions and financially unsustainable. Stabilzation of these
beaches through hard methods such as sills, groins, and offshore
breakwaters can negatively affect sediment flow and may not func-
tion for stabilization. Vegetative stabilization was also investigated
but at this time was deemed not possible (FEMA Coastal Con-
struction Manual).



PatT re e ut n o cuin,










8'-0" 15'-0"







4'-0" 1 T 7'-0"
-5'- Approximate depth
of fill required to
maintain beach
2'-0" 3'-0"

1'-0"












Note: This section is drawn through an existing beach in North Palm Beach at Lakeside Park
immediately south of the section cutline. It illustrates the amount of artificial fill required to maintain the
beach without allowing coastline retreat. This could be feasible because the beach is on a sheltered
low energy coastline. It is probably not a financially or ecologically sustainable solution.


Figure 3.12: Beach Nourishment


~bl






Conservation Land Protection on Low Energy


Conservation Land Protection on Low Energy
Shorelines

Feasibility of Protection:

Summary
Artificial protection of conservation lands is not recommended;
instead, natural adaptive and successional process should be al-
lowed to take place. Protection should only occur for critical con-
servation lands of a very high priority level, where ecosystem loss
due to sea level rise is almost certain, and where no other adap-
tive approach is possible such as provision of lands for ecosystem
retreat. Figure 3.13 illustrates a concept for protection of ecosys-
tems fitting this description.

Intervention may be appropriate that assists ecosystems in adapt-
ing to the rate of sea level rise. Planning should occur that allows
for retreat and adaptation of ecosystems in response to sea level
rise, in particular by anticipating conflicts with development.

Example: Figure 3.13 is a section cut through a portion of John
D. MacArthur State Park for illustrative purposes, but the level of
habitat criticality of this area has not been verified.


Further Description:
Protection of conservation lands is not recommended
because it will interfere with coastal processes and natural
adaptation and succession. Artificial structures that combat
natural processes will require regular maintenance to remain
functional. If ecosystem establishment is used to protect
shorelines it may be difficult to maintain them as functional
(UNEP-WCMC 2006). Interference with natural processes often
has many associated and unanticipated negative ecological
effects, which would have to be weighed against the value of the
conservation lands being protected. For example, when shoreline
ecosystems are altered in order to preserve upland ecosystems,
upland species will be preserved, but the traditional shoreline
animal and plant species will probably suffer (Clark 2008).

Allowing natural adaptation is financially and ecologically more
sustainable than protection. Ecosystems that are allowed to
respond naturally will evolve and may be stronger than those
that are not allowed to respond naturally. Shorelines have always
adapted to fluctuations in sea level and will continue to do so if
change and succession are accepted.

This said, there may be some situations where protection is
necessary- for example to preserve valuable habitat for Florida
Panthers where habitat loss would result in the loss of a critical
population of panthers. The Critcal Lands/Water Identification
Project identifies such critical conservation lands. This situation
will most likely occur due to loss of habitat from inundation or salt
water intrusion, where human development hinders the ability
for natural systems to retreat, or if the rate of sea level rise is too
great for an ecosystem to adapt and net loss of critical ecosystems
is expected. However, these situations should be rigorously
evaluated for other alternatives.


be ~ 3 0 0 0












Areas Inundated
by Sea


.l


Critical Ecosystems to
be Protected


8'-" . '-15-0"


ste rrs. elevation should allow
Th d gih tides in non-tidal
lev aton mray be nigher than the
7nI o a rtdeio prevent regular inundation
Mean Hlgn T.,"j

.4'-0". 7'-0" Slope not based on


l cf vegetation at rate a t
2C108 Mean H.gh T.de sr of t lel iseo.
2'-0" I 3'-0"


0'-0"









Figure 3.13: Critical Ecosystem Protection
This diagram illustrates a potential strategy for protecting critical conservation lands. This strategy could
be constructed in phases. It could also be part of a longterm managed retreat strategy and function to
increase the amount of time allowed for ecosystem adaptation or as a temporary protective measure while
alternative conservation lands are being secured or lands for ecosystem retreat. Water flow is a primary
issue with this sort of strategy. Regulated tidal exchange strategies such as overtopping, seepage or
valves could be considered as part of strategies to allow water flow in and out of the protected area. Note
differences between protection of tidal and non-tidal ecosystems.





ACCOMMODATION


Design Guidelines for 'Areas Likely to be Inundated'

In this study, accommodation of sea level rise is addressed
through design guidelines for 'areas likely to be inundated'. 'areas
likely to be inundated' should be defined by storm surge, erosion,
and sea level rise projections, and these areas should have
unique standards for use and development. New construction
that cannot accommodate sea level rise through ecologically and
financially sustainable methods as described in the guidelines
should not occur in areas where inundation is likely. The guidelines
included here are by no means comprehensive or applicable to
all communities, but have been compiled based on a variety of
sources and conversations as a basis for individual community
design guidelines.

The goals defined by this paper for coastal management
responses to sea level rise are:

Ecological sustainability
Financial sustainability
Hazard mitigation

For all coastal communities, the following points are important
considerations for coastal management in areas of likely
inundation. Part 3, Managed Retreat applies these points to a
specific site.

Land Use: Create an alongshore buffer and encourage short
term or adaptable land uses. Encourage water dependent
uses, public uses such as parks, or conservation designations
for 'areas likely to be inundated'

Public Access: Allow alongshore public access through
coastal buffer areas or within rolling easements


Coastal Management: Disallow coastal hardening. Allow
natural shoreline migration.

Construction: Disallow permanent "hard" infrastructure. Plan
for construction with a shorter lifespan. For docks and piers
use floating rather than pier anchored construction.

Guidelines for Site Planning, Design, and
Management

Plan for and allow natural coastline responses to sea level rise.
Account for continuous, rapid, and unpredictable changes in
environmental conditions. (Coburn 2004)

Land Use: In lands that are likely to be inundated or eroded,
support land uses that are water dependent, temporary, adaptable,
or evolve as sea levels rise.

Uses: Maintain water dependent land uses adjacent
to the shore. Public parks and conservation lands are
recommended uses.

Easements: Maintain an alongshore easement for
ecosystem management, adaptation, and retreat. Depth
will vary according to location. This functions as a buffer
between development and the sea and may be held in
public trust as parkland. It is essentially a rolling town
boundary and property line (Ellis 2008). This easement
would incorporate existing public lands, lands purchased
from retreating private property owners, and alongshore
public access easements obtained through bulkhead
permits as outlined in Titus 1998.


Par Thee Reut an Coclsin.







Coastal Hazard Mitigation: Mitigate the effects of coastal
hazards to development. Note: A balance must be sought
between mitigating the effects of coastal hazards and encouraging
development and infrastructure.

Existing Construction Policy Approaches (Coburn 2004):

Implement policies that promote the gradual,
strategic removal of structures threatened by
erosion, storm hazards, and sea level rise
inundation.
Redirect funding allocated for'shoreline erosion and
protection projects' to retreat projects
Improve monitoring of coastal development through
the enforcement of existing regulations
Plan for the retreat of successive rows of shorefront
structures through land use plans that enforce
stricter building codes

New construction: New construction should be prohibited in
areas where sea inundation is projected unless structures
are built in such a way as to plan for and respond to sea
level rise. New construction should particularly be limited
on barrier islands or low elevation islands. Construction of
publicly financed infrastructure in areas of likely inundation
should be limited.

Rolling Easements: The acceptance of rolling
easements, which enable shoreline migration, may
be mandated as a condition for new development
(Titus 1998).

Lot Design: Design long lots perpendicular to the coast that
allow inundation as well as development on the upland end


of the lot. This lot formation is more advisable than thin lots
parallel to the coast that bear the risk of complete loss of
development potential due to seawater intrusion. Buildings
should be sited on the upland edge of the lot.

Maintaining Ecosystem Services

Water Retention (Sponge Surfaces): Maintain
ecosystems that naturally retain water such as
wetlands. These ecosystems can help minimize
damage from storm surge.
Natural Buffers: Maintain natural buffering systems
such as mangrove forests and dunes.

Water Management and Conservation: Mitigate and plan for
projected salt water intrusion and freshwater shortages.

Water Usage: Implement and enforce sustainable water
conservation and use strategies through incentives,
education, and policies.

Greywater Collection: Implement and incentivize greywater
collection and reuse strategies

Stormwater Management: Use sustainable stormwater
management practices including on-site filtration and
allowing infiltration in upland areas.

Stormwater Collection: Use stormwater collection devices
such as cisterns and rain gardens.

Research Requirement: In areas where infiltration
will result in salt water contamination, research should
be conducted on the consequences of collecting all







stormwater from all possible impervious surfaces
including paved areas. The goal of this would be
increased freshwater collection, but it could have a
negative effect by reducing ground infiltration.

Shoreline Management: Maintain and support natural coastal
processes such as sedimentation transport and allow natural
ecosystem migration in response to sea level rise. Other
guidelines should be referenced in addition to these regarding
shoreline management.

Disallow construction of coastal hardening structures such
as seawalls. (Titus 1998 recommends complete prohibition
of coastal hardening as part of rolling easement policies)

Mandate the removal of all hard stabilization (including
sandbags) artificially holding the shoreline in place.
(Coburn 2004)

Minimize negative interference with coastal ecosystems
that are important to sedimentation processes such as
dune and beach systems or mangrove forests. Negative
interference could be defined as any human intervention
that inhibits natural processes. This should include the
following actions Coburn 2004):

Protect barrier beach systems in their natural state
Allow shorelines to migrate landward in response to
sea level rise
Allow dunes and dune grasses to move landward
with the beach
Allow storms to overwash and deposit sand behind
dunes
Allow inlets to open, close, and switch channels


Exceptions where human intervention in these
processes could be appropriate are:

*Where natural processes responding to sea level
rise will result in the loss of a critical habitat linkage.
In this situation the value of the habitat should be
evaluated against the measures that would be
required to sustain it.

Shoreline management: Where coastal hardening
structures are removed, living shorelines should be
constructed. Living shorelines are a method of shoreline
stabilization that attempts to restore functional riparian
and littoral ecosystems while maintaining natural shoreline
processes.

Ecosystem Adaptation and Retreat: Proactively assist in
ecosystem adaptation. This entails various measures including
ecosystem stabilization, restoration, and setting aside of lands
for ecosystem retreat.

Support and manage existing coastal ecosystems such as
wetlands, coastal marshes, dunes, and beaches

Implement ecosystem restoration on publicly owned lands

Ecosystem retreat: Allocate land for upland ecosystem
retreat from sea water inundation. The description of the
South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in Appendix F
provides design strategies for implementing ecosystem
retreat. Some important additional steps are listed below:

Use Critical Lands/Water Identification Project (CLIP)
information and land use conflict analysis to


Par Thee Reut an Coclsin







designate priority areas for ecosystem retreat.


Allocate lands for ecosystem retreat and restoration
based on land use conflict analysis

Maintain an alongshore easement for managed
ecosystem adaptation. Depth would vary according
to location.

Limit coastal hardening and soft engineering
solutions.

Guidelines for New Construction and Existing
Structure Modification

The design of new construction should plan for and respond
to sea level rise. Structures can learn from historic vernacular
architectural responses to coastal hazards. Just as coastal
armoring encourages habitation in coastal hazard areas, so
do hardened structures. A mandate for hardened structures
encourages unwise investment in coastal lands, which will prove
to be costly for both private property owners and governments. It
is possible that building codes should mandate less permanent
construction methods in coastal hazard areas and focus on
improving evacuation responses.

Function: Designs should be evaluated whose uses and
function adapt and change over time in response to sea level
rise. Zoning codes may be revised to take into account change
of land use based on certain benchmarks of sea level rise.


Non-permanent structures and surfaces: In lands where
inundation is likely, structures that are designed with a
shorter life span may be appropriate

*Consider the design of surfaces and structures that
can erode, decompose naturally such as crushed shell,
mulch, or rammed/compacted earth.

Relocation: Structures and infrastructure should be relocation-
friendly, particularly if constructed with high financial
investment

Piers or other foundation construction techniques that
allow dismounting of the building from the foundation
may be used.
Floating structures are recommended for overwater
construction such as docks.
Modular structures that can be easily disassembled
may be used.

Elevation: Structures may be appropriate that are elevated
above sea level rise projections. Design considerations should
include durability during storm events, access to the structure
after sea levels rise, and ecological impact.

Plant Species

Cultivate flood and salt tolerant landscape plants and crops in
'areas likely to be inundated' (Ellis, 2008)

Consider the lifespan of plantings in relation to the rate of sea
level rise. Plant short term or salt tolerant plants in areas that
where inundation is likely to occur in the short term, and non-


Adaptability








salt tolerant hardwood trees in upland areas that are not soon
projected to be inundated.

Cost: Cost of structures in areas where inundation is likely should
be evaluated in terms of the life span of the structure. Lower cost
or easily moveable structures may be appropriate in areas where
inundation is likely.

Abandonment: Structures that are expected to be abandoned
after a certain level of inundation should be constructed and
managed to minimize environmental hazards.

Structures where abandonment is expected should be
constructed of materials that do not pose an environmental
hazard.

In the case of abandonment, structures should be able to be
disassembled so that there are no environmentally hazardous
materials remaining.

Additional Notes on Moveability and Permanence

S Easily moveable- Structures that are easily moveable or
easily disassembled will adapt more easily to managed retreat
policies. If a structure is for some reason placed with in an area
where inundation is likely, ease of mobility will clearly help it adapt.
Wood framed structures or modular structures are examples.
Moveability may be a good alternative to non-permanence for
property owners with few financial resources to invest.

* Non-permanent structures- Construction methods that are
less permanent but allow easy reconstruction have been built
worldwide throughout history, and as civilizations grow more
'advanced' the permanence of structures often seems to increase.
Traditional Japanese construction methods are examples of this.


Another way to think of these methods is as non-rigid. Eastern
philosophy discusses the supremacy of water over stone because
the water adapts but is persistent whereas the stone resists but
eventually is eroded. The applicability of this to Florida is that
hardening of shores and structures is an attempt to defy powerful
natural processes. Perhaps hardening of coastal structures and
coastlines to defy coastal hazards is not advisable, but rather less
hardening and improved retreat and evacuation measures are
more appropriate. An important caveat to this is that economic
investment into non-permanent structures must be weighed in
terms of their longevity. Small local governments and property
owners will have to be wise with the use of their resources in
areas that are likely to be inundated.

* An organization that offers an opposing point to the idea
of non-permanence is the Institute for Building and Home Safety
(IBHS), which has a "Fortified for Safer Living Designation" that
outlines guidelines for site and building hardening against natural
disasters. This idea is much more intuitive than non-permanence
for Americans, who invest much into their homes and buildings
and certainly do not want to see them destroyed or plan on
rebuilding. IBHS is a national nonprofit insurance industry trade
association.


Par Thee:ResltsandConluson







References:
(Coburn) "An Evaluation of Strategic Retreat as a Viable Coastal
Erosion Response Management Alternative". Unpublished
Document. Duke Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines.
October 2004.

Ellis, Mary Cooper H. "Managed Retreat: Coastal Development in
an Era of Climate Change". Landscape Architecture. March 2008.
p 70-82.

Fortified Designation Process. Institute for Business and Home
Safety. November 27, 2007.

(South Bay) "South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project". 2008.
California Coastal Conservancy. January 2008. southbayrestoration.org/index.html>

Titus, James G. "Rising Seas, Coastal Erosion, and the Takings
Clause: How to Save Wetlands and Beaches without Hurting
Property Owners". Maryland Law Review, Vol 57, Num 4. 1998.






CONCLUSIONS AND AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH


The primary conclusions and findings from this research are
as follows. These are specific for the study area, but are also
applicable statewide.

* Ecologically and financially sustainable shoreline protection is
probably not possible as defined in this paper, particularly on high
energy shorelines. Shoreline protection will only be feasible up to
a certain amount of sea level rise, after which the financial costs
will be too great to justify protection.

On high energy shorelines, coastal protection that attempts
to maintain a static shoreline position is in direct opposition
to natural coastline processes such as sediment flow and
ecosystem migration. Protection of these shores is ecologically
unsustainable because by impeding these processes it disturbs
natural shorelines and the associated ecosystems. It is financially
unsustainable because it encourages inappropriate development
and use of lands in hazard zones where development will be
at increasingly higher levels of risk from inundation, erosion,
and storm events. This will require continued maintenance and
investment in shoreline protection structures.

On low energy shorelines, coastal protection is more feasible
because of reduced wave erosion. For this reason, the
maintenance of structures could be less expensive, but the
effects from storm events will still create high costs for coastal
development. Coastal protection structures will be ecologically
unsustainable as well. Among other negative effects, these
structures alter sediment flow patterns, break connections to
upland communities, and disturb existing shoreline ecosystems.
With relation to sea level rise, protection is particularly
unsustainable because it prevents shoreline ecosystem retreat
upland in response to sea level rise.


At some amount of sea level rise (10-15 feet), the cost of
protecting either high or low energy shorelines will be too great to
justify protection.

* As an alternative to shoreline protection, managed retreat
policies should be implemented and shorelines should generally
be allowed to retreat naturally.

Research defined managed retreat as the most ecologically
and financially sustainable method of response to sea level
rise over the long term. With regard to ecological sustainability,
retreat allows natural shoreline responses to sea level ries to
occur and creates room for ecosystem retreat. Retreat will be
financially more sustainable than protection in the long term
because it moves development out of the way of coastal hazards
avoiding high costs from property damage. Retreat will also be
less expensive than the long term maintenance of shoreline
protection structures depending on the site conditions, the amount
of sea level rise that occurs, and whether property owners factor
retreat into their plans early on. There are economic, political,
and constitutional issues associated with the implementation of
managed retreat. The research for this paper indicates that there
are methods of addressing these issues, one of which is through
rolling easements. These issues are discussed in greater depth
in other studies and were not the focus of this paper (See Titus
1998).

* Proactive human action is necessary to facilitate ecosystem
adaptation to sea level rise.

It is very likely that sea level rise will result in ecosystem
degradation and loss. Shoreline protection exacerbates the
effects of sea level rise by inhibiting the ability of ecosystems
to naturally adapt and retreat. Proactive action is necessary to


Part Three: Results and Concl







preserve ecosystems in the face of sea level rise. Some of the
most important actions that should be taken to facilitate ecosystem
adaptation are the removal of shoreline protection structures and
other development that impedes ecosystem retreat. It is also
important to allocate lands for ecosystem retreat and restoration
as part of land use plans.

* Guidelines must be adopted for the use of 'areas likely to be
inundated'.

'areas likely to be inundated' are defined as those areas in danger
of flooding from storm surge or sea level rise. It is important to
adopt guidelines for 'areas likely to be inundated' for several
reasons. First, suitable land uses within these areas will be better
able to respond and adapt to coastal hazards, minimizing financial
loss and hazards to coastal populations. Second, suitable land
use within these areas can facilitate ecosystem adaptation and
allow natural shoreline processes and migration to occur. Some
of the key elements discussed as part of guidelines for 'areas
likely to be inundated' are the discontinuation of permanent land
uses that are not relocation friendly, the conversion to land uses
that accommodate inundation, and the provision of lands for
ecosystem retreat including an alongshore buffer for ecosystem
retreat and management.

Areas for Further Research

There are many areas of research that this study was unable to
address, as well as applications of research that would occur with
the availability of additional time. These are as follows:

* The integration of conceptual design methodology in this project
was less than anticipated due to time constraints and the level of
research required to propose informed solutions. Solutions with a


focus on conceptual process and design should be explored.

* Focus should be placed on land use conflict analysis caused by
in-migration. The LUCIS model developed by University of Florida
professors Paul Zwick and Peggy Carr could be a good method
for approaching this analysis.

* Coastal response to sea level rise needs to be analyzed through
greater analysis of watersheds and drainage basins. Analysis
should also occur based on long shore perpendicular sections that
factor in a variety of ecosystem and geographic relationships.

* Strategies for adaptation along river shorelines should be
explored. The Room for the River Project (Klijn 2001) provides a
good point of departure for defining flood management strategies
along river shorelines, but may need to be adapted for applicability
to permanent inundation.

* Consideration of saltwater intrusion into freshwater bodies should
be integrated more fully as part of adaptive strategies.

* It would be valuable to explore the feasibility of vegetative
stabilization below the mean low tide level, particularly on high
energy shorelines.

* The effects of a barrier island breach on the ecology of the Lake
Worth Lagoon, and necessary changes in adaptive strategies to
sea level rise should be evaluated.

Adaptive measures that address specific coastal issues should be
explored in greater depth. These issues include:

* Adaptation of cultural and historic resources to inundation and
how management of these resources can fit into managed retreat







policies should be examined.


* Adaptation of working waterfront industries and other water
dependent land uses to managed retreat policies should be
examined.

* The consequences of a barrier island breach, and how this
should alter protective response strategies should be examined.
For example, species used for shoreline revegetation will vary due
to changes in wave energy and salinity caused by a breach.

As shown in this study, it is essential for Florida communities
to plan for the likelihood of sea level rise. Each region should
uniquely address adaptive measures, but there are common
principles that planners should address such as the necessity of
assisting in ecosystem adaptation. Communities should endeavor
to minimize the negative effects and ultimately explore the
potential for positive outcomes from sea level rise.


Part. Thee Result an Conclusion









PART FOUR: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPENDICES


82 Bibliography

92 Glossary

Research Appendices
93 A. Literature Review

95 B. Florida Coastal Ecology
Description of Ecosystem Services with Potential to Mitigate the Effects of Sea Level Rise
Adaptation of Florida Coastal Ecosystems to Sea Level Rise
Introduction
Ecosystem Recovery Time and Ability to Adapt to Sea Level Rise
Effects of Sea Level Rise on Selected Ecosystems
Strategies for Ecosystem Adaptation
Ecosystem Retreat and Alongshore Easements
Living Shorelines

108 C. Coastal Management
Managed Retreat Overview and Issues
Controlled Inundation Areas and Managed Realignment
Strategies for Responding to Coastal Hazards and Sea Level Rise
Rolling Easements
Additional Policy Options

126 D. Conflict Analysis between Conservation Lands and Sea Level Rise

129 E. Case Studies


F. Excerpts from Publications






BIBLIOGRAPHY


"Access and Waterfront: Issues and Solutions across the Nation".
The Maine Sea Grant College Program at the University of
Maine. May 2007.

Adger, W.N., S. Agrawala, M.M.Q. Mirza, C. Conde, K. O'Brien,
J. Pulhin, R. Pulwarty, B. Smit and K. Takahashi. Assessment
of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity.
Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof:J. van der Linden and
C.E. Hanson, Eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Press. 2007. 717-743.

Alongi, D. M. Coastal Ecosystem Processes. Boca Raton: CRC
Press, 1998.

This source provides an in depth description of coastal
ecosystem processes and interconnections. It includes
recommendations for alteration of management and
conservation practices due to climate change, which were
adapted for use in this paper.

Ankersen, Tom and Thomas Ruppert. Personal Conversation.
University of Florida Levin College of Law. November 2007.

"ASLA 2007 Student Awards". ASLA. 2007. American Society of
Landscape Architects. January 2008. awards/2007/studentawards/406.html>


Barnett, Jonathan and Kristina Hill. "Design for Rising Sea Levels".
Harvard Design Magazine. Issue Number 27, Fall 2007/Winter
2008

"Benefits of Riparian Zones". TVA. Tennessee Valley Authority.
March 2008. stabilization/benefits.htm>

"Beach Nourishment: How Beach Nourishment Projects Work". US
Army Corps of Engineers. 2007.

Berenfeld, Michelle. "Climate Change and Cultural Heritage: How
the Past will Fare in a Warmer Future". Harn Museum of Art
Lecture Series. March 27, 2008.

"Best Practices for Urban Waterfronts". EcoCity Cleveland:
Ecological Design. 2003. BLUE Project of EcoCity Cleveland
and the Cleveland Waterfront Coalition. 2007. ecocitycleveland.org/ecologicaldesign/blue/best_practices/bp
intro.html>

The Cleveland Waterfront Coalition and EcoCity Cleveland
created a presentation to help citizens develop a common
vocabulary for waterfront planning and design and prepare
them to participate in public meetings for Cleveland's lakefront
planning process. The slideshow asks the questions, what
makes a great waterfront, what are the design principles, and
what can Cleveland learn from successful waterfronts around
the country? The conclusions are based on analysis of these
other successful waterfronts. There is a focus on highlighting
the unique heritage and character of Cleveland.


^MM3Part For B~ibiogah a^IMI'~ndSBAppendicesg







Brand, Sam, Ed. "Tropical Cyclones Affecting Palm Beach."
Hurricane Havens Handbook for the North Atlantic Ocean.
2005. Naval Research Laboratory: Monterey, CA. March 19,
2008. text/sect4.htm>

This source is designed to provide, "guidance for assessing a
hurricane threat's circumstances and likely impact on the given
port to support decision-makers' reasonable choice between
either remaining in port or evading at sea" (Brand 2005). It was
used to obtain specific storm data for Palm Beach, including
storm surge projections.

Brody, Sam. "Distribution of Risk from Climate Change".
Presentation to the the Alachua County Energy Conservation
Strategies Commission (ECSC). November 19, 2007.

Burton, lan et al. "Adaptation to Climate Change: International
Policy Options". Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 2006.
reports/adaptation_toclimate_change/intro.cfm>

As described by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change,
"This paper explores one critical dimension of this multifaceted
challenge-how adaptation can be best promoted and
facilitated through future multilateral efforts". This report
examines options for future international efforts to help
vulnerable countries adapt to the impacts of climate change
both within and outside the climate framework. Options outlined
in the report include stronger funding and action under the
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, mandatory
climate risk assessments for multilateral development finance,
and donor country support for climate "insurance" in vulnerable
countries".


Bush et al. Living With Florida's Atlantic Beaches. Durham and
London: Duke University Press. 2004

"Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Relocation Articles and Images"
.April 15, 2001. National Park Service, Department of the Interior
November 27 2007.

Cela, Manny. Personal Conversation. Southwest Florida Regional
Planning Council. 2008.

Chiao, Sean. "Waterfront Design and Development in
Asia: Lessons Learned and Value Added". Urban Land
lnstitute.2005.
ONTENTID=35689&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm>

Clark, Mark. Personal Conversation. University of Florida
Department of Soil and Water Science. March 2008.

"Climate Adaptation Programs". WWF. World Wildlife Foundation.
2008.

This site contains a listing of WWF adaptation programs and
provides links to climate change adaptation publications.

Coburn, Andrew. "The Tide is High: Coastal Management in
an Era of Sea Level Rise". 14th Annual Public Interest
Environmental Conference, University of Florida Levin College
of Law, Gainesville, FL. February 29, 2008.

(Coburn) "An Evaluation of Strategic Retreat as a Viable Coastal
Erosion Response Management Alternative". Unpublished
Document. Duke Program for the Study of Developed
Shorelines. October 2004.







Comcoast. December 2007. Combined Functions in Coastal
Defence Zones Project. January 2008.

As quoted from the project website, "ComCoast was a
European project that developed and demonstrated innovative
solutions for flood protection in coastal areas. ComCoast
created multifunctional flood management schemes with a
more gradual transition from sea to land, which benefits the
wider coastal community and environment whilst offering
economically sound options. The ComCoast concept focused
on coastal areas comprising embankments. The European
Union Community Initiative Programme Interreg IIIB North Sea
Region and the project partners jointly financed the project
costs of E 5,8 million"(Comcoast 2007).

Cooper, J. Andrew G., Orrin H. Pilkey. "Sea Level Rise and
Shoreline Retreat: Time to Abandon the Bruun Rule". Global
and Planetary Change 43, 2004. 157- 171

Dailey, Gretchen. "Management Objectives for the Protection of
Ecosystem Services". Environmental Science & Policy, Volume
3, Issue 6. December 2000. Pages 333-339

This journal presents a process for assessing the value of
ecosystem services, and discusses the measures that need to
be taken to preserve these services. It could be applicable to
rising sea level mitigation in 1) prioritizing which ecosystems
most require conservation attention due to the effects of rising
sea levels and 2) determining which ecosystem services are
most useful in mitigating rising sea levels. Ecosystem Services
priority maps could be created to prioritize ecosystem services
graphically.


Daily, Gretchen, ed. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on
Natural Ecosystems. Island Press: Washington D.C. 1997.

De Guenni, Lelys Bravo et al. "Regulation of Natural Hazards".
Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and
Trends vol 1. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press:
Washington. 2005. p 441-454

This is part of a three volume set, which is the Millenium
Ecosystem Assessment. It provides a thorough assessment
and description of the current status of ecosystem services and
their relationship to human activity and well being.

Desantis, Larisa, Smriti Bhotika, Kimberlyn Williams, Francis
E. Putz. "Sea Level Rise and Drought Interactions". Global
Climate Change Biology, 13, 2349-2360. 2007.

Easterling, W.E. "Coping with Global Climate Change: The Role
of Adaptation in the United States". Pew Center on Global
Climate Change, 2004. warming-in-depth/all_reports/adaptation>

This source discusses the need for adaptive policies to climate
change. It outlines policy options. It has been cited several
times for its list of locations and projects in the United States
already adapting and planning for sea level rise. These projects
are oriented to large scale planning and policy rather than
design oriented.

Ellis, Mary Cooper H. "Managed Retreat: Coastal Development
in an Era of Climate Change". Landscape Architecture. March
2008. p 70-82.


P.rt Four: Bibi ograph an








Encyclopedia Britannica Online. March 2008.


EPA, Climate Change. March, 2008. US EPA. 2008. gov/climatechange/index.html>

This is a valuable source of information on climate change.
Adaptation methods were referenced and a description of
climate change impacts. The site is also a good source for
historic sea level rise data.

EPA Global Warming Publications. November 24, 2004. US EPA.
2008. content/ResourceCenterPublicationsSeaLevelRiselndex.html>

The site contains a very comprehensive and user friendly
description of important sources and publications related to
sea level rise. These are organized by topic accompanied by a
brief description, as well as in a list of what to read first. This is
an invaluable source for those beginning research on sea level
rise or those who are looking for additional sources and should
be reviewed at the commencement of a project.

"FEMA Coastal Construction Manual 3rd ed". CD-ROM. Federal
Emergency Management Agency.

Fortified Designation Process. Institute for Business and Home
Safety. November 27, 2007.

"Fortified for Safer Living". Institute for Business and Home Safety.
2001.


(gaplcov). Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.
"FLORIDA LAND COVER". gap_lcov. Raster Digital Data.
Florida: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
May 2000.

"Global Climate Change Impacts on South Florida". Miami-Dade
Environmental Resources. 2007. Miami-Dade County. 2008.
on_florida.asp>

"Guiding the Way to Waterfront Revitalization: Best Management
Practices". Florida Department of Community Affairs. June
2007.

Hansen, L.J., J.L. Biringer, J.R. Hoffman, eds. "Buying Time: A
User's Guide for Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate
Change in Natural Systems". World Wildlife Foundation. August
2003.
< http://www.worldwildlife.org/forests/pubs/buyingtime_unfe.pdf>

Hoctor, Tom. "Critical Lands/Waters Inventory Project Datasets".
University of Florida Geoplan Center. 2008.

(House Energy Committee) House of Representatives Select
Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming.
January 2008. florida>

Jerry, Robert H. "Florida's Hurricane Insurance Market, the State
Regulatory Response, and Development on Florida's Coasts:
Turbulence in the Sunshine State". 14th Annual Public Interest
Environmental Conference, University of Florida Levin College
of Law, Gainesville, FL. February 29, 2008.


~


I _







Keahey, John. "Weighing the Solutions: Sinking City of Venice".
NOVA Science Programming On-Air and Online. October 2002.
PBS. January 2008. solutions.html>

Klijn, Franz, Jos Dijkman, Wim Silva, eds. "Room for the Rhine
in the Netherlands: A Summary of Research Results". Trans.
Allison Kruter. Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works,
and Water Management, 2001.

This publication proposes specific measures to provide room
for expansion of the Rhine River, with dike strengthening as
an option only used when other strategies are impractical. This
publication is the most comprehensive of those on the topic
in English and is available from the Netherlands Ministry of
Transport, Public Works, and Water Management web site.

(LaCoast). "Searching for Solutions: Planning for Climate Change
Critical for Breaux Act Projects, Experts Say". LaCoast. USGS
National Wetlands Research Center. 2008. lacoast.gov/watermarks/2003-02/5solutions/index.htm>

(LaCoast). "Sample CWPPRA Projects Mitigating Sea-level Rise".
LaCoast. USGS National Wetlands Research Center. 2008.


Lamster, Mark. "The City and the Stream". Metropolismag.
September 19, 2007. Metropolis Magazine. January 2008.


This source is an article on the waterfront revitalization project
proposed for the Antwerp Quays. This project addresses sea
level rise with a focus on design.


Larson, Larry A., Michael J. Klitzke and Diane A. Brown, eds.
No Adverse Impact: A Toolkit For Common Sense Floodplain
Management. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain
Managers, 2003.
pdf>

ASFPM has produced a series of publications based on the
idea of No Adverse Impact focused on mitigating the impact of
floodwaters on development. As stated in the ULI publication,
Ten Principles for Coastal Development, these can be applied
as strategies to adapt to rising sea levels. Among other topics,
the publication discusses structural, non-structural, and
planning measures to mitigate flood impacts.

"LABINS". Land Boundary Information System. Florida
Department of Environmental Protection. 2008. labins.org/2003/>

"Living Shorelines". (CCRM) Center for Coastal Resources
Management. Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 2008.
February 2008.


This website gives a basic description of living shorelines
and how they can be constructed. It also provides links to
publications and additional informational resources on living
shorelines.

"Living Shorelines". Maryland Shores Online. March 2008. shorelines.dnr.state.md.us/living.asp>


~* I u iiiu~i







Louters, T. & F Gerritsen et. al. The Riddle of the Sands: A
Tidal System's Answer to a Rising Sea Level. Den Haag,
Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water
Management, 1994.

This book discusses the sedimentary processes of the Wadden
Sea tidal system and how it has historically responded to sea
level fluctuations. The book was referenced heavily to gain an
understanding of sediment flows and how they relate to sea
level rise.

(MacArthur). "Natural Communities". Friends of MacArthur Beach
State Park. April 2008. communities.php>

(MacArthur Plants). "Park Plants". Friends of MacArthur Beach
State Park. April 2008. communities.php>

(Maine) "Anticipatory Planning for Sea Level Rise along the Coast
of Maine". U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation.
September 1995.

Meehl, G.A., T.F. Stocker, W.D. Collins: Friedlingstein, A.T. Gaye,
J.M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J.M. Murphy, A. Noda, S.C.B.
Raper, I.G. Watterson, A.J. Weaver and Z.-C. Zhao. "Global
Climate Projections". Climate Change 2007: The Physical
Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen,
M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)].
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and
New York, NY, USA. 2007.


Mulkey, Stephan. "Climate Change and Land Use in Florida:
Interdependencies and Opportunities". Century Commission for
A Sustainable Florida. 2007.

Very thorough discussion of climate change data, causes and
effects in Florida. Focus is on how to use land use policies to
reduce carbon emissions to reduce Florida's role in creating
climate change. It discusses methods of using land use policies
in a profitable and productive manner, with particular emphasis
on the potential profitability of a carbon market. It does not
seem to focus specifically on mitigation of the effects of sea
level rise.

Mullahey, J. Jeffrey, George W.Tanner, and Stephen Coates.
"Range Sites of Florida". University of Florida IFAS Extension
Circular 951

Myers, Ronald L. and John J. Ewel, ed. Ecosystems of Florida.
University of Central Florida Press: Orlando. 1990.

"National Strategy for Beach Preservation". Second Skidway
Institute of Oceanography Conference on America's Eroding
Shoreline. Georgia. 1985.

This article discusses managed retreat with regard to coastal
hazard mitigation. It discusses historic coastal development
trends, the problems with continuing historic development
practices, and policy options for managed retreat on federal,
state, and local levels.

Neal, W.J., Bush, D.M., Pilkey, O.H. Encyclopedia of Coastal
Science. "Managed Retreat". Schwartz, M.L. (ed.).
Netherlands: Springer, 2005. pp. 602-606.







Neumann, James E et al. "Sea-Level Rise & Global Climate
Change: A Review of Impacts to U.S. Coasts". Pew Center on
Global Climate Change, 2000.

This source reviews factors affecting coastal vulnerability,
summarizes key concepts of sea level rise assessment, the
physical impacts on coastal resources, the three primary
methods of response and adaptation, and economic impacts
on human and natural systems.

(NOAA) "Tidal Station Locations and Ranges". NOAA Tides
and Currents. March 25, 2005. NOAA. March, 2008. tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/tides05/tab2ec3c.html#89 >

This site contains a listing of tidal stations in Florida along with
mean range and mean tide level data. This information was
used to verify on-site tidal measurements taken in the study
area.

Oakley, Mary, Century Commission for a Sustainable Florida.
Personal Conversation. 2007.

Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. August 23, 2007.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US
Department of Commerce. November 27, 2007. coastalmanagement.noaa.gov/czm/czma_vision.html>

Oetting, J and T Hoctor. CLIP Critical lands & waters
Identification project. Phase I report to the Century Commission
for a Sustainable Florida. 2007.

Pawlukiewicz, Michael, Prema Katari Gupta, and Carl Koelbel. Ten
Principles for Coastal Development. Washington, D.C.: ULI-the
Urban Land Institute, 2007.


(PBC Maps) "Palm Beach County Maps". 2007. Palm Beach
County Convention and Visitors Bureau. April 2008.


"Percival Landing". February 2008. City of Olympia, Washington.
January 2008. percivallanding/ >

(Percival Landing Agenda Item) "Special Council Meeting
Agenda Item One: Percival Landing Sea Level Rise and
Design Life". January 15, 2008. City of Olympia, Washington.
January 2008. CouncilPackets/20080114/SC_PercivalLandingSTF.pdf >

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change. December 2008.


The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has published a
variety of articles on various climate change, some of which
were referenced.

Pilkey, Orrin H. "Geologists, Engineers, and a Rising Sea Level".
Notable Selections in Environmental Studies. Theodore
Goldfarb, ed. Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. 2000

Pilkey, Orrin H., J. Andrew G. Cooper. "Society and Sea Level
Rise". Science, Vol 303. 19 March, 2004.

Poggioli, Sylvia. "MOSE Project Aims to Part Venice Floods".
NPR. January 7, 2008. NPR. January 7, 2008. org/templates/story/story.php?storyld=17855145>

Putz, Jack, University of Florida Department of Botany. Personal
Conversation. 2008.


- Part Four: Bibiogy a







Rey, Jorge R., and C. Roxanne Rutledge. "Mangroves". University
of Florida, IFAS. January 2002..

SAL.VE: Activities for the Safeguarding of Venice and its Lagoon.
Ministry for Infrastructure Venice Water Authority, Consorzio
Venezia Nuova. January 2008.

This source is sponsored by the Italian Ministry for
Infrastructure and discusses the MOSE projects and
alternatives for the protection of Venice and its lagoon.

"Saving Florida's Vanishing Shores". Miami-Dade County
Department of Environmental Resources Management. March
2002.

(SEAGRS_2003). Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWC), Fish and Wildlife Research Institute
(FWRI), Center for Spatial Analysis. "FLORIDA'S STATEWIDE
SEAGRASS". ETAT.SEAGRS_2003. Vector Digital Data.
St. Petersburg: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission-Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. 2003.

(SFBCDC) "Climate Change Planning Project". 2006. The San
Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission.
December 2007.


The San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development
Commission (SFBCDC) has developed a Climate Change
Planning Project. This is also addressed in the ULI publication,
Ten Principles for Coastal Development. They have produced
maps of shoreline areas most impacted by sea level rise and
are recommending a Climate Change Action Plan.


"Shoreline Spaces: Public Access Design Guidelines for the
San Francisco Bay". San Francisco Bay Conservation and
Development Commission. April 2005.

(South Bay) "South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project". 2008.
California Coastal Conservancy. January 2008. southbayrestoration.org/index.html>

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is a 15,100 acre
tidal wetland restoration project in South San Francisco Bay.
This project provides is an excellent source of information on
wetland restoration. The project is specifically addressing sea
level rise in its planning process.

(Sundarbans) "People of the Sunderban's take action to arrest
sea level rise". Greenpeace. October 15, 2007. Greenpeace.
January 2008.
the-sunderban-s-take>

(TCRPC) Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council. "Sea Level
Rise in the Treasure Coast Region". Stuart, FL: Treasure Coast
Regional Planning Council, 2005.

This publication discusses conclusions of the GIS mapping
that projected likely responses to sea level rise in the Treasure
Coast Region.
Texas Statutes Natural Resources Code. The State of Texas.
March 2008.

Thieke, Robert J. Personal Conversation. University of Florida
Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering. 2008.







Titus, James G. "Greenhouse Effect And Coastal Wetland
Policy: How Americans Could Abandon An Area The Size
Of Massachusetts At Minimum Cost". Environmental
Management. Vol. 15, No. 1, pp 39-58 (1991)

Titus, James G. "Sea Level Rise". The Potential Effects of Global
Climate Change on the United States. U.S. EPA Office of
Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. 1989.

Titus, James G. "Rising Seas, Coastal Erosion, and the Takings
Clause: How to Save Wetlands and Beaches without Hurting
Property Owners". Maryland Law Review, Vol 57, Num 4. 1998.

Tol, Richard S.J., et al. "Adaptation to Five Metres of Sea Level
Rise". 2005.

This article provides a discussion of the potential for a West
Atlantic Ice Sheet collapse, and potential responses through
three case studies based on large vulnerable cities. It uses
these case studies to predict responses based on discussions
and interviews.

(TOPO). Florida's Water Management Districts and U.S.
Geological Survey. "FIVE-FOOT CONTOUR LINES
(TOPOGRAPHY)". Shapefile. Palatka, FL: Florida's Water
Management Districts and U.S. Geological Survey. 1997.


Trulio, Lynne, et al. "White Paper on Carbon Sequestration and
Tidal Salt Marsh Restoration". December 20, 2007.

"UMass Amherst, Student Gallery, Landscape Architecture and
Regional Planning". UMass. 2008. UMass Amherst. January
2008.

This source contains a student project dealing with sea level
rise in New Orleans.

(UNEP-WCMC 2006) "In the front line: shoreline protection and
other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs".
UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 2006. 33 pp

This is an excellent source of specific easy to understand
information on ecosystem services provided by mangrove and
coral reef ecosystems.

"UNESCO World Heritage Center: Sundarbans National Park".
UNESCO. March 21, 2008. UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
January 2008.

"USAID Sourcebook Glossary". October 10, 2002. USAID. March
2008. html>


(Topos 59) Topos 59 Water: Design and Management. 2007.

This source provided information on a variety of current design
based waterfront projects that formed part of the case study
research.

(Topos 60) Topos 60 Challenges. 2007.

- art iFouri Bibligra hygnd Appendices,







"Victoria University of Wellington School of Architecture BDes
Landscape Architecture Gallery". Victoria University of
Wellington. September 2007. Victoria University of Wellington.
January 2008. landscape/gallery/index.aspx>

This source contains student projects dealing with sea level
rise in New Zealand.

"What are Riparian Areas? Publication Summary". Washington
State Department of Ecology. March 10, 2008. State of
Washington.

Western Carolina University Program for the Study of Developed
Shorelines. 2008. Western Carolina University. November
2007.

This is the site of the Western Carolina University Program for
the Study of Developed Shorelines. The site is an excellent
source for a variety of publications and resources on sea level
rise, coastal hazards, management, and other related topics.
The site was particularly useful for the publications posted on
managed retreat.

Whittle, A.J., D.S. Maehr, S. Fei. Global climate change and its
effects on Florida panther and black bear habitat in Florida.
University of Kentucky, Department of Forestry from 8th
National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment
Climate Change: Science and Solutions. National Council for
Science and the Environment. 2008.


Williams K, MacDonald M, Sternberg L. "Interactions of Storm,
Drought, and Sea Level Rise on Coastal Forest: A Case
Study". Journal of Coastal Research, 19, 1116-1121. 2003.

Woorden, Met Andere. "Spatial Planning Key Decision 'Room for
the River': Investing in the Safety and Vitality of the Dutch River
Basin". Netherlands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and
Water Management, 2006.

This is a summary of the research for the Room for the Rhine
River Project, which investigates strategies for dealing with
higher river discharges on the Rhine River in combination with
higher sea levels. Dike strengthening is looked at as a last
option, and strategies are explored for creating room for the
river to expand rather than increasing shoreline protection and
hazard risk. The brochure contains relevant passages from
other reports and the most recent project research findings and
is available from the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public
Works, and Water Management web site.


--------- ---- - ---






GLOSSARY


Accommodation: The use of strategies that allow for the use of
vulnerable lands to continue, but that do not attempt to prevent
flooding or inundation with shoreline protection.

Area Likely to Be Inundated: Lands that are likely to be flooded
by storm surge, sea level rise, or due to erosion based on current
projections and trends.

Coastal/Shoreline Hardening: The attempt to maintain existing
shoreline positions through fixed methods intended to provide for
longterm stabilization and protection.

Ecological Sustainability: The level to which coastal management
strategies support and maintain fully functional natural coastal
processes and healthy riparian, littoral, and aquatic ecosystems.

Financial Sustainability: The ability of governments and private
land owners to fund and maintain coastal management strategies
without undue financial costs over the life of the project. Undue
financial costs could be defined by the value of the coastal
management strategy as evaluated against alternative strategies
and within the framework of a broader budget.

High/Low Energy Shoreline: Defined by the amount of wave
energy recieved along a shoreline.

Littoral Zone: The intertidal area between mean high tide and
mean low tide marks.

Managed Retreat: Moving development out of harm's way in a
planned and controlled manner using techniques such as property
abandonment, structure relocation, and hazard avoidance.

Protection: Shoreline stabilizing or hardening techniques such as


seawalls and beach nourishment that attempt to maintain a static
shoreline position.

Riparian Zone: The biologically distinctive area that forms the
transition zone between upland and aquatic ecosystems.

References:

"Benefits of Riparian Zones". TVA. Tennessee Valley Authority.
March 2008. benefits.htm>

Encyclopedia Britannica Online. March 2008. com>

"USAID Sourcebook Glossary". October 10, 2002. USAID. March
2008.

"What are Riparian Areas? Publication Summary". Washington
State Department of Ecology. March 10, 2008. State of
Washington.


PatFor Bibiograph andlApenice





APPENDIX A: LITERATURE REVIEW


This section describes some important sources of information
referenced in this research. It does not cover all sources listed in
the annotated bibliography. Preliminary research was conducted
on waterfront design principles, coastal ecosystems and
processes, traditional engineering and development responses to
coastal hazards, and managed retreat as a response to coastal
hazards. Further research was then undertaken to locate real
world or design projects (case study projects) addressing sea
level rise and policy options for response. The references for this
research are included at the end of each section and in Part 4,
Bibliography.

The majority of literature discussing sea level rise falls under
several categories: scientific evidence of sea level rise, discussion
of effects and responses by coastal ecosystems- in particular
wetlands, policy and land use implications, and managed retreat
policies. Literature was found to be lacking that discussed
response to sea level rise from a design point of view, particularly
in terms of gradual and long-term inundation. Few sources
were found that showed graphic illustration of concepts for
specific sites. Most importantly, almost no sources discussed
solutions for coastlines where retreat is unlikely to occur and
protection is almost certain. Solutions for coastal protection from
an ecologically and financially sustainable point of view are not
discussed. Coastal protection is frequently discussed in terms of
being an unsuitable response followed by planning options that
can be used in lieu of protection and policies to implement retreat.
This is in my mind a critical gap in research. Literature discussing
sea level rise specific to Florida does exist though it falls within the
parameters outlined above.

Waterfront Design Principles: Principles of waterfront design have
been discussed in a variety of publications and presentations.
Some of the primary sources reviewed were local government


design guidelines and ordinances, online presentations and
publications such as from the City of Cleveland, ULI, and PPS,
and consultations from the University of Florida Conservation
Clinic. The following is a compilation of common principles
identified in the projects researched.

Principles for Good Waterfront Design
Facilitate Public Access- Create opportunities for public
visual and physical access to the waterfront.
Protect Natural Ecology- Protect, restore, and enhance
natural environmental conditions.
Facilitate Appropriate Economic Development-
Use the waterfront as an attraction to encourage
mixed-use development. The question of encouraging
water dependent uses also is particularly important,
and seemed to recieve a low level of emphasis in the
examples discussed above.
Facilitate Social and Economic Equity- Create a variety
of development and housing types along the waterfront
to accommodate various income levels. This is to
combat waterfront that is exclusively accessible to high-
income users.

Coastal Ecosystems and Processes: Research did not identify
substantial detailed information on coastal ecosystem services.
Several sources give a broad overview of ecosystem services and
probable functions, but little detailed information. Ecosystems
of Florida edited by Ronald L. Myers and John J. Ewel is an
extremely important source of information on Florida ecosystems.
The Millenium Ecosystem Assessment edited by Lelys Bravo
De Guenni, et al is an important source of information on
ecosystem processes and services. Nature's Services: Societal
Dependence on Natural Ecosystems edited by Gretchen Daily is
another source of information on ecosystem services. The UNEP-







WCMC publication, "In the front line: shoreline protection and
other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs" is an
excellent source of information on ecosystem services provided by
reefs and mangrove forests.

Coastal Protection: Information is plentiful on the effects of
traditional coastal protection solutions such as sea walls and
groins on natural shorelines. The Western Carolina University
Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines was a valuable
source on information on this topic. An unconventional point of
interest was found in the EPA online resource for global warming
discussing the idea that some situations exist where no action
is necessary in response to sea level rise. The resource states
that, "port facilities and many other coastal structures are rebuilt
frequently enough, and the impact of sea level rise is small
enough, so that new facilities need merely consider current
sea level. Moreover, many structures can be erected rapidly
enough so that anticipating sea level rise in unnecessary" (EPA
Global Warming Publications 2004). It also makes the point that
engineering activities may be able to focus on the current sea
level, whereas land use and planning decisions must incorporate
long-term consideration of sea level rise. (EPA Global Warming
Publications 2004)

Managed Retreat and Land Use: Information on managed
retreat as a response to sea level rise is plentiful. Managed
retreat seems to be recommended by the majority of planners
and policy makers. The Western Carolina University Program
for the Study of Developed Shorelines has published a variety of
papers on managed retreat that are extremely valuable sources
of information on this topic. The EPA Global Warming Publications
resource was quite valuable in locating key publications to be
referenced. The 2007 report by Dr. Stephen Mulkey to the Century
Commission was referenced heavily for Florida specific information


and provided a basis for discussions of land use responses to sea
level rise.

Case Studies: A variety of sources were reviewed for information
on case study projects including journals, websites, books, and
magazines, but no definitive source exists discussing projects related
to sea level rise. Very few projects were found that address sea level
rise, though many projects address periodic inundation. Sources and
information on the projects reviewed are located in Part 4, Appendix
E. Projects that were of value were the Salt Pond Restoration Project
in the San Francisco Bay, a 15,100 acre tidal wetland restoration
project in South San Francisco Bay. The project is specifically
addressing sea level rise in its planning process. The redevelopment
of the Anterp Quays was also a valuable case study project as it is
one of the few located addressing sea level rise with a design based
approach. The Room for the River project is also valuable, and it
investigates strategies for dealing with higher river discharges on the
Rhine River in combination with higher sea levels. Dike strengthening
is looked at as a last option, and strategies are explored for creating
room for the river to expand rather than increasing shoreline
protection and hazard risk.

Policy Options: Several sources were reviewed that discuss policy
options to respond to sea level rise. The final recommendations
included in this report are primarily based on the publications by
James G. Titus, EPA.

Additional valuable information was referenced from the publication
on sea level rise published by the Treasure Coast Regional Planning
Council. This publication discusses anticipated responses to a five
foot rise in sea level along the Treasure Coast. Throughout the
course of the research various researchers and professionals were
also consulted, and their input proved invaluable for informing,
confirming, and directing the research approach. The names of some
of these are located in the bibliography.


-~Pr Fo pur Bibiogaph aU1*Ie~iI]nd AppeI.qIIrndice






APPENDIX B: FLORIDA COASTAL ECOLOGY


Research on Florida Coastal Ecology is broken down into the
following sections.

A Description of Ecosystem Services with Potential to Mitigate the
Effects of Sea Level Rise

Adaptation of Florida Coastal Ecosystems to Sea Level Rise

Introduction
Ecosystem Recovery Time and Ability to Adapt to Sea Level
Rise
Effects of Sea Level Rise on Selected Ecosystems


Overview of Strategies for Ecosystem Adaptation
Ecosystem Retreat and Alongshore Easements
Living Shorelines


Description of Ecosystem System Services with Potential to
Mitigate the Effects of Sea Level Rise

The purpose of this section is to describe ecosystem services that
may aid in either flood attenuation, mitigation of the intrusive and
erosive effects of sea level rise, and to minimize the destructive
effects of storm surge. This serves several purposes. The first is to
underscore the importance of coastal ecosystems to people living
in Florida and that active human involvement in the preservation
and adaptation of these ecosystems in the face of sea level rise
must be a priority. This however will not be a primary focus as
the values and intricacies of ecosystem services are discussed
in far greater depth in other publications. The second and more
important purpose for discussion of ecosystem services is based
on the idea that an understanding of the ways ecosystems
respond to coastal hazards can inform human design responses
to these hazards. This can be manifested in use of the ecosystem


itself as part of a design response to sea level rise or through use
of the underlying principles of the ecosystem service reinterpreted
through design.

"Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes through
which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up,
sustain and fulfill human life" (Daily 1997). Ecosystem services
are broken down into classifications of provisioning, regulating,
cultural, or supporting services. Examples of provisioning services
are food and water. Regulating services could include climate
or disease regulation. Cultural services are those nonmaterial
benefits people obtain from connection to the environment.
Supporting services could include nutrient cycling, which is
essential for maintaining life. With regard to all ecosystem
services, it is important to recognize that ecosystems are
interrelated and interdependent, so that human impact on one
ecosystem service will affect other ecosystem services.

The following sections are broken down into two parts. The first
is a description of some of the regulating ecosystem services
provided by coastal ecosystems in Florida. These are by no
means comprehensive, but the main purpose of this research
was to inform design solutions. The second part is a description
of rough design and planning implications that were drawn from
an understanding of the ecosystem service. These should by no
means be considered anything more than documentation of a
brainstorming process.

Sedimentation and Shoreline Stabilization
This ecosystem service could be the most pertinent for
informing coastal design in response to seawater intrusion.
Coastal sedimentation is the natural equivalent of beach
renourishment. One of the reasons this process is important for
humans is because the natural accumulation of sand balances







coastal erosion. This is a dynamic condition where some
regions experience more erosion and some experience more
renourishment. The effects of human activities such as coastal
hardening on these processes has been great and are should
be decreased. The coastal ecosystems below are some of those
involved in sedimentation and stabilization that may be especially
applicable to coastal design in response to seawater inundation.
Various other natural systems, in addition to those coastal systems
discussed below, play a role in the trapping of sediments and
stabilization of shorelines including tidal marshes and seagrass
beds, rocky slopes and shorelines, and barrier islands.

Coral Reefs
Offshore sources of sediment are important sources of sand for
beaches and islands, and these sources will play a role in the
adaptation of these systems to rising sea level. "Reefs produce
sand that forms and replenishes sandy beaches and islands, the
sediment accumulating when corals and other calcified organisms
break down after their death" (UNEP-WCMC 2006). This sediment
is however light and erodes more easily than other sediment
sources (Thieke 2008). It is important to maintain natural reefs for
this purpose, but sea level rise may present great challenges to
the survival of natural reefs.

Mangrove Habitats
Mangrove forests play an important role in the accretion of Florida
coastlines by trapping and stabilizing intertidal sediments and
providing shoreline protection and stabilization. (Myers 1990)
Mangroves also help to stabilize coastal land by trapping river
sediment and other upland runoff (UNEP-WCMC 2006). The
ability of mangroves to actually build new land is doubtful (Rey
2002). Mangroves are less effective at stabilization and may not
survive on open coasts where strong erosional forces exist such
as along the southeast Atlantic coast of Florida.


Dune Systems
With regard to shoreline sedimentation, dunes function as
sediment reserves and to stabilize coastlines. Myers states that
in natural conditions, "sand stored in the foredune is moved
offshore by storm waves and restored to the beach with the
return of normal wave conditions. Winds move the sand back
to the line of plant growth, and a new dune is built up" (Myers
1990). "Encroachment in dune areas often results in shoreline
destabilization, resulting in expensive and ongoing public works
projects such as the building of breakwaters or seawalls and sand
renourishment" (De Guenni et al. 2005).

Tidal Marshes
Mullahey et al. describe the function of salt marshes in the
following quote. "On low energy coastlines and estuaries, the Salt
Marsh functions as a transition zone from terrestrial to oceanic life.
Salt marshes perform an important function in the stabilization and
protection of shorelines, especially during storm tides. Nutrients,
sediments and detritus from upland systems are redistributed by
tidal action, making the marsh one of the most productive natural
ecological systems. The area serves as a habitat for the early
life stages of numerous ocean species as they feed on countless
invertebrate organisms. Many wildlife forms overlap normal ranges
at least seasonally to become harvesters and, in many cases, part
of the natural food chain". (Mullahey et al.)

Tidal marshes collect sediment from incoming tides, and if
sediment availability is high enough in proportion to the rate of sea
level rise, marshes can build and adapt to sea level rise without
significant loss of area. These ecosystems could be an important
part of coastal protection measures that are more ecologically
sustainable than traditional methods such as dike and seawall
construction. This idea is examined in Figure 3.10, Protection
through Ecosystem Restoration. A good case study example


-Pa.rt' Fu r Bibll igah an p edcs







of this process can be found in Louters 1994, which describes
adaptation to sea level rise of the Wadden Sea tidal marshes on
the coast of the Netherlands.

Design Implications
Minimize disruption to natural coastal sedimentation
processes in all stages of the process- source, transport,
and collection
Minimize coastal hardening
Preserve habitats that are important to sedimentation
processes
Consider ways to artificially increase silt collection, although
not at the expense of natural siltation processes.
Built devices that trap sediments similar to mangroves- in
keeping with natural rates of sedimentation, extending from
coast outward
Development of silt collecting habitats as part of coastal
designs

Water Retention and Transfer
Some natural soils have a large capacity to retain and store water,
facilitate transfer of groundwater, and prevent or reduce flooding.
"The capacity to hold water is dependent on soil texture (size
of soil particles and spaces between them) and soil structure
(nature and origin of aggregates and pores). For instance, clay
soils have a larger capacity to hold water than sandy soils due to
pore size" (De Guenni et al. 2005). Floodplain wetlands can have
a significant role in flood attenuation. It is important to recognize
that because the source of water from sea level rise is essentially
infinite and inundation will be constant, water retention will be most
important for periodic flood mitigation.

A case study project that is integrating plans for wetland
restoration and measures for responding to sea level rise is the


South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in the San Francisco
Bay. See Part 4, Appendix E for a description of this project.

Design Implications
Maintain ecosystems that naturally retain water
Sponge surfaces that attenuate the volume of storm surges

Wave and Storm Buffering
This ecosystem service may be less applicable to sea level rise,
but is applicable to mitigation of the effects of storms caused
by climate change. Barrier beaches, inland wetlands and lakes,
coastal barrier islands, coastal wetlands, coastal rivers floodplains,
and coastal vegetation are all important ecosystem components
that reduce the impacts of floodwaters produced by coastal storm
events. Preserving natural buffers such as coral reefs, mangrove
forests, and sandbars can help attenuate storm effects (De Guenni
et al. 2005). These ecosystems are part of an interconnected
system and the functionality of each element depends on
the others being present. The United Nations Environment
Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center (UNEP-
WCMC) states that, "Reefs and mangroves play an important
role in shore protection under normal sea conditions and during
hurricanes and tropical storms. At least 70-90 per cent of the
energy of wind generated waves is absorbed, depending on how
healthy these ecosystems are and their physical and ecological
characteristics" (UNEP-WCMC 2006). Clearly these ecosystem
services are valuable in the face of the projected increase in
storms due to sea level rise. The following are some of the
ecosystems that provide wave and storm buffering services, and
it is important to integrate these ecosystems in adaptive coastal
development to preserve their ecosystem services.

Mangrove Forests
"Mangroves dissipate the energy and size of waves as a result of







the drag forces exerted by their multiple roots and stems. Wave
energy may be reduced by 75 percent in the wave's passage
through 200 metres of mangrove but, as with coral reefs, other
factors also have an influence, including coastal profile, water
depth and bottom configuration. One study suggested that a 1.5-
km belt of mangrove may be able to reduce entirely a wave one
metre high" (cited in UNEP-WCMC 2006).

Dune and Barrier Island Systems
Dunes and barrier islands protect uplands or inlands from coastal
dynamics such as erosion or storm surge. They do this by
absorbing and blocking wave energy. These systems are dynamic
and will remain dynamic in spite of coastal hardening.

Coral Reefs
Coral reefs have the capacity to reduce wave energy from storms.
"The waves normally seen on the ocean are generated by wind,
and have most of their energy in the surface waters. The reef flat
(the zone of a reef extending seaward across the lagoon) and
the reef crest (the seaward edge of the reef flat) absorb most of
a wave's force, often up to or more than 90 per cent" (as cited in
UNEP-WCMC 2006). "The greater the width of reef flat between
the reef edge and the shore, the more wave energy is lost"
(UNEP-WCMC 2006).

"The amount of energy reduction also depends on the extent of
fragmentation of the reef, as a continuous reef acts more as a
breakwater than a reef that is broken by channels. The state of
the tide and the depth of water over the reef at low tide a reef
affords more protection and whether it 'plunges' on to or 'spills'
over the reef top also play a role" (as cited in UNEP-WCMC
2006). "Quantifying what the reduction in wave energy may
mean in terms of shore protection is more difficult. In Sri Lanka,
however, it has been estimated that with current rates of erosion


and assuming that 1 kilometre of reef protects 5 kilometres of
shoreline, 1 km2 of coral reef can prevent 2 000 m2 of erosion a
year" (as cited in UNEP-WCMC 2006).

"The role of reefs as breakwaters is also demonstrated by the
many artificial structures that are being installed for shoreline
protection in locations with no natural reefs. These often have a
negative impact, in terms of creating unwanted longshore drift,
but they nevertheless show how reef-type barriers influence wave
action, even being installed to improve surfing conditions" (cited in
UNEP-WCMC 2006).

Design Implications
Maintain natural buffering systems
Structures that don't prohibit erosion, but also stabilize
shore
Building of buffers, breaks that buffer storms but allow
sedimentation process to continue
Dam that generates energy from incoming tides but allows
tidal flow
Structures that simulate effects of coral reefs
Structures and landscapes that emulate structure of dune
without creating effects of coastal hardening
Structures that produce drag similar to mangrove roots and
stems

Carbon Sequestration
Carbon sequestration is an important ecosystem service that may
provide added economic value to ecosystems with the formation
of a carbon market. Added economic value may be an important
factor in the preservation of conservation lands and ecosystems
in the face of increasing populations in Florida. Land use conflicts
caused by in-migration away from areas inundated by sea level
rise will be an additional and important factor working against the


Part Four: Bibliography and Appendices







conservation of ecosystems. This idea is discussed in depth in
Stephen Mulkey's 2007 article, "Climate Change and Land Use
in Florida: Interdependencies and Opportunities". The following
excerpt from a description of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration
Project describes the process of carbon sequestration in salt
marshes, but other lands are also important for this purpose
including many agricultural lands.

"Current research shows that restoring tidal salt marshes is one
of the most effective measures for sequestering carbon available
to us. While people often look to planting trees as a way to take
carbon out of the atmosphere, marsh restoration may be even
more efficient, per unit area, at removing carbon. Tidal marshes
are extremely productive habitats that capture significant amounts
of carbon from the atmosphere, which are stored in marsh soils.
Unlike many freshwater wetlands, saltwater tidal marshes release
only negligible amounts of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas;
therefore, the carbon storage benefits of tidal salt marshes are
not reduced by methane production. In addition, as sea levels
rise, tidal marsh plains continue to build up to match the rise in
water level-if suspended sediments are adequate-continually
pulling carbon dioxide out of the air in the process. While specific
research is needed to quantify the carbon sequestration capacity
of San Francisco Bay tidal marshes, in general, restoring
tidal marshes is an effective method, recommended by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, for removing
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Researchers Choi, et al.
(2004) conclude that, "Because of higher rates of C (carbon)
sequestration and lower CH4 emissions, coastal wetlands could
be more valuable C (carbon) sinks per unit area than other
ecosystem in a warmer world" (South Bay 2008).


Ecosystem Adaptation to Sea Level Rise
Sections contained within this research are as follows.

Introduction
Ecosystem Recovery Time and Ability to Adapt to Sea Level
Rise
Effects of Sea Level Rise on Selected Ecosystems
Overview of Strategies for Ecosystem Adaptation
Ecosystem Retreat and Alongshore Easements
Living Shorelines

Introduction
"Sometimes trying to return a system to its pre-event condition
is not the wisest response, because the historical steady state
may be wholly inappropriate for the new (or existing) set of
environmental and socioeconomic conditions" (Easterling 2004).

Coastal ecosystems experience a variety of stresses including
those caused by aquaculture, pollution, development, and climate
change. The response of ecosystems to sea level rise will vary
according to location, geographic and regional conditions, and the
magnitude of sea level rise. The capacity for ecosystems to persist
in the face of sea level rise can be considered in terms of "the
resistance (ability to withstand change) and resilience (ability to
recover from change)" (Hansen 2003). "Conservation efforts can
enhance resistance and resilience to climate change by alleviating
the overall pressures on the system, giving it more flexibility to
mobilize its natural defenses" (Hansen 2003).

Sea level rise will affect intertidal and coastal ecosystems by
inundating them with water and affecting the availability of light, as
well as altering patterns of water movement both intertidally and
subtidally (Hansen 2003). Inundation has additionalal effects of
increasing salinity beyond levels to which certain ecosystems can







adapt, as well as increasing coastal erosion.

The general response of coastlines to sea level rise will be to
retreat. Changes in shoreline position in response to sea level
rise is based on a combination of various factors including local
sediment supply and coastal slope, which have historically
determined whether they advance, retreat, or remain in position.
Ecosystems will need to retreat with the shoreline in order to
survive.

The sort of intervention necessary to preserve coastal ecosystems
must be carefully considered. "There are two terms in common
use: 'restoration', which means that all the key ecological
processes and functions and all the former biodiversity are
reestablished; and 'rehabilitation' which means that most, but
not all, are reestablished" (UNEP-WCMC 2006). Restoration
and rehabilitation are often less successful than natural recovery
because it is difficult to attain the same level of biodiversity and
functional ecological processes through artificial endeavors
(UNEP-WCMC 2006). This implies that in some cases it may be
better to encourage natural ecosystem retreat and adaptation than
to rely on artificial reestablishment of ecosystems.

The ability for ecosystems to retreat and adapt is necessary to
maintain ecosystem services, and active human intervention
in helping ecosystems adapt to sea level rise is essential. In
site and regional planning and design, space must be allocated
for ecosystem retreat and restoration. When designating lands
for ecosystem restoration, it is important to consider which
ecosystems will be most impacted by sea level rise. These may
be the regions or systems that require greater human intervention.
Because of specific ecosystem requirements such as soil and
topography type, suitable areas must be carefully defined and
prioritized for ecosystem retreat. Critical conservation lands and


ecosystems have already been identified in CLIP (Critical Lands/
Water Identification Project), and Part 4 includes an analysis of
conflicts between these lands and inundation due to sea level
rise. Lands can be allocated for critical ecosystems based on
the relative importance of the ecosystem and consideration of
competing land uses. GIS will be an important tool to help resolve
these areas of conflict on a regional scale. (Mulkey 2007) Perhaps
a percentage of land can be required on a county-by-county basis
for ecosystem retreat.

Design and Policy Implications
Proactive human intervention and management of
ecosystems is necessary
Use land use conflict analysis to designate priority
areas for ecosystem retreat based on current research
such as the Critical Lands/Water Identification Project
(CLIP).
Allocate lands for ecosystem retreat based on this analysis.
Maintain an alongshore easement for managed ecosystem
adaptation and public access. The depth of this easement
would vary according to location.
Limit coastal hardening and soft engineering solutions and
allow natural shoreline responses to sea level rise.

Ecosystem Recovery Time and Ability to Adapt

Ecosystems have a built in ability adapt to and recover from
environmental stresses such as hurricanes, fires, and fluctuations
in sea level. These stresses are important within many species'
lifecycles and for the maintenance of stable natural systems.
Shorelines are naturally dynamic and changing, and sea level
fluctuations have occurred throughout history. In response to
these fluctuations, coastal systems have retreated or expanded
depending on variables such as the rate of rise, shoreline gradient,


Part Four: Bibliography and Appendic7.s







and sedimentation patterns.

It is still unclear to what extent anthropogenic climate change
will affect coastal ecosystems (Mulkey 2007). It is important
to recognize that the effects of sea level rise are not the same
as one-time events such as storms or fires. The ability for
ecosystems to recover and persist will depend on their ability
to make permanent structural or functional changes, either by
relocating or by adapting. The ability for ecosystems to adapt to
projected sea level rise will be hindered by two primary factors:
coastal development that limits the ability for ecosystems to retreat
inland (Titus 1991), and greater than historic rates of climate
change and sea level rise, which exceed abilities for ecosystems
to accrete sediment, retreat, or otherwise adapt (Myers 1990; De
Guenni et al. 2005).

"In most if not all cases, global climate change impacts act in
negative synergy with other threats to marine organisms and can
be the factor sending ecosystems over the threshold levels of
stability and productivity" (De Guenni et al. 2005). An example
of the negative effects of climate change on coastal ecosystems
is the probable displacement of freshwater systems by saltwater
habitats in low-lying floodplains due to sea inundation. Plant
species not tolerant to increased salinity or inundation would be
eliminated and succeeded by other species such as mangroves or
salt marsh grasses. Changes in the vegetation would affect both
resident and migratory animals as well (De Guenni et al. 2005).
If these freshwater systems are not able to retreat to other lands,
due to coastal development or are unable to otherwise adapt,
they will be lost and may not recover. A specific example of this
process is beginning to occur in Florida along the Gulf of Mexico.
Williams et al. describe the effects of storms and drought on
gulf coast forests in the context of on-going sea level rise. It was
found that although storms and drought did cause coastal forest


mortalities, their ability to regenerate and recover was reduced or
eliminated in locations affected by sea level rise, due to the effects
of increased tidal flooding and salt stress (Williams et al. 2003).
Sea level rise affected forest stands first by eliminating canopy
tree regeneration based on the salt tolerance of seedlings, "then
by increasing the mortality rates of older trees, and eventually
resulting in the replacement of forest by salt marsh" (Desantis et
al. 2007).

Through these examples, it is the conclusion of this research
that it is unwise to depend on the natural ability of ecosystems to
recover from sea level rise related stresses, though these natural
responses should still be allowed for in coastal management
strategies. Human intervention to assist in ecosystem adaptation
to sea level rise will be necessary (Hansen 2003).

Effects of Sea Level Rise and Development on Specific
Ecosystems

This section describes the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to
human development and sea level rise. With regard to sea level
rise vulnerability, "The IPCC has identified deltas, estuaries, and
small islands as the coastal systems most vulnerable to climate
change and sea level rise" (De Guenni et. al. 2005; p 522). The
following is a description of the risks to certain ecosystems caused
by sea level rise and other human activities. These risks should
inform design guidelines and policies.

Mangrove Habitats
"Mangroves can be affected by pollution or any activity that covers
the roots with water or mud for a long period. Permanent flooding,
dikes, and impoundments cause many deaths. Restriction of
tidal circulation with causeways or undersized culverts can also
damage stands of mangroves, particularly if salinity is lowered


I







to allow freshwater vegetation to flourish. It is projected that
rising sea levels will affect mangrove ecosystems to different
extents. Mangroves can probably keep pace with sea level rise
if sedimentation rates are high. Since sedimentation rates are
highly variable throughout Florida, some areas will probably
keep pace with sea level rise and some will become inundated
by the sea. In areas of sea inundation, if the shoreline gradient
is low, mangroves will probably just retreat inland maintaining
or increasing mangrove area. In areas with a steep shoreline
gradient, or where there is no low-lying land for inland expansion,
mangrove area will shrink" (Myers 1990). Mangroves need a place
within the tidal zone in which to retreat, and their ability to adapt
to sea level rise is in large part a function of the rate of sea level
rise being roughly equivalent to the rate of accretion (Clark 2008).
Sediment reduction due to coastal armoring and river damming
may also limit the ability of mangrove forests to accrete sediment
in keeping with sea level rise rates.

Dunes and Barrier Islands

Coastal development affects natural systems when it 'hardens'
the beachfront with seawalls. These alter the circulation of sand
so that some parts of the beach erode, while others accrete more
sand. Myers states that in natural conditions, "sand stored in the
foredune is moved offshore by storm waves and restored to the
beach with the return of normal wave conditions. Winds move
the sand back to the line of plant growth, and a new dune is built
up. When structures built on the foredune and the beachfront
are 'hardened' with seawalls, this store of sand is removed from
the system and storm waves may permanently scour the beach"
(Myers 1990).

The natural response of barrier islands to sea level rise is to
thin and shift inland. Coastal hardening static and prevents the


dynamic movement of the barrier island and dunes. Because
of these natural processes, attempts to protect development on
barrier islands on high-energy coastlines will be very difficult.
Titus describes this process in the following excerpt from his
report, "Greenhouse Effect and Coastal Wetland Policy: How
Americans Could Abandon an Area the Size of Massachusetts
and Minimum Cost". "Barrier islands tend to respond to sea
level rise by migrating landward, as storms wash sand from the
ocean to the bay side. This "overwash" process may enable
undeveloped barrier islands and their adjacent wetlands to keep
pace with an accelerated rise in sea level. However, sea level
rise might also cause these islands to disintegrate, which has
already happened in Louisiana. Although additional inlets would
create new tidal deltas, the long-term impact of barrier island
disintegration would be to reduce total wetland acreage, as larger
waves could enter the estuary and erode them. The deepening of
estuaries associated with rising sea level would also allow larger
waves to strike wetland shores. Development on barrier islands
could have an ambiguous impact. Structures and other human
activities thwart the ability of storms to wash sand landward to
nourish the bayside wetlands. On the other hand, the value of the
development virtually guarantees that substantial efforts will be
taken to ensure that these islands do not break up; barrier islands
will continue to prevent ocean waves from striking wetlands in the
back bays". (Titus 1991: 5)

Salt Marshes and Wetlands

In Florida, historically the major human impacts on salt marshes,
"have been due to mosquito control measures; most recently
due to salt marsh impoundments that have negative and positive
effects on natural systems. These retain water above the mean
high water during the mosquito breeding season" (Myers 1990).


Par Four Biligap yan pp n ic s


N