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|Index to the introduction|
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|Table of Contents|
Bicentennial commission of Florida
General editor's preface
Table of Contents
Part I: Southern routes
Part II: Florida
Part III: Chapters to invalids
Index to guidebook
Index to the introduction
FLORIDA AND THE SOUTH,
A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION
OF THE 1869 EDITION
INTRODUCTION AND INDEXES
BY WILLIAM M. GOZA.
A UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA BOOK.
THE UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA.
THE BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA
published under the sponsorship of the
SAMUEL PROCTOR, General Editor.
A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION
OF THE 1869 EDITION
WITH PREFATORY MATERIAL, INTRODUCTION,
AND INDEXES ADDED.
NEW MATERIAL COPYRIGHT @ 1978
BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS
OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA.
All rights reserved.
PRINTED IN FLORIDA.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899.
A guide-book of Florida and the South, for tourists,
invalids, and emigrants.
(Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series)
Photoreprint of the ed. published by G. Maclean,
"A University of Florida book."
1. Florida-Description and travel-1865-1950-
Guide-books. 2. Southern States-Description and
travel-Guide-books. I. Title. II. Series.
F316.B85 1978 917.59'04'5 77-28658
Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman
Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman
Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman
William R. Adams, Executive Director
Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando
Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg
A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine
James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale
Jim Glisson, Tavares
Mattox Hair, Jacksonville
Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville
Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee
Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville
Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola
Charles E. Perry, Miami
W. E. Potter, Orlando
F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville
Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables
Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa
Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee
Don Shoemaker, Miami
Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville
Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee
Alan Trask, Fort Meade
Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee
Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee
William S. Turnbull, Orlando
Robert Williams, Tallahassee
Lori Wilson, Merritt Island
Ponce de Le6n was likely Florida's first mod-
ern-day tourist, but native Americans-Indians
-from what is now Georgia and Alabama prob-
ably were visiting Florida for countless decades
before Europeans arrived in the sixteenth cen-
tury. Trading, hunting, and perhaps just curios-
ity were motivating factors, just as they are
today. These earliest visitors left no written ac-
counts of what they saw in Florida, so the first
descriptions of the landscape, vegetation, sandy
beaches and rivers, and birds, animals, and other
wild things that lived on the land and in the
water had to wait until the publication of ac-
counts by Fontaneda, Cabeza de Vaca, and the
followers of de Soto. Rene de Laudonniere's
account of the French settlement on the St. Johns
River in the 1560s provides rich detail of that
part of Florida. From the settlement of St. Au-
gustine in 1565, letters, memoranda, and reports
went out to Spain, with voluminous information
about all aspects of Florida, both the land and its
people. Unfortunately, most of this material has
been inaccessible except to the most industrious
and persistent researchers. Accounts of the Flor-
ida Indians and details of missionaries' activities,
shipwrecks, trade, weather, social activities, and
a variety of other things are to be found in the
great archives of Europe, particularly in Spain
An increasing quantity of this important source
material is now being copied for American li-
braries as photographs or on microfilm. The P. K.
Yonge Library of Florida History in Gainesville
is a treasure house of material dealing with the
First Spanish Period. The Stetson Collection
alone contains 120,000 documents covering all as-
pects of Florida history from the 1520s to 1818.
The Jeanette Thurber Connor Collection, the
Lockey Collection, the East Florida Papers, the
Buckingham Smith Collection, and the Papeles de
Cuba are among the major collections now avail-
able for research purposes. The Spanish docu-
ments in the P. K. Yonge Library are being
calendered under grants provided by the Went-
worth Foundation, Inc., the Winn-Dixie Founda-
tion, the National Endowment for the Humani-
ties, and the Florida Bicentennial Commission.
Once this annotated index is complete, a task
that will take about three years, it will reveal the
huge amount of material relating to early Florida
history which will enhance our knowledge of that
era. Another major research project now under-
way concerns the activities of the eighteenth-
century British firm Panton, Leslie, and Company,
which traded with the Indians in North and West
Florida. With Professor William M. Coker of the
University of West Florida as editor, this work
is being carried on cooperatively with the Uni-
versity of Florida and the Florida Historical So-
ciety. Funding has been made available by the
Florida Bicentennial Commission and the Na-
tional Historical Publications Commission to pro-
duce a microfilm copy of all of the papers and to
publish selected documents and a narrative his-
tory of the company.
All of the early books about Florida were lim-
ited in their scope. Except for Fontaneda, the
writers were in Florida for only a few weeks or
months, and they described what they saw as they
moved through the area as members of the early
Spanish exploring and colonizing expeditions.
There was no attempt made to map Florida sci-
entifically until William Gerard De Brahm was
appointed surveyor general of British East Flor-
ida in 1764. William Roberts' An Account of the
First Discovery, and Natural History of Florida,
published in 1763, was the first reliable source of
information on the province which had been ac-
quired by Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris
ending the French and Indian War. A year ear-
lier, Thomas Jefferys, the king's geographer, pub-
lished a book containing some data about Florida
and a few of his maps of the area.
The British, anxious to attract settlers to Flor-
ida, launched a publicity campaign, and a series
of books were published extolling the virtues of
the area. One enthusiast called the newly ac-
quired province "the most precious jewel in His
Majesty's American dominions." Florida was
hailed as an agricultural El Dorado, a place
where all the fruits and products of the West
Indies could be raised: "Oranges, limes, lemons,
and other fruits grow spontaneously over the
country." Other eighteenth- and nineteenth-cen-
tury writers, like Daniel G. Brinton whose travel
book on Florida is being reprinted as a facsimile,
also described in rapturous prose the physical
characteristics of the East and Gulf coasts of
Florida. Brinton talks of the cities and towns
that he visited, the hotels and boardinghouses
where he lodged, and some of the people whom he
met. Not everything that he experienced was
pleasant and comfortable, and he mentions the
humidity, the mosquitos and gnats, and some of
his discomfort that resulted from the water he
drank and the food he consumed during his trav-
els. In the final part of Brinton's book, entitled
"Chapters to Invalids," he describes some of the
maladies of the day, but he also shows why resi-
dence in Florida would likely have a beneficial
effect upon those suffering from these illnesses.
William M. Goza, editor of Brinton's Guide-
Book, a fifth-generation Floridian, is a native of
Madison. He is a graduate of the University of
Florida and a practicing attorney in Clearwater.
Long interested in Florida history, Mr. Goza has
been president of the Florida Historical Society
and of the Florida Anthropological Society. He
received an award from the American Association
for State and Local History for his contributions
to the preservation and interpretation of Florida
history. He is the author of articles and book
reviews which have appeared in professional and
scholarly journals, including the Florida Histori-
cal Quarterly. Mr. Goza received a Distinguished
Alumnus Award from the University of Florida
in 1976. He and Mrs. Goza have restored Mag-
nolia Hall in Madison and use it as their week-
A Guide-Book of Florida and the South for
Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants is one of the
twenty-five rare Florida books that are being
reprinted by the American Revolution Bicenten-
nial Commission of Florida as part of its exten-
sive research and publications program. Each
volume has been edited by a Florida history spe-
cialist who has also written an introduction and
compiled an index.
General Editor of the
Florida has long been a favored place for visit-
ing and for settlement by adventuresome and no-
madic peoples, and it is fortunate for posterity
that many of these have responded to the urge
to chronicle their travels and to describe the land
which they saw. One of the earliest accounts of
such a visit-albeit unintentional-is the one
given by Hernando d'Escalante Fontaneda, which
describes "The things, the shore, and the Indians
of Florida." That author was shipwrecked on the
coast of Florida about 1545 and remained a cap-
tive of the Indians for seventeen years. Although
the account given by Fontaneda has been gener-
ally criticized (even by Daniel Garrison Brinton,
who described the style as "crude and confused"),
there is hardly a serious writer about Florida's
early history who does not draw on this source.1
A much-quoted early account of a trip through
Florida, extended and without comfort, was given
by another Spaniard, Alvar Ndfiez, treasurer and
high sheriff of the expedition of Panfilo de Nar-
viez to Florida in 1528. Nufiez bore also the hon-
orary family title of Cabeza de Vaca.2 His ac-
count described not only Florida; he was the first
to write about the territory which he saw when
he crossed the North American continent. The
adventures of Cabeza de Vaca, drawn from his
original narrative published in 1542, have been
the subject of many books, from some written
for children to more scholarly accounts debating
and delineating routes and locations.
Perhaps best known of the early records of
Florida visits are those describing the travels
and travails of Hernando de Soto, who in 1539
journeyed through Florida and what is now the
southeastern part of the United States in search
of gold and glory. The four most mentioned ac-
counts of this ill-fated expedition range from
the day-to-day record of Luis Hernandez de Bi-
edma, the factor of the expedition,3 to the more
detailed and explicit, though second-hand, de-
scription of the journey by Garcilaso de la Vega.4
Also of considerable importance are the narra-
tives of Rodrigo Ranjel, private secretary of de
Soto, and that of the Knight of Elvas, an anony-
mous gentleman from Portugal who accompanied
There were a number of other accounts of
voyages and expeditions to Florida, but they all
had the common end, if not the purpose, of en-
ticing others to these golden shores in search of
personal fame, health, and fortune, or the propa-
gation of the religious beliefs of the travelers.
The results obtained by those who heeded those
early calls to Florida were in most cases disap-
pointing. As Fontaneda said of the Indians he
saw, they had "no gold, less silver and less cloth-
ing." David O. True later noted that this was a
condition also fairly prevalent among Floridians
four centuries later.6
Perhaps it was because the explorers and con-
quistadores suffered such hardships that the writ-
ers who followed these chroniclers sought to tell
others how to travel through Florida in ease and
comfort and how to avoid the perils and pitfalls
which might befall them in varying forms. Tour
guides have evolved from Fontaneda's Memoir
and other early accounts by travelers. The tourist
has replaced the conquistador, real estate invest-
ments have provided the gold which was so ea-
gerly sought by all, and orange juice is a palat-
able, though a less potent, substitute for the
liquids emanating from the mythical Fountain
of Youth. Travel books through the years have
sought to attract the prospective traveler with
eye-catching titles, such as Gone Sunwards, Flor-
ida Days, A Winter in Florida, and Going to
Florida?7 Authors have ranged from the cele-
brated, like Sidney Lanier and Harriet Beecher
Stowe, to those with less famous but with more
fanciful names, such as Silvia Sunshine and N. O.
Winter,8 whose sobriquets suggest strong coop-
eration with Florida tourist bureaus.
No prepossessing title identifies the slender
volume A Guide-Book of Florida and the South,
for Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants, published
in 1869, which is the subject of this introduction,
to which is subjoined, almost as a titular after-
thought, "a map of the St. John River." It seems
slanted to provide something for nearly everyone.
The author, Daniel Garrison Brinton, would in
his day be identified as someone well known in
specialized scientific fields but virtually a stranger
to the literary world except to those in his own
realm of work. This book is peripheral to his
scientific writings, and it was possibly written
as a by-product of his better-known and more
scholarly Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Its
Literary History, Indian Tribes and Antiquities."
Certainly, no one was more qualified by train-
ing, education, and experience to write a tour
guide of Florida than Daniel G. Brinton. The
information contained in the book was gained
from an extensive trip through the state that he
made during the winter of 1856-57.10 Florida had
lost her territorial status only a few years ear-
lier, in 1845.
Daniel Garrison Brinton, son of Lewis and Ann
(Garrison) Brinton, was born May 13, 1837, at
Thornberg (Chester County), Pennsylvania, of
English-Quaker descent. His ancestor William
Brinton had emigrated from Shropshire in 1684
and had joined William Penn's colony in Penn-
sylvania."1 An earlier ancestor Robertus de Brin-
ton, the first of the name known to history, was
given the Manor of Langford in the county of
Salop, Shropshire, England, by Henry I, and it
was held by his descendants for several centu-
ries.12 On the farm where Daniel Brinton was
born were the remains of an encampment of Del-
aware Indians, and the artifacts turned up there
by the plow probably excited the initial interest
which would determine his major lifework.13
His taste in literature as a child was shaped by
McClintock's Antiquarian Researches and Hum-
boldt's Cosmos, which he read again and again.14
The Reverend Mr. William Moore, pastor of the
Presbyterian Church of West Chester, Pennsyl-
vania, prepared young Daniel for college. Moore
was an excellent person to take on this responsi-
bility. He had graduated from Yale University
in 1847, and it was that institution which Brin-
ton entered on September 13, 1854.15 In his first
term at Yale he won second prize in English
composition; the following term he won first
prize. He was made chairman of the board of edi-
tors of the Yale Literary Magazine in 1857, and
he made numerous contributions to that publica-
tion, evidencing his antiquarian tastes. One of
his stories, "A City Gone to Seed," described St.
Brinton was active in his college fraternity,
Delta Kappa Epsilon, and it was during his col-
lege years that occurred one of the last of the
town-gown riots in New Haven. His scholastic
record was satisfactory, though not outstanding,
perhaps due to his many activities and interests
apart from his studies. He made second dispute
at the junior exhibition and at commencement,
and he received the Townsend Premium for his
essay "The Leaven of the Gospel in the Poetry
of Christian Nations."17
The winter of 1856-57, Brinton's junior year
at Yale, was spent in Florida. The occasion for
the journey is not known, but the trip provided
the inspiration and information which were the
bases for his work Notes on the Floridian Penin-
sula, described in 1907 as "the best work extant
of the archaeology of that peninsula," and which
foreshadowed where his true interests lay. Notes
on the Floridian Peninsula was published in 1859,
the year after Brinton received his bachelor of
arts degree from Yale.18 Thereafter, he entered
the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, re-
ceiving a medical degree on March 12, 1860.
From July 1860 to June 1861 Brinton traveled
in Europe, studying in Paris and Heidelberg.
Upon his return he commenced a medical prac-
tice in West Chester, Pennsylvania, in July 1861.
That same year he received the degree of master
of arts from Yale. The following months were
restless ones for him, at least until August 20,
1862, when he entered the United States Army
as acting assistant surgeon. Brinton received a
commission as surgeon of volunteers on February
9, 1863, an appointment which terminated his
duty with military hospitals in Philadelphia.
Brinton was assigned as surgeon-in-chief of
division, Eleventh Corps, Army of the Potomac,
and he was present at a number of historic en-
gagements, including Chancellorsville in May
1863 and Gettysburg in July 1863.19 The Elev-
enth was known as the German Corps because of
its high percentage of German-speaking units. It
was also called a "hard-luck outfit," and some of
its ill-fortune was shared by Brinton.20 He suf-
fered sunstroke in the fall of 1863, from which,
in his own judgment, he never completely recov-
ered.21 After General William S. Rosecrans had
fought the disastrous battle of Chickamauga in
Tennessee in September 1863, Brinton was sent
along with his Eleventh Corps and the Four-
teenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-first corps, as re-
inforcements to East Tennessee.22 There, he was
present at the Battles of Wauhatchie (October
1863), Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863),
and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863). It
was during that time that he was made medical
director of the Eleventh, the post he held until
April 1864, when he was transferred, at his own
request because of physical incapacity, to the
United States Army General Hospital at Quincy,
Illinois.23 Service at Quincy afforded Brinton the
opportunity to meet Miss Sarah Tillson of that
city; he married her on September 28, 1865, after
he had been brevetted lieutenant colonel of vol-
unteers for "meritorious service" and had been
honorably discharged from the army.24
After his marriage he returned to West Ches-
ter, and practiced medicine there until April
1867, when he moved to Philadelphia to become
assistant editor of a weekly publication, The
Medical and Surgical Reporter. In 1874 he was
named editor. It was while living in Philadelphia
that he published in 1869 the volume which is
being reprinted as a facsimile edition. He re-
mained with the medical journal until 1887, when
he retired in order to give more time to the
studies which had become his main interest in
life. He became a member of the American Philo-
sophical Society on April 16, 1869, and continued
a close association with that group of learned
scholars until his death, at which time he was
signally honored with a memorial meeting. Brin-
ton was elected curator of the American Philo-
sophical Society on January 5, 1877, and he held
that office for two decades. He was secretary of
the society for six years, and he was serving as
chairman of the publications committee at the
time of his death.25
From Dr. Brinton's first published work, The
Floridian Peninsula, in 1859, to his last unfin-
ished study on racial psychology, in 1899, he
wrote twenty-three books and a number of scien-
tific articles, pamphlets, monographs, and bro-
chures. He contributed forty-eight articles to the
Transactions and Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society, and the bibliography pre-
pared by Dr. Brinton of his works lists approxi-
mately 150 titles.26 During all the years of his
writing, he served in many capacities, including
editor of the Compendium of Medical Science
(1882) and editor and publisher of the Library
of American Aboriginal Literature, one of the
notable enterprises of the scientific world. In
1884, he became professor of ethnology and ar-
cheology in the Academy of National Sciences in
Philadelphia, and, in 1886, professor of American
linguistics and archeology at the University of
Pennsylvania. Dr. Brinton served for a number
of years as president of the Numismatic and
Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and between
1886 and 1894 he advanced from vice-president
to president of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science.27
Brinton's activities earned him an international
reputation. He made several journeys to Europe
for scientific meetings, and he was twice in North
Africa. His travels took him to Morocco, Algiers,
Constantinople, Tunis, and the Sahara Desert. In
1890, he became vice-president of the Interna-
tional Congress of Americanists in Paris. In
November 1892, President Benjamin Harrison
appointed him United States Commissioner to
Madrid to report on the archeology of the His-
torical American Exposition. The following year
he became president of the International Con-
gress of Anthropology. At the meeting that year
in Chicago, Brinton delivered three papers: "The
Nation as an Element in Anthropology," "Eth-
nology," and "Linguistics." He was also appointed
one of the judges for the World's Columbian Ex-
position in the Department of Ethnology, in Chi-
cago. In 1886, Dr. Brinton was awarded the
Medal of the Socie6t Americaine de France-the
first American to be so honored-for his "numer-
ous and learned works on American Ethnology."
He also held membership in the Society Royale
des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen (1884);
Real Academia de Historia, Madrid (1886);
Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Berlin
(1886) ; Wiener Anthropologische Gesellschaft,
Berlin (1886) ; Wiener Anthropologische Gesell-
schaft, Vienna (1888); Societe d'Ethnographie,
Paris (1890) ; Societa d'Ethnographia, Florence
(1890); and the Societa Romano di Anthropolo-
gia (1893). The excellence of Dr. Brinton's work
and his pre-eminence in his field of scientific
endeavor were also recognized by fellow Ameri-
cans and their institutions. In 1891, he received
the degree of LL.D. from the Jefferson Medical
College, and in June 1893, he was awarded the
honorary degree of D.Sc. from the University of
Brinton's literary style was lucid compared to
scientific literature generally, though when one
considers his literary tastes it is not unusual that
his writings should be so understandable. He read
extensively and had a great interest in art, hav-
ing visited most of the famous galleries of Eu-
rope. Robert Browning and Walt Whitman were
among his favorite poets, and he frequently spoke
and read before the Browning Society. Brinton
admitted that he had often resorted to the works
of Tennyson to illuminate his scientific perplexi-
ties. The realism of Henrik Ibsen and Emile
Zola also appealed to him, perhaps because of his
scientific training. Dr. Brinton did not enjoy mu-
sic, and he frequently quoted Jules Janin, "Music
is an expensive noise." In 1897, Brinton pub-
lished Maria Candelaria: An Historic Drama
from American Aboriginal Life. The story was
taken from the life of the Indian girl Canus, or
Marie Candelaria, the heroine of the revolt of the
Tzentals in 1712. It was written in a smooth and
agreeable form of blank verse, though it is rather
So broad was the scope of subject matter, and
so prolific the pen of Daniel Garrison Brinton,
that it would require several volumes of com-
ment and criticism to give even a cursory cover-
age of his scientific contributions. An illustration
of the correctness of this statement will be found
in the bibliography of Brinton's works which
was prepared by Stewart Culin and appeared as
a part of the published Memorial Meeting. Ex-
cluding reviews of books, short notes, purely lit-
erary articles, and medical writings, the list re-
quires twenty-six printed pages.30 Since over
three-quarters of a century have passed since
Dr. Brinton's death, it is remarkable that so
much of his work has stood undisputed by scien-
tific inquiry. It is inevitable that there should be
a challenge to some. Among Brinton's opinions
which are not generally acceptable today were
that the Eskimo extended far to the south of
their present eastern abode; the probability of
the derivation of the American race from Europe
at the close of the last glacial epoch; and his
correspondingly antagonistic attitude toward the
theory of Asiatic derivation of the Indians. But
even Hrdlicka, who spelled out that opposition,
concedes that Brinton supplied much useful data,
including his articles on the mound-builders,
which designated a mound-builder race distinct
from the rest of the Indians.31
Brinton died after a brief illness at Atlantic
City, New Jersey, on July 31, 1899, at the age of
sixty-two. His widow, Sarah Tillson Brinton, sur-
vived him and in 1908 was living in Media, Penn-
sylvania. His son, Robert T. Brinton, married
Rose, the daughter of Robert James Arkell and
Rose Smith, in Chicago, on October 6, 1897, and
in 1908 they were living in Rutledge, Pennsylva-
nia. Robert's oldest son, named for his grand-
father, died in 1902 at the age of four. There
was also a daughter, Sarah Maria Brinton, born
in 1900, and a son, Robert Arkell Brinton, born
in 1907. Dr. Brinton had a daughter, Emilia G.,
who married James Beaton Thompson in 1895.
Their two children, Elizabeth Hough and Daniel
Garrison Thompson, were born in 1896 and 1898,
respectively, and they were listed as living in
Philadelphia in 1908.32
The best measure of the degree of esteem and
affection in which Daniel Brinton was held by his
colleagues and associates may be found in the
memorial meeting which was held under the aus-
pices of the American Philosophical Society in
Philadelphia on January 16, 1900, by twenty-six
learned societies. There were representatives from
the American Antiquarian Society, American As-
sociation for the Advancement of Science, Amer-
ican Folk-Lore Society, American Museum of
Natural History, Bureau of American Ethnol-
ogy, Jefferson Medical College, Peabody Institute
of Arts and Sciences, Smithsonian Institution,
United States National Museum, and the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania. A letter from Frank Hamil-
ton Gushing, who could not attend because of
illness, described the count of Dr. Brinton's work
as "scarce less than the Wallum Olum of the Leni
Lenapi of his native state, which he was the first
to adequately edit and introduce-that stands, a
monument more lasting than the sculptured mon-
oliths of Central America which he loved and
labored so successfully to make speak again-
leaving pathways and signs for all the rest of us
to follow or beware, in study of these the most
subtle and significant of our archaeological prob-
Charles C. Harrison, provost of the University
of Pennsylvania, talked of Dr. Brinton as "a man
of heart as well as of brain." Judge Samuel W.
Pennypacker presented an oil portrait of Dr.
Brinton, the gift of his friends, to the American
Philosophical Society. It was the work of the
distinguished artist Thomas Eakins. The portrait
was accepted for the society by Professor Dr.
J. W. Holland, who described Brinton as "the
patriot surgeon, the man of light and leading,
the learned archaeologist."
Professor Albert H. Smyth delivered the me-
morial address, which has been used as a major
source material here. Smyth mentioned the eight-
volume Library of Aboriginal Literature, which
Brinton began editing and publishing in 1882,
describing it as a "monument of learning . . . one
of the most notable scientific enterprises of this
country." He also stressed the importance of
Brinton's The American Race, a systematic classi-
fication of all the tribes of North, Central, and
South America on the basis of language. It de-
fined seventy-nine linguistic stocks in North
America and sixty-one in South America and
refers to nearly 1,600 tribes. Smyth praised Brin-
ton as having lived a "blameless, devoted and
beneficent life. His work is permanent and valu-
able. He could say with Landor, 'I have warmed
both hands before the fire of life. It sinks, and I
am ready to depart.' "
The Reverend Jesse Y. Burk then presented to
the American Philosophical Society, in the name
of Dr. Brinton's family, a complete set of his
printed works, describing them as "books trium-
phant." The collection was accepted by Joseph G.
Rosengarten, who called the volumes "an endur-
ing memorial of [Brinton's] many-sided literary
activity." Stewart Culin, who also prepared the
annotated bibliography as a contribution to the
memorial meeting and which became a part of
its proceedings, presented a bronze medal of Dr.
Brinton; it had been struck by the Numismatic
and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. The
medal was received for the society by Dr. J. Ches-
Dr. W. J. McGee concluded the meeting with
an address on Brinton's ethnological work, and
he described Dr. Brinton as a "voracious yet ju-
dicious reader, a vigorous yet discriminating
thinker, and a courageous yet courteous writer."
Brinton was noted for his courtesy as well as for
the vigor with which he enforced his convictions.
His statements were clear and trenchant, and al-
though in debate he was incisive and even sharp
in criticism, he was by nature fair and tolerant.
He had a strong personality which attracted au-
diences, but it was among intimates that he was
at his best. He was known as a delightful com-
panion, a charming host, and an ideal guest.33
Brinton was buried, by choice, with a quiet
Episcopal service. He had not been a very ortho-
dox man in his religious practices, but the cere-
monies of a ritual appealed to him as an outward
expression of a man in the presence of over-
whelming mystery. Some perhaps wondered why
the man who had sought freedom for himself
should have been buried with the voice of reli-
gious service. But, in his choice, he as fully ex-
pressed himself, perhaps, as though he had been
laid to rest in the silence of sunlight. "The man
who spoke with free heart at the grave of Walt
Whitman" lives nonetheless for posterity.34
A Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for
Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants, like many
nineteenth-century Florida volumes, is rare and,
when available, expensive. It was published in
Philadelphia by George Maclean of 719 Sanson
Street in the late summer or fall of 1869. Actual
printing was done by Wylie and Griest, Inquirer
Printing House and Book Bindery of Lancaster,
Pennsylvania. In Florida, the publisher was Co-
lumbus Drew of Jacksonville. Most of the origi-
nal books now available in libraries or private
collections are lacking the "map of the St. John
River." Whether it was removed through care-
lessness or design is not known. In his preface,
Dr. Brinton says that the map was based "on
that drawn by my friend, Mr. H. Linden Kohl,
U.S. Coast Survey." With or without the map,
however, the book now owes its desirability more
to its scarceness than to the varied information
that it contains. With the advent of air travel
and interstate highways, only a few travelers
today would try to make the trip to the South
and to Florida by steamship or railroad. Even
those persevering souls who would seek out and
find the route by sea, or those who would share
the pioneering aspects of Amtrak by land, would
find little comfort or assistance from the sched-
ules appearing in this book. Even the hotels have
disappeared, along with the attractive rates men-
tioned by Dr. Brinton.
The plan of the book was modeled somewhat
after the European guidebooks of Karl Baedeker,
called by Brinton the "best . . . ever published,"
and Baedeker's use of the asterisk was borrowed
to denote noteworthy objects or well-kept hotels.35
Brinton recognized that railroad fares, accom-
modations, and charges were constantly chang-
ing.36 After an introductory section on "prelimi-
nary hints," the book is divided into three parts:
"Southern Routes," "Florida," and "Chapter to
Invalids." The largest section of the book, sev-
enty-five pages, is devoted to Florida.
Brinton defines the most desirable season for
southern travel as October to May, an extension
that would doubtless be pleasing to present-day
tourist bureaus. He warns, however, of the peri-
odic rains and oppressive heat after the first of
June. The reader is also warned of "swamp mi-
asm," or "miasma," which begins to pervade the
low grounds about mid-summer and which Brin-
ton described as "an invisible poisonous exhala-
tion" which "spreads around" the travelers (p.
9). Miasma, which has been described as a "nox-
ious exhalation from putrescent organic matter,"
was feared as the carrier of the dreaded yellow
fever.37 The presence of the mosquito in swamp
areas had not yet been related to yellow fever, so
the miasma "arising" from the low lands was
blamed for a variety of diseases common to such
localities. With the development of germ theories
of medicine during and after the Civil War, the
once-feared miasma was relegated to the growing
list of medicine by supposition.38
One bit of information and advice from the
introductory section of the book will not be dis-
puted by any traveler today. Brinton suggests
that before leaving on the journey, one's teeth
should be "set" by a skillful dentist. As he cor-
rectly states, there is no record of "a philosopher
who could tranquilly bear a jumping toothache."
Brinton also suggests a mosquito net for autumn
nights. A teaspoonful of carbolic acid or camphor
sprinkled in the room, he had learned, would be
"disagreeable" to the insects, but "often equally
so to the traveler." He also advised the visitor to
include in his baggage devilledd ham, sardines,
potted meats . . . a flask of wine . . . a strong
umbrella . . . a stout pocket knife." And every
wise tourist, he cautioned, should check to see if
"the sheets on the bed [are] dry" (pp. 10-11).
In Brinton's day, steamers were readily avail-
able between New York and Charleston, Savan-
nah, Fernandina, and Key West, and between
those same cities and Philadelphia. Even Palatka
was reached every other day by a steamer from
Charleston and Savannah. Although the railroad
lines mentioned by Brinton are still operating
between the major cities along the east coast, the
fares of that era bear slight resemblance to those
in present-day schedules. Brinton cites a fare of
$38.65 from New York to Jacksonville; the pres-
ent Amtrak rate is $66.00. However, when one
considers the time spent in travel between the
two cities in Brinton's time and today, and the
applicable relative purchasing power of the dol-
lar of the 1860s and the present time, perhaps
one of the best values today would be found in
rail travel. It took the traveler in the decade
prior to the Civil War twelve and one-half hours
to go by train from Savannah to Jacksonville; a
passenger train today makes the same trip in
two hours and twenty-five minutes.
On the map in Brinton's book, the spelling of
Florida's main river appears as "St. John." Brin-
ton notes that, in the "best usage of our geo-
graphical writers," the possessive use was not
employed (p. 53). This river has been known by
many names, just as the land through which it
flows has been owned by several nations. The
Indians, according to Brinton, called it Il-la-ka,
River of Lakes, which the European invaders
corrupted to Welaka. This name has survived to
the present day as a community south of Palatka,
on Florida Highway 309.
The first-known Spanish name for the river
was Rio de Corrientes (River of the Currents).
This designation is shown on a map dating from
about 1544, once in the possession of Alonzo de
Santa Cruz, the Spanish royal cosmographer.39
The original is located in the Archivo General de
las Indias in Seville, Spain.40 The French inva-
sion of Florida by Jean Ribault in 1562 intro-
duced still another name. Ribault's account was
contemporaneously translated in a manuscript
now in the British museum: "which river we
have called by the name of the river of Maye, for
that we discovered the same the first day of that
The name Riviere de May did not survive much
longer, except in literature and history, than did
the occupation of the area by the French. It was
called Corrientes by the Spanish for over a hun-
dred years, although Father Ore referred to it in
1616 as River Tocoy, for an early Indian mission
on its bank, and Pedro Menendez renamed it Rio
San Mateo, or St. Matthew, in 1565. In some mis-
sion reports around the beginning of the 1600s,
the river is noted as the Rio Dulce and Agua
Dulce (fresh water).42
In 1755, the English map of John Mitchell
showed the alternate names of San Matheo and
San Juan for the river, the latter designation
honoring St. John the Evangelist. This was also
the name given to the Spanish mission of San
Juan del Puerto, which had been established at
Fort George Island near the mouth of the river
in 1587.43 The name of St. John, or St. John's
River, was to be the derivative name, with and
without the apostrophe.44 Finally, the United
States Board of Geographic Names adopted a
general policy of dropping the apostrophe, and
Brinton's use of the name of St. John River was
superseded by the now universally accepted des-
ignation St. Johns River, without the apostrophe.
In spite of Brinton's familiarity with the river,
he fell into the common error of mistaking the
direction of the flow. The St. Johns is unique in
that it is one of the largest rivers in the United
States that flows north for most of its course, yet
Brinton, in trying to call the reader's attention
to this unique feature, mistakenly wrote: "it
flows nearly due south until within fifteen miles
of its mouth" (p. 52).
Dr. Brinton noted the population of Jackson-
ville at "7,000 souls," with the corporate limits
"between two creeks which fall into the St. John
about a mile and a quarter apart." The most
expensive hotel, the St. James, was "on the pub-
lic square," and its rooms rented for $4.00 a day.
The St. James opened January 1, 1869, with 120
guest rooms, including the innovative luxury of
hot and cold baths. There were also bowling alleys
and a billiard room in the four-story wooden
structure. When General Robert E. Lee visited
Jacksonville in 1870, the St. James Hotel was
pointed out to him as "the Fifth Avenue Hotel
of Florida." In 1888, President Cleveland stayed
there with his wife during their attendance at
the Sub-Tropical Exposition. Other city hotels
were listed in Brinton's guide as charging from
$2.00 to $3.00 a day (p. 56). Superior accommo-
dations enabled Jacksonville to become a favorite
resort for invalids during the winter months (p.
57). The newspaper Florida Union, which Dr.
Brinton labeled as republicanan]" is listed, along
with the Mercury and Floridian and Florida Land
Register. The Florida Union, which began publi-
cation in 1864, was purchased by Charles Jones,
editor of the rival Jacksonville Times, and the
first issue of the Florida Times-Union appeared
on February 4, 1883.45
Continuing south along the St. Johns River,
Brinton notes the residence at Mandarin of Mrs.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, the famed author of
Uncle Tom's Cabin. She had settled on part of the
"Old Fairbanks Grant" in 1867. Travelers could
sometimes see Mrs. Stowe and members of her
family on the lawn overlooking the river as the
boats went by. Brinton described the hotel at
Hibernia as "one of the best on the river,""46 and
he noted the presence of a sanatorium at Mag-
nolia (pp. 59-60) near Green Cove Springs. That
latter is described as "sulphurous ... of value in
chronic rheumatism, cutaneous disease and dys-
pepsia," with a temperature of 78�F at all sea-
sons (p. 61). Brinton was not entirely correct in
this regard. The temperature of the water varies
with the seasons; it was measured at 770F in
April 1946 and only 700F in February 1924. The
analyses of the chemical content of the water
remained almost identical for the two dates. No
longer is any specific medicinal value assigned to
the waters from the springs, its utilization being
described as "swimming and drinking."47
Dr. Brinton devotes almost ten pages to a de-
scription of St. Augustine, extending his usual
comments on local facilities to include a short
and largely accurate history of the city. He in-
correctly states that the fort (known as Fort
Marion at the time of his visit) was "commenced
of stone about 1640" (p. 63), when the correct
date was 1672,48 and he incorrectly dates the
founding of the colony of Georgia in 1732 (p.
64). His errors were undoubtedly derived from
George R. Fairbanks' The Spaniards in Florida,
cited by him as "the best" book (p. 63). It was
published by Columbus Drew of Jacksonville, who
was also the publisher of "this unpretending little
book," as Brinton referred to his work (Preface,
p. iii). Fairbanks wrote that in 1640 "Apala-
chian" Indians (p. 71) were brought to St. Au-
gustine "to labor upon the public works and for-
tifications of the city," and Brinton probably
construed that "work" to mean construction of
the great masonry fort which the Spanish called
Castillo de San Marcos. Fairbanks had also in-
correctly stated that Oglethorpe had "planted"
his colony in Georgia in 1732.49 While it is true
that Oglethorpe and his company set sail for
America on November 17, 1732, they did not land
at the present site of Savannah until February 12
of the following year.50 It is pointless to quibble
over such errors, but it seems more interesting
when the fallacy can be traced. Dr. Brinton can-
not, however, explain his error of the "changing
hands" of Spanish supremacy in Florida by blam-
ing Fairbanks for the erroneous date (1781)
given in his book (p. 65) for the return of Flor-
ida to Spain by England. Two of Fairbanks' ac-
counts, nearly identical, show 1783 as the correct
date.51 Dr. Brinton seemed to feel a strange fasci-
nation for St. Augustine, like many of its visitors
then and now. While in college at Yale he had
described it as "a very dull, lethargic, little city,"
yet he could not dismiss it without also calling it
"beautiful, lovely; sleeping like an odalisque by
its quiet bay."52
From St. Augustine, Brinton went on to
"Picolata on the St. John" and by noting that he
arrived the day after the burial of John Lee Wil-
liams (pp. 70-71), one knows that he was there
on November 9, 1856. Williams had died two
days earlier and was buried, according to Brin-
ton, in his "neat garden plot" where "the wind
moaned in the pines."53
Palatka, Welaka, Volusia, and Blue Springs are
mentioned in that order. Brinton's description of
Blue Springs in Volusia County (the county was
established December 29, 1854) does not differ
materially from one of the Florida Depart-
ment of Conservation three-quarters of a century
later, although no doubt its chemical analysis
would have interested him, since he comments on
its sulphurous nature. The average flow of the
spring, which for the fifteen years following 1932
was over 100 million gallons per day, would cer-
tainly have confirmed his judgment of its mag-
Enterprise and Fort Mellon on Lake Monroe
are the terminal points of Dr. Brinton's voyage
on the river, and according to him the source of
St. Johns was unknown (p. 77). Apparently, he
was not familiar with United States government
surveys made in 1822 which claimed that the St.
Johns "takes its rise in a small lake," known
today by the descriptive name of Lake Helen
After a brief mention of New Smyrna, with a
short account concerning Dr. Andrew Turnbull
and the Minorcans, Italians, and Greeks who
settled there in 1767, Dr. Brinton takes passing
notice of the Indian River section of Florida. He
was interested in the manner in which mail was
carried "by a man on foot" from Jupiter Inlet
along the beach to Miami (p. 80), and he thus
gives his readers a glimpse of the person who
would later be widely known as "The Barefoot
Mailman." Brinton estimates the route as ninety
miles long; in later years, Theodore Pratt, author
of The Barefoot Mailman, lists it only as sixty-
Brinton deals in rather summary fashion with
the section of Florida now known as the "Big
Bend," the area westward from Jacksonville to
Tallahassee. Although Olustee is mentioned as "a
rising village" and Ocean Pond as "a handsome
sheet of water" (p. 81), no statement is made of
the engagement fought there, the largest in Flor-
ida during the Civil War, although that event
took place only some five years prior to the pub-
lication of his book. Perhaps Brinton thought
southerners might resent his description of con-
flicts of that period, or perhaps he felt such
events should not be mentioned because they had
occurred after his visit to Florida. At any rate,
Brinton seems to have avoided mention of the
war. He referred only to "the fire of April 2,
1865" without connecting it with the fall of Rich-
mond, Virginia, except for an oblique reference
to "that disastrous epoch" (p. 17). Mention of
the north-central Florida area is not enticing,
with stops at an "insignificant" station at San-
derson, "two tolerable hotels" in Lake City (p.
81), and "passable" accommodations at Suwan-
nee Springs north of Live Oak, called by Brinton
the "Lower Spring" (p. 83). By contrast, how-
ever, he notes the "good table . . . set [at Live
Oak] by Mr. Conner, who keeps the hotel" (pp.
82-83). Monticello, in Jefferson County, he found
to be "pleasantly located," and the climate of the
entire section, "dry and equable," with the soil
growing "the very best upland pine" (p. 84).
George M. Barbour, in a book published some
thirteen years later, supported Dr. Brinton's ap-
praisal of "this part" of Florida.57
Tallahassee elicits little comment from Dr.
Brinton, but he noted the population, then 3,000,
and the selection of that site as the state capital
in 1823. Brinton knew that John Lee Williams
had been one of the two commissioners who had
recommended the location for Florida's capital
city. For some reason he does not give the name
of Dr. W. H. Simmons of St. Augustine, the other
commissioner. Perhaps he glossed over the omis-
sion by erroneously stating that there were three
commissioners who acted (pp. 84-85). In Talla-
hassee, Brinton visited a "pleasant stream" in
"the eastern part of the town," the same "mill
stream" which, according to John Lee Williams,
"falls fifteen or sixteen feet, into a gulf scooped
out by its own current, and finally sinks into a
cleft of limestone rock."58 Brinton described Flor-
ida's historic capitol building, as "handsome" and
"spacious," noting that it was built during Flor-
ida's territorial days.
Quincy, Madison, and Newport were seen only
as the train passed through, and there is little
description of these communities. St. Marks, San
Marcos de Apalache, and Wakulla Springs are
described in more detail, with the spring receiv-
ing special attention because of its "marvellous
clearness" (p. 87).
Brinton, like so many others before and after
him, was apparently captivated by the Oklawaha
River and the "Silver Spring" (p. 88). Although
only five pages are devoted to this part of Florida,
Dr. Brinton pictures the river as "a narrow, swift
and tortuous stream, overhung by enormous cy-
presses" and "natural leafy curtains of vines."
There were "forests of cypress, curled maple,
black and prickly ash, cabbage trees, and loblolly
bays" (p. 88), "thousands of beautiful and fra-
grant flowers," and a spring basin "tinged with
the hues of the rainbow" (p. 90). There is a brief
description of Silver Spring (Brinton uses the
singular), and reference is made to a "good de-
scription" of it in a book by General George Mc-
Call; with the practical eye of a scientist and
bookseller, Brinton calls attention to a "more sci-
entific" description in one of his own books.59
Ocala was "a neat town" (p. 91), and Leesburg
was delineated only as "the county seat of Sum-
ter county" (p. 92) ; the latter statement may
come as a surprise to some residents of Bushnell
and of Lake County.
A journey on the railroad constructed by United
States Senator David Yulee from Fernandina to
Cedar Key, a road which had been completed by
1861 and rendered inoperable by the events of the
Civil War, is also on Brinton's itinerary. Since
the 154-mile journey required eleven hours in
transit, one can only wonder about the railroad's
condition at best.60 The three and one-half pages
devoted to the passage are relatively uninterest-
ing, and the trip itself probably was likewise dull.
Cedar Key's population at the time was only 400.
The highlight of the description of this segment
of his Florida travel is Brinton's outline of
Gainesville, with a population of 1,500. Brinton
was obviously impressed by the Devil's Millhop-
per which he called the "Devil's Wash Pot," and
by Payne's Prairie (p. 94). Warren's Cave and
the natural bridge over the Santa Fe River, two
more of the natural wonders of the area, were
noticed. Worthington Springs (now in Union
County) is incorrectly designated as "Wellington"
Springs, a misnomer that would doubtless be dis-
pleasing to William G. D. Worthington, an 1822
United States marshal who also served briefly as
acting governor of the Territory of East Florida,
for whom the community was named.61
With its population of 4,800, Key West pro-
vides still another interesting insight into Brin-
ton's activities and interests which would other-
wise be undisclosed. He mentions not only the
accommodations, natural characteristics, and local
activities, but he was also aware of "the dark
eyes, rich tresses, graceful forms, and delicate
feet of the ladies." The "favorite social drink" of
the community, according to Brinton, was "cham-
perou, a compound of curacoa [sic], eggs, Jamaica
spirits and other ingredients" (p. 99). The United
States Naval Station and Fort Taylor, then under
construction, are mentioned. Dr. Brinton liked
Key West's climate; he found it to be "the most
equable in the United States" (p. 100). Only a
slight reference is made to Fort Jefferson in the
Dry Tortugas and its utilization as a prison "dur-
ing the war." Dr. Samuel Mudd's incarceration
there because of his involvement with John Wilkes
Booth is not described. Brinton did note that "at
one time the yellow fever carried off great num-
bers of them [inhabitants of the fortress]" (pp.
Perhaps the most prophetic portion of Dr. Brin-
ton's book is his short narrative of Miami. While
the accommodations were "poor and insufficient"
and there were "few settlers" in the area, Brin-
ton describes the winter climate on the south-
eastern coast of Florida as the "finest . . . both
in point of temperature and health." He feels
that "before long" accommodations will be pro-
vided (p. 102). Perhaps also a trace of prophecy
might be found in Brinton's statement that Wil-
liam Gleason, later lieutenant governor of Flor-
ida, who resided in Miami at that time, "will
entertain travelers to the extent that he can" (p.
103). In the Miami area, Dr. Brinton also visited
"Arch creek," "the Punch Bowl," and "Old and
New Matacumba [sic]" (pp. 104-5).
Brinton describes the physical characteristics
of the area from Cape Sable to Tampa, but pre-
sumably accommodations were lacking for the
visitor. Tampa had only 600 inhabitants, and
since the hotels and boardinghouses are listed
without recommendation, one should assume their
mediocrity. The area generally is praised, and the
military establishment at Fort Brooke is listed
as "one of the best stations in the United States
for providing the mess" (p. 108). Brinton men-
tions the claim that Hernando de Soto landed at
"Tampa, or Espiritu Santo Bay" (p. 109) in May
1539, citing the authority of Theodore Irving
and Buckingham Smith. Proponents of a Caloosa-
hatchee River landing site will be pleased to see
that Dr. Brinton also included Smith's comment
that he believed the landing place of Hernando
de Soto "to be far southward of Tampa."62
Apalachicola and Pensacola fare no better with
Brinton than did Tampa. There were no hotels
in Pensacola, even though it had then about 2,000
inhabitants. Boardinghouses were available with
good but limited accommodations near the rail-
road depot. Brinton noted that the climate at
Pensacola was "bracing in winter," but that un-
fortunately almost all consumptives grew worse.
Milton is the last of the Florida communities dis-
cussed, and it is described as "a pleasant town"
(p. 112). From Florida, Dr. Brinton went next
to Mobile, Alabama, and thus traveled out of the
range of this Introduction.
The final portion of the book is called "Chap-
ters to Invalids," and in it Brinton devotes
twenty-two pages to such subjects as the advis-
ability of a climate change for invalids and the
best kind to be chosen, where the most favorable
southern climate is to be found, and suggestions
to health seekers. In preparation for a discussion
of the final part of the book, with a view toward
comparing and contrasting medical opinions of
Dr. Brinton's day and those of the present era,
we have been guided in our comments by a gen-
eral practitioner from a metropolitan area of
Florida, who is familiar with the contents of this
Dr. Brinton discusses a half dozen diseases
which he believed could be cured or eased by liv-
ing in a more moderate climate. Pulmonary con-
sumption receives primary consideration, and Dr.
Brinton prescribes a "change of air" since he
believed that consumption is curable if treated
in its early stages (p. 115). Breathing fresh air
was regarded by many nineteenth-century physi-
cians as the best palliative for the disease. Dr.
Edward L. Trudeau, a pioneer advocate of that
type of treatment, founded a tubercular center
in the Adirondack Mountains of New York in
1884. There he exposed his patients to fresh air
whenever possible, even to the extent of requiring
them to sleep on an outdoor porch in the winter.
That kind of medical treatment remained in force
until the advent of anti-tuberculosis medications
in the 1940s. With the discovery of streptomycin
in 1944, PAS in 1946, and isoniazid (INH) in
1952, fresh-air tuberculosis centers began to de-
cline in importance.
Dr. Brinton stressed the importance of courage
on the part of the patient, and this characteristic
continues to be regarded as an important factor
in combatting a variety of illnesses. Outstanding
examples of those who supposedly overcame fra-
gility of health through personal fortitude are
Robert Louis Stevenson and Theodore Roosevelt.
Brinton believed that bronchitis was another
disease that would respond to a "change of air"
(p. 117). However, many of the diseases referred
to as bronchitis in Dr. Brinton's day might now,
with modern X-ray equipment, result in a diag-
nosis of emphysema, black-lung disease, bronchi-
ectasis, or even allergy. The mild winter climate
prescribed by Dr. Brinton for all such ailments
would undoubtedly be beneficial, but augmenta-
tion of treatment with modern drugs is necessary
for a complete cure.
Scrofula-tuberculosis of the lymph nodes of
the neck-is spoken of with dread by Dr. Brin-
ton. His statement that the victims of this disease
often possess a "precocious, spiritual, intelli-
gence" tends to find support in the case of Sam-
uel Johnson, whose similar disease might be said
to have been accompanied by some of these qual-
ities. Brinton prescribes "a total change of air,
diet, surroundings" which would probably help
even those without scrofula (p. 117).
Rheumatism was also a concern of Dr. Brinton,
and he advises rheumatics to prolong their lives
by inhabiting "a warm, equable climate" (p.
118). Brinton mentions in connection with rheu-
matism the concomitant organic disease, known
now generally as "heart murmur," and prescribes
the same treatment. Today, it is known that rheu-
matism will follow streptococcal infections ("strep
throat"), and early treatment with proper drugs
can inhibit rheumatism.
Dr. Brinton recommends travel as the best cure
for dyspepsia, now recognized as heartburn or in-
digestion. Some contradiction with modern medi-
cine is shown in Brinton's discussion of nervous
and mental exhaustion, which he identifies as
paresis. Today, the term is generally confined to
the narrow meaning of syphilis of the brain, but
Brinton probably used the term to describe de-
mentia, without reference to syphilis. Dr. Brinton
refers to this disease in his discussion of senility
and observes that cold weather is the foe of the
aged: "Relaxation from business and . .. winters
in a warm climate about the age of sixty, will
add ten years to life" (p. 119). Few doctors or
patients today would argue with that advice.
According to Dr. Brinton, heat stimulates the
faculty of reproduction, and thus, according to
his diagnosis, a warm climate is desirable for
"marriages not blessed by offspring" (p. 119).
The Japanese might differ with this view; to
them a daily hot bath is regarded as the best
means of keeping them in a state of relative in-
fertility. Dr. Brinton merely adds to a long list
of fertility rites when he praises a warm climate,
a list which was also earlier augmented from
Florida by the drinking of sassafras tea.64
Dr. Brinton realized that no climate can be
recommended indiscriminately for all, but he be-
lieved that a change was important. According
to him, the best climate for invalids included "an
equable temperature, moderate moisture, moder-
ate and regular winds, and freedom from local
disease" (p. 124). Dr. Brinton believed that of all
parts of the United States, the section that was
most desirable was the southeast coast of Florida
(p. 126), in particular Key Biscayne (p. 130).
In "Some Hints to Health Seekers," Brinton
stressed the importance of keeping the mind and
body active. He advised collecting "something ...
bugs . . . butterflies . . . mosses . . . fossils . ..
flowers ... in fair weather," and spending one's
time in "their arrangement when it rains" (p.
131). In this regard, Dr. Brinton anticipated Dr.
William Osler, who said: "No man is really happy
or safe without a hobby, and it makes precious
little difference what the outside interests may
be-botany, beetles or butterflies, roses, tulips or
irises; fishing, mountaineering or antiquities-
anything will do so long as he straddles a hobby
and rides it hard."65
Brinton deplored "interminable picture gal-
leries" and "cold, damp churches" for sightseers
abroad (p. 131). Florida, he discovered, had none
of these, but he found to his delight that there
"Nature has spread out boundless attractions"
(p. 131). He urged "exercise in the open air"
(p. 132), and he showed concern for food. His
diet regimen for consumptives is compatible with
modern medical advice in that it recommends
foods which will increase caloric intake and re-
duce calcium deposits.
Valetudinarians would perhaps be surprised
that Dr. Brinton regarded medicine as "of sec-
ondary importance" (p. 134). Today's medical
practitioners might also disagree with Brinton's
feelings about the relative importance of medi-
cine. Dr. Brinton did recommend cod-liver oil for
consumptives. Doctors now also realize that the
vitamin D found in cod-liver oil absorbs calcium,
and it has a therapeutic value in treating diseases
affecting the lungs. They also support Brinton's
dietary aids in avoiding constipation, but they
might be surprised that he recommended "corn
grits" for this purpose (p. 135). Brinton pre-
scribed quinine for malaria, and he urged that
one live away from stagnant water. Of course,
when this book was first published in 1869, it was
not then known that the mosquito caused malaria
in human beings.
Dr. Brinton urged northerners to journey to
Florida. He claimed that any belief that visitors
would be the target of "unpleasant feeling" was
"entirely groundless." The risks of travel were
minimal, he felt, and he agreed with Thoreau
that " 'We sit as many risks as we run' " (p. 136).
What, then, do we conclude after a considera-
tion of "this unpretending little book" and its
author? Perhaps this was one of Brinton's lesser
efforts, though it is interesting as a chronicle of
the post-Civil War period and as an important
view of Florida and the South. It contained med-
ical advice which is largely uncontradicted by
modern medical practice, and the book must have
been regarded in its day as important to those
who contemplated travel in the South. Dr. Brin-
ton realized the importance of Florida as a
health resort, and he strongly suggested its de-
velopment: "I build for the future, and not the
present" (p. 130).
Perhaps, though, over all shines the star of
Daniel Garrison Brinton the scientist and Daniel
Brinton the man. No one could have eulogized
him more aptly than Provost Charles C. Harrison
at the Brinton Memorial of the American Philo-
sophical Society, when he described his friend as
"a man of heart as well as of brain."66
1. The original manuscript of Fontaneda's memoir
is located in the Archivo General de las Indias, Se-
ville, Spain (Patronato 18, Number 5). Buckingham
Smith's 1854 translation with notes of the document
was edited by David O. True and published in 1944
and 1973: Memoir of Do d'Escalante Fontaneda Re-
specting Florida (Miami, 1973), pp. 16, 19.
2. Buckingham Smith, trans., Relation of Alvar
Niu'ez Cabeza de Vaca (New York, 1871; facsimile
edition, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966).
3. The original text was first published by Buck-
ingham Smith in his Coleccion de Varios Documentos
para la Historia de la Florida y Tierras Adyacentes,
Tomo I (London, 1857).
4. Garcilaso de la Vega, La Florida del Inca (Lis-
bon, 1605; Madrid, 1723).
5. Ranjel's original manuscript is lost; the con-
tents are known to us only through Gonzalo Fernan-
dez de Oviedo de Valdes, Historia General y Natural
de las Indias (Madrid, 1526). The account of de
Soto's expedition by the Gentleman of Elvas appeared
at Evora, Portugal, in 1557. Richard Hakluyt pub-
lished it in English in 1609 as Virginia Richly Valued.
See Hakluyt, trans., The Discovery and Conquest of
Terra Florida, by Don Francisco De Soto, ed. William
B. Rye (London, 1851).
6. Smith, Memoir of Do d'Escalante Fontaneda,
7. Cecil Roberts, Gone Sunwards (London, 1936);
Margaret DeLand, Florida Days (Boston, 1889);
Ledyard Bill, A Winter in Florida (New York,
1869); Frank M. Dunbaugh, Jr., Going to Florida?
(New York, 1925).
8. Sidney Lanier, Florida: Its Scenery, Climate,
and History (Philadelphia, 1875; facsimile edition,
Gainesville, Fla., 1973); Harriet Beecher Stowe,
Palmetto-Leaves (Boston, 1873; facsimile edition,
Gainesville, Fla., 1968); Silvia Sunshine [Abbie M.
Brooks], Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes (Nash-
ville, Tenn., 1880; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla.,
1976); Nevin O. Winter, Florida, the Land of En-
chantment (Boston, 1918).
9. (Philadelphia, 1859; facsimile edition, New
10. Alexander F. Chamberlain, "In Memoriam:
Daniel Garrison Brinton," Journal of American Folk-
Lore 12 (July-September 1899) :215.
11. Dictionary of American Biography, 3:50-51;
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 9:
12. Memorial address by Professor Albert H.
Smyth, January 16, 1900, in Brinton Memorial Meet-
ing (Philadelphia, 1900), p. 18.
13. Anson Phelps Stokes, Memorials of Eminent
Yale Men, 3 vols. (New Haven, 1914), 1:351:
14. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp.
15. Stokes, Memorials of Eminent Yale Men,
16. "A City Gone to Seed," Yale Literary Mag-
azine 12 (June 1857) :261.
17. William P. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Rec-
ord of the Class of Fifty-eight, Yale University (New
Britain, Conn., 1897), passim.
18. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography,
9:265; DAB, 3:50-51.
19. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, p. 77.
20. Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dic-
tionary (New York, 1959), p. 193.
21. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, n.s. 10 (August
22. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, pp. 149-53.
23. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, pp. 77-78.
24. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp.
25. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, p. 78;
Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, p. 26.
26. Smyth, p. 26; Chamberlain, "In Memoriam:
Daniel Garrison Brinton," p. 223.
27. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, p. 194.
28. Chamberlain, "In Memoriam: Daniel Garrison
Brinton," p. 222; Bacon, Fourth Biographical Rec-
ord, p. 79.
29. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp.
30. Stewart Culin, ibid., pp. 42-67.
31. Alex Hrdlicka, American Anthropologist 16
(1914) : 539.
32. William Plumb Bacon, Fifth Biographical Rec-
ord, Class of Fifty-eight, Yale University (New
Britain, Conn., 1908), p. 35.
33. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, p. 195.
34. Helen Abbott Michael, in The Conservator
(September 1899), p. 103.
35. Karl Baedeker (1801-59) published his guide-
books at Coblenz, Germany; by the time Brinton's
book was published, Baedeker had been dead ten
years, but his son, Fritz Baedeker, continued the
business, moving it to Leipzig. See Columbia Ency-
clopedia, 3d ed. (New York, 1963), p. 148.
36. That "such matters are constantly changing"
(Preface, p. iii), caused consternation among writers
of guidebooks then but now delights such authors as
a cause of a "new and revised edition."
37. Random House Dictionary of the English Lan-
guage (New York, 1966), p. 904.
38. J. E. Dovell, Florida, Historic, Dramatic, Con-
temporary, 4 vols. (New York, 1952), 1:388.
39. William P. Cumming, The Southeast in Early
Maps (Princeton, 1958), plate 5, p. 113.
40. Indiferente General, Estante 145, Cajon 7,
Legajo 8, Ramo 272.
41. Jean Ribau[l]t, The Whole & True Discouerye
of Terra Florida, ed. Jeannette Thurber Conner (De-
Land, Fla., 1927; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla.,
1964), p. 70.
42. Herbert M. Corse, "Names of the St. Johns
River," Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (October
43. Maynard Geiger, The Franciscan Conquest of
Florida (1573-1618) (Washington, 1937), pp. 55, 58.
44. U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Report
1890-1899 (Washington, 1901), p. 110, cited in Corse,
"Names of the St. Johns River," p. 134.
45. Richard A. Martin, The City Makers (Jack-
sonville, 1972), pp. 58, 72, 90, 137, 174, 203, 279n.
46. See Margaret Seton Fleming Biddle, Hibernia:
The Unreturning Tide (New York, 1947; facsimile
edition, New York, 1974), p. vii. A descendant of the
founder George Fleming, the author described Hi-
bernia in 1946 as "lonely and . . . a little sad."
47. G. E. Ferguson, C. W. Lingham, S. K. Love,
and R. O. Vernon, Springs of Florida, Florida Geo-
logical Survey Bulletin 31 (Tallahassee, 1947), pp.
48. Albert C. Manucy, The History of Castillo de
San Marcos & Fort Matanzas from Contemporary
Narratives and Letters (Washington, 1943), p. 15.
49. George R. Fairbanks, The Spaniards in Flor-
ida (Jacksonville, 1868), p. 82.
50. "A History of the Erection and Dedication of
the Monument to Gen'l James Edward Oglethorpe,"
Collections of the Georgia Historical Society 7, pt.
51. George R. Fairbanks, Spaniards in Florida,
pp. 90, 100, and History and Antiquities of St.
Augustine, Florida (New York, 1858; facsimile edi-
tion, Gainesville, Fla., 1975), pp. 155, 173.
52. Brinton, "A City Gone to Seed."
53. Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, pp.
54. Ferguson et al., Springs of Florida, pp. 163-65.
55. John E. Le Conte, "Reports to Office of Chief
of Engineers, U.S. War Department, 1822," National
Archives, Washington; Branch Cabell and A. J.
Hanna, The St. Johns, A Parade of Diversities (New
York, 1943), p. 10.
56. Pratt, "Notes on the Barefoot Mailman,"
Florida Historical Quarterly 44 (January 1966) :201.
57. Barbour, Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and
Settlers (New York, 1882; facsimile edition, Gaines-
ville, Fla., 1964), p. 91.
58. Williams, The Territory of Florida (New
York, 1837; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1962),
p. 121. At present (1978), Tallahassee civic organiza-
tions and other groups are hoping to restore this
stream under the descriptive name of "The Cas-
59. McCall, Letters from the Frontiers (Phila-
delphia, 1868; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla.,
1974), pp. 149-52; Brinton, Notes on the Floridian
Peninsula, Appendix I, pp. 183-90.
60. Dudley S. Johnson, "The Florida Railroad
after the Civil War," Florida Historical Quarterly 47
(January 1969) :292.
61. Allen Morris, Florida Place Names (Coral
Gables, Fla., 1974), p. 152. See also J. B. Whitfield,
"Marshals of the United States for Districts of
Florida, 1821-1865," Florida Historical Quarterly 20
(April 1942) :380-81.
62. Warren H. Wilkinson, Opening the Case
against the U.S. DeSoto Commission's Report and
Other DeSoto Papers (Jacksonville Beach, Fla., 1960).
63. Comments of present-day practices and view-
points of the medical profession were furnished by
Sherman H. Pace, M.D., a graduate of Duke Medical
School, Durham, North Carolina. He has been a gen-
eral practitioner in Clearwater, Florida, since 1955;
has served as chief-of-staff of Clearwater Com-
munity Hospital; and is a member of the staff of
Morton F. Plant Hospital. Due to the technical na-
ture of Dr. Pace's comments, I assume responsibility
for any errors as a matter of my own lack of pro-
64. Dr. Nicholas Monardes, Joyful Newes Out of
the Newe-Founde Worlde (London, 1596), quoted in
Charles E. Bennett, LaudonniBre and Fort Caroline
(Gainesville, Fla., 1964), p. 186: "Some women doo
use of this water for to make them with child."
65. Sir William Osler, Aphorisms, ed. Robert B.
Bean and William B. Bean (New York, 1950), p. 70.
66. Provost Charles C. Harrison, in Brinton Me-
morial Meeting, p. 14.
The edition of the Guide-Book reproduced here
was filmed from one of the two editions known
to have been published by George Maclean in
1869; while textually identical, the editions differ
slightly in page dimensions, binding, and arrange-
ment of the front matter. The most significant
difference between the two editions is that the
edition not filmed has the name of the publisher
pasted onto the title page so as to conceal the
FLORIDA AND THE SOUTH,
TOURISTS, INVALIDS AND EMIGRANTS,
WITH A MAP OF THE ST. JOIN RIVER,
BY DANIEL G. BRINTON, A. M., M. D.,
GEORGE MACLEAN, 719 SANSOM STREET.
Entered according to Aot of Congress, in the year 18i, by
DANIEL G. BRINTON, A. M., M. D.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in
and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
PBox Ha rnMB 0 o wrta & GR1d a T,
Inquirer Printing Houes and Book Bindery, Lancaster, Penn'a
This unpretending little book is designed to give the visitor
to Florida such information as will make his trip more useful
and more pleasant. In writing it I have had in mind the ex-
cellent European Guide-Books of Karl Bedeker, the best, to my
mind, ever published. Though I have not followed his plan
very closely, I have done so to the extent the character of our
country seems to allow.
I have borrowed from him the use of the asterisk (*) to de-
note that the object so designated is especially noteworthy, or
that the hotel thus distinguished is known to me to be weli"
kept, either from my own observation or that of friends.
Most of the localities are described from my own notes taken
during an extended tour through the peninsula, but for much
respecting railroad fare, accommodations, and charges, I am in-
debted to a large number of tourists and correspondents who
have related to me their experience. To all these I express
my warmest thanks for their assistance.
As of course such matters are constantly changing, and as I
shall be most desirous to correct any errors, and bring the
work fully upto the times in future editions, I shall esteem it a
particular favor if those who use this book will forward me any
notes or observation which will aid me in improving it. Such
communications may be addressed "care of the Penn Pub-
lishing Co., 719 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Penna."
The map of the St. John River is based on that drawn by
my friend, Mr. H. Lindenkohl, U. S. Coast Survey.
PHILADELPHIA, August, 1869.
'Preface .......... ...... ................. ....... .. iii
Contents....................... ... ... .......... . iv
1. Season for Southern Travel................ ..... 9
2. Preparations for the Journey....................... 10
PART I -SOUTHERN ROUTES.
1. Steamship Lines..... .............. .............. 13
2. Washington to Richmond........................ 14
3. Richmond to Charleston...... ..................... 18
4. Aiken, S. C., and the Southern Highlands............ 2
5. Charleston to Savannah...................... 26
6. Savannah to Jacksonville....................... 29
1. Historical..... ................................. 32
2. Books and Maps ....................... ........ .... 35
3. Physical Geography of Florida. 1. Geographical For-
mation. 2. Soil and Crops. 3. Climate and Health.
4. Vegetable and Animal Life.................... 37
4. The St. John River and St. Augustine (Indian River,) 52
5. Jacksonville to Tallahasse, Quincy, and St. Marks.... 81
6. The Oklawaha River and the Silver Spring.......... 88
7. Fernandina to Cedar Keys........ ................ 93
8. Key West, the Florida Keys and the Gulf Coast...... 97
9. The Western Coast (Tampa, Apalachicola, Pensacola,
M obile)........................ ............. 1C6
PART III.-CHAPTERS TO INVALIDS.
I. When is a change of climate advisable ?........... 115
I[. What climate shall be chosen? ................... 120
III. Where is the best Southern winter climate?......... 128
IV. Some hints to Health-Seekers..................... 130
FLORIDA AND THE SOUTH.
THE SEASON FOR SOUTHERN TRAVEL.
The season for Southern travel commences in October
and ends in May. After the latter month the periodi-
cal rains commence in Florida, and the mid-day heat is
relaxing and oppressive. About mid-summer the swamp
miasm begins to pervade the low grounds, and spreads
around them an invisible poisonous exhalation, into
which the traveler ventures at his peril. This increases
in violence until September, when it loses its power
with the returning cold. When one or two sharp frosts
have been felt in New York or Philadelphia, the dan-
ger is chiefly past. Nevertheless, for mere considera-
tions of health, November is coon enough to reach the
Gulf States. Those who start earlier will do well to
linger in some of the many attractive spots on their way
through the more Northern States. A congestive chill
is a serious matter, and even the lightest attack of fever
and ague can destroy the pleasure and annul the bene-
fit of a winter's tour.
PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY.
The comfort of a journey is vastly enhanced by a few
simple precautions before starting. And if I seem too
minute here, it is because I am writing for many to
whom the little miseries of traveling are real afflic-
Before you leave home have your teeth thoroughly set
in order by a skilful dentist. If there has been a phil-
osopher who could tranquilly bear a jumping toothache,
his name is not on record
A necessaire containing soap, brushes, and all the et-
ceteras of the toilet is indispensable. It is prudent in
many parts of the South to carry your own towels.
Spectacles of plain glass, violet, light green, or light
grey, are often a comfort in the sun and in the cars, and
if the eyes are weak should not be omitted.
A strong, silk musquito net, with fine meshes, will be
highly prized in the autumn nights. A teaspoonful of
carbolic acid or camphor, sprinkled in the room, or an
ointment of cold cream scented with turpentine, will be
found very disagreeable to these insects, and often equ-
ally so to the traveler.
One or two air cushions take up but little room, and
should be provided for every invalid.
Shoes are preferable for ordinary journeys. In their
make, let reason and not fashion rule. They should be
double soled, have low and broad heels, lace firmly
around the ankle, and fit loosely over the toes. Rubber
boots or overshoes should be abolished, especially from
the invalid's outfit. Rubber overcoats are equally ob-
jectionable. They are all unwholesome contrivances.
A pair of easy slippers must always be remembered.
For ladies a hood, for gentlemen a felt hat, are the
proper head-dresses on the route.
In all parts of the South woolen clothing is required
in winter, and flannel under-clothing should be worn by
every one who goes there in pursuit of health. Next
to flannel, cotton is to be recommended. It is more a
non-conductor of heat than linen, and thus better pro-
tects the body from changes of temperature.
Every person in feeble health-and those who are
robust will not find the suggestion amiss-should have
with them a few cases of devilled ham, sardines, potted
meats, German sausage, or other savory and portable
preparations, which, with the assistance of a few crack-
ers or a piece of bread, will make a good lunch. A
flask of wine or something similar, helps out such an
impromptu meal. Frequently it is much better than
to gulp down a badly cooked dinner in the time allow-
ed by the trains.
A strong umbrella, and a stout pocket knife, are in-
dispensable. Guns, ammunition, rods, and fishing
tackle should always be provided before starting. They
should be well protected from dampness, especially the
guns and powder. Florida is the paradise of the sports-
man, and those who are able should not omit to have a
" camp hunt" while there. Tents, camp equipage, and
the greater part of the supplies should be purchased in
the North, as they are dearer and not often the best
in the Southern cities.
On arriving at a hotel, first see that your baggage is
safe; then that your room is well aired, and the sheets
on the bed dry.
It is always well in traveling to have baggage enough
-always a bother to have too much. A good sized
leather traveling-bag will do for the single man; but
where a lady is attached, a medium sized leather trunk,
which can be expressed or " checked through," and a
light traveling-bag, to be taken into the cars and state-
rooms, and carried in the hand, are the requisites.
Money can be transmitted so readily by certified check
or draft, that a tourist need not carry much with him.
He should, however, have a reserve fund about him, so
as to be prepared for one of those disagreeable emer-
gencies which nearly every veteran traveler has at some
Every one who visits a strange land should strive to
interest himself in its condition, resources, history and
peculiarities. The invalid, beyond all others, should
cultivate an interest in his surroundings. Nothing so
well sustains a failing body as an active mind. For
that purpose, local histories, maps, etc., should always
be purchased. I have indicated, under the different
cities, what works there are of this kind in the market,
and, in the introductory remarks on Florida, have men-
tioned several of a more general character, which should
be purchased and read before going there. (For fur-
ther hints see the last chapter of this work.)
L STEAMSHIP LINES.
In visiting the South Atlantic States the tourist from
the North has a choice of a number of routes.
Steamers leave New York for Charleston, Savannah,
Fernandina, and Key West, advertisements of which
giving days of sailing can be seen in the principal daily
papers. Philadelphia has regular steamship lines to
Charleston, Savannah, and Key West. From Charles-
ton and Savannah boats run every other day to Fernan-
dina, Jacksonville, and Palatka on the St. John river.
The whole or a portion of a journey to Florida can be
accomplished by water, and the steamships are decidedly
preferable to the cars for those who do not suffer much
from sea sickness.
The most direct route by railroad is the " Atlantic
Coast Line," by way of Washington, Acquia Creek,
Richmond, Petersburg, Weldon, Wilmington, and
Charleston. From Philadelphia to Wilmington the
time is 28 hours, fare $21.90; to Charleston 40 hours,
fare $24.00; to Savannah, fare $33.00; to Jacksonville,
fare $38.65. Through tickets and full information can
be obtained in New York at 193 Broadway; Philadel-
phia 828 Chestnut Street.
It is proposed to establish a direct line of steamers
from New York to Jacksonville. It is to be hoped that
this will be done promptly, as it will greatly increase
trade and travel.
2. WASHINGTON TO RICHMOND.
Distance, 130 miles; time 7.30 hours.
Until the tourist leaves Washington, he is on the
beaten track of travel, and needs no hints for his guid-
ance; or, if he does, can find them in abundance.
Turning his face southward, he may leave our capital
either in the cars from the Baltimore depot to Alexan-
dria and Acquia Creek, or, what is to be recommended
as the more pleasant alternative, he may go by steam-
boat to this station, a distance of 55 miles. The banks
of the Potomac present an attractive diversity of high-
land and meadow. A glimpse is caught of Mt. Vernon,
and those who desire it can stop and visit those scenes
once so dear to him whose memory is dear to us all.
The reminiscences, however, which one acquires by a
visit to Mount Vernon are rarely satisfactory.
From Acquia Creek landing the railroad passes
through a country still betraying the sears and scars of
conflict, though, happily, it is recovering in some meas-
ure from those sad experiences. Fredericksburg (15
miles; hotel, the Planter's House, poor,) may have
enough of interest to induce some one to "lay over" a
train. It is an unattractive spot, except for its histori-
cal associations. These are so fresh in the memory of
most that it is unnecessary to mention them.
Beyond Fredericksburg a number of stations are
passed-none of any size. The distance to Richmond is
Hotels.-Ballard House ($4.00 per day); Spottswood,
Exchange (each $2 per day); Ford's Hotel on Capitol
Square ($2.50 per day); St. Charles ($2.00.)
Boarding Houses.--Arlington House, corner Main and
6th street; Valentine House, on Capitol Square; Rich-
4mond House, corner Governor and Ross streets; Mrs.
Bidgood's, 61 East Main street; Mrs. Brander, 107 E.
Franklin street, (all about $12.00 per week).
Telegraph Offices in Spottswood and Exchange Hotels-
Reading Rooms at the Y. M. C. A. The Virginia State
Library was pillaged in 1865, and the Virginia Histori-
cal Library burned.
Theatre.-The Richmond Theatre has a respectable
stock company, and is visited by most of the stars of
Booksellers.-West & Johnson, 1006 Main St., (Brin-
Churches of all denominations.
Richmond derives it name from the ancient burgh of
the same name on the Thames. The word is supposed
to be a corruption of rotre mont, and applies very well
to the modern namesake. Like Rome, it is seated upon
seven hills, and if it has never commanded the world,
it will be forever famous as the seat of the government
of the whilom Confederacy. It is situated at the Great
Falls of the James river, on the Richmond and Shoccoe
hills, between which flows the Shoccoe creek.
In the early maps of the colony, the site of the present
city is marked as " Byrd's Warehouse," an ancient trad-
ing post, we can imagine, said to have stood where the
Exchange hotel is now built. In 1742 the city was es.
tablished, and has ever since been the chief center of
The capitol is a showy edifice, on Shoccoe hill. The
plan was taken from the Maison Quarre, of Nismes,
with some modifications, among others the Doric pillars.
It stands in the midst of a square of eight acres. In
this building the Confederate Congress held its sessions.
It contains, among other objects, a well cut statue of
Washington, dating from the last century, "fait par
Houdin, citoyen Francais," as we learn from the inscrip-
tion, and a bust of Lafayette. Two relics of the old
colonial times are exhibited-the one a carved chair
which once belonged to the house of Burgesses, of
Norfolk-the other a huge stove, of singular shape,
bearing the colonial arms of Virginia in relief. This
latter is the product of a certain Buzaglo. It is eight or
ten feet high, and slopes from base to summit. A let-
ter of the inventor is extant, addressed to Lord Bote-
tourt, in which he speaks of it as " excelled anything
ever seen of the kind, and a masterpiece not to be ex-
celled in all Europe."
In the square around the capitol is an* equestrian
statue of Gen. George Washington, constructed by
Crawford, and erected February 22, 1858. Its total
height is sixty feet. Around its base are six pedestals,
upon which are figures of Thomas Jefferson, Patrick
Henry, Marshall, Gov. Nelson, George Mason and An-
drew Lewis, the latter an Indian fighter, once of celeb-
rity in Western Virginia.
To the left of this is a small statue of Henry Clay,
erected by the ladies of Virginia, made by Hart, and
inaugurated in 1860.
On the eastern side of the square is the residence of
the Governor, and on another side the City Hall, a
handsome edifice with Doric columns.
St. John's Church, on Richmond Hill, is the oldest
church edifice in the city. The tower and belfry are,
however, a modern addition. From its church-yard,
dotted with ancient tombs, one of the most charming
views of the city can be obtained. In this church, in
1775, the young and brilliant orator, Patrick Henry,
delivered his famous oration before the Virginia Con-
vention, which concludes with the famous words, "Give
me liberty, or give me death."
The Tredegar Iron Works, Libby Prison, at the cor-
ner of Thirty-fifth and Main streets, Belle Isle, and
Castle Thunder, will be visited by most tourists as ob-
jects of interest. *Hollywood cemetery, near the city
is a quiet and beautiful spot, well deserving a visic.
In the fire of April 2, 1865, about one thousand build-
ings were destroyed, but the ravages of that disastrous
epoch are now nearly concealed by new and handsome
The Falls of the James are properly rapids, the bed
of the river making a descent of only eighty feet in
two miles. They furnish a valuable water-power.
*Hollywood Cemetery, one mile from the city, is a
spot of great natural beauty. Here lie the remains of
Presidents Monroe and Tyler, and other distinguished
men, as well as of many thousand Confederate soldiers.
A rough granite monument has recently been erected
m memory of the latter.
Butler's Dutch Gap and Drewy's Bluff, and the fa-
mous battle fields near the city, will be visited with in-
terest by many.
Those who would visit the mineral springs of Virginia,
will find ample information in Dr. Moorhead's volume
on them, or in that by Mr. Burke. Both can be ob-
tained of West & Johnson, booksellers, Main street.
The Natural Bridge, one of the most remarkable cu-
riosities in the State, is best approached by way of
Lynchburg, from which place it is distant 35 miles, by
3. RICHMOND TO CHARLESTON.
From Richmond to Petersburg is 32 miles on the
Richmond and Petersburg railway. The earthworks
and fortifications around the latter town, memorials of
our recent conflict, are well worth a visit from those
who have not already seen too many such curiosities to
care for more.
64 miles beyond Petersburg the train reaches Weldon,
on the Roanoke river, a few miles within the boundary
of North Carolina (Gouch's Hotel.)
From Weldon to Goldsboro, the next stopping place
of importance, is 78 miles, 7.30 hours. It is a place of
about 5000 inhabitants, half white and half colored.
Hotels.-Griswold Hotel, Gregory's Hotel, both $3
Boarding House by Mrs Tompkms, $2 per day.
The road here intersects the North Carolina, and At-
lanti c and North Carolina railways, the latter running to
Morehead city and Beaufort, on the coast, (95 miles)
and the former to Raleigh, the capitol of the State, (48
miles) and interior towns. From Goldsboro to Wil-
mington is 84 miles.
Hotels.-Purcell House, $4 per day; Fulton House,
$3 per day.
Boarding Houses.-McRea House, Brock's Exchange,
about $2 per day, $40.00 per month.
Newspapers.-Post, republican, Journal, democratic.
Steamboat Line to Fayetteville, N. C., (130 miles, fare
$5.00); to Smithville, at the mouth of Cape Fear, (30
miles, fare $1.50.)
Wilmington (16,000 inhabitants) is on Cape Fear
river, 25 miles from the sea. It is well built. The staples
are turpentine and resinous products. The vicinity is
flat and sandy. At this point the railroad changes from
the New York guage, 5 feet, to the Charleston guage,
4 feet 8 inches.
The journey from Richmond to Charleston can also
be made by way of Greensboro, Charlotte and Colum-
bia. This route leads through the interior of the coun-
try, and, though longer, offers a more diversified scene
to the eye.
To Greensboro, on the Richmond & Danville and
Piedmont Railways, is 189 miles; thence on the North
Carolina Railway to Charlotte, 93 miles; then on the
Charlotte & S. Carolina railway to Columbia, S. C., 107
miles (Nickerson's hotel, $3.00 per day, newly fitted up);
thence by the Columbia Branch of the South Carolina
Railway to Charleston, 130 miles.
Salisbury, N. C., 150 miles south of Greensboro, is the
most convenient point to enter the celebrated mountain
regions of North Carolina. A railway runs thence to
Morgantown, in the midst of the sublime scenery of the
Black mountains, and in close proximity to the beauti-
ful falls of the Catawba. Charlotte (hotel, the Mansion
House), is in the center of the gold region of North
Carolina, and the site of a United States Branch Mint.
It is also the scene of the battle of Guilford Court House,
during the revolutionary war.
The capitol, in Columbia, is considered a very hand-
Hotels.-*Charleston Hotel, Mills House (newly fur-
nished), both on Meeting Street. Charges, $4.00 per
day. *Pavilion Hotel, Mr. Butterfield, proprietor, $3.00
per day, also on Meeting Street. Planter's Hotel, Church
Street, Victoria House, King Street, both $2.50 per day.
Telegraph Ofice, on Broad near Church Street; branch
office in Charleston Hotel.
Post Office, on Hazel Street, near Meeting.
Churches.-Roman Catholic, Episcopal, Huguenot,
Theatre, at the corner of King and Market Streets.
Bathing Houses.-One of salt water near the battery;
two, with water of the artesian well, one at the well,
the other in the Charleston Hotel.
Livery Stable, 21 Pinckney Street, connected with the
Street Cars run on several of the streets; fare, 10 cts.,
15 tickets for $1.00. All the hotels have omnibuses
waiting at the depots.
Physician.-Dr. Geo. Caulier, 158 Meeting Street.
Newspapers.-The Daily Courier, the Daily News.
Depots.-The depot of the Northeastern R. R. from
Wilmington to the north, is at the corner of Chapel
and Washington Sts.; that of the road to Savannah is
at the foot of Mill street; and that of the S. C. R. R.
to Aikin, Augusta, Atlanta, etc., is in Line street, be-
tween King and Meeting streets.
Bookseller.-John Russell, 288 King street. (Brin-
Libraries.-Charleston library, 30,000 vols.; Appren-
tices' library, 12,000 vols.
Charleston claims 40,000 inhabitants, the whites and
blacks being about equal in number. It is curious that
since the war the mortality of the latter has been twice
as great as of the whites.
The city is seven miles from the ocean at the junc-
tion of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, and has an ex-
cellent harbor, surrounded by works of defence. On
the sea line is Fort Moultrie; Castle Pinkney stands
at the entrance to the city; south of the latter is Fort
Ripley, built of palmetto logs; while in the midst of
the harbor stands the famous Fort Sumter.
The ravages caused by the terrible events of the late
war have yet been only very partially repaired in
Charleston. The greater part of the burnt district is
deserted and waste.
The history of Charleston, previous to that event, is
not of conspicuous interest. The city was first com-
menced by English settlers, in 1672, and for a long time
had a struggling existence. Many of its early inhabi-
tants were Huguenots, who fled thither to escape the
persecutions which followed the revocation of the edict
of Nantes. A church is still maintained in which their
ancient worship is celebrated.
Of public buildings, the ancient church of St. Mich-
ael's, built about 1750, has some claim to architectural
The fashionable quarter of the city is the Battery.
*Magnolia cemetery, on the Cooper river, is well
worth a visit. It is one of the most beautiful in the
South. It was laid out in 1850, and contains some hand-
The Custom House is a fine building, of white marble.
Those who wish to visit Fort Sumter, and review the
scenes of 1861, can be accommodated by a small sailing
vessel, which leaves the wharf every morning at 10.30
In the church-yard of St. Philip's is the tomb of John
C. Calhoun. A slab, bearing the single word "Calhoun,"
marks the spot.
The museum of the Medical College is considered
one of the finest in the United States.
4. AIKEN, 8. C., AND THE SOUTHERN HIGH-
Within the past ten years the advantages for invalids
of a residence in the highlands of the Carolinas, Geor-
gia and Tennessee have been repeatedly urged on the
public. The climate in these localities is dry and mild,
exceedingly well adapted, therefore, for such cases as
find the severe cold of Minnesota irritating, and the
moist warmth of Florida enervating. Aiken, S. C.,
Atlanta, Ga., Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga,
East Tennessee, and other localities offer good ac-
commodations, and have almost equal advantages in
point of climate. Like other resorts, they do not agree
with all invalids, but they are suitable for a large class.
One of the best known and most eligible is
AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA.
Distance from Charleston, by the South Carolina
Railroad, 120 miles. Time 8 hours. Two trains daily.
Hotels.-The Aiken Hotel, H. Smyser, proprietor.
Engage rooms a week ahead. Fare, $3.00 per day. A
Sanitarium is in process of construction on a beautiful
eminence west of the town.
Boarding can be obtained in a number of private fam-
Telegraph station at the depot.
Livery Stables, two. Horse and buggy, $4.00 per
day; saddle horse, $2.50 per day.
Churches.-Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist and
The town has about 1,500 inhabitants, though the
passing traveler would not think so, as the railroad
passes through a deep cut, which conceals most of the
houses. Whites and blacks are about equal in number.
The streets are wide, sandy, and not very neat.
The site is on the ridge which divides the valleys of
the Edisto and Savannah rivers. At this point the ele-
vation is 600 feet above sea level. The loose soil of si-
liceous sand and red clay, and the rapid declivities, in-
sure an excellent drainage. The water is clear, and
contains some traces of iron and magnesia, rather ben-
eficial than otherwise.
The climate is agreeable in both winter and summer.
The mean temperature of the year is 62 degrees Fah-
renheit; of the three winter months 46.5, 45 and 50 de-
grees. The thermometer rarely registers under 20 de-
grees. Rain falls to the depth of 37 inches annually,
the wettest season being in summer. Frosts commence
about the middle of November, and cease about the
last of March. The prevailing winds are southerly in
summer, easterly and northerly in winter. The dew
point is always low, indicating a dry atmosphere. Ma-
larial diseases are asserted to be entirely unknown.
The soil is lauded, and with justness, for its fitness for
fruit culture. Orchards, vineyards and garden plots are
exceedingly productive, but the more staple crops do
not correspond in excellence. The wines of Aiken have
long been known in commerce. Though not high fla-
vored, with none of the bouquet which lends such value
to the vintages of the Upper Rhine, they are a pure
and healthy beverage. It must be remembered that
agriculture, in the sense of the word in Pennsylvania
and New York, is almost an unknown art in this part
of the South.
Except its advantages in connection with health,
Aiken offers little to attract the tourist. In the stone
quarries near the railroad the geologist can collect some
very good specimens of fossil shells and corals from the
tertiary limestone. The buhr mill-stone abounds in
this region, and has been successfully tried in mills.
Prof. Tuomey in a report on the geology of the State
pronounces these equal to the best French stones. They
have, however, never been put in the market with energy.
The wine cellars, especially that of Mr. Walker, will
have attractions for those who delight to please the
pallet with the juice of the grape. And the porcelain
works near by, where stone ware is manufactured from
the kaolin clay, may form the objective point of a pleas-
ant excursion. If one's inclinations are to sport, a ride
of a few miles from town in any direction will brig one
to good partridge cover, while the numerous streams
in the vicinity are fairly stocked with trout, jack, bream
and perch. Pic-nics in the pine woods, and excursions
over the hills always supply ladies with means of inhal-
ing the healthful air and enjoying invigorating exercise-
From Aiken to Augusta, 16 miles, $1.00. From Au-
gusta to Atlanta by the Georgia railway, 171 miles,
$8.50; 11 hours.
Hotels.-The National, on Peach Tree Street, $4.00
per day; the United States and the American, oppo-
site the depot, $3.00 per day.
Telegraph Ofice in Kimball's Opera House. Post
Office, corner of Alabama and Broad streets.
Bathing House on Alabama street, near U. S. Hotel.
Circulating Library at the Young Men's Library As-
sociation on Broad street.
Atlanta has about 20,000 inhabitants. The water is
pure, the air bracing, and the climate resembles that
of Northern Italy. The Walton Springs are in the
city, furnishing a strongly chalybeate water, much
used, and with great success, as a tonic. The fall and
spring months are peculiarly delightful, and the vicinity
offers many pleasant excursions.
Communication by rail either to Chattanooga and
East Tennessee, or south to Macon, etc., is conveni-
5.-FROM CHARLESTON TO SAVANNAH.
The tourist has the choice of the railway via Coosaw-
hatchie, or via Augusta, Georgia, or the steamers. The
first mentioned road was destroyed during the war, and
is not yet in running order.
Steamboats also leave Charleston every Thursday
and Saturday, direct for Fernandina, Jacksonville and
Palatka, and should be chosen by those who do not
suffer from seasickness. They are roomy, and the table
Hotels.-*Screven House, Pulaski House, both S4.00 a
day. *Marshall House, $3.00 per day, $15.00 per week,
an excellent table. *Pavilion Hotel, Mr. Noe. Proprie-
tor; a quiet, pleasant house for invalids, $3.00 per
Boarding Houses.-Mrs. McAlpin, South Broad
street; Mrs. Kollock, South Broad street; Mrs. Savage,
Barnard Street; all $3.00 per day, $14.00 per week.
Post Office and Telegraph Office on Bay street, near
the Pulaski House.
Street Cars start from the post office to various parts
of the city. Fare, 10 cents; 14 tickets for $1.00. Om-
nibuses meet the various trains, and steamboats will
deliver passengers anywhere in the city for 75 cents
Livery Stables are connected with all the hotels.
Restaurants.-The best is the Restaurant Francais, in
Whitaker Street, between Bay and Bryan Streets.
Newspapers.-Daily Savannah News, Daily Morning
Bookstores.-J. Schreiner & Co., near the Pulaski
House. (Brinton's Guide-Book, Historical Record of
Depots.--The Central Railroad depot is in the south-
western part of the city, corner of Liberty and E.
Broad Streets. The railroad from Charleston has its
terminus here. The Atlantic and Gulf Railroad is in the
south-eastern part of the city, corner of Liberty and
E. Broad Streets.
Savannah is situated in Chatham county, Ga., on a
bluff, about forty feet high, seven miles above the
mouth of the river of the same name, on its right bank.
Its present population is estimated at 40,000.
The city was founded by Gov. James Oglethorpe, in
1733. It played a conspicuous part during the Revolu-
tion. With characteristic loyalty to the cause of free-
dom the Council of Safety passed a resolution in 1776
to burn the town rather than have it fall into the hands
of the British. Neverthless, two years afterwards the
royal troops obtained possession of it by a strategic
movement. In the autumn of 1779 the American forces
under General Lincoln, and the distinguished Polish
patriot, Count Casimir Pulaski, with their French allies
under Count d' Estaing, made a desperate but fruitless
attempt to regain it by assault. Both the foreign
noblemen were wounded in a night assault on the works.
Count Pulaski mortally. The spot where he fell is where
the Central Railroad depot now stands.
The chief objects of interest are the monuments.
The *finest is to the memory of Pulaski. It is in Chipc-
wa square, and is a handsome shaft of marble, sur-
mounted by a statue of Liberty, and supported on a base
of granite. Its height is 55 feet; its date of erection
An older and plainer monument, some fifty feet high,
without inscription, stands in Johnson square. It was
erected in 1829, and is known as the Greene and Pulas-
The city is beautifully laid out, diversified with nu-
merous small squares, with wide and shady streets.
Broad Street and Bay Street have each four rows of
those popular southern shade trees known as the Pride
of India, or China trees (Melia Azedarach).
A praiseworthy energy has supplied the city with ex-
cellent water from public water works; and, in Forsyth
Park, at the head of Bull Street, is a fountain of quite
Some of the public buildings are well worth visiting.
The Georgia Historical Society has an excellent edifice,
on Bryan Street, with a library of 7,500 volumes, among
which are said to be a number of valuable manuscripts.
The *Museum, on the northeast corner of Bull and
Taylor streets, contains a number of local curiosities.
The Custom House is a handsome fire-proof structure
of Quincy granite.
The Exchange building, now used as the Mayor's of-
fice, etc., offers, from its top, the best view of the city.
Excursions.-Several days can be passed extremely
pleasantly in short excursions from the city. One of
the most interesting of these will be to
*Bonaventure Cemetery.-This is situated 3 miles from
the city, on the Warsaw river. A stately grove of live
oaks, draped in the sombre weeds by the Spanish moss,
cast an appropriate air of pensiveness around this rest-
ing place of past generations. A cab holding four per-
sons to this locality costs $8.00.
Thunderbolt, a small town, (two hotels), 41 miles south-
east of the city, on a creek of the same name, is worth
visiting, chiefly for the beautiful drive which leads to it.
Cab fare for the trip, $8.00.
White Bluf, on the Vernon river, 10 miles from the
city has two unpretending hotels, and is a favorite re-
sort of the citizens on account of the excellent shell road
which connects it with the city. Cab fare for the trip,
Bethesda Orphan House, also 10 miles distant, is erect-
ed on the site chosen by the Rev. Mr. Whitfield, very
early in the history of the colony. Selina, the pious
Countess of Huntington, took a deep interest in its wel-
fare as long as she lived, and it is pleasant to think that
now it is established on a permanent footing.
Jasper Spring, 2 miles from the city, is pointed out
as the spot where the bold Sergeant Jasper, with one
assistant, during the revolutionary war, surprised and
captured eight Britishers, and forced them to release a
prisoner. The thoughtless guard had stacked arms and
proceeded to the spring to drink, when the shrewd
Sergeant who, anticipating this very move, was hidden
in the bushes near by, rushed forward, seized the mus-
kets, and brought the enemy to instant terms.
6. SAVANNAH TO JACKSONVILLE.
The tourist has the choice of three routes for this
part of his journey. He can take a sea steamer, and
passing out the Savannah river, see no more land until
the low shores at the mouth of the St. John River come
in sight. Or he can choose one of several small steam-
boats which ply in the narrow channels between the
sea-islands and the main, touching at Brunswick, Da-
rien, St. Catharine, Fernandina, etc., (fare $10.00). Or
lastly he has the option of the railroad, which will
carry him through to Jacksonville in twelve hours and
a half, in a first class sleeping car.
The channel along the coast lies through extensive
salt marshes, intersected by numerous brackish creeks
and lagoons. The boats are small, or they could not
thread the mazes of this net-work of narrow water-
courses. The sea-islands, famous all over the world
for their long-staple cotton, have a sandy, thin soil,
rising in hillocks and covered with a growth of live-
oak, water-oak, bay, gum and pine. Between the is-
lands and the main land the grassy marshes extend for
several miles. In the distance the western horizon is
hedged by a low wall of short-leaved pine. The sea
islands are moderately healthy, but the main land is
wet, flat and sterile, and its few inhabitants are ex-
posed to the most malignant forms of malarial fever
On St. Catharine island is the plantation formerly
owned by Mr. Pierce Butler, and the scene of Mrs.
Francis Kemble Butler's well-known work, "Life on a
Georgia Plantation." On Cumberland island, the most
southern of the sea-islands belonging to Georgia, is the
Dungerness estate, 6000 acres in extent, once owned by
Gen. Nat. Greene, of Revolutionary fame, and recently
bought by Senator Sprague, of Rhode Island, for $10
per acre. With proper cultivation it would yield mag-
nificent crops of sea-island cotton.
Fernandina on Amelia Island, the terminus of the
Fernandina and Cedar Keys Railroad, is a town of
growing importance (pop. about 2,000; hotels, Virginia
House, containing the telegraph office; the Whitfield
House, both $3.00 per day; newspaper, the Island City
Weekly.) This is one of the old Spanish settlements,
and the traces of the indigo fields are still visible over
a great part of the island. Fernandina-Oldtown is
about a mile north of the present site.
The sub-tropical vegetation is quite marked on the
island. Magnificent oleanders, large live oaks, and
dense growths of myrtle and palmettos conceal the
rather unpromising soil. The olive has been cultivated
with success, and there is no reason why a large supply
of the best table oil should not be produced here.
A low shell mound covers the beach at Fernandina,
and in the interior of the island are several large Indian
burial mounds. Several earthworks thrown up during
the late war overlook the town and harbor. Fernan-
dina harbor is one of the best in the South Atlantic
Coast, landlocked and safe. Its depth is 61 fathoms,
and the water on the bar at low tide is 14 feet. The
tide rises from 6 to 7 feet. In spite of what seems its
more convenient situation, Fernandina does not seem
destined to be a rival of Jacksonville.
Long before Columbus saw
" the dashing,
Surges of San Salvador,"
a rumor was abroad among the natives of the Bahamas,
of Cuba, and even of Yucatan and Honduras, that in a
land to the north was a fountain of water, whose crys-
tal waves restored health to the sick, and youth to the
aged. Many of the credulous islanders, forsaking their
homes, ventured in their frail canoes on the currents
of the Gulf, and never returning, were supposed to be
detained by the delights of that land of perennial
This ancient fame still clings to the peninsula. The
tide of wanderers in search of the healing and rejuve-
nating waters still sets thitherward, and, with better
fate than of yore, many an one now returns to his own,
restored to vigor and life. Intelligence now endorses
what superstition long believed.
The country received its pretty and appropriate
name, Terra florida, the Flowery Land,from Juan Ponce
de Leon, who also has the credit of being its discoverer.
He first saw its shores on Easter Sunday, March 27,
1513-not 1512, as all the text books have it, as on that
year Easter Sunday came on April 20th.
At that time it was inhabited by a number of wild
tribes, included in two families, the Timucuas, who
dwelt on the lower St. John, and the Chahta-Muskokis,
who possessed the rest of the country. In later times,
the latter were displaced by others of the same stock
known as Seminoles (isti semoli, wild men, or strangers).
A remnant of these still exist, several hundred in num-
ber, living on and around Lake Okee-chobee, in the
same state of incorrigible savagery that they ever were,
but now undisturbed and peaceful.
The remains of the primitive inhabitants are abund-
ant over the Peninsula. Along the sea shores and
water courses are numerous heaps of shells, bones
and pottery, vestiges of once populous villages; small
piles of earth and " old fields" in the interior still wit-
ness to their agricultural character; and large mounds
from ten to twenty-five feet in height filled with human
bones testify to the pious regard they felt toward their
departed relatives, and the care with which, in accord-
ance with the traditions of their race, they preserved
the skeletons of the dead. As for those " highways"
and " artificial lakes" which the botanist Bartram
thought he saw on the St. John river, they have not
been visible to less enthusiastic eyes. Mounds of stones,
of large size and enigmatic origin, have also been
found (Prof. Jeffries Wyman).
For half a century after its discovery, no European
power attempted to found a colony in Florida. Then,
in 1562, the celebrated French Huguenot, Admiral de
Coligny, sent over a number of his own faith and na-
tion, who erected a fort near the mouth of the St. John.
As they were upon Spanish territory, to which they
had no right, and were peculiarly odious to the Spanish
temper by their religion, they met an early and
disastrous fate. They were attacked and routed in 1565
by a detatchment of Spaniards under the command of
Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a soldier of distinction.
The circumstance was not characterized by any greater
atrocity than was customary on both sides in the relig-
ious wars of the sixteenth century, but it has been a
text for much bitter writing since, and was revenged a
few years after by a similar massacre by a French Pro-
testant, Dominique de Gourgues, and a party of Hugue-
Pedro Menendez established at once (1565) the city of
St. Augustine and showed himself a capable officer.
Under the rule of his successors the Spanish sway grad-
ually extended over the islands of the eastern coast,
and the region of middle Florida. The towns of St.
Marks and Pensacola were founded on the western
coast, and several of the native tribes were converted to
This prosperity was rudely interrupted in the first de-
cade of the eighteenth century by the inroads of the
Creek Indians, instigated and directed by the English
settlers of South Carolina. The churches were burned,
the converts killed or scattered, the plantations de-
stroyed, and the priests driven to the seaport towns.
The colony languished under the rule of Spain until,
in 1763, it was ceded to Great Britain. Some life was
then instilled into it. Several colonies were planted on
the St. John river and the sea coast, and a small garri-
son stationed at St. Marks.
In 1770 it reverted once more to Spain, under
whose rule it remained in an uneasy condition until
1821, when it was purchased by the United States for
the sum of five million dollars. Gen. Andrew Jackson
was the first Governor, and treated the old inhabitants
in his usual summary manner. In 1824 the seat of gov-
ernment was fixed at Tallahassee, the site of an old
At the time of the purchase there were about 4,000
Indians and refugee negroes scattered over the territory.
These very soon manifested that jealousy of their rights,
and resentment against the whites, which have ever
since been their characteristics. From the time of the
cession until the out-break of our civil struggle, the soil of
Florida was the scene of one almost continual border war.
The natives gave ground very slowly, and it was esti-
mated that for every one of them killed or banished
beyond the Mississippi by our armies, the general gov-
ernment expended ten thousand dollars.
2.-BOOKS AND MAPS.
The facts which I have here sketched in barest out-
line have been told at length by many able writers.
The visitor to the scene of so many interesting inci-
dents should provide himself with some or all of the fol.
lowing works, which will divert and instruct him in
many a lagging hour:
PARKMAN, Pioneers of France in the New World. This
contains an admirably written account of the Huguenot
colony on the St. John.
FAIRBANKS, The Spaniards in Florida. (Published
by Columbus Drew, Jacksonville, Florida.) An excel-
lent historical account of the Spanish colony.
SPRAGUE, History of the Florida War. This is a
correct and vivid narrative of the struggle with the
Seminoles. The book is now rarely met with in the
GEN. GEORGE A. MCCALL, Letters from the Frontiers.
(Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1868.) These letters
are mostly frem Florida, and contain many interesting
pictures of army life and natural scenery there.
R. M. BACHE, The Young Wrecker of the Florida
Reef. (Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, Philadelphia,
1869.) This is a " book for boys," and is interesting for
all ages. The author was engaged on the Coast Sur-
vey, and describes with great power and accuracy the
animal and vegetable life of the Southern coast.
Life of Audubon. (Putnam & Son, 1869.) This con-
tains a number of letters of the great ornithologist
while in Florida.
A detailed description of the earlier works on the
peninsula can be found in a small work I published
some years ago, entitled" The Floridian Peninsula, Its
Literary History, Indian Tribes, and Antiquities." (For
sale by the publishers of the present book.)
On the Antiquities of the Peninsula. Prof. Jeffries
Wyman, of Harvard College, published, not long since,
a very excellent article in the second volume of the
Every tourist should provide himself with a good
State map of Florida. The best extant is that pre-
pared and published by Columbus Drew, of Jackson-
ville, Florida, in covers, for sale by the publishers of
this work. Two very complete partial mapshave been
issued by the U. S. government, the one from the bu-
reau of the Secretary of War, in 1856, entitled, " A
Military Map of the Peninsula of Florida South of Tam-
pa Bay," on a scale of 1 to 400,000, the other from the
U. S. Coast Survey office in 1864, drawn by Mr. H. Lin-
denkohl, embracing East Florida north of the 29th de-
gree, on a scale of 10 miles to the inch. The latter
should be procured by any one who wishes to depart
from the usual routes of tourists.
3. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF FLORIDA.
1. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION.
2. SOIL AND CROPS.
3. CLIMATE AND HEALTH.
4. VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL LIFE.
1. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION.
Florida is a peninsula extending abruptly from the
mainland of the continent in a direction a little east of
south. It is nearly 400 miles in length, and has an
average width of 130 miles. Its formation is peculiar.
Every other large peninsula in the world owes its ex-
istence to a central mountain chain, which affords a
stubborn resistance to the waves. Florida has no such
elevation, and mainly a loose, low, sandy soil. Let us
study this puzzle.
The Apalachian (usually and incorrectly spelled Ap-
palachian) plain, sloping from the mountains to the
Gulf of Mexico, lies on a vast bed of tertiary, lime-
stone and sand rock. About the thirtieth parallel of
north latitude this plain sinks to the sea level, except
in middle Florida, where it still remains 200 feet and
more in height. This elevation gradually decreases
and reaches the water level below the 28th parallel,
south of Tampa Bay. It forms a ridge or spine about
sixty miles in width, composed of a porous limestone
somewhat older than the miocene group of the tertiary
rocks, a hard blueishlimestone, and a friable sand rock.*
Around this spine the rest of the peninsula has been
formed by two distinct agencies.
Between the ridge and the Atlantic ocean is a tract
of sandy soil, some forty miles in width, sloping very
gently to the north. It is low and flat, and is drained
by the St. John river. So little fall has this noble
stream that 250 miles from its mouth it is only 12 miles
distant from an inlet of the ocean, and only 3 feet 6
inches above tide level, as was demonstrated by the
State survey made to construct a canal from Lake Har-
ney to Indian River. A section of the soil usually dis-
closes a thin top layer of vegetable mould, then from
3 to 6 feet of different colored sand, then a mixture of
clay, shells, and sand for several feet further, when in
many parts a curious conglomerate is reached, called
coquina, formed of broken shells and small pebbles
cemented together by carbonate of lime, no doubt of
recent (post tertiary) formation. The coquina is never
found south of Cape Canaveral, nor north of the mouth
of the Matanzas river.
* This a Back-Bone Ridge,' as it has been called, has a rounded
and singularly symmetrical form when viewed in cross section.
Where the Fernandina and Cedar Keys railroad crosses the penin-
sula, the highest point, near Gainesville, is 180 feet in elevation,
whence there is a gradual slope, east and west.
For the whole of this distance a glance at the map
will show that the coast is lined by long, narrow inlets,
separated from the ocean by still narrower strips of
land. These inlets are the " lagoons." The heavy
rains wash into them quantities of sediment, and this,
with the loose sand blown by the winds from the outer
shore, gradually fills up the lagoon, and changes it into
a morass, and at last into a low sandy swamp, through
which a sluggish stream winds to its remote outlet.
Probably the St. John river was at one time along lagoon,
and probably all the land between the ridge described
and the eastern sea has been formed by this slow pro-
The southern portion of the peninsula is also very
low, rarely being more than six feet above sea level,
but its slope, instead of being northward, is generally
westward. Much of the surface is muddy rather than
sandy, and is characterized by two remarkable forms
of vegetable life, the Everglades and the Big Cypress.
The Everglades cover an area of about 4,000 square
miles, and embrace more than one half of the State
south of Lake Okee-chobee. They present to the eye
a vast field of coarse saw-grass springing from a soil of
quicksand and soft mud, from three to ten feet deep.
During the whole year the water rests on this soil from
one to four feet in depth, spreading out into lakes, or
forming narrow channels. The substratum is a lime-
stone, not tertiary, but modern and coralline. Here
and there it rises above the mud, forming " keys " or
islands of remarkable fertility, and on the east and
south makes a continuous ridge along the ocean, one
to four miles wide, and from ten to fifteen feet high,
which encloses the interior low basin like a vast cres-
Lake Okee-chobee, 1,200 square miles in area, with
an average depth of twelve feet, is, in fact, only an ex-
tension of the Everglades.
South of the Caloosa-hatchie river, between the
Everglades and the Gulf, extends the Big Cypress.
This is a large swamp, fifty miles long and thirty-five
miles broad. Here the saw-grass gives way to groves
of cypress trees, with a rank and tangled undergrowth
of vines. The soil is either bog or quicksand, generally
covered one or two feet deep with stagnant water.
The sun's rays rarely penetrate the dense foliage, and
on the surface of the water floats a green slime, which,
when disturbed, emits a sickening odor of decay.
Crooked pools and sluggish streams traverse it in all
directions, growing deeper and wider toward the Gulf
shore, where they cut up the soil into numberless seg-
ments, called the Thousand Islands.
The whole of this southern portion of the peninsula
lies on a modern, coral formation. The crescent-shaped
ridge which forms the eastern and southern boundary
of the Everglades, commences north of Key Biscayne
Bay, and sweeps southwest to Cape Sable. From the
same starting point, another broken crescent of coral-
line limestone, but many miles longer, extends to the Dry
Tortugas, forming the Florida Keys. And beyond this
again some five or six miles, making a third crescent,
is the Florida Reef. Outside of the Reef, the bottom
abruptly sinks to a depth of 800 or 900 fathoms. Be-
tween the Reef and the Keys is the ship channel, about
6 fathoms in depth; and between the Keys and the
main land the water is very shallow, and covers broad
flats of white calcareous mud. Between the coast-ridge
and Lake Okee-chobee, the " Keys," which are scat-
tered through the Everglades, are disposed in similar
crescentic forms, some seven regular concentric arcs
having been observed. They are all formed of the
same character of coral rock as the present Reef and
Keys, and undoubtedly owe their existence to the same
agency. Each of these crescents was at one time a reef,
until the industrious coral animals built another reef
further out in the water, when the olderline was broken
up by the waves into small islands. Thus, for countless
thousands of years, has this work of construction been
going on around the extremity of the tertiary back bone
ridge which at first projected but a short distance into
What, it may be asked, has impressed this peculiar
and unusual crescentic shape to the reefs ? This is ow-
ing to the Gulf Stream. This ocean-river rushes east-
ward through the Straits of Florida at the rate of five
or six miles an hour, yet it does not wash the reef. By
some obscure law of motion, an eddy counter-current
is produced, moving westward, close to the reef, with a
velocity of one or two miles an hour. Off Key West
this secondary current is ten miles wide, with a rapidity
of two miles per hour. Its waters are constantly
whitened by the calcareous sands of the reef-the relics
of the endless conflict between the waves and the un-
tiring coral insects. The slowly-built houses of the lat-
ter are broken and tossed hither and thither by the bil-
lows, until they are ground into powder, and scattered
through the waters. After every gale the sea, for miles
on either side of the reef, is almost milk-white with the
ruins of these coral homes.
But nature is ever ready with some compensation.
The impalpable dust taken up by the counter-current is
carried westward, and gradually sinks to the bottom of
the gulf, close to the northern border of the gulf stream.
At length a bank is formed, reaching to within 80 or 90
feet of the surface. At this depth the coral insect can
live, and straightway the bank is covered with a multi-
tudinous colony who commence building their branch-
ing structures. A similar process originated all the cres-
cent-shaped lines of Keys which traverse the Everglades
and Big Cypress.
2. SOIL AND CROPS.
Much of the soil of Florida is not promising in ap-
pearance. The Everglades and Cypress Swamps may
be considered at present agriculturally worthless.
The ridge of sand and decomposed limestone along the
southern shore, from Cape Sable to Indian river, is
capable, however, of profitable cultivation, and offers
the best field in the United States for the introduction
of tropical plants, especially coffee. Its area is esti-
mated at about 7,000,000 acres.
The northern portion of the Peninsula is composed
of " scrubs" (dry sterile tracts covered with thickets of
black-jack, oak, and spruce), pine lands and hammocks
(not hummocks-the latter is a New England word with
a different signification). The hammocks are rich river
bottoms, densely timbered with live oak, magnolia,
palmetto, and other trees. They cannot be surpassed
for fertility, and often yield 70 to 80 bushels of corn to
the acre with very imperfect tillage. Of course, they
are difficult to clear, and often require drainage.
The pine lands, which occupy by far the greater por-
tion of the State, make at first an unfavorable impression
on the northern farmer. The sandy pine lands near the
St. John, are of deep white siliceous sand, with little or
no vegetable mould through it. The greater part of
it will not yield, without fertilizing, more than 12 or 15
bushels of corn to the acre. In the interior, on the
central ridge, the soil is a siliceous alluvium on beds of
argillaceous clay and marl. The limestone rocks crop
out in many places, and could readily be employed as
fertilizers, as could also the marl. Red clay, suitable
for making bricks, is found in the northern counties, and
a number of brick yards are in operation. Over this
soil a growth of hickory is interspersed with yellow
pine, and much of the face of the country is rolling.
By mixing the hammock soil with the sand, an admi-
rable loam is formed, suited to raising vegetables and
Persons who visit Florida with a view to farming or
gardening, should not expect to find it a land of exhu-
berant fertility, that will yield immense crops with little
labor. East Florida is as a whole not a fertile country
in comparison with South Carolina or Illinois, and
probably never will be highly cultivated. On the other
hand, they must not be discouraged by the first impres-
sions they form on seeing its soil. Labor can do won-
ders there. The climate favors the growth of vegetables
and some staples, but labor, hard work, is just as neces-
sary as in Massachusetts. Middle and West Florida
have much better lands.
The leading crops of the State are corn and cotton.
Of the latter, the improved short staple varieties are
preferred, the long staple flourishing only in East
Florida. Some experiments have been tried with Egyp-
tian cotton, but on too small a scale to decide its value.
The enemy of the cotton fields is the caterpillar which
destroys the whole crop in a very short time. Nor can
anything be done to stop its ravages. In the vicinity
of Tampa Bay and Indian River the sugar cane is suc-
cessfully raised, quite as well as in Louisiana. In good
seasons it is also a very remunerative crop in the north-
ern counties, as it yields as much as fifteen barrels of
first class syrup to the acre, besides the sugar.
Tobacco, which before the war was raised in consid-
erable quantities in Florida, has b en much neglected
since. Good Cuba seed has been introduced, however,
and some of the old attention is paid to it. The char-
acter of soil and climate of certain portions of Florida,
especially the southeastern portion, is not very unlike
that of the famed Vuelta Abajo, and with good seed,
and proper care in the cultivation and curing of the leaf,
it might be grown of a very superior quality.
The climate is too warm for wheat, but rye and oats
yield full crops, though they are but little cultivated.-
Sweet potatoes, yams, peas, and groundnuts are unfail-
ing, and of the very best qualities. The vine yields
abundantly, and it is stated on good authority that two
thousand gallons of wine per acre have been obtained
from vineyards of the Scuppernong grape in Leon county.
Apples grow only to a limited extent, some being
found in the northern counties. Peaches, pears, apri-
cots, oranges, limes, lemons, etc., are well suited to the
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