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 Table of Contents
 Author's intention
 Explanation of teaching method...
 Supplementary: Spring 1973...
 History of building technology
 Syllabus completion as of fall...
 Fall 1973 slide inventory
 Annotated bibliography
 Suggested student projects














Title: History of building technology : part 2, week 10 : town and city planning
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Title: History of building technology : part 2, week 10 : town and city planning
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Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Author's intention
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Explanation of teaching methods
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Supplementary: Spring 1973 submission
        Page 6
    History of building technology
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Syllabus completion as of fall 1973
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Fall 1973 slide inventory
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Annotated bibliography
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Suggested student projects
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        A-1
        A-2
        A-3
        A-4
        A-5
        A-6
        A-7
        A-8
        A-9
        A-10
        B-11
        B-12
        B-13
        B-14
        B-15
        B-16
        B-17
        B-18
        B-19
        B-20
        B-21
        B-22
        B-23
        B-24
        B-25
        B-26
        B-27
        B-28
        B-29
        B-30
        B-31
        B-32
        B-33
        B-34
        B-35
        B-36
        B-37
        B-38
        B-39
        B-40
        B-41
        B-42
        B-43
        B-44
        B-45
        B-46
        B-47
        B-48
        B-49
        B-50
        B-51
        B-52
        B-53
        B-54
        B-55
        B-56
        B-57
        B-58
        B-59
        B-60
        B-61
        B-62
        C-63
        C-64
        C-65
        C-66
        C-67
        C-68
        C-69
        C-70
        C-71
        C-72
        C-73
        C-74
        C-75
        C-76
        C-77
        C-78
        C-79
        C-80
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Full Text











HISTORY OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY: PART 2


Week 10 Town and City Planning


CONTENTS----------------------FALL 1973



Author's Intention 1

Explanation of Teaching Methods

Outline of Fall, 1973 2

Slides 3

Slide Card Descriptions 4

Annotated Bibliography 5

Student Projects 5

Supplementary: Spring 1973 Submission -
Outline/History of Building Technology: Part 2 6

History of Building Technology: Part 2/Outline 7

Syllabus Completion as of Spring '73 20

Fall 1973 Slide Inventory 22

Annotated Bibliography 25

Suggested Student Projects 30








AUTHOR'S INTENTION


It is the intention of the author to provide the instructor of AE 686

with a basic syllabus outline for the specific Week 10 -- "Town and

City Planning." This outline was organized after a thorough research

of many books on the topic of towns and cities, as well as a thorough

examination and evaluation of the brief outline given to me (prepared

by Mr. C. Peterson and a University of Florida student). The author

is taking the liberty to do away with the given outline per se; I

have chosen to create my own outline, which does, indeed, include

all the subjects and ideas put forth in the heresaid "prepared" outline.



The outline which has been developed for this 10th week's syllabus

covers the development of city types, the American City, American Colonial

Technology, Basic Techniques of the American City, American Cities, and

American Urban Recreation.


The above topics follow a logical progression within the context of

the given outline development, and as a student, who is learning simul-

taneously with teaching, I feel that it has been a resourceful study,

giving me much food for thought... to be executed by all students through

STUDENT PROJECTS, later to be discussed.


The instructor, while teaching this material, would be conscious of the

historical aspects relative to the preservation movement and which are

becoming an increasingly most important concern and issue to all of us











who depend on and thrive in cities. Because of the need of a reasons --

a reality, to understand the history of our cities, I have placed a large

stress on certain items, through the abundance of particular selective

slides. One such group is the set of plans of representative towns and

cities which exemplify American Town Development, all of which today,

can be identified by many students. With a good selection of these slides,

each becomes a valuable visual aid for discussion and comparison. Impor-

tance, on my part, can also be detected through the many slides dealing

with American Urban Recreation. Towns and cities were built around

recreational features because these areas are communal. More than ever

today, we are beginning to find our recreational spaces most precious, es-

pecially to our new open generation, who must cling together in today's

threatening conditions. We also have come to the realization that it is

of utmost importance to preserve our environment rather than use up all

our natural resources, for such things as parking structures. More and

more today, communities are built around our recreational areas -- an

important element of our surroundings, especially since we seem to have

more leisure time to spend -- outside our places for work and home.


It should be the goal of the instructor to offer an alternative to neon

signs, the ubiquitous automobile, dominating billboards, parking lots,

and etc. -- to preserve representative examples of our architectural

and planning heritage, and accept such as inheritance from the past.











EXPLANATION OF TEACHING METHODS


OUTLINE OF FALL, 1973

The outline for the 10th week is in a structured form which allows for

the instructor to add any other information that he wants; the ideas are

general enough, and at the smae time, follow in a logical progression.

The outline can also be used by a student as a basis for research. The

outline has been formed to accompany the slides, the annotated bibliography,

and student project.



When an area of research was quite involved, the author has incorporated

it within the outline, and although not developed, has suggested student

projects and slides to encourage interested persons to persue that area

thoroughly -- which can then be added to the "Not Completed" section of

this outline.


Needless to say, the student author was unable to complete this week's

outline in total. Towns and cities are not "one" but a "whole," made

up of many, many "ones" which seem to be relative to one another and

create a unity. It is thus imperative that the instructor continually

collect the "ones" from his own research as well as those developed by

students, giving the ahove basic outline more stability -- a convincing

tool for individual investigation of a special topic.









SLIDES


The slides are to be used by the instructor as a major teaching aid.

This specific week's concern is Towns and Cities, and a visual experience

is very important for the student, especially since distance eliminates

direct experiences with environments. The slides are of two types -- those

that are seen overall and explained, and those that are projected and

picked apart, studies in detail, i. e. city plans.


It is very important that the slide collection be increased by the

instructor as well as any slides that a student may use for his individual

project. It is essential that visual exercises are used to discipline

students' awareness with a disciplined need to honestly see.


SLIDE CARD DESCRIPTIONS



Slide Card Descriptions are an aid to the instructor to facilitate a good

presentation with continuity. As with previous weeks applications, the

slide cards are chosen from the file for reference during slide presenta-

tions. Individual cards are to be added to, when necessary, and when

additional slides are added to the slide collection, new cards should be

made and filed to keep a record of the additions.



At present, the slide card file contains slide card descriptions that

have not been filled out, due to the complex nature of the slide's con-

tent. In most cases, student projects have been assigned, so that after









presentations, such material can be added to complete slide description

cards.



ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY


The books listed in the annotated bibliography are sufficient for

students to research special topics, as well as general references for

the instructor. What this bibliography is missing is a type of reference

material that is not in the form of a reference book, as such, but more

in the way of travel descriptions which describe early towns and cities;

state research programs which examine towns and cities; novels describing

city conditions, etc. The latter was beyond the scope of this one

quarter's endeavors, but could make an interesting student project.


STUDENT PROJECTS



The list of student projects is a suggestive list of directions that a

student may follow to research on his own. They are characteristic of

the contents of the outline and slides, and it is hoped that, for a while,

anyway, students will follow them rather closely, so that their presenta-

tions can be edited and become a part of this syllabus. The student pro-

jects should be presented very briefly in class and then displayed in

the architecture building for all students and professor to share.Further

discussion of this idea can be read in Week 3 of AE 685, Student Projects

(Explanation of Teaching Methods).














SUPPLEMENTARY: SPR l, 1973 ^I; MISSION

HISTORY OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY: PART 2


WEEK 10: TOWN AND CITY PLANNING


Town and City Planning: Factors of Influence, Original Plans and Subsequent

Developments

A. The site: approaches and topography

B. Transportation and circulation: roads, streets, canals, wharves

and railroads

C. Public buildings and grounds

D. Market places

E. Building sites: Commercial and residential

F. Provisions for defense

Regional and Local Conditions:

Filing according to geographical arrangements (region, watershed, modern

state or province, county, township, city, village, neighborhood, etc.)



Categories: Travelers' and other writers' descriptions of places,

regional design characteristics, census reports, notes on general

availability of building materials and labor, etc.









HISTORY OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY: PART 2

Week 10 Town and City Planning

I. Development of City Types

A. Symbol of City (ideogram)

1. cross enclosed in circle

a. cross-convergence of roads which brings in and redistri-
butes men, merchandise and ideas

b. circle-moat or wall; not physically needed; morally
present to keep citizens together, sheltered

c. convergence quickening of communication

d. communication plus togetherness gives a special attitude
for change and a peculiar feeling of identity.

B. Stockade City

1. earliest urban form

2. colonial frontier

3. stockade encloses wide empty space, control towers of agri-
cultural district: a temple, a fortress, a storehouse, often,
all in one building where only political, religious, and
military leaders with assistants lived; whole population-
empty space on festive occasions or by war, famine, etc. --
an exchange of wares and ideas

C. Agrarian City

1. landowners of district come to live permanently in stockade

2. security, comfort, prestige within all -- have dependents to
till soil outside and to bring harvest to crossroads inside.

D. Market City

E. Industrial City

F. City

1. nerve center of commercial activities

2. market itself







3. industrial center

a. network of transportation

1) port facilities

2) communication

b. density of population; growth of various service industries

1) sellers of mass consumption goods

2) services non-transportable

II. The American City

A. Small Population

1. encircling walls; waters

2. united area

B. Productive System

1. early markets/fairs

2. distance problem (till end of 18th century)

3. heavy capital investments

a. considerable risk

b. difficulty administrative problems

4. planning: relationship between cost of production and selling
price

a. dependability and predictability in access both to markets
and to supplies

b. transhipping, storing, processing commodities

c. accounting and credit: movement of goods

d. more sensitive communication: larger economic and social
endeavor

5. political and economic forces

C. Population Increase

1. multiplication of units -- not alter character

2. lateral expansion











3. reconstruction of city plan -- differentiating of living
and working quarters

a. impersonality of business and separation from household

b. destruction of household

c. suburb growth

4. specialization -- 1820's; 1875-1925 peak

a. space allocation-profit usage

b. building -- single function; trade, industry or residence

c. process of differentiation created demands for services:
milk, fresh foods, water, waste disposal, light, trans-
portation, and recreation

5. topography

a. hills razed

b. marshes and lakes filled in

c. shore lines extended for more area

6. transportation

a. family carriages

b. railroads

c. subways

7. urban factors -- 19th century

a. grew into cities

b. commercial center grew and engulfed nearby industrial
communities

c. superior transportation facilities

d. abundance of labor supply










III. American Colonial Technology


A. Development of Tools and Technology, and Inventions and Devices
For
1. 1. food
2. clothing
3. shelter
4. transportation
5. communication


B. Jamestown Settlement -- 1607
failure
a. no gold
b. settlers dependence on
1) planting crops
2) raising food


Indians


C. Captain Christopher New port
1. settlers
2. carpenters
3. blacksmiths
4. one mason
5. laborers
6. tools
a. axes
b. hatchets
c. chisels
d. mattocks
e. pickaxes
f. knives
g. pike heads
7. supply of shot and powde
8. livestock
a. mares
b. one horse
c. swine
d. chickens
e. goat
f. sheep
9. wheat
10. other workers


-- second voyage


r


D. Reorganization of Colony -- Slef-Sustaining
1. provide pitch, tar, pot and soap ashes
2. cutting timber for shipping
a. masts
b. boards
3. glass
4. tobacco








E. Pilgrim Heritage/Contribution Mayflower 1620
1. "saints"
a. husbandmen
b. artisans
2. Holland
a. windmills
b. sawmills
c. shipbuilding
d. textile technology
e. papermaking
f. printing

F. Power
1. waterpower--supplied by fast flowing streams
a. windmills used to drive sawmills
2. heating-chimney/fireplace
a. source of heat
1. cooking, baking
b. styles of fireplaces
1. V shape
2. U shape
3. Penn. fireplace

G. Lighting
1. candles
2. spermaceti -- mid 1700's (from whales) -- three times more
3. factory made candles
4. reflectors in scones on walls
5. myriads of candles in glass chandeliers

H. Transportation
1. navigation of rivers, bays, inlets along coast
2. houses built along water's edge
a. sea coast
b. river banks
3. early small watercraft -- began 1611
a. Virginia colony
1) barks
2) pinnacles
3) rowboats
b. New England
1) rowboats
2) shallops
4. first shipbuilding
a. arrival in Salem-- pitch, tar, cordage, sailcloth 1629
b. skill
c. labor
d. material
e. money
f. ketch mid 17th century
1. for fishing
2. travel to West Indies, England









5. colonial shipbuilding
6. design development
a. shipbuilding in woods
1. cheaper to transport built ship to water than wood pieces
7. inland water transportation
a. rivers -- America's first highways
b. white pine log cnaoe
c. tulip tree canoe
d. flatboat 1750
1) principal cargo vessel
2) ferry -- used where road reached broad deep stream
e. steamboat
f. ocean travel
1) packet lines -- 1830's, sailing vessels
2) clipper ships
8. land travel
a. roads scarce during colonial period
b. settlers widened indian paths and trails by cutting back
bushes and trees a few feet
1. packhorses and ox carts passed uninterrupted
2. early acts passed in colonies for improving roads
c. road building act in 1630's
1. bridges built and to be kept in repair over marshes,
swamps, difficult places
2. filling holes with loose stones by Dutch mid 18th
century
3. oyster shells -- dumped in low places to promote
drainage
4. gunpowder -- blasted large boulders to clear
d. bridge building
1. most roads required brieges
a. footbridges for narrow streams
b. multiple structure -- when width of stream exceeded
the length of timber available
c. drawbridge -- mid 18th century
d. long span/truss bridge
e. Cumberland Road -- early 1800's
f. turnpike development -- 1790's
g. plank roads -- 1845-1853
9. vehicular modes of travel
a. horseback
b. sleds
c. two-wheeled cart
d. sedan chair -- 1700's (two wheeled vehicle for passengers)
e. gig (one seat, open cart drawn by one horse)
f. conestoga wagon-- early 18th century (carried 2-4 tons)
g. public transportation
1) early wagons drawn by 4-6 horses -- 1700's
a) freight traffic
2) stagecoach line -- 1750's
3) "flying machines" 1766








10. postal system
a. action by British government for postal system
b. 1673-system of uniform charges to be mandatory that each
letter be stamped with receiving date
c. 1775-establishment of independent postal system
d. Ben Franklin, postmaster 1753, demanded post riders to continue
night and day for speedy service,
e. stagecoach took over by 1773
11. canal age -- inland waterway systems
a. locks and dams
b. transportation of freight
c. passenger travel
d. transit of houseboats
e. Erie Canal
1. man-made waterway
f. Penn. Portage Canal
1. railroad
2. cable transportation
e. canal passage
12, railroad age
a. railroad locomotive
b. communication
c. outlet fro products
d. means of securing material
e. trail blazer in opening up unsettled territory
13. communication
a. newspapers
b. telegraphy

IV. Basic Tecnics of the American City
A. Historical Nature of the City
1. defensive isolation
2. claim of territoriality
3. technological complexity

B. Permanent Human Settlements The City
1. landmarks
a. cemeteries
b. shrines
c. ritual cenets
d. meeting place

C. Village
I. domestication settlement organic life and growth
2. dietary regularity
3. gathering and planting of seed plants
4. utilization of animals
5. domestication of man
6. sexual revolution
a. home and mother
7. permanent association of families and neighborhoods
a. tradition of ancestral soil









8. innovations/technology
a. containers
b. granary
c. bank
d. arsenal
e. library
f. store

D. Elements of the Elementary City
1. transportation
a. river
b. roads, highways
2. street plan
.3. row houses
4. bathrooms and inside latrines
5. pottery pipes
6. brick-lined drainage channels in streets
7. culverts to carry off rain water

E. Urban Division of Labor
1. settled division of labor
2. fixation of many natural activities into
occupancy
3. confinement to single craft
4. property ownership
5. forced man to express his personality
6. materialization
7. etherialization

F. City Growth and Growth Disintegration
1. market economy
2. freedom-capitalism
3. transport and exchange of goods
4. town/city layout
5. urban expansion
6. traffic problems
7. crowding conditions


a single life


G. Tecnics of Agglomeration
1. water power in production
2. textile industry group near streams, rivers
3. bad features of factory system
4. canal transportation
5. mining, smelting
6. change of scale, unrestricting massing of population and in-
dustries
7. power -- water, steam, coal
8. transportation system dispersal of population
a. dirt roads
b. sail-power
c. horse power







9. factory
10. railroad
11. slum
12. industrial housing
13. hygienic poverty
14. noise
15. sanitary improvement

H. Underground Network of the City
1. water main
2. sewer
e. gas main
4. electric main
5. mechanical control
a. lighting
b. ventilation
c. transportation

V. American Cities

A. Theoretical Basis of European Twon Planning
1. Leon Battista Alberti's De Re Aedification 1485
a. ideal site for cities
b. shape of towns
c. walls, fortifications, water supply
d. system of streets
e. open spaces
f. large,important towns streets wide and straight
g. small, less fortified towns -- winding streets to increase
their beauty and give impression of greater size
h. special treatment to streets leading to public places,
and architectural treatment to buildings on streets
i. development of piazzas and recreation areas for each
district of city
j. certain industrial activities, offensive of odor or noise,
be prohibited from towns altogether in districts set aside
for that purpose
2. Gunpowder in Europe 14th century
a. traditional types of fortification became obsolete
b. castle walls vulnerable to cannon
c. need to keep artillery at bay
d. outworks constructed
1. separate strongpoints
2. projections from main wall-flat, small target area --
flanks of salients received protection from adjoining
points
3. French bastides -- new towns built on virgin sites
a. small community
b. rectilinear in outline
c. checkerboard or gridiron street pattern -- modified to
correspond to irregularity of site
4. communities of Rennaissance
a. military significance
b. regional capitals









B. Italian Influence -- kings and popes, cardinals and princes
sponsored creation of planned urban spaces as settings for
palaces, churches, and monumental groups of buildings.
1. public squares
a. major buildings, gathering places for religious, royal, or
civic pageants and festivals
2. enclosed residential square
a. influential in American colonies
b. planning i.e. Place Royale
1) gardens, parks, design of towns
3. Rennaissance garden design -- integral part of whole
a. gardens divided into groups of plant material
b. separated by paths -- geometric pattern; major paths divided
garden into grid pattern, resulting beds not have to have
same dimensions; minor paths subdivided into smaller planting
areas
c. gardens designed to be seen from above -- from terraces,
porches, balconies
d. diagonal and circular lines within basic grid pattern

C. Spanish Planning
1. Santo Domingo rectangular street pattern important base
for further explorations, administrative and military center
2. port towns -- outfitting points for expeditions and as bases
for supplies and anticipated towns
3. West Indies influence
a. selection of suitable site for town on elevated
surrounded by good farming land, with an ample supply of
water, fuel, timber
b. site generous in area
c. plan decided before construction, measurements based on
symmetry
d. coastal cities -- location of plata near shore
e. inland cities -- location -- center of town
f. length equal to one and a half width for festivals with
horses
g. streets radiate four corners from plaza
4. coastal cities -- principal church face plaza near harbor
fortified strong point for any attack
5. inland cities -- church at distance from plaza,apart from
other buildings
6. settlers draw lots for house sites -- erect temporary housing,
join in construction of palisade around plaza for safety against
Indian attack
7. common area -- surrounding plaza -- for future growth and extra
space for recreation and cattle pasturing
8. agricultural lands -- number of farm parcels equal number of
house sites in town -- distributed by drawing lots
9. community territory -- lands irrigatable -- subdivided into
farming tracts and assigned to settlers by lot.








10. regulations
a. construction of houses
b. planting by seeds
c. cattle breeding
d. appearance of community
e. natives not allowed to enter until fortifications and
houses built -- to seem permanently secured -- not
temporary

D. Town Development
1. St. Augustine, Florida -- near mouth of St. John's River-1564
a. houses: two stories high, topped by flat roofs, balconies
-- upper levels over entrance; porticos -- interest to
street facades
b. city-military post; fort-garrison (military)
c. civil settlement for trade, farming, handicraft industry
d. center -- religious orders begin work of converting
Indians to Christianity
e. missions -- religious orders and Indians converted,
presidios -- military establishments and ancillary
activities, pueblos or villas -- civil settlements for
farming, trade and town life
2. San Antonio, Texas -- pueblo of San Fernando -- mixture of civil
military, religion
3. Galvez, Louisiana
4. Pensacola Bay, Florida
5. Santa Fe, New Mexico
6. San Francisco, California -- preside
a. land system of pueblo towns -- secure province against
encroachment; increase farm produce supply -- for
military garrisons; civil communities
7. Los Angeles, California
a. lands benefitted by irrigation
b. pueblo site -- slightly elevated, exposed to north and
south winds; aware to avoid dangers of floods -- vicinity
to river
c. front of plaza to east for church and government
buildings.
8. New England Town system
a. land distribution -- conditions of land tenure in
rural England at time of American colonization
b. evolution -- feudal land law
c. municipality -- replaced feudal lord
d. collective ownership
e. communal land management
9. St. Lawrence and Mississippi River Valleys
a. trading posts, missions, towns
b. Champlain designed town plans
1. Douchet Island, Maine
2. Quebec, Canada
3. Louisburg, Canada, 1758
4. Montreal, Canada









10. Detroit Michigan-frontier fort and mission
a. dependent of water transportation -- for speedy and efficient
communication and trade
11. Kaskaskia, Illinois -- community along fertile, alluvial plain
on East Bank of Mississippi -- stretching southward from mouth
of Illinois River
12. St. Louis, Missouri
13. New Orleans, Louisiana
14. Jamestown, Virginia
15. Yorktown, Virginia
16. Alexandria, Virginia
17. Annapolis, Maryland
18. Williamsburg, Virginia
19. Salem, Massachusetts
20. Cambridge, Massachusetts
21. Hartford, Connecticut
22. Exeter, New Hampshire
23. Woodstock, Vermont
24. Providence, Rhode Island
25. Boston, Massachusetts
26. New Amsterdam
27. Kingston, New York
28. New York City
29. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
30. Charleston, South Carolina
31. Wilmington, North Carolina
32. Edenton, North Carolina
33. New Bern, North Carolina
34. Savannah, Georgia (1800's)
35. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
36. Franklinville and Lystra, Kentucky
37. Marietta, Ohio
38. Indianopolis, Indiana
39. Washington, D. C.
40. Buffalo, New York
41. Cleveland, Ohio
42. Detroit, Michigan
43. Chicago, Illinois

VI. American Urban Recreation
A. Parks -- farsighted planning --landmark in American culture
1. rapid unexplained growth of commercial centers made life intole
in 1850's
a. New York -- population, crowding, poverty
2. needed was: opportunities for rest and relaxation away from
pressures of city
3. provisions desired: separation of traffic; physical, aesthetic
social environment, different types of recreation, open and
closing vistas






















B. Community Design
1. rural attractiveness
a. roadside trees in irregular clusters
b. houses built certain number of feet from highway
c. unfenced parks and recreational grounds
d. interior roadways to wind around interesting natural feature
focused on river ( or water); depressed, if possible, to
create pleasant sight lines; curves to suggest mood
e. separation of business and pleasure traffic

C. Regional Planning
1. connection of total park system
2. variety of park functions
3. separation of traffic
a. sidewalks and streets for access to houses
b. promenades for casual hikers and strollers
c. driveways for carriages (and later automobiles)
d. saddle paths for horseback riders

D. Urban Design
1. Columbian Exposition -- total system encompassing complete
concept of urban planning












SYLLABUS COMPLETION AS OF FALL 1973



I. Development of City Types


Symbol of City
Stockade City
Agrarian City
Market City
Industrial City
City


Completed
Completed
Completed
Not Completed
Not Completed
Completed


II. The American City


Small Population
Productive System
Population Increase


Completed
Completed
Completed


III. American Colonial Technology


A. Development of Tools and Technology, and
Inventions and Devises For
B. Jamestown Settlement 1607
C. Captain Christopher Newport -- 2nd Voyage
D. Reorganization of Colony -- Self-Sustaining
E. Power
F. Lighting
G. Transportation
H. Postal System
I. Canal Age
J. Railroad Age
K. Communications

IV. Basic Technics of the American City


Historic Nature of the City
Permanent Human Settlements -- The City
The Village
Elements of the Elementary City
Urban Division of Labor
City Growth and Growth Disintegration
Technics of Agglomeration
Underground Network of the City


Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Not Completed


Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed
Completed





















V. American Cities


A. Theoretical Basis of European Town Planning Completed
B. Italian Influence Completed
C. Spanish Planning Completed
D. Town Development Not Completed



See outline and slide card descriptions for which towns and cities
have been researched and which ones have not.

VI. American Urban Recreation

A. Parks Completed
B. Community Design Completed
C. Regional Planning Completed
D. Urban Design Not Completed



To be noted: The above "Outline Completion" refers to the extent
that each topic has been outlined, and does not reflect on the
amount of material that each topic may be covered in the slide
card descriptions and the slides, the annotated bibliography, and
the student projects of any "Not Completed" items.







FALL 1973 SLIDE INVENTORY


A. Background of American Town Planning


1. Ideal military city plan, Vitry-Le Francois, 1545
2. Military strongpoint North of Venice, 1593
3. Plan of Monpazier, France, 1284
4. Plan of Charlesville, France, 1656
5. Plan of Paris, France, 1765
6. Place Royale in Paris, France, 1652
7. Plan of Versailles, France, 1746
8. Plan of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1671
9. Spanish Colonization, town planning layout
10. California, spanish pueblo system

B. Town Development
11. View of St. Augustine, Florida, 1588
12. Plan of St. Augustine, Florida, 1763
13. Plan of San Antonio, Texas, 1730
14. Plan of Gialvez, Louisiana, 1778
15. Plan of Pensacola, Florida, 1778
16. Plan of Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1776
17. Plan of Presido of San Francisco, California, 1820
18. Plan of Los Angeles, California, 1781
19. View of Ste. Croix, Maine, 1604
20. Plan of Quebec, Canada, 1759
21. Plan of Louisburg', Canada, 1758
22. Plan of Montreal, Canada, 1644
23. Plan of Montreal, Canada, 1758
24. Plan of Detroit Michigan, 1764
25. Plan of Kaskaskia, Illinois, 1770
26. Plan of St. Louis, Missouri, 1780
27. Plan of New Orleans, 1764
28. Plan of New Orleans, 1817
29. Plan of Jamestown, Virginia, 1607
30. Plan of Yorktown, Virginia, 1691
31. Plan of Alexandria, Virginia, 1749
32. Plan of Annapolis, Maryland, 1718
33. Plan of Williamsburg, Virginia, 1782
34. Plan of Salem, Massachusetts, 1670
35. Plan of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1637
36. Plan of Hartford, Connecticut, 1640
37. Plan of Exeter, New Hampshire, 1802
38. Plan of Woodstock, Vermont, 1869
39. Plan of Providence, Rhode Island, 1638
40. Plan of Boston, Massachusetts, 1640
41. Plan of Boston, Massachusetts, 1722
42. Plan of Boston, Massachusetts, 1800


Plans for Fort and town of New Amsterdam,
Plan for Kingston, New York, 1695
Plan of New York City, 1811
View of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1683
Plan of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1683


1625















Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of
Plan of


Charleston, South Carolina
Wilmington, North Carolina
New Bern, North Carolina
Edenton, North Carolina
Savannah, Georgia
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 18
Franklinville, & Lystra, Kei
Marietta, Ohio, 1837
Indianopolis, Indiana, 1821


L'enfant's Plan for Washington, D.C.,
View of Washington, D.C., 1882
Plan of Buffalo, New York, 1851
Cleveland, Ohio, 1835
Central portion of Detroit, Michigan,
Plan of Chicago, Illinois, 1834


15
ntucky


1791


1807


C. American Urban Recreation


Fredrick Law Omsted, Sr., protrait, 1890-95
Quotation/Fredrick Law Omsted
Urban Conditions in New York City, 1890
Details of Birkenhead Park, England
Central Park, New York City, 1860; Traverse Road, New York City, 1861
Overview of Central Park, 1863
View of Terrace and Fountain, Central Park, 1863
Tree moving machine
Plan of Prospect Park, Brooklyn
Chicago, Illinois, 19th Century Chicago Mill District, 1883
Details of Riverside, 19th century
Views of Riverside today
Fens, Boston, Massachusetts, 1880; the Riverway, Boston,
Massachusetts, 1900
Pre-study for Boston Parkway, 1881
Fenway today
World's Columbian Exposition, 1893
Exposition, main court and basin, looking east
Exposition main court and basin, looking west
Overview of Columbian Exposition


















NOTE:


A. BACKGROUND OF AMERICAN TOWN PLANNING
(Slides are to be used for outline discussions on:)

I. Development of City Types
II. The American City
III. American Colonial Technology
IV. Basic tecnics of the American City


B. TOWN DEVELOPMENT
(Slides are to be used for


outline discussions on:)


I. IV.
V. American Cities


C. AMERICAN URBAN RECREATION
(Slides are to be used for


outline discussions on:)


I. IV.
V. American Urban Recreation


Attention:


Slide B-46 View of Philadelphia, Penn., must be
re-photographed. It is found in John Rep's book
P. 210.






ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY


711.409 Benevolo, Leonardo, The Origins of Modern Town Planning,
B 465oE1 Cambridge, Mass., Mit Press, 1967.

A well written book of town planning in European countries,
Greece, and Rome. A good book for one who wishes to find
imperative town planning methods of the world.

Development of city types, The American City, American
Cities, American Urban Recreation.

Blake, Peter, God's Own Junkyard, N.Y., Holt Pub., 1964

The visual experience of this book is beneficial to the
student's understanding of the consequences of town planning
evolution.

The American City, American Colonial Technology, basic
technics of the American City, American Cities, American
Urban Recreation.


917.4 Bridenbaugh, Carl, Cities in Revolt, 1743-1776, N.Y. Capri-
B851c corn Books, 1964,

A valuable socio-historic description of the urban life
in the 18th century which reveals the relationship of end-
less timed architecture and all classes of people.

Development of city types, American colonial technology,
American cities, American urban recreation.


323.352 Bridenbaugh, Carl, Cities in the Wilderness, 1625-1742,
B851c2 N.Y., Capricorn Books, 1964.

A sequel to the above book.

The American city, American colonial technology,
American cities, American urban recreation.


917.4 Bridenbaugh, Carl, Cities in Revolt, 1743-1776, N.Y.
B851c Capricorn Books, 1964,

A valuable socio-historic description of the urban life
in the 18th century which reveals the relationship of
endless timed architecture and all classes of people.

Development of city types, American colonial technology,
American cities, American urban recreation.

323.352 Bridenbaugh, Carl, Cities in the Wilderness, 1625-1742,
B851c2 N.Y., Capricorn Books, 1964.






A sequel to the above book.


The American City, American colonial technology,
American cities, American urban recreation.

712.092 Fabos, Julius, GY, Milde, Weinmayr, Fredrick Law
051f Omsted Founder of Landscape Architecture in
America, Amherst, Mass., Univ. of Mass., 1968.

A most impressive book which can be used for town planning
by studying Olmsted's contributions and projects. The
illustrations are exceptional.

The American city, American colonial technology,
American cities, American urban recreation.

Fogelson, Robert M., The Fragmented Metropolis, Los
Angeles;,1850-1930, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press,
1967.

A development study of town evolution and character.

Development of city types, the American city, American
colonial technology, American cities, American urban
recreation.

Geen, Eliz., Lowe, Jeanne, Walker K., Man and the Modern
City, Pittsburg, Penn., Univ. of Pitts., 1963.

Phiolosphical attitudes toward city developments and forces,

The American city, American cities, American urban recreation.


720.9 Giedion, S., Space, Time, Architecture,
G454S3 Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, 1970.

An approach to architectural history which emphasizes
materials and constructions within the development of
cities.

The American city, American colonial technology, basic
technics of the American city, American cities, American
urban recreation.


301.364 Glaab, C.N., A History of Urban America, N.Y., MacMillan,
G541h 1967.

A philosophical approach to city development with political
emphasis.

The American city, American cities, American urban recreation.

Glaab, C.N., The American City A Documentary History,
Dorsey series, Homewood, Ill., 1963.










Historical approach to city development which deals with
urbanization devices.

The American city, American colonial technology, basic
technics of the American city, American cities, American
urban recreation.

Green, Carleton, "The City in Transition", Journal of
Stanford Res., Inst., Vol. 4, 1960, pgs. 114-152.

A problematic study of elements which must be dealt with
which, although contribute to the city, cause its downfall.

The American city, American cities, American urban recreation.

Historic Savannah, Historic Savannah Foundation Incor., 1968.


History, architecture, architectural inventory, and illus-
trations are well presented, but all apply to Savannah
more than to a general city type.


Meyerson, Martin, Face of the Metropolis, N.Y. Random House,
1963.

Descriptive study of the physical city structure.

The American city, American cities, American urban recreation.


Mumford, Lewis, City Development, N.Y., Harcourt, Brace,
World, 1968.

A tracing of town development within the past century.

The American city, American cities, American urban recreation.


Mumford, Lewis, The City in History, N.Y. Harcourt, Brace,
and World, 1961.

Mumford uses ancient towns as examples of city and social
planning. A very applicable study for understanding America
life.

Development of City Types, The American City, American
Colonial Technology, Basic Technics of the American City,
American Cities, American Urban Recreation


720.97581
H673h


711.4
M613f





711.04
M962c





301.36
M962C






Mumford, Lewis, The Urban Prospect, N.Y. Harcourt,
Brace, World, 1968.

An interesting study on planning development which does
not directly relate to the course's content, but can be
a valuable source for individual research.

The American City, Basic Technics of the American City,
American Cities, American Urban Recreation.

Nolen, John, "Twenty Years of City Planning Progress in
the U.S., 1907-1927", ASPO Newsletter, Part I, Vol. 32,
#61, pgs. 69-70; Vol. 32, #7, pages 90-93.

An informative report of city planning, organizations,
and city structures.

Development of City Types, The American City, American
Colonial Technology, American Cities, American Urban
Recreation.


711.40973 Reps, John W., Town Planning in Frontier America Prince-
R425' town N.J., Princetown Univ. Press, 1969.

This book concentrates on towns of the colonial period.
Its exceptional descriptions and accurate details of
city plans are a "must" for all concerned readers.

Development of City Types, The American City, American
Colonial Technology, American Cities, American Urban
Recreation.

Sjoberg, Gideon, "The Origin's and Evolution of Cities,"
"Scientific American," Vol. 213, No. 3, Sept. 1965,
pgs. 55-63.

The Evolution process is explained and explanation is
given for the sequential evolutionary town developments.

Development of City Types, The American City, Basic
Technics of the American City, American Cities, American
Urban Recreation.


609.73 Oliver, John W., History of American Technology, N.Y.,
048h Ronald Press co., 1956.

A great book that offers much detail on the technologies
of colonial days which expresses the American culture.
The book deals with early colonial days to the present.

Development of City Types, The American City, American
Colonial Technology, Basic Technics of the American
rity? American Cities, American Urban Recreation



























301.36 Handlin, Oscar and Burchard, John, The Historian and
H236h the City, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, Harvard Univ.,
Press, 1963.


This book covers the city
and economic development.
tion and urban history are


in technological innovations
City economics, industrializa-
resourceful references.


Development of City Types, The American City, American
Colonial Technology, Basic Technics of the American
City, American Cities, American Urban Recreation.









SUGGESTED STUDENT PROJECTS


1. Describe the arrangement of the housing of livestock within the
colonial settlements.


2. The American colonies strove for self-sustance. Explain the
contribution to their colonies by products they produced such as
masts and boards, glass, and tobacco.


3. Show the contributions of windmills, sawmills, shipbuilding,
textile technology, papermaking, and printing of the early American
colonies and point out their contributions toward better settlements.


4. Show the effects of steam power on the development of the American
colonies.


5. Give a description of early America without lighting; and then
explain why lighting became a necessity after its discovery.


6. Investigate the development of roads in colonial America and
show their significance.


7. Characterize the steamboat era of the American river.


8. Study the turnpike and highway development in the American
colonies and trace their development and significance in towns and
cities in America.


9. How did the function and efficiency of the Postal system effect
the development of American cities?


10. What aspects of town planning were affected by the Canal Age in
America?


11. The development of newspapers and telegraphs helped build the
America nation. Show how such communication promoted a local con-
sciousness and a national unity.


12. The irrigation ditch, the canal, the reservoir, the moat, the
aqueduct, the drain and the sewer, are several innovations which came
before the time of the city. Trace their development and show their
functions relative to one another as well as to the whole concept of
making unity within a city.









13. Describe the change from the market-place to the market economy-
capitalism.

14. Water power, the textile industry, the factor system, the canal
transportation, and mining and smelting, were ecologically contributive
to the early American city---until factors such change of scale, un-
restricting massing of population and industries began to monopolize
the above. Give specifics on the above which caused bad urban effects
and suggest alternatives that could be taken for remedies.


15. Describe the poverty and slums of the 19th century American,
emphasizing utilities, architecture, and daily life. Give an explana-
tion of how such poornesss" developed.


16. Study the public health situation in the early 19th centruy and
explain specific remedies the cities offered.

17. List elements of the city which contributed to the noise problem
in the 19th century.


18. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages that the Tidewater
colonies faced in their town planning.


19. The Spanish pueblo rivaled the New England village. Explain.
(One must consider the elements of the pueblo and the village i.e.
accommodations, land, planning, spaces, structures materials).


20. Show significant developments of Boston Town Planning.


21. Research the form and manner in which business was conducted
in New York city in the early 1800's and the influence they contri-
buted to the street plan of New York (1811), i.e. topography, circulation,
acce-s, space allocation and usage.

22. Define the degree of municipal control over land development which
the city of Philadelphia executed in the 1800's and pinpoint its place
in the American tradition of city planning.

23. Investigate the means of commerce at the port towns of Wilmington,
Edenton and New Bern (North Carolina) in the mid 1700's and state the
significant elements of each.


24. Gather all the elements which give the Savannah plan of squares
"character" and trace its background.












25. Investigate the coal and iron, canal and railroad industry which
brought prosperity to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania in the early 1800's.
Study its advantages and disadvantages in urban growth.


26. Research the speculative enterprises in Kentucky (late 18th century)
and site what speculators looked for in locations, i.e. Franklinville
and Lystra, Kentucky.

27. Discuss the mound constructions incorporated by Rufus Putnam on the
site of Marietta Ohio (1837) and state the difficulties of such an approach.


28. Find examples of mid wesr (Ohio and Indiana) settlements where
settlers regarded land as a commodity for personal enrichment rather
than a resource to be managed wisely by citizens and their govern-
mental institutions.


29. Follow L'Enfant's development of the Washington D.C. plan and
criticize it with past urban planning, and its contribution to later
planning.


30. Not until 1901 with the contribution of the Senate Park Commission,
did L'Enfant's visionary scheme become a realization. Explain the
development and execution of such.


31. Buffalo, N.Y., Cleveland, Ohio, Detroit, Michigan, and Chicago,
Illinois had city plans which were directly influenced by their location
on the Great Lakes Frontier, Explain.


32. Give a philosophical as well as functional dissertation of a designer's
responsibility in days of look-alike housing, to create unique communi-
ties through site planning and urban design.

33. Show how capitalism began to dictate the urban scene in colonial
America.

34. The enactment of building regulations became a distinctive urban
function. Discuss the need for such a function and its influence.

35. Take an influential colonial town and show its self-sustaining urban
environment, and then show its relationship (urban environment)
to another relative or significant town.





















IDEAL MILITARY CITY PLAN
VITRY-LE FRANCOIS, 1545

by Italian Eng.: Aieronimo Marino
Site: Marne River, E. France



Gridron St. System
Fortified Perimeter

Center of town: open space at intersection of 4 main streets
which serve as market square and military mustering ground.























PLAN OF PALMA NOVA ITALY, 1598


Military Strongpoint N. of Venice
1593-Vincenzo Scamozzi

Walls & bastions enclosed 9 sided town with system of radial
streets focusing on great central place hexagon shape in middle
tower.

6 subsidiary squares midway bet. Center and perimeter provided
open spaces for quarters of town smaller squares before gates
bastions also.


A-2
























PLAN OF MONPAZIER
FRANCE: 1284



French Bastides
Geometric precision

Detroit similar; Cadillac, its planner, brought up in a
bastide.








A-3






















PLAN OF CHARLESVILLE
FRANCE: 1656



Formal planning of the times.

Rectangular street pattern-several squares and places where minor
streets terminated.

Clear differentiation of major and minor streets, subsidiary squares,
place ducale, careful attention to street facades, skillful place-
ment of important buildings on axis with approaching streets.

Baroque town planning.


A-4
























PLAN OF PARIS
FRANCE, 1765


Pierre Paite, Artist
Composite Drawing, 1765
Competition Design submition
for monument to Louis XV
Variety of forms then proposed







A-5
























PLACE ROYALE IN PARIS, FRANCE 1652



Square Shape

Houses built by individuals to designs established
at outset.

Entrances opened off an arcaded sidewalk on all 4
sides.

Center Sq. originally sand-for tournaments.





A-6






















PLAN OF VERSAILEES, FRANCE: 1746


By Le Notre

Great Royal Park

Tree-lines alleges radiating outward from rond-points in
bold diagonal lines/squares & places.


A-7























PLAN OF SANTO DOMINGO
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1671



Impressive settlement centered around its plaza and
cathedral.

St., wide streets divide town into rect. blocks of homes
for settlers, warehouses, barracks buildings for religious
orders.

Bldgs. const. on street line interiors of blocks devoted
to gardens, cloisters, or mustering grounds.


A-8
























TOWN PLANNING LAYOUT-SPANISH COLONIZATION



SEE NOTES OUTLINE


A-9






















CALIFORNIA/SPANISH
PUEBLO SYSTEM


SEE NOTES OUTLINE


A-10
























VIEW OF St. Augustine, Florida, 1588



Francis Drake Era

Little grid settlement

11 Blks.

Some distance from Fort which guarded entrance to harbor.





B-ll























PLAN OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 1763



Linear configuration along Bay southward from Fort.

St. Paitern-irregular girdiron centered on plaza.

Stockade surrounds town prospecting bastions at intervals
along perimeter.

Open character of community houses fronted directly on streets
generous areas to rear for gardens and ratios.






B-12
























PLAN OF SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, 1730



Grid of rect. blks. around plaza

Fronted church & Royal House

New Pueblo adjacent to Ouder Presidio (separated by church
across river-mission.








B-13
























PLAN OF GLAVEZ, LOUISIANA, 1778



Departure from ideal city of Indies

Plaza square instead of rectilinear and arcades along all
streets not only along those entering plaza.








B-14
























PLAN OF PENSACOLA, FLORIDA 1778


Central Fort

Reconstruction and enlargement of Spanish defensive work

Garrison Community (not civil settlement)







B-15
























PLAN OF SANTA FE, N.M. 1766



Rectilinear street pattern,& plaza (laws of Indies)

Governor's residence along one side of plaza

Frontier Government-careless-causalness of planning.







B-16























PLAN OF PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 1820


Stockaded quadrangles of barracks

Stores, shops, stables of military garrison and houses
of settlers

Houses and farm buildings beyond walls of preside proper.

Military community like civil settlements of Pueblos


B-17























PLAN OF LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 1781


Followed laws of Indies

Checkerboard pattern of farm fields beyond


B-18























VIEW OF STE. CROIX
(BOUCHET) ISLAND, MAINE 1604



Small town

Central sq. fronted houses of settlers

Storehouse; blacksmith, carpentry shops, cook house, other
structures.

Gardens

Farm plots




B-19

























QUEBEC, CANADA 1759


Plan of community compact, non-linear (resemblance of
European cities of the time)








B-20
























PLAN OF LOUISBURG, CANADA 1758



Planned as main French fortress town in Canada

Place D'Armes Elaborate fortification protected harbor

Planned Garrison town

Developed to commercial port






B-21
























PLAN OF MONTREAL, CANADA 1758



Narrow linear patters

Small & compact form

Saint Lawrence restricted community growth in depth

Direction of town development for the times






B-22
























PLAN OF MONTREAL, CANADA, 1644


Original plan by missionaries, soldiers, nuns, & settlers

Narrow of land; buidlings around little square

Hospital, small fort, residences faced indian raids, severe
winters, and spring floods






B-23























PLAN OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, 1764



Expressed function as fortress town dominated Detroit
R. connection between Lake Erie and St. Clair.

Fortification enclose space.

Streets extremely narrow.

Outside town farm plob of settlers.

Long, narrow farms running back from water's edge.




B-24






















PLAN OF KASKASKIA, ILLINOIS, 1770


Irregular grid narrow streets divide town into blocks
of various size.

Open size between church & river-market & mustering ground.

Agricultural villages European pattern.

Cultivated fields common land for farmers.

Common land cattle grazing & timber.


B-25























PLAN OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 1780



Similar to Montreal.

Linear pattern.

Rectangular street system.

Place D'Armes opening to river.

Streets narrow.

Common fields, pasture, woodlands nearby


B-26
























PLAN OF NEW ORLEANS, 1764



Focal point place D'Armes at water's edge (parade grd.)

Inland side-facing square and river beyond principal
church.

Extra street divide central range of blocks termin. at
square to excentuate church.

Quay along river each way from central square.





B-27
























PLAN OF NEW ORLEANS, LA. 1817



Old perimeter fortifications pulled on broad boulevards
replaced.

Above and below old town new suburbs faubourgs.

Curving river bank new orientation for grid plan of
city extensions.

Open square combined as space opening off or terminating
one of numerous boulevards.



B-28


























PLAN OF JAMESTOWN, VA. 1607













B-29


























PLAN OF YORKTOWN, VA. 1691











B-30


























PLAN OF ALEXANDRIA, VA. 1749













B-31


























PLAN OF ANNAPOLIS, MD. 1718












B-32

























PLAN OF WILLIAMSBURG, VA., 1782














B-33


























SALEM, MASS. 1670












B-34


























CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 1637














B-35


























HARTFORD, CONN. 1640













B-36

























EXETER, N.H. 1802















B-37

























WOODSTOCK, VERMONT 1869














B-38


























PROVIDENCE, R.I. 1638













B-39


























BOSTON, MASS. 1640














B-40

























BOSTON, MASS. 1722













B-41

























BOSTON, MASS. 1800














B-42


























PLANS FOR FORT & TOWN OF NEW AMSTERDAM 1625













B-43
























KINGSTON, N.Y. 1695















B-44



























PLAN OF N.Y. CITY 1811












B-45

























PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 1683














B-46
























PLAN OF PHILADELPHIA, PENN.
















B-47

























CHARLESTON, S.C. 1704















B-48

























WILMINGTON, N.C.















B-49


























NEW BERN., N.C.













B-50
























EDENTON, N.C.

















B-51

























SAVANNAH, GA.















B-52
























PITTSBURG, PENN. 1815
















B-53
























FRAKLINVILLE & LYSTRA, KENTUCKY
















B-54
























MARIETTA, OHIO 1837
















B-55
























INDIANOPOLIS, INDIANA 1861
















B-56

























L'ENFANT'A PLAN FOR WASH., D.C. 1791















B-57
























VIEW OF WASHINGTON, D.C. 1882
















B-58
























BUFFALO, N.Y. 1851
















B-59
























CLEVELAND, OHIO 1835
















B-60
























CENTRAL PORTION OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN 1807

















B-61






















CHICAGO, ILL. 1834


B,62
























FREDRICK LAW OMSTED, SR.


1890-95


Olmsted Office portfolio.


C 63
























QUOTE



No comment visual impact only student discussion.











C-64























URBAN CONDITIONS IN N.Y. 1890



Need for relieving growing & providing areas where
citizens can temp. escape from their surroundings.












C-65






















DETAILS OF BIRKENHEAD PARK ENGLAND


Designed by Sir JOseph Paxton

1850 Olmsted visited park greatly impressed by the
way art had been employed to obtain from nature so much
beauty "people's Garden."


C-66




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