• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Regional analysis
 Design solutions
 The site
 Architectural solution
 Appendix
 Bibliography














Title: Drayton Hall : property research team final report
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Title: Drayton Hall : property research team final report
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement 1
        Acknowledgement 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Regional analysis
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 39a
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Design solutions
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The site
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Architectural solution
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Appendix
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Bibliography
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
Full Text




P R OPERTDY R ~ES~iEARCeH
FINAL RCEIPORT
JUNE 7 1976


TEAM R(


CO LLbEGC~E OF AR CHI tT E CTUR E
U~N IV ERS I T Y O =F FL ORIDA)


DR%~- AY T ON

HALL




D RAY T ON


PROPE RTY RESEARCH


T EAM n


REPO RT:


HALL


Stucly and


EDesign


Solutions


Flegional


Inspac~t


BILL BAUER


JORGE


CURRAIS


A TERMINAL PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF MASTER OF ARTS

MARGARET COSTANTEN
A TERMINAL THESIS PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF
ARCHITECTURE, DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF BACHELOR OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

CHARLES SULLIVAN
A TERMINAL PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE,
DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING, IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF
ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING


SKINNER


JOHN




"At an early period, gentlemen of fortune [formed] these
happy retreats from noise and bustle; .. elegant buildings
arose, which overlooked grounds, where art and nature were
happily combined. .. And nature drawn from her recesses,
presented landscapes diversified and beautified, where winds
had not long before shook the trees, or savages had roamed."

~p John Drayton









FACULTY MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE


HISTORIC CHARLESTON FOUNDATION


THE NATIONAL TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION


Architectural Preservation




Urban and Regional Planning

Landscape Architecture


F. Blair Reeves
Dr. William J. Murtagh
Susan Tate
Philip Wisley


Frances Edmunds
Peter McGee


MIDDLETON PLACE

Charles Duell


Carl Feiss


Herrick Smith
John Sanderson
Dan Donelin
Vasant Nerikar


MAGNOLIA GARDENS

Norwood Hastie


FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


James Biddle
James Massey
Lawson Knott
Ted Sandee
Nat Neblett
Carole Scanlon


Dennis Lawson
Charles Chase
Lynn Herman
Bob Gaskin
and the Drayton Hall staff


George Dennis


SOUTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, RECREATION AND TOURISM


Fred Brinkman


AC KNOWNL EDGE M ENT S

We gratefully acknowledge the following persons for assistance on the Drayton Hall Property Research Team project:





RESEARCH TEAM


BILL BAUER is a graduate of the architectural preservation option at the
University of Florida. He received his Master of Arts in Architecture
degree in June, 1976 and a Bachelor of Design degree in December, 1972.
MARGARET COSTANTEN is a graduate of the landscape architecture program at
the University of Florida. She received her Bachelor of Landscape
Architecture degree in June, 1976.

JORGE CURRAIS is a graduate of the architectural preservation option at the
University of Florida. He received his Master of Arts in Architecture
degree in June, 1976 and a Bachelor of Design degree in June, 1974.
JOHN SKINNER is a second year law student at the Spessard L. Holland Law
Center at the University of Florida. He received his Bachelor of Arts
in English at Emory University in March, 1974.

CHARLES SULLIVAN is a graduate student in' the urban and regional planning
program at the University of Florida. He received his Bachelor of
Landscape Architecture in June, 1974 and is currently working towards
his master's degree.




I NT PRODUCT ION





IINTRIC)ICti)TICONi

Today, our cultural and environmental heritage
means more to us as a nation than ever before. The

preservation and interpretation of this heritage serves the

purposes of providing an insight to our past, a better
understanding of ourselves and an inspiration towards

future achievements. Yet, in an age where continued

development is an economic necessity, the few remaining

areas of historical treasure are increasingly endangered.

In order to meet these divergent needs of

economic growth aind the conservation of historically

significant places, new tools of preservation and planning

must be developed. Every attempt at preservation will have

some impact on the surrounding environment, whether in

increased traffic flow and tourist dollars coming into

the area or any resulting land use restrictions on other

developments. Commercial developments allowed to locate

near historic sites will run the risk of destroying that

very quality which the preservationist seeks to save: the

fragile feeling of timelessness within the site itself.


A good example of this tension between the forces of
commercial development and those of preservation is seen along

the Ashley River Road outside Charleston, South Carolina. The

road is prime for further development yet contains several

historically significant sites which demand saving.

One of the endangered sites on on the Ashley River

Road is Drayton Hall. Built between 1738 and 1742 by John

Drayton, the mansion remains today an outstanding example of

the plantation houses of the South Carolina low country. Fearing
the loss of such a landmark to expanding developments, the

National Trust for Historic Preservation initiated the purchase

of the house and surrounding acres in conjunction with the

South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism and
the Historic Charleston Foundation.





SCO(F>E EL ()E S.J IEC:FlfE

The objective of the January, 1973 co-operative

agreement is to establish an educational and recreational

area known as Drayton Hall Park. The basic theme of the

park will be historical,emphasizing the exploration and

interpretation of the Drayton family tradition and its

impact on the rise and fall of the lowland plantation
culture, the devastation brought by the Civil War and the

subsequent reconstruction of the low country economy through

the mining of phosphate. The focal point of the park will

be the Drayton mansion and its great architectural

significance.

The long range plan of the National Trust in the

development of the park is the creation of a Community

Preservation Center. More than an historic house museum,

the center allows the visitor to experience the importance

of preservation through the demonstration of restoration,

archaeological and related skills in ongoing projects and

case studies. The activities of interpretation and education

would be communicated to the public through a visitor's

center-theatre complex to be located on another section of


the site. The more immediate goals of the National Trust

are the stabilization of the mansion with minor restoration

of particular interior elements. Any restoration would take

place only after extensive research.
The Historic Charleston Foundation looks toward the

development of the Drayton Hall Park as the necessary catalyst

to spur interest in the conservation of the remaining areas of

natural beauty along the Ashley River and the Ashley River

Road. In addition to the historical interpretive function of

the park, the Historic Charleston Foundation feels the Drayton

Hall setting will provide an excellent opportunity for the

further study of the native flora and fauna of the region,

encouraging "a greater appreciation for the land, and active

participation in its protection."(14
The state Parks, Recreation and Tourism Department

will participate in the Drayton Hall Park project by establish-

ing recreational facilities across Highway 61 to serve the
interests of the thousands of visitors who annually seek the

scenic beauty and historic heritage of the Ashley River Road

area.




The Drayton Hall Park will accommodate many levels

of interest in education and recreation and should prove to

be a vital link within the historic sites along the Ashley

River Road and in the already preservation conscious

greater Charleston area.

In January, 1976, the National Trust for Historic

Preservation contracted with the Architectural Guild of

Gainesville, Florida for the services of five University of

Florida students to create data, programs and solutions to

architectural preservation, planning, landscape architecture

and legal problems pertaining to the newly acquired Trust

property, Orayton Hall. The broad interdisciplinary approach

of the project would allow the students ( two preservation

architects, a landscape architect, a planner and a lawyer)

to work within their individual fields while consolidating

the overall knowledge necessary to create a master develop-

ment plan. The National Trust hopes to use the Drayton

Hall Property Research Team project as a prototype in plan-

ning for the development of other Trust properties in the
future.




REGIONAL


AN ALYSI S





(AERIAL PERSPECTIVE

CHP oSULLIVAN
DEPT. OF URBAN AND REGIONAL
PLANNING I


DRA YTON HALL
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PRIOPERTY RESEARCH TEAM- COLLEGEGOF ARICHITECTURE
UNIIVERISITY OF FLOR1IDA


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REEGilI\IAtl CO(3NTlFE)(I'

The environment immediately surrounding the

grounds of Drayton Hall, Magnolia Gardens and Middleton
Place remain in much the same pristine condition as whbn

the land was first cleared in the beginnings of the plantation

era. Both the Ashley River Road and the Ashley River have

existed up until now relatively untouched by the influences

of 20th Century man. Yet, with the outward growth of the

city of Charleston, Drayton Hall and its historic neighbors

find themselves right in the pathway of this urban sprawl.

Time is the only element which stands between this historic-

ally important area and unrestricted, unplanned development.
Charleston's sprawl contains many similarities to

the kind of rapid growth so typical of 1970's America. It is

a horizontal, two-story residential, suburban development,

energy intensive in that it requires the expenditure of

exponentially greater amounts of energy to support the

expanding population. It is wasteful and short-sighted in
its approach to everything: land use, utility consumption and

transportation facilities. It is totally dependent on the


automobile and cannot be easily adapted to other forms of mass
transit.

This uncontrolled growth is part of the cycle of central

city decay sprawl then decay and more sprawl. This
format repeats itself until all we have are concentric rings of

ugliness radiating out from the center of the city. Drayton

Hall presently lies uncomfortably close to the edge of the

outer ring of the latest sprawl.

The City of Charleston has set an excellent example for

urban design providing a sense of community and place. However,

outside the city limits, all aesthetic considerations are

abandoned and the growth could be that of any other modern

American city.

















i


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~;, 7:
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LEGEND

CONSERVATION


AR


AR AGRICULTURE

RS*10 LOW DENSITY SINGLE FAMILY

Rs-a MEDIUM DENSITY SINGLE FAMILY


j7RS-e HIGH DENSITY SINGLE FAMILY

RM-4 MULTI-FAMILY DETACHED

RM-2 MULTI-FAMILY MEDIUM DENSITY

PD PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT

ML LIGHT INDUSTRY


MM GENERAL INDUSTRY

M81 P INDUSTRIAL PARK

RT MOBILE HOME




CH STATE BOAT LAUNCH



D RAYTO N HALL ZONING arbsi
CNARLESTN BOUTN CanOLIA n-bd.dkd
PROPEITY RESEARC H TEAM CO LLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE CHIP SULLIVAN n~a
DEPT. OF URBANI AND REGIDNAL ****** ,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIIDA rrm PLNNN MAY leg 8ETr et





ZONmIbili a Aik

Drayton Hall is located in a conservation district.

This use was implemented specifically to protect the marsh

from development. However, the zoning designation also

allows the construction of detached single family homes and

mobile homes.

Directly across the Ashley River Road is an agri-

cultural district. It was designed to utilize those areas

with soils best suited for farming. However, it also includes

as a permitted use the construction of detached single family

homes and mobile homes.

The importance of the zoning map is its illustration

of the two separate philosophies of growth active in Charleston

County. The city of North Charleston lies directly across

the river from Drayton Hall. The chaotic, checkerboard

patterns of development found there represent an attitude

favoring unrestricted and unplanned development.

In contrast, the south side of the Ashley River

has not experienced anywhere near the same intensity of

residential development. However, towards the southeastern


corner of the map, several new residential and planned unit

developments have sprung up in the last few years. On both

sides of the river, residential developments have been con-

structed right up to the shoreline.

The recent rezoning of the St. Andrew's Church property

for residential use may have serious consequences for this

historic site. If surrounded by split-level housing develop-

ments, the quality of the church grounds will effectively be

destroyed.

Zoning classifications are always subject to special

exceptions, variances or even rezoning. They are used as

temporary tools to regulate land use and will usually depict

the changing character of the land.
























































DRA YTON HALL
onantasrose sourn canousa
PRIOPERTY RESEARICH TEAM- COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIIDA


\ URBAN SPRAWL SINCE 1971 ~rbjsD

CHIP SULLIVANI materloe
SnrrmDEPT. OF URBANI AND REGCIONAL **.e.. ktures r
PLANNING MY(O 19MSHT of


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LEGEND

I URBAN SPRAWL SINCE 1971

0 HISTORIC SITE

IMPRATVIEW ENCLOSUIRE

ooo ~3IMPORTANT VISTA





(JRIBAN l CR C \tTli H

Much of the growth surrounding Drayton Hall has

occurred only in the past few years. The shaded areas on

the map represent developments since 1971. The next five

years will undoubtedly see a substantial extension of
these growth areas.

This map also indicates the scenic vistas which

add greatly to the overall visitor experience to any of
the Ashley River Road historic sites. It is fortunate

that the scenic river view from Drayton Hall has not yet

been destroyed by development. Magnolia Gardens has not

been so fortunate. The sweeping views from the gardens

across the river have been dotted with single family homes

and obstructed by apartment complexes. To accomplish this,

the developers completely removed all tree cover to give

the new residents a view of Magnolia Gardens. In some

areas where the stripping of vegetation has not yet given

way to the beginnings of construction, all that is visible
is brown, bulldozed earth.

The vista across from Middleton Place may soon


be lost to development as it has been learned that the

owners, the Boy Scouts of America, Inc., intend to sell the

property at the best possible market price.





I _


Title :

Cost Feasible Plmn


- New Roadway
... leh


Charleston Area

Transportation Study
Prepared by:
Berkeley -CharlestonDorchester
Regional Planning Council


north-





TRANSPORT TAT ION STUDY

This map indicates the projected highway con-

struction in the tri-county area for the next 10 15 years.

It shows a completion of the inner belt freeway system with

a completed connector to Bees Ferry Road, located on the

accompanying map below the letter "L" in Drayton Hall.

The intermediate nature of the proposed highway

construction may create serious problems for the Ashley River

Road. Although no longer in any danger of being four-laned,

the River Road may experience a substantial increase in

traffic and development as a result of the cessation of

beltway construction at Bees Ferry Road. The practical

effect of this plan is the channeling of growth to the

west of Bees Ferry (favorable) or the channeling of new

growth along the Ashley River Road (unfavorable). In our

regional plan solutions section we will discuss possible
measures which the county council should take to insure

growth to the west while restricting growth up the Ashley
River Road.





_ _ ___ _~_____ ~_~__ _


L


Charleston Area

Transportation Study
Prepared by
Berkeley-Charleston-Dorchester
Regional Planning Council


mite:

Solution Plan
Legend:


***** Widening


north




This map represents the proposed future highway

development necessary in the tri-county area to keep pace

with growth. There is no time'limit on when we may expect

to see this construction completed.

The road (Alternate 61) which once terminated

at Bees Ferry Road now continues on circling through

Dorchester County to connect with Interstate 26, by-passing

the critical area of the Ashley River Road.

It is ironic that the projected completion date

of the cost feasible plan for highway construction, 1990,

is also the year when the United States is supposed to

run out of oil reserves. If this happens on schedule,

there should be little need for any further construction

as called for in the solution map on the opposite page.

Perhaps the next decade will see the Berkeley-Charleston-

Dorchester Regional Planning Council, the South Carolina

State Highway Department and the Federal Highway Administration

seeking less energy intensive means of transporting the

tri-county population.


1:3




























I
~rc
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AIRCRAFT NOISE
In our society today, not only are we bombarded

by all levels of media creating an information overload,

Rgt as part of this media intensity, we are constantly
blasted by noise. Traffic, airplane and construction

noises have all become normal, expected by-products of our

modern existence. The overwhelming presence of this noise

increases the importance of those few remaining areas
where the sounds of man are lost amid the sounds of the

forests and the marsh. One of the integral elements of

the Drayton Hall site is its silence which leaves the mind

of the visitor free to experience the atmosphere surrounding

the great mansion.

Drayton Hall lies very near the flight path of
the Charleston Air Force Base. C5A transport literally

fly over the site ih circling towards their approach pattern.
ft is highly unlikely that the flight approach

could be changed or the aircraft noise eliminated. Once

this fact is accepted, the next step is to attempt to

utilize the noise to control growth. It has been proven


that noise of sufficient intensity and duration can be harmful

to man. Excessive noise can produce temporary and sometimes

permanent loss of hearing, physical and mental disturbances,
interference with sleep and communication and a general intrusion

on privacy. The noise produced by the landing and take-off

of large aircraft is generally termed an annoyance.

The complaint reaction among communities to noise will vary

greatly and is influenced not only by the noise intensity, but
also by the degree of community organization and the availability

of the institutional means for handling complaints.. The individual

response to noise or unwanted sound is dependent upon the intensity
of the sound, the time of day and. the prevailing weather conditions.

Noise exposure forecasts may be utilized in a variety of ways

in the planning process. They assist in the delineation of

noise sensitive areas or zones. Noise exposure forecasts can

be used to establish airport boundaries and land use controls as

well as to evaluate aircraft operational procedures.

The shaded areas on the map should contain no residential

development, schools, churches or hospitals. However, most of the


115




recent developments fall within the contours of greatest

noise level.


NOISE EXPOSURE FORECAST CONTOURS (NEF)

Individual land uses:

a. Residential Activities

-compatible in areas exposed to an NEF of less than 30

-totally incompatible in areas greater than 40

b. Commercial Activities

-compatible to all but the highest NEF zone

c. Hotels and Motels

-need sound proofing between 30 and 40 NEF

d. Offices, Public Buildings

-can be sited in 30 to 40 NEF with noise insulation

-above 40 considered incompatible

e. Schools, Churches, Hospitals

-undesirable above 30 NEF

-below 30 NEF recommended that a building noise

reduction requirement analysis be made

f. Theater, Auditoriums

-incompatible in areas greater than 30 NEF


g. Outdoor Recreation

-most outdoor recreation activities are compatible

to all noise exposures

h. Industrial Activities

-compatible up to 40 NEF





















r,
~.


JD NOISE EXPOSURE FORECAST CONTOIUR
I~nnCOMTL USES
RESDENIA
sIMooIcusm sasero


40 NLOISE EXPOSURE FORCAST CONTOUR


SCMDOnLS.lnCW, OPW


IPIIALL NEWI COITACK) MM D~ H AM


DRAYTON HALL
CMARLESTOM SOUTN CAMOLIMA
PRIOPERTYRESEAR ~ICHnTEAM*-COLLEGErOAR rCHITECTUR
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIIDA


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[IPi~m~irm~I~








































PERCEIVED NOISE LEVELS (PNdb)


DRAYTON HALL
contratom sourn canouns
PROPERITY L9 RESEACHnI TEA COLLEGE OF rACHITCTUrRE
UNIVERSITY OF FLOR(ID




CHART FOR ESTIMATING RESPONSE OF RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES FROM PNdB


PNdB Description of Expected Response

less than 100 Essentially no complaints would be expected.

The noise may, however, interfere occasionally
with certain activities of the residents.

100 to 115 Individuals may complain, perhaps vigorously.
Concerted group action is possible.

greater than 115 Individual reactions would likely include

repeated, vigorous complaints. Concerted group
action might be expected.


31EFlCE 11EDI AnalCtt, FIA T blOIl'E
Perceived noise levels (PNdB) were developed for

planning purposes and provide a suitable measurement
for evaluating community response to different noise

levels. Each contour represents a constant PNdB level

on the ground and for varying distances from:

1. side of take-off or approach path;

2. runway threshold or start of take-off.

The perceived noise level scale is utilized to

objectively evaluate on a quantitative scale the measure-
ment of noise which closely matches a listener's annoyance

level. A person on the ground subjected to jet fly-over
noise would notice a distinct difference between what is

heard and felt. The noise causes a greater annoyance

because its spectrum shows relatively more energy in the

higher frequency octave bands. People are less tolerant
of intruding noise if it has a high frequency level.


19












e ** 1IYSoIT Ol-IIIng-uIT(nag



I : ,I I, NTUaRAL LAND~scAPE








cusatasros

Bo












pawsrnn mounc u











ELECTROGRAPHIC
















ROADSIDE MEDIUM I Aa~s

I CH SULLIVANI ......sse
DEP. OF URBANI AND REGIDNAL *..r6***
PLANNINGmt MAY198 HET el


I


.I 1
CE


DRA YTON HALL
c*nltasOm sourse canoLam
PRlOPERTY RI(ESEARCH TEAM COLLEGE OF IACHI'TEQTURE
UNIIVERSIITY OF FLORIIDA


ETON


MIDDL


I all .
MAGNOLA MAIDENS
DAAYTON HALL


LEGEND

ROADSIDE STRIP MESSAGES


NATURAL


GRAPHIC,


ELECTROGRAPHIC


ouro muI*~L


~ Air!


rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr-i


~O~u;


NATUAIL


GRAPHIC





RO(1) [(IDE$ M EDIUMli4

American highways have become more than a means of

transportation. In many instances they are used as a medium

for communication. The automobile driver and passenger are

a captive audience to a wide variety of advertising appeals

ranging from flashing neon eye-catchers to billboards of

such immprense proportions they cannot be ignored.

In driving out Highway 61 (Ashley River Road)

from Charleston towards Drayton Hall, one experiences three

different roadside media: electrographic, graphic and

natural. Entering the early suburban development outside

the city limits, the driver experiences the electrographic,

characterized by electrically lit signs and billboards,

plastic-fantastic architecture and an abundance of intrusive
visual messages. These are primarily strip messages which

only add to our society's already overwhelming information

glut. In this section of Highway 61, there is a visual
bombardment of our senses, a tugging at our shirt collar to

buy the advertiser's product.

Further along the highway, the electrographic


subsides and i~s replaced by the graphic experience. The graphic

lacks the flash and mechanical lighting of the electrographic.

It is primarily an unelectrified collection of roadside bill-

boards of various sizes and colors.

Upon entering the natural roadside, the driver

experiences a sudden psychological visual relief. The automobile

and its occupants are engulfed by the huge oaks and vegetative

canopy. There is a serenity, a security not often available
this close to an area of urban sprawl. This section of the

Ashley River Road remains virtually in the same natural condition

as when it was first built. It is one of the oldest and most

historic highways in the state of South Carolina. Some consider

it the most beautiful. Yet the natural roadside is slowly

slipping away to the commercial forces of the graphic and
electrographic which only bring more asphalt, confusion,

increased traffic and the kind of stress which is more and more

associated with the man-made environment.


21




I


i /WATERSCAPE SCORE

DC 07L cANr AND ~REIONAL
SPLANNING


DRA YTON HALL
C*ltLRSogg SOUTM CAAQL(IN
PRIOPETYl~ RESACH~C TEAM COLLtEE OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLOR)IDA


.b
Seet1.0 ,;IO
*************es
MAY lag SHET e


WATERSCAPE TYPES

VIEW IMPORTANCE



MIDDLE VIew

uEA view

GENERAL
RECOMMENDATIONS



otVELOPMENT CONTROL


VOEGEAON* PRORTION/


LEVELS OF IMPORTANCE
N(EY


Low


I I


UM(Y


1 I 1 I I r

I ~O e~ ~ie~ 1~8

r~s~a~8~1 ~1 ~ea



~ft~ I I ~B~if I I ~i~ ~s~gf~

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ITI


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7 "
ll..* <.***

**.. s~e*,wa a~
MAY1 19M SHETo


I -- --- --- ---


DRA YTON HALL
CNARLESTON SOUTN CAAOUale
PRIOPE RTY ~ REACH TEAM fII CO LLEGE OF ARCHI~TECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


MCH SULIVAN
DEPE. OF URBAN ANID LREGONL
PLANNING ~


MOIC


LANDSCAPE TYPES

VIEW IMPORTANCE
DISTANCE VIEW

--m l

rr vl

GENERAL
RECOMMENDATIONS
MESERVATION ACTON

DEVELOMENT CONYWOL

VACITATON MOllCTION

FOREMEND KWINMo


LEVELS OF IMPORTANCE
KEY


23


rn syno e m Iaeae cao lsmass I

errunnyI n ews s nse ~as gmsena






I I LII m~~

sM~B M MMB s


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N HALL

COLLEE OFACHITESTgU~RE
F LORIIDA


-- ~-- t\
L, L ~-~,


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FREGIONA PLAN /~d~a

iR.OF NDINGDNA a
PLANNING* mnrp


LEGEND




YMAH LAD PHSEVATION






---- aronsc/comeanvrrlonl assmaIcT






DRA Y TOI

PRIOPERITY RESEACH TEAM -
UNIVERITYII OF





REGIONAL e )dik. LA kN

A~s parti~ ofr thl overall plan fo~r te protocoloi n and

enhancement of the Ashley River Ashley River Road region,

the Drayton Hall property research team recommends the
establishment of an historic conservation district. The

boundaries of the proposed district would begin east of

St. Andrew's Church on the Ashley River Road and proceed

past the Charleston-Dorchester County line, including

Middleton Place and possibly extending towards Fort

Dorchester to the west. The south boundary would run

parallel to the river road and include the scenic vistas
on both sides of the historic highway. The north boundary

would lie inland from the shoreline of the Ashley River to

insure protection of the natural areas on both sides of

the river bank. The boundaries of this district should

remain flexible until all nearby historic sites can be

identified and studied.

The passage of landmark legislation for the

protection of historic sites and amenities is nothing new
to Charleston, whose City Council established the first

Old and Historic District Zone back in 1931. The Old


and Historic District Zone has accomplished its goal of

preservation suiccetssfu y dna we fees .r ise.=... 1

which should now guide the Charleston County Council to

implement conservation measures for the Ashley River basin.

In this regional study, we have attempted to identify

those developmental pressures which will most affect the

historic conservation district in the next 10 15 years. We

cannot overly stress, however, the importance of immediate and

concerted action in several critical areas, which, if even

partially accomplished in the next fiscal year, could provide

the solid legal foundation necessary for the passage of future

protective measures. In accordance with this design, the

planning and legal solutions to the regional study will be
divided into two parts:

The first part will explore those state and local

ordinances which provide the greatest overall protections for

the conservation district today;

The second part will suggest alternatives for

possible preservation measures for later consideration.




~---I I


WAT E RSCA P E


THREATS


VISUAL EN\C ROA CH M ENT


THREATENED


NATURAL


,,
C~ea~bs~rL
~ a
~rrlr~~r
U~ U(L~ ~


DRAYTON HALL
ansaksr emsor cno
PRIOPERTY RESEARC)ICH EA- COLLEGE OF ARICHITESTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIIDA


I1' I


W





IMMEDIATE ACTION: SCENIC RIVER

The quality or ambience of any historic site depends

largely upon the scenic value of the surrounding areas. For

Drayton Hall and the other historic landmarks along the
Ashley River, this quality includes the natural vistas

associated with riverfront, plantation life. The waterscape

threats map illustrates the extent of present development on

the shoreline of the Ashley River. It classifies this

development into three categories:

1. Those areas already developed (including an apartment

complex recently constructed across from Magnolia
Gardens);

2. Those areas requiring immediate attention (no housing

development at present, but subdivision of the land

has already taken place); and
3. Those areas which remain in their natural state.

It should first be noted that there are no mandatory

land use controls which can prevent a property owner from

developing his riverfront acreage. Federal legislation

exists which would prevent the acquisition of a VA or FRA


insured loans for any developer seeking to build below the

Ashley River flood plain level, but these standards are easily

met. With the growth of Charleston County directed along its
inland waterways, the preservation of natural riverside vistas

may well become an impossible dream.

In 1974, the South Carolina General Assembly passed
the Scenic Rivers Systems Act in an effort to preserve and
maintain those natural or sparsely developed rivers in the

State which might otherwise fall victim to unrestricted and

unplanned development. The act recognizes three distinct
classifications of scenic rivers. That section of the Ashley
River which lies within the historic conservation district

could qualify under a Class III designation, or partially

developed river area. The Ashley could be proposed for inclusion

within the protective provisions of this act by any state

agency, local government, or citizen's group. The proposal would
then be submitted to the South Carolina Water Resources Commission

for evaluation and study, with the final determination for

inclusion or rejection resting with the Comm~sission,


27




















V ui" ~.~


i ii
I ~ 9 I a
t cl~a~h~c~i~


,I
I: r

idrl



__ ~~--------c-- _J ~ ~-~5--~----~--;~~
-- -- ----~
~\Xif
T-,
;r=L--
~----- .---,
---




The act provides tax incentives to riverfront property

owners for donating up to 200 feet of their shoreline in

perpetual restrictive easement to the state or some other

public body. The donated easements would exempt the land
from state property taxes forever. In addition, the grantor
could take a charitable deduction on his state and federal

income tax return for the year of donation.

The Scenic Rivers Systems Act as a workable shoreline

setback measure has two major flaws. At this writing, the

Water Resources Commission does not have the operational

budget to conduct the necessary river impact study which is
a condition precedent to the implementation of the act. The

lack of money may be attributable to the feeling among some

legislative consultants that even if implemented, the act
would have very little material effect towards preserving

the state's remaining natural waterways, because the law

relies entirely on the voluntary action of private landowners.
RECOMMENDATIONS:

1. That in the next session of the General Assembly a

bill be introduced by the Charleston delegation support-


ing funding of the Scanic Rivers ;ystem Act through the
South Carolina Water Resources Commission;

2. That the National Trust, working through its Charleston

staff and other interested organizations sponsor the

Ashley River for inclusion within the Scenic Rivers System

Act;

3. That an effort be made to inform all landowners along

this section of the Ashley River of the alternatives to

land use presented in the act with special emphasis upon

preserving the existing beauty of the region. This appeal
could be conducted through newspaper and magazine articles

as well as by Trust sponsored Ashley River excursion trips.


29





SCENIIC HIGHWAY ZONE
LEGENID

CM(PORATE 22.7%


PRIIVATE 86.9%


PUBLIC 4.5%


NON-PROFIT es


D RA Y T ON HALL scENIC HIGHWAY omn
CHARLISTO* SOUTH CAMOLI* A CIP D n do U c
PR OPERA TY RES E ARC H TE AM -CO LLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE E CHPSUL IVANA LJNRESK NNER e
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA PLANNING & THE HOLLAND LAWNCENITER MAY 1975 SHEET


Irth





SCENIC HIGHWAY ZONE

As the regional study on the preceding pages has

~demonstrated, Charleston County's population is expanding

at a rapid rate. Development thus far has proceeded along

the main arteries leading from the core city in the familiar

tunnel pattern: strip commercial along the roadside with

residential developments located behind. The Ashley River

Road has already lost several miles of its once scenic,

tree-lined splendor to this development pressure. Savage

Road, once considered the starting point of the scenic

highway drive,is now zoned light industrial. St. Andrew's
Church, included within the boundaries of the historic
conservation district now looks across the Ashley River

Road to a 7-11 food store. The residential developments

across the railroad tracks are set back sufficiently from

the highway to allow the tunnel pattern of strip commnercial-

residential growth to continue unchecked.

In an effort to preserve the remaining undeveloped areas

abutting the Ashley River Road and at the same time offer

the road's property owners an alternative to having their


historic highway destroyed by strip commercial development, the

Charleston County Planning Board, together with the County

Council, have promulgated a special zoning regulation for

scenic highway districts. The Scenic Highway District

overlays the existing zoning along the affected highway and

in effect does not change the already authorized zoning classi-

fication. The controls provided by the Scenic Highway District

Zone are perhaps stronger in substance than any other scenic

highway legislation, existent or proposed. Section 97.40.60(1)
states, "the designated area shall be maintained free of outdoor

advertising signs and authorized accessory signs may not be free

standing until a uniform design shall have been approved" by

the County Council. Also following Scenic Highway District

designation, "any new residential, commercial or industrial
uses shall be carefully planned in order to retain an open

land appearance and present desirable views from being

obstructed, 97.40.60(6)."

Any Charleston County legislator, council or planning
board member, clubs, groups or one or more property owners may





STRIP COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT NEAR SAVAGE ROAD




sponsor the Ashley River Road for scenic designation before
the County Council. The application should include evidence

that at least 75% of the individual lot owners along the

highway approve of the creation of a scenic highway district.
It would also be necessary as part of the application to

propose criteria for design of approved signs as well as for
control, maintenance and supervision by the residents of the

district. A super majority of the lot owners are needed to

enact the special district designation and it is these same

lot owners who will be responsible to see that the scenic

highway zone is enforced.
The scenic highway zone map has divided the ownership of

highway lot owners into four categories: private, public,

corporate and non-profit. The percentages express the
diversity in ownership along this small section of the

Ashley River Road.

The boundaries of the proposed scenic highway are

somewhat flexible. Since the ordinance only pertains to

land within Charleston County, the special designation cannot

exist in Dorchester County which has its own scheme for


33






































EXISTING RESIDENTIAL SETBACKS WEST OF THE RAILROAD TRACKS WHICH
ALLOW FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRIP COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT




zoning. The eastern boundary of the scenic highway, as proposed,

begins with the railroad tracks. It may, if desired, be moved
further eastward to include St. Andrew's Church. Bear in mind

that the east side of the railroad divider has already

experienced some signs of strip commercial development. The

church property itself has been rezoned for single family home

construction. The land surrounding the church property is

presently owned by development corporations. Any attempt to
include this area within the scenic highway district may meet

with strong opposition from developers who need only amass a

25.'1% strength to effectively defeat the special district for

the entire stretch of road. Unlike most political measures,

the scenic highway district is not an example of the "ask for

more than you expect to get" school of thought. The application

for special district designation requires that 75% of the lot

owners initially approve the action. Without this support,

the scenic highway zone proposal will be blocked before it ever

reaches the chambers of the County Council.


35





REC OMM EN DAiTIONS

1. That the National Trust organize a meeting at Drayton

Hall of the highway lot owners, under the chairmanship

of the Trust administrator for the following purposes:
a. to outline the scenic highway proposal;
b. to receive commpents and suggestions for its

implementation;
c. to organize an Ashley River Road Association to

sponsor the proposal;
d. to receive notarized statements from those owners

who already approve the plan; and
e. to create a committee to oversee the further

collection of approved signatures;
2. That the staff of the National Trust at Drayton Hall work

closely with the newly formed Ashley River Road Association

to draft the necessary criteria for design and maintenance

to be included in the application;
3. That the National Trust set as first priority the creation

of the Scenic Highway District as a means of preserving the
Ashley River Road and protecting the value of its investment

in the Drayton Hall properties.










































THE ASHLEY RIVER ROAD NEAR DRAYTON HALL WITH
THE SCENIC HIGHWAY ZONE IN OPERATION




allowable density of any nearby multi-story structure. The

overall density of the area does not increase, space is more
efficiently allocated, and historic properties are less likely

to fall prey to demolition. With careful drafting, a system

of TDRs could be utilized to protect the scenic and historic

areas within the proposed Historic Conservation District.

Several questions should be answered at this point
concerning the feasibility of a TDR system in the Charleston

tri-county area.

1.Does the County Council presently have the power

to establish such a district? Transferred development

rights districts have been established in several cities
under the standard state zoning enabling act. If there

is any doubt as to the authority this act vests in the

county council or zoning commission an amendment to the

enabling act specifically allowing TDRs for the area

could be submitted to the general assembly.
2. How would the boundaries of the district be determined

and which property owners would stand to be most

affected by a TDR system? The boundaries of the TDR


TDR

I. Transferred Development Rights District

The Drayton Hall Property Research Team recommends

as part of the scheme of protection within the Historic
Conservation District the establishment of a Transferred

Development Rights District (TDR) to protect properties

of critical scenic and historic value within the district

while increasing the development potential for lands

situated outside the boundaries of the proposed conser-

vation area.

Transferred development rights have been used in

other areas of the country with moderate success but are

still very much in the experimental stage. The concept was

developed for use in protecting historic buildings in
downtown urban centers. These buildings were generally

smaller and thus unable to compete economically with the

modern skyscraper. The system of TDRs has allowed the

owners of historic properties to sell off the unused

density over their structures which can be added to the




district could be substantially the same as those

proposed for the Historic Conservation District.
Those property owners with road front or river

front holdings would sell off their rights to

develop this land. Developers with holdings not

bounding on Highway 61 or the Ashley River could

purchase these unused development rights and

proceed to develop their lands at a greater density
than the present zoning would allow. For instance,

where zoning called for only detached single family

dwellings, the purchase of additional development

rights might allow the construction of duplexes

or apartments.
How would the buying and selling of development

rights be carried out? The Chicago plan for TDRs
formulated by John J. Costonis, utilized a

municipally controlled development rights bank.
While the normal function of a municipality is not

to engage in the buying and selling of property

interests, this approach has many promising features.


Adopted by the city council, the transferred develop-
ment rights bank acts in a supervisory capacity,

determining the number of available development rights,

setting the boundaries of the district and in some

cases utilizing the power of eminent domain to acquire

rights on some structures. However, the value of the
transferred development right remains totally dependent

on market conditions. Since the city was responsible

for setting up the district, as well as controlling all

zoning matters, it seemed logical that the supervision

of the scheme stay in municipal government control.

An alternative to the county council setting up a similar

system would be to allow real estate brokers to buy and
sell development rights as they would any other real

property interest. The council would still need to
define the district and allocate the rights to property

owners. Also to insure the success of the system, it

may be necessary to create a need for purchasing
additional development rights by underzoning the density

of certain areas. This could be accomplished through










B/
li9 0




~'-""~ I.t, ~ ~;-~e


Transferred development rights obviate the

constitutional problem of taking which always exists

when private land is restricted in any way. The

system compensates the landowner for not developing

his land while allowing a greater return for the

large scale development. 'Additionally the people

of Charleston stand to benefit from the implemen-

tation of a transferred development rights district.

The natural beauty of the Ashley River region will

remain undisturbed for many generations to come.





GENERAL RECOMMENDAT IONS

1. Set up Ashley River Basin Authority to co-ordinate

river bank protection.

2. Creation of special zoning designation for historic
sites.

3. Zoning to prevent housing development in noise
contours area.

4. Moratorium on allowing light industrial variances

and special use permits along the Ashley River Road.

5. Strong sign control ordinance.

6. Strong tree protection ordinance requiring

replanting of trees to create vegetative buffers

along the roadside.
7. Setting up study of all historic and archaeological

sites in the Ashley River region. May be best

accomplished as graduate thesis.

8. Attain some positive commitment from state highway
authorities never to four-lane Ashley River Road.




DES IGN


SOLUTIONS





IN TRODUCT 10 0"
Over seventy-ii. .: rs ago George Brown Goode

defined a museum as "'. . an institution for the preservation

of those objects which best illustrate the phenomena of nature

and the works of man, and the utilization of these for the

increase of knowledge and for the culture and enlightenment of

the public." ( 8)Within this context, the entire Drayton
Hall property can be considered such a museum institution.

Through the formation of the Drayton Hall Park, important

contacts with out past and our natural environment will be

preserved and off erred to the mind and spirit of the public.
But the property must function in a much changed capacity from

the one traditionally assigned to a museum. The role to be

served by Drayton Hall should reflect the approach recently

expressed by the National Trust of a "change from the narrower

concept of~the historic house museum as object to a broader one

of a living community center for historic preservation." 12

Drayton Hall would thereby provide a rallying point for preser-
vation efforts within the community, a resource link between the

community and the Trust's regional and national headquarters

and finally a scholarly and practical environment for preservation
research and education.


441





DEVIEL(DI*IL ElNll (COhilEPTIBI

In order for Drayton Hall to accomplish the desired

function, some changes to the property will be necessary.
Before any major modification of the property is begun,

thorough and thoughtful planning must take place. As a basis

for future decisions, fundamental concepts concerning operation,

interpretation and construction at Drayton Hall must be

established. Since this planning must be an on-going process,

continual evaluation of these.concepts would be necessary.

The following statements express the opinions of the

Drayton Hall Property Research Team though many are based

upon the ideas expressed in previous organizational and
committee reports:

OPERATION

a. The Drayton Hall Park shall be considered as a

single entity, administered from one primary
location. By this arrangement, centralized

responsibilities, co-ordinated efforts and
reduction of duplicated services should result.
If either the National Trust or the State of


South Carolina are unable to participate in

the management of the property, an arrangement
should be arrived at to allow operation b~y one
of the parties,

b. Participation b~y interested individuals and

groups should be encouraged. Volunteers b~y
their involvement, would not only conserve

financial resources, but would also help to
establish ties between the community and Park.

c. In addition to the property's being opened for

regular visitation, special events and activities
compatible with the property should be planned


INTERPRETATION

Interpretation has been described as "an educational

activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through

the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by

illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual

information." The functions that can be satisfied by

interpretation have been clearly outlined by Jacque Beechel in


46




the National Park Service's Inter rotation for Handica ped

Persons. "It can enrich the visitor's experience by:

1. alerting him to what is available in the area,

2. giving him an understanding and appreciation of

the special history or features of the area,

3. arousing interest in new subjects, or

4. stimulate further exploration of old interests.

"It can facilitate preservation by:

1. directing visitor use patterns,

2. promoting an understanding of what part

the resource plays in the visitor's life,

3. explaining why and how the resource should

be preserved,

4. providing an explanation of who the managing

agency is, what it does, and what its

objectives and policies are."(72)

The opportunity for interpretation at Drayton Hall is

enormous. With its long and interesting history, many aspects

of the property should be considered for interpretation. B~y


so doing, appeal to a wide range of public interests would be

achieved, the overall'effect on the visitor to the Park would be

increased, and a reason for multiple visits would be justified.

It should be recognized that special expertise in the

interpretation field shall be essential in the development of

the visitor program. In-depth historical and environmental
research and the resulting information should be furnished to

such personnel.
This project shall serve only to point out general themes

for possible communication to the public, though they undoubtedly
will not be limited to the following:

1. Preservation in progress at Drayton Hall.

The processes of historical and archaelolgical
research being conducted on the property.

2. The architectural significance of the Drayton Hall mansion.

A comparative analysis with contemporary and

later plantation structures, interiors and

gardens. Its inspirations in design, detailing,
etc. Modifications to the building and how it

has survived in its present form.


40





3. Cultural contributions of the Drayton family to

the National heritage. -

The Poles played in the development of this

country b~y family members in law, agriculture,

the military, the arts, etc. Their relationship

to other persons and places in the Charleston

region.

4. Economic history of Drayton Hall and the immediate

area.

The workings of the plantation, the people

who worked it, the crops and tools. The

post-Civil War economy and the phosphate era.

5. The environmental importance of the property.

The interrelationship of the environment

and human occupation of the property.


The interpretation programs developed must anticipate

differences in the visitors' interests, ages and capabilities.

Without a doubt, many persons will come to Drayton Hall to

get a quick overview of the property's resources while others


will stay for more extended periods. Special interpretive

programs, not just dilutions of those for adults, should be

available for children. Likewise, the needs of physically and

mentally handicapped must be planned for.

Finally, t'he sense of isolation and timelessness must be

taken into consideration in planning for the future of Drayton

Hall. As Carole Scanlon, co-ordinator of National Trust

interpretive programs, has said: ". . the program should

include a large percentage of Silence as well as an opportunity

for the visitor to have sufficient time for personal discoveries."




Sensitive designing of all new structures and circulation

elements is of utmost importance in the historical/environmental

context of. Drayton Hall. Cdre must be taken that those character-

istics so unique and essential to the property are not destroyed

by the process of revealing them to the public. Many of the

basic design criteria for the National Park Service's structures

address that problem and were therefore used as a partial

guideline in the architectural solutions for Drayton. Hall.




1. Each design should be a unique and individual solution,

in harmony with the park character and site, satisfying

the building requirements at the same time.

2. Each design should grow from the landform and, except

in special cases, should not dominate the landscape.
3. Within a small park or developed area of a large park,

it is essential that the total concept have a consistent

design.

4. The building should have~an emotional impact, especially
on the interior.

5. Besides structure, function and esthetics, space, both

interior and exterior must be considered. It should have

a sense of order, sequence and flow.

6. Sculptural relief is important in both vertical and

horizontal planes, as is a pTeasant sense of rhythm

and repetition. .

7. Color is one of the greatest single factors in creating

a favorable impression, second only to location and

design.
8. Sometimes areas seem to cry for a design suggesting


traditional or regional style. However, to maintain

regional or particularly period architecture woulld result
in oddly proportioned boxes covered with pseudo-period

gimcracks or reasonably well-proportioned structures stuffed
with nonfunctioning activities. The best attack is not

to copy styles but to use regional materials and echo forms

if possible. (4


The Park Service has continued to stress that final point.

"In its architecture the park museum not only offers great

opportunity for capturing the spirit and character of an area
or region, but it may be said to exist in no small measure for

that purpose. Unless there is the flavor of the locality in
the structure as well as in the material it houses, it has

failed of its~particular assignment and potential accomplishment."

( 56 )




SCOPE
From the outset it must be understood that the

design solutions for Drayton Hall Park contained herein have
been made as suggestions by students of architecture and
landscape architecture. In no way should they be construed
as the finalized working plans for the Park. Licensed

professionals with additional program information must be
engaged to prepare those plans.


53




THIE SITE





South Caroina


o columnbia


tri- county


O 10 20 30
mi ;les


Georgia


site location


~ atl.antic coastal


charles ton


atlantic ocean


savananah'





ne;_ LOCATION MAP AND EXISTING REGIONAL
12.00 HISTORIC RESOURCES

Drayton Hall: National Histori
Landmark and proposed historic
park and recreation area


AState and private historic
M and recreational sites

( 99 )
North (10,000) 1974 park visitors
Charleston 9,301,088 in-state
1,890,760 out-of-state


designated scenic route
*** and historic trail

(40)
EXISTING REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION

] ig major access routes

1 M~IM~l secondary access routes

I 1975 average daily traffic volumes


Z 'u 'T TRAFFIC COUNTS (B-C-D PLANNING AREA)(4
COMPARING 1973 AND 1974

I\ Berkeley County + 1%
1 ,Charleston County -27%
...umDorchester County -23%


PI~cI




ja Mr Charleston '
du Airport I

, syton Hall


to Savannah


het





F B3 I FIE

Drayton Hall Historic Park is situated ten miles
northwest of Charleston between the upper reaches of the

tidal Ashley River and Ashley River Road (S. C. Route 61).

The National Trust property consists of approximately 125

acres of highland east of the highway and includes the main

half-mile long approach drive, the mansion and grounds. The

South Carolina Parks, Recreation and Tourism Department

(PRT) property lies on both sides of the highway and

consists of roughly 349 acres of mined highland and roughly
136 acres of marshland.

The Ashley River Road is part of an historic trail

and scenic route which is the primary access from Charleston
used by thousands of visitors to other historic attractions

in the area: St. Andrew's Church to the south, Magnolia

Gardens and Middleton Place about 2 miles to the north, and

Fort Dorchester, ruins of a colonial establishment near

Sumnmerville. The road has experienced a 50% increase in

dally traffic since 1971 due to expanding suburban deve op-

ment. However, most of this traffic exits from Route 61


before reaching Drayton Hall. The establishment of the park

will necessarily create a sensitive traffic situation.
Because beautiful, old oaks lining the two lane road would

prohibit widening of the road, entrances ab~d exits must be
carefully located to allow safe movement onto and off of the

properties. A Route 61 by-pass several miles to the southwest,
when completed, will relieve traffic pressure along this

section by channeling growth away from the scenic highway.

Adjacent land uses are Magnolia Gardens and private

forestry interests. A 70 acre portion owned by Georgia-

Pacific abutting the PRT parcel east of Route 61 is being

sought as an addition to the park properties for buffering

and protection from possible development encroachment. Through

co-operative agreements of all landholders, a 200' scenic
easement has been granted on both sides of the Ashley River

adjacent to the properties and on both sides of the mansion

approach drive.
The Ashley River near Drayton Hall is non-commercial

and is used extensively for recreation, boating and skiing

during the summer. There is no development directly.across





intensity. Temperatures range between 600 and 900 and inland

temperatures can be expected to be several degrees higher
than on the coast.

The winter months, from December through February,

are generally mild. Rainfall is uniform, but a few thunder-
storms- may occur. Eighteen per cent of annual precipitation

occurs at this time. Temperatures will range between 300
and 600. Relative humidity ranges from 82% to 52%. Snow is

.insignificant; however, flurries occasionally occur in

January.
Prevailing winds are northerly in the fall and

winter and southerly in the spring and summer. Average wind

velocity is 9 mph. Skies are cloudy or overcast only 40% of

an average year. From December to May, it is visible 57% to
73% of these hours.

In all, favorable conditions exist during the late

winter season of visitation, with moderate temperatures and

humidity and generous amounts of sunny days. Wind speed is
not so extreme as to cause discomfort and in the summer it

can increase comfort by modifying higher humidity and


the river from the proposed park, but residential growth in

North Charleston is increasing rapidly and future development
at the edge of the marsh is likely to be a visual intrusion.

Present utility service includes a single power

and telephone line which occupies a 20' easement along the
west side of Route 61 and crosses the road near the border

of the property and the freshwater swamp to reach the mansion

area. The cleared easement along the highway is very

apparent behind the oaks, but is less so on the property
where maintenance has been less extensive.


SI M idAnTIE

The climate of the Charleston area is mild and

temperate. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the

year. The highest recorded rainfall was 72" in 1958 and

the lowest 29" in 1931. Approximately 40% of annual .

precipitation occurs between May and October making summers

warm and humid. Relative humidity may range from 62% to

92%. Except for occasional tropical storms, summer rains

are generally scattered showers or thunderstorms varying in





VEGETATION ASSOCIATIONS










5 "ad pine hardwoods-
Sloblellly hchery. magnoisegue

HIGHLAND

mes -ak- pene~~ loboll tw o










hagal nt or
Uque Trees


Jtr\

... .r_~
$~ .J~' 7 c~, r-Y
~?~~E:I'

..I fi
itS'iJE~ ':~ U.


c I


1 1


settaI < ....as


IPCn feed~


aa~


mird


SITE INVENTORY

yme, Astff( COsrANE**
DEPT Of tlADSCIPI AROL~lrECTUItt awa 1978 she of(


DRA YTON HALL
-..il e
C10PRO ItT YRIt IARCH CtE t 1 `o mat t Or AM( rl It f~ C
u+(tlVI*Tr Or FLp.OA D




temperatures. Areas where people are expected to congregate
in the summer months can be opened to facilitate air movement,

which would particularly help to reduce mosquito problems as

well. Occasionally scattered showers and~ thunderstorms

would indicate the need for shelters along trails.

Slopes facing southeast will have morning sun and .
more sunlight throughout the day. Slopes facing northeast

differ in vegetation from those with more sunlight and areas

in the lower, shaded elevatigns can experience more humidity.

Because of the angle of the winter sun, the mansion's land

facade and the cross-river view should be emphasized during

the winter visitation season.


VuE(GEET JTICHN / VVIt L.DiIF E

The combination of topdgraphy, soil and water

determine the type of vegetation which will exist on a site.

Therefore, identification of plant cover can be an important

index to site conditions as well as to wildlife habitat.

The Drayton Hall properties contain three major vegetation

zones: wetlands, lowlands and highlands, each with its own


characteristic plant and wildlife associations. The wetland

zones consist of the salt marsh and the freshwater swamp.

These stable ecosystems are among the most productive lands

in the world and are the primary producers in a complex
estuarine food chain of which man is the ultimate consumer.

Because, the salt marsh readily absorbs contaminants, biocides

and fertilizers from runoff, care must be taken in any

development not to increase runoff, nor to destroy vegetative

buffers which trap and filter out contaminants and silt before

they reach the marshlands. Wetlands are thus classified as
areas of particular concern with the primary interest being

one of conservation. The irreplaceable habitats have high

natural productivity, substantial recreational and scenic

value are totally unsuited to any.development.

The.10wland association is a semi-stable ecosystem

advancing toward maturity. It has existed for at least fifty

years, following the mining of the property. A few areas have
been planted in pine and some logging has taken place, but

the use of the land for timber production has recently

diminished. This association is characterized by mixed pine




and hardwoods with those species preferring wet areas located

near the marsh and those species preferring drier areas

located on higher ground.* Understory is more abundant here

than in the highlands'due to more available light filtering

through the high pine canopy.

The highland association is a~system succeeding

toward climax and has existed longer than the pinelands.

Uses on this land have included crop fields and pastures

with a small amount of mining in some areas. The scenic and

aesthetic values of the highland area should be retained by

judicious cutting and clearing required for roads, buildings

and parking spaces and the preservation, where possible, of

a natural appearance.

The lowlands and highlands provide excellent

habitats for wildlife and fresh animal tracks are comm~on.

Existing at the edges or borders between two distinct

natural vegetation communities are ecotones, transitional

zones which combine the characteristics of the parent areas.

Although limited in size, they are biologically rich, high

in the abundance and diversity of life. Serving a unique


function to the overall ecosystem, they should be respected

and development should take care not to parallel such areas

or cause a division of natural communities,

Many, significant trees exist throughout the site.
The most outstanding occur along the approach drive and on

the grounds immediately around the mansion. Many oaks
measure more than 60" in diameter. There are several 80" in

diameter. Excellent specimens of beech, magnolia, pine and

.poplar are found around the property.

The following is a partial listing of major

vegetation and wildlife species. Additional importance of

the species to the site can be designated as follows:

1. uncommon or unique

2. important to the ch-aracter of the site

3. of visual interest





Scientific Name

Littorina irrorate
Ilyanassa obsoleta
Crassostrea spp.
Uca spp.


VEGETATION:
Common Name


WILDLIFE:
Common Name


Scientific Name


WETLANDS:
ma rsh


1 23
2
2 3
2
2
2 3
2
2


cordgrass
wiregrass
needlerush
ditchgrass
high tide'bush
pickerel weed
marsh'fleabane
sea myrtle


Spartina alterniflora
S. patens
Juncus roemerianus
Distichlis spicata
Iva frutescens
Pontederia cordata
Pluchea purpurascens
Baccharis halimifolia


marsh perriwinkle
mud snail
eastern oyster
fiddler crab
clapper rails
mergansers
sea ducks
marsh wren'
blackbird
heron
egret


freshwater
swamp


2 elderberry
3 buttonbush
2 3 willow
2 black gum
2 ash
3 maple
2 water oak


Sambucus simpsonii
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Salix nigra
Nyssa biflora
Fraxinus spp.
Acer rubrum.
Quercus nigra


LOWLAND:-


Pinus elliottli
A. rubrum
Q. nigra
Fraxinus spp.
Liriodendron tulipifera
Q. virginiana
Carya glabra
Q. laurifolia
Magnolia grandiflora
Ilex opaca
I. vomitoria
Juniperus silicicola
Sabal palmetto
Sabal spp.
Myrica cerifera
Aesculus parviflora


2 slash pine
3 maple
2 water oak .
2 ash
1 3 yellow poplar
1 2 3 live oak
2 hickory
2 3 laurel oak
2 3 magnolia .
2 holly
1 3 cassina
2 juniper
2 3 cabbage palmetto
2 3 dwarf palmetto
2 wax myrtle
1 2 3 buckeye


common, non-game birds
grey squirrel
opossum
raccoons
rabbits
grey fox
white tall deer


2 3
2 3
2
2
2
2
1 23


Sciurus spp.
Didelphis marsuplialis
Procyon lotor
Sylvilagus floridanus
Urocyon ci nereosagenteus
Occoileus virginiana


HIGh'LAND:


Q. virginiana
P. taeda
P. palustris
Q. falcata
Viburnum spp.
Prunus caroliniana


1 2 3
2
2
2
2 3
2


live oak
loblolly pine
longleaf pine
red oak
blackberry
cherry laurel






~~~__ _______ ________~ ^____


------ I


sc .3 ~

6:.

,-



Ir





.YL 5- I-rl /


usr, an 4

~ I- ......


** owe**

Crn uswe
e
s C ed hs. L see rd f
LI**** as~
o as
D ** *


t:


*,


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a


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uc
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DRA YTON HALL
crasseln o,** tsane*MA
C(onary~ IESsanIcH ream counc~ or ancmseLcrune

UNrIVERSITY OF FLOperoA


of-


SITE INVENTORY



otPT OF LAND*CAPI ARCHITECTURE





GEOLOGY/ PH YS IOGRAPHY

Charleston County is located in the lower Atlantic

Coastal Plain. It is generally level near the ocean becoming

slightly undulating'farther west with elevations to 70'.
Elevations range from .0' 35' at Drayton Hall. Slopes

average 3% and exceed 10% only along the river bank. Geology
of the site, characteristic of the Plain, is one of unconsol-

idated, water-layered deposits of sands and clays, 6' 12'

thick, underlain ty thick beds of soft mar1. The presence

of marl acts as a barrier to deep root penetration, partic-

ularly when combined with a high water table. The resulting

shallow root growth and fragility of plant life indicates the
need for careful site treatment. Phosphate was discovered

on the property during the late 19th Century and was mined

for approximately 20 years.







WATER PATTERNS

p*Feemist water


seasonaIl wetr drainage chann*Is
herrrcene flroo rene i contour

.II
ev nding met r -mna o t et


S1 111
11 1


11 r


....
*-~ ***
may' '" e** o


DRA YTON- HALL
PROPERTY MIS lAR CMTIA44Y COLLEGE ()I **MM ~l
UNIVLRITY IOLOY LUoA


1 1
II I ,
I I I I
I /


SITE INVENTORY
yMA .AY ts 1 ONTA TIl
U)PT Of 1 ANOS(A1PI AROITEClrtLItt





WA T ER PATT~E RN S

Tidal streams and rivers, such as the Ashley, are

typical of the region. They extend inland to provide outlets
for rivers draining the southern portions of the Appalachians.
The Ashley experiences general tidal ebbs and flows. The

normal range of tides above mean low water, without consider-

ation for winds, is 5.2'. Spring tides range to 6.8'. The

highest recorded storm tide of 11.2' occurred during the

August 1893 hurrancane. This is indicated as the flood zone

on the water patterns inventory map. Drainage areas are

typically broad, flat and heavily vegetated. Extensive salt
water marshes of recent sediments are found in the estuaries.

Many sections of the site contain mined areas with standing

water of varying depths. (Refer to the soils inventory map.)

Drainage on the north side of the mansion flows into the

Ashley via man-made and natural channels. Drainage on the
south side flows into the tidal marsh. Water from the fresh

water swamp supplies the ornamental pond. Due to the


extremely wet nature of the site, these patterns should be

respected and utilized in controlling runoff and drainage.




































































SITE INVENTORY ' 2


DLPT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTUREL sesay(970- *6*** o


~'. .L t'
/ 5 .p~
IJ~CI

5~.t


A.*e 'w

HeaG
to -


LIMIlTATWION TO UILDING AND RELCREATION USE










DEPTH TO BEASONIAL HICH WATER TABLE

O *-

'Yo^."'"""" *~l


u, ...,.., e... .... l


Pu* a" r ***
5 = *I
so- r.. Per *knese a sad I. **
C hees me .. so


SOIL SURVEY


w..


DRA YTON HALL
Lnantastos OUT< CaOLIa
PRIOPERITY RESEARCH TEA COLLEGE OF ARICHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA





recreational activities. Areas with moderate soil limitations

are less practical for structures and roadways, but are well

suited to lower impact recreational activities such as trails,

camping and picnicking. Areas with sevevje soil limitations are

suited only ior low impact recreational activities such as

trails (elevated in wet areas or in fragile zones), for

preservation, conservation, wildlife management and agriculture.
Placement of utilities underground is possible and

should be encouraged. Before site work can begin, however,

a thorough soil sampling should be taken in areas to be

utilized to verify the soil's capacities.

The Drayton Hall site is composed of the twelve

following acid, loamy, sandy soil types:


The 1971 USDA Soil Conservation Service survey for

Cha~leston County was used in judging the suitabilities and

limitations of the site based on slope, erodibility, water

table height, flooding hazard, roadway supporting capacity

and trafficability. This data was applied in determining

locations for all buildings and recreational activities on

the site.

Soils are rated as slight, moderate and severe.

The significance of these ratings is:

SLIGHT only a few limitations, if any, which

can be easily overcome

MODERATE limitations are present and must be

recognized, but it remains practical
to overcome them

SEVERE limitations are difficult to overcome

or are so restrictive that the suitability

for the specified use in questionable

Areas with slight soil limitations are suitable for

high impact use, including structures, roads, parking and all





ChI Charleston


loamy fine sand, moderately
to poorly drained
loamy fine sand
loamy fine sand, poorly
drained, high water table
loamy fine sand, 0-2%
slopes, well-drained
deep, leamly fine sand,
poorly drained, high water
loamy, poorly drained,
frequent flooding, riceland
phosphate and sand removed
(unclassified)
loamy fine sand, .
moderately drained
fine, sandy loam, poorly
drained, high water table,
frequent flooding
soft marsh, 6"-24" salt
water at high tide

loamy, fine sand, 0-6%
slope, well drained
deep, loamy, fine sand
well/excessively drained
loamy, find sand, poorly
drained, high water table,
frequent flooding


'slight

severe
moderate

slight

moderate

severe

severe

slight

moderate


very severe

very severe
slight

moderate

moderate


slight

severe
moderate

slight

moderate

severe

severe

slight

moderate


very severe

very severe
slight

slight

moderate


slight

severe
severe

slight

mod. poor

severe

severe

slight

moderate


very severe

very severe
slight

slight


low


high

medium

medium low

medium



medium low

medium






low


low

high
low

low

low

low



low

high


1, 4

2, 3, 4
1

1, 4

1, 4

1, 4

2, 4

1, 4

1, 4


2, 6


Dawhoo
Edisto


Hoa Hockley

Ka Kiawah

Mg Meggett

Mp Mine pits**

Sk Seabrook

St Stono


Tidal Marsh


SPerennial Water
WgB Wagram


Wando


3, 4, 5


moderate


1, 4


Yo Yonges


""HI : cultivation 2. recreation 3. range and pasture 4. woodland 5. urban 6. preservation and conservation
M"e pits comprise a large percentage of the.site. These are areas where phosphate has been. removed from the'soil and where soil material and
sand have been removed during mining operations. A ridge-trough appearance results. The ridges are 8'-12' high and 15'-25' wide. The sides of
the ridges slope steeply and are covered with trees. The troughs are 7'-15' deep and 15'-25' wide. W~hen not drained, troughs contain 4'-10'
of water. Borrow pits are areas where sand has been removed. Pits are 2'-10' deep and comprise about 6 acres of the site. Shallow areas
contain water during rainy periods and pits deeper than 2' contain water permanently. Mine pits are not suitable for cultivation, even if they
are drained. If drained, they can be used to grow pine trees. Pits that contain water more than 4' deep can be stocked with fish, can be used
for recreational purposes, or can serve as irrigation ponds. High levels of radioactivity associated with phosphate mining likely do not occur
here since processing occurred across the river and deleterious material remaining after processing was not returned to the site.





/Ir _li _:___ __


__1___1_1_____


__


~h ,,



i by :c


BROPSED AND



I :II nean suact

MODRAT quACT



LOWV IMPACTI PRLESERV*




IEHBIRITTIONLH~f







~D I.~llllrl*


Mar.Noteal cnvews



us attleas





vi~


I- ***&( esusI h use
Cr at) r
9~~~~( 6 dps .d@*


I*r ,* II


Papats Y


L" U **s
* ***
may s97 rrshet


'-1
F
rrr
r/

I


DRA YTON HALL
rnr,eason seven 4.anoii
PRIOPERTY Il RSEARCH~ TEAM~ COLLEGEL OF ARCHITECUrE I
UNIVf1R5tTY OF FLORIDA


SITE ANALYSIS

MANGREYt COSTANFEN 1
DEPT OF LANDZCAPE ApteMITE~CTURE





Number Percent
of Acres of Site


Designation/Use/Comment


98.7


16.0


HIGH IMPACT


structures parking, roads
septic systems
camping, picnicking, foot trails
group activities


In general, this is an area of high visual and natural quality. Efforts
must be made to preserve its integrity as it contributes much to the
character of the lite.


MODERATE IMPACT


foot trails, picnicking
group activities, educational quality


187.1


30.6


These areas include high quality natural habitats, fragile swamp areas,
highly productive ecotones. The caution here is to develop with great care.


LOW IMPACT (PRESERVATION)


elevated foot trails or boardwalks
individual activities such as nature observation
or photography
educational quality
vegetation and wildlife protection


162.2


26.6


These are fragile ecosystems and are valued also as high quality visual features.


scenic easements
buffer zones for preserving scenic quality


RESTORATION/ENHANCEMENT


REHABILITATION


11.5


15.3


70.6


91.4


reclaiming mined land
reforestation
potential recreational


use


610.0 100.0


PROPOSED LAND USE

Designations for camping and historic park purposes are the result of an analysis of the combined
limitations and suitabilities of the preceding site inventories. Soils and-water are the most restrictive
elements. Permissible uses for each area include:







EXISTING FEATURES





new MS4,,,,,
enciesr
r* rr a~~-




undlle~rentiated )llV I




translaten powerIwe slearing






D dikes i





?ISTORIC-MINING IIRA (S60- CtWSENT

I~ ~ theel

J gtheephete mined
K eand ml aed





E X IST ING SITE F EAT U RE S

An inventory of existing features of the site and

adjacent areas reveals much of interest: a variation in

views, in natural systems, in landscape quality and elements,

in topography, in visual textures, colors, seasonal changes

and light quality. Since man's perception is 87% visual,

such assets must be incorporated into the overall design
considerations to add to the fullness of the visitor's

experience. For the blind visitor, other properties exist
in reaction to more subtle environmental qualities: sounds,

smells, changes in temperature, humidity, topography and

textures.

Climate, slope aspect and seasonal winds can
determine orientation of structures and recreational

activities. Negative features (noise or visual pollution)

should be controlled, corrected or de-emphasized. As an

example, the powerline right-of-way along S.C. 61 can become
an attractive hike-bike corridor with selective, rather than

total clearing of undergrowth. Weaving the path from side-to-
side in the corridor will underplay its linear monotony and

the intervening vegetation will provide buffering from the


road.

Locating significant historic features also aids

in designing movement of the visitor on thh site. Discussions

on historic uses of the land uncovered in analysis also

provide a basis for exterior interpretation of the dynamics
of the site.





- i- - - - - -


.re se


18~2
1647


-----


I )-


0---
o- -


I -C------ -


HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF
DRAYTON HALL AND LOCALE


Prehistoric/aboriginal
Charlestowne Landing
Ashley River road
Magnolia (Thomas Drayton)
Fort Dorchester
St. Andrew's Church
Middleton Place


Uplands purchased
Marshlands purchased
John Drayton, builder
William Henry Drayton
Dr. Charles Drayton
Dr. Charles Drayton, II
Dr. Charles Drayton, III
Charles Henry Drayton
present Draytons
National Trust and PRT

A. Mansion and flankers
B. Ornamental gardens
C. Outbuildings
D. Dikes
E. Rice field
F. Crops and pastures
G. Slave quarters/cemetery



H. Barn and dock
I. Railroad and trestle
J. Phosphate mining
K. Sand mining


PRE-COLONIAL


COLONIAL
1670 1770


REVOLUTION
1770 1780


POST REVOLUTION
1780 1840


CIVIL WAR
1840 1870


RECONSTRUCTION
1870 1900


PRESENT
1900 19~


a.
o
H
~I
w
ac




o
zv,
a
Ca
a=>
wo
ao
Oo
cr
a




a
w

O
r-

a
4:
-1
a

re
4:
w

z
H
a
H


IBib


S- -O --


----i------------- ----i-------,


-----------\- -~-


* Reference with site features map


_--- Existing
--- --- --- Decline-
........... Questionable
4) OAC Existence apparent, strongly to weakly






current at the time. Favorite elements and materials are also
indicated.


square depression


square


CROSS-SECTION (not to scale)

The Revolutionary War took its toll on the Ashley

River plantations. All but Drayton Hall were burned, but its

fields and grounds were destroyed. The mansion was spared

and used by Lord Cornwallis as headquarters in his 1780

occupation. John Drayton, builder, and his younger son,
William Henry, both died in 1779 fleeing-British troops.
The elder son, Dr. Charles Drayton, who had an avid

interest in botany, assumed head of the plantation. He is

credited with many post-war improvements to the estate. Two


GARDEN ANALYSIS AND
GROUNDS RESTORE AT ION

With historical ~references currently available to

me, the original garden form at Drayton Hall has been
difficult to determine.

As governor of South Carolina, John Drayton, II
comments in his notable 1807 manuscript: "The gardens

connected with (the mansion) are laid out in appropriate

style after the English mode of gardening, and by an English

gardener." Taking into consideration a time lag
between styles in the Colonies and in England, it is possible

that the original garden form did reflect the formal, symmetric

and geometric English Garden Style. At the time John Drayton

began building his imposing Georgian mansion on the Ashley
River in 1738, the English Garden' St~yle remained popular in

the Colonies, while the more naturalistic landscape styles

of Capability Brown and Humphrey Repton were gaining interest

in England. If, indeed, the English Garden Style were

originally used, the forms and elements that may have existed
are as conceived on the 1750 sketch. Parterres are suggested

near the house on the basis of existing land forms and trends





land approach


Ashley
River


circa 1750
COLONIAL ENGLISH GARDEN INFLUENCE (CONJECTURAL)
Typical form: axial, geometric, symmetric, formal
Elements: axial approaches Materials:
walks gravel or earth
parterres turf, brick edging, evergreen
clipped hedges box, cassena, cedar
annual bulbs jonquil, irisl, crocus
al lees holly, laurel, olive, citrus
park woodlands
c'~m~ide Cp~tz. StatUarV




references strongly suggest now an informal garden arrangement

dominated by native species. This form, as indicated on the

1800 sketch, would be treated in the English Landscape Style,

In 1796, Duke de la Rochefoucault Liancourt declared: "We

stopped to dine with Dr.Drayton at Drayton Hall. The house

is an ancient building but convenient and good. The garden is

better laid out, better cultivated and better stocked with

good trees than any I have hitherto seen. In order to have a

fine garden, you have nothing to do but let the trees remain

standing here and there, or in clumps: to plant bushes in

front of them and arrange trees according to height. Dr.

Drayton's father, who was also a physician, began to lay out

the garden on this principal and his son who is passionately

fone of country life pursued the plan. The prospect from

the gardens is like all other views in this part of the

country."(04)

David Ramsay in his 1808 history of South Carolina

writes: "There are now some valuable private gardens near

Charleston. One is situated in St. Andrew's (parish) on the

banks of the Ashley River, and belongs to Charles Drayton.


It is arranged with exquisite taste and contains an extensive

collection of trees, shrubs and flowers which are natives of

the country. Among many other valuable exotics, a great

number of viburnum tinus and of gardenias, which are perfectly

naturalized to the soil, grow there with enchanting luxuriance;

but the principal object of the proprietor has been to make

an elegant and concentrated display of the riches of Carolina,

in which he has succeeded to the delight and admiration of all
visitants." (0

The drastic shift from formal to informal hinges on

major destruction of the Charleston gardens during the Revolutionary

War, the rising popularity of the new naturalistic styles and
the strong interests of Dr. Charles Drayton and his nephew,

Governor John Drayton, in native species,

After- the 1800's exporting and importing of ornamentals

between the Colonies and Europe began on a large scale. An

extensive collection was assembled by Thom'as Walter, an English

settler in South Carolina. His herbarium was taken by John

Fraser to London and sold to the British Museum. The first

regional American botanical manuscript, Flora Caroliniana, by

















flanker .,



$~~iIh r~ iverapoahwk











Ii~alk earthc;~




wound~~~~~~~~:bT ecnevil.Tly rs hnyukl rs





Walter was translated and expanded b~y Governor Drayton. Though

considering himself a "planter," he was a leading American

botanist in the field with Bartram, Thomas Jefferson, Michaux

and Pinckney. The latter two were his personal friends.

Michaux maintained a nursery in Charleston and collected in

South Carolina and Florida for France. Fraser collected for

England. Jefferson, in 1789, sent to William Drayton from

Paris the following:. olive, fig, plum, pear and peach trees;

grape vines; silk worms and varieties of rice. (6)

Governor Drayton discovered and named the popular

yellow honeysuckle Lonicera lutea caroliniensis and

published much original material about the state. Among his

more interesting additions to Walter's manuscript were notes

on historic and contemporary uses of wood and plants for

food, medicine, utility and ornament. .

Around the time of the Civil War, camellias and

azaleas were coming into South Carolina from the Orient via

England. One of the original camellias still grows on the

grounds at Drayton Hall and many azaleas were introduced here

as well as at Magnolia Gardens and Middleton Place.


Destruction again befell the low country plantations

during the Civil War as Sherman advanced on Charleston. As

before, only Drayton Hall was spared. Dr. Drayton had converted

it to a malarial hospital. Without slavery, estates declined

and an economic depression prevailed for the Drayton family

until discovery of phosphates on the property near the end of

the 19th Century. Freed slaves became miners and the economic

upswing allowed restoration of the mansion and grounds to begin.
As seen in the 1900 sketch, a pond and mound have

appeared, the flankers are down and fences are up. This develop-
ment has been composed from parts of old photographs. Sheep and

horses graze on the lawn. Mining is going on around the estate.

(2 )
DGring the phosphate era, the Drayton family moved their

permanent residence into Charleston. Life in the mansion and
maintenance of the landscape declined. In.1959 a hurricane

destroyed the gardens and in the 1960's the last member of the

family ceased living in the old mansion.

Today the gardens are overgrown. High azal'ea shrubs

close the river walk and no evidence of form remains. Several












6-r-~ Q _"~e tt~,~~~._ tr, ~L~iff~~
a ~ "--- jz)--, o
8


gazebo


e S well

T @



ornamental pond


r--.
ornamental
mound


circa 1900
TRANSITIONAL (CONJECTURAL)
Form: popularized, informal, disunified
Materials:


Elements:


walks
lawn
ornamental mound (2-tier)
ornamental pond
gazebo
well 4, n


turf and shell or gravel
turf
earth and tuff
wooden dock and boats
wooden
stone and wrought fron




documents have come to light which will help in restoration of

the gardens to the time of Dr. Charles Drayton. Only native

species that would have been used at the time should be planted.

All exotics, except the original camellia, should be removed.

As part of the historic park plan, the naturalistic

form is preferred for pedestrian movement, for display of

native riches as well as low maintenance upkeep. No botanical

garden featuring indigenous plants exists in such a region

where the garden is a daily subject. It is strongly

recommended that a botanical display be incorporated into

the development plan to further educational, scientific and

recreational assets.

Restoration of the grounds at 1800, as indicated by

the Trust committee, would remove all man-made elements on

the south lawn. In view of the stated objectives of the Trust

to preserve the mansion and grounds as an historical statement

of time, the following recommendations regarding the grounds

are made:

1. remove mound it interferes with views of the mansion

from the approach road


2. remove "Victorian" cottage a visual distraction

3. remove well a possible safety hazard

4. relocate caretaker's quarters out of sight until Phase I

residence is built

5. phase out use of parking and service drive near mansion

6. replace circular drive for use in historic trail-pave with

compacted soil/shell for traffic impact, erosion control
and ease of maintenance

7. preserve ornamental pond as an element of high visual

quality and visitor interest

8. preserve brick structure beyond cottage as possible

toilet facility (pump out system required)

9. stabilize archaeologic sites for exhibition

10. clear drainage ditches and blocked marshes to increase

water flow and help reduce mosquito problems

11. stabilize river bank with palmetto log~s-fill area at end

of axial walk just enough to stabilize oaks at edge of bank

12. pave river axial walk the same as land approach and replace

unsafe bridge

13. inspect and bring into a healthy, safe condition the major




trees along roads, walks and areas around the mansion

14. accent forest edges forming space around mansion

with native flowering trees

15. accent approach foad with wildflowers and native

flowering trees

16. maintain turf up to base of mansion and allow it to

flow into the woodland edges

17. stabilize main gates and secure against entry replace

signage and provide attractive, low key landscaping

18. secure property boundaries along Route 61 by signage

and fencing located at the edge of scenic easement

19. close and barrier all access roads except for service

west of main gate as indicated on the master plan

20. stabilize barn at riverside as a potential sub-

interpretation center along the historic trail

21. clear understory of garden for air flow and river

views except for native specimens which can be

"banked" on the property until the garden is ready

for planting except for original camellia

22. re-introduce cypress trees in freshwater swamp


23. all operations concerning location of structures,

development of the grounds and restoration of the

garden should only be handled under the supervision

of a qualified, licensed landscape architect


On the following page is a list of plants that might

be used as starters in the garden restoration. These are

natives which might have been found at Drayton Hall around 1800.










































re-introduce
prepared with the assistance of Norwood Hastie,
Magnolia Gardens and Nursery


PLANTS WHICH MIGHT HAVE BEEN USED AT DRAYTON HALL CIRCA 1800: **


A PARTIAL LISTING OF NATIVE


TREES:
Magnolia grandiflora
M. glauca -
M. macrophylla
M?. tripetala
M. virginiana
Gordonia lasianthus
Pyrus angustifolia
P. coronaria
Cercis canadensis
Stewartia malachodendron
Chionanthus virginica
Cornus florida
Halesia carolina
Ilex opaca
I. vomitoria
Franklinia alatamaha
Pinckneya pubescens
Juniperus silicicola
Liriodendron tulipifera
Morus rubra
Taxodium distichum*

WILDFLOWERS.
Viola papilionacea
S lenemyirginica

Tradescantia spp.

VINES:
Lonicera lutea
caroliniensis
Gelsemium sempervirens
Smilax lanceolata


SHRUBS:
Rhododendron canescens
Kalmia latifolia
.Yucca filamentosa
Agave americana
Aesculus pavia
A. parviflora
Azalea nudiflora
Callicarpa americana
Serenoa repens
Sassafras albidum
Benzoin melissaefolium
Vaccinium aboreum
Aralia spinosa

AQUATICS:
Nymphaea odorata
Pontederia cordata

BULBS:
Zephyranthes atamasco
Iris cristata
I. virginica
Crinum americanum
Lilium superbum
L. carolinianum
L. calisbqei


Southern magnolia




loblolly bay
southern crabapple

redbud
Virginia stewartia
fringetree
dogwood
silverbell
American holly
cassene yauponn)

pinckneya
red cedar
tulip tree
mulberry
cypress




periwinkle
spiderwort


native azalea
kalmia:


red buckeye
bottlebush buckeye
native azalea
beaut~yberry
saw palmetto
sassafras
spicebush
sparkleberry
devil's walking stick



pickerelweed


zephyr lily
Tris
iris
swamp lily
royal orange lily
amaryllis
leopard lily


honeysuckle


brier





PHASEY 1
HISTOIC PARK)
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parti;." ng
eute



MICREATION PARKn

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meter n~
specil parklae
rehabiPation for Phas 2

SPHASE 2

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RECREATION PARK


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DRA YTON HALL
c*ansearom sourn canoLms
PROPERTY RELSEARCH TEAM COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY/ OF FLORIDA


.MASTER PLAN
,...n *,
MARGARET COSTAINTEN
DEPT OF LANDSCAPE ARtCHITECTURE


I


V





THE MAST ER PLAN

The master plan is an outgrowth of the foregoing analyses

and the development objectives of the National Trust and Parks,

Recreation and Tourism Departmient:

1. to provide for a joint multi-use park

2. to preserve and enhance the park's value and quality

3. to incorporate sound environmental planning

4. to provide an educational as well as recreational

experience
5. to provide community service

6. to supply increased recreational demands




CAMPING PARK ELEMENTS AND PHASING


Phase I


Phase II Day
Use


Stay
Use


# Peak
Users


Parking Required


ranger residence

maintenance

entry gate

paved roadway

special parking

Bold Lake

lake trail

camping

cabins

beach/bathhouse/concession

picnic

fishing/boats/office

docks

reforestation


.8 mi


.5 mi


100 temporary


x x xx 23 ac x x

1.5

60 units 60

10


x



units

units


480a

60b

200c

80d

30e


120

20

40 paved

(included in
beach)
20 paved


18 units

20 boats

120 ft

xxxx


xxxxxxx


695 *


TOTALS


4 persons per site
6 persons per unit
includes 100 stay use
includes 40 beach users
includes 15 stay use





(mA M P1 i NGl PA (RK4-

Drayton Hall park exists as part of the PRT's
ex-urban recreational park system in the coastal region which

also includes the tri-county planning area (B-C-D). It is

classified as a Class VI historic and cultural site, a special

district park within a basic park, attracting the day user and

stay user. Although priority needs have not been established

by PRT for this class of parks, district parks in the B-C-D
area are listed as high in need.

By 1995, population in this planning area is

expected to increase by 29.7%: 1975/1995 : 365,000/473,300.
Per capital income will be increasing together with leisure

time and recreational pursuits. Paralleling population growth

will be a demand need for 20,000 acres of land for residential,

industrial and commercial expansion. ( 22 ) Open space require-

ments db not appear to have been taken into account by the

area planning council; therefore, the need to preserve this

property for park use will become critical.
Ninety per cent of recreational visits occur within
125 miiles of the user's home: 60% within a day use radius of


40 miles and 30%' within a weekend or stay use radius of 40 125

miles. ( 3)This zone can be roughly related with the

population demands in the B-C-D area to determine if needs are

being met. PRT properties in this region total 9,602 acres.
This exceeds national standards of 15 acres/1000 population (5

and should satisfy needs within the planning period for the area
served. However, development of visitor facilities has lagged

behind park land acquisition. For example, from a total existing

508 family campsites for the entire coastal district, less than
( 99 )
40% (200) fall within the stay use potential area.
A summary of state parks use for 1974 indicates there were

five times as many in-state as out-of-state visitors. The top

five major attractions and activities in order of preference

were: picnicking, swimming, camping, fishing and visiting

interpretation centers. The proposed master plan for

Drayton Hall Park has been designed to include these activities
on a phasing plan with PRT's fifteen year program in mind.
As existing, 60% of the area proposed for camping facilities
is unsuited for development due to past mining activities. Natural

vegetative recovery in borrow pits would require generations. This












CamPp


`Fc~
c:


deck


LBP /j
//


deck


/


I


i


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Bear Swamnp CampI
I -jrmg re`


Lake Camp/


I


Little Pine


Bo~ld~ L ba k e




situation, together with knowledge of suitable high water

tables, good water quality and semi-permeable soil types,

suggests that it is possible to create a large recreational

water feature, a necessity for a successful attraction.

Utilization is limited as is. Alternative uses would include

total preservation or forest management. The latter requires

as much rehabilitation necessary for a suitable economic

return as would the extensive recreational proposal. In

addition, advantages beyond recreation include wildlife and

waterfowl use, stocking for sport fishing, irrigation and

water for fire protection.

Because of the difficulty in defining a site's

carrying capacity, a low impact, user experience level of

four units/net acre has been used in determining the number

of sites and therefore the number of camping users. Day use

areas are located nearest the park entry, away from camping

access.

THEE L.A)(E

Excavation of borrow pits and mined areas begins

in Phase I. Stockpiled until sufficient volume has been


created to allow water from troughs to be diverted into the

lake area, excavated material can be used to fill troughs. Some

tree loss would occur and vegetative types,would gradually

succeed to a drier tolerance species; however, the long term loss

would be negligible compared to long run gain. Trees of commercial

value should be harvested and used on site for constructing rough

shelters, walk edges, decks, signage and so forth. Professional

engineering investigation of the area will be necessary to

determine the minimum lake capacity according to ground water

supply. The surface area, however, should be sufficient to allow

seasonal cross winds to aerate and retard algal growth. Except

where sloped at the beach, depth should be a minimum of six feet

to overcome evaporation and to deter bottom weed growth. Because

of contact with water table, studies should be done to determine

if there would be interference with local water sources, but well

sources in the area are farther below the surface. Water from

troughs on this property has been used for many years for

irrigation by Magnolia Gardens and Nurseries.
A 150' buffer zone should be kept between the lake

and any structures, road and camping areas to prevent contamination,








co 4 -
6 d-r rrCL


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G~an se~t
/A~fPKAIK


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RPCM=AnoM CAMPINC






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SPECIAlL PARKING

Located in the cleared area to the right of the entry,

this temporary lot is screened from the entrance boulevard and

is intended for use during special functions to be held at

Drayton Hall fairs, festivals, concerts, exhibitions. Visitors

will be taken across by special vehicles. Parking clusters are

small, allowing much vegetative buffer. A permeable paying

material, such as open web block, is ideal and is strongly

recommended because of the temporary use made of this area.
RANGER FIESIDEISCE 8= MAINTENdANC:E SiHOP

These are situated near the entrance for easy access

and security, at least 150' from the nearest visitor facility

or trail. The maintenance shop and yard are placed in a

cleared sec'tio.n of the former dirt access road which will be

allowed to reforest after Phase I.

THE CAMPSITES

Because the low impact forest camp experience is

desired, no hook-ups or electricity will be provided. Only

10% of the spaces should be allocated to self-contained

motorized campers. These will be located nearest the highway


overuse and erosion. Four viewing and fishing decks at

strategic positions are 1qcated along the lake trail. Areas

along the bank to be utilized by fishermen should be cleared
back to allow room for casting lines.
THE ENTRY

Because it forms the visitor's first impression,

the entry gate signage and plantings should reflect the low

key, natural quality of the camp experience and provide
immediate organizational identification. Reforestation

adjacent to the entry should be heavy and treated with prime

importance to provide soonest appearance of the natural

environment. The park boulevard beyond the entry gate is

oriented to offer the visitor a selected view of the lake

through the forest. Access in an'd out of the park is

governed by a gate locked after hours. K~eys are issued to

registered campers. The entry gate will be staffed during

open hours to provide information and take fees. A pullover

for three cars is provided to the right just before the gate.

Median cuts are used as turns and exits for the special

parking lot.




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