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Creator: University of Florida Department of Architecture
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
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EAST JACKSONVILLE SCHOOL NO. 3


DOCUMENTATION. BUILDING ASSAY. ADAPTIVE USES.


VOLUME ONE:


DOCUMENTATION


Assignment

Methodology

Documentation

History
Population Effects
Original Drawings
Florida Site Inventory
National Register Nomination
Photodata Documentation (Historic American
Buildings Survey)
Measured Drawings








Prepared for the City of Jacksonville, Florida by
Graduate Students in the Department of Architecture,
University of Florida, during the Academic year 1979-80


Ward DuPree
Oslec Fernandez
Diane Gigon
Lester Gonzalez
Mike Johnson


Brent Lane
Bob Mather
Keith Soto
Jim Golden
F. Blair Reeves, Professor
Phillip P. Wisley, Professor








DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE


COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE


ASSIGNMENT

In late 1978, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation advised the
Department of Housing and Urban Development and the City of Jacksonville
that studies should be taken to examine alternatives to the proposed demoli-
tion of Jacksonville School No. 3. It was subsequently agreed that graduate
students in the Department of Architecture, University of Florida, as part
of their academic work, would document the evidence establishing the historical
and architectural qualities of Jacksonville School No. 3 and to provide studies
of its adaptive use as a component in the Gator Bowl Redevelopment proposal
or for other public or private uses.

METHODOLOGY

Specifically the students were to provide the following:

I. Documentation

Through individual and team projects, students prepared a history
of the building, the effect of population migration and change,
and located copies of Henry Klutho's working drawings. They
prepared measured drawings and photo-data documents according
to standards of the Historic American Buildings Survey. Appro-
priate forms were also compiled for the Florida Site Inventory/
National Register of Historic Places. This material appears
in Volune II of this report.

II. Building Assay

Working as a team, students guided by faculty and advising
architects prepared a report describing the condition of exist-
ing interior and exterior finishes.

III. Proposed Adaptive Uses

Each student was to develop an individual program based on input
from appropriate governmental agencies and officials. Because of
insufficient input from these exterior sources, each student was
advised to establish an adaptive use appropriate to the existing
building and site. While one student elected to restrict his
solution to governmental functions assigned to modified existing
internal spaces, most solutions present options involving adaptive
uses of the existing building in combinations with building
additions suggested by site and location factors.

Most solutions employ the established concept of partnership between
the public and private sectors. In this concept, the governmental
agency leases a building to a builder/investor who is encouraged
by existing grants-in-aid programs and tax incentives to rehabilitate



101C AFA, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, 32611, 904-392-0205

.RCHITECTURE*BUILDING CONSTRUCTION*INTERIOR DESIGNOLANDSCAPE ARCHITECTUREOURBAN AND REGIONAL PL


EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA























Page 2


III. Proposed Adaptive Uses (cont'd.)

historic structures. The public sector benefits from tax income,
a percentage from gross annual rents, and the preservation of a
significant building. Examples of this type of partnership
include the Old Boston City Hall, the Central Grammar School
project in Gloucester, and Old Court House and Jail in Woodstock,
Illinois.

Each design concept is presented with a definition of the problem
and the philosophy of its solution, space and function analyses
of existing and new spaces, and a preliminary estimate of con-
struction costs. As indicated in all communications between the
Department of Architecture and the City of Jacksonville, this
work is not a substitute for that provided by professionals
qualified to offer services in economic feasibility and adaptive
use.

The results of this project is presented to its sponsors in
notebook form and through presentations to appropriate audiences
on February 28 and 29, 1980, in Jacksonville, Florida.


It should be clearly stated that this has been a valuable experience for
the students, permitting them to study a preservation problem in the context
of an existing situation. It has made it possible for them to draw from
a series of conditions otherwise unavailable to the classroom situation.
The Department of Architecture appreciates this opportunity for this liaison
and hopes there will be other instances when such cooperative efforts are
appropriate.











,y
Council On
Historic i
Preservation


1522 K Street NW.
Washington D.C. D ... V
20005 L;i DIV.


November 17, 1978


Mr. John Van Ness
Director
Department of Housing and
Urban Development i '
1300 Broad Street.
Jacksonville, Fldrida 32202

Dear Mr. Van Ness:

On October 30, 1978, the Advisory Council participated
in an on-site inspection of East Jacksonville School
Number 3, Jacksonville, Florida, a property determined
on the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to be
eligible for inclusion in the National Register of
Historic Places. The School, located within the Gator
Bowl Study Area has been slated by the city for acquisition
and demolition and Community Development Block Grant
funds have been identified for this purpose. The field
review was conducted in accordance with Section 800.5(b)
of the Council's "Procedures for the Protection of
Historic and Cultural Properties" (36 CFR Part 800). In
addition to Mr. Jordan Tannenbaum and Mr. Don Klima from
the Council, present also were Mr. Ernest Whitaker, Mr.
Wallace Wood, Dr. Wayne Wood, Ms. Elizabeth Monroe,
representing the city, the Duval County School Board,
the Jacksonville Historical Landmarks Commission, and
the Florida State Historic Preservation Office, respectively.

The Council is concerned that neither the Gator Bowl
Area Study nor ancillary environmental studies undertaken
by the city in any way addressed the cultural importance
of East Jacksonville School Number 3. As a result, the
decision to demolish the School did not take into account
the full consequences of this action. After reviewing
the matter in accordance with section 800.5(d) of the
Council's Procedures, we are not convinced that the city
has taken sufficient steps to examine alternatives to
the proposed demolition of the School. Staff recommendations
rendered by the Florida State Historic Preservation












Office indicate that the School is "structurally sound
and suitable for re-use" (Letter, L. Ross Morrell,
Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer to Mayor Hans
Tanzler, March 7, 1978). However the city has not
properly studied the economic feasibility of re-use of
the School as a component in the Gator Bowl Redevelopment
proposal or for other public purposes. Nor has the
private market potential of the School been thoroughly
examined.

The city should contract with a consulting firm with
experience in the economic feasibility and renovation of
historic structures to provide a feasibility and adaptive
use study. Based on the findings of this professional
evaluation, the Council would then be in a position to
continue the consultation process. Due to the nature of
the study, the city could apply for matching National
Register grants-in-aid administered by the Florida State
Historic Preservation Office to fund up to 50% of the
study costs. Ms. Elizabeth Monroe of that office indicated
that such an application would receive favorable consideration.

During the interim, we encourage the city to strongly
urge the Duval County School Board to take immediate
steps to protect the School from vandalism. Already
much of the building's detailed woodwork and fixtures,
and apparently all the slate boards and hardware, has
been stripped from the building. The windows and doors
should be properly secured to prevent illegal entry and
efforts should be made to increase the security patrol
of the building. The security fence surrounding the
school, which has been dismantled should be re-installed.

Pending resolution of the compliance process, the city
should refrain from taking any action that would foreclose
Council consideration of alternatives that would avoid
or satisfactorily mitigate adverse effects to the School.

The Council apologizes for delays in scheduling the on-
site inspection and extends its appreciation to the
city, in particular Mr. Whitaker, for the thorough
manner in which arrangements were made for the meeting.
Should you have any questions or require additional
information, please call Mr. Don Klima at 202-254-3967.

Your continued cooperation and assistance are appreciated.

Sincerely, -




Myra F. Harrison
Assistant Director
Office of Review and Compliance










COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE


March 8, 1979








Mr. John Van Ness, Director
Department of Housing and Urban
Development
1300 Broad Street
Jacksonville, FL 32202

ATT: Mr. Ernest Whitaker

Dear Mr. Van Ness:

I am writing in reference to the possibility of graduate students
in architectural preservation using the East Jacksonville School
Number-3-'as the basis for exercises in documentation, building
assay and adaptive use. Each year our students prepare such work
as part of their regular academic program, using a building of
local, state or national importance. During the 1978-79 year,
students used Florida's historical Capitol for these exercises,
their work advised by the faculty, Herschel Shepard and the Division
of Archives and History. Their projects-will be exhibited in
Tallahassee during the annual meeting of the Florida Trust for
Historic Preservation and at the spring conference of the Florida
Association, A.I.A. Although this work is not a substitute for that
provided by professionals, we feel it may broaden the general attitude
toward architectural preservation. Often projects, particularly
studies of buildings on the University campus, have directed attention
to the need for maintenance or stabilization and furnish suggestions
for adaptive use.

If you think that the-East Jacksonville School Number 3 can be made
accessible to the students and that such a study would be of value to
Jacksonville, we would like to use the building for study during
March 26-June 5 and September 26-March 6, 1980. I believe that three
two-day visits during the March 26-June 5 period would permit thorough
documentation with only occasional visits after that. As part of this
exercise, the students will also conduct a basi:'- inventory of the
immediate surroundings and prepare nominations to the National Register.









IOIC AFA, UNIVERL ITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, 32611. 904-392-0205

ITECTUREOBUILDING CONSTRUCTION INTERIOR DESIGN.LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE*URBAN AND REGIONAL PL


EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OFPORTUNITY/AFF IRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA




























Mr. John Van Ness, Director
March 8, 1979
Page 2


Because it will be a financial burden to the students and faculty to
work away from the University, it will be necessary to obtain compensa-
tion for actual expenses and indirect overhead. I believe that $4,000
is a reasonably accurate estimate. It may be possible that local funds
can be matched by state and/or federal since this building is eligible
for nomination to the National Register.

If this proposal is appealing, please telephone me at 904-392-0390
on March 13-15 or write to me at the Department of Architecture,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Sincerely yours,



F. Blair Reeves, FAIA ,
Professor

FBR:ti


cc: Robert W. Williams









COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE


March 28, 1979




Mr. John Van Ness, Director
Department of Housing and
Urban Development
1300 Broad Street
Jacksonville, FL 32202

ATTN: Mr. Ernest Whitaker

Dear Mr..Van Ness:

This letter is to further delineate the use of East Jacksonville School
Number 3 as the basis for exercises in documentation, building assay,
and adaptive use. We propose that it will be the responsibility of the
graduate students and their faculty to provide the following:

a. Documentation with drawings and photographs of the existing
condition of this building.

b. Prepare Florida Site Survey National Register forms for this
building and for several significant buildings in its immediate
surroundings.

c. Prepare worksheets documenting this building as required by the
Historic American Buildings Survey (historic and architectural
data).

d. Prepare an assay of the physical condition of East Jacksonville
School Number 3 to include interior and exterior finishes, hard-
ware, etc. This work will not include structural analysis or
evaluation of existing mechanical systems.

e. Each student, working with appropriate governmental agencies and
officials, will develop a program suggesting an adaptive use
for this building.

f. Each student will prepare an architectural solution to problems
defined by the program and explain their solution with appropriate
drawings. These drawings will be suitable for exhibition and will
be reduced for inclusion in a notebook which will be handed to
the City of Jacksonville. The original drawings will remain as the
property of the University of Florida.

We will attempt to complete this work before December 31, 1979 with an
exhibition and presentation during January, 1980. Because this is an
academic exercise, it must first accommodate student needs and schedules.


10C AFA, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, 32611, 904-392-0205

RCHITECTURE*BUILDING CONSTRUCTION*INTERIOR DESIGNOLANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE9URBAN AND REGIONAL PL


EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA








Mr. John Van Ness
March 28, 1979
Page 2



The reports will be edited and duplicated and drawings reduced photo-
graphically for inclusion into notebooks in January. It will be
appropriate to schedule an exhibition of this material in Jacksonville
in late January.

I have reviewed the proposal with the chairman of the Department of
Architecture and he agrees that it will be appropriate for the City
of Jacksonville to enter into a contract with the Architectural Guild,
Inc.. The guild will serve only as a contracting agent for the project,
principally to facilitate prompt compensation for students' out-of-pocket
expenses. The Guild was organized in 1970 for the purpose of generating
dialogue, fellowship between practicing architects, faculty and students.
It serves as a private association to assist with lectures, seminars,
consultants and contributions to special programs.

Estimated project costs are as follows:

a. Travel and overnight accommodations:

-Spring quarter (April-June): Documentation, assay and preliminary
programming; three trips for eleven students and two faculty
supervisors (April 6-7, April 20-21, May 18-19). $ 960.00

-Fall Quarter (September-December): Programming and Design
Three trips for eleven students and two faculty supervisors. 960.00

-Winter Quarter (January-March): Exhibition of Adaptive Use
Solutions and Documenting notebook. One trip in January
for eleven students and two faculty supervisors. 320.00

b. Photography, photocopy, typing, binders, duplication, editing. 1,000.00

c. Drawing supplies, paper, etc. 500.00

d. Miscellaneous Overhead 260.00

TOTAL Estimated cost of the project: $4,000.00

I believe this is a reasonable and accurate summary and feasible estimate
of a project which will be of value to the City of Jacksonville in planning
for a reasonable use of East Jacksonville School Number 3 and an exciting
educational experience for participating students.

Sincerely yours,



F. Blair Reeves, FAIA
Professor

FBR/ti


cc: Mr. Robert Williams




ITY OF JACKSONVILLE
CENTRAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT
OR DAEkVERY OR SPECIFICATION INFORMATION
AlJ" Whitaker_ ,. PH: 633-5050
,T-ER INFORMATION CALL: 1-3 ACCT. 4
:slle 6'3-2705o 2041 792-653317(


THIS NUMBER MUST APPEAR ON ALL SHIPMENT
INVOICES AND CORRESPONDENCE
PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER


-13 SUB A/C
6


1423 24 I 31-33
R I DOO


3ENCY DEPT. DIV FISCAL DATE 40-4 VENDOR NO. -51 SN O
. Govt. HU P&D 79 041279 BELOW


WS: F.O.B.
at


Del


DEL WITHIN BID OR CONTRACT 72-81 1099 82
As Req. DAYSARO Prof. Serv.


42745
REQUIREMENT FC


AOV- 84 BLANKET 85
DRAFT


VENDOR:Architectural Guild, Inc.
Dept. of Architecture
101 C AFA
University of Florida


Attr : 'ror. .lair Reeves
Gainesville, Fl 32611


CODE DESCRIPTION Of rTEM


DELIVER TO:
Department of HUD
1300 Broad St.
Jacksonville, Fl 32202


QUANTITY 'UO I. ESIMAID TOTAl


The Department of Architecture, University
of Florida, acting through the Architectural
Guild, Inc., agrees to perform certain ser-
vices on East Jacksonville School #3 relating
to documentation, building assay and adaptive
uses as outlined in the attached scope of
services. The Architectural Guild will be
reimbursed for actual expenses in an amount
not to exceed $4,000 as follows:

A. Travel and overnight accommodations:
3 trips for eleven students and two
faculty between April and June.
3 trips for eleven students and two
faculty between September and Dec.
1 trip for eleven students and two
faculty in January 1980.

B. Photography, photocopy, typing, binders,
duplication, and editing.

C. Drawing supplies, paper, etc.

D. Miscellaneous Overhead


HUD CD /i

REVIEW'


Leslie/hm


I TrITA I


[SPECIAL BILLING INSTRUCTIONS


* INVOICE IN TRIPLICATE TO

GENERAL ACCOUNTING DIVISION
ROOM 500, CITY HALL
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 32202


TOTAL $
MANUFACTURER'S FEDERAL
EXCISE TAX EXEMPT. NO: 59-73-0264K'
FLORIDA STATE SALES AND USE TAX
EXEMPTION NO: 04-00193-08-26
SUBJECT TO TERMS AND CONDITIONS
STATED ON REVERSE HEREOF
CITY OF JACKSONVILLE
PURCHASING DIVISION



GEORGE L.'HARMAN CHIEF PURCHASING(


Not to


exc
1000


--


''





















SCOPE OF SERVICES
Architectural Guild, Inc.
East Jacksonville School #3


A. Documentation with drawings and photographs of the exist-
ing condition of this building.

B. Prepare Florida Site Survey/National Register forms for
this building.

C. Prepare worksheets documenting this building as required
by the Historic American Buildings Survey (historic and
architectural data).

D. Prepare an assay of the physical condition of East Jack-
sonville School Number 3 to include interior and exterior
finishes, hardware, etc. This work will not include
structural analysis or evaluation of existing mechanical
systems.

E. Each student, working with appropriate governmental agen-
cies and officials, will develop a program suggesting an
adaptive use for this building.

F. Each student will prepare an architectural solution to
problems defined by the program and explain their solu-
tion with appropriate drawings. These drawings will be
suitable for exhibition and will be reduced for inclusion
in a notebook which will be handed to the City of Jack-
sonville. The original drawings will remain as the pro-
perty of the University of Florida.

G. All work is to be completed by February 1, 1980.

H. Where feasible, cost estimates will be prepared for the
various alternative uses proposed.

























HISTORICAL BACKGROUND SURVEY


EAST JACKSONVILLE PUBLIC SCHOOL NO. 3




Prepared with the cooperation of:

University of Florida
College of Architecture
and
Duval County School Board
City of Jacksonville, FL











Patricia R. Wickman
April/May 1979
ARC 3291/ARC 5810











East Jacksonville Public School No. 3 was created by the

Board of Public Instruction of Duval County, Florida, in 1885. It

was a wood frame building with two outbuildings in 1903 (source:

Sanborn Fire Map, 1903. Univ. of Florida Library).

It stood slightly east of that downtown portion of the

city which was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1901. Many of the

students displaced by the fire were reassigned to No. 3 for the

period of the city's rebuilding.

One of the major architects of this rebuilding was Henry

J. Klutho (1873-1964). Klutho received his training at the Schenk

Academy in St. Louis and moved to Jacksonville one month after

reading of the fire in the May 4, 1901 issue of the New York Times.

Klutho's early style was Beaux Arts but his decision to champion

the search for an indigenous American architecture soon led him to

the Prarie. School style of Frank Lloyd Wright. His buildings created

the skyline for the new Jacksonville and many of them are still in

existence and use today.

Examples of his extant designs are: the old Carnegie Library

(1902), now in use as city offices; the Dyal-Upchurch Building.(1901)

city's first 'skyscraper' at six stories, currently housing low-

income housing and in danger of demolition; the elegant T. V. Porter

house (1901), now an adjunct to a downtown church. Klutho also adopted

as ornamentation on many of his works the Sullivanesque terra cottas

which were another hallmark of the Prarie School style.

Mr. Fons A. Hathaway was the County Superintendant for Duval

County from 1913-1924. His administration stands out as one of the











periods of greatest achievement in the history of Public School

work in Jacksonville. He obtained several large bond issues

including one for a new High School which opened in October, 1908,

only several blocks west of No. 3 on East Ashley Street.

He also began to replace all the remaining wooden school

buildings in the city with brick buildings. It was during his

administration that Klutho was commissioned to design the new

building for No. 3.which would replace the original wooden structure.

The location, 525 Florida Avenue, was only one block north of one of

the city's older churches, St. Andrews Episcopal, and was considered

a fairly affluent and respectable neighborhood.

Some industry had already begun to move into the area, however,

since Florida Spring Bed Manufacturing Company had been built

diagonally across from No. 3 on Van Buren Street at East Ashley in

1913.

Klutho chose as his contractor Mr. O.P.Woodcock, a well-known

and respected local businessman. An article in the May 6, 1914 issue

of the Florida Times Union (local Jacksonville newspaper) states

that Mr. Woodcock was: "a leading builder and contractor...known

throughout Florida...a native of North Carolina who has lived in

Jacksonville for many years. He has excellent qualifications as a

designer and builder having built the Aragon Hotel...he also has a

large shipyard on the south side of the St. Johns River where his

specialty is building lighters...".

The building that Klutho designed was a two-story, stucco-over-

brick in the Prarie School style with Sullivanesque terra cotta

ornamentation. It contained ten standard classrooms with a capacity c












300 students; a classroom-size library; a principal's office and a

secretary's office with storage; an auditorium with seating for

300; a kitchen for the Home Economics class; a sick room; a teacher's

room; and two large bathrooms with adjacent cloakrooms. Perhaps the

only 'unique' feature of the structural plan was the inclusion of twc

outdoor spaces at the second floor level and adjacent to the east anc

west ends of the auditorium labeled "outdoor classrooms". There is nc

evidence to suggest that they were ever used regularly as such.

The building specifications called for the Kahn System of

reinforced concrete construction. According to the Florida Times Unic

article cited above, this was thought to possess a "most fireproof,

durable and sanitary method of construction" the quality of which was

"beyond that of any other building material previously employed for

building purposes".

The contractors specifications also called for the Trussed

Concrete Steel Company of Youngstown, Ohio, with reinforcing designed

by Fisk and terra cottas from the Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta

Company of Nicetown, Philadelphia.

The school was opened in August of 1918 with a Miss Thompson

and Mrs. M. Graves in charge and a full complement of ten teachers.

One of the teachers, Mrs. A.K.Smith made notation that one month

was lost due to the influenza epidemic which was sweepingthrough

Jacksonville at the time.

During the next few years, as the First World War sent many

home and the American public became more mobile in its post-war









affluence, the composition of the neighborhood began to change.

By the 1920's, the Teacher's Daily Registers from No. 3 show a

rising percentage of Italian and Spanish names. The school was still

operating at capacity (source: Duval County School Board microfilm

records).

In 1927, the Institute of Educational Research, Division of

Field Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, conducted a

survey of the schools of Duval County, Florida including Jacksonville

and issued a published report. including the following exerpt on No. 3

"The wooden fire escapes that have been placed on this building should

never have been built. It is inconceivable to the survey staff that

wooden escapes will at all times provide the protection necessary. Th

playground is extremely limited. The stairway built into the center c

the building between the principal's office and the corridor is a mos

unsatisfactory means of connecting the two floors. There are no stair

ways at the ends of the main corridor. This is a serious defect in

planning. The fire escapes on this building lead into a yard which ha

its gates locked. This ought not to be permitted." (Source: P.K. Yong

Library of Florida History)

According to observed architectural evidence, the aforementioned

wooden fire escapes have been replaced with metal escapes; the lower

portion of the balustrade of the central hallway has been enclosed

and a fire wall has been added in the central hallway at the first

floor level. A "Survey of School Plants" made by the Duval County

School Board in May, 1962, also mentions an addition to the original

building made in 1932. Architectural survey indicates that the above

mentioned changes constitute the 'addition' mentioned in the survey.

By the school year 1938-39, No.3 was referred to as Elementary











School No. 3 and its enrollment was beyond capacity with 412 pupils.

During the next eight years the school also housed Junior High School

students who were placed there due to overcrowding at other Duval

County Schools.

For the school terms 1946-47 and 1947-48, the pupils of No. 3

were transferred to No's. 9 and 2 while No. 3 taught mentally

retarded children over the age of fourteen exclusively.

Thereafter, the school reverted to elementary school status.

Over the next fourteen years, the enrollment of the school

fluctuated between a minimum of 171 (1961-62) and a maximum of 373

(1964-64). (Source: Mr. Robert Varn, Duval County School Board)

At this time, (1962), a recommendation was made to the Duval

County School Board, as per an earlier mentioned "Survey of School

Plants" that the auditorium and lunchroom should be converted into

a combined-service cafetorium at an estimated cost of $12,000. Archi-

tectural evidence suggests that such a conversion did take place.

The composition of the neighborhood changed further at this tim<

From the original composition of affluent whites, it gradually becamE

black/white middle class and then black lower class and then predomil

antly black business. By the school year 1967-68, the enrollment at

No. 3 was totally black. The neighborhood had become a high-crime art

and the school was finally closed on June 23, 1971, by order of the

U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida, along with seven ot!

elementary schools and one junior high school. (Source: Duval County

School Board records)












Since that time, No. 3 has been used continuously for the

storage of school materials and equipment and is currently in use as

such. In 1976, the enclosed portion of the yard was leased to Boam &

Co. for storage of sewage pipes. The lease expired July 12, 1977 and

was not renewed. (Source: Duval County School Board appraisal

documents, prepared 1976)

In 1977, the building was placed on the open market for sale

for an asking price of $55,000. The City of Jacksonville, in conjunc.

tion with HUD, bid the asking price and the offer was accepted.

Prior to finalization of the sale, a question was raised by the

Jacksonville architect, Mr. Robert Broward, concerning the historic:

significance of the building and its possible inclusion on the

National Register. Since the intent of the purchase was the demoliti(

of the building as a part of the general development of the Gator

Bowl complex, the historical question temporarily forestalled the

sale. (Source: Duval County School Board memo dated 10/24/78)

As early as July 1, 1975, Mr. Broward had informed the School

Board by letter that if No. 3 oz' the Lola N. Culver Schools were

ever demolished, he wished examples of their Sullivanesque terra

cottas to be saved and donated to a museum. (Source: Duval County

School Board correspondence)

"The memory of schools is not so much brick and mortar as it is

the people who attended, and especially the people who taught. East

Jacksonville Elementary produced such people as former Mayor Lou

Ritter and others who made their mark in government, other professio:

and business. Some even say that Judy Canova went there. Most of all

however, East Jacksonville Elelemtary is remembered for a principal

Mrs. Marie Elise Mott, who died in 1979 at the age of 95.














Mrs. Mott, a member of a pioneer family that came to came to Jack-

sonville in the 1850's, gave her heart and probably money as well to

the school for some twenty years. Ritter, who entered the first

grade at East Jacksonville in 1931, and went through the sixth grade

there, .described Mrs. Mott as an " elegant, charming lady. A great

disciplinarian, but everybody loved her" ". Philip Atter, now head o

the city parking division, attended East Jacksonville, as did his

sister, local television personality, Virginia Atter Keys. (Source:

Florida Times Union article dated Saturday, March 18, 1978, entitled

"Epitaph of a Once Happy'School")

The earlier reputation of the school was greatly diminished in

its latter days, however, as racial unrest rocked the city of Jackso

ville as well as other cities of the South. Another Florida Times

Union article dated October 9,.1970, reported the arrest of a twenty

five year old teacher from East Jacksonville on a charge of acciden-

tally discharging a firearm in one of the classrooms. The teacher,

Clifford gray Rogers, told police that he took the gun to school bec

he feared for his life.

According to Robert Broward, Klutho died "leaving behind him th

legacy of Prarie School buildings in Jacksonville which are a part c

American search for an architecture of its own.rWhat this unusual ms

did was to champion the active spirit of the time..Jacksonville has

moved too slowly on preserving buildings of historical and architect

ural importance, structures that could serve a useful purpose insteE

cf being destroyed".

























CITY GROWTH


and

GHETTO FORMATION: or

WHATEVER HAPPENED TO PUBLIC SCHOOL NO. 3 ?























Virginia Hanson
Architectural Documentation












INTRODUCTION


During April and May of 1979 the Architecture Department of the University

of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, was asked to document Public School No. 3

in Jacksonville. This building, a product of the genius of Jacksonville

architect H. J. Klutho, represented the "Prairie School" influence of Frank

Lloyd Wright. As such, there was a possibility that the building would

qualify for inclusion on the National Register. Failing this designation,

it was hoped that the structure could be adapted to other uses within its

present area in Jacksonville.

To date, a number of measured drawings have been made of the building

and research was done into the past history of the school. This present

paper will attempt to trace the history of the neighborhood, and explain

why the school was closed. Inherent in such a study is the concept of "model",

the predicted growth and development patterns of a city. Such a concept

would seem to have value if the future of School No. 3 is to have a meaning-

ful place in the development of Jacksonville.


JACKSONVILLE -- PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSE


The area of the St. Johns has been attractive to human settlement from

ancient times. The Timuquan Indians were living in the area at the time

of Contact. The French attempted to settle the region with the establish-

ment of Fort Caroline, but were driven off by the Spanish. During the period

of English control (1763-1783) Jacksonville became a center for distribution

and transportation due to its abutment to the "King's Road" which lead from

St. Augustine up into Georgia.











Isaiah D. Hart had the developed area of the city surveyed in 1822, at

which time the city was chartered. During the Civil War the area was a

transportation center due to the expansion of southern railroads, and

the region continued a pattern of constant growth which even the terribly

destructive fire of 1901 did little to deter. The city's expansion continued

at a slower rate during the depression years and then boomed with the

building of new military bases in the area during the war years (JAPB 1974).

It is interesting to note that in 1893 the commercial area of Jackson-

ville was linear, extending along the docks on the north shore of the St.

Johns. The residential area extended away from the harbor. Homes were close

to business areas and transportation was limited to foot or horse and carriage.

Records indicate that a school existed on the site of the present Public

School No. 3 at this time (Jacksonville-Duval A.P.B. 1968:7). Over the next

20 to 30 years the city continued its growth in a pattern of semi-circles

radiating north and west from the original city core. The area across

the river from the city center did not really begin to develop until the

"Florida Boom" of 1925 (Jacksonville-Duval A.P.B. 1968:10-11).

It was shortly before this "boom" that the reinforced concrete

"Prairie School" style educational building was designed by architect Klutho

(1917), built by contractor O.P. Woodcock (1918-19), and opened to teachers

and pupils (1920). This school, replacing an older structure, even when new

"...East Jacksonville Elementary was considered by many who went there as

being somewhat on the wrong side of the tracks. The residents of the area

were poor, but hard-working" (Times-Union and Journal, March 18, 1978).

Despite this fact, many prominent Jacksonville residents attended the school

and remember it and its first principal, Mrs. Marie M. Mott, with great

affection.










Up until 1940 the city of Jacksonville contained over 80% of the popu-

lation of Duval County. South Jacksonville was annexed in 1932 and the

city's boundaries were frozen at that time. However, new suburbs developed

outside the city limits and growth has been marked in the county. By

1968 it was noted that only 36% of the population of Duval County lived

within the city limits, Prior to 1940 the population thrust was to the

north and west of the city, but with the construction of the bridges over

the St. Johns River, the eastern area of the county is showing rapid

development. Certain other natural features, such as swamps and poorly

drained land areas in both the northeast and western parts of the county

have inhibited growth in these regions. Also, the large Naval facilities

have removed considerable land from the possibilities of development. Other

areas, especially in the west, display a mixed inappropriate land use pattern

which has discouraged residential growth.

The area to the southeast of the city would seem to be the major focus

for new development. The highway system has been improved, new bridges across

the St. Johns make easy access to the city, the existing development is

attractive and new recreational areas along both the river and the ocean

provide added stimulation for growth (Jacksonville-Duval A.P.B. 1968:15:17).

As.elsewhere, movement from the central city has been of middle and

upper income groups. Meanwhile, minority and lower income groups are crowding

into the abandoned city areas. As a fair proportion of land which was

formerly devoted to housing has been removed due to the expansion of express-

ways and other non-residential uses, the result has been higher residential

densities. Unfortunately, these densities are occurring in areas of older

housing which were never built for such high density occupancy. Overcrowding

has caused a deterioration in existing housing, and has had the overall effect

of a lower living standard for the minority populations. Public School No. 3,










located at Ashley and Van Buren streets, is in one of the deteriorating

neighborhoods.

It has been estimated that there are approximately 41,000 substandard

dwelling units in the Jacksonville area. Some of these dwellings might

be repaired if funds could be found to do so. Others are in such dila-

pidated condition that it is not considered economical to repair them.

Scattered among these substandard units are some which are potentially

useful. However, it is feared that these homes will be lost because the

low income homeowner has neither the funds or credit to keep the dwelling

in good repair (Holland 1975:6-7). Fortunately, some steps are being taken

to help revitalize these nieghborhoods which show siggs of "blight and

deterioration", and Federal Funds are hopefully forthcoming to aid in the

project (Jacksonville Community Development Program 1978).


CITY MODELS


There are three traditional theories of urban structure; the Concentric

Ring Theory; the Sector theory and the Polynuclear theory. The Concentric

Ring theory notes that cities expand from a center. The first ring consists

of the Central Business District (CBD). The second is a zone of transition,

one in which some residences are found, but these are often impinged upon

by business or industry from the CBD. The third ring contains working-class

residences, the fourth is a district of better home and the fifth is a suburban

"commuting zone" which may include suburban satellites. The Sector theory

contends that certain groups will live in a section of a city rather then

in a ring and the Polynuclear theory argues that cities are not based on

a single center at all, but on a multitude of centers each having a variety-

of functions (Wilson 1974:7-8).

The City of Jacksonville would appear to have originally fitted into










the Ring concept, but as these theories are not mutually exclusive, nor

does noe theory necessarily hold true over time, the city would now seem

to be in the process of becoming polynucleated, as more and more suburbs

grow up away from the CBD, complete with their own shopping centers and

other amenities.

However, the area in which the subject of this paper, Public School

No. 3, is located was originally probably part of ring three or four

(working class or better residences). As the city grew and the rings

expanded outward it became part of ring two, or the transition area, in

which commercial businesses begin to crowd the residences. Those who

could afford to moved out and poorer people moved in. Thus, a "ghetto"

began to form, with all its inherent characteristics. The density of the

area is 6,000 persons per square mile; non-whites make up 50-74% of the

population; the median value of owner occupied housing is $9,000 and under;

mean family income is $4,000-8,000; median school years completed by persons

25 years of age and over is 9.5-10.9; the percent of housing built since

1959 is 0-24%; the percent of both males and females in the labor force is

55% and under; persons per household are 3.01-4.00; and the percent of

families with income below poverty level (1969) is 31% and over (Florida

Times-Union-Jacksonville Journal).

The ghetto is a universal spatial pattern in large urban centers such

as Jacksonville, However, the mechanism which produces such a pattern is

complex, involving the interaction of social, economic and political variables.

A combination of individual and institutional behaviors result in the

formation of a set of social-spatial units which are self-perpetuating.

A ghetto most often forms through the operation of the housing market.

Real estate interests must be atune to the public will, and have,-

at times, actively promoted separate housing markets based on race. It










is widely believed that the presence of non-homogeneous racial groups in

an area tend to depress housing values, and the ghetto grows as white residents

sell in a flurry of fear, producing declining housing values. Such a turn

over may well be a principal agent of racial neighborhood change. The

decision to sell by a white resident may well be a reflection of the un-

willingness of whites to share social space with non-whites. Furthermore,

there appears to be a general fear that, having once let non-whites into

an area, the whites will no longer be in control of the residential environ-

ment and the educational future of their children. Each area of middle-

income whites seems to have its own "tipping" point. This is the point when

black occupancy within a neighborhood accelerates white outmovement

(Rose 1969:11-15). It would appear from the Duval County School Board

records that this "tipping" point was reached in the neighborhood around

School No. 3 sometime in the late 1950's and by 1968 all the students at

the school were black. Also present in the neighborhood were a number of

black commercial establishments, housing densities were on the increase,

as was crime. White parents refused to allow their children to be bused

into the area in order to comply with court orders to integrate (Varn 1979:

personal communication). Shortly before the school was closed by court

order in 1971, a teacher was arrested for discharging a gun in his classroom.

He had carried the gun into the building because he claimed that he feared

for his life (Jacksonville Journal, March 9, 1970).


CONCLUSIONS


It would seem that Public School No. 3 did not fail as an educational

institution, rather the:neighborhood failed the school as it progressed

through the changes from a viable living environment to one in which fear

and social stresses were the overriding factors. Learning cannot take place

















in an atmosphere of disruption, fear, anger and resentment.

It would seem unlikely, at this writing, that the city of Jacksonville

will truly do an about face in attempting a massive revitalization of its

blighted innder city areas. Certainly, some funds will be'put into low-

income housing, the CBD is undergoing considerable modernization, trans-

portation is being much improved, but the trend is still out-migration

especially of whites, to the suburbs. If this trend could be reversed,

possibly through a "homesteading" program, some of the currently sub-standard

housing might be restored and viable neighborhoods reconstructed from the

ashes of the old. Another alternative might be the encouragement of small

craft and art shops, with the hopes that the area might be upgrades

(Greenburg 1972: personal communication).

Unfortunately, the neighborhood surrounding School No. 3 has some

special problems. It is very close to the docks and some other large

industries, and even more'importantly, it is quite near the Gator Bowl

Sports Complex. The plans for this Complex are quite gradious and include

facilities for a variety of sports activities, seating for spectators,

landscaped open spaces and, of course, parking lots.

Such a Sports Complex would do much to improve the appearance of a now

blighted area, but only at the cost of Public School No. 3 and other

adjacent buildings. It must be considered that the gain may more than equal

the cost.








G IL yT


Abler, Ronald, John S. Adams and Peter Gould.
1971 Soatial Organization: The Geographer's View of the W.ior
Prentice-Iall, Inc. New Jersey.

Chorley, Richard J. and Peter Haggett. (eds.)
1967 Socio-Economiaic Models in Geograohy: Parts 1 and 111 of
Models in Geogranhy. University Paperbacks, London.


1970 Integrated Models in Geop;ranhy: Part' XV of Models in
Geograohv. University Paperbackbacks, London.

City of Jacksonville, Area Planning Board.
1974 Comprehensive Plan for the Consolidated City of Jacksonv
Development Plan-1990 (large Map with text).

Florida Tines-Union-Jacksonville Journal, Research & Marketing De
1973: Census Tract Dat Maos, Jacksonville, Fla.

-Various clippings;from the papers in regards to this
subject.

Greenburg, Michael, (Golumbia University)
1972 Personal Communications.

Holland, Skitch T.
1975 "Housing in Jacksonville, 1975". Unpub. ms. on file in
Urban Docunents, Library West. Univ. of Fla.

Jackson Area Chamber of Commerce,
1976 Statistical Abstract, Jacksonville, Fla.

Jacksonville Community Development Program.
1978 Cotmmunity Development Plan Summary and other Federal
Aid forms included,

Jacksonvil le-Duval Area Planning Board.
1968 Prell ina-r Land Use p.nd TransOortation Plan. Jacksonvi
Fla.
,..- ", -~ r.,! .ou ? --- "-- ---L

Marshall, WilloughbyP
1975 TEconoaic Davelono'mnt '~-rou Historic, Preservation:
Apalachicola Pla:ming Study Phase one, VolI 1. State of
Florida Dz:partment! of coUluunity Affairs.

1.cKee, Harley J.
1970 RecordifI Histor'ic Bui ldin s. (The Historic American .E
Survevy). US. Department of the Interior, National Park
Services

inng-hii Julian V. (ed.)
.966 The Ge orher an The blic EnvirToonent. B.C. Geo-
graphical Series No. 7- Tantalus Reseach Liaited, Vancouver





















National Urban League.
1973. Toward Effective Citizen Particication in Urban Revewal.
(Urban Renewal Demonstration Project)..

Rose, Harold M.
1969 Social Processes in the City: Race and Urban Residential
Choice. Resource -aner lo. 6. Association of.American
Geographers. Washington, D.C.

Thoman, Richard S. and Peter B. Corbin
1974 The Geogranhy of Economic Activity (3rd. ed.). McGraw-
Hill Book Co. New York.

Varn, Robert..
1979 Personal Communications. Duval County School Board.
Wilson, A. G.
1974 Urban and Regional Models in Geogranhy and Planning.
John Wiley and Sons, London.

Wolpert, Julian, et. al.
1972 Metronolitan Neighborhoods: Participation and Conflict
Over Change. Resource Paper No. 16, Association of American
Geographers. Washington, D.C.






































PHOTOCOPIES OF WORKING DRAWINGS PREPARED BY

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FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Division of Archives, History
and Records Management
DS-HSP-3AA Rev. 6-76


FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE
HISTORIC SITE DATA SHEET


FDAHRM 802==
Site No. 1009==
Site NameEast Jkvl. Pub. School #3 830==
Other Name(s) for Site East Jkvl E1 pmntnry chchannl No 3 930==
Other Nos. for Site 906==
NR Classification Category: Edicaiti onal 916==
County Duval 808==
Instruction for locating (or address) 525 Florida Ave. at southea t crnner of
intersection of Florida Ave. and East Ashley St., East Jacksonville,
Florida; 813==


Location: East Jacksonvile //868==
subdivision name block no. lot no.
Owner of Site: Name: Duval Uounty School Board
Address: 1325 San Marco Blvd. 902==

Jackonvil F1lnri da 902==
Occupant, Tenant, or Manager:
Name: same as above
Address:
904==

Reporter (or local contact):
NameMr. Robt. Varn, Dir. Pupil Accounting, Duval. Cnty. School eRr
Address: 1325 San Marco Blvd. Jacksonville, Fla.
816==

Recorder: Patricia R. Wickman for
Name & Title: Prof. Blaire Reeves, School of Architecture
Address: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
818==
1975-
Survey DateSpring Quar. 1979 820== Type of Ownership County 848==
Inventory Status (April/May 1979) 914==
Previous Survey(s): (enter activity/title of survey/name/date/repository)
None known


839==
Recording StationUniv. of Florida, Dept. of Architecture 804==
Specimens (Inventory Numbers) 870==
Date of Visit to SiteSpg. Qtr. '79828== Recording Date Spg. Qtr. '79 832==
Photographic Record Numbers (April/May, 1979) (April/May, 1979)
860==







Duval Cnty. Tax Assessors Map 2S27-4-18-3: Mar. 197:
Location of Site (Specific): updated 1/1/78. Scale 1"=100'. Section 18,+4: panel
Map Reference (incl. scale & date) 809==



Township Range Section % Sec. % % Sec. % % % Sec.


2 south 27 east NW SW NE 812==


LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES DEFINING A POLYGON LOCATING THE PROPERTY
LATITUDE LONGITUDE
Point Degrees Minutes Seconds Degrees Minutes Seconds

.. 0
o o 0-
o o 0.
o s as a o as
OR OR
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES DEFIINING THE CENTER POINT OF A PROPERTY OF
LESS THAN TEN ACRES


30 19 37 81 38 35" 800==

UTM Coordinates: 290720 2179416 890=
Zone Easting Northing
Description of Site:

Site Size (approx. acreage of property) 1.07 acres 833==


Condition of Site: Integrity of Site:
Check one Check one or more
E Excellent 863== E Deteriorated 863== JQ Altered 858== O Restored () Date: 0 858=
E Good 863== E Ruins 863== E Unaltered 858== O Moved 0 Date: () 858==
SFair 863== O Unexposed 863== Destroyed 858== Original Site 858=
O Redoposited 863==


Condition of Site (Remarks): ( ) Structurally sound but with deteriorating

interior finishes, ( ) 863--

Threats to Site:
Check one or more
E Zoning ( ) ( ) 878== E Transportation ( ) ( ) 878==
Development ( ) ( ) 878== O Fill ( ) ( ) 878==
Deterioration ( ) ( ) 878== l Dredge ( ) ( ) 878==
SBorrowing ( ) ( ) 878==
E Other (See Remarks below): 878==
Threatsto Site (Remarks)Largest present threat = benign neglect. Possible
threat from City of Jkvl. plans for expansion of adjacent Gator Bowl
complex including purchasing of site and demolition for expansion of
parking facilities. 879==







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Division of Archives. History
and Records Management
DS HSP 3A Rev. 11.78


Site No.


FLORIDA MASTER
SITE FILE


1009= = County


FDAHRM


Duval


Site Name East Jacksonville Public School No. 3


802= =

808 =


830= =


Other Name(s) for Site East Jkvl. Elementary School No. 3 930==


Other Nos. for Site


Other Master Site File Nos. for Site


NR Classification Category Educational

AddressofSite 525 Florida Ave. (at E. Ashley St.)


906 =


899 =


916= =

905= =


Instructions for locating site Follow East Bay St. in downmtnwn JTacksonvi le
proper to Florida Ave. intersection and turn nnorth on Florida Ave,
Proceed north to the intersection of Floria Avg. and Enct Ashley-
St. School stands facing East Ashley St. at the ;sontheatc;
intersection with Florida Ave. 813==

Vicinity of Jacksonville Coliseum complex and Gator Bowl
Location: tEast Jacksonville 868= =
subdivision name block no. lot no.
Owner of Site:
Name Duval County School Board
Address 1325 San Marco Blvd. Jacksonville, :Fl-a. 902= =
Occupant, Tenant, or Manager:
Name Same as above
Address 904= =

Reporter (or local contact):
NameMr. Robert F Varn,Dir. of Pupil Accnt. Duval Cnty. School Bd
Address (ofc) 1325 San Marco Blvd. Jacksonville, Fla. 816= =
Recorder: Patricia R. Wickman for
Name.Prof. Blaire Reeves, School of Architecture
AddressUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 818==


Survey Date APi ;/_ A -. 1979820= = Type Ownership County


848= =


Name of Project (under which site was recorded) Univ. of Fla. School of Architectu
Documentation Project with Cty. of Jkvl. Fla.& Duval Cnty. 980
Classification of Project: Check One School Bd.
[ Federal 982= = State 982= = l Local 982= = 1 County 982= =
Inventory Status 914= =

Previous Survey(s), Excavation(s) or Collection(s): (enter activity/title of project or survey/nameldate/repository)
None known


839 = =
Recording Station Univ. of Fla. Dent. of Architecture 804= =
Date of Visit to Siteng. Qtr. 79828 = Recording DateSpg. Qtr. '79 832==
(April/May) April/May)
Photographic Record Numbers
860= =









Location of Site (Specific): -Duval County Tax Assessors Map 2S27-4-18-3: Mar.
Map Reference (incl. scale & date)updated 1/1 /78. Scale 1 "=1000' 809= =
Towns, RaneRSec tion 18,4-5 panel 5 hS41
Township Range Section 14 Sec. 1- Sec. /4 1/4 Sec.


12 south


27 east
!27 east


45 ,NW


SW


812= =


LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES DEFINING A POLYGON LOCATING THE PROPERTY
LATITUDE LONGITUDE
Point Degrees Minutes Seconds Degrees Minutes Seconds

0 r. o rn
o I a f n
o i n o i n
o i t o I n

OR
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES DEFINING'THE CENTER OF A PROPERTY OF
LESS THAN TEN ACRES

-30 i 19' -37 81 38 35 800==

Zone Easting Northing
UTM Perimeter:





890= =


UTM Coordinates: 891 = ;29'0720 *' 892= = 1794.6 893= =
zone eating nothing




Condition of Site: Integrity of Site:
Check One Check One or More
O Excellent 863= = D Deteriorated863= = ~i Altered 858= = ] Restored( )(Date: )( )858= =
O Good 863= = D Ruins 863= = O Unaltered 858= = O Moved( )(Date: )( )858= =
N1 Fair 863= = O Unexposed 863= = E] Destroyed 858= = ] Original Site 858= =
l Redeposited863= =



Condition of Site (Remarks): ( )( Structurally sound but with deterior-


ating 'interior finishes. )( ) 863= =

Threats to Site:
Check One or More


OL'oning( )(
M Development( )(
S Deterioration( )(
Y Borrowina( )(


n Other(See Remarks Below):


)( )878 = = Transportation( )(
)( )878= = Fill( )(
)( )878 = = e Dredge( )(
)( )878= =
878= =


Threats toSite(Remarks)Area is immediate to Municiole Gator Bowl Comnlex
and tentative City of .T ~nrnvi-p l nr f-n -r1n~i nn -f -Ti c r


call for nu-rc h .qp.--nilthhi n ands_ d emnlIt-.i n fort' -"nnosr '1 nIA rn- --


879 -=


)( )878==
)( )878= =
)( )878==


~I1-- -- -r- .1 ------_-li~J


--~--------~-


~~---


- -0- __ ._


T-,' n.) rlrin n fn .i 1 4f- i e







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Division of Archives, History
and Records Management
.-HSP-3BB Rev. 6-76


Site No.


HISTORIC SITE DATA SUPPLEMENT


SiteName East Jkvl. Publ


School No. 3


Present Use (check one or more as appropriate)
l Agricultural 850== l Government 850== O Park 850== l Transportation 850=
E Commercial 850== O Industrial 850== ] Private Residence850== Other (Specify):
X6 Educational 850== l Military 850== O Religious 850== rS Storage 850==
l Entertainment 850== O Museum 850== E Scientific 850== 'O 850==


Original Use (check one or more as appropriate)
l Agricultural 838= O Government 838== l Park 838== Transportation 838=
E Commercial 838== O Industrial 838== O Private Residence838== Other (Specify):
0 Educational 838-= O Military 838a= O Religious 838== O ___838-
O Entertainment 838== ] Museum 838== l Scientific 838== EO 838=

Cultural Classification: Specific Dates: Beginning AD 1918 844=
Culture/Phase 20th century Prarie Schoon. 840-

Developmental Stage 842==

Period (check one or more as appropriate)
O Pre-Columbian 845== O 16th Century 845== l 18th Century 845== [3th Century 845=
O 15th Century 845== O 17th Century 845== O 19th Century 845==

Areas of Significance (check one or more as appropriate) E Sculpture 910==
l Aboriginal 910== :] Community 0 Landscape E Social/Human-
Planning 0 Architecture 910==
l Archaeology El Conservation 910== itarian 910==
Prehistoric 910== Economics 910= Law910 Theater 910
E Archaeology BkEducation 910== E Literature 910== E Transportation 910==
Historic 910== E Engineering 910== Military 910== Other (Specify):
El Agriculture 910== E Exploration & E Music 910-= EO 910-=
SArchitecture 910== Settlement 910== E Philosophy 910== O 910==
DO Art 910== l Industry 910== O Politics/Govt. 910== 0 910==
l Commerce 910== l Invention 910== O Religion 910== O 910==
O Communications 910== E Science 910== O 910==


Remarks& Recommendations: This building was designed in 1917 by a
leading Jkvl. architect, H.J. Klutho as an educational facility
and operated continually as such until it was closed by Court
Order in 1972. Since that time, the DCSB has used the building
as a storage area for school equipment but has'neglected main-
tainence. Due to its location in a high crime area, the building
is also subject to vandalism.
However, structural soundness, its proximity to the Gator Bowl
and the downtown business district, plus Jkvl. urban renewal
plans and the hisotrical and architectural significance of the
building to the city of Jkvl. all mandate its continued exist-
ence. It is recommended that the building be studied for all
possible adaptive uses.



835==







































NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

INVENTORY NOMINATION FORMS











UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
INVENTORY NOMINATION FORM

(Type all entries complete applicable sections)


STATE:

Florida
COUNTY:

Duval
FOR NPS USE ONLY
ENTRY NUMBER DATE


1. NAME
COMMON:
East Jacksonville Public School No. 3
AND/OR HISTORIC:


2. LOCATION
STREET AND NUMBER:
525 Florida Avenue (at East Ashley Street)
CITY OR TOWN:
Jacksonville
STATE COE COUNTY: CODE

Florjida I Duval
3. CLASSIFICATION
CATEGORY' OWNERSHIP STATUS ACCESSIBLE
(Check One) TO THE PUBLIC
[E District 10 Building C[ Public Public Acquisition: 0 Occupied Yes:
E Site n Structure E Private ] In Process Unoccupied C Restricted
E Object 0 Both O Being Considered E Preservtion work Unrestricted
I in progress O No

PRESENT USE (Check One or More as Appropriate)
[] Agricultural ] Government O Park l Transportation O Comments
O Commercial ] Industrial E Private Residence Q Other (Specify)
j Educational Military [] Religious
O Entertainment D Museum ] OScientific storage

14. OWNER OF PROPERTY
COil'N E R'S N AME: i
-I
Duval County School Board
STREET AND NUMBER:
1325 San Marco Blvd.
CITY OR TOWN: STATE: CODE
Jacksonville Florida
5. LOCATION OF LEGAL DESCRIPTION
COURTHOUSE. REGISTRY OF DEEDS. ETC:
C
C
STREET AND NUMBER: -4


CITY OR TOWN:


Jacksonville
16. REPRESENTATION IN EXISTING SURVEYS


STATE


Florida


Form 10-300
(July 1969)


TITLE OF SURVEY:

None known
DATE OF SURVEY: 0 Federal E] State [] County O Local
DEPOSITORY FOR SURVEY RECORDS:


STREET AND NUMBER:


CITY OR TOWN: STATE: CODE


I









17. DESCRIPTION


(Check One)


Ol Unexposed


(Check One)
Altered O Unoltered
D ORIGINAL (If known) PHYSICAL APPEARANCE


The building is a rectangular, two story, stucco-over-brick
structure in the Prarie School style. It is 203 ft. wide (east-
west axis) and 73 ft. 6 in. deep (north-south axis). The
north (front) facade is arranged in seven bays. Triple awning
windows at the 1st and 2nd stories surround the building.
The eaves are overhanging with terra cotta brackets on three
sides: the north or front, and east and west sides. Clerestories
beneath the eaves surround all four sides.
Central entry projects with an additional projecting portico
over the north or main doorway. Covered porticos also project
over the entries at the east and west ends.
The-south or rear elevation shows simple stairway entrances(2)
symmetrically placed and flanked by metal escapes (originally
wood). m
A brick boiler room attached centrally at the rear or south m
of the building has a single chimney stack at its east wall.

z
Ln
-4







0

CA









{. SIGNIFICANCE
PERIOD (Check One or More as Appropriate)
O Pre-Columbian 1 [ 16th Century E[ 18th Century jL 20th Century
E 15th Century, E 17th Century O 19th Century
SPECIFIC DATE(S) (f Applicable andKnown)
AREAS OF SIGNIIFICANCE' (Check One or More as Appropriate)
Aboriginal O Education [l Political O Urban Planning
Q Prehistoric 0 Engineering E Religion/Phi-. Other (Specify)
O Historic l Industry losophy historic
] Agriculture l Invention ] Science
Architecture ] Landscape 0 Sculpture
O Art Architecture El Social/Human-
.] Commerce ] Literature itarian
O Communications E Military E Theater
[ Conservation l Music ] Transportation
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE


This building was designed in 1917 by architect Henry J.
1 Klutho. Klutho was one of the major architects of the re-
z building of the city of Jacksonville after the devestation
o of the Great Fire which razed a major portion of the down-
- town area Of the city on May 4, 1901. Klutho received his
. 'training at the Schenk Drawing Academy in St. Louis, Mo. and
moved to Jacksonville in 1901. His early style was Beaux Arts
but his decision to champion the search for an indigenous
SAmerican architecture soon led him to the Prarie School of
SFrank Lloyd Wright. His buildings created a new skyline for
1- Jacksonville and many of them are still in existence and use
Today. Architecturally, School No. 3 stands as a fine example
of the late style of Klutho (1873-1964) as-well as a good
example of his use of Sullivanesque terra cottas.
The building was in use as a school until 1970 when it was
uj closed by court order. Since then it has been used for stor-
, age of school materials and maintainence has been neglected
but the structure remains sound.
SThis structural soundness plus its proximity to a major Jack-
sonville feature, the Gator Bowl complex, as well as city
urban renewal plans which would encompass the neighborhood of
the building together with its architectural and historical
significance to the city of Jacksonville all mandate its
continued existence.










Statement of Significance (use continuation sheet if necessary)

This building was designed in 1917 by architect Henry J. Klutho (1873
1964). Klutho was one of the major architects of the rebuilding of
the city of Jacksonville, Florida after its devestation by the Great
Fire of May 4, 1901. This fire razed a major portion of the downtown
area of the city.
Klutho received his training at the Schenk Drawing Academy in St.
Louis, Mo. and moved to Jacksonville in 1901. His early style was
Beaux A~ts but his decision to champion the search for an indigenous
American architecture soon led him to the Prarie School of Frank
Lloyd Wright. His buildings created a new skyline for the city of
Jacksonville and many of them are still in existence and use today.
Architecturally, School No. 3 stands as a fine example of Klutho's
late style, as well as a good example of his use of Sullivanesque
terra cottas.
The biulding was in use as a school until 1970 when it was closed by
court order. Since then it has been used for storage of school
materials.
Maintainence on the building has been neglected, however, the
structure remains sound. The fact of its soundness plus its proximity:
to a major Jacksonville feature, the Gator Bowl complex, as.well as
city urban renewal plans which would encompass the neighborhood of
the building together with its architectural and historical signifi-
cance to the city of Jacksonville all mandate its continued existence(










Statement of Significance (use continuation sheet if necessary)

This building was designed in 1917 by architect Henry J. Klutho (1871
1964). Klutho was one of the major architects of the rebuilding of
the city of Jacksonville, Florida after its devestation by the Great
Fire of May 4, 1901. This fire razed a major portion of the downtown
area of the city.
Klutho received his training at the Schenk Drawing Academy in St.
Louis, Mo. and moved to Jacksonville in 1901. His early style was
Beaux Afts but his decision to champion the search for an indigenous
American architecture soon led him to the Prarie School of Frank
Lloyd Wright. His buildings created a new skyline for the city of
Jacksonville and many of them are still in existence and use today.
Architecturally, School No. 3 stands as a fine example of Klutho's
late style, as well as a good example of his use of Sullivanesque
terra cottas.
The biulding was in use as a school until 1970 when it was closed by
court order. Since then it has been used for storage of school
materials.
Maintainence on the building has been neglected, however, the
structure remains sound. The fact of its soundness plus its proximity;
to a major Jacksonville feature, the Gator Bowl complex, as..well as
city urban renewal plans which would encompass the neighborhood of
the building together with its architectural and historical signifi-
cance to the city of Jacksonville all mandate its continued existence<










9. MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

1. Public Schools of Duval County, Lee E. Bigelow. Typescript,
P.K.Yonge Library of Florida History, U. of F. G'vl. Florida
2. Survey of the Schools of. Duval County, Florida, Columbia Univ
1927. P.K.Yonge Library of Florida History, U. of F. G'vl. Fla
3. In the Land of the Blind, Robert Broward(book in publication).
4. Survey of School Plants, Duval County School Board, 1962.





10. GEOGRAPHICAL DATA
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE COORDINATES
DEFINING A RECTANGLE LOCATING THE PROPERTY 0 DEFINING THE CENTER POINT OF A PROPERTY
R nOF LESS THAN TEN ACRES
CORNER LATITUDE LONGITUDE LATITUDE LONGITUDE
Degrees Minutes Seconds Degrees Minutes Seconds Degrees Minute, Seconds Degrees Minutes Seconds
NW o 30 o 19. 37- 81 o 38' 35
NE o o 0
SE o o 0 .
SE '
.' sw I o ,
APPROXIMATE ACREAGE OF NOMINATED PROPERTY: 1 .07 acres
!LIST ALL STATES AND.COUNTIES FOR PROPERTIES OVERLAPPING STATE OR COUNTY BOUNDARIES
STATE: CODE COUNTY CODE

STATE: CODE COUNTY: CODE

STATE: CODE COUNTY: CODE

STATE: CODE COUNTY: CODE


Ill. FORM PREPARED BY
NAME AND TITLE:
-Patricia R. Wickman for Professor Blair Reeves

Jniv. of Florida/ Dept. of Architecture - May 1-979
STREET AND NUMBER:
University of Florida r
CITY OR TOWN: STATE CODE
Gainesville Florida 3P611
112. STATE LIAISON OFFICER CERTIFICATION NATIONAL REGISTER VERIFICATION


As the designated State Liaison Officer for the Na-
tional Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law I hereby certify that this property is included in the
tional Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law
89-665), I hereby nominate this property for inclusion National Register.
in the National Register and certify that it has been
evaluated according to the criteria and procedures set
forth by the National Park Service. The recommended
Chief, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation
level of significance of this nomination is:
National ] State ] Local ]

Date
Name
ATTEST:


Title

Keeper of The National Register

Date Date














UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation

HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
GENERAL WORK SHEET FOR "PHOTO-DATA BOOKS"


HABSS NO. I


NAME OP STRUCTURE

East Jacksonville Public School No. 3
ADDRESS OR LOCATION

525 Florida Ave. at East Ashley St.
TOWN OR VICINITY COUNTY STATE

Jacksonville Duval Florida
LATITUDE LONGITUDE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION CODE (to be applied
(or attach detailed mapa, preferably USOS, wilt alto located) by HABS)

30 19' 37" 81 38' 35"


PRESENT OWNER'S NAME AND ADDRESS
Duval County School Board

1325 San Marco Blvd. Jacksonville, Fla.
PRESENT OCCUPANT

same as above (unoccupied)

PRESENT USE

Storage of school materials

BRIEP STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:


Building was designed by Henry J. Klutho (1873-1964),,a leading proponent
of the Prarie School in the South. School is a fine example of Klutho's
late style utilizing excellent examples of Sullivanesque terra cotta orna
mentation. Building is structurally sound and proximity to Gator Bowl
athletic complex (major Jacksonville feature) provides opportunity for pr
ca-rvin a. nnrl incg important Jacksonville architectural feature.


PROJECTTNFORMATION: If these records are part of a cooperative or summer project, add a paragraph crediting
cooperating agencies and persons supervising the recording.


Survey conducted during the Spring Quarter, 1978-79 school year, Univ. o
Florida, Department of Architecture, Gainesville, Florida.
PEofessor Blair Reeves, Director. Done in co-operation with the Duval
County School Board; the City of Jacksonville, Florida; HUD; Mr. Hersche
Shepard, AIA; Mr. Robert Broward, AIA.


WASO-112
(June 1969)


--------- -------











U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE


HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY
HISTORIAN'S WORK SHEET FOR "PHOTO-DATA BOOKS"
SOF STRUCTURE IHABSNO.

East Jacksonville Public School No. 3
ADDRESS (City) (County) (State)

525 Florida Avenue Jacksonville Duval Florida

PHYSICAL HISTORY (Indfite source of all information. Ohl full bibliographic entry under Sources of Infotmation.")
DATES OF ERECTION:
AD 1917-18. Opened for classes August, 1918. ": _
ARCHITECT- *'. .
Henry J. Klutho (1873-1964)
ORIGINAL SUBSEQUENT OWNERS: (Legal description of property and chain of title. Use of Form WASO-113 Is optional.)

Originally contracted and built for the Board of Public Instruction of
Duval County -anddeontinuoutly'owned by the -same -agency, :now:-the- Duval-
County School Board.


** k


4
-. I,. 13


*; ~ I.~ ~3. .*r


V. '--


.~, I:..


V V.t-


* .~..


IIj ,


BUILDER OR CONTRACTOR, SIJPPLIERS:
Local contractor: 0.P. Woodcock. Kahn System of reinforced concrete const3
auction. Trussed Concrete Steel Company of Youngstown, Ohio. Reinforcing
designed by Fisk. Sullivanesque terra cottas from the Conkling-Armstrong
Terra Cotta Company of New York and Nicetown, Philadelphia.

NOTES ON ORIGINAL PLAN AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING:
Two stories. Double loaded corridors with 5 classrooms on each floor.
Auditorium located centrally on 1st floor at south side. Second-floor plain
indicates two "outdoor classro6ms"occurring at the 2nd floor level adjacer
to the east and west ends of the auditorium.


NOTES ON KNOWN ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS, WITH DATES AND ARCHITECTS:
1932: wooden fire escapes replaced with metal escapes; lower portion of
balustrade in central hallway enclosed and fire wall added in first floor
center hall. No architect known*
1962: auditorium and lunchroom converted to cafetorium at an estimated-co:
of $12,000.'No architect known.


I


WASO-112a
(Jun. 1969)


'"
;'i :a;---


~ `""








HISTORICAL EVENTS AND PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BUILDING


rhe-building wa'L'designed by Henry J. Klutho (1873-1964), a leading pro-
conent of the Prarie School style in the South. Klutho was also a major
architectural force in the rebuilding of the city of Jacksonville after it
ntown area was destroyed by fire in 1901. Ornamentation on this parti-
ar building also includes fine examples of Sullivanesque terra cottas.
Notable among the former pupils of No. 3 are local celebrities including
former Jacksonville Mayor Lou Ritter and local television personality
Virginia Atter Keys.





SOURCES OF INFORMATION
PRIMARY AND UNPUBLISHED SOURCES: (Fully describe and give the locations of any original or later drawings, specifications, old views,
manumcrfpts or other papers. Transcribe or make appropriate citations to public documents and give their locations.)
Duval County School Board, 1325 San Marco Blvd. Jacksonville, Florida.
Source of floor-plans,-Teacher 's-Daily Reports .b 938-1971)and administra-
tive correspondence regarding No. 3.
Public Schools of Duval County, Lee E. Bigelow. Typescript in P.K.Yonge Li
rary-of Florida.Hisotry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Sanborn Fire Maps for Jacksonville, Florida: 1903 &1913; University of Flc
rida, Library East, Gainesville, Florida.
In'the Land of :the Blind, Robert Broward. Forthcoming- book .on' the life of
Henry J. Klutho by another Jacksonville architect. :
SECONDARY AND PUBLISHED SOURCES: (For books and articles give the complete facts of publication: Author, title, place of publication,
date. Identify and give addresses of Interviewees.)
Survey of the Schools of Duval County, Columbia University Teachers ColleE
927. P.K.Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gaines-
1lle, Florida. .... .,
Survey of School Plants, Duval County School Board, 1962.
History of Jacksonville, Florida, T.F. Davis, 1925. Reprinted by the Univ-
ersity Press, University of Florida, Florida Quadricentennial Reprint Serj
1965.
Florida Times Union, (Jacksonville newspaper) article: May 6, 1914. Sectic
2, on contractors and construction in the city of Jacksonville; P.K. Yonge
Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Florida Times Union, (Jacksonville newspaper) morgue files on'H.J.Klutho
and East Jacksonville Elementary School No.3, Florida Times Union/Jackson-
ville Journal Building, Riverside Drive, Jacksonville, Florida.
Mrs. Kathryn Jacobsen, interviewee. Duval County School Board Secretary at
Mt. Herman Elementary School, Records Storage Facility, 8th. Street, Jack-
sonville, Florida.



LIKELY SOURCES NOT YET INVESTIGATED:
Mr. Wm. L. Charles, former Principal, Fairfield Elementary School. Residei
1439 Talbot Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida,
Mr. Ira Koger/Koger Properties, partner and successor to 0.P. Woodcock Coi
struction Co., 3986 Blvd. Cneter Drive, Jacksonville, Florida.

PREPARED BY DATE OF VISIT
' tricia R. Wickman for Professor Blair Reeves
Univ. of Florida Dept. of Architecture April/May 1979
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION OR CONTINUA TIONS: Any of entries below may be continued, or exact transcripts in quotes
from pertinent documents, may be appended on additional sheets.


------ ----------- -


r











WASO 112b
(Jun. 1971)


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY


ARCHITECT'S WORK SHEET FOR "PHOTO-DATA BOOKS"
NAME OF STRUCTURE HABS NO.
t Jacksonville Public School No. C3
oORESS (city) (County) (Sat,-e)
55 Florida Ave ... Jacksonville Duval Fla.
GENERAL STATEMENT
ARCHITECTURAL MERIT AND INTEREST:
Architect was Henry J. Klutho (1873-1964) leading
proponent of Prarie.School style in Florida. Also exhibits fine examples c
CONDITION OF FABRIC: S ve trra etta qnamnt
Fair.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXTERIOR
OVER-ALL DIMENSIONS: ... NUMBER OF BAYS: .. .. NUMBER OF STORIES ..- LAYOUT, SHAPE:
203 ft.x 73ft6inr wde 7 2 Rectangular
FOUNDATIONS:
Below grade: unknown.
Crawl space has brick.piers. ., ..
WALL CONSTRUCTION, FINISH AND COLOR:
Brownish-yellow stucco over-brick.



*STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. FRAMING. -
1st floor:-wood-joists. Walls: brick bearing.
2nd floor: reinforced concrete slabs. Roof: wood trusses. ,
2nd floor ceiling: wood joists.

PORCHES. STOOPS, BULKHEADS, ETC.:

ne central.-stoop on north (front) facade and one each on east and west
ends. None in rear.

CHIMNEYS:
One brick stack in rear attached to boiler room.

OPENINGS: Doorways and Doors:
North (front) ,entry: double doors-with 14 light panel, fixed side lights
transom. EitM-and west entries have doublE doors with -lights.
Typical interior door: single glazed panel with --lights.
Windows and Shutters:
No shutters.
Typical window: triple awning sash with 9/9/9.
ROOF: Shape, Covering:
Flat, covered in felt strips mopped with tar.

Cornice, Eaves:
Projecting eaves over windows. Construction is continuation of 2nd floor
ceiling joists, soffit, plaster on lath.


Dormers, Cupolas, Towers:
None.









DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INTERIOR
FLOOR PLANS: (By Floors)
Two stories, with double-loaded corridors on each floor. First floor also
contains centrally located auditorium on south side of corridor, and
centrally located stairwells on the north side.
Second floor contains symmetrically arranged classrooms with exception the
p classroom spaces are exterior spaces labeled "Outdoor classrooms" which
respond to the areas adjacent to the east and west ends of the first
floor auditorium space.


STAIRWAYS:
Two, three-run stairways. Oak'hand rails (mostly missing) with pyramid
shaped iron nuts.

S.. .- .. ..'- . ,
FLOORING:
Vinyl asbestos 'tile.

WALL AND CEILING FINISH:

Plaster.
P s .: .-.,. . . . .. ' '. ^ . .' "


DOORWAYS AND DOORS: ,

Most doors missing. Most -doorways :with,/transom remain., '


SPECIAL DECORATIVE FEATURES, TRIM AND CABINET WORK:


namented capitals in auditorium and stairway.
-:;" .-1,.< .?,l .' ': 'rt-j.-'J ',' X. I ...4


NOTABLE HARDWARE:

None.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT: (Heating, Lighting and Plumbing Systems and Fixtures of Note)

Steam heat system.


SITE AND SURROUNDINGS
GENERAL SETTING: (Including Orientation by Compass Reading)
Compass orientation of facade: north. Site uses north of southeast corn<
block at Florida Ave. and East Ashley Street. Rear - of lot is asphalt pa-
and surrounded with chain link fence. Several large oak trees peripheral.
HISTORIC LANDSCAPE DESIGN:
None.


OUTBUILDINGS:
None. Brick boiler room attached to rear of building.


P PARED BY: (Signature) SAT OFA VISIT:

1/ B 42 2 April/May 1979.
CONTINUATIO : Any of the entries above may be continued on additional sheets.



































MEASURED DRAWINGS, MARCH JUNE, 1979




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