• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
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 Main
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Title: Inquiry into occupation and administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103122/00002
 Material Information
Title: Inquiry into occupation and administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo Hearings before a Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo, United States Senate, Sixty-seventh Congress, first session, pursuant to S. Res. 112 authorizing a special committee to inquire into the occupation and administration of the territories of the Republic of Haiti and the Dominican Republic
Physical Description: 7 pt. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Selected Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo
Publisher: Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Washington
Publication Date: 1921-1922
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Haiti -- 1844-1934   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- Haiti -- United States   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- United States -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- Dominican Republic -- United States   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- United States -- Dominican Republic   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Medill McCormick, chairman.
General Note: Printed for the use of the Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo.
General Note: "Record of proceedings of a court of inquiry convened at the Navy Department, Washington, October 19, 1920, by order of the Secretary of the Navy, to inquire into the conduct of the personnel of the naval service that has served in Haiti since July 28, 1915."--pt. 7.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00103122
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08381652
lccn - 24016061

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
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BEIAOTCLIOMMITTEO ON HAITI'P AD 8ANTO DOMINGO.
NZDILL McCO6bMICK Illinois, Obakenes
---- ATL88 PORBReEN, Oth.
TABEWPB L. ODDIB, Nees.* WILIAM H. IUNG, Utah.
DLraxA HAutsex 01srk.


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INQUIRY INTO) OCCUPATION AND ADMIIISTRATION OF HAIT
AND SANTO DOMINGO.



THE8lDAY, NTOVEB8ER SO, 1921.
UNITED STATE SENATE,
SELECT COMMITTEE ON HAITI AND SANTOO DOMINGO,
Port as Prinpce, Haiti.
The committee met, pursuant to the call of the chairman, at 2 o'clock p. m.,
at the American Legation, Port au Prluce. Senator 1Medill McCormick presiding.
Present: Senators McCormlek chairmanln, Oddle, Pomerenle, and .Jones.
Also present: Mr. Walter Bruce Howfe. counsel for the committee; Mr. Earnest
Angell, representing the Halti-Santo Domingo Independence Society, the Na-
tional Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Union Patrio-
tique d'Halti.
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Angell, if you are ready I will call the committee to order
9nd make an announcement.
You will note the presence of Senators Pomerene, Oddle. and MlcCormick.
There was published in Port au Prince, on the 24th of November, a communi-
cation which appeared both in English and in French and which in part reads
as follows in English:
It is not necessary to state that a committee of the Senate is the judge of
the character and the competence of the testimony which it admits to its records.
The committee seeks the calm and reasonable judgment of those who come
before It competent to offer opinion upo~n the problems which It is studying and,
under oath, an unbiased and uncloudled statement of substantiated and proven
facts by those who desire to state such facts.
The committee deems it unnecessary any further to assure the security of
witnesses conforming to these standards, as it does to deny that it would in
any degree condone perjury."
I have handed to the interpreter the French text of what I have just read,
which he will read, with that whteh has already appeared.
(The interpreter then read the followingg)
Il n'est pas necessaire de dire que la commission senatoriale est juge du
caractere et de la competence des t~moiginages qu'elle adcmetta. dans ses records.
Le commit recherche les jugements canlmeR et raisonnables de ceux qui
viendront dl~poser devant eux, competent dl'offrir une opinion sur les probl~lme
quiliis 4tudient, et sons serment et une declaration sans part pris re faits
proves A la apput par ceux qui desirent declarer de tels faits.
Le comity pense qu'll n'est pas n~cessaalre d'assurer davantage les t~moigna
Ush qul joutrront de toute security conformelment Ai ces r~gulations et aussi
d'affirmer qu'll ne fermera pas ses yeux et no laissera pas passer des palrju-
rationLs,"
The CHaxxxAN.. Are there witnesses to appear before the committee?
Mr. ANGELL. There Bre, str. I desire to state that having only landed this
morning I have had very little opportunity to interrogate the witnesses in ad-
vance, and have not been able to go into the details of their testimony which
they will offer.
STATEIrENIT OF MB. JOSEPH VICTOR DELEBRE, LAWYEB, AUK
CAYES, HAITI.

(The witness was sworn.)
Mr. Amon~t.. What Is your business?
Mr. DEI.E1us. Lawyer.
Mr. AncEam.. Where is your domicile?

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814 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. DELERMIE. Aux Cayes.
Mr. ANGELLu. What is your occupation?
Mr. DELERME. AVOCat, jourBlitst,
Mr. ANGEu.. Were you at Auxr C'ayes on the 19th of November, 19217
Mr. DELERME. YeS.
Mr. ANGELL ThRO i8 & WOek Rgo S8turday1
Mr. DE;LEarME. Yes.
Mr. ANGOELL. Will you tell the events of that day and the following day briefly,
confining: yourself to thle matters which you have personally observed and heard,
and the circumstances as you know then of your own knowledge.
Mr. DELERME. J: RID HIso fie comillRnder of thle fire department. It is in that
capacity that things happ~ened to me.
Mr. ANGELL. Is that a private fire brigadle or fire company ?
Mr. DELERMrE. It is a volunteer fire department.
The C~armaan. D~o you think that the Haitian interpreter would better in-
terpret your questionsi into French and let Mr. Angell translate the answers of
the witness into English?
Mr. A'NGELL. That 18 R good Idlen,
The CHArlaAN. You understand. You have to interpret Mr. Angell's ques-
tions into French, and you are to interpret the witness' answers into EngRlish.
Mr. ANGEL~L. NOW coBODnuS.
Mr. DET.ERME. A company has been founded since 1885. There was a fire 15
days ago in the muaga~zine of R~obert Dutton &: Co.
Mr. ANGEL~L. At Aux Cayes?
\\fr. D)ELER1ME. At Aux Cayes. The company actively worked to stop the fire
fro~m communicating into a storage of gasoline and kerosene. There were fo~ur
pumps out of order, almost nonusab~le. I was trying them out Saturday night
at 6 o'clock, after I had made repairs on them the night before. The firemen
are volunteer firemen who are all clerks in mercantile houses. The people are
at present gathering the crops. The firemen canl only come to the station and
exercise after the closing of their business houses, and the closing of these
houses during the season is not before 5.30 in the evening; accordingly, from
that time that theyv close. their businerrs and go to their houses and get their
uniforms it will be 6 o'clock before they reach their stations. At 6 30 I had
tried two pumlps. when Lieut. Clermont, of the gendarmerle, came and told me
to quit all exercising. I went with Lieut. Cllermont to the office of the gen-
darmerie, where I foundl Lieut. Kiinney~ already drunk. He refused to listen
to me, saying that it was not offfee hours. I andl my company went to thle
station house in silence, where after distcuslsion we decidedt'to obey the order
and dissolve the company. That decision was signified to Lieut. Kinneyv by a
letter signed by practically all the members of thle company. 9e also notified
him in the same letter that none of his predecetssors hadl ever opposed the
existence of this company. We also told him that Manj. Rock and Col. Russell
after seeing the exercises told the magistrate to have us continue with the exer-
cises. I immediately we'nt home and went to bed. It was 8 o'colek at night.
MIr. ANGeLL. This WRs thP 19th Of NOVember, 10 days ago?
Mr. DELEBus. It lis just about 10 days. At midnight I heard a rap at my
door. I cam~e down andl opened the door and found Lieut. Clermont, who in-
vited mle to proceed to the gendarmerie to see I~eut. K'inney, who wanted to
leave on a journey to-morrow mlornlng. At the same timle when I opened my
door I immediately found that I was arrested, because I found when I opened
the door First Serg~t. ILiatude and 10 ge~ndarmles. I was conducted to the
gendarmerie, where I found Llen~t. Kifnney seatedl in front of a dlesk. He com-
mencedl by telling me that all Haitians were badly brought up. I answered that
there were certainly Americans well brought up, but that he were too ill-bred
to be polite to the Haitians. I also told him that the President of the United
States, from what has been told to me, stopped his carriage or automuobile
if he saw n company of firemen passing, or an ambulance. He answered me
that we were not in the United States, but in Haitl. He asked me who put
out the fire at Robert Dutton & Co. I answheredl him that It was the firemen
with their pumps. He told me that I was a liar. I answered him that if he was
not acculstomed to lying he would not find lying in others. He menaced me
with putting me in prison. I answered him that I was not afraid of prison.
He said that he would make me work on the public streets, or publicly work:
in the streets. I answered him that having committed no action the corvee
could not dishonor me. He threatened to send me before the provost court
marshal. I answered him that I would be contented to go before the court

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGo. 815

marshal. He asked me why I would be contented. I answered him that there
was a senatorial commission coming to Port au Prince andi that I would come
there or bring complaint there. He left his dlesk with these words, I will
show you." He made a motion toward me with his whip in his hands. He
moved his whip in front of his mouth and said w~ords in English that I didn't
understand. I pushed the whip out of thre way and left him in the corner and
over in the opposite corner went to sit down.
Senator POMEREaNE. Let me ask n question there. The witness said that
when he saw him in the evening this lieutenant was under the influence of
liquor. Does the witness claim that he was under the influence of liquor at this
time, which was about mnidnight ?
M!r. DELERME. He was drunk that night, and it was his habit to be dlrunk
that day.
The CHAIRMcAN. I don't know if he was drunk later."
SIr. DELERME. He left his corner where he was and came over to me. He
hit me in the mouth that time with his whip. With my handl I took the head
of the whip and also hit him in the mouth. With his right hand, which was
free, he gave mle such an awful blow Inl the b~ack of the neck that I fell into the
armls of the~gendarmles who were there. Imnunediately be gave orders to, put
me in prison. I told himt that he was aI coward. b~ecaRuse if he was not a cowaurd
he wouldl not take advantage of being armed andi having the gendarmesr with
him to hit me. I even told himl that if he was a mlan hre would only have to
follow me and I w~ouldl show himn that: I wouldi give him back the blows that
he gave to me. When I went down into thre street after having b~een ordered
Into prison I found there Endile Sendlral, Henri Sendlral. Antoinle FE'rrtez, andl
Theodore G~elibert, all of wfhomu acco~mpaniedl me to prison. It was 3 o'clock
in the mlorningr. By goodl luck I foundt in P'ort au P'rinc~e Mr. Henri Sendral.
He can tell what he saw, if he didl not see me taken to thle prison at 3 o'clock
In the morning, if he did not accompanytll mel to the prison w\ithr the gendarmles.
Theyv put mue in a cell so narrow that I c~ouldl not walk 3 paces.
At 41 o'clock in the afternoon the pr~fet of thre arrondissetuenet went to find
Lieut. Kin1ney to release me from pr~son. They enme to thre prison Sunday,v the
20th of N'ovember, at 4I o'clockr inl the afternoon. They toldl me that L~ieut.
Kinney wanted to see me to take a drink with mre at his house. It was under
that condition that he would liberalte mie. I ref~used to dlrink withr him under
those conditions, saying that hre couldl leave mle for 20 years under those c~ondi-
tions. He sent to me Sergt. Max R~aymond, who was in charge of the prison,
to conduct me to his house. I answeredl him thlat he could only carry me to
Lieut. K~inney's house by means of 20 genduarmes.
Finally about 7 o'clock ait night Sergft. Raymond and Lieut. Kinney first came
to the prison to shake handscl with mre. I answered him ~by way of those people
that if he came to give mre his hand I would not give him mine.
Finally, Sunday at 7.15 in the evening. I was granted my liberty; I was re-
leased. He proposed to the magistrate communal and the pr~fet to permit the
exercise of the fire department.
Senator POMrEBENE. Was there any trial of the charge against the witness?
Ifr. DELERME. SO.
Senator POMIEBENE. It was dismissedl without trial?
The CHAIRMAN.. He said no complaint was filed against himt at that time.
Senator POMEBERs. Answer the question. Let me ask another question: Did
the witness make any report to this officer's superior?
31r. DLEIEYRME Te.
Senator POMERENE. To whom andi when?
Mir. DE;LERME. This happenedI on Sunday, and by the post on Mionday I wrote
to the President of the Republic and to the chief of the gendaurmes.
Senator POMLEBENE. Who was the chief of the gendarmes?,
$Ir. DELERM[E. Gen. M)cDougall.
Mr. ANon.L. Was there any complaint lodged against you at the timue of your
arrest?
air. DELERME. SOver.
Mr. BANGELL. That i8 811.
The C~annur. I have no further questions to ask the witness. Are you
through, Mlr. Angell?
Mr. HOWE. Who, if anybody, was present in the office of the gendlarmerie when
you were sent for the dlay after the company was drilling?, Whoe was in the
of~ee of the gendarmerie when you arrived with Lieut. Clermont?


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816 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. DELERMEC. L~ieut. Clermont and First Serg~t. L~iatude, Lieut. Kinney and
his interpreter. But in the street there were people who were present, among
them Mr. Henri Sendral,. who is present here. We talked very loud, he and I.
The CHA~IBMAN. I have no other qluestions.
Mr. How. No other questions.

STATEMENT OF MRE. A. J. BOCO, PORT AT PRINCOE, ]EITC.

Mr. ANGER. What ise your name?
Mr. Roco. A. J. Boco.
Mr. ANGE~LL. Where do you live?
Mr. Boco. Port au Prince.
Mlr. ANGE~LL. How long have you lived at Port au Prince?
Mr. Boco. Since my birth.
Mr. ANGELL DO you own houses in Port au Prince and did you in June, 1920,
or thereabouts?
Mr. Boco. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you In Port au Prince in or about the month of June, 1020,
when a fire occurred in this eity?
Mr. Boco. Yes; I was at my house.
Mr. ANGEL.. At what time during the day was the Bre put out? -
Mr. Boco. Three o'clock in the afternoon.
Mr. ANGOELL. Where were you between 3 and 5 in the afternoon of that day?
Mr. Boco. At my home.
Mr. ANGELL. Will you tell what happened between the hours of 3 and 5 in
the afternoon on that day at your house?
MrF. BoOo. The fire was put out in the neighborhood of the house. There was
not any more fire. Then I shut the doors of my house. Then the Marine Corps
came and forced open the doors.
Mr. ANGROF. What time of the day was this?
Mr. Boco. About 4 o'clock of the afternoon.
Mr. ANGELL. What do you mean when you say the members of the Marine
Corps forced the doors of your house?
Mr. Booo. I had nothing to dlo with opening the doors.
Mr. ANGEL.. Did you open the doors to them, or did they break open. the
doors?
Mr. Boco. They took the keys from the hands of my boy and opened the
doors.
Mr. ANGEuL.. Where was your boy?
Mr. Boco. He was in front on the balcony.
Mr. ANGELL. On thle balcony of thle house?
Mr. Roco. On the ground floor.
Mr. ANGEL.. Was the door of the house locked?
Mr. Boco. With the key; yes.
M~r. ANGOu. State what happened then.
Mr. Boco. Theyv came into the house, the Marine Corps.
Mr. ANons.. Who were they, lif ou know?
M~r. Roco. They were many, the or elx entered.
The 1HalltanAN Ask the witness if he could identify them.
Mr. ANGEru. Do you know the name of any of these live or six men?
Mr. Roco. No; I don't think so.
M~r. ANonz.L. Could you identify them if you saw them again?)
Mr. Boco. No; I w~ouldl not recognize them.
Mr. ANGEJT.I. Do you know whether they were enlisted men or whether they
were of~eers?
Mr. Boco. I don't know. Oflicers of the Marine Corps. They were in the
uniform of the MCarine Corps.
M~r. Afon.L. Why did they come in and what did they do? Did they say
anything to you as to the purpose which brought them there?
Mr. Bo M1r. ANGELL. nid they s87 Rnything at Ril to yOU?
M~r. Hoc~o. Nothing: at all.
Mr. ANGELL. What did they do when they entered the house?
Mr. Boco. They entered the house and wrecked it with blows of an axc.
Mlr. ANGEL. Describe in detail exactly what they did.
Mr. Boco. They cut up the stairs in the interior of the house and broke the~
railing, balustrade.


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DTQTTRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITII ANID SANTO DOMINGIO. 817

Mr. hoANGru.. Were you in the house at that time?
Mr. Boco. No, I was outside, across the street, on the opposite side.
Mr. Amonu. Were you in the house when the marine forces came int
Mr. Boco. I was on the balcony when they entered.
Mr. Amnu~.. On the inside or the outside of the house?
Mr. Boco. On the outside.
Mr. A~Oexu. UPstairs or down1stairs?
Mlr. Boco. Downstairs.
Mr. AnomL. Did you with your own eyes see these men enter?
Mr. Boco. Oh, yes.
Mrt. ANGEI. What did you do then
Mr. Boco. Nothing at all; I could not do anything.
Mr. Amos.. Did Yeal remain there? If not, where did you go?
Mr. Boco. I stayed outside and watched what they were doing.
Mr. AmBEn. How near to the house were you at the place where you re-
Inained7
Mr. Boco. The other side of the street.
Mr. AwentL Bow long did you remain there?
Mr. Boco. Up until the evening, when they had finished doing all there was
to do.
Mr. ANGELtL HOW lOng & time was thl87
Mr. Boco. Four o'clock. It lasted from 4 o'clock until 6 o'clock that night.
Mr. AmoreL.. Did you see these saine members of the Marine Corps go out of
your house at 6 o'clock at night?
Mr. Boco. They went out after having accompils~hed their act, and I closed
my doors
Mr. ANGreM.. Did yOR see them go out?
Mr. Boco. Yes.
Mr. Amoeur. Where were you at the moment when you saw them go out?
Mr. Boco. Across the street, on the other side of the street.
Mr. Amonu.., Were there other people in the street during this time?)
Mr. Boco. The whole people, everybody, everybody was there, everybody.
Mr. Axozu.. What did you do when you saw these men go out of your house
at 6 o'clockl
Mr. Boco. I went back and locked the door.
Mr. Arrezu.. What did you find to be the condition of the interior of your
house2
Mr. Boco. All the furniture was broken and thrown into the street.
Mr. ANGr.I.. Did you yourself see any of your funilture thrown into the
street, and if so, by whom ?
Mr. Boc~o. Oh, everybody witnessed that. Me, too.
Mr. AweaLu.. Did you see your own furniture thrown into the street?
Mr. Boco. Into the street. All the furniture into the street.
Mr. ANoGEU. Please RB8Wer my qluestion, whether you yourself saw your
foraftere thrown into the street.
Mr. Boco. Certainly, because I was there looking on.
Mr. ANOGELL. sOw far was your house from the nearest point where the Ore
had ceased, as you have stated at 3 o'clock that afternoon?
Mr. Boco. From the Grand Rue to the Rue du Centre.
Senator POLMERENE. HOW mRny feet ?
Mr. Boco. About 100 meters. I conlt not tell the distance.
Senator PoMEREN9E. Youl want the committee to understand that this fire
was out before they broke into your house?
Mr. Boco. The fire was entirely put out. There was no danger to my house.
Senator POMI~ERENE What did you do when you had closed your house about
8 o'clock?
Mr. Boco. I retired, because they placed at evTery corner the marines to guard.
Senator POMOEBENE DO yOu knOW anyone who came to your house after these
members of the Marine Corpe had left?
Mr. Booo. Nobody.
Mr. nANGEU DO yOU kBOW 8 Mr. Le 80880 2
Mr. Boc~o. Yes.
Mr. Aemon. Did Mpr. Le Bosse come to your house on that day?
Mrr. oco. Yes; the next day.
Mr. Awear-. At what timely
Senator Jowns. What were these marines doing that thing for t What was
their purpose?

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818 INQTUIRY INTO OCCUPA~TION OF HAITI ANJD SANTO POMINTGO.

Mr. Booo. I don't know.
Senator Jorose. Did you make any objection to it?
Mr. Boco. Never.
Senator JONEs. OFOe they dOIng it just for fun, Or for What FresoR T
Mr. Boco. I don't know their reason. I can not tell you their reason.
Senator JON0ES. HRVe you any idea It was because they thought yqur house
might catch on fire?
Mr. Boco. The fire was already put out. There wasn't any more ilanger to the
house.
Senator PO~mrENoE. Did you report this to the gendarmerie authorities or
Marine authorities?
Mlr. Boco. It was not worth while.
Senator JoONEs. Why was it not worth while?
Mr. Bocoo. Because everyone was there viewing these facts. The gendarmerie
and the Marine Corps, everyone was there.
The CHammunN. Let me ask you, Mr. Angell, are there other witnesses to cor-
roborate the testimony of the first and second who have already appeared?
Senator Jorors. I would like to ask, Mr. Angell, what point you expect to
make out of this?
Mr. ANGELL. This witness presented himself saying he hadl the story of what
had happened to his house, telling me subrstantially, just before lunch, the story
hed has now told the committee, and complaining of the acts of the Marine
Corps.
Senator Jones. Do you mean that the acts of the Marine Corps were malletous,
without any incentive or motive at all?
Mr. ANGERc. I am not testifying. I have no personal knowledge of these
facts whatever, so I am not in position to give an opinion.
Senator Jonas. There ought to be some point to which your testimony is
directed here. If there is a charge or contention that those marines were
simply drifting over the island. plundering houses indilscriminately, without
a purpose in view, that ought to appear somewhere, otherwise this testimony
strikes me as having: no pertinency. It is inconceivable that marines or any-
body else would just break into a house and throw out the furniture for the
fun of the thing, andl that is all, apparently, that this witness undertakes to
say. He has no idea of his own as to the motive.
Mr. ANGEOLL. In answer to your questions, Senator McCormick, as to whether
I had witnesses prepared to support these statements of the first and second
witnesses, there is here, although I have not laid eyes on him, neither do I
know him personally, an agent of the Insurance company, who made an inspee-
tion of the house the following morning and saw the conditions.
The CH~axawrr. That has appeared in the record. It seems to me that the
witnesses gave testimony in order that the committee may make inquirf as to
what disposition was made of the complaint of the first witness which he for-
warded to the President of the Republie and the commandant of the gendar-
merie.
Mr. Aaexu.. Do I understand you are through with this witness?
The CHraxs~aN. Unless he has something more! to prove mallee, something
more to prove stupidity, that the house was wantonly injured, I don't think
there is anything gained by continuing his questioning: and drawing out a photo~-
graphic account and widespread description of the affair.
Mr. AnazcLL. I understood from my brief talk with this witness this morning
that he had nothing further to tell than that the secretary of an insurance
company came to his house the next morning to see the danlage to the house,
which was later destroyed by fire, and that the insurance company paid him
the damage.
Senator POM[ERE'E. TOu say It was later destroyed?
Mr. AnGEL.L. It was destroyed the next day or later.
Senator POMERENE. A DOW Rifakr?
Mr. ANGELL. A new fire or a revival of the first.
The C~HaalaxAN You mean the Marine Corps failed to destroy the house and
made an end of the fire?
Mr. ANGEM.L~. I am Dot testifying.
Senator POIERENIE. Let us ask the witness another question. Did your house
burn dlown the day following?
Mr. Boco. Yes ; the day following, in the night.
Senator POMElREN~E. HOW did it Catch fire?
Sr, Boco. I can not say.
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INQUIraY INTO OCCU3PATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 819

Mr. hAxozL Were you in the house at the time?
Mr. Boco. No.
Senator POLm~eBE. Were there Rny embers or evidences of the fire in the
alg~hboring: house that was destroyed the day before?
The CHarBxaro. Let him give us the definite address of the house, so that we
may make inquiries about the fire.
Senator POMERENE.s What was the n**~mber of your house that you testified
was later destroyed by fire?
Mr. Boco. Three hundred and forty-four Rue du Centre.
The Canax An. That will do with this witness, Mr. Angfell, will you ask the
representative of the insurance company to file with us, if he has such a thing,
a copy of his report to his company of this fire, to enve the time of taking such
testimony.

STATEMENT OF ANDREW SEN4DRA, HECBCANT, AHX CAYB8,
RAITI.

Mr. Anem~.. What is your name?
Mr. SElroaAI. Andrew Sendral.
Mr. AwomL. Where do you live?
Mr. Saweat.. Aux Cayes.
AMr. ANGOELL. What is your occupation?
Mr. SENoDBAL. Merchant.
Mr. ANGOELL. DO you know Mr. Joseph Victor Delerme?
Mr. SacNmoan. Yes.
Mr. ANGE~LL. For how long have you known him?
Mr. SENDRAL. Fmr a very long time.*
Mr. ANGELL. Were you yourself in Aux Cayee on the 19th and 20th of
November, 1921?
SMr. SEN~DRaL. Pee.
Mr. AwoarrLr. Did you see Mr. Delerme being conductedl through the streets
of Aux Cayes by any gendarme?
Mr. SENDRAL. Yes: by one gendarDIO.
MUr. ANELL. At what time?
Mr. Sa:NonAL. At 8 o'clock in the morning; about Sunday morning, the 20th
of November.
Mr. ANGEr.I This was a week ago'last Sunday?
Mr. SnDaLpn. Yes; certainly.
Mr. ANGEL.r. Did you see Mr. D~elerme at any other time on that day--the
20th of November?
Mr. BENrAL~r At 7.15 In the evening.
Mr. Amerrlr. Where was Mr. Delerme at 7.15 in the evening of the 20th of
November 1
Mr. SEnNDAL. I Imet him corning from the prison. It was about 7.15 in the
evening.
Mr. iANGELL How far was he from the prison, if you know?
Mr. BEslunDrA About 800 or 400 yards. He was accompanied by the magistrate
communal and many others of his friends.
Mr. ANGetLI. That is all.
Mr. Hows. No questions.
senatorr Pomerene here took the chair.)

STTERENTT OF MB. MABCr~ DUCHE8NE, PLANTER, MINCHE, HAITI.

Mr. AwOzza What is your name?
Mr. Ducnzaws. Mare Duchesne.
Mr. Anext.r. Where do you liveto i iee
Mr. D~ecRE8NE. Hinche; at thebotmoHnhe
Mr. AnGELL. HOW long have you lived there?
Mr. DUCsE8NE. I have lived there 14 years.
Mdr. Anosts What is your occupation?
Mr. Decessw. I am a planter; a cultivator.
Mr. AnOzzLx,. Were you living in Hinche in October, 19177
Mr. Duncasws. Oh, yes.
Mr. Aess.I. What were you doing at that time?
MIr. DeanHs~e In the month of October I worked.
Mr. Aarears. Were you married

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820 INQUIRY INTO OCOUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. DUCHE8BNE. Yes; I WRS married.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you have 4 farm of your own?
Mr. DUCHE8oE. YOs.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you own this plantation at this time-in October, 1917?
Mr. DnCHpEBNE. P88.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you working on that plantation during that month?
Mir. DUcHE8NE. Yes; I worked.
M~r. Austz. Will you tell us very briefly the events during the nights of the
10th and I1th of October, 1917, at Ilinche?
Mr. DUGHEBNE.s Yes. I found myself in my house in the night; it was 11
o'clock in the evening; my wife was sick. I went to Dr.~ Les Coufairs, who
is at Port an Prince. He was at Hinche at that time. He took myself to his
house at Hinche. I told him that my wife was sick.
Mr. ANGELL. On the 10th, and 11th of October, who, If you know, was the
gendarmerie commandant at Hinche?
Mr. DUcHE8NE. It was Capt. Doxey. When I told the doctor my wife was
ill I then accompanied him and took him to my house. Arriving at my house
he examined my wife. He told me to return to his oftlce in his house. Ar-
riving in his off~ee, he gave me remedies. I took the remedies and left the
doctor at his house and went to my house. Arriving at my house--it was
then midnight--I took the remedies to give to my mother-in-law. Immediately
I heard some noise-
Mr. Aroar.L. When you say you gave it to your mother-in-law, you mean you
gave it to her to prepare for your wife?
Mr. DucHEsnB. Yes. Immediately I heard a noise over at Capt. Dozey's;
house.
Mr. ANGEILL HOW far WRs your house from Capt. Doxey's?
Mr. DUCHE8NPE. Thirty paces distant.
Mr. ANGEsLL. What was that noise, if you know?
Mr. DUCHE8NPE. I heard the sound of rocks hitting on different houses in that
quarter. I stayed in my house without going out.
Mr. A1on.L. Did you hear any shot?
MIr. DUCHE8NE.` Y98.
Mr. Anoar.L. And from where did these shots come, if you know ?
Mr. DucHE8NE. NO, BO.
Mr. ANGOEWL. Did you remain then at your house from the time when you
came back the second time from the doctor's until the following morning?
Mr. DUcHrESNE. Yes. I did not go out. I stayed in my house all of the
night.
Mr. AIJoar.I. What happened on the following morning?
Mr. DucHE8NE. The Delt day after, at d O'clock in the morning, a gendarme
came to my house.
Mr. ANGELL. What did he say?
Mr. DocHasws. He told me that Capt. Doxey asked for me at the office of
the gendarmerie.
Mr. ANGELL. What did you do?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I Went immediately to the bureau of the gendarmerie.
Mr. ANGEZL. Whom did you find there?
Mr. DUCBEBNE. I found Capt. Doxey and Sergt. Becker.
Mr. ANoETs.. What did Capt. Dozey sky to you?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. He said, Have you heard all of the noise that was made
during the alght? "
Mr. ANGEI.E.. What did you say?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I answered him yes.
Mr. ANaexts. What did the captain say in reply then Briefly, what con-
versation took place between you?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. After answering him yes," he asked me why I did not come
and bring him my help.
Mr. ANGELL. What did you say?)
Mr. DUdBE8Ns. I answered him that it was not prudent to go out at that
time.
Mr. ANGOELL. GiVO the rest Of the coRVersation briefly, the substance of it.
Mr. DUCHE8NEI. It was just as I told you.
Mr. AmOnsLL. Continue. Then what happened after that?
Mr. DUcHE8NE. After I told him it was not prudent to go out at that time
he asked me if I could tell him where he could find Gen. Saul Peralte and
Charlemagne. I answered him that Saul Peralte could, be found a't Barocque,

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INQUIBY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 82 ]

where he was then making: a survey. Capt. Doxey knew that Saul could be
found in that place very wfell. He then asked mne if I could give him some onle
to go and find Saul Peralte for him. I then answered him that Saul Peralte
had a son-in-law, who would go and find him for him.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know the name of this son-in-law?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Te9S 110 i called tPhP~ix \YOolley. So hie made Phenix
Wfoolley come to the bureau of the gendarmerie, and he ordered him, to go
and find Saul.
Senator JoNE~s. Ordered whom? The witness?
M.DUCHESN`E. No. Capt. Dozey ordered him to go and find his father-in-law.
Mr. ANGELL. Did yOU see the gendlarmes go to find Phlenix WVoolley?
M~r. DUrCHEPNE. NO.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you see this Phenix Woolley start?
Mr. DocHE8NE. FrOm the bureau of the gendarmerie I saw him go.
Mr. Anosu.. Then what did you do, briefly?
Mr. DrCHEsNE. In the interval I stayed at the bureau of the gendarmerie.
Mr. ANGcu. Until what time?
Mr. DUcur.8NE Until 10 o'clock in the morning.
Mr. ANGEL.. What day?
Mr. DUjcHE8NEc. Thursday.
Mr. ANGELL. The date, if you know it?
Mr. DcCHEBNE. No. Thursday, the 11th of October.
Mr. ANQGLL. And what happened In the morning then at this time?
Mr. Drcur,8NE. In the interval they called all of the citizens to the bureau
of Hinche.
Mr. ANrGsu.. What happened then in the morning, at 6 o'clock in the morning?
Mr. DucHE8NE. At 6 o'clock I was at the bureau of the gendarmerie.
Mr. ANon.L. Proceed with your story.
Mr. D'cHE8NE~. Capt. Doxey again asked for me, if I could tell him where
could be found Charlemagne Peralte or Joseph.
Mr. ANGEL.. What did you reply ?
Mr. DurcREBsNE. I told him that these men could be found either in the
town or in their habitation in the country.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you1 see any gendarmues start out then, or hear any orders
from gendarmes to start out ?
Mr. DUncHESNE.. I heard the orders passed to the gendarmes to go and find
Charlemagne Peralte and Joseph.
Mr. ANGELL. Orders given by whom?
Mr. DrrcHE8Esr. By Capt. Doxey.
Mr. ANGELL. And where was this?
Mr. DrCHE8NsrE. In the bureau of the gendarmerie.
Mr. ANGELL,. What timle did you leave, then, the gendarmerie?
M1r. DUcHE8NE. To go to my house.
Senator POMER~E~s Let me make a suggestion. What is it you intend to
prove by this?
Mlr. AINGELL. I Ran giving the! events immediately preceding the arrest and
condemnation of this man under which he worked for three years at forced
labor.
The CHalsaxaN. Very well. Gro ahead.
Mr. DCCHE8NE. At 10 o'clock in the morning Capt. Doxey gave orders to all
of the citizens to go to their houses.
Mr. ANUGELL. N'ow come as quickly as possible to the facts of your arrest.
Mr. DUCHE8NE.E At 10 o'Cloc'k everybody w'ent to their houses. At 1 o'clockr
I again saw a gendarmne come and call me.
Mr. ANGELL. Where were you at thrat time?
Mr. DUcHErFNE. At my house.
MIr. ANOxxLL. How long had you been there?
Mr. DUCHE8NE From 10 o'clock in thle morning until 1 o'clock.
M1r. ANGETFL. What did the gendarme do?
Mlr. TATCHERNE.~r He told me that the captain called for me.
Mr. ANGErs.. Didyou go with the gendarme?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes. The gendlurme so:ld hre was going to call other indi-
viduals.
Mr. AnGELL. What did you do then ?
Mr. DUCHESnE. I inlmediattely wrent to the bureau of the gemtlarmerie.
Mr. Asozz.I. Whom did you find there?
Mr DUCHrE8e.e Again Capt. D~oxeyv.

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822 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

MIr. Anoan.. Any other mitrine or gendarme e~ffter?
Mr. DU~CHEelN&E. o. It was Capt. Dozey and h sleutenant.
Mr. Awoazrm. What happened thlen?
AMr. DUcHrE8NE. Again Capt. Doxey asked me the same questions, and I gave
the same answers to him. Immediately he ordered Sergt. Becker to take me! to
prison.
Mr. ANGOE.I. Did you hear him give the order?
Mr. DU:CHERNE. Pe8; it WRs Ill DI. presence, to 817 face.
Mlr. ANGELL. Where was this order given?
Mr. DUcHE8NE.s The bureau of the gendarmerle.
Mir. ANGlER. Were you taken to prison then?
Mlr. DU~CHE8NE. 11umedlatelY conducted to prison.
Mr. ANGERT~. To prison where?
Mr. DUCHESNE. Ini Hinche.
Mr. ANGELIL. How long did you remain in that prison?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I stayed 11 dayB.
Mlr. ANGEIL. Was there any written charge made against you, so far as you
know?
Mr. DUCHEISNE. hNO.
MIr. ANG'ELL. Do YOU know on what charge you were arrested and confined
these 11 days in thre prison?
Mr. DErcHESNE. N'o; even until now I do not know.
Mr. AcNGEL. Were there others In prison with you at the same time?
Mr. DU!CHE8NE. Arriving at the prison, I found Saul Peralte, Charlemagne
Peralte, Olegiat Joseph, Orvil St. Vil, Lhomond St. Vil, and also all of the
notablesr of Hincrhe.
Mlr. JANGEL. HOw many others were there?
Mr. DU'CHE8N`E. Oh, I couldn't count them. There were pretty nearly all of
the population.
Mr. ANGELL. HOW many Were confned with you?
Mr. DUCHE8sNE. The prison was full. I didn't count them. There were about
60. I a ieyuthe names of those I know.
Mlr. ANGER.. Yo ~vi~nu say you remained 11 days in prison. What happened at the
end of those 11 days?
Mir. DUcHEsNE. After those 11 days-M\-onday, the 22d of October, at 6 o'clock
in the morning--I saw open the door of the prison and the arrival of American
of~eers.
Mr. ANGEIL DO you know who any of those officers were
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes; I know some ofe their names.
Mr. ANGOEE. Give them.
Mr. DUCHEasN. Maj. Ankrum.
Mr. ANGELL. Any others?
Mr. DUCHE8N& Capt. TOrFey.
Mr. ANGEr-. And what happened then?
Mr. DucHEIsNE. These officers came with chains, handcuffs, and revolvers.
Mr. ANGEu.. Did you see these?
Mr. DUCHsE8NE. YeS; With Imy OWH Oe8e.
Mr. ANGEIrx,..Where were you taken then
Mr. DUCHCERNE. They called Saul Peralte, Charlamagne Peralte, Oryll St.
VII, and me. They chained us.
Mr. ANGQEL.~ HOW?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. The arms behind the back, Ilke this [indicating].
Mr. ANGEL. Were you chained one to another?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes; three together. Charlamagne Peralte to the left, Saul
in the middle, and me on the right.
Mr. ANGQEIL. Where were you taken?
Mr. DucHE8NE. Frrom Hinche to Ouanaminthe on foot.
Mr. ANGaau. And what was done with you when you got to OuanamintheZ
Mr. DU'CHERlNE. Arriving Wednesday, the 24th of October, at 8 o'clock at
night, they placed as in prison.
Mtr. ANGEu.. How longR did it take youl to go trom Hinche to Ouanaminthe?
Mr. DUCHESNPE. Three days.
Mr. ANGEL. YOu started on what day?
Mr. DUCHEGNE. Monday, the 22d of October, at 6 o'clock in the morning.
Mr. ANGaEu, You got there on Wednesday, the 24th?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. The 24th, at 8 o'clockr at night.


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INQUIBY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DO3CINGo. 828

~Mr. AamenL Now tell briefly what happened to you the night of your arrival
at the prison in Ouanaminthe.
Mr. DUCHIE8NE. Ait midnight the sergeant of the gendarmerie---
Mr. ANG~I.. Do you know his name?
Mr. DUCHE8s.o No; I haven't got his nam -cme and got me.
Mr. ANGELL. You were still in the prison?
Mr. DUCHE8JE. Yes; manacled---chained. This sergeant conducted me to
the private house of Gen. Hooker.
Mr. ANGELL Who was there?
Mr. Du;cHE8NE. There was Col. Hooker and several other American officers.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know the names of any of these other American officers?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes. There was Maj. Ankrum, Capt. Torrey, and Capt.
Murchison.
Mr. ANGE~LL. Any others?
Mr. DUCHIE8NE. Lieut. Winfree.
Mr. Awax.LL. How do you know the names of these oflicerso
Mr. DUcHE8NE. After I was prisoner for awhile I came to know their names.
Mr. Ah-OnL.. Did you see these same officers afterwards?
Mr. DUCHE8N~E. Yes.
Mr. ANGEL.. Tell briefly what happened at the time with these officers.
Mr. DUC'HE8NE. Arriving in the presence of these officers, Capt. Hooker asked
me---
Mr. ANEGEIL. DO you refer now to Capt. Hooker or this Clol. Hooker that you
referred to before?~to~~~Po o o.Horr

Mr. ANGELL. Proceed.
M1r. DUCHIE8NE. Re asked me where could be found the deposit of arms that
Saul Peralte had at Hinche. I answered him that I absolutely knewf nothing.
(Mr. ANGELL. What happened then? Go aheadl briefly.
Mr. DUCrHERNE. Immiediately he glot up from his chair. Took a paper weight,
about that size [indicating: an ordinary Ink well] alnd he hit me with it, which
blow I received In my stomach, from which I suffer even at this moment.
Mr. ANGOELL. Prteeld.
Mr. DUCHErsnE. Furthermore, he grabbed me like this. with his hand, and hre
put me on the table like this indicatingg], and with his knee on my back there
for about five minutes.
M1r. ANGOELL. What happened then?
Mr. DrEcHEsrNE. After he pushed nle with his hand and I was hit by the wall.
He pushed me against the wall.
M~r. ANGELL.. TVere you then taken back to prison?
Mr. DU~cHENE. No. He told mle that If I did not tell him the truth at this
time I wouldl tell him to-morrow, andi I would be in front of two squads of
g~endalrmes who wouldl fire on me. I answered him that the wish of God would
be carried out. He said he was no good here, that he was the only big devil.
Then he had me conducted to prison.
Mr. ANGEL[. HOw long did you then remain in the prison?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I stayed three years and five months.
Mr. AllorrLL. Were you ever tried?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO; questioned. After that investigation there were several
others.
Mr. AaGELL.. er@, yoB e1er tried by court-martial, or a provost .court-mar-
tial, or a Haittan court at that time?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. After three months, October, November, and December, he
had me continually interrogated in the presence of these ofikers. One day in
January---
Mr. AnGEu. What year?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. 1918; he called us all into his private office.
Mdr. Amos~tt When you say he who do you mean ?
Mr. DUcHE8oE. C01. HOOker.
Mr. ANGELL What happened then?
Mr. DUCHENB~E. Then he interrogated us one after the other. When he was
finished Interrogating one prisoner he was sent back to the prison.
Mr. ANPGELL. Were you condemned at that time in January, 1918, to a further
term In prison ?
Mr. DucHE8NE. Arriving In prison they placed me in a convict costume. The
same day at 1 o'clock they put me out to work.

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824 INQUIlRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. A~GELL. Were you ever tried, either in October, 1917, or in January,
1918, before any military court or any Haitian court?
Mr. DUCHE8NoE. NO.
Senator POMERE'E. Well, let us understand this: You spoke of him a moment
ago as having been condemned at one hearing. That would contemplate trial,
I take it. Does this witness know what you mean by a trial?
Mr. ANGELL. Do you understand what the word trial or judgment "
means?
Mr. DUCHE8NE.r Ye8.
Mr. ANGELL. Or procesat
Mr. DUCHEFSNE. Yes.
Mr. ANGEL.. Was there ever a process or judgment against you?
Mr. D)UCHE8NE. NO; neither judgment nor process.
Mr. ANGETR. Was there ever any written complaint filed against you, so far
as you know?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. IYO.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you ordered at any time sent to prison for a definite term?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO. While in prison I understood from the gendarmes who
conducted me that I had been condemned to two years in prison.
Senator POMERENE. By Whom?
Mr. ANGErL. By whom, if you know; condemned by whom?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. By CoL Hooker.
Mr. ANGIu.. And when did you learn this?
Mr. DECHE8NE., While I was in prison. Several months after.
The CHAmu~aN. Let me ask you a question there to see if we can't help
straighten this out. Before the gendarmes told him that he had been committed
to prison for two years, were there witnesses called before Col. Hooker? Were
witnesses examined, and did they testify before CoL. Hooker about it?
(The question was put to the witness by the interpreter.)
Mr. DvcaSNJE. NO, DO.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you ever given an opportunity to be represented by a
legal defender?
Mr. DUCHENBE. NO; BOVer.
Mr. Aont.L. Did you ever learn for what cause you had been thrust into
prison by 'Col. Hooker for two years?'
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Up to now I do not know.
Mr. ANGELL. Well, did you remain in prison from January, 1918, on?
Mr. DUCHE8fE. I. stayed all the time in Onanaminthe.
Mr. ANGOEu. How long did you remain in prison?
Mr. DucHE8NE. I stayed for three years, but in December, 1920, they provi-
alonally gave me liberty.
Mr. ANost.L. You said a minute ago that you were sent to prison for two
years. Now, you say that you remained in prison for three years and five
months. Can you tell why you remained in prison a year or more longer than
the time for which you were sent there?,
Mr. DuvcHE8gNE, Y98; for myself I have an idea. Charlamagne Peralte could
be found in prison in the Cap~e.
Mr. ANGOELL. Why is that a reason why you were kept a prisoner a year or
more after the term fixed
Mr. DUcH~E8NE. Yes; it was because when Charlamag~ne Peralte escaped from
prison, as he was also from Hinche, as I am, because we were conducted to
Ouanaminthe together, I think therefore because all the time he was in the
country as general in chief of the Cacos they did not want to give me my liberty.
Mr. ANGELL. When were you finally completely released?
Mr. DUcHEsNE. Even at this moment I consider myself as a prisoner.
Mr. A~om.I. Why and how?
Mr. DUCHsENE.. I went and asked a permit from Capt. Frank Verdier the
20th of March of this year.
Mr. ANGELL And how long had you been under provisional liberty before
that time?
Mr. DucHE8oE. S1Dee the 15th of September, 1920.
Mr. ANGOEL. And where was this Capt. Frank Verdier?
Mr. DUCHE8NPE. He i8 eVen now at Ouanamlnthe.
Mr. ANGaELL. Did you get a permit from him?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes; he gave me a permit for 45 days.
Mr. ANGOEL.. Was that a permit to come to Port au Prince or go where?


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGo. 825

Mr. DUCHE~lsE. To come to Port au Prince and return to Ouanaminthe.
Mr. ANGELL Did you return to Ouanaminthe?
Mr. DUCHE8NsE. No; here is the permit.
Mr. ANGEu. How long have you been in Port au Prince?
Mr. DU'CHESNE. Eight months.
Mr. ANGCELL. Are yOU liVIng here BOW3
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I stayed here for mly protection.
Mr. BANELL. What are you doing here now?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. It is my friends who give me the means of living. I do
nothing.
Mr. ANGQELL. Where 18 yOUr family ?
Mr. DUCHE8NE My family are in Hinche.
Mr. ANGaEL. Did they remain in H~inche all the time that you were in
prison ?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. YeB.
Mr. ANGOEL. During these three years and five months that you were in
prison at Port au Prince, were you kept in a cell in the prison or were you
put at work?
Mr. DUCIE8NE. All the time at hard labor.
Mr. ANGELL. Where?
Mr. DUCHE8NlE. In Ouanaminthe and in the surrounding country, Capotille.
Mr. AIFonU. When you went out from the prison to do this labor, how did
you go and how were you conducted ?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. They conducted me always with gendarmes, in convict
costume.
Senator POMiEREN-E At the? time that CoL Hooker and Capt. Doxey had
caused your arrest, there was fighting going on in and about camp all the
while, was there not ?
Mr. DUCHE~sNE. On the night of the 11th of October, I have already ex-
plained that, at midnight.
Senator POMBERENE Were there Cacos in and about Hinche previous to this
and during thle time?.
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO.
Senator POMEBENE. Were the Peraltes engaged in any organization against
either the Government of the United or their occupancy, or against the Gov-
ernment of Haiti at that time?
Mr. DeclEE8NE. On the contrary they rendered service to the occupation.
Mr. ARomaL. Have you been finally and generally discharged from prison,
so far as you know?
Mr. DUCHESNPE. NO; I haVe not been completely liberated, according to my
permit, only for 45 days, and I have to return.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you formerly commandant of the arrondissement ofe
Mole St. Nicholas?
Mr. DnCHE8NE. YOS.
Mr. ANGELL. At what time?
Mr. DUCHE8NeE. In 1915.
Mr. Howa.~ Can you read or write?
Mr. DUCHE8NEr. Yes.
Mr. BOWE. BOthl
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes, both.
Mr. HOWE. Do you know what name you had when you were in prison on
the prison records?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes.
Mr. Hows. Was it your own name?
Mr. Dncnassa Yes.
Mr. HOWRE. Do you believe, that your own name was on the prison records?
Mr. Doonasas. Yes.
Mr. HOWIE. Do you know, or don't you know, that it is not customary` to
serve written charges on prisoners in the provost court?
Mr. DUCHEBNE. NO; I don't know that,
Mr. Hows. Did you ever hear of anyone in the provost court having a written
charge read to him or served on him before he was tried?
Mr. DUCHE8NvE. NO.
Mr. HOWE. When Col. Hooker interrogated you the last time did you see CoL
Hooker write anything?
Mr. DUcHIE8NE. NO; no; never.



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826 INQUInRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. HOlWE.htB Wa8 the last time Col. Hooker interrogated you; January 18,
1918 ?
Mr. DUCHEsNA0 YO8; JaDuaRy 18, 1918.
Mr. Hown Do you know what day in January ?
Mr. DUCHE8e. I don't remember.
Mr. Hown Was that in Col. Hooker's house
Mr. DUCHEBNE. Yes.
Mr. HOWE. In what town?
SMr. DucHE8RNE. The tOWB Of Ouanaminthe.
Mr. HOWE. Was Charlemagine Peralte interrogated at the same time with yout
Mr. Du:cHE8NE. Ye8; but not together-separately.
Mr. HOWE. Wrere you present during the interrogation of Charlamagne
Peralte?
Mr. D)UCHE8NE. hO; I was outside.
Mr. HowE. Were you interrogated before or after Charlamagne?
Mr. DUCHEsNE. After.
Mr. HowL Do you know what happened to Charlamagne?
MUr. DucHE8E. NO.
Mr. HOWE. 88s he sentenced to prison?
Mr. D)UCHEBRNE. Yes; he was dressed in convict costume like me.
Mr. HOWE. O YOU know whether any charge was brought against Charla-
magne?
Mr. DUCHESNE. No; I don't know.
Mr. HOWE. Would you say that no charge was brought against CharlamagneP
Mr. DUCHERNE. No; I don't know myself.
Mr. HOWE. Did you talk with Charlamagfne after he was interrogated?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. When we were dressed in convict costume we found each other
in the same cell.
Mr. HOWE. Did Charlamagne tell you how long he was to go to prison?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. SO.
Mr. HOWE. Do you know whether Charlamagne was convicted for attacking
Capt. Doxey's house?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO.
Mr. HOWE. Do you know whether you were ever charged with attacking
Capt. Doxey's house?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO.
Mr. HOWE. What was the name of the officer in charge of the prison at
Ouanaminthe when you got there?
Mr. DICTCHE8NE. A sergeant of gendarmes, Elie Justin.
Mr. HOWE. What Amerlean officer was in charge of the prison?
Mr. DUCHE8INE. NO; it WRS not an American.
Mr. HowE Was not there an American in charge of that prison?
Mr. DUCHIE8NE. hTO.
Mr. HOWE. Was there during your three years in prison any American officer
in command and charge at that prison?
Mr. DUTCHE8NE. NO.
Mr. HOWE. Did you see Col. Hooker or Caspt. Torrey or Maj. Ankrum during
the time you were in prison at Ouanamintheo. Hotr
Mr. DUCHE8NoE Yes, sir; I Veff Often sRW Cl ~kr
Mr. H~OWE. Did you talk with him while you were in prison at Ouanaminthe?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO, Ro.
Mr. HOWE. I have no more questions.
The C~ansaxN. Is he a man of property?
Mr. ANGIEL. Have you a farm or any money?
Mr. DUcHE8NaE. I have my property at Hinche; yes. At this moment I haven't
anything. There! is not anything that is left.
Mr. ANGETA. DOyo OUstill Own your land at Hinche?
Mr. DUCHEBNE. Yes.
The CHamauaN. Did he ever make any complaint to the Haitian Government
about his condition or his confinement?
Mr. DUCHE8BNE. No. When I had my provisional liberty' I wrote to the
President of Haiti and to the chief of the occupation.
Mr. A~ont. Col. Russell is that?
Mr. DucrrEBNEp. I don't know. To the chief of the occupation.
The ORa~mura. Have you copies of your letters?
Mr. DUCHEsNE. NO. I nOver received a reply.



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INQUIRY INTO OCCOUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINJGo. 827

Mr. ANGELL Did you write to the chief of occupation and to the President
of Haiti in September, 19201
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO; it WRs iB NOVember, I believe. I don't remember very
well.
The CH~axaNcr. Did you consult a lawyer about your difficulties?
Mr. DUCHEBSE. NO, DeVer.
Senator JONrEs. How long did that throwing of rocks and shooting continue
when your wife was sick?
Mr. DUCHE8JE. About half an hour. From midnight till 12.30, then it was
finished.
Senator JONcEs. Were there many shots fired ?
Mr. DUCHE8NJE. NO.
Senator JON~s. How many ?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I don't knrow; I can't tell you.
The CHAIRMaAN. DO you kROw who fired thle shots or threw the rocks?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO.
The OnanaN.aH Did you hear who was charged with having committed these
offtenses?
Mr. DUCHE8NEa. When I was in prison in Hinche I found several inhabitants.
There were six; they continued them in prison together with the population.
From those inhabitants we understood it was a man named Gabriel who had
come at the head of several men that caused this brigandage.
Senator JONES. Did you hear any voices?
Mbr. DUCHE8NE. NO.
Senator JoseB. Were any people killed?
Mr. DUCHE8sNE. Yes; the day after in the morning. When I went to the
office of the gendarmerie I saw an individual dead at the side of the of~ee of
the gendarmerie.
Senator JOwea. Who was he?
Mr. DUCHESNE. I don't know.
Senator JONka. Did he live there in that community ?
Mr. Dunceansr. I can't tell you.
Senator JONEa., Was he a Haitian or an American?
Mr. DUCHE8NPE. A Haitian.
Senator Jone~. How long had he been dead ?
Mr. DUCHEBNe. I don't know.
Senator JONeEs. Did you hear when he was killed ?
Mr. DUCHEBNoE. NO.
Senator JONEe. Did yOn hear who killed him?
Mr. Duca~sew No.
Senator JONPEs. Did you make any inquiries about those things?
Mr. DucHasns No; I was in prison since that time.
Senator JONOEs. Were you under arrest at that time, the next morning after
the shooting
Mr. DUCH~E8Ns The firing was at midnight and I was arrested the same day,
at 1 o'clock in the afternoon.
Senator JONEPB. POnl saw this man lying dead at 9 o'clock In the morning?
Mr. DUC~HIE8NE. At 6 O'clock in the morning in going from my-house to the
offce of the gendarmerie when the captain had called for me the first time.
Senator JONms. 1When you saw that body ?
Mr. DUCHleSNE Yes; on the ground.
Senator Jowns. And you never saw that man before?
Mr. DucHE8NE. NO.
Senator Jo~las. You don't know now who he waste
Mdr. DUCHESNE. NO.
Senator Jronse. You- never made any inquiry about it?
M9r. DVCRE8NPE. NO.
Senator Jonss. Was anyone else killed or wounded besides that man?
Mr. DUCHE8NeE. Yes. Among the inhabitants there in prison there was one
that was wounded.
Senator Joloas. When was he wounded ?
Mr. DUoare8E. I don't know.
Senator JoNES. Did yoU ever inqulire about that man?
Mbr. DucsesE. No.
Senator Joans. Who was he?
02200--22--PT 3----2

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828 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. DucHE8E.l I don't know his name.
Senator JON~ls. Did he liv e there in that town ?
Mr. DUCKE8~NE. Ye8; it Wass an inhabitant from the country.
Senator JoNase. How far from the town ?
Mr. DUCHE8N~E. I don't know his habitation. He was from the country.
Senator JONaEa. What was his name?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I don't know his name.
Senator JONEs. He was in prison with you and Peralte?
Mr. DUCHiE8NE. He was in prison but he was locked up in a cell. I was
not permitted to go and see him in his cell.
Senator JONOEs. He was arrested at the same time you were?
Mr. DUCKE8NE. NO.
Senator JONoEs. When was he arrested?
Mr. DUCHE8NE He arriVed in prison the day after, Friday.
Senator JON~s. Arrived from where?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I don't know.
Senator JONE8. What was he charged with having done?
Mr. DUCHE8NBE. I don't know.
Senator JON~e. Where was he wounded ? I mean at what place was he
wounded ?
Mr. DUcHE8NoE. I don't know very well.
Senator JONEs. Was he wounded in the night at the colonel's house
Mr. DUCHE8NE. No; I don't know.
Senator JONES. Was anyone else wounded at that time?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. I don't know anything about it. It was him only. I could
see this man because he was in prison with me.
Senator JONEs. HOW far Were yOR from the COlOBel'8 house at the time this
shooting was going on and the rocks were being thrown?
Mr. DUCHEIENE. About 30 paces or so.
Senator JON0E8. Did yOU hear VOices?
Mr. DucHE8NE. NO.
Senator JON9Es. Did you1 hear the rocks plainly ? Did they make much noise?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes; I heard the rocks.
Senator JONEs. And that kept up for half an hour?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Half 88 hour; yes.
Senator JONsE. More or less how many shots did you hear fired?
Mr. DucHil8NE. I heard only several pistol shots, revolver shots, coming
from the house of Capt. Doxey.
Senator JONEs. Oh, you were near enough to know where the rocks were
being thrown from and where the shots were being fired from ?
Mr. DUCHIE8NE The rocks came thrown against the house..
Senator JON~a. How do you know the shots were fired from the house?
Mr. DUCHE8NrE. IB the house Of Capt. DOgey it Was easy to understand that.
Senator JoNYEs. How do you1 know that the shots were being fired from the
house of Capt. Doxey ?
Mr. DrrcH~E8NE. Because of the manner in which I heard the shots. It is easy
to find where shots are coming from when you hear them from the inside of a
house.
Senator JoONEs. What was there about it that caused you to believe they were
coming from the inside of the house?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. By the sound of the echo. There are two different echoes.
There Is a difference in shots fired in the open air from one fired Inside.
Senator JONEa. Were you in bed when that firing commenced?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. My wife was in bed, but I was on my feet in my room.
Senator JONEB. Did you go to bed after the shooting was over?
Mr. DUCH~ESNE. Oh, yes.
Senator JONEs. Did yOR go to sleep?
Mr. DUCHE8NR NO.
Senator JONES. You didn't hear any more noise during the night?
Mr. DUCHE8NE.k NO.
Senator Jones. Why didn't you go to sleep T
Mr. DUCHEswaE I laid down but I couldn't sleep.
Senator JONPEs. At what hour did you get up in the morning
Mr. DIUCHE8NE. I was up at 5.80.
Senator Jo~se. How close do you live to other people?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Several paces, 5 or 6 paces.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGo. 829

Senator JoHns. There were several houses near yours?
Mr. DTCICE8HIC Yes.
Senator JONEa. Did you talk to anybody during the morning about the occur-
rences of that night?
Mr. DUCgE8NE. NO.
Senator JON9Es. WThat time was it that you first talked with the offleer on the
morning after the occurrence?
Mr. DUCHESNRE. At 6 o'clock in the morning.
Senator JONPEs. Did he come to your house?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. NO. By a gendarme who called me.
Senator JONEa. Were you up when the gendarme came?
Mr. DUCRB8NE. I was sitting down drinking my coffee.
Senator JONEs. Had you seen any of your neighbors around that morning?
Mlr. DUrCHEsNE. NO; I didn't have time to see the neighbors.
Senator JONr~s. W-ere any other neighbors notified to come and talk with the
officer?
Mr. DUCHE8NE. Yes.
Senator JONES. Did you talk with anly of them?
AMr. DUCHE8iE. SO.
Senator JONES. Did you inquire of any of these people as to who were throw-
ing rocks at the house?
Mlr. DUCHE8NFE. NO, DO.
Senator JONES. DO yOR kDOW DOw who threw the rocks at the house?
Mr. DUCHEsnE. Oh, it was Gabriel.
Senator JONEs. JUSt one person threw those rocks at the house?
Mr. DUrCHESN-E. No; he was at the head of several men.
Senator JoN-Ea. Where were those men from?
Mr. DecHE8NE. They-are from the arrondissement of Hinche.
Senator JONPEB. HOw did you find out that It was Gabriel?
Air. DUCHESNE. There were several inhabitants from the country were in
prison with me. They were sent with me to Ouanaminthe. There were six.
Senator Jowns. Did they tell you that Gabriel was In the party that night?
Mr. )C'CIERE8N. YeS.
Senator JONEs. Did they know who that man was that was killed ?
Mr. DUCHENB~E. Oh. I don't know. I did not ask that.
Mr. ANac~r.. I would like to make a general statement as to the difficulty
of getting witnesses here. Mr. Sylvain, the head of the Union Patriotique,
is sitting at the head of the table. It is not so much by way of specific testt-
mony in the way of specifle facts that he wishes to make this brief statement.
I do not think it necessary to have him sworn, unless you wish to have him
otherwise.
The CHamurlaN. Shall we hear him to-day?
Mr. Aon.ILL. It will only take 5 minutes.
(Senator McCormick here resumed the chair.)

BTATERENT OF IIB. GEORGES SYLVAIN, PORT AU PRINCE, KAITI.

Mr. SYINarn. Members of the commission, I am very pleased to be able to
have contact with yVou to-day. It is the first time since this morning that I
have been given the opportunity. You will excuse me, because I had the re-
aponsfhility ofl the manifestation that took place this morning; because I am
the representative of that party.
Senator POMLEBENOE. What party?
Mr. ANGOELL. Because I was allied with that.
Mr. SYrsAIn. Because I am the administrative and the representative of the
Patriotic Union. I profitedl by the circumstances to wish you welcome In the
name of the Patriotic rnion, with the hope that the Haitian people will draw
from the presence of the senatorial commission the greatest benefit from your
coming for the future, and the recognition of the justice of their cause. On
account of the brietness of the time that you are going to pass among us, we
can not without the greatest of good will bring before you all the witnesses
who could present to you the justice of our cause. Those who would be most
interesting to you lIve a long way from this city in the country, where has
w~eighed most heavily the repression against the caos.
This population, regardless of the fact whether they were or were not peas-
M:; Or : peaceful citize I ,were con ronted with the sa 1~no~~~l situation.
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830 mo~Umv Ixxo occurAnowN or HArTz AN sBNTO om)MNoo

and that situation which was made by intimidation and terrorising conditions
continues to exist even now. It is thus that it is almost mporsable for us to
bring them here even on the eve of your arrival. The military occupation,
under the cover of the martial law, has prevented witnesses from coming, even
those who are disposed to do so.
Senator POMrERENE. Who are the witnesses, and where are they located--
these witnesses whom you say have been prevented by the martial law ?
Dr. SavalR. I will cite you most particularly the victims of the region of
Hinche, Maissade, Los Coobas. I can not call to mind the names of a single
one who was permitted to come here. I can not go into the detail and mention
the names of I or 5 or 20 witnesses.
Senator POMERBENE. Why, then, does he makie the statement that the occupa-
tion prevented their coming here?
Dr. SYxvarN. I will give you, then, thle sort of measures which were taken
to prevent such people from coming here. I tell you that those are the measures
of the general orders, or orders of the general, which are taken in this country.
When an inhabitant has need of coming to Port au Prince it is necessary that
he ask permission, and this permicssion is not easily accorded to him. He
Idnds on leaving his house several gendarmes, who interrogate him, who present
to him all sorts of dif~culties, and, even so, the road are not easy. The
families who had the most means are ruined. To live at Port au Prince for
several days you must make expenditures. At this moment difficulties of
communication with the capital for the country there are so great that to be
remotely in cormmunleation with them It is necessary to send them a special
messenger. Add to all this the tendency to false rumors, which they are not
in the position to control and which sufflee to prevent them from leaving home.
It is impossible, then, when it is necessary, for us to present to you testimony
of importance there, where the bulk of the atrocities were committed. We are
compelled~-
Senator POMrERENE. CRB JOH give the name of any single witness who asked
permission of the occupation to come here and who was denied that permission?
Dr. SYLvaIn. It is not in that regard that I testified before the committee
that the occupation had prevented the coming of witnesses. I have said that
I have enumerated the conditions of all sorts. As I come to the direct acts
we have asked-foreseeing these different steps to prevent their coming-we
have asked of the senatorial commission that it put through a general declara-
tion to reassure that population and to convince it that if those who really
have suffered come to testify, before the commission they would have nothing
.to fear when the commission has finally withdrawn and they would find
themselves in the presence again of the same military authorities. That
declaration did not arrive in season to facilitate the labors of the commission.
Senator POMERENEI. Let me ask another question, and I want a direct answer
if I can get it. Do you know of any witness, and can you give him name, who
wants to come before this commission and who is not permitted to come
Dr. Str~vAm. I can say to the commission that we had a series of witnesses--
The CHamMan. That is not an answer to the question.
Senator POMERENE. Put that question again to him.
(The question was again put by the interpreter.)
Dr. SYLynaP. Several witnesses were to have been brought; certain men-
Mereee Woolley and Jean Giilles.
Senator POMERENE. Give their addresses.
The CHnamnan. What is their address?
Dr. SYLVAINJ. Those men are at Hinche.
Senator POMERENE. HRVe FOu any statements made by them, or affldarits?
Dr. SYLVa~m. They have sent us depositions before a notary, which we have
here to present. On the eve of your coming, when I w~ent to the telegraph
office, there was no communication with Hinche.
The CHAIRMaaN. On what day did you go to the telegraph bureau?
Dr. SY~vamn. I can not give you the exact day, but two or three days before
the arrival of the committee.
The CHAIBMAN~. To what bureau did you go?
Dr. YYLVAIN. To the bureau of lands and telegraphs in Port an Prince.
The CHAIBMAN. It is five minutes to 6. I think we had better receive these
depositions and suspend until 9 a. m.
(Whereupon the committee adjourned until 9 a. m. NSovember 30, 1921.)

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION AND ADMINISTRATIONS OF HAITI
AND SANTO DOMINGO.


WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER SO, 1981.

USrrED STATES SENATE,
SEL~IECT COMMITPTE ON HAITI AND SANTo DoxINoo,
Port as Prince, Haiti.
The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 9 o'clock a. m., Senator
Pomerene presiding.
Present : Senators McCodrmick, Pomerene, Oddle, and Jones.
Also present: MessrIs. Walter Bruce Howe and Mr. Ernest Angell, in their
respective caPacities as heretofore indiented.
Senator McCORMIrCK. In order to correct Inaccurate Eng~lisih and French ver-
slons of the statement published in behalf of the committee under date of
November 24, 1921, I read the correct English and French versions of the state~-
ment as follows:
It is not necessary to state that a committee of the Senate is the judge of
the character and the competence of the testimony which it admits to its
records.
The committee seeks the calm and reasonable judgment of those who come
before It competent to offer opinion upon the problem which it is studying, and,
under oath, an unbiased and unclouded statement of substantiated and proven
facts by those who desire to state such facts.
The committee deems it unnecessary any further to assure the security
of wiftness~es conforming to these standards, as it does to deny that it would in
any degree condone perjury."
II n'est pas n~cessaire de dire qune la commission senatoriale esrt juge du
caractere et de la competence des temoignages qu'elle admetta dans ses records.
~Le comite recherche les juge~ments calmes et raisonnables de ceulx qui
viendrorst deposer devant eux, competent d'offrtr une opinion sur les probl~nmes
qu'ils 4tudient, et sous serment et une dec~laration sans parti pris de fats
prouvw et preuves ii l'appui par ceux quit d~sirent declarer de fels faits.
Le comity pense qu'll n'est pas nccwssaire dl'nssurer dl'avantalge les t~molgna
la qul jourirront de tout securite conformement h ces reglultions et aussi
d'amrtnmer.
The CHAIRMAR. The committee will come to order. You may proceed with the
witness, Mr. Angell. *

BTATER6ENT OF DE. G)EOBGE BYLVAIN,, PORT AU PRINCE--Resumed.

D~r. SYLVAm. I told you at our meeting yesterday that we were unable to
have heard before the commission many of the witnesses which were very
important to hear. At Port au Prince we! have only a certain category of wit-
nesses, because, being in the center of the country, we enjoy a little more
protection than does the population of the interior. It Is for this reason we
produced before you yesterday the witnesses In other localities, Mr. Delerme of
Aux Cayes, for example, was produced because it was the question of a recent
affair, an affair which proved that even until this moment the same procedure
of the occupation continues to bear upon our population In the provinces. We
have also had dowfn here a former inhabitant of Hinche, because since he was
actually at Port as Prince he was able to give you information upon things
that happened in that region.
TheCHARMN, Whbo was that witness?
831

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832 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. ANGELL. Mr. Ducheene.
Dr. SYLVAIN. EFor the others, Mr. Boco was a witness at Port an Prince who
could give you information upon very grave facts relative to the brnling of
Port au Prince. I take this occasion to say to the commission a word about
the attempts at intimidation, upon the terror which runs particularly in the
regions of the northeast, and apropos of this I make alluelon to certain diffi-
culties which will prevent the populations of Hinche, Miaissade, Los Caobas, Cer-
cle La Source, St. Michel. Fort Liberte. from coming to Port an Prince. In ad-
dition to the great mleery, which exists among thle population, the treatment
of the occupation or other hindrances which the agents of the occupation, par-
ticularly those who work as spies, have multiplied to hinder the sincere and
independent witnesses that arrive before the commission, I am unable, at this
moment, to bring before the commission the precise facts to edify, because I
was called unexpectedly.
The CHAIRMAN. Called unexpectedly, when? What?
The INTERPRETER. BecRuSOe he was asked to produce them unexpectedly.
The CHAIBMAN. Asked by whom?
Th INTERPRETER. The commission.
The CHAImnAN. Does he mean this committee?
Mr. ANGELLt. Can I explain your question to him, Senator? I don't think he
understands.
(The~ interpreter spoke to the witness in French.)
Dr. SYLVAIS. BOcRUSe Of the requests made yesterday to designate the names
of the persons.
The CHEAIRMAN9. The witness is a lawyer, isn't he?
Dr. SYoursn. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. How long have you been in the practice of the law here?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Since the age of 21 years, and I am now 54. I have at my
house lettersu written from everywhere, telling mle~ why witnesses could not
come here.
The CHAIRANx. Letters from whomP ietsiog n h iht or
Dr. STr.YAIN~. The people who wishtogvtetmnadhowstome
witnesses come.
The CIHAIRMAN. He said he has a letter from some one, as I understood him.
The INTERPRETER. Letters.
The CHAIRMAN. NOW, from whom are these letters? Who are the writers of
them and their addresses?
Dr. SYLVam. They were written to me, and I will place them before the
commission.
The CHAIBMAw. That is, the letters themselves?
Dr. RYTLvAIN. Yes.
The CHAIBMAN. Very well; read them.
Dr. SYJ.vils. It is very delleate to read before a public audience letters of
this sort.
The CHATRMAN. Witnesses must know the facts about which they are testifg-
ing here. We can not accept statements of that character and be controlled by
them. What this committee wants are the facts in the case. We come' here
with no predilections one way or the other, but we want the evidence.
Dr. SYLVAIN. I have so well understood that; I received letters to request the
committee to go to these places.
The CHAIRMAN. What places?
Dr. SYLvaIN. Particularly those places that I designated just a moment ago.
F'or this reason I wish particularly to draw the attention of the commission to
the, present ins~ecurity of those who would have come to testify and 'who are of
that country. There is no guaranty at all for them against the persecution'
which may be exercised against them, because of their testimony, after the
departure of the commission of investigation. Up to the present moment this
guaranty has not been given to them.
The CHAIRMAN. Let me ask a question there. I shall ask some other ques-
tions a little later on. Who of these witnesses says that he fears persecution
if he comes before this committee?
Dr. SYLvAIN. I am going to read several lines of some letters that I have.
The CHAIRMAN. Let me ask. Does this whole letter pertain to~this subject'?
Dr. SYLvaIN. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. Then read the whole letter. Or can the interpreter read itS
I suggest the interpreter read it, and he can translate it to us as he reads it.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 833

Dr. SYLVaIN. There are certain parts of the letter which do not concern this
particular point, which do not need to be read before a public audience. The
letter will pass under the commission.
Mr. ANGOELL. May I suggest, I have had an opportunity to examine one or
two of these letters, some of them are very long, it would take a long time to
translate them to the committee. It is the intention of Mr. Sylvan to ofrer
the entire letter to the committee, but reading only the parts that particularly
pertain.
The CHaInxraN. Very well. My objection is to taking an excerpt from a
letter and reading it to this committee as though it were the whole of the letter.
I need not advise counsel here what a great injustice may be done to the
writer and how misleading it may be to the committee.
Mr. ANGELL. He iDEPHOs to tile thle whole of the letter with the committee--
mgke it part of the record.
The CHAIRAarN. VeryI well.
Dr. SYLVAIN (reading) :
"AXfter our grand retiections of the things which have passed here at Fort
Liberte by the occupation, the unlimited atrocities which have been published
recently, putting into effect martial law, therefore I fear to take up the ques-
tion of the work of this committee. F(or me, as for others, if while I am tes~ti-
tying upon the plans and misdemeanors of the occupation they say to arrest me,
what way might I take? Ailas, the occupation has done In the occupation of
Fort L~iberte extraordinary cruelties. Thle Haltians of this place are delivered
to the caprice of the occupation. The only ones who have need of existence
are ready to tell lies against their fellow citizens."
The CHAIrMAN.. Let me get th~at. Who is ready to tell lies about their fellow
citizens
Senator MIcCo~narcK. Mr. Chairman, let me interrupt to address a question
once to counsel for the witness and then to the witness. These are charges
of the most general and atrocious character. Does the witness intend to submit
generalities of this sort without sustaining afftdavits of any character, without
concrete evidence of any character, without specific Instances of acts and dates?
Wiill the counsel answer first, and then will the stenographer read my question,
line by line, to the Interpreter?
The CHAarMAN. It is a very pertinent inquiry.
Mr. ANG~ELL. Subject to the difficulty under which I have inevitably found
myself by just having arrived yesterday and having so many people to get in
touch with. I will say in answer to the question that according to my best
understanding, after having talked this matter over briefly with Mr. Sylvain,
that he is trying to give to the committee now primarily in answer to the
questions put to him yesterday afternoon, along this line by members of the
committee, the best facts which he hlas at his disposition at the moment to
show thereby, not so much facts of cruelties, atrocities, such as have been
mentioned in these letters, but the state of mind of the population in these
interior regions. That, given that state of mind, people do not feel that they
are free to come down here and present themselves before the committee. All
this with a view primarily to urgently requesting the committee or some
members of it to make a personal tour of Inspection in theese back areas of
the country, and thereby acquire at first hand information concerning that
state of mind, and in the limits of time they can spend there hear testimony on
specific allegations which may be brought up against the occupation.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, let me suggest to counsel, as well as to the witness,
this committee has come here with an open mind on this subject. We want
the truth as best we can get; It, and I am satistled that every member of this
committee expects to make a report based upon the facts. We can not make
a report based on charges. The difficulty with the situation here, as it seems
to me--and I speak individually now--is this, that witnesses apparently assume
that this committee must accept at par declarations or charges which are made.
W'e can not do that. If I understand this witness correctly, he says in the first
place that the writer of this letter Is terrorized; in the second place, he says that
if these witnesses come, that there will1 be other witnesses-I assume he means
Haitians--who will lie about these things. We can not assume that the
American forces here have absolutely disregarded every principle of military
and civil law, and that they, as a whole, are responsible for these conditions.
If there have been violations of the military or civil law by any one of these
officers or the privates or the gendarmerie, we are most anxious to hear that.
The American people do not wa t any cruelties toward.any .of these people
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834 INQUIY INTO OCCUPATION OF HArrITI ND SANTO DOMINGO.

down here. But we must have evidence of these facts, and I have been hoping
that the witness would be able to give us something concrete. I still hope he
may. I think what I have said, as well as what Benator Mccormick has said,
should be read to this witness. so that he may understand exactly what we
want. We want the facts. We do not want alone these charges, or we do not
want mere opinions as to what may exist back here in the hills somewhere.
We want the facts.
Mr. Amon~t., May I say In that connection, Senator, that the witness is not
making these statements of alleged abuses on the part of the occupation with
the idea that he is personally testifying thereto and offering proof. He is
reading these letters from people back in the interior as the best evidence
obtainable under the circumstance martial law, the poverty of the people,
the diffi'ulties of transportation--to show their state of mind, in order th~at
you gentlemen may, if possible, go back to some of these country districts.
The CH~axarY. Let me ask you a question. That statement can not be
satisfying to the mind of even counsel here. This witness is an experienced
lawyer, an advocate. He knows conditions here. Assuming, for the sake of
argument,- that the witnesses themselves can not be produced, there is a way
of taking affldavits or written statements, from each of these witnesses who
know these facts, etc. And the committee should be furnished with that kind
of evidence, it seems to me. Even assuming that there is this feeling of terror--
I am not passing judgment upon that now--we ought to have more than mere
rumors or mere allegations.
Mr. Amonatrr In answer to that statement, with which I must entirely agree,
I wish to say that this witness and others have actual affidavits in support
of these facts; that this is simply a general, introductory statement by the
witness, not so much to prote the idea of offering sp~ec~ifi evidence himself of
the facts, but showing the state of mind of the populace.
Senator McCoaxxcx. Mr. Chairman, I think if we will stop now, in order to
permit the stenographer to read by installmenats what has been said by myself
and the chairman to the witness, that he may understand the point of view.
The Oannzaux. Senator Mc~ormick Is entirely right, and I ask now that the
notes of what Senator McCormick as well as myself have said may be read.
(The record, as directed, was then read to the witness by the stenographer.)
The O~nzaxlw. In view of these statements, let the witness proceed, it he has
anything further to say.
Dr. Sazvamr. We are in accord with the commission that it is facts that should
be presented. I am not a witness, but everything that I say may be supported
by direct testimony of those who have written to me. I have only the duty to
insist that the senatorial commission will go directly to those who may furnish
this testimony. I have designated the region of the northeast because it is
there that there has been the most cases of atrocities.
The CHzaxraNr. Designate the localities.
D~r. SYLVAIN. Hinche, Maissade, Los Caobas, Thomonde, Mire Balais, Cercle
La Source, St. Michel, Ouanaminthe, Fort Libert4.
The CHa~IBMAN. Now, let blm give the witnesses at each one of these places
where he says we can get this testimony sustaining the charges.
Mr. SazvaIN. I have here 21 Ales for Maissade alone, and I shall have the
honor to put before the commission a long list for each locality. These state-
ments which I have here are sworn to before notaries. We have also at Port
au Prince a witnes -very important-whom we wish to have heard by the
commission of inquiry, but he is at this moment in prison, condemned to hard
labor. It is Mr. Joli Bols Fils, a newspaper man, condemned for a misdemeanor
of the press. M;r. Joli Bols Fills knows many facts and knows also many wit-
neass'e. I desire this commission to make use of its power to cause Mr. Joli Bois
Fils to appear before them.
The ORI~IaxAN. I want to ask the witness a few questions. How long ago
did you learn that this committee was coming to the Island ?
Dr. Snvnar~. I could not tell the exact date that we knew that the commis-
sion was coming. We did not know offielally that the commission was coming
until last week, by publication of Col. Russell.
The CHzaxraaN. Was not the facts knwn here in the island that the committee
would come as soon as the senatorial duties at Washington would permit them
to come, and was not that fact known a number of weeks ago?
Dr. Snvaurs. It was only a rumor, which other rumors denied.
The Onansurw. Who Airst suggested here in the island this investigation?


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IcQUIJRY INTO OccUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 835

Dr. SGxvAIN. It was the Union Patriotique, by the memoranduml of its dele-
gates, who demanded that the senatorial commission come to Haiti.
The CHaIrrMaN. When was the Union Patriotique organized?
Dr. SLavam. November of last year.
The CHamxraNJ. Who were the moving spirits in its organization?
Dr. SYLvaIN. It is the delegate administrator, who is in your presence, Mr.
Georges Sylvain.
The CanranxA. How many members are there in this union?
Dr. SYr~v~u. We may estimate the number at 16,000 adherents throughout
the country.
The CHElaIBaN. On what do you base that estimate?
Dr. Srcave. Because we have committees in nearly all the communes of the
country. These committees constitute the directing element.
The CHamxlaR. How often do they meet?
"Dr. SarvaIN. That depends upon the locality.
The OR~lmulra. How often do they meet here in Port au Prince?
Dr. Savals. Regularly every week.
The CHARMANa. HOw many members are there in Port au Prince?
Dr. SYLvaIn. The population may say in its generality that the membership
is unlimited.
The ORamMuaN. I am not asking what the population say. I want your
knowledge.
Dr. SYLVAIN. One may have an idea of the numerical importance of our ad-
herent by the manifestation which was organized yesterday entirely by the
Union Patriotique.
The CHazxu~as. Have you a constitution or by-laws showing the principles
of your organization ?
Dr. SYTLveLI. Yes.
The CHaaInxaN. Will you furnish a copy for the! record?
Dr. SYLvan. I have none before me at this moment, but I will give one to
the committee.
The CHamulraa. What are the conditions of membership in this organization?
Dr. SYLvan. In order to be an active member it is necessary to adhere to
the aims proposed by the association and to participate in its action.
The C~ansaxN. How is this organization financed?
Dr. Savt~m. By the dues of members. One gourd a month. And by extraor-
dinary subscriptions.
The CHAmnaxN. How much money has been collected from the membership?
Dr. St~vamn. In the absence of the treasurer, and not wishing to give a sumt
which will not be entirely exact, I can not say at this moment.
The CHAIsBMAN. GiVe us the approximate amount.
Dr. SYzLvbzN. I avow that I can not furnish it personally.
The CrAIRMlAN. CRD yOH get thRL infoFrmtoOD for us?
Dr. SYLVAls. I can, and I do not wish to give an app~rox~imate sum, because
it may not be entirely exact; but if the commission desire I will give it this
information when I shall base seen the treasurer. I add that at all times
whben the Union Patriotique has wished to have the necessary funds it has found
them in the country itself.
The CHIIraxAN. Very well. The committee desires that information and I
trust that you will get it for us.
Dr. STIar.v~ I wlah to ask the commission as soon as possible if they will
make the necessary disposition to hear the witness, Joli Bois, who is in prison.
The CHamraxAN. We will take that up and decide that later. The witness; has
also said that in addition to the membership fee of a gourd a month, there
were extraordinary subscription I think that was the phrase that he used.
From what source have these subscriptions come?
Dr. Sa~vbfl. Always from the Haittan people. In addressing themselves
either to our members or to our adherents.
The CHAIsrMAN. 1188 Rny WOney COme from the United States?
Dr. Sy~vamr. No; never.
The CHa~I8MAN. Who has employed the counsel representing the party 7
pp. gS~YLary. The Union Patriotique, in accord with the associations in the
United States who are in favor of the Haitian cause, notably the Society for the
Independence of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
The CHAIIMAlr. Where is that society located?
Dr. SYLVAls. In New York.
The CHanrnMa. And who are the members of that society?
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836 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ALND SANTO DOMINITGO.

Dr. SyrvAmr. Mr. Moorfeld Storey is the president; Mrs. Weed, the secretary
general. We have also Mr. Gruening, who is one of the members of the com-
mittee of this society; and Mr. Robert Herrick is treasurer.
The CHaxxaaN. If you know, who has been Ainancing the activities of that
society ?
Dr. SnzvAIN. I don't know in a precise way, but I think it is the public of
the United States.
The CHArnxaw. Let me go to another matter now. Have you a statement
which will show to this committee the number of members from the various
communes or arrondissement of the island?
Dr. SYLVaIN. We can make this, but we had not thought it necessary to make
it up to this time.
The CHlaxAN.n Do these various committees in these different localities re-
port to the principal office here the number of members in each locality?
Dr. SYLVAINu. Each week the committee of Port au Prince, which is the cen-
tral committee, sends out circulars to the members of the various committees
in the Province to render an accounting of the acts of the week, and'to give
them general or parrticular instructions. Nearly every week we receive answers
to these circulars, in which the members of these various committees make
known the things that pass in their .localities.
The Onnnuas.. Do they report the amount of money collected or disbursed ?
Dr. Svt~vaIN. The values collected when there is a call for funds from the
central committee are sent to Port au Prince.
The CHalRaxN. On behalf of the committee, I want to ask witness to furnish
us a statement as to the membership in each of these localities, and the amount
of money which.has been received, and disbursements, If they can furnish them,
and I want particularly to know the amount of money which the Central Union
here has received from these outlying districts, as well as from its own meml-
bership.
Dr. SYrLvI~m. This will be a bit long, because the localities are scattered.
The CHAIRMrAN. But there must he so~me record here if your statement is
correct that moneys are received and membership dues paid, etc. There must
be some finandhiB statement which can be furnished to this committee.
Dr. SYr~vAm. Yes. That will be done.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, just another matter. Has any money been sent to
this Union Patriotique from the N'ew York society or other societies in the
State?
Dr. SLYvAIn. No.
The CannuJBAN. Now let me go to another matter. When did the Union
Patriotique begin its activities looking to the organization for yesterday's
proceedings?
Dr. SYLVAINP. As soon as the Union Padlotique knew offielally that the corn-
mission was going to arrive it practically organized the manifestation, but it
took care to prepare the population to that effect.
The CHarnaNa. Who were the committee on arrangements?
Dr. SYLvaIN. The administrator delegate was at the head of the procesalon,
but all of their members led their concours.
The CHAIBMAN. What Outside help was used there, if any, in organizing this
demonstration ?
Dr. SYvlVAIN. No outside aid.
The CHAIRMANo. Who prepared the bannerst which were displayed yesterday?
Dr. SYI~vam. The committee of the Union Patriotique.
The CHAIBMAN. NRane the committee.
Dr. SYLVAIN. We flaVe the names and we will give them along with a copy
of our statistics, but I can not remember them all at once.
Mrr. ANCGELL. That is in the record already, at the end of the Haitian merne
randums. The names of the committee are all in the record already, following
the relation of the Haitian members.
The CHaIlcauAN Will you give us statements showing copies of all of these
banners which were displayed on the street?
Dr. SYLVAIN. The BeWSpapers have reproduced them, but if the commlesion
desires we can give them a copy.
The CHAInxAN. We want a complete statement, and I want to know who sug-
gested these different banners.
Dr. SYW~Am~. It was the committee who made these inscriptions.
The CHAIRMAN. Who paid the expense of it?
Dr. SYLvanl. The committee.

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The CHAIRMANh. HOw many members of the Union Patriotique were engaged
in these activities of yesterday ?
Dr. SYLVAIN. All of the Union Patriotique.
The CHAIRMAN. There were a large number of people there; in fact, most of
the people who were not members of the Union Patriotique who came out to
welcome us.
Dr. SYLVAIN. It was the population, which sympathized with the Union P'atri-
otique.
The CHAIRMAN. \fere HOt a large p~art of these people who were on the street
in symnpathy with the present admlinistration of the Haltian Government; I
mean the Haitian administrationn'
Dr. SYLVAIN. There might haIve been, since it was a national manifestation
which was addressed to all Haitians; but we did not apply ourselves to render
an account of the opinionsu of the people in the manifestation.
The CHAIRMAN. Thle treaty which was madle between the United States and
the Haitian Government was rattl~ed by your proper constitutional authorities,
was it not?
Dr. SrLvals. The treaty which was voted under pressure from thle agents of
the United States Government.
Thle CHAIaxAN. Now, that is a bare assertion. Let me have your proof of
that.
Dr. SYTvAmn. We have for one part the testimony which wfas produced before
the senatorial coulnlission at Washington, the! secret records of the Nalvy De-
partment published in newspapers of thle United States, and the testimony which
we ourselves reserve to produce before thle senatorial commission. There is one
of the members of our committee who is especially chargedl to develop this point
before the commiss on. It is Jir. Patultous ,cu~nnonr, one of the delegates to the
Unitedl States, former minister of exterior relations at the time the treaty was
passed.
The CHAIBM6AN. Another matter. What paper in the United States was it
that published this statement to thle effect that the Navy Department secret
record showed that the result of this election was due to the activities of the
United States Government?
Dr. SYLVAIN, Will you repeat your question, please?
The CHuAIrMAN. perhaps I can put it shorter. Just strike that out. The
witness stated a moment ago, when asked for evidence as to the activities of
the United States Government in this election, in substance, thart his proof was
in part a pilblication in a paper printed in the United States, which disclosed
the fact that the secret records of thle Navy Department would prove it. I
ask what paper that was?
Dr. SYLvaIN. There were several papers which we receivedl, but especially
the Nation, and Amnerlea, a Catholie journal.
Mr. AINGELL. I think you may have misunderstood the previous testimony of
the witness.
The OnArnxAN. If I did, I would like to be corrected.
Mfr. 9AGErL.r He said the proot of this lay, as he understood it, in testimony
brought before the committee in Washington, and reproduced in some papers
in the United States.
The CHaznxaN. I would like to see the evidence showing that the Navy De-
partment or the marines attempted in any way to influence this election here.
Dr. SYLVAINP. As to that which concerns the Haitians, we have in addition
to Mr. Pauleus Sannon, whom I have just named to you, who was one of the
ministers charged to negotiate with the United States, Senator Poug~et, who
was a reporter of the senatorial commission upon the treaty. We are ready
to have them read before the commission, it the commission wishes.
The CH~axvan. The committee would like to be advised as to the activities
of the Marine Department or any other department of the American G~overn-
ment which was responsible for this election, if that is true. Now, another
matter.
Mlr. AnGEr.L The interpreter asks is this the treaty or the election?
The CHaraxcan. I had in mind---and I think my question will show, that I
was inquiring about the election. Now, let us not have any mlisunderstanding
about that.
Dr. SnIvlum. What election?
M~r. Amont,.. We started out by talking about the ratification of the treaty,
which was what Mr. Syvlvain referred to.
The CHARMraAN. I spoke about the election.

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838 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOM6INGO.

Mr. AROsu. The witness asks what election.
The C~anBaxAN The election at the time of the ratification of this constitu-
tion, as I understand it The vote on the constitution.
Mr. ANGELL~. They are separate events. A month apart.
The O~rsaznu. Let the witness make any explanation he wants about the
matter. I may not have this in the proper sequence.
Mr. ANGELL. FUture Witnesses are prepared, sir, to testify specifically on
those points.
The CH~arnaxa. Very well.
Mr. ANGaEL.. Mr. Sylvain was not presenting himself as a witness.
The CHaznxaa. Now, another matter. Who was responsible for this banner
" Shall Haiti be your Congo? "
Dr. Srz~vAIJ. It was the committee of the Union Patriotique.
The OnamuaN. Was that done to arouse prejudice on the part of the people
here In the island against the United States?
Dr. SatvAmr. Not at all. On the contrary, this was done with the aim of
showing to the senatorial commission that the Haitian people hoped formally
that, following the spirit of justice and impartiality of the senatorial com-
mission, it may not be thus.
The ORluznxAN. You knew, did you not, that there was no such sentiment
in the United States?
Dr. SYLvam. If I judge by the conduct of those who have been called to rep-
resent It here, under the last administration of the United States, we may have
some doubt.
The CanIBxAN. Who prepared this banner Shall Halti be your Belglom? "
Dr. SYLvaIn. It was always the committee, and in the same spirit.
The CHaIBxAN. And who prepared this, Shall Haiti be your Ireland? "
Dr. SYLvaIn. The same answer. The committee, in the same spirit.
The CHnax~aN. Did yo'u expect that banners of that kind would influence
or control the judgment of the committee?
Dr. SYLVIm. How control the spirit of the committee. We can not influence
or control the spirit of the committee since we have confidence In the corn-
mittee to repair injustice and wrongs which we bring to their notice.
The CHamrnarJ. I want to say now for the committee that it can not be
influenced by banners or propaganda, but it can be influenced by evidence and
facts. Now, let mue make this suggestion: In view of your statement that
you did not expect to influence the committee by those signs, is it not a f~act
that one of your purposes was to arouse your own people?
Dr. SYrLvL~m. No. The commission upon its debarkment has received of
the people a reception so sympathetic that a response to this question should
already have been made.
The narzlramA. I desire to say for the committee that its members very
fully appreciate its generous whole-hearted reception, which was given to it by
your people here, and we shall take pleasure in making full report in that
behalf to the Senate and to the people of the. United States. This committee
only desires the good of the people of Haiti, and the questions which I asked
are for the sole purpose of eliciting the truth, whatever it may be.
Another question. It has been said to some of us that in this Union Pa-
triotiqlue there were one or more candidates for the presidency of Haiti. Is
that true?
Dr. SYrsals. I should say to the commission that the Union Patriotique
has constituted itself with the determination not to concern itself with the
polities of any party or any person. They take up only questions of patriotic
nature. An article of our organization makes this a ,formal condition to
participation in the affairs of th~e association. However, as we have among
us men who have occupied eminent pealtions in politics, it may be that some
among them, if they were called by the vote of their fellow citizens to the
presidency of the country, would accept willingly. Therefore, to reply in a
precise way to this question, I will say to the honorable Senators that our
association does not recognize any candidate for the presidency.
The CHaIBMaaN. Is it opposed to the present Haltlan administration in the
island?
D.r. SYLvaIn. Emphatically, no; because we concern ourselves only with
questions of national Interest.
The CHAIRMAN. NOW, 8HOther QUestioR. I Rasume that the witness admits
that prior to the American occupation here there was a very great deal of
disorder.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ANmD SANTO DOMIN~oo 839

Dr. 8YLvaIN. Does your question concern the Haitian administration or the
general situation of the country?
The OnAzaxan. I am referring to the entire situation here in the country.
Let me put it in another way: Prior to the American occupancy, Is it not true
that there was a great deal of disorder in the island?
Dr. SYLVaIN. At certain times; yes.
The CH~axn~aN. And at times there were revolutions?
Dr. SYLvISm. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. And this disorder and these revolutions led to the danger of
both life and property?
Dr. SYz~vAIu. One must know if you speak of foreigners or Haitians.
The CHAIBMI~w. Well, describe either one. I am not concerned about that.
Dr. SY~vAzxo. As far as foreigners were concerned; no.
Senator McConxIcK. These gentlemen Who are standing in the chamber, I
think, as a matter of courtesy to the committee, If nothing else, ought to keep
perfect silence during the interrogation of a witness.
The CnanaxN. The suggestion is very good. Of course, we understand
that those who are here do not intend to disturb us, but there is a constant
rumbling and whispering that Interferes both with the witness and the Senators..
Dr. S~nvar. I permit myself upon this subject to say to the commission
that having heard that this session was public, the Interested ones and the
Haitian people in general, would have desired that the audience would have
taken place in a place large enough to prevent this little inconvenience, but
those who are listening at this time can not fall to defer to the suggestion of
the commission.
The CanaxraN. Oh, there was certainly no discourtesy intended at all. I
almply made the usual caution. It happened in our own committee rooms.
It was simply precautionary.
Now, another matter. There was, prior to the American occupancy, danger
to both life and property in the island, was there not?
Dr. SYLVAIIx. I said a moment ago that as to that which Concerns foreigners,
no. It was impossible to have two parties fight one against the other--and it
is true not only of Haiti but of all countries in the world--without there being
danger among the combatants.
The CAwarnwaw Let me be a little more spedcie. For a number of years the
Baltian people and the Haitian Government had a good deal of trouble with
what were known as the Cacos in the northern part of the island; isn't that
true?
Dr. S~tzvam. It is true.
The Ca~nax~n. And the revolutionists generally started up in the northern
section of the island among the Cacos, did they not?
Dr. STI~vam. Yes. There were no Caeos, it it were not in that part of the
country.
The CanaxYw. The revolutionists generally combined with the Oacos, did
they not?)
Dr. Sn~vas. It was the Caibos themselves who were the revolutionists.
The CanaxYII. And they, to a large extent, controlled your Government
here, did they not?
Dr. Bravazx. No. When a Government was formed of former Caco chiefs,
naturally such a Government was sympathetic with its partisans.
The CHnamnan. When do you mean that the Government was in the control
of the Oaco chiefs? What was the period?
Dr. BYvrno. The Government was never under the power of Caco chiefs.
Baltian political I'en, who were able to make use of Gacos to arrive, once
arrived in power would have a certain gratitude for the Cacos forces which
aided them, bult once becoming chief of the Republic they could not remain
dependent ulpon the Oacos.
Senator Jona~s. How did the Cacos aid anyone in gaining control of the
country?
Dr. SYLVIm. It was not just anyone. It was only the men who had had
some important political place.
Senator Jons~e. Well, how did the Oaco organization aid anyone in getting
a political place?
Dr. Brov~Im. Because they were the people of the mountains, or the inhab~t-
ants of places which were ditticult to penetrate, who could thus organize them-
aelves into bands more easily than other revolutionaries. This situation gave

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840 mQUIRn xxTo ocCUPATION OF HAITI AND SAN'11 DOMINGO.

them a discipline and an organization and a solidarity which Dermitted them
to organize more easily for military action than other.
Senator Jornse. Was control of the Government secured through military
action?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Certainly. It was not the control of the Government. It was
the support given to political chiefs who wished to arrive at the presidency.
Senator JONEs. What sort of support?
Dr. SYavin. Military support.
Senator JONEe. DO yOR meaD to sRy that prior to the American occupation
that your Government was controlled by people who got into power by these
military occupations?
Dr. Sazvarn. Yes.
Senator JONEs. DO yOUl WAnt to returD to that sort of condition?
Dr. Sazv~Im. Certainly not.
Senator JoNre., Well, how do you expect to have your Government run it
the American occupation should cease? Would it not revert to that same con-
dition which you have just referred to?
Dr. SYLvaIN. We hav -I speak of the Haitian progr~essives~----e have always
hoped to have only civil government. It is the aspiration of the Haitian people.
The military occupation of the United States has only served to turn as aside
from these aspirations. And one may regret that upon this point it has re-
tarded us in our normal evolution. Therefore, we believe that the presence of
'the military occupation, as long; as it is here, is a hindrance to the normal
progress of the Haltian people toward a civilization which we shall give our-
selves, and it is9 one of the? very strong reasons which brings us to insist before
the people and the Senate of the United States, in order that Haitians shall be
relieved of the military occupation as soon as possible, which can do nothing
good for our country.
Senator JONm~s. Have you any assurance that. the methods of governing your
country would be different from what they' were before the treaty with the
United States?
Dr. SavAaIn. We have experience. There have been several Haitian govern-
ments which have progressed in a normal road of civilization only since our
people are young one may not reasonably demand of them to realize in several
years the politically and social situation which in all the great-civilized States
of the world has necessitated centuries of struggle and trial.
Senator JONEs. Would it be necessary to continue those struggles and trials
if the United States would no longer take part in your affairs here?
Dr. Sn~vIm. These struggales and these trials have always been considered
in all countries as a consequence of our edhditions as men. We are not upon
this point placed in conditions other than those of other countries. We do not
desire these struggles and trials, and we shall make all our efforts to avoid
them, but we can not guarantee that in spite of our good will that we shall not
meet them. All that we can say is that we have in our country elements of
civilization which permit us to dispense with the tutelage of other nations.
The CHAIrrMAN. Let me make a sugge~est~ion now, and I mean it very cour-
teously. The interpreter here has a very hard job, as everybody recognizes,
and he, of course, wants to Interpret correctly, and we want him to, and I
think he is as a general rule doing so. If there Is any exception taken to any
of his interpretations let that be by counsel and not by others interfering. If
you have three or four it only confuses ar.d delays. Counsel, of course, will
correct if the interpreter makes a mistake. It counsel feels that the interpreter
has misconstrued something that has been said, we want the counsel to do that.
Not other witnesses. Because if you have two or three breaking out It is con-
fusing to everybody. Proceed.
Senator JONES. HaS there been any ebange among the people of the island
since the treaty with the United States with respect to their ability to manage
their own affairs?
Dr. Snavrn. There certainly has been, Ii we take into view all of the people,
a change for the worse, due to the administration and the control of the United
States. However, we hope that the change for the worse will not have been
deep enough to definitely ruin the elements of progress which were already
constituted in the organization of the Haitian people.
Senator JONES. What OrganizatioD Of the Haittan people do SOn refer to?
Dr. STIvaINo. I make allusion in one part to the education already acqunired
by the Haitian people. The experience which has come to it, and in a general
way to its degree of Intellectual and moral development.

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INQUIRY INTO OGOUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO). 841

Senator JONEs. When did that development take place?
Dr. SYLVaIN. In the course of our history. We have more than a century
of history.
Senator JONE8. Prior to the treaty with the United States, those who wanted
to gain control of the government, aroused the people and brought on revo-
lations, did they not?
Dr. SYLVAIN. We have had, since our constitution as a nation, the misfor-
tune to see in power citizens who were too often supported by military force.
That, I think is explained by the circumstances under which we won our inde-
pendence. It was the military chiefs who made the war of independence. It
was natural that they should have been the first chiefs of the Haitian state.
Unfortunaltely, that practice continued, but we have aspired more and more
toward a civil governmentn. It Is thus that we ha~ve had recently presidents
of the republic who were not military men. We have had a right to believe,
in accentuating more and more this disposition, that the Haitian people shall
finish by recognizing the superiority of civil government over military govern-
ment.
Senator JONEs. When did you have a president elected without military aid?
Dr. SYvLVAN. We have had recently, as I told you, Mr. Milchel Orestes, a
lawyer of the bar of Port au Prince, who arrived at the presidency without
any military pressure. Before him we had Mr. Tancred Auguste, a farmer,
merchant, and planter, who also arrived at the presidency without military
pressure.
Senator JONES. How were they elected?
Dr. SnLvaINu. By a Haitian national assembly, formed of the chamber of
deputies and the senate. I can cite also to the commission, among those who
are of more recent period, and mlilitary men who arrived without military
pressure, Gen. Tirmias Augustin Simon Sam.
Senator JONEs. When was the last president elected with military aid?
Dr. SYLVAIN. I may cite the present president, since It was known without
a doubt at this time that he was elected by military aid, by the military occn-
pation of the United States.
Senator JONES. YOR are gOing tO llRYO BOme one elsO tell us about all that,
are you not ?
Dr. Snours. Yes. I cited to you a moment ago Mr. Pouget, who was sena-
tor at the time of the election of the President.
Senator JONES. Who WaS the preVIOus President elected with military aid?
Dr. St~va~m. The President who preceded the present President, President
Vilbran Guillaume Sam.
Senator JONEs. What was his name?
Dr. SYzLvAml. Vilbr)un Guillaume Sam.
Senator JONEs. How long did he serve as President?
Dr. SYLvaIn. Several mo~nths.
Senator JONEs. What caused the termination of his term?
Dr. SYiLVAIN. What termilnated the end of his reign was a matter of public
notoriety.
The CHAIrMArN. I think under the circumstances, we will suspend now until
2 o'clock, if that hour will suit everybody, and we will resumne at that time.
The committee is doing this out of regard for the interpreter. W-e realize
what a mental task it is.
Mr. ASox;L.. Do I understand the committee will hear this afternoon indi-
Viduals or delegations who desire to discuss the present situation?
The CHAIRMIAN. Ye8. We Will RdjOurn now until 2 o'clock p. m.
(W'hereupon the committee adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m.)

AF~EB BECE88.

The committee resumed its hearing, at 2 o'clock p. m., pursuant to adjourn-
ment
Present: Senators Jones, Pomerene, and Oddle.
Senator Pomerene presiding.
Also present : Mr. Angell and Mr. Howe.
The CHAIBMrAN. Let us proceed with the examination. Senator Jones, will
you proceed with your examination?
Senator JONEs. How long was Mr. Sam President?
Dr. Snzvamn. Which Sam? There were two Sams-M~r. Tirmlas Simon Sam
and Mr. Vilbrun Guillaume Sam.

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842 mQUnT~Y INTo OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Senator JONEs. Well, when were they President? Give it for both of them.
When were they President?
Dr. SYLvAIN. Mr. Tirdans Simon Sam was President after President IHip.
polite, in M~arch, 1896. He remained President until 1902. He served all of
his term as President. Mr. Vilbrun Guillaume Sam was from March, 1915, to
July of the same year.
Senator JONEs. Who preceded him?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Mr. DRVilmart Theodore.
Senator JONEs. And how long was he President?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Severl~u months also. October, 1914, to March, 1915.
Senator JONEs. How did he get out of office?
Dr. SYLVAIN. By R reoYlutiOH.
Senator JONER. Who precedled him?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Mr. Orestes Zamor.
Senator JoNEB. How long was he President?
Dr. SYLVAIN. FrOm February, 1914, to October, 1914.
Senator JONEs. How did he get out of office?
Dr. Snzvanw. By a taking up of arms.
Senator JONEs. What you call a revolution?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Fes.
Senator coJOES. HOw many people were killed in that revolution?
Dr. SYLVAIN. I canl not say exactly, but there was no enormoris number.
Senator JONES. Who preceded him?
Dr. SYzLvAm. Michel Orestes.
Senator JoNEs. How long was he President?
Dr. SYnvana. Ten months.
Senator JONEs. How did he get out of offce?
Dr. SYLVb~m. By a revolution which put into power Orestes Zamor.
Senator JON~a. Who preceded this man?
Dr. SYz~vam. Mr. Tancred Auguste.
Senator JON9E8. HOW lOng Was he in Otite?
Dr. SYLVAIN. About 10 months also.
Senator JONEs. Did a revolution put him out?
Dr. SYLvhAm. He died while in power, of a sickness.
Senator JONEs. Who preceded him ?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Mr. CincinRROus Lconte.
Senator JON9ES. HOW lOng WRs he President?
Dr. SYwvaIN. Eleven months.
Senator JONE8. What put him out of onlice?
Dr. SYLIIAIN. An accident. The National Palace exploded, and he died in the
explosion.
Senator JONEs. Do you know what caused the explosion?
Dr. SY~vamn. No. They say that it followed a natural explosion of the pow-
der magazine which was in the palace, which contained powder B.
Senator JONE8. Was the powder magazine in the capitol?
Dr. SYLvazN. It was In the palace itself, in the courtyard of the palace; un-
deground, under the palace.
(Senator McCormick here took the chair.)
Senator JONppa. Why was it kept there?
Dr. SYLVaIN. Because it was to furnish the troops who were stationed at the
palace.
The CHAIrMAN. Just & BIOment. Mr. Angell, I have suggested that on your
part there should not be interruptions of the counsel or the interpreter. It
is not customary to prompt witnesses before a Senate committee.
Senator JONEs. Before the American intervention, what was the condition of
the roads throughout the country?
Dr. SY~vAIn. The condition of the roads was that the Haitian authorities in
administration kept them in the best possible state, according to their resources.
They did continually work for their amelioration, and they had from time to
time projects with foreign companies tending to this amelioration.
Senator Jonrcs. Were the roadsr in good condition?
Dr. SYLvamN. There were parts which were in good' condition, and others
which were not.
senator JONEs. What about the streets of Port au Prince?
Dr. SYLvAIN. The streets were good, and you may, up to the present time,
verity the good effect. Since the occupation nothing more has been done.


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INQIRYB IJNT OCCUPATION OF HAPITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 843

Senator JONEs. All of these streets were paved before the occupation, were
they ?
Dr. rGYLvAINp. There was a contract in course of execution, which was com-
pletely finished in short time after the occupation.
Senator JONFES. What sort of a system of schools did you have before the
occupation ?
Dr. SYLvaINP. Do you peak of the special schools or the schools throughout
the whole administration of the country?
Senator JON-ES. BOth.
Dr. SYLYAIN. The general organization of the schools of the country includes
the public schools and the private schools, and the State prescribed a program
of instruction throughout the country for the schools, both public and private.
Senator JONEs. Were those rules lived up to? Were the schools conducted
according to that program?
Dr. SYLVAIN. Yes. There are three degrees of instruction--the superior
school, the secondary school, and the primary school.
Senator JONES. Anld thle children all go to school. dlo they ?
Dr. SYLVAIN. The greater portion, because instruction is obligatory.
The CHAIRMlAN. Let Inie ask thle witness a qlues~tion, will you, Senator? If I,
during my journey to the north, put 100 adult peasants, men and women, to the
question, how many of them will be able to read and write?
Dr. SYr\vAIN. That dependls uponl the? region.
The (`HAIRMAN. Well, if I begin asking thle questions 10 kilometers north of
the capitol until I reach the cape alnd ask the question of 100 mlen and 100
women ?
Dr. SYLvAIN. I hlave said that that depends upon the region. If you take it
10 kilometers from the capitol and somne a greater dlistance from the capitol, it
is possible that the responses will be very different from those which might
be made in the regions which have been devastated by the Amlerican military
occupation. For example, in all the region whete there took place the revolu-
tion of Caeos and the repression by the military occupation it is certain that
through six years they could not have been able to give instruction as before;
therefore in those places you will find a very large proportion illiterate.
The CsIAIUnAK. Just a moment. Let me point out to the witness that in
addressing the question to a~dults-garown people-the education of the last
six years would make very little difference. If the witness does not care to
answ-er my question directly, I will not press it.
Dr. SYLVAIr. Independently of the instruction they have received at the
schools there is a state of mirrd which maintains its instruction, even though
it be only primary, by the general state of the country. A peasant who has
recefred elementary instruction sufficient for the peasant to take care of his
affairs wlUl give you an impression of an illiterate person.
The CHAIRMAN. I have not any desire, let me say to counsel, to press this
question, if th~e witness does not care to answer it directly. I aim seeking from
him an estimate of the literacy of the total adult population of the country.
if he fmnds it impossible to make the direct answer, I will not ask for the direct
answer.
Mir. ANGou.. I think, Senator, we might, subject to your approval, leave
that to one of the other members of the Union PaLtriotique, who has prepared
a memorandum to leave with the committee on just such subjects. M~r. Sylvain1
has mct presented himself with the idea of being a formaul witness in any sense
whatever.
The CHaxxxaN. I will discontinue my examination.
Senator JON'ES. HOW long llRve you hadl compulsory education in this country?
Dr. Srov~rN. Exactly. I believe it Is, since 1864, because at that timle we had
President Jeffoln and Minister Dubols, who made a reform in public instruction,
whose organization is much the same as exists at the present time.
Senator Jon~Es. Have the children all been going to school since 1864?
Dr. SYP~vAmr. All the children; no; but a large proportion of the children.
Senator Jonas. What proportion of the children go to school and have been
going to school during these years of compulsory education?
Dr. SY~ans. It may be estimated on the whole for the cities, 50 per cent, and
for the country 20 per cent. There is still another proposition. There are the
children brought up among families who do not go either to public or private
schools. That auganents the proportion.
Senator JoNEe. Flow long does the law require that they shall attend school
each yearly
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844 'INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATON OF HAITI AND SANTO DO31NGO.

Dr. SavaIR. That depends upon the schools. For the primary schools It is a
aborter time than for the secondary schools, beenuse there are fewer classes to
go through according to program. Schools of primary instruction give education
for four years and schools of scrondaHry education for eight or nine years.
Senator Jornse. And how many months during each year are these schools in
session 1
Dr. SYVluH. There are two months of vacation each year, and then the holl-
days and public ceremonies during the year.
Senator JONJEs. Then, for 10 months in the year you have schools all over the
country, do you?
Dr. SYLvAI. Yes.
Senator JoNas. And the children are attending about In the proportion which
you gave a while ago?
Dr. STI~vam. Yes.
Senator JONEa. And that has been going on since about 18647
Dr. SY~avo. Yes.
Senator JONpEa. Well, the people ought to be pretty well educated, shouldn't
they 7
Dr. SY~vaml. I said that was the proportion for the inhabitants of a city. One
may say that It is a country that in proportion to the number of inhabitants,
from the time at which they arrive as a people, free and independent, they hold
a high rank among educated people.
Senator JONEB. HOw are the schools now?
Dr. SaxvAINJ. I don't understand very well.
Senator JONEs. Are the schools as good now as they were before the American
occupation?
Dr. SYLVAIN. The Occupation has had no effect upon the functioning of our
schools, except, as I said before, in those portions of the country which have been
sorely tried one may say that the situation is less good, because the civil authodl-
ties who have~functioned by virtue of the convention and contrary to the spirit
of this convention, have not ceased to thwart the Haitian Government in that
which concerns the funds necessary for the functioning of the schools, and for
the accumulation of the material and the schoolhouses, as well as for the recruit-
ing of professors.
Senator JONEa. The American occupation has nothing to do with the schools,
has It7
Dr. Saviuzx. There has been to my knowledge, at Port au Prince, a superin-
tendent of pubtle instruction, who was not, it is well understood, a military fune-
tionary, who was a sort of civil functionary outside of the military, but this
superintendent of public instruction has done nothing for the schools which is
appreciable. It is not astonishing, because it appears he has more to learn from
the high Haitian functionaries and the public instruction than he could give them
in any instance whatever. It is thus that, recognizing that he was not very
expert In the law, he commenced studying at our law school, and then com-
menced to study. He was interrupted because he had to return to the United
States, where I hope he has finished his studies.
Senator JONaEB. YOu say that only 50 per cent of the children in the towns go
to school. Do not the others go? It not, why not?
Dr. SYLvaIN. Either because their relatives have a false idea of the material
fashion in which their children should be clothed, and because of their penury
they prefer to keep their children at home, or because one part of them are
forced to send their children at a very early age to apprenticeship at some trade
in order to have at an early age the means of a livelihood.
Senator JONE~s. During what years are the children required to attend
school ?
Dr. SYLvarm. From the age of 7 years, but more often they commence at
an earlier age.
Senator JONEs. How many years after they are required to begin attendance
upon school must they continue to attend school each year, under the law?
Dr. SYovAIN. I have told you that the primary instruction lasts four years,
the secondary instruction from eight to nine years.
Senator JONEs. That would make 12 or 18 years of school?
Dr. SYLvaINf. All together.
Senator JONEs. And the children must begin attending school at the age of 77t
Dr. SYzLVam1. That is the Age at which they should commence, but even before
that they commence.

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INQUIBY INTO OCCUPATlION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 845;

Senator Jour~e. Then they must attend school for 10 or 15 years after they are
13 years of age, then ?
Dr. SavalsP. No.
Senator JONEs. Well, then, what age are they permitted not to attend school?
Dr. Sn~vamN. There is no age at which they are permitted to not go to school.
Senator JONES. We11, hOW does the law require them to attend then? At
what age may they quit school and not attend school?
Dr. SaVAIN. The law does not prescribe the time at which they must quit
school. The law does prescribe a certain time during which they should follow
a certain program.
Senator JozEs. Now, you understand that that answer Is inconsistent with
itself. What are the provisions of your compulsory law? You are a lawyers
W~hat is the minimum number of years that the children must go to school?
Dr. SYavarH. There are two degrees of education.
Senator Joase. Repeat my question, please.
(The question was repeated to the witness by the interpreter.)
Dr. SYvaIRvl. It it is a child who takes only primary education, he may
quit school at 12 years.
Senator JONES. It i8 Optional with the child whether it will take primary
education only ?
Dr. SYLvbIzx. It is the families who decide that.
Senator JOrNs. They decide when the children will start to school, do they 7
Dr. SrtvaIre. No; there is an age from which they must start to school, but
they may send them before that time. As soon as a child can follow the class;
because we have infantile schools.
Senator JONs. How much schooling must a child get? What is your com-
palsory law for education ?
Dr. SrtVAIN. Four years. I have told you four years for primary instruction.
Senator JONEa. And all the children must attend for four years?
Dr. 87z~vam. For the primary school.
Senator Jones. Then are they required to go to any school after the primary
school
Dr. Brvavrm. No.
Senator JONES. Well, then, you have only four years of compulsory education,
is that it?
Dr. Suama. It is the primary school which has compulsory education.
However, there are secondary State schools.
Senator JONPES. I am trying to get at 'the compulsory period of them all
Then we are to understand that your compulsory period for going to school
is Limited to four years of primary school, is that it?
Dr. Broom., Yes.
Senator JONws. And beyond that there is no compulsory law at all?
Mr. Savrrvo. As I was going to say to you, there are no secondary State
schools where the child may continue his primary status.
Senator JONEa. But he is not required to do It. I don't want a speech. I
waist an answer to my question. Is the child required to attend any school
after the primary school? Are they required to go to any school after the
primnary school or not? You need not make a speech in answer to that question.
You may answer that yes or no.
Dr. Srovdln. No.
Senator JONES. NOw, then, they start in at 7, or perhaps a little before 7,
and they are required to go to school four years only; that is, until they are
10 or 11 years of age, and then there is no compulsory law after that?
br, Syr~vaIR. No.
Senator JonrpE. And only about half the children in the towns attend the
schools for those four years?
Dr. SnIvalso. That is the proportion.
Senator JoNPEs. Why is not the other portion required to attend for these
four years?
D~r. SYrvarn. I have already answered.
Senator JONEs. Take the period of time, say, of 50 years prior to the occu-
pation, how many politleal revolutions did you have in Haiti?
Dr. S~tavan. You are asking for the history of Haiti. But, any way, I may
tell yen as far as possible, but you may know that, taking them Preside~nt by
President---
Senator Jonza. You mean to say that practically every new President came
in with a revolution?
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846 INQUIRY INTTO OCCUPATION OF HIAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Dr. SYLVAIN. h'O; I h&VP IIOt Raid that. Will you please read your question?
(The question was read by the stenographer, as follows: Take the period of
time, say, of 50 years prior to the occupation, how many political revolutionary
did you have in Halitl? ")
Dr. SYLTAIK. In order to respond I shall have to reflect, In order to recall the
nmres of the Presidlents. Without saying, however, that each of those Presi-
dents camle to power by means of a revolution.
Senator JONEs. There were a number of revolutions, were there not?
Dr. ISYTvAiN. Yes5.
Senator Jones). Anld there were revolutions started which did not succeed;
there were a number of those, weren't there?
Dr. SroveN. There were certain attempts, as happen in all countries. WFe
call them revolutions, but in the U'nitedl States they have another name, as well
as in countries of Europe.
Senator JONEs. What other name do they have in the United States?
Dr. SYLVAIlN. They call them riots, uprisings, arrays.
Senator JONE8. In these revolutions here in Haiti, what is done? What do
they do? D~o they' just simplly have an uprising in one section of the country?
Dr. SYLVAIN. l(Or ins(RRCO, When the governmental authorities violate the
law the citizens, after having ascertained that by usingi legal means theyv may
not ob~ta~in justice, call the population to arms to recover their violated rights.
They engage then in battle with the governmental forces, and either the gov-
ernmuenta\l forces overpower them or else it is the governmental forces that are
beaten. If In all parts of the country they gain the upper hand, the Governmenrt
Is forced to retire, and a call is made upon the population in all parts of the
country to send their delegates to the capital, which delegates change the
Government, afier having proceeded with the election of the Cham~bre des
Deputies or the General Assembly, which names a new President of the Re-
public andI which give~s sometimes a new constitution..
Senator JONEa3. Did not your laws provide for change of government at stated
intervals?
Dr. SYT.VAIN. Yes.
Senator JoSER. Then why did not the people change their officials under the
law, instead of by revolution?
Dr. SYLvAIN. I have already explained to you that the revolutions were pro-
voked only by the had actions of the Government. They tried to overcome
these bad actions by legal measures, at first. Then, after seeing that the
Government, taking advantage of its authority, did not execute the law, they
were forced to take up arms.
Senator JONEs. Then your Government has very frequently been a bad Gov-
ernmlent ?
Dr. HYLVam~. Yes.
Senator JONES. 17011, ROw, what reason have you to believe that if the Amer-
ican occupation were withdrawn that you would have any better Government
than you had in the past?
Dr. SYLrvAIN. I believe the experience would have benefited the Haitiasn
people. When they have seen that the domination of foreigners did not secure
for them either more prosperity or better education or the general alluelloration
of their situation they will understand that it would be better to have a Haitian
Government, dilrected by a different class of men from those which they have
been in the hah~t of placing in power.
Senator JONSR. I don't undterstanud what he means. Then, it is your judgment
that if the people of Haiti had an opportunity to absolutely control their ownt
affairs thley would have a better Governmuent than they. did have prior to the
Amerlean occupation?
Dr. S~oursv~. I think so.
Sena~tor JoNER. And you think so solely by reason of the lessons that they have
learned during the American occupation?
Dr. SYLVAIN. I think so, first, for the reason and also because people progress
naturally with the times.
The CHAInuxIN. Mr. Aingell, if the memoirs are not ready, the members of the
committee milght rise. Mr. Interpreter, will you announce that the committee
will meet to-morrow at 2. In thre meantime the chairman of the committee,
the president of the commission, will remains for a few minutes to receiv-e
memoirs to be placed in the committee's hands by Mr. Ang~ell.
(The memoirs to be presented by Mr. Angell will be filed with the clerk to
the committee.)
( Whereupon, pt'8.S .: . the committee adjQ~;~~laiMh@qgg) p. m., Thursday,
#..il,~~ 191:; 4


















INQUIRY INTO OCCUPArTION ASD ADMINISTRATION OF HAITI
AND SANTO DOMINGO.


THUBSIDAY, DECEMBERl 1, 1921.

UNITED STATEs SENATE,
SELE~CT COMMI'ITEE ON HAITI AND SAN'To DomwNOo,
Port alu P'riace, Haiti.
The committee resumed its hearing at 2.30 p. m., pursuant to adjournmlent.
Present: Senator McCormick.
The CHaAmxuAw. Mr. Interpreter, will you say thlut I have received the eight
memoirs which have been givens to me for the consideration of the commission;
that I have personally read all of theml. The other mem~lbers of the commission,
who are engaged in making independent invesil~tiatonrs, have not been able to
do so. Some of these memoirs touch historical subjects of an incontestable
character. Others bear upon disputed questions. Others, In turn, deal with
large finanncial problems. In my judgment, after conversing with Mr. Angell,
these matters seem to mle such as we can discuss informally and personally,
if you will permit mle to converse in French aind not in English-the official
language of the Senate, which, of course, I must employ if I proceed at a
formal session. Therefore I have asked Mir. Angell to request a small number
of these gentlemen, each responsible for the consideration of a single particu-
lar subject, to remain with Mr. Angell, and I beg the company assembled, there-
fore, to consider the session of the commission adjourned and to excuse me,
and I wiUl excuse the interpreter and the stenographer for the rest of the
afternoon.
Let me, before I formally adjourn the session of the commission, ask counsel,
Mr. Angell, if he cares' to say anything before the record for to-dlay is closed.
Mr. AlNGELL. Thank you. Senator, for the opportunity. I do wish to make
one formal request. We made a request yesterday, or the day before, for the
presence here of Mr. Jolibois, now in prison, and it was stated at that time by
the Senator presiding that a decision would be taken as to whether or not Mr.
Jolibols would be brought from prison to appear here as a witness, and, if so,
when, and I should like to ask if-any decision has been taken, and, if- so, in
what sense and whether he will be heard to-morrow.
The CHAIrruaN. I think no decision has been taken. I left the matter with
the legal members of the commission when I parted company with them.
Doubtless they are going to mleet informally this afternoon to consider several
quesitions, that among them.
Mr. ANGaELL. W~e consider Mr. Jolibols as a very Imlportant witness.
The CHaxxx~aN, Do you want to say anything about the priest?
Mr. AHonEr.. Yes. One other matter also. We have here a priest, a French
citizen, who has lived a great many years in the islands, working along thle
people, who has come from a long dlistance at considerable inconvenience to
himself to present himself voluntarily as a witness before thle committee. I
have talked briefly with this priest and regardl himt as an Important witness.
He has stated that he must, if humanly possible, leave at 6 o'clock to-mlorrow
morning, in order to get back to his parish. I should like, it possible, to have
him heard as a witness this afternoon.
The CH~lrnxAN.~ That is not possible. Will you give the stenographer the
name and the address of the pr~iesit, in order that we masy notify him at what
hour he may be heard to-morrow morning?
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848 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HABITI AN'D SANTO DMI16NGO.

Mr. ANGELL. The priest is here now.
The CH~laxpaN. But I have told you he can not be heard this afternoon. I
will consult the other members of the commission about their plans for a
full meeting of the commission to-morrow morning.
Mr. Asogt. I have his name, but I have not at this instant his address.
The CHnauPaN. That you can obtain. Give the stenographer his name.
Mr. AnOEu.. His name is Le Sidaner. He can be reached at the Amteo Epis-
copal Palace.
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Interpreter, will you announce that, having received
from Mr. Angell, the counsel, the information that he has a witness whom he
wishes called to-morrow, the session of the commission is adjourned for today
until 9.30 to-morrow morning ?
(Whereupon the committee adjourned until 9.30 a. m., Friday, December 2.)


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION AN~D ADMINISTRATION OF HAITI
ANUD SANTO DOMINGO.



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1921.

UNrrED STATES SENATE,
SELECT COMMITIrBE ON HAIfl AND Sawro DOM6INGO,
Port as Prince, Haiti.
The committee resumed its hearing pursuant to adjournment, at 9.30 a. m.
Present: Senators Pomerene, Oddie, and Jones, Senator Pomerene presiding.
Also present: Mr. Howe and Mr. Angell.
The UnaIMaxN. The committee will come to order. Senator McCormick, our
chairman, is detained in another branch of the investigation which we are
making here on the island, as the other members of the committee were on
yesterday. Now, proceed with the first witness. Let him be sworn.
Let me1 suggest that the witness give his full name, his location, length
of time he has been on the island, and the length of time he has been otticiating
as a priest, and then proceed with his statement.

BTATEMENT OF ABBE LOUIS marIE LE SIDANER, PRIEST,
THOMAZEAY, HA'ITI.

Mr. AmFonz.z. Give your full name, where you are located, your occupation,
and how long you have been In that occupation on the island of Haiti.
Father SIDANEB. Abbe Louis Marie le Sidaner, cur4 of Thomazeau; 16 years
in Raitl.
Mr. ANGELL. You are a French citizen?
Father La BIDANER. Yes.
Mr. AnGE~E.I..~~EEE~ BOrn in France?
Father LE SIDANER. Yes,
Mr. AnOstL.x And you are the priest at Thomazeaul
Father LE SIDANER. Ye8.
Mr. ANGELL. How long have you been the priest at Thomazeau?
Father LE SIDAN-En. Five years and a half.
Mr. AinGorz. And to what territory do your activities extend?
Father LE SIDANEB. The commune of Thomazeau.
Mr. ANGErZ.. And how large an area is that?
The OHAR~rrAN. DOes the father speak English?
Father LE SIDANEB. NO.
Mr. ANGELL HOw large an area is that?
Father LE SIDANER. I do not know the extent of the commune.
Mr. ANGE~LL. HRVO you been familiar with the sentiment and the life of the
people of the Commune of Thomazeau during the past five and a half years?
Father LE SIDANER. All of the priests in the communes here live intimately
with the people.
Mr. ANOar.I. Will you tell us briefly and exactly what were the sentiments
of the population of the commune of Thomazeau at the time of the American
occupation and landing In 19157
Father La 81DANER. The people were very peaceable in this place and full of
confidence. They were in full sympathy with the American occupation.
Mr. ANOarm. Did they or did they not have confidence in the Americans
and in the gendarmerle organized by the Americans?
Father LE EIDANEB. At the beginning they had full confidence.
Mr. ANGIELL. Now, will you tell us what are their sentiments toward the
American occupation at the present time?
Father La SIIDANPER They no longer have confidence.
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850 moeviny INro cc~UPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

" Mr. ANGEL~L. Will you tell us briefly, if you can, why there has been this
change in their sentiments?
Father LE SIDANER. Because of certain cruelties which were committed, in the
mountains of Crochus especially.
The CH~lax~AN. 18 that iB yOnr parlill?
Father la BIDArEB. Yes; in my parish.
Mr. ANGELL. To what do you refer when you peak of crueltiesl
Father LE HIDANJER. It came about in this way:. Fulfilling my ministry in the
Crochus, several parishoners came to me crying, denouncing crimes which had
been committed toward their husbands. I told them that I wished to take their
statements in writing;.
The CHAIRMANR. CrBeliesP committed by whom?
Father LE QIDANER. They said that these crunelties were committed by marines
and gendarmee.
Mr~. ANGOELL. Did you make any personal investigation yourself?
Father La SIDANra. I gathered certain honorable witnesses whom I knew to
be perfectly reliable.
Mr. AROm.L. Were these witnesses parishoners that you had known yourself
Father La SIDaN~a. Yes; I knew them perfectly and knew them to be per-
fectly honorable.
Mr. ANGELL. Did these cruelties of which you speak relate to the burning of
houses in the region of the Crochus?
Father Is SIDANER. Yes; In the Crochus itself.
The CHalaxAaN. What is that?
Mr. ANGELL. That iB the Dame of a little place-Crochus.
The CanaxsaN. Will you tell us now what you know yourself-that is, what
you have seen and heard yourself--of the Imuradng of houses at Len Croebus.
Father LE sIDANER. Personally, I saw after the fire the houses still smoking.
Mr. Ah-ont. What was the approximate date of this event?
Father LE SIDANER. I CRR DOt say exactly, but it was the first two weeks of
August, 1919.
The CHaIBMraN. How many houses?
Father Is SIDAN~oa. I didn't count them exactly, but I believe there were
about 250 or 300 houses.
Mr. ANGELL. To whom did these houses belong?
Father LE SIDANOER These houses belongeed to inhabitants who lived there.
Mr. ANGELL. What was the occupation of these inhabitants?
Father LE SIDAN0ER Agriculturalists.
The CHAIrAuN. Let me ask, so that we get the situation: Were these houses
in a little? village or town or were they scattered throughout the country, and
over what amount of territory ?
Mr. ANG0Er.I. Were these houses all close together in a single village, or were
they scattered about over the countryside?
Father LE SIDANER. It WAS all OVer R rPgoOD.
The CHAIRMANl. How large a region Give us some notion about it.
Father I~Es aIDAEa. The dimensions are very dificult to give, since it was in
the mountains, and it is very dinicult to give the size of the region.
Mr. ANea.I.. Will you give us some approximate Idea; that is, was it, from one
end of the region to the other. 5 kilometers or 20 kilometers?
Father LE SIDANEB. About 5 kilometers, I should say.
Mr. ANGEM.. YOU meSB from one end of the region to the other?
Father LE SID)ANPE. Ye8.
Mr. Anon.L. Did you yourself see these 250 or 300 houses which you have
just stated were burned?
Father LE BIDANEB. I 88W thelB still sIDOking.
Mr. ANGLL~. Did you make a personal tour through this whole region and see
these several houses burning, or after having been burnedite tl mllg
Father LE QIDANERL. I 88W 811 the h00898 burn and some o hmsilsoig
Mr. ANGEML. Tell us what you know, if anything, of the person or persons
who burned or were responsible for the burning of these houses.
Father LE SIDANEIB. It was a company of marines and Haitian gendarmes.
Mr. ANGELL. Commanded by whom, if you know?
Father LE *IDANRB.8 BY OR9 BRaned Wedor.
The CHarxxalo. N'ow, read that. I don't think he has that all.
( The record was read by the stenographer.)
The Onsmunar. Give his full name, and rank, and location.
Father la SIDANEB. I kllOW DO more than that

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ANTD SANTO DOM\INGO. 851

Mr. ANGELL. DO you know this Lleut. Wedor personally ?
Father LE SIDANER. Yes; he came to my house afterwards to make excuses.
Mr. AINGELL. How long a time after the burning did Llent. Wedor come there
to your house?
Father LE SlDANEa. I don't know exactly how many days, but I think it was
within the 15 days that followed the burning.
MIr. ANGELL. Where was your house?
Father LE SIDANEB. My house was In the center itself of the burning.
MUr. ANYGELL. Was your house burned ?
Father LE sIDANEr. YOs,
Mr. ANGELL. Was your chapel and presbytery burned?
Father LE BIDANER. Yes. As were all other houses. No houses remained.
Mr. ANGELL. What did Lieut. Wedor say to you on the occasion of his vialt
to you?
Father LE SIDAbNER. I don't remember exactly his words, but I do recall that
he made excuses.
Mr. ANGELL. Excuses for what?
Father LE SEDANER. Excuses for having burned the chapel, which he said he
didn't know was a chapel.
Mr. ANGELL. Did he say anything to you about the burning of other houses
in that samle region?
Father LE SIDANER. It 18 Inore than a year and a half ago, and I don't remem-
ber his exact words.
Mr. ANOELL. Do you remember whether or not he did say anything about the
burning of other houses in the region?
Father LE SIDANER. He spoke of them, but I don't recall his words. I re-
proached him.
Mlr. AN'GELL. Reproached him with what?
Father LE SIDAnER. For having burned these houses unnecessarily.
The CHal~anuAN Now, let me suggest, you are simply giving conclusions, He
made excuses and I reproached him." Give us as nearly as you can the
language embraced in those excuses, and what you said to him in those re-
proaches. You understand that as an American lawyer. Under our practice
that is what we want.
Mr. ANGCELL. YOS.
The CHaIRxAN. Let me say, explain to him, If he doesn't remember the
exnet words let him give the substance of it, under the rules of practice as we
understand them.
Father LE SIDANER. I have already said that I don't know his exact words.
Mr. ANGELL. If you are unable to give us the exact words, will you give us
thle substance of what he said on that occasion?
Father LE SIDANEn. I don't know exactly his words. I know only that he
made excuses to me. That is all I recall.
Mir. ANGELL When you say that he made excuses to you, do you or do you
not mean that he made excuses for having burned or caused the burning of
your house and other houses In the region at that time?
Fathe) LE SIDANEB. NO. It was because he had put fire into my presbytery
and my chapel. He excused himself for that.
Senator JONEs. What reason did he give for the burning of the houses?
Father LE SIDANER. I don't recall his excuses. He was sent there against
the Caces.
Mr. LAmon.. Were there any Caeos in that region at that time?
Father LE SIDANEn There had been Caeos the day before and the day pre-
ceding that.
Mr. JANGEL. Were these Caeos persons living in that region in those houses
that you say were burned?
Father LE SIDANEB. NO; these Cacos were refugees from Mire Ballais.
Senator JONE8. What were they doing up there, those Cacos?
Father LE Sm~dRan. They w-ere hiding there only.
Senator JONJEs. Hiding in these houses that were burned?
Father LE SUIDANER. No: they were hiding in the woods.
Senator JONPEs. Did the lieutenant give any reason for burning the houses?
Father LE $1DANEn. It was because the Cacos were there. That is the only
reason he gave.
Mr. AnPozzL Did you make up at that time a list of the houses burned ?
Father LE SIDANER. I did not make the list, but a list has been seent. Here
it is.
Mr. ANGEra.. It was na mad~e byh P. I will not offen:Ji g i n a | f r,7 m
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852 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

The CHarrmaxAN How many does it show?
Father LE SIDANER. I didn't count exactly, but I believe there are about 250.
The CHaIBMAN. Who prepared this list for him?
Father LE SIDANER. This list was prepared by a chief of the chapel.
Mr. ANilEL. Is this a religious of~eer under your authority?
Father LE SIDANER. No; it is a Haitian who is sacristan.
Mr. ANGELL. Was it prepared at your request or under your direction?
Father LE SIDANER. No. I did not know that the list was being prepared. It
was sent to me without my knowledge.
Mr. ANGELL. Does this list give the names of the owners whose houses were
burned and the number of houses in each case burned?
Father LE SIDANEa. Yes; perfectly.
Senator JONEa. You believe it to be a correct list, do you?
Father LE SIDANEn. The list is correct.
Mr. ANGEcLL. DO the committee care to accept that list?
The CHlaxrraH. Oh, yes.
Mr. ANonL.. As made under the circumstances?
The CHaznx~an. Yes.
(The list above referred to and presented by the witness is on file with the
committee.)i
The CHAIBMAN. Just in that connection, ask him this one question. Has he
gone over this list carefully, and does he recall that any or all of these houses
were in fact burned ?
Father LE SIDA~NER. I have personally examined the list, and nearly all were
burned.
Mr. ANGELL. DO you know many or all of the persons whose names appear
on this list?
Father LE SIDANER. I don't know all of them, but I know a large part of
them.
The CHtaxrlaNo. That we may understand this more fully, does that purport
to give the names of the owners or occupants or their location or address? In
other words, was there a tenant or something of that kind ?
Mr. ANGELL. Can you tell us whether these names appearing here are the
names of the owners or of the tenants of these houses?
Father LE SIDANEB. Ordinarily, they are all owners.
Mr. ANGELL. What was the number, if you knew, even approximately, of the
Cacos who had appeared in this region the day before the burning of these
houses?
Father LE ISIDANER. I don't know the exact number, but it was a band of
Benolt Batraville, who had passed by there the day before.
The CHAIRMAN. Did you sree him or see this band?
Father LE SIDANER. No; I did not see him.
The CHnIlauN. Did he may any inquiry, or did any of the people living in
that vicinity tell him how many there were, or approximately how many there
were?
Father LE SIDANER. The people of the place came and told me that the Caeos
had been there.
The Onarnxan. Well, that doesn't answer the question. Did they fell him
how many there were, approximately ?
Father LE SIDANEn. No. They told me only that it was a band of Benoit's.
Mr. ANGELL. Were all these houses burned at the same time? That is, within
a period of a day or so, if you know?
Father LE SIDANEB. All on the same day.
Mr. ANGELL. Were these houses situated so close together that the fire could
have spread by natural causes merely from one house to another?
Father LE S1DANER. They were in various groups, and fire was put in each
group.
Mr. ANGELT.. That doesn't answTer my question. Were the houses so close
together that it would have been possible for the fire to have spread from natu-
ral causes from house to house and group to group?
Father LE SIDANEa. That is to say, that when fire was put to one house in a
group it could have caught the other houses in the same group?
The CHaInxAN. In other words, spread to the other houses by wind or
spa rks.
Father LE SIDANrER. Yes; they WRnted it to spread.
The OnIRAmuAN Another question in that connection. How many of these
groups of houses were there?

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INQUIBY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AN'D SANTO DOMINGO. 853

Father LE SIlDANER. I caD DOt tell the number of groups.
The CH~amMAN.~ Well, you can tell approximately. We are not asking the
exact numbe~r.
Father laE SIDANER. It is very diffleult to say. In the mountains it is very
dialicult to count.
The CH~lax AN Were there 5 or 10 or 15 or 207
Father La SIDANPEa. Oh, there were at least 20 groups.
Senator JONES. What kind of houses were they?
Father LE SIDANIER. They were houses covered with grass.
Senator JONuES. HOW large was each house?
Father LE SIDANER. Ordinarily the houses in the mountains are about 30
feet long by 12 feet wide.
Senator JONEs. Of what material are the walls made nteeonr.I
Father La SIDANER. The walls are made, as it issadithconrn
boazilller; that is to say, of wood and mud.
Senator JONE8. Is that the size generally of those houses, 12 by 307
Father LE SIDAOEB. Ordinarily, those are the dimensions of the houses of the
inhabitants.
Senator JoEa. How many people live in a housd?
Father LE SIDANEa. That depends upon the families. There are families who
are very numerous, and other not so numerous.
Senator Jorese. Are those houses divided into rooms?
Father La SIDANn. Ordinarily Into two rooms.
Senator JONEB. HOW RFO they furnished ?
Father LE SIDANER. MOre or less well furnished, according to the means
of the inhabitants. Ordinarily they are not very well furnished, but one
bed and table and several chairs.
Senator JONuEs. What became of the furniture that was in these houses when
they were burned?
Father LE SIDwaNB According. to the declarations of the inhabitants, the
turniture was pillaged by the giendarmerie.
Senator Joroza. Do yeti mean that it was taken by the gendarmerle and carried
away?
Father La SlDANERc. 198. It WRS taken away. That is to say, it was stolen.
Senator JONEa. Where was it taken to?
Father LE SIDANEB I don't know.
Senator JONES. Did you see the gendarmerie there?
Father La SDANEB. SO; they had gone. I didn't get there until sometime
during the week.
Senator JONuEs. HOw many of them were there, according to the report of
the people ?
Father Ig SIDNa.r I did not ask how many there were there, or if I did
ask I have forgotten, but I think there were, perhaps, 60.
Senator JON~Es. Were they Haitians or Americane?
Father La SmAJER. Haitians and Americans.
Senator JON~s. How many Americans?
Father la SIDANLER. I c&R ROt say.
Senator JONEs. What became of the people after their houses were burned?
Father LE SIDANEB. The people were dispersed; terrl8edl.
Senator JONEs. Where did they go to?
Father La SIDNlrEn In the woods.
Senator Jonss. Did they come back and rebuild the houses?
Father La SIDANEB. It was about eight months later when I went to France,
and about five or six families had returned.
Senator Joxxas. Did the gendarmes have any wagons to take away the far-
altere?
Father La SIDA~NER NO.
Senator Jonze. Do you believe that those gendarmes carried away all the
tunilture from 250 houses?
Father Is SIDANEB. NO; not the furniture, but the artleles which were
made, saddles and cloth.
Senator JONEa. What became of the furniture?
Father LE SIDANQEn. The furniture was burned in the houses.
Senator Jorvss. Did the inhabitants try to save any of the furnitureP
Father La SxphTwas. The inhabitants had fled.
Senator JONEs. From whom did you gain your information about this occulr-
rece?


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854 INOuinY zwro ocCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Father LE SIDANER. From the inhabitants, the victims themselves.
Senator JONPE8. HOw far away had they gone?
Father LE SIDANEB. In the woods and ravines around there where they had
hidden.
Senator JONEs. Did you go out where they were?
Father LE SIDoANER T98.
Senator JON0Es. HOW lOng did they stay out in the woodsr
Father LE SIDANPEB. They stayed out in the woods several months. Some of
them returned, but the rest stayed out in the woods during several months.
Senator Jourss. Why didn't they come back immedifately? What were they
afraid of?
Father LE SIDANER. They were terrified. They were afraid of a return of
the gendarmes.
Senator JONPEs. Where had the gendarmes gone?
Father LE SIDAN&B. After the fire?
Senator JONES. ees.
Father LE SIDANER. They returned to Mlire Bealais probably.
Senator JONEs. HOW far RWRy i8 tilat?
Father LE SIDASNER. TWO hours on horseback.
The CHa~muaNv. Where was Father Le Sidaner when his house and chapel
were burned?
Father LE SIDANER. I WAS ill Thomazeau itself.
The CHAmuarN. In thre home?
Father LE SIDANoEn At my house at Thomazeau.
The CHAIRMANc. Did you say anything to these men who burned your house
and chapel at that time?
Father LE SIDAN~a. No. I was not there at the time. I have my house at
Thomazeau, or my principal house. I have a house and chapel in the district
of Crochus.
The CHAIRMAN.. HOw far were you from this village of Crochus at the timea
of the burning?
Father LE SIDANER. It is about four hours on horseback.
The CHAIBMAN. WRS yOur house and chapel in one of these groups of houses
that was burned?
Father LE SIDaNEB. Separated in a big courtyard.
The CHAIRMAN. Were the people in that vicinity afraid of the Cacost
Father LE SIDANER. They Were not in the Cacos. They were afraid of the
Cacos also.
The CHalBaxN. While the Cacos were in that vicinity did they remain there?
Father LE SIDANER. In this connection, I have an explanation to make. I
had said to the people of this region that when the Cacos came there to notify
the American authorities, either at Thomazeau or at Mire Bealaris, that the
Cacos were there, in order to show that they did not make common cause with
the Cacos.
Senator JONpla. What did the Cacos do when they were there?
Father LE STDANPEB. They did Dothing bad. They did no harm.
Senator JONEs. What was the occasion for the Cacos being there?
Father LE SIaNDER. They had been driven out of Mire Balais and were hiding
there.
Senator JONEs. They were hiding in this village or this group of houses?
Father LE SIDANEa. No; they had made a camp there..
Senator Jo10ns. Where had they made their camp
Father LE SIDANER. At a place called Marain, just before the chapel.
Senator JrosE8. How close to the chapel was that camp ?
Father LE SIDANEB. Just in front of the chapel. Only the road separated
them.
Senator JonsI. What sort of a camp did they make?
Father LE SIDnANr. They just slept and ate there under the trees.
The OR~axrraw. How long after or before the marines and gendarmerie ar-
rive did you learn that the Caeos were in that vicinity?
Father lac SID~ANEB. It was several dasp before the fire I had given the order
to go and to notify.
The CanaxAN. Given whom the order?
Father ]La SIDANER. The inhabitants, who had come and notified me.
The OR~axran. Did they tell you about how many Cacos there were?
Father La 8S~Dnna. No. They only told me it was a band of Benoit.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HIAITI AND SANTO DOM6INGo. 855

The CH~axrnaw. Did you ask this informant how many were there?
Father LE SIDANOER. No, I did not ask.
The CHaznxaN. Did not you think it was important that the American forces
and the gendarmerie should know how many were there?
Father LE SIDANElr. The one who went to notify them must have told them
how many there were.
The CHAIrM~AN. Did you not want to know how many there were there when
the boy came to you?
Father LE SIDANER. I did not think to ask him. He told me It was a band of
Benoit.
The CHamaual. How many marines and gendarmerle came?
Father Ln SIDANER. I said awhile ago that I did not recall the exact num-
ber. I think it was inl the sixties.
The CHaInuraN. Where did' the Cacos get their food supplies which they ate
in the camp near the chapel?
Father LE SIDAnER. They made requisition upon the inhabitants, stealing a
little here and there, as was the custom.
The CH~amuaN. And did the inhabitants there give food supplies to the Cacos?
Father LE SIDANEB. They were obliged to. The Cacos did not ask for it.
They took it
The CH~a~rnaN. Were any of these people paid for this food supplies by thle
Cacos, or don't they do that?
Father LE SIDANER, NO.
The ORaInxaN. Had the Caeos been there before?
Father Is: S3IDANER. NO, HO, DOVer.
The CHamuarN. Did some of your people sympathize with the Caeos?
Father LE SrIDANER, No, not one. On the contrary.
The CHAIBMAN. Did not Lieut. Wedor say to you that the reason for the burn-
ing of these places was that the Cacos were being sheltered or supplied by the
people ?
Father LE SIDANEB. No; hle did not give me any reason. I don't recall exactly
what he said. I reproached him for having put tire without asking for informa-
tion.
The CHAIRMAN. What did Lieut. Wedor say to that?
Father LE Y1DANERsl. I don't recall exactly what he said beyond that. I talked
with him two minutes-not more.
The CHAIRMAN. Lieut. Wedor or the American forces offered to rebuild this
chapel and house, did they not?
Father LE SIDANEB. No; and I did not ask either.
The CHAIsrMAN. APO yOU Opposed to the Americans continuing here on the
islands ?
Father LE SIDANER. NO.
The CHAIRMAN. Do y'ou want them to remain here?
Father LE SIDANER That is a question which I am not competent to answer.
If they can do good and inspire confidence in all these people, which is neces-
sary above all, in such a way that this population may return to their country
and their habitation and continue to work without fear of being again molested
by the genldarmers or other authorities.
Senator JONEs. Did these Cacos have any horses with them or burros.
Father LE SIDANER. Some of them had horses, and in order to get away they
had taken horses everywhere they had gone.
Senator Jones. Did they take saddles also?
Father LE YIDANER. They dlidn't tell me. The inhabitants didn't complain of
having: been stolen from by the Cacos, outside of foodstuffls.
The CHiamxaN. Before the American forces enme here, did the Calcos come in
and steal from the people in your section?
Father LE SIDANEa. No; perhaps in the past before my time, but in my time
I don't know of that.
The CHa~nxAN. They did, however, do a great deal of stealing and cause a
great deal of rioting and disturbance throughout the island here, did they not,
before the American occupation?
Father LE SIDANER. Before the occupation there were no Cacos in my country
around Thomazeau. in my time there.
The CHAIRMaAN. That does not answer my question. I did not limit my ques-
tion to Thomlazeau. I said throughout the Island.
Father LE SIDANEB. I do not know for the past, not having been In charge of
the parish at that time.
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856 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATIONS OF HAITI AND SANTOM DOMLINGO.

The CH~sAIRAN You know that as a matter of general information, do you
not? As to matters in the island prior thlereto?
Father LE RIDANCEB. What conditions? I can't answer that question. I didn't
know the Cacos before.
Thle CHnlsaxAN. Well, I will not press that any further.
Senator JONEn. What do these CarI(os do. an~d why do they call1 them Cacost
Father LE SIDANEr.l I cRH nOt answer that question. I am a foreigner and
do not know why they call them Cacos.
Senator JONEs. What do the Oacos do?
Father L1E SIDANER. They don't exrist any more. But they made war, and
among the C'acos there were those who made war purely cand simply, and along
with them there were many people who formed in groups to pillage and steaL
Those I do not call Caos, in my opinion. They; are thieves.
The CH~ammraN. Didn't the political leaders or some of the political leaders
join forces with the Cacos at different times during the revolutions in the past?
Father LE SIDANER. I don't know. 1 am not inforn~ed on that question. I
have? sen the Cacos in the mountains; that is all. I have never seen any of the
city people with them at all; never.
The CH~nmxaw. Was it understood among the American forces and the
gendarmerie that the people in this burned region sympathized -with the Cacoo?
Father La SID)ANEa. That is to say, if I understand that, they were not well
informed. It is that I reproachedl them for; because I myself, exactly, as I have
reported to the authorities, H~aitian and Ame~ric:m,. as often as I saw them, that
in Crochus and in all of thle Co~mmune of Thomazean there were no ~Caeo at
all. The Cacos which they found in thle mountains of Crochus were foreigners
to the cormmune, corning from Mlira Balais or hasn Coabas. At Crochus I found,
after making an investigation myself, that there were not more than a dozen of
our bad people who were joined with the band of Cacos.
The CHAIBLuAx. Do) I undlerstand that you say that you think there were not
more than a dozen of your l~eople who joined with a band of Cacost
Father LE SID)ANER. 'JherLe Were n00 more thRH R dOZeB Whom I IDOW joined
the Cacos. That is one dozen in 6,000 people.
Senator JONoEs. Where do those 12 live?
Father L~e SIDANJER. This dOzen were rather vagiabonds, having no precise place
to live, and I myself denounced them to the gendarmerie.
The CHa~sxaN. Did you give their names to the gendlarmerie or to the
marines ?
Father LE SIDANER. Yes.
The CHAleMANO. Now, let me ask you another question: Do not you feel that
whatever was dlone there was done under thle orders of Lieut. Wedor as a
matter of military necessity, and not because there was any malice or spirit
of destruction toward thle people?
Father LE SIDANER. I can not judge the sentiments, the intimate sentiments,
of Lieut. Wedor. That for which I reproached him was to have burned, or
caused to have burned, the houses of the population absolutely peaceable, wifth-
out asking any information previously.
Senator JON~a. How do you know that he did not ask for information pre-
viouslyv 7
Father LE SIDANER. I know because he set the fire upon his arrival.
Senator JaONE8. Who told you that that is what he did?
Father LE SIDANER. The inhabitants themselves.
Senator J0ONEs. Did thley tell you that he had no information regarding the
presence there of the Cacos ?
Father LE Sloaza. I have just said exactly that it was the inhabitants
themselves, from the places burnedl--
Senator JONEs. Were the inhabitants there when you returned and saw the
houses?
Mr. AmomI.. Pardon me, he has not finished hi's answer.
Father LE SID~xxa. Who themselves sent one of the notables to notify the
proper authorities of Mlre Balais that the Cacos were there in their section,
and they did that in order to do their duty alid show that they did not wish to
make common cause with the Cacos.
Senator JONE8. Why did not the people there run the Cados away themselvest
Father LE SIDANOEB. With what? They were not armed and they were peace-
able people; very peaceable. They had not the habitude of arms.
senator JOsES. HRVe you any Idea how many Cacos there were there?

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGo. 857

Father LE SIDANER. No. I have told you that it was a band of Benoit, but
the quantity of the band of Benoit changed from time to time as to its number.
Furthermore, I had never seen the banld of Benoit. The largest hand that I
have seen in Crochus was 17.
Senator ODDIE. I want to ask if some of those Cacos that you say were in
your village might not have been part of the band of Benoit, or sympathizers
Fahhi nn~ther LE SIDANER. I don't know to which band of Benoit they belonged.
I only knew they were vagabonds who profited by these orders to pillage and
steal.
Senator ODDIE. Jlight not they have been the ones who burned the houses
in the village?,
Father LE SIDANER. No; they did not exist at that time. It was later.
Senator ODDIE. Don't you believe that the Cacos had a practice of trying to
get sympathizers in the various villages?
Father LE SIDANEL. Yes; by big promises; b~ut they never succeeded in thle
region.
Senator ODDIE Would not they have desired, in the case of members which
they might have secured, to keep It secret from the other inhabitants of the
village ?
Father LE SID)ANER. No: that could not exist. That would have been always
known.
The CHaIBaxAn. Is that all?
Senator ODDIE. I hRve nOthing further to ask this witness.
The CHAIRMAN. Call the next witness.
MIr. AN)E;LL. I offer in evidence the list that the witness had.
The CaArnxaN. Yes.

BTATERENT OF MR. POLIDOR SFT. PIERBE, ST. MABC, HAITI.

Mr. ANGErur. Your name is Polidor St. Pierre?
Mr. ST. Przas~. Polidor St. Pierre.
Mr. ANGELL. YOU were born at St. Maret
Mr. Sr. P1~BRE. At St. Mare.
Mr. AnELL. North of Port au Prince on the coast?
Mr. STr. PIERam. Upon the coast north of Port an Prince.
Mr. ANGEE.I. Where do you live?
Mr. Sr. PIeERE1. At St. Mare.
Mr. ANGE1.t. How long have you lived in St. Mtare~-all your life?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Since my birth.
Mr. ATFozz.I What was your occupation in 19187
M!r. ST. PIEURRE I WR8 elerk in the justice court.
Mr. AN~oart.. Is that still your occupation?
Mr. 8r. PIERBE. NO.
The CHamminar. He was at what time?
Mr. ANGEIA.. In 1918, sir. And you were clerk of the justice court In Jan-
tsary, 1919?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. Yes.
Mr. BAGsLL In your capacity as clerk of this court were you, in general,
familiar with legal procedure in that court?
Mr. Sr. PIERRE. Naturally.
Mr. ANGOEI.I. Now, will you tell us--confining your story to what you yrourself
-have seen and heard-wlll you tell us the story of your arrest at St. Mare?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. You see it is with indignation that I tell you this. It was
the 3d of January, 1919, I was at my house after leatving the court. I saw
arriving a gendarmerle sergeant, who told me that Capt. Brown asked for me.
Mr. ANGEI.T. Do you know the full name of this Capt. Brown?
Mr. ST. PIERRES. I know his name is Brown; that is all.
Mr. A~NortL.x Who was Capt. Brown?
Mr. 87. PIERBe He WR8 the captain Rt St. Mere.
Mr. ANGQEEI Captain of what?
Mr. ST. PIERE. Captain of the gendarmerie.
Mr. Awarr.L. Was he an American?
Mr. Br. PIKzana Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. COnttlBuO
Mr. ST. Pzzana. I arrived at his private house. He had me conducted to
prison.

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858 INQUIrYr INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SALNTO DOMINGO.

Mr. AwNOma. By whom?
Mr. ST. Pinna. The same sergeant. Arriving there he put me in irons, both
hand and foot, and hanged me. I passed five days hung thus without eating
or drinking.
Mr. AG0ELL.. HOW Were you hung up?
Mr. ST. PIEaRBE By the aid of a cord over one of the rafters of the prison.
Mr. ANOICt. Were your hands or feet tied during this period
Mr. ST. P~IERRE. NO.
Mr. ANGELL. Where did the rope by which you say you were hung upwhere
was it attached to your body?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. They attached it to the chains of the handcuffs.
Mr. ANGELL. Have you still on your wrists the. marks of these handeuits?
Mr. ST. PIEBBE. YeS.
Mr. ANGELL. W1il you qhow them to the committee, it they care to see them?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. Ye8.
Mr. ANGELL. Ther9 arF Othe'r sears on his body, and this is so important I
will do it all at one time, I think. What happened at the end of this period
when you say you were strung up?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. The next morning this same Brown entered into prison.
Mr. ANGELL. YOu say' the next morning. Do you mean the morning after you
were taken to prison?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Ye8.
Mr. ANGELL. COntiRUe.
Mr. ST. PTwER. He entered, and he caused to be boiled a can of water, and
then they took me and put me in a basin of cold water.
Mr. ANGELL. What was done with this can of hot water?
Mr. 87. PIEBBE. They put it on the tire.
Mr. ANGELL. What was done with it afterwards?
Mr. ST. PIERRBIE. Afterwards they took a can of kerosene and a funnel, which
he put in my mouth to make me drink the water, and I had three teeth broken.
Mr. ANGOELL. Did they pour this water down this funnel thus put into y~our
mouth?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. YeS.
Mr. ANGELL. Who was the person who did that, if you know?
Mr. ST`. PIERBE. It WRs Brown and the gendarmes.
Mr. ANGELL. Was Brown in the room at the time this actually was done?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. Naturally, he was there.
Mr. ANGELL. How many gendarmes were there?
Mr ST. PIEBRE. There were four.
Mr. ANGELL. DO you know the names of those gendarmeet
Mr. ST. PIERRE YOs.
Mr. ANGELL. GiVO them.
Mr. ST. PIERRBE. Andr4 Jean Baptiste, K~ernison R~aymond, Charlemagne, and
Perceval.
Mr. ANGELL. Was this Capt. Brown in the room all the time while this process
was going on of putting this funnel In your mouth and pouring water down it?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. YeS; because it was he who caused it to be done.
Mtr. ANGELL. Did you hear him give orders to the gendarmes to do this?
Mr. ST. P'IERRE. YOB.
The CHAIMuAN. Tell us what was said.
Mr. ANGELL. Can you tell us now the words which Capt. BrowTn used in
giving any such orders to these four gendarmes?
Mr. Sr. PIERBRE. I was so indisposed that I could not understand all the
words, only I heard him say this, Kill him."
Mr. ANGELL.. Are those the only words that you can remember?
Mr. ST. PIEBRRE Y98.
Mr. ANGELL.' These four gendarmes were all Haitians?
Mr. ST. PIERRE, Yes; Haiti&Bs.
The CHaImxaN. Was Capt. Brown of the marine force or of the gendarmeriet
Mr. ST. PIERRE. He was the captain of the gendarmerie at St. Mare.
Mr. ANGESLL. At this point may I just suggest to the committee that there is
already considerable testimony in the record, the testimony of Mr. Evans, about
Capt. Fitzgerald Brown, in command of the prison at St. Mare in January,
1919 ?
What happened after you say this water was poured down your mouth by
this funnel?
Mr. ST. Pzzans. After he caused to be heated a big, hot iron.


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INQUIRY INTG OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SAN'TO DOMIINGO. 859

Mir. ANoELL.. Was it this same day or another day?
MIr. ST. PIERRE. Two days afterwards; which he placed up~on various parts
of my body.
Mr. ANGELLT. You1 say he." Whom do you mean?
Mlr. ST. PIE~RRE. Ca~pt. Brown~.
Mir. ANPGELL. Where were you when you say he applied this hot iron to
various parts of your body?
Mlr. ST. PIERRK. In prison.
Mr. ANGELL. Whereabouts in the prison?
MLr. ST. PIERBE. One of the rooms of the prison.
Mlr. ANGEsLL. Was it a cell in which you were confined?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes8 in I Rcell.
Mr. ANGELL. How large was this cell, approximately? Was It as large as
this room?
The CHAIBMAN. Is that important?
Mr. ANGELL. I WaB trying to find out whether there was room for other peo-
ple there.
The C~HaraxAN. Put that qluestion direct.
Mr. AnoxtI.. Were there other persons present at the time you say Capyt.
Brownu applied this hot iron to your body?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Ye8; there were several.
Mlr. ANoraL. Who, if you can say?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Men and women.
Mlr. ANGEu.. You don't understand my purpose. I askedl you what persons, if
any, were in the particular room at the time when this was done to you.
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. The prisoners; men pnd women prisoners.
Mr. ANGELL. About how many?
Mlr. ST. PIERRE. About 20 in that room.
Mr. ANGELL. And we are to understand that these approximately 20 per-
sons saw the application of this hot iron to your body?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes, naturally.
Mr. ANGELL. What time of day did this happen?
Mr. ST. PIEnRRE At 12 midday.
The CHAIBMaAN. Were these mlen and women inhabitants of that vicinity,
and can you give their names?
Mr. ANGrEL.. Were any or all of these 20 prisoners men and women who
were present at this time inhabitants of St. MUare?
M~r. ST. PIERRE. Of St. Mlare and of the city and the country.
Mr. Assr..L Can you give the' names of any of those 20 persons?
Mr. 'ST. PIERBE. Ye8.
Mir. ANGOELL. How many names can you remember?
The CHAIBxAN. Andi let me suggest Ii he knows where they are living now,
give their present addresses.
Mr. ANGELL. You have given me on this sheet of paper two names. Will you
Mr.a St. PIERCflrae. Idora Donalen, and MIede, a man.
MIr. ANGlELL. Do you know where this woman and this man live now?
Mlr. ST. PIK.RRE. Yes; the womatn is at St. Miare and the man is here In
prison.
Sir. ANGELL. Couldl you give na so~me description of the-
The CHarIxxaN. What is he in the prison here for?
Mir. ST. PIERRE. He was condemned at St. Mare and I think they sent him
to prison here.
M~r. ANGE.LL. Condemned by, what tribunal?
Mr. ST. PIEIBRE. The court of thle first Instance; at that time the civil court.
Mr. ANGELL. That is the Haltian court.
Mr. ST. PIERBE. 198
MIr. AE;ont. And he is serving now in a Haltian prison?
The CHAInx~aN. What was the charge against him on which he was con-
demned 7
Mr. ST. PIERBE. He was a gendarme.
Mr. ANGELL. You have not understood my questlion. On what charge was
he tried?
Mr. ST. PIsans. Because of a man whom he had killed while he was a
gendarme.
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860 mou'RnY xxTo ocCUPATION OF HAITI AND SAINTO DOMYINGO).

Mr. ANowI;. Can you tell us how Idora Donacien, the woman at St. Mare,
could be found? That Is to say, the house where she lives in St. Mare?
Mr. ST. Planna.E She lives in the city of St. Mare.
Mr. Amost.. Can you tell us where in the city, what house?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. In the Rue Marine.
Mr. ANGEL~L. And you believe she is now in St. Marcl
Mr. Sr. PIEBRE. I think so.
Mr. ANGELL. These are the only names which you can remember of the 20
persons whom you say were in the room at that time?
Mr. ST. PIERRE, Yee.
Mr. ANGOELL. Do you remember now whether or not you knew or recognized
anly other of those 20; that is, at that time if you know any others of those 207
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes; at that time.
Mr. lANGELL. Besides these two?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGE.I.. And have you now forgotten their names?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. Yee; 81800 I stayed in prison six months the others hadl time
to go home.
The CHa~IRMAN. Now, let me suggest there la one very important matter here
that you have not touchedl on. What was the charge against him? What, it any,
trial did he have?
Mr. ANGELL. I Will come to it. Were SOR tried~-
The CHlaxAtrN. Put the question first. What charge was made against him?)
Mr. ANGELL. What charge, if any, was made against you at the time you were
put in prison ?
Mr. ST. PIERLBE. Capt. Brown himself said that a theft had been committed at
St. Mare, and I was among the number.
The CHAIBMAaN. Public funds, was it?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. NO.
Mr. ANGIELL. Was the charge written, so far as you know?
The CHAIRMAaN. Try to find out what kind of a theft; the stealing of what?
Mlr. ANGELL. Did you see any written charge against you?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. NORO.
Mr. ANGELL. Now, tell us what this theft was of which you were accused of
being concerned with.
Mr. ST. PIERRE. The theft of money.
Mr. ANGELL. From where and at what time?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. It was the 24th of December.
Mr. ANGOEL. Of what year?
Mr. 87. PIEBRE. 1919.
Mr. AnostsL. You say you were imprisoned--
The CHnrlaxn. Oh, no; there is a mistake there of some kind. He said he
was arrested on January 3. 1919. It could not have been for theft committed in
December, 1910.
Mr. ANGOELL. YOU ll&Ve just saitl you were put in prison in January, 1919.
Thenl the theft to which you have referred could not have been committed in
December, 1910.
Mr. ST. PIEBBE. NOW, from whom was this money stolen, if you know, as
charged ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes; Capt. Brown afterwardls said it was another.
Mr. ANGELL. I asked you from whom was the charge that you had stolen the
money ?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. From a Blan named Daniel.
Mr. ANGELL Where was the theft alleged to have taken place?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. At St. Mare.
Mr. ANGOELL. And a theft from the house of this Mr. Daniel?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. 198.
Mr. ANGELL. Was anyone ever actually tried for this theft from Mr. Danielt
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know his name?
Mr. ST. PTERRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGOELL, Give it.
Mr. ST. PIERBE. Christian, he is called.
Mr. ANELL~e. Was he at St. Mare?
Mr. ST. PIEBRRE YOR.
Mr. AOEst.L. Where was he tried ?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. IR the criminal court Rt St. Mere

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INQUrIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMVINGo. 861

Mr A~Ost.I When if you know ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE., I don't know exactly the year.
Mr. ANG~u.. Gi1ve it approximately as near as you can. Was it in 1920.
Mr. ST. P1ERRE. I think it was In 1919.
Mir. ANGEU.. And do you know what sentence he received?
Mr. ST. PIERBIE. I was sick at that timle.
Mr. ANGEu.. Do YOU know now what the sentence was imposed on this man
Christian ?
Mr. ST. PIERlE. He was liberated.
Mir. ANG~u.. Was he found guilty, or was he acquitted of the charge of having
stolen from D~an!ele~s nqltl ~ iefr.
Mr. Sr. PIERRE. ewsaqitdb h uy
The CHAaxAN.. You said something about his being burned with this iron.
Tell us what parts of his person.
Mrt. AlNOm.I.. I w~ll have? it p~ut in the record by his question and answers, and
then I want him to show those marks.
Senator JONEa. Was anybody ever convicted of that crime?
Mir. ANGELL. DO you know, yes or no, whether or not any person was ever
convicted of having stolen this money from Daniel?
Mr. ST. PIEPRRE Yes; because C~apt. Brown brought the money to the prison
in my presence, declaring It was Christian who stole it.
Mr. ANGESLL. Do yoIu know whether any person was tried before a court and
found guilty of having stolen this money ?
Mr. Sr. PIE;BRE. NO .
Air Ah'om.L Now, will you1 tell us the number of places3 on your body where
you say thlis hot ironr was appliedl by Capt. Bronwn. Tell us first app~roximately
the number of places andl then deserthe briefly the? parts of your body.
Mr. ST. PIERBE I caD HOt tell, HPeoRuSP I WOUld hRve to UndreSS.
The CHarmuaN. Let him indlicate by pointing. Stand up and indicate with
his fingers where.
JIr. A1'GELL. Tell u8 geneerally Wh-tPP file iTOH WHs alppliPHl.
Mir. ST. PIERRE., All over mly body. O)n the back and on the legs.
Mr. ANGELL. Were these several applications muade at the same time?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGOEM. Did YOu receive medical treatment for these burns at the time,
or after your liberation from prison?
Mr. BT. PIERRE. While I was in prison; yes.
Mr. ANOEu.. Were these several applications made at the same time?
M1r. Sr. PIEBRE. Yes.
Mr. Aon.Lt. Did you receive medical treatment for these burns at the time,
or after your liberation from prison ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. While I was in prison; yes.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you receive any medical treatment afterwards?
Mr. ST. PIEBIRE. Yes; afterwards; by Capt. Brown.
Mir. ANTGELL You say` that you re himself ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes. When he found that I was not guilty.
Mr. ANGELL Did you receive medical treatment from any doctor?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. A doctor of the g~endarmerle.
Mr. ANGoELL. Do you know what his name is?
Mir. ST. PIEERE. I have forgotten his name.
Mr. A~azz.I Where did he live?
Mr. ST. PIeRBE. I believe he is here at Port au Prince.
Mr. ANGIIu.. Where did he live ait the time that he gave the medical treat-
ment?
Mr.ST. PIERRE. He was a gendarme at St. Maro.
Mr. ANGou.. This gendarme was a doctor. Tell us briefly the nature of the
medical treatment which you rece~ived,, either from Capt. Brown or from this
gendarme doctor.
Mr. BT. Panas.l They gave me treatment every two or three days. They
gave me dressfugs every two or three days, and Capt. Brown told me that as
soon as I was perfectly healed he wvouldl put me at liberty.
Mr. ANGEL.. HRvO you tried to locate this gendarme doctor recently ?
Mr. BT. P1EERE. NO.
Mr. ANGEL.. When did you come to Port as Prince?
Mr. ST. PIEBBE. Wednesday.

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862 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mir. ANGELL. Anld what did you come down here fort
MIr. ST. PIERRE. To place my case before the investigating committee.
The CHAIRMAaN. If he locntes this docttor or tinds out where be is, ask him to
furnish the names for the committee.
Mr. ANoELL. I have at written statement by the doctor, signed by him. on the
stamped paper here, and I was just about to ask him whrethrer referring to the
name sjigined here he can state whether that is the name.
The CHAIRMAN9. That is all right.
Mlr. ANGELL. Caln YOU state whether or not this gendarme doctor was named
Clnymore Lamer?
M~r. ST. PIERRE. It WRS afterr I: cRRI Out Of prisOR that I Consulted Dr. Clay-
more Lamer, because I was still suffering.
Mir. ANGELL. Where did D~r. Olaymlore Lamer live?
Mr. ST. PTRBBE. He was living ait St. Marc.
Mr. ANGELL. Does he still live there?
Mr. ST. P'IERRE. Yes; but he is not in Sft. Mare. He is in France.
The C1HAIRMAN. TWhat is this statement you have, Mr. Angell?
Mir. ANont.. The statement in technically a medical description of the con-
dition in which the doctor claims to have found the body of Mr. St. Pierre.
The CHAIrMAN. What is its date?
Mr. ANGELL. JUDG 13, 1919.
The CHAIRMAN. At Whose instance was this lirocured; do you know?
Mr. ANGELL. I don't know.
The CHAIBMAN. Who handed you this?
Mr. ANGELL. This is a foliO Of Se~eral papers handed to me by a H~aitian
gentlemen here.-
The CHA~IRMAN. By Whom? Let us trace it down.
Mr. AontI.. It was handed up to mle this morning. I was trying to think;
which one it was.
The CHrAIBMAN. Who is there here who knows about it? Let us get at it
it we can.
Mlr. ANGELL. D0 you want to extcuse this witness now?
The C1HAIMuN. No; I simply want to trace it down. You said it was handle
to you?~sa pnr

The CIHAIRMAN. Ncow, is there anybody in the audience who handed this to
you or who knows who handed it to you?
M~r. AAOsto. Yes: it la Mr. Thoby, the gentleman down there, who handed it
to me. I had forgotten which one of them it was .
The CHarauax. Just for the record here now give us the full name, and
how he got possession of it.
Mr. ANGELL. PercOVal Thoby. Mr. Thoby says it was not he who gave me
this. but he enln tell me who did.
The CHaAIRAw. ILet him tell who gave it to him.
Mr. Tnour. When I went to St. Mare, in February, 1919, a relative of Mr.
Polidor caime to me and asked me to go to Port au Prince and get Mr. Polider
released.
The CHATrMaN. That does not answer my qluestion. Let us be brief about this
Mr. ANonLL. Just tell me who handedl me this doesier. Who gave the;
dofisier to me?
Mr. Tnonv. Thla doasser had been given to two other and that paper wast
in' it, I brought theml to Mr. Immer.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know who gave the dlossier to me this morning?
Mr. Taonu. This morning?
Mr. ANGELL. Who handedl me thle dossier?
Mr. Taoar. Mr. Nau.
The CHAIBMAN. Let mre ask You, so as to hurry it along, does this purport to
givec a description of the wounds?
M~r. ANGELL. Yes; it is a technical medical description.
The CHAmuaan. Is It under oath. or simply a signed statement?
Mr. ANGEL.IL. It is a signed statement on stamped paper, not under oath. l
never saw it until this morning.
The CHAIRMAN. C~an you read it over; so that you can say now it eorre
spends to the description he gives of his own injuries?
Mr. ANontL. Genlerally speaking, yes, sir.
The C'HAIRMAN. You desire to incorporate this)


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAIlTI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 863

M~r. ANGEu.. I do. I ask to offer this in evidence.
The CHlBAmMAN. Very well.
(The document referr~ed to 1.9 on file with the committeee)
Mr. ANGELL CRD y08 reu~~lembr during whalt periodl of time you received
care from Dr. Claymore Lamer?
Mlr. ST. PIERRE.T IIImmedIately' after coming out of prison, for I was sick.
Mr. AN'GELL. And for whalt period of timne thereafter?,
Mr. ST. PIERRE. NO.
Mr. ANGELL. Durinlg what period of time after your liberation did Dr. C'lay-
mlore Imumer give you physcical attention?,
MIr. ST. PIERRE. IDuring 80VPII m108(1.
Mr. ANO.LL. Can you tell us in what prison in P'ort Au Prince Mlede is now
confined ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. I don't know the prisons of Port Au P'rince.
The CHAIBLMAN. W-halt is the man's first name?!
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Medelus Valet.
Mr. A~ons. Can you remember now the approximate date or timle that you
were freed from prison?
M~r. ST. PIERRE. It was in June, but I can not recall the date.
Mr. ANGELL. Jnlle of what year?
Mlr. ST. PIERRE. JuRO, 1919.
M~r. ANGCELL. The doctor's certlicate Is datedl June 13, 1919?
The CHarnxAN. In that in French?)
Mr. AmonCL.. Yes, sir.
Thle CHlAIRMAN. Twt use see it.*wlll you?
Mir., Anazu.. During this period, from January to June, were you confined
during all that time in the prison of St. Mare?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. YOS.
M1r. ANGOELL. Did you at any time during thalt periodl, from Janualry to June,
see any foreigner or foreigners confined in that prison ?
Mr. ST. PfzaxE. Those who were in prison1-the men andl women who were
there ?
Mr. inANGI.. You don't understand my question. I saidl, do, you know any
foreigners-were there any foreignler or foreigners among the prisoners in
the prison at that time?
Mr. ST. PIEBE. Yes. One foreigner.
Mr. ANGELL. Who11 was he, if you know ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. It was Pastor Evans, who was present at all this sctene.
The CHAdTaxAN. Does he mean by this that he saw thisx fron applied?
Mr. AnGE~r. Do you know the first name of Pastor Evansr
MIr. Sr. PIERRE. No. Evans only.
Mr. ANGEIL. Did Mr. Evans speak French and Creole?
Mr. Sr. PIERRE~. No. He spoke English only.
Mr. sAGELL., DO yOu know whether or not he is the pastor who has been at
various times In Haiti working among the people?
MIr. ST. PIEBRE. Yes.
Mr. nANELL. C88 yOu state whether or not Pastor Evans was present among
the 20 prisoners who wtitnessedl the application of this hot iron by Capt.
Brown?7
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. NO; he was closed in another cell.
MIr. ANGELL. Did you make any complaint when you were released from
prison ?
Mr. ST. PIzans. No. While I was in prison.
Mrr. A~NGELL. TO whom did you make the complaint, if any?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. I made the complaint first to the President of the Republic,
Mr. Dartiguenave.
Mr. ANGEu. Did you do that verbally or in writing?
Mr. Sr. PIERRE. No; my relatives in writing to the minister of justice and to
the minister of the interior.
Mr. Anor.L.. Were these complaints----
The C~anslaxA. To identify this, let him say what relatives. Give thelp
addlress and in what form this complaint was made, and the names. There
nay or may not have been changes in these different ministers. Give the names
>f the ministers to whom these complaints were made.
Mr. Anear.E. Tell us now the names of the relatives by whom the complaints
Kere made, you say, to the President of the Republic.
M1r. ST. PIERRE.& Mr. Christian Noel.

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864 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ANPD SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. ANoELL. Is Christian Noel a relative of yours?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGErm. What relation?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes; he is my nephew, the son of my master.
Mr. ANGELL. Where does he live?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. 18 St. MeRf.
Mr. ANGoEIL D008 he live at St. Mare now?,
Mr. ST. PIERBE. Yes.
Mr. ANGEIL. DO YOU know the date of the complaint which you say he made
to the President of the Republic.
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. I don't know. I was in prison. Mr. Perceval Thoby took
some steps on my behalf with the minister of justice and the minister of the
interior.
Mr. ANGELL. And when did M~r. Thoby take these steps, if you know? Was
it before you were liberated from prison, or afterwardls?
Mr. ST. PIEBRE. Before mly liberation.
Mr. ANGELL. Tell us briefly the circumstances under which you were re-
leased from prison in June, 1910.
Mr. ST. PIERRE. After many steps had been taken by Mr. Thoby for me,
Capt. Brown sent me to the juge d'instruction, who put me at liberty without
having heard me. or tried me.
Mr. ANGE~LL. Did you ascertain at the time that you were put .at liberty
whether the: juge d'instruction had in his possession or among the fles of
your case any written charges? I will put it more simply. Do you kn~ow
whether or not there was any written file? Was there a written file in your
casret
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Ye8.
Mr. ANGELL. Who hadl this file?
The CH~arnw. You mean the public files, do yout
Mr. ANGELL. Yes: that is what I am trying to get at.
The IHAIRMA~N. Ask him the question direct. Was it a public file?
Mr. ANG~rL. Was It a public file?
Mr. ST. P'IERRE. Ye~s.
Mr. ANG;EIR. Was it among the public records held by the juge d'instrue-
tion ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. I hRVe only one document of the juge d'instruction.
Mr. ANGELL. Have you got that with you?
Mr. ST. PIERBE. I believe it is in that tile.
Mr. ANGELL. I hand you lile and ask you if you can pick out from among the
papers in there the paper to which you refer. What is this paper which you
are now handing me?,
Mr. ST. PIERtRE. It is a copy of the ordinance which difscharged me.
The CHAIRMAdN. I thought it was an original record.
Mr. ANGELL. It is, sir.
The CHaInxAN. He said It was a copy?
The INrTERPRETlia. A certified copy.
Mr. ANG'ELL. On duly stamped paper and authendenated.
The ('~rc~ann. You want to introduce it in the record?
Mr. ANGE~LL. Yes.
The CHaarnaN. Can you give us the substance of it?
Mr. ANGELL.. It was simply handed me this morning.
The CHAInxAN. It will be received in evidence, but meanwhile perhaps wFhkle
we adjourn at the recess, if y'ou will read It over, so you can give to us the
substance of it for our guidance.
Mr. ANGELL. After you were put at liberty, did you have any conversation
with Capt. Brown regarding any complaint made by you or in your behalf?
MIr. ST. PIERRE. NO; HPver.
The CHAIRMAN.. Your question was limited to after his release.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you have any such conversation with him prior to his re
lease?
Mr. ST. PIECRRE NO; DeVer. It WRs IR prisoR.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you have any conversation with him on this subject whild
you were in prison ?
Mr. ST1. PIERRE. Ye. He came tO the prison.
The CHAIRMAN. NOW, tinc Out w~henl this was and who, Ii anybody, was pree
ent and then let him go on and tell it.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 865

Mr. ANGELL. Was anybody present at any such conversation that you had
with Capt. Brown while you were in the prison?
Mr. Sr. PIERRE. lie; the prisoners.
The CH~laxR~a. Can you give us the names of any prisoners who were
present ?
Mr. ST. PIERRE. No0; that le three years and I have forgotten.
Mr. ANOGELL. WChat was the approximate date, if you can remember, of the
conversation with the captain in the prison?
The CIHAIRMAN. Let us not make a mistake about that. He does not mean
three years. because he said he wasl arrested in Jalnuary, 1919.
Mr. A-omlrL. It is two and a half years ago, though. We! are in December,
1921. now.
The C!HaiaaxN. I know, but this is towardi his release, and he was there six
month Get the facts. I don't want any advantage taken of it in any way.
WCe want the exact facts, whatever they are.
Mr. ANGELL To come back to Your answer a moment ago, calling your at-
tention to the fact that you said just now that you could not remember these
names, since all this took place three years ago.
Mr. ST. PIERRE. Yes; I can not recall the names.
Mr. A~GELL. D OU yo ean to 887 that this conversation took place actually
three years ago?~
Mr. ST. PIERRE. No; it is not three years.
Mr. ANGELL. Tell us what time it was, then.
Mr. ST. PIERRE. It WR8 18 May, 1919.
Mr. ANGEIL. Now tell us the conversation.
Mr. Sr. PIERRE. He came to the prison. He said to me that he was waiting
until I was perfectly cured before putting me at liberty, only he had heard
that my family had written letters for me, and if they continued he would
shoot me.
Mr. ANGErm. Were those his words?
Mr. ST. Planas. Yes; his very: words.
Mr. ANGEnL. Can youl remember any other words, if any, that he saidl?
Mr. Sr. P1EBRR. Tes; there were other words, but I canl not recall them, for,
as I have told you, I was sick in prison.*
Senator JONEs1. Did Capt. Brown speak French?
Mr. Sr. PIERRBE. Yes; he speaks French.
M~r. ANGaErm I think that is all I have to ask the witness on direct examination.
The CHarlaMAN. It is now a quarter after 12. Just before we go to that, the
committee has been furnished with a petition here presented by the engineers
fa Porto Rico. and it may bie incorp~oratedl in the record; and I suggest that the
stenoqrapher print thle original and print the translation of It, also.
(The document referred to Is on file with the committee.)i
The CHarrxxaa. Here is a letter from a physician with respect to this w~it-
ness, which has already been incorporated in the record. The comlmitte arlso
has a memoir presented by certain physicians of Haiti, andl this likewise may
be incorporated in the record.
(The document referred to Is on file with the committee.)`
)Ir. ANGELL. A similar document presented by an organization here, the
Petit Clercle of Port AQu Prince.
The CHAAIRM~AN. Tell us what the character of it is.
Mr. ANGEILL. Requesting full investigation by the committee.
The CHATRMAw. It may be incorporated in the record.
(The document referred to is on file with the committees~.)
The CHARMrArs. I think now we will recess until 2 o'clock, andi let us be
here promlptlyv. How many other witnesses have you here?
Mr. A~Co;t. There are several others who are here who will be ready. May
I ask the committee at this time, though, about the witness Jolibols. Having
this in mind, in view of mny conversation just before the official opening of the
sitting that I have not a written statement to give at this particular moment of
the faets on which Mr. Jolibois would testify if called here, apart from his own
case, the article for which he was confined for a considerable time in prison and
condemned to pay a fine. If the committee does not consider this until 2 o'clock
and then considers it, it will be physically impossible to get Mr. Jollbois here
before the close of the examination.
The CHaruraxn. The committee never crosses bridges, until we get to them.
W7e have had no statements from you as to what you expect to prove by this
witness, and until we do have that, we do not feel that we are called upon to

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$866 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATIONJ OF HAITI AND SANTO DOM1INGO.

decide whether he shall be brought here or not. He is now in prison here. We
are not prejudging the case or the character of his testimony at all, but it
counsel will present to the committee a brief memorandum indicating what it
is expected to prove by this witness, we will then determine what we will do
in regard to it.
Mr. ANGELL. At 2 o'clockr?
The CHAIRMANo. Well, or as soon thereafter.
Mr. ANGELL. Not before 2 o'clock.
The CHlmusaN. Oh, no; we don't ask that. We stand recessed until 2 o'clock.
(Whereupon the committee took a recess until 2 o'clock p. m.)
(During; the recess, the witness Polidor St. Pierre, upon the suggestion of
counsel and at the request of the committee, showed scars on the front of his
left leg above the knee and on the rear of his legs and hips, and also sears of
handcuffs on his wrists. Witness says scars on his buttocks and rear of his legs
were caused by the application of a hot iron. Witness also showed sears on
legs above ankles which he said were made by shackled.)
ArrEB BECE88.

The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 2 p. m.
Present: Senators Pomerene (presiding), Oddlce, and Jones.
The CHAmx~aN. Mr. Angell, I think we will inquire of Mr. Thoby for the finor-
mation we wanted.
Mr. ANGELL. You asked me in the meantime, sir, to look over that legal paper
which I said I had here and which the witness testified came from the
court up here. I have looked it over, and as nearly as I understand its
effect, under Haitian law, it to a certificate duly legalized by the clerk of the
court at St. Mare as an exact copy of the original documenrt in the archives of the
court of the dismissal of charges against the witness P'olidlor on the ground of
this theft, and dismissal by the juge d'lustruction, which corresponds to our
prosecuting attorney and whibbh corresponds to an Indlectment by the same juge
d'Ins~truction, of a man named Christian, whom the witness said was later
accused of the crime, tried and acquitted. This certifiedt copy, which I offer in
evidence, is dated the 26th day of June, 1919, long before this investigation was
thought of.
The CHAlaxAN.. Does it show that a charge was preferred against the wiftne~ss
Mr. ANonct.. It does. It refers to the witness by name.
The CHimuBan. Is it an entry of dismissal?
Mr. ANGOELL. It is an entry of dismissal. It is a legal document.
The CHarmxan. Very well. The record will be received in evidence.
(The document referred to is on file with the committee.)
Mr. ANGELL. You also asked me yesterday, Senator--asked Mlr. Sylvain the day
before yesterday--to prepare a statement of the membership, organization, and
disbursement of funds of the Union Patriotiqlue. I am informed that is being
made up as quickly as possible. If completed before the leaving of the committee,
it will be handed to them by me. If not, It will be forwarded.
(The document was subsequently furnished to the committee and is on file.)i
The CHAIBMAN. And I also at the same time asked for a complete copy of all
of these inscriptions on the banners which were circtlatedl here.
Mr. ANrEtLL. I trill make a note of that to obtain it for you.
The CAIanx~an. And have that sent to us.
(The document was subsequently furnished to the committee and is on file.)
The CH~Iamarr. I think Mr. Thoby is here, and is simpgly going to testify, as
I understand it, to the measure which he took to present these charges to the
Haitian authorities, and perhaps to the military authoritice-if such is the
case-and I think, in the absence of the notary~, we wii lelher his statement nowf.
Mr. ANGELL, Mr. Thoby. by the way, was not his attorney. Mr. Thoby is not
an attorney. He simply interested himself.

STrATEaMENT OF MR. PERCEVAL THO;BY.

The CHAIBMAN. What 18 your name?
Mr. THosY. Perceval Thoby.
The CHarrrxaNo. Your business?
Mr. THear. Diploma1t.
The CHEzaxBaR. You are a native Haitian?)
Mr. TnoBY. I am a native Haitian.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AN'D SANTO DOMINGO. 867

The CHA~IRMAX. Anid except when away on public service, you live here?
Mr. Tnonr. I was born in Jamalca.
Thle ('HAIRMAN. And you know this witness
Mr. TwoBr. Very well.
The CHAIrMrAN. HOW 108% hRVe you known him?
}Ir. TnosY. I have known him since he left the prison, the 13th of June, 1919.
The CHALRaAN. Did you see him in prison?
Mr. THonY. No, sir. I did not know him before. I would like to testify in
French.
Thre CHFAIRMAN. YOn aire getting along all right. You are a better Eng~lish-
man than you think you are. When did you first meet this witness?
MIr. THonv. The first time I mlet P'olidor was thle 13th of June, 1919, when
he left the prison. I was before the door of the prison when he went out.
The CHAnxarn~. And did he talk with you then about it?
Mr. TAOsY. Yes; I talked to him.
The CHarsraxAN. And when did you take the matter up of his case with the
Haitian authorities or with the military authorities? Just state brietfy what
you did.
Mr. TAunv. I was in St. Mare, the 7th of February, 1919, when a cousin of
Jir. P'olidonr came to me and asked me to see the Haitian authorities or the
American authorities to get his cousin out of prison, because he was illegally
arrested. He was tortured in prison. I left St. Mare the 26th of February. I
went to Port aun Prince, and I saw, on the 27th, In the evening, Mr. Andr4
Faubert.
The CH~arlraxAN. Who was he?
Mr. Tuoar. Mr. F'aubert was the secretary of the council of the ministers.
The CBAIBMcAN. What ministers?
JIr. Tuonu. The secretary of state, the Haltian minister, and I asked him
to see the President, Dartigruenave, in the case of Mir. Polidor, and he told me
he would talk of it to the Presidfent the next dany---
The CH~BmuAN. Now, just before you get to that. Did you tell the ministers
what you unde~rstoodl the cause of the complaint was?
Mlr. Twosr. I saw no milnister thant dlay. It was Mr. A4ndre Faubert.
>Ir. AGELL.J The secretary of the council of state?
Mr. TnosY. No; the council of secretaries.
The CHarxaNa. Did you tell the secretary what you wanted to see the Prest-
dent about ?
3Ir. THOBY. I did not want to slee the President. I did not see him.
The CHAIRMANo. Didl you tell him what you wanted to see the President
aboout?
Jfr. TnowRY. Yes; I told him the whole story, of Mr. Polidor.
The CHAIrMlAN. Without going Into the details, did it correspond substan-
tlally to what he said here?
Mr. TwoarY. Perfectly well.
The CHamxtaN. Did you see the minister afterwards?
>Ir. TuonvY. Afterwaurds I remained a few days, seeing that the President
was doing nothing.
The CHAIBMrAN. What was the minister's name?
Mr. Tnonv. Mr. F'aubert.
The CHAILaxAN. Let mle get that straight. I understood you to say this was
the seclretary- of the ministers.
Mr. ANGCELL. The secretaryv of the cabinet, MIr. Faubert. The witness has
just referred to him, I believe, inaccurately as the minister. He should refer
to him as the secretary.
The CHAsliauN. Well, proceed and tell us who you saw in connection wilth
the administration.
Mr. T~oar. When I saw that Mr. Faubert could not succeed In releasing
Mr. Polidlor I went to Mr. Louis Roy, minister of public works.
The CanaxAN. Now, proceed and tell us what was said.
Mir. Ts`IosY. He promised me to see the minister of the interior, Mr. Bernard
Dartiguenave.
The CHArnxAN. What did you say to him?
3Ir. Tuouv. I told him the story of Polidlor and his torture in prison.
The CHalaxAN. Tell me what you said to the minister.
Mr. TwoRY. I told the minister that Mr. Polidlor hadt been arrested illegally
and tortured in prison by Brown, and I asked hlim to see the secretary of
the interior to write to the gendarmerie to make an inquiry of the case. Tha~t

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868 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

was promised, but I remained until the 9th of June here, and nothing had
been done to relieve P'olidor. Then I went to St. Mare the 10th of June, 1919.
The juge d'Instruction was a clerk in the department of foreign relations when
I was chief of the division, 10 or 12 years ago, and I asked him as the juge
d'instruction to instruct the case of Polidor, that it was his duty. He told
me that he could not do it because Fitzgerald Brown was interfering with
justice at all times. I told him that I--I made a little le--- told him that
I was very friendly to Gen. Catlin, and if he did not do his duty I would be
obliged to write to the latter and expose. to Gen. Catlin the case of Polidor, and
that he should be ashamed for a Haitian judge to be a coward.
Mr. ANGELL. What else was said?
Mr. THoar. He said he would do as I toldl him; and he took the case up with
the attorney for the Government, Mr. M~alherbe Perpignan, and Mr. Polidor on
the 13th of June was released provisionally from the prison. I met him when
he wlas going out.
The Cwauses. Now, after that did you have any further talk with any of
th Mrcn~r. TrHouY. No talk at all with the authorities.
The CHAIMuAN. Now, let us understand one another. When I say the authori-
ties, I mean either the Haitian authorities or the American authorlt'es.
Mr. THOBY. None of thlem. When he was liberatedl provisionally the 13th
of June theyv could take him back again in prloo~n, you see; so0 I went to Judge
Sans. I told himt that Mlr. P'olidor will be under the hands of justice it he
didn't also send him out, and to make what theyv call in the French an ordon-
nance de non lieu.
The CHAIRMAN. Whlatwoukl be the Eng~lish of it?
MIr. ANGEu.L. Dismissal of charges.
Mr. TEaonY. The 26th ofi June that was done. I left St. MIare for Port as
Prince the 27th of June.
(The witness was here sworn.)
The CHAIIxMAN. You have just twen qlualified by the notary. You understand?
'Was the statement you just made prior thereto to the committee tht! truth?
MIr. Tuonv. It was albsolutely' the truth.
The CHlAIRMAfl. And the whole truth?
Mr. THoaY. The whole truth.
The CH~nraxAN. And nothing but the truth?
Mlr. THoar. And nothing but the truth.
The CHAIRMAN. That Is 811. DO you want to ask anything?
Relnator JONPEa. I don't think so.
Mir. ANGELLC. May I ask one question of the witness, please?
The CHAIRMAN. Y98.
Mr. ANGELL. Will you state whether or not the documents which I offered In
evidence just before your statement, the ordonnance de non lieu. the dismissal
of charges, the document which you got from Judge Sans to give to the writ-
ness Polidor?
Mr. Tuonv. Yes; to settle the matter.

STATIEMENT OF J. JOLIBOIS, MIBS, PORT AT PRINCE.

Mr. ANaGEL. What is your name?
Mr. JounRors. J. JollboJIs, Ols.
Mr. ANGELL. You live in Port au Prince?
Mr. JounRoIs. Yes.
Mr. ANpGELL. Iset me say, if I may, before examining this witness, because
he has, as I understand, been released from prloon only this morning, I never
saw the witness until I came into the room five minutes ago, I have never had
any opportunity of conversing with him.
What is your occupation?
Mr. Joun~ors. Director of the Courier Haltien; a merchant, tradesman.
Mr. ANGELL. You have just been released from prison in Port au Prinee?
Mr. Joun~ors. Just about two hours ago.
Mr. ANGELL. YOu haVe been serving sentence in the prison of Port go Prince?
Mr. JotInors. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL Since what time?
Mr. Jounsors. I was arrested the 28th of May at 1 o'clockr in the afternoon.
Mr. ANGELL, 18 What yearly


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGo. 869

Mr. JonsBors. 1921.
Mr. ANGEu.. And you were arrested by whom?
Mr. JouaBols. By the provost marshal, accompanied by Maj. Rupertus.
Mr. ANGER;. WIho is the provost marshal?
Mr. Jous~ols. I don't recall his name.
Mr. AnGEtLL On what charge were you arrested?
Mr. Jous~ols. According to the judgment which was renderedl against me
for having---
The INTERaPBRETER He Bay8 I was the interpreter in the court and I enn tell.
I was the interpreter in the provost court in which he was tried.
The CHAIrMAN.. That may be, but he had better tell it in his own way.
Mr. ANGELL. What was the charge against you?
Mr. JounBoIs. According to Col. Russell, for having Infringed the order of the
26th of May, 192L1.
Mr. ANGEr, What was that order?
Mr. Jounaors. According to the report made by Col. Russell to the Nalvvy De-
partment of the C'nited States, for having attacked the occupation of Ha'ti.
Mr. ANGEu.. Were you tried by provost court of the American occupation
here in Port au Prince?
Mr. Joun~oIs. Col. Mleade, assisted by C'apt. Woodl, who is here [referring to
the Interpreter].
Mr. ANGOELL. The Capt. Wood you refer to Is the gentleman sitting here a~ct-
ing as Interpreter?
Mr. JouIBols. Yes; that is he.
Mr. APIonu~.. Are we to undlerstandi that the court which tried andi condelmnedl
you was composed of Col. Meadle alone?
Mr. Jona~ols. O)nly Col. Mlende, assisted by Capt. Wood as clerk and inter-
preter.
Mir. ANGEzrL. What was the basis of the charge, of having violated thle order
referred to?
The CHA1BMAN. Let mue suggest, before that question is answeredl, this, was
there a report of the testimony taken? W'as the testimony reduced to writing
in that case?
The INTERPRE~TEB Pe8, Bir.
The CHAIRMAN. I8 thRO record in existence at the present time?
The INTERPBRTrE. The record wass delivered to Col. Meade as provost court
officer by me, and after that I don't know.
The CHal~atAN. And no doubt that record can be produced?
The INTERpPRETEB. It WR8 RR officil reord, 817.
The C:H~IlaAN. Let mle suggest that the rec~ordl, of course, is the best evidence
of what occurred there, and if that record Is to be had it maly be regardled us
introduced into the record, and if there is anything, then, outside of that in
addition to that which you desire to call the attention of the conunittee to we
shall be glad to hear it. And there muay be included inl this re~cordl-if yoeu will
get that for us, M~r. Angell, get the order of Clol. Russell, and the record, I
assume, may show that--if that is the fact--thalt the island was under martial
law at that time. In that right?
Mr. Azrora. It is my understanding that the order for martial law was given
the day before the alleged offense -that is, the 26th of May.
The C!HAIRMAN. I aml trying to shorten this if I can.
Then have the record also show what the indillng of Col. M~eade was or the
provost court atnd what the sentence was.
Now, that will give all of that record, and if there is anything In addition
to that which you desire to present by this witness the conunittee will be glad
to have it.
Mr. ANGaEL.r I suppose that order can be obtained.
The INTERPRsETER It abould be part of the official record of the occupation.
(The record was subsequently produced and Is on tile.).
Mr. ANo88to. I~t me identify the issue of newspaperI~ in question to be received
in evidence, if I may.
The CHAIBMlAn. Do I understand that this copy was the subject of the
charge?
Mr. ANrGEC.. That is my understanding, sir. I ask you to Identify this.
I hand you what purports to be a cop1y of Le Courier Haitlen, published in
Port au Prince on Friday. May, 27i, 1921, alnd ask you if on glancing at that
newspaper it is a copy of the issue of that paper put out on that dlay?
Mr. Jounrois. Yes.

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870 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. ANYG~U.. This is a copy of the issue of the newspaper of which you are
one of the edlitors? Is it or is it nlot a fact that you were tried and found
guilty by thle provost court, as you have just testifiedl, for having infringed the
order referred to by publishing or being responsible for the publication of Le
Courier Haitten of the 2'7th of May, 19217
Mr. JoLIsols. Yes.
The CHamBMANP. Now, let me? makze this suggestion further in connection with
that. I take it there are other things in this paper besides this particular article
about which the military authorities were complaining. We will receive the
whole of it, but I wish you wfouldl indicate that part of the paper which was
the subject of this prosecution, so that when it. comes to the printing of the
record we will have that part of It only, and therefore avoid unduly encumbering
the record.
M~r. ANGER.u In order that the witness may identify the article, sir--handing
you a copy of Le Courier Haitlen, May 27, 1921-1I ask you to indicate the
portion therein for the publication of which you were condemned by the provost
court.
Mr. Jous~oIs. As well as I can give account of the condemnation it was for
having published an article in blank lines.
Mr. ANGELL. Indicate the article.
The CHraarnaN. I~t him mark with penlcil all of the artlele concerned.
Mr. ANGELL. The witness has now Indkicated by pencil line three places in
the paper and document which I have oi~eredl in evidence; two on the first
page and one on the second page, which will be the part received in evidence.
(The parts were vindicated by the witness, aind the document is on file with
the committeee)
The CHIAIRMAN. SOW, let me ask the witness two or three questions along
that line. How long had he, prior to this, been editing this paper or been con-
nected with It? How long did he edit the paper?
Mr. Jounaors. About three months.
The C1Ha~RnxAN Did you found the paper yourself, or was it an old estab-
Itshed paper?
Mr. JounRors. It was a newspaper established one year.
The CHAIRMAN. By the witness?
Mr. JousBols. I was one of the founders.
The CHAIR~MAN W~ho was the other?
Mir. JounBors. Joseph Lanoue & Vieulr.
The CHlax~aN. And for how long had you been responsible for the policy
of the paper?
Mr. JOLIBOIS. I Was responsible for it from the month of March, it my
memory Is good.
The CHAInxANR. March 21, do you mean?
Mr. Jouasols. March 21, if my memory is good.
The CHAlaxaN.. And during this time you had been opposing, through the
columns of the paper, the American occupation here?
Mr. JounBors. I was mistaken a while ago; it was from the month of Jan-
unry~ that I was responsible for the newspaper.
(The question was repeated as follows: And during this time you had
been opposing, through the columns of the paper, the American occupation
here? ")
Mr. JounBors. Against the methods of the occupation; yes, and in principle
against the occupation.
The CHAIRMAN. Are you opposed to continuing the occupation now?
Mr. JouIBols. Since I have come out of prison, still more so.
The C'HAIRMAN. Is it due to your general opposition to the control by the
American Government, or Is your position due to what you are pleased to
call the methods of those who are responsible for the administration?
Mr. Jounors. At the bottom I am opposed to the occupation, because having
been born free and independent I wish to transmit to my children the same
freedlom and indlependence and the same sovereignty. And, furthermore, before
going to prison I had said, according to reports made to me--now, I can swear
before God having seen with my own eyes, I was beaten in prison.
Mr. ANGEu. The witness is now going ahead to the other matter about which
he wishes to testify, if you are ready to come to that, Senator.
The CHaanxaN. I was not quite certain that I understood the words he
used.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AN'D SAN'TO DOMING~O. 87].

Mir. ANGEL, He was starting to branch off. from the explanation of his
belief to thle committee to testify shout what has haIppenedl in prison whlile he
has been there.
Senator JONEs. Before we go to that I wouldl like, to ask him a few questions.
You stated a while ago that y-ou were put in prison for printing some blanlr
lines. That was you statement, was it not?
Alr. Jo~lulws. Yes; b~ut hlere is one of my1? lawyers hlere that took panrt In mly
trial; he catn give information as to thle trial, beenuse the enuse esucapedi me.
I don't know why I was tried.
Senattor JosIcs. You referred to some blank lines in here. What do those
blank lines mean?
Mir. JouDors. W'hen thle orde~r of Col. Runssell was given to me the newsx-
papler was already on thle press. In order not to infringe this order I did my
real duty in going at once to the sprint shop where thle journal was edlitenl to
take out these parts whichl, according to mle, mighlt he considered as offensive
toward the occupation.
Senator JONEaI. Has any such matter as you took out of this article been
previously published ? esee n o e penl
Mr. Jous~on. No: h esae a o e perd
Senator JONEs. Why did not you take out thle whole article?
Mr. Jousors. It waus myv chief article, and according to my belief this article
had nothing offensive in it.
*Mr. ANGoELL. Does Ca~pt. Wood know whether the record of the trial contains
a translation of the article as well as the original in print?
Capt. WOOD. I don't remember exactly.
Mir. Aior.LL. Miay we reserve the privilege of submitting a translation of the
article ?
The CHAI~xAN. Yes; if it has not already been tnranslatted, so we will have
a complete record of it.
Senator JONES1. Had this article been published previously?
Mr. Jouseols. Never.
Senator JONEs. Anything like this article been published previously?
Mr. JousBors. Yes.
Senator JONEs. How many days before the 27th of Mlay had this article
appeared in your paper?
Mr. JoranoIs. Yes; since the 15th of November, 1920, Le Clourrier Haltion con-
sidered it its full duty to denounce all the crimes and misdeeds committed by
the military agents of the United States and Haiti.
Senator JONuEs. You have answered mny qluesition. Do you mean to say that
one article set up in this way had been publishled for some mlonths prior to the
27th of May ?
Mr. Joun~ors. No; only the 27ith of Mayg; that was never published before.
Senator JoNYs. Was not this article with these blank lines published before
the 27th of Miay~r ?oer. ,,

Senator JONrE8. Wasl there any article similar to this published for the
previous daya---days previous to Mayg 27, 1921l?
Mr. JousnOrs. Yes.
Senator Jonas. How near like this article were they?
Mir. JousBOrs. I can not recall.
Senator JONEs. Were any other papers besides this publication of M~ay 27
used in evidence at the time you were tried by the provost?
ir. Jou~nors. No.
Senator Jon~s. I understand that there were, and I don't believe that this
witness understands mly question. Did they' use in evidence any other issues
of your paper ?
Mr. Jouneors. No.
Senator JONEa., Any of your papers printedl on other days?
Mir. Jousaols. No; no. Mir. Hudicourt may serve as a witness. That was the
only one.
Senator JON~s. M~r. Woodl, does the witness understand what I am trying
to get at?
Capt. Woon. He must have understood the Inst question. If you wish to I
wll ask him myself and try and put it clearly. I understand what you were
trying to say.
Senator JONEs. I Wish you would.
(The interpreter here spoke to the witness in French..) .
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872 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

The Irrzarawr~EB. He says nd. He understands, and he says no. And he ears
that I can say no, too; but I say yesthere were.
The CHlaunaH. Let me understand that. That there were other issues of
his paper introduced?
Capt. WOOD. Yes; there was an issue previous to that was introduced, and
then that paper was compared with it. Mr. Jolibois says no, but there was.
It was all made a part of the record.
The CH~laxAN. Then this record will show the fact, whatever it is.
Mr. BANELL. Now, may I proceed ?
The CHaInxraN. Yes.
Mr. ANGEoR. In this connection will you state, if you can remember it, the
date of the, imposition of martial law?
Mr. Jo.IBole. The proclamation, the order of the day was given to me the
27th of May, between 10 and 11 o'clock in the morning.
Mr. ANGELL I understand, Mr. Jolibois, that you have certain evidence to
offer as to conditions or particular facts that you have seen or observed your-
self in prison.
Mr. Joun~ors. Yes.
The CHlaxIsaN. Identify the prison, so there will be no doubt as to what
you mean.
Mr. AnGER. As I have had no opportunity to discuss this matter with you
beforehand, I wish you would tell briefly the experience, what you have seen
and observed in this prison during the time of your imprisonment, stating
where the prison is where you were confined.
Mr. JouaBols. After having been arrested Saturday, the 28th day of May,
at 1 o'clock, I was taken to the prison.
Mr. ANGERL. What prison?
Mr. Jous~ors. The military prison in the Rue du Centre.
Mr. ANGEM.. 10 Port Ru Princee
Mr. Joun~ors. In Port an Prince.
Mr. ANGELL. Is that a prison in charge of the American military authorities?
Mr. Jousolas. Yes.
Mr. ANGEu.. Now, proceed with whatever you have to say in this connee-
tion.
Mr. Jozz~oos. Upon entering I gave my personal effects to Llent. Considine
of the prison, and I was shut in cell No. 1 of the first square. They gave me
to sleep on a light mat, which was at least a year old and dirty. The mat
was laid upon the concrete floor; each morning at 6 o'clock they came and
opened the cell and washed the concrete and locked me up again, and I was
obliged to sit down upon the wet cement. The following Tuesday Gen. Meade
came to visit me in the cell, and during this visit he wishedl me to designate an
American ofiker for my defense, and I refused. The same day my wife came
to see me with a special authodizatfon from the gendarmerie. I asked Lient
Clonsdidne to give my wife the personal property which had been delivered to
him, and he grossly refused, and in the presence of the detective Polynice. I
told my wife to dlo the Impossible, in order that the Courier Haitian should
continue its publication.
The CHaraxAaN. Now, before he goesJ to that, he made a statement a moment
ago that his wife came with a special authorization. What does he mean by
that?
Mr. Jou~nols. Sunday is the regular visiting day at the prison, and Sunday
they had refusced to let my wife visit me, and upon the appeal of friends the
gendlarmerle was kind enough to give a special authorization that she might
come on Tuesday. On Wednesday they seized the books which my wife had
given to Lieut. Considine to be given to me. I was called before the provost
court Friday, the 3d of June, and several days afterward, on the following
Tuesday, I was told that I had been condemned to six months' hard labor and
r$300 flue. Then Lieut. Considine came to my cell. opened it, and invited me,
as well as my colleague Lanone, to follow him.
Mr. ANGER~. Who is this Lieut. Considine? Is he an Haitian oftleer or an
American of~eer?
Mr. Jouno~rs. A sergeant of the police corps and the first lieutenant in the
gendarmerie.
The CHazaIRa. That does not answer the question. Is he an American or a
Haltian ?
M1r. Jous~ors. An American. I was taken to the third square in the first cell,
'timc~e Lieut. Considine told me to dress myself, and gave me a anit of

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 813

convict clothes. I had a shirt on, and he said, No. no, take off the shirt"
I asked the lieutenant to let me keep my shirt on, but he said, No, take off
the shirt." He told me that I was to be sent to the tailor shop, but going out
of the courtyard Lieut. Sullivan asked me--I can not remember the words--
" Comne on. come here." It was in English that he spoke to me, and I don't
remember his exact words. He gave to my colleaule Mr. Lanoue and myself
two tampers, and told us to go out and tamp the ground in the courtyard.
Mr. ANGEu.. Now, Mr. Jolibois. come as quickly as you caln to the most Im-
portant matter, which you think is important to testify before these gentlemen.
Mr. Joua~ols. Friday, the 17t~h of June, at 3 o'clock in'the afternoon, I was
sewing, and a lieutenant came up behind mne----
Mr. AxnGu.. Lieutenant who?
Mr. Jou~Bors. Lieut. Sullivan; and ait a time when I did not expect him, and
upon the pretext that I had sewed badly a part of -a pair of trousers, called
bagette, he gave me two blows in the hae two heavy blows in the face, two
blows of his fist-calustug me to fall over backward to the ground. I was
sitting upon a small bench, and in falling my two legs were caught in the legs
of the bench, and as I started to get up. my eyes andl my face bathed in blood,
Lieut. Sullivan threw himself upon me and took me by thle throat and struck
me all over thle body. Then taking me by the throat, he wished in any case
to throw me down, he struck me with his foot, as he had done Lelio Peralte
and to other prisoners. Fortunatelyv for me, I wals not thrown down. Then I
cried, Assassin Coward !" A moment after he toldl me, Don't you want
to keep, on working? Then he went out and got Lieut. Considifne. Lieut.
Clonsidine, then appearing at a small door which opened into his room, was
surprised to see me in that condition. ~After explanation had been made to
Lieut. Clonsidine by me, I was taken to the first square and lockied in a cell
where the cement had been previously wet. Here I was locked in. Being
thirsty, I asked the lieutenant to give me a drop of water. He resp~ondedl
by an insult. telling me that he had no water to give me. I told Lieut. Con-
sidine that I had not even a mat to lie down on. He told me to lie down upon
the cement.
They left mle all night locked up in that cell, without even a drop of water and
without even a thin mat, which ordinarily they had given me. saturday, early in
the morning, he came to the cell and told mue, You will dile where you are. You
will never get out. I will never let you out. First of all, I am going to make a re-
port against you to the gendarmerie." Sunday it was not permitted my wife to
come and see me. Mlonday, I don't know for what reason, but about I o'clock he
came and let me out of the! cell. But, however', it was forbidden to mue to lie down,
because at that time my body was very sore; I was sick. He toldl me thlat I
must stay in the courtyard. Tuesday thle same way, and Tuesday afternoon
three officers of the gendalrmerie came to the prison and made an investiga-
tion. I told all the truth to these three officers, and in the meantime Capt.
Wood. here present, enme to the tailor shop and asked the tailors w~ho were
present at the scene not to avow that they had seen Lieut. Sullivan striking
me. He promnisedl one of them to have him put at liberty; to another he told
him, ".This man is a thief. You must not concern yourself with him."
Mr. ANGELL. Wlere those remarks which you say Capt. Wood, the gentleman
opposite, made, in French or in English?
Mr. JoLraols. In good Creole. I should say to you that that, however, has
been told to competent authority. It is not here only. This is not the first
time that that, has been calledl to the attention of American authorities. Lieut.
Considine and Capt. Woods did their best to induce the witnesses to deny the!
fact, and Lieut. Sullivan was tried. The next day, the day after the investi-
gation was. ILieut. Considine sent for mne. He ga~ve me a bucketful of lime.
He said, Now, we are going to see. You are going to whitewash the entire
courtyard of the prison." I had nothing to say. I took the bucket and went
to work whitewashing. He told me to take charcoal out of the bucket with
my hands. I took them out. The following Saturday, Gen. Mcnoug~all and
Gen. Mea~rd came to visit the prison, and seeking me from the balcony of the
hospital of the prison, where they were working whitewashing the prison, it
was forbidden to me to stand up. I was ordered to bend over all day long
without a hat or anything, from 6 o'clock in the morning until midday and
from 1 o'clock until 5. If I had pressing need to go somewhere It was neces-
sary for me to report to the chief of the prisoners. He in turn would ask a
corporal, and the corporal would ausk Lieut. Considine, and then corporal would
be delegated to accompany me to this place. Thursday, the 7th of July, I was

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874 INQUCIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

called to Caserne Dessalines to witness in the trial of Llent. Sullivan. The
counsel of Lieut. Sullivan put this question to me: Knowing: the truth, know-
ing that the revelation of the truth would condemn you, would you consent to
reveal this truth? I made this response to the court: Even if I knew that
mY head was to be put into the knife, knowing the truth, I would tell this
truth, content thereafter--"
Senator JONEs. Ask hlim if these thingsz were reported. Was there a sten
ographer there to report these proceedings?
Mr. Joun~oIs. Yes.
Senator JONus. Ant1 that is all in the record of that trial?
Mr. Jouseors. Yes.
The CHamuaNa. Let me suggest, if there is a court proceedings and this tes-
timony has been taken down, we will see that the record of that court pro-
ceedling is incorporated in this record.
Mr. JouIBols. Thank you. I hold to this question. Even knowing that the
revelation of this truth might cause muy death, I would tell that truth---
The CHanAIrAN. He need not go on and tell anything more about that trial.
Mr. Jous~ols. That same day at 1 o'clock in the afternoon, up~on my return
to the prison, theyv made me pay for that declaration. Upon my return to the
prison I found Lieut. Sullivan. Lieut. Considine came and found me in the
mess hall. It was raining that day. It was a torrential rainfall. Lieut.
Considine said to me, Go out and work." And that day I broke rocks. I
went and sat down in the mud, and again I broke rocks. And half an hour
afterwards he sent for me by Siergt. Pierre Louis. He told me, G~o and cut the
limbs of that tree." It was a sublier, a tree covered with thorns. I was given
a machette and from 1 o'clock until 5 I remained out there in the beating rain
cutting the limbs off that tree. I have seen a great deal at the prison. I can
give you a detailed account of the rbrime of the prison.
Mr. ANGELL. May I make a suggestion there? Without knowing what he has
to say on that subject. You gentlemen might ask him if it can not be put in
written form without having to cross-examine the witness. I don't know how
important It is.
The CHAIrMrAN. Let me ask him one or two questions. There was a court-
martial proceedings held against Lieut. Sullivan, was there not?
Mr. JouIBols. Yes.
The C~anatnn. You testified to that proceeding?
*Mr. Joun~ors. Yes.
The CHArr~inxA. Have you told or did you tell in that proceeding all the
facts as they occurred at the time of the trouble between you and Llent. Sulli-
van? Did you tell all the facts at that time?
Mr. JonsBoIs. Yes. But I was told by the court to keep entirely to the events
of the 17th of June.
The CHAraxMA1. Is that the day when he claims to have been struck by the
lieutenant ?
Mr. Jouneors. Yes.
The CHArnuxw. It was claimed, was it not, that you first attacked him with
the scissors?
Mr. Jona~oIa. That was not true.
The C:HAIRMAN. Was it not claimed--did not somebody testify to that fact?
Mr. JounIors. If anyone did say so, he was either induced to say that by Capt
Wood or Lieut. Considine.
The CHdIaxAN. Now, that doesn't answer the question. Did anyone testify
before the court-martial that you had first attacked the lieutenant with the
eclasers, and what he did was after you had attnekedl him?
Mr. Jouneoze. I asked the court-martial to communicate to me the testimony
given by the witnesses, and they refused to do so.
The CHaslaxaN. Were you asked any question at that time as to whether or
not you had attacked with the scissors?
Mr. Jounors. They askedl me if I had made use of a pair of scissors to defend
myself, if my memoryv is good.
The CHAIrMAN. The rOcord will show what the testimony was at that time,
and that entire record--I take it my colleagues agree with m w-ill be incor-
porated in this.
(The record referred to is to filed with thes clerk to the committee.)
Mr. Jousoles. I have something else to say to the court. That is, that Capt.
Wood, here present, causred to be called fr~om the prison one named Davis and
asked of Mr. Davis to sign a paper.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINOo. 875

The CHaIBMarN. Were you present at this time when you say Capt. Wood
asked Mr. D~avis to do this?
Mir. JousBors. No. But Capt. Wood was at the court anld was sent to call Mlr.
Davis from the prison.
Mr. ANG'ELL. How do you know that Capt. WTood put such a question to Mlr.
Davls ?
Mlr. JounHors. It was Mr. Davis who upon coming from the court told thlat to
Mr. Sauveterre, also a prisoner, and in my presence. Ats it is an affair very
important, I make this declaration before the court.
The C~HAIRMAN. COUBsel must agree that that evidence is not competent.
Mr. ANGELL. I agree entirely. I had no knowledge about it.
The C'HAIBMAN. Is there anything further of this witness?
Mr. ANGELL. I don't think so. Anything else could be p~ut in a\ deposition.
The CHaalnxAN. You can furnish more memloranduml for the committees! if
there is anything else. We will determine then what shall be done with him.
Who is this Mr. Davis?
Capt. Woon. He is the biggest swindler wh1o ever struck Haiti. He swindled
some of the most prominent people in Port au Prince--not only Port au Prrince
but all over Haiti. He swindled some of the best Haitians out of several hlun-
dred thousand dollars, claiming to be able to locate buried treasure in the
ground, and he induced them to burn enormous sums of money, and in doing
it he just worked the sleight-of-hand change and burned false money in its
place, and they were ashamed to tell it, and he was sent to prison.
The CHAI~BMAN. Wat i8 DRVIS's first Dame?
Capt. WOOD. Juan Baptiste Ramirez. He is wanted by the Cuban Government
for theft and forgery. He is a Cuban, and has been in Halti about three
years; and it was one of his own statements that a man who was pretending
to be a candidate for the presidency of Haiti had made some arrangement with
him by which he was, for $15,000, to kill President Dartiguenave by mlag~ic; and
the man paid the money, so I am informed by Davis himself. That man is an
ex-senator of the Republic of Haiti. He nicked the best of them.
M~r. ANGELL. Is he wearing stripes now?
Capt. WOOD. NO; 110 iB waiting trial; and, incidentally, there are a lot of
Haitians awaiting trial along with him. Two of them are foreigners.

STATEMENT OF MRb. VOLNY PAULTRE, ST. MARC.,

Mr. ASazz.L State your name.
M~r. PAULTRE. Volay Paultre.
Mr. AcnGEL. DO yOR live in St. MerP?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yea.
M1r. ANGELL When did you come down from St. Mare to Port au Prince?
Mr. PAUiLTRE. Wednesday.
MIr. ANGELL. YOu came down to testify at this Investigation?
Sr. PAULTRE. YOs.
Mir. ANGOELL. What is your occupation?
Mir. PAULTRTE. I am a merchant.
Mir. ANGELL. Engaged In business at St. Mare?
Mir. PAULTRE. Pee.
Mir. ANGaELL. For how many years have you been engaged in business there?
Mr. PAULTBRE Yes: I am engaged In commercial affairs.
Mr. ANGELL. For how many years have you been engaged at St. Mare?
Mr. PAULTRE~. About 14 years.
MIr. ANGE;LL. Were you engaged in business at St. Miare and living there in
la rch. 1919 ?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes.
3%r. AinGELL Did you know at that time Capt. Fitzgeraldl Brown?
Mir. PAULTRE. Yes.
M1r. AnG~u.. Was he in charge of the gendarmuerie at St. M~are?
Mlr. PAUL.TRE. He was captain of the gendarmerle at St. MIare at that thuec.
Mr. AcNGt.. He is an American?
Mr. PavnrBE. Yes; I think so.
Mr. ANGnu. Now, will you tell as br~iefly as possthle what you paw at the
prison In St. Mare on a certain day in M\arch, 1919, and the necessary events
immoediately preceding that.
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876 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. PaUL8am. Capt. Brown called me In March and asked me to accompany
him to prison to be present at an interrogation of three persons, accused, arrested,
and put in prison for having committed a crime upon the property of my mother,
Madame Oreus Paul. Upon reaching the prison I saw several people from Plvet
and the three people acensed.
Mr. ANGELL Can you tell as the names of the three persons who are accused?
Mr. PaLTasE. It was Salnave Fabre, Yoyo, and N'icholas. After the interroga-
tlon of the witnesses who had accused these three persons, Capt. Brown caused
the three accused people to be questioned, all of whom denied the facts.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you present when you heard him ask these witnesses
whether or not they were guilty of this chargeP
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes
Mr. ANGEu.. This took place at the gendarmerie prison in St. Mare?
Mr. Pam.Tam. Yes. In the presence of the justice of the peace, Florlan ITlysees
Charlep, now dead. I asked the judge why he did not take the written statements
of these witnesses, and he told me it was not necessary.
Mr. Ano.Lc. Were the three accused persons interrogated at the same time or
in the presence of each other?
Mr. PALTRE. One after another.
Mr. ANon.L. Were you present at the interrogation of each of these three
men ?
Mr. PaULTse. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. Was the juge du paix also present at the interrogation of these
three
Mr. PAaTI.RE Yes
Mr. ANGELL. Were the questions put by Capt. Brown himself?
Mr. P'AULTRE. No; they were put by Deval Lorquet, one of Brown's auxllaries.
Mr. ANGrm.L Was he a gendarmes
Mr. PAULTRE. NO.
Mr. AnontL. A civilian?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. A Haitian?
Mr. PAULTRE; 788.
Mr. ANGELL. Was Capt. Brown present at the interrogation of all of the three
accused ?
Mr. PALTsRE. Yes.
Mr. AroQr.L. Were other persons besides yourself, Capt. Brown, and the joge
du palx, and this Haitian auxiliary also present?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes. There were the other witnesses from Pivet.
Mr. ANGELL. And about how many were they in number?
Mr. PAULTRE. About 10.
Mr. ANGEI.I. Any others?
Mir. P'AULTRE. NO.
Mr. ANGEL. Now, tell us just what took place after the interrogation of the
accused.
Mr. PAULTRE. The accused having been questioned deniedi the facts. Then
Capt. Brown said, I am going to make you talk. I have a little machine
which will make you talk."
-Mr. ANGELL. Did you hear him say those words?
Mr. PAULTRE. Y98.
Mr. ANGmu.. Before all these people to whom you have just referred?
Mr. PASULTas. Yes.
Mr. Aw~ear.r. Continue.
Mrr. PAULTRE. He took a telephone box. He fastened one of the wires to their
teeth and the other he wound around the top and Daval gave the current.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you yourself see the wires attached to the teeth and thumbs
of each of the three accused persons?
Mr. PAUL~TRE YOs.
Mr. ANostt.. And did you see Duval turn the crank and apply the currently
Mr. PALTRE, Yes.
Mr. ANGER.. What effect did you see produced as the result of this action?
Mr. P'AULTRE. Upon the action of the electric current, one after the other,
admitted that they were the authors of the crime charged to them.
Mr. ANGER. Was the current applied to these three men at the same time,
or in succession?
Mr. PAULTRE. One after the other.

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INQUIlRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 877

Mr. ANGEu.. And were the three all together during the entire time when
each one of them was In turn given this treatment ?
Mr. PaULTas. No.
Mr. AmOn.L. Were all three of them in the room?
Mr. PAULTBErr. One in the room and the other two were out In the y'ard.
Mr. AmOn~z. And then after they finished with one was he taken out of the
room 7
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes; and they brought another in.
Mr. 4AGELL. And the same as to the third?
Mr. PaccrRe. YOS.
Mr. AflonLL. Do you know of your own knowledge what happened to each of
these three afterwards?
Mr. PatLTRE. I believe that two or three days afterwards, the guardian of
the same property came and told us that Capt. Brown had shot upon the prop-
erty, the two youngest, and that he hanged the third, the oldest one.
Mr. ANGEE.I. Did you see these two being shot, or did you see the third being
hung?
Mr. PAULTBE. NO; n00 persOBally.
Mr. ANG~a.. Did you see their bodies?
Mr. PAULTBE. The bodies are still on the property.
The CHnaxnax. Let me see. If I understand him correctly, somebody told
him this?
Mr. AwoenL.x That is all.
The Onanxaw. And who was the man who told him this?
Mr. Paar.TR. Mr. E~milear, watchman of the property.
The CHaraxnP. Whre did this man live?
Mr. PaULTas. He is at the present time upon that same property.
Mr. Arosu.. Where is that property?
Mr. PlaverBE. At Pivet, near St. Mare.
Mr. ANGEE.I. In the village of Pivet?
Mr. PAULTas. It is not a village. It is a habitation called Pivet
The Unmaxrrix. When did this man tell him this story about the killing of
these men?
Mr. PAULTRE. He came the same morning to tell us of the facts.'
The Cnanraxn. Flz the date as nearly as you can.
Mr. PAULTRE. It was about--let us say the 4th or 5th of March.
The CHaznxal. What year?
Mr. P~vvraE. 1919.
The Onzaxlaa. Where did he tell you this?
Mr. PaULTas. He came to my house and told me there at my house..
The CHzaxsaw. Who was present at that time?
Mir. Paar.Tr. I do not recalL.
The Cwanaxn. Did anybody hear him tell this story about the captain?
Mr. PAULTRE. I don't remember. I may tell you that it was in a measure
his duty to come and tell me, because he is the watchman of my property.
The CHxaxrran. Was anyone else present at the time this story was told to
the witness?
Mr. PAoI.TRE. I have told you that I don't remember.
The C~anraxA. Did you ever talk to Capt. Brown about this?
Mr. PAULTR. NO.
The Onarrraxr. When you say that Capt. Brown went with you to this
justice of the peace----
Mr. P~ALTRE No: in the prison.
The Gnamraxn. Went with Capt. Brown--did I say to the justice of the
peace--to the prison. Why did Ca~pt. Brown take you to hear him question
those men?
Mr. PdAmTas. It was because these men were accused of having committed
the crime upon this same property.
The CHlax~arN. What did you say to Capt. Brown when he attached this telo-
phone wire that you have deserthed\ to the teeth of the men and to the thumb?
Mr. PArnTas.B I did not say anything to him.
The O~nraaxx. How long after this was it that you were informed that these
seen were dead?
Mr. PAuI.TRE About three days after that.
The CluTBxAN. Did you tell anybodyv else about this after you had heard the
story about the way in which they were killed?
Mr. PAUT.TRE. Yes; it was talked of all over St. Mare.

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878 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND) SANTO DOMINGO.

The CHAIRMAN. Did you 8sa anything to the American authorities or to the
Haitian authorities about it?
Mr. PASULTRE. NO.
The ORaAIRMAN. And you have not from that time until this day?
Mr. PAULTRE. NO.
The CHAInuxN. Have you had any trouble with Capt Brown?
Mr. PAUL~TRE. perBORally, DO.
The CHIImuAN. HIow long had you known Capt. Brown before the day that
you visited the prison with him ?
Mr. PAULrTRE. Ever since thle arrival at St. Mare I have seen him from time
to time.
The C~HIIuxAn. About how long was that?
Mr. PAUL.TRE. I enn not fix the time.
Senator JONEs. H~ow did you happen to come dlown here at this time to testify
before the committee?
Mr. PAULTRE. I was invited by the Union Patriotique to come and give tes-
timony about this affair, which was a matter of my knowledge.
Senator Joses. W\hat member of that organization invited you to come?
Mr. PaULTmnc. The secretary.
Senator JONEs. Had you previously talked to him about it?
Mr. PAULTRE. We had talked about it at St. Marc some dlays ago.
Senator JONEs. You stated that those men were still on that property. Do
you mean that they were buried on the property?
Mr. PAULTRE. Ye8.
Senator JONEss. DO.you know where the graves are?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes.
Senator JONEs. Have you been to them?
Mr. P'AULTRE. No; I have not been right at the graves myself, but I have seen
them in passing.
Senator JONIEs. Can you dlescribe the graves. where they are?
Mr. PAULTRE. They are near a river; passing just about the center of the
property.
Senator JO'E.S. Is there a road goes near the place where their graves are?)
Mrr. PAULTRE. There is a trail passing near there.
Senator JONEs. A trail between what places?
Mr. PAULTRE. A trail from the property.
Senator JONEs. What makes the trail; why is thle trail there??
Mr. PAULTRE. It is a small road which has existed for a long time. There
are a number of small roads.
Senator JONES. By whom is it traveled? By whom is that particular road
traveled, ordinarily?
Mr. PAUT.TRE. Those who pass upon the property. The workmen, visitors, etc.
Senator JONEs. Does it lead from one settlement to another settlement
Mr. PAULTRE. NO.
Senator JONvEs. What makes a trail of it; why is it frequently traveled, if
it is?
Mr. PaULtRaE A fied that is being cultivated can not be used as a road;
therefore there are small trails leading into all parts of the property.
Senator JON;Es. What property is this?
;Mr. PaULTRE. It is a property at St. Marc, in the region called Pivet.
Senator JONES. It 18 & cemetery?
MIr. PaULTBE. NO: a garfen.
Senator JONES. Whose garden is it?
Mr. PAUL~TRE. My mother Mladame Arlase Ball. It was a female property.
Senator JoN~rs. How far are these graves from the house?
Mr. PAUI.TRE. I cRD ROt 887 eXRctly.
Senator JONES, More or less?
Mr. PAULTRsE. It is very difficult really to estimate this distance, but it la
guite a distance.
Senator .JON'ES. POu are an1 intelligent man. You can indicate in some way
that distance from the house on the property.
Mr. PArLTRE. Miy mother had no house upon this property. The guardian has
a little house upon the property.
Senator JONEs. How far from the guardian's house are these graves?
Mlr. PAULTRE. About 10 minutes' walk.
Senator JONEs. What does the guardian do there?
Mtr. PAULTE~. He works upon the pr~oprty.
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Senator JON~s. Does he work on thlat part of the property where those graves
are?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes.
Senator JONES. The land around th~eset graves is cultivated?
Mir. P~AULTRIE. Yes. Thle ground around that.
Senaltor JOK~s.r What is there to indicate that they. are graves?
Sif. PAUL.TRE. As is done always in H~aitl, there is a little mound of earth.
Senaltor JONEa. Is there any other mark there?
Mr. PAULTRE. NO; that is al1.
Senator JONEs. Are the three graves near together?
Mr. PAULTRE. There aRe DOt threO graves. There are two.
Senator JON-Es. Are theyv near to each other?
Mr. PatrrBE. They are close together.
Senator JONEs. How close are they?
Mr. PavrRwE. There is not any real distance, only about 2 feet.
Senator JONleS. COUld you show us those graves to-mor~row when we are up
in that country ?
Mr. PAULTRI Yes.
Senator JONEs. When are you going back to St. Miarc?
Mr. Pdlm.TRE. TO-mOFTOW at ROon, by train.
Senator JONES. IB there anyone else up there who could show us those graves?
Mir. PavrRe. Yes; there is the watchman, Emilear.
Senator JONEs. What is his first name?
Mr. PAULTRE. I don't know.
Senator JONEs. Is he the one who told you that these men were buried there?
Mr. PAULTRE. P8.
Senator Joonrs. And he has been on the property ever since?
Mr. Pam.TBE. Always.
Senator JONEs. Did Emilcar ever shlow these graves to you?
Mr. PAULTRE It was not necessary to shlow them to me, since in passing I
could see them.
Senator Jowns. How did you know they were graves?
Mr. PAULTam. Emilcar had told me that these three people had been buried
there.
Senator JONEs. DO SOu mean three t0 tWO?
Mr. PAULrRE. Three individuals, but two graves.
Senator JONEs. How far did Emilear live from St. Mare?
Mr. PAUI.Tns. About 10 minutes' walk.
Senator JONEs. Perhaps I misunderstood you or you misunderstood me awhile
ago. How far is It from the Emilear house to these graves?
Mir. PAULTRE. I can not estimate distance exractly, but I have toldl you that
if you leave the house of Emilcar on foot, it will take you about 10 minutes
to reach the graves.
Senator JoNES. Does Emilcar live in the town of St. Miare?
Mr. PAUrrBE. He livOS St PiVet, near St. M\are.
Senator JONEs. And it is about as far from P;\vet to the graves as it is from
St. Mare to the graves, is that the truth?
Mr. PAULTRE. NO; it is farther from St. Mare to Pivet.
Senator JONES. NO; he doesn't understand mle. He says it is 10 minutes''
walk from St. Mare to the graves and it is 10 minutes' walk from Pivet to the
graves. Is that what he means to say?
Mr. PaULTRE. No; that is not what I said. I said that it was 10 minutes'
walk from the house of Emilear to these graves. But it we say from St. Mrare
to the house of Emilcar, it is a matter of half an hour's walk.
Senator JON'Es. How soon after these men were killed did Emlcar tell you
about it?
Mr. PACLTRrE. About an hour or an hour and a half afterwards.
Senator Jones. Did he tell you who killedl them ?
Mr. PAULTRE. He told me that the execution had been ordered by Capt. Brown.
Senator JoN'Es. Who did the killing?
Mr. PAULTRE. The gendarmes.
Senator JON~ss. How were they killed ?
MIr..PacLrBE. Two shot and the third hanged.
Senator JON-Es. Of what crime had they been accused?
Mir. Pavu/rBE. They were accused of having murdered one of the watchmen
that I had on the property.


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880 movUInY INTo occUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Senator JONEs. Did you believe that they had murdered the watchman on
your property ?
Mr. PAULTRE. Upon the declaration of other people at Pivet, one may be-
lieve it.
Senator JONEa. Did you believe it?
Mr. PAULTBE. Yes.
Senator JONEs. And you went with Capt. Brown to try to have them con-
victed, did you not, of having murdered your watchman?
Mr. PAULTRE. Capt. Brown had Invited me to go along as one Interested in
the affair, to be present at their interrogation.
Senator JONEs. And your watchman had been murdered, had he?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes.
Senator JONEs. How long before this examination of these three men?
Mr. PAULTRE. About Eve days, perhaps.
Senator JONES. For what reason did they murder your watchman?
Mr. PAULTRE.. In order to steal, because they had stolen from the property,
and had killed the watchman.
Senator JONpEs. If they had killed your watchman, as you believed, then they
should have been executed themselves, should they not, in your opinion, after
M r. AUL~1UTnr. Acording to my~ opinion, having put anyone in prison, he is in
the hands of the law, and justice should have followed Its course, and they
should have been tried by a criminal court; that is the custom of Haiti and it
is the law.
Senator JONEs. Were those three men arrested
Mr. PAUL~TRE. I don't know.
Senator JON&R. Did you ever hear where they were arrested?
Mr. PAULTRE. They Were people of those parts, but I don't know where they
had been arrested.
Senator JONEs. Who informed on those people?
Mr. PauLTam. The other people of those parts.
Senator JONr~s. Did they come and tell you that your watchman had been
murdered before these people were arrested?
Mr. PAULTRE. Yes, certainly.
Senator JONEB. Then what did you do after you heard that your watchman
had been murdered ?
Mr. PAULTRE. I called the justice of the peace to make an odicial report of
the alfair.
Senator JONEB. And did he do thait?
Mr. PAULTam. Yes.
Senator JONE8. Made a report to whom?
Mir. PAULTRE. To his chief.
Senator JONES. Who was his chief?
Mr. PAULTRE. He is under the civil court, the juge d'instruction and the
prosecuting attorney.
Senator JONEs. What is his name?
Mrr. PAULTRE. It WRS Judge Florlaln Ulysses Charles.
Senator JOES. What did he do after he was informed that these three men
had murdered your watchman
Mr. PAAULTBE. The first day of the crime, he knew nothing: about it.
Senator JONEs. After you told him about it, what did he do?!
Mr. PAULT~R. He went to the property, where he drew up an ofiklal report,
verifying the crime.
Senator JONu~s. Did he view the body of your dead wfatchman?
Mr. PALTRlE. Yes.
Senator JONuEs. What did he do after that regarding the matter
Mr. PAULTBR. Nothing.
Senator JoRsEB. Why didn't he?
Mr. PAULTRE. I don't know. We had information about the people who had
committed the crime.
Senator JONEs. When did you Airst learn who committed the crime?!
Mr. PAULTBE. When I WaS 88ked to go to the prison with Capt. Brown, about
Aive days after.
Senator JONES. Did that justice Of the peace take any part in trying to fiad
out who those men were?
Mr. PAULTRE. It Was not the attribution of the juge du paix. It was rather
that of the police.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 881

Senator JONEs. Did the judge report thle matter to the police, or did you do it?
Mr. PAULTRE. The judge reported it directly. I did not.
Senator JONES. Who was the policeman to whom the judge reported it ?
Mlr. PAULTRE. To the chief of thle gendarmerie.
Senator JONEs. What was his namne?
Mr. PAULTRE. Capt. Brown.
SSenator Joh'Es. Then the judge requested Capt. Brown to find out whlo thle
men were who had murdered your watchman, did he?
Mr. PAULTREB He did not ask that this he done. He simply announced tol the
police that there had been a crime committed at PIvet. It is thus that things
are done.
Senator JTONSl. ThRL Statement was made for the purpose! of having Capt.
Brown find out who did the murder, was it not?
Mr. PAULTRE. Assuredly.
Senator JONra. What other evidence was there produced to show thatl those
were the three men who had murdered your watchman?
Mr. PAULTRE. They~ hlad been arrested up~on being denounced by other people
of Pivet, but these people had not been seen at the time of the murder.
Selnator JoNEs. But they convinced you that the right men hadc been arrested,
did theyr not ?
Mr. PAULTRE. YeS.
Senator JONr~s. What date wasygour watchman mlurdered?
Mr. PAULTRE. Among the first days of March.
Senator JONES. 1919?
Mr. PAverRE. 1919.
Senator JONrEs. Is that justice of the peace still living or is he dead?
Mr. PAULTRE. He is dead.
Senator JONrls. Who was the policeman? What was his name, to whomn the
matter was reported? Was that Capt.. Brown?
Mr. PAULTRE. I don't know.
Senator JONEa. You said the justice of the peace reported It to the policeman.
Mr. PAULTRE. To the gendarme who Aills the rdle of police at the present time.
He made a report to the officers of the gendarmerie.
Capt. WOOns. I wish to make a statement for the record. Mr. Jolibois made
a statement that 22 days ago I was at the courtyard and called a man by the
name of Davis to the court and tried to make him sign a paper and that Mr.
Davis told that to another prisoner in his presence. The judge of Instruction
is present here. The judge of instruction could tell whether or not I have
been to the court in the last 22 days, and whether at any time anybody has
ever called Dalvia but him. Because he is the only man who is authorized to
call Davia.
Mr. ANGmLL.. I accept that entire statement as the truth, absolutely.
I wish to present a deposition in English, to be sworn to.
The CHAInxAN. Have you read it?
Mr. ANGELL. I have, sir. It is in due form. Sworn to before a notary public.
The CHaInxaaN. It may be, I take it, received under advisement, and after we
look after it I have no doubt it will be incorporated.
Mr. ANGaELL. It is by Mrs. Harris Lipachits, an American citizen, concerning
the murder of her husband here in Haiti.
(The deposition is as follows:)
My husband, Mr. Harris Lipsehitz, an American citizen, residing in Haiti,
was found murdered on the road leading from Cayes to St. Louis du Sud
June 7, 1921. His murderer has never been discovered, and I know of no steps
taken by the American occupation in Haiti to solve the mystery surrounding
my husband's death. Therefore I am anxious that the members of the com-
mission be -fully informed on the circumstances preceding and surrounding the
crime in order that justice may be done.
Mr. Lipechitz, Russian by birth, became an American citizen in 1918. He
first came to Halti in 1902 and established himself in business at St. ILouis du
Sud. Until 1916 he lived in complete tranquillity. Then he began to experience
ill treatment at the hands of various officers of the Haitian g~endarmerlie andi
of the United States Marine Corps. Many officers purchased supplies from him
and failed to pay for them. Many also borrowed money which they did not
return. When he sought the money due threats were made against him by these
of~eers.
Finally Lieut. Grant, of the gendarmerie, one of the officers who owfed my
husband money, falsely accused my husband of threatening the corporal with

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882 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

a revolver and caused him to be confined in prison for a month. At the end
of this time he was released on ball. And two days later, while returning from
Cayes to his home in St. Louis with provisions, he was arrested by Lie~ut. Grant
on the ground of having left St. Louisr. No instructions had been given my
husband not to do so. MIr. Lipschitz. sent a telegram to Gen. WVillialms, saying
that he had been illegally arrested by Lieut. Grant, and Gen. Williams sent a
reply ordering his release.
While mly husband was in prison Lieut. Grant came to my house and told
me that my husband had been arrested. He said that hie believed my husibandl
would never see the sun shine again and that everything was finishedl for him.
He advisedl me! to sell the properties of my husband, and offered to help me in
disposing of them. I told him that I thought my husband would be released
from prison, since he had committed no crime. Lieut. Grant became angry and
exclaimued, 'Do not argue with me: you hald better believe me.'
Then he asked me to give him something to drink, and when I refused
he helped himself to liquor. He made advances to my sister and myself and
attempted to assault us. I sent a servant girl for the notary public, and when
he appeared Lieut. Grant left the house. I made a deposition before the notary
public of the treatment that had been accordedl us by the lieutenant.
"Another time Col. Buck~ley, of the M~arine C~orps, came to my house while
my husband was in Aqluin. He made inquiries concerning my husband's bus~i-
nesaffairs and sold that he would do his best to have him deported, so that
teoccupation would be rid of himt. After this episode threats were made
constantly against mly husband's business interests and even against his life
by American officers stationedl in the section of the country where we lived.
Consequently it want no surprise to us when an order was issued expelling
mly husband fromt Haitian territory. This order stated that Mr. LIpsehits should
be deported on the first vessel leaving the country. Instead he was detained
in prison while three vessels left, and wats finally placed on a vessel bound for
Cuba. When he arrived in Cuba he foundl that the Amlerican minister in Port
au Prince had cabled the American Legation at Htabana saying that Brigade
Commlandler Russel had advised him that Mr. Lipschitz's deportation was
irregular and he was entitled to a passport to return to Haiti if he so desired.
Fromt Cuba my husbandl proceedled to Washington, where he placed his case
before Congressman Siegel, who in turn called the matter to the attention of
Gen. Barnett. Gen. Brnmett authorized Mr. Lipachitz to return on a Government
vessel to Haiti and instructed Brigade Commander Russel to make a thorough
investigation of the deportation of Mr. Lipsehitz.
When my husband returned to Halti he was detained in Port au Prince and
refused permission to go to his homue in St. Louis. His property was pillaged
while he was thus detained and hils business suffered severely. His protests
were of no avail. When he complained to Maj. Turmer that he was in financial
distress he was informed that he could obtain medicine and food free at the
national prison.
The board of inquiry appointed by Col. Russel Investigated the circumstances
of my husband's deportation and subjected by husband to a severe grilling,
the details of which he was warned not to divulge.
"Although Lieut. Grant was one of the ottlers against whom my husband
madle the most serious charges, he was permitted to act as interpreter and
adviser to the board. Many witnesses whom my husband requested to be
summlonedl before the board were never called. Nothing was accomplished by
this board of inituiry and no one punished.
When the Mlayo board of inquiry came to Haiti my husband appeared before
the board. My husband told me that Judge Advocate Dyer, in a private inter-
view with him, tried to intimidate him by threatening him with prosecution
for perjury. Letters which my husband wrote the board preferring grave
charges against American officers and others were never answered.
"A second order was issued expelling my husband from Haiti, and he was
given until June 30, 1921, to settle his affairs. He encountered many diatlculties
inspiredl by of~eers while engaged in the task. He appealed to Col. Russel for
protection time and time again. He wrote Congressman Siegel that he was not
being affordedl the proper protection and feared for his life.
On the 7th of June my husband. myself, and two servants were returning
from Cayes to St, Louis. Ae we approached Cavaillon my horse and that of
my servant boy's were not as tired as those of my husband's and the servant
girl's, and we rode on ahead. As we left him my husband said he would
try to get fresh mules in the neighborhood.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 883

Tw~enty minutes after I arrived home the girl appeared. When I asked her
where Mir. Lipschitz was she informed mle that a Haitian had stopped him
on the road and she had left them conversing together. I began to feel anxious
when half an hour passed my husband did not appear. The servant girl began
to act strangely, refused supper, and cried continually. She explained that
she was feeling ill and thought she had caught cold.
In about an hour's time I heard a horse approaching the house and thought
it was my husband. I called out andl was told that it was Mr. Barber, a friend
of ours. I asked him in and inquired if he had seen Mr. Lipachitz. He replied
in the negative. He andc the servant girl returned to the spot where I had
left my husband but failed to find him.
I notified the corporal 'of the gendarmerie In St. Louis that my husband
wFas missing. He returned in the morning and saidl, 'Well, Mlrs. Lipsehitz, I
think you had better make up your mind that your husband has been murdered,
although I have not yet found his body.' A Haitian who lived near the place
w-here, my husband's body was later found brought my husband's mule to our
house andl told me he had found him wandering around loose. He recognized
the mule and was surprised to see my husband nowhere in sight. He called my
husband's name several times, but hadl no response.
"' The corporal of the gendarmerie informed me in the afternoon that my
husband's body had been found. I immediately telephoned the authorities at
C~ayes, asking them to investigate the crime. The servant girl and the man
who found the mule were examined and placed in jail. Whether they are still
there or not I do not know. I have been informed that they are. The murder
has never been fixedl upon any individual, although the authorities are well
aware of the identity of several persons who madle threats against my husband's
life. I my-self do not claim to know who was the murderer.
"' In view of the above facts, I beg the commission to determine why the
murder of an American citizen has not been investigated by the American
authorities, or, if such an investigation has been made, why the results have not
been published.
"' Mrs. HABals LIreemIIZ."

STATEIMENT OF MBEDELUS VALET, ST. MA~BC, HAITI.

Senator P'OM~EREE. What is your name?
Mir. VJLET. Miedelus Valet.
Senator POMERENYE. Where is your home?
Mr. VbLT~r. Ait St. Mare.
Senator POMERsENE. How long have you lived there?
Mr. VaI~r. Seven years.
Senator POMIERENE. Are yOu confined in prison here at Port au Prince now?
Mir. a~rcr. Yes; at this time.
Senator POMIEBENE. Sentenced on what charge?~ nm ad adkle ol
Jlir. VALEr. I was a gendarme. Miy ritle went ofi yhnsadkndsm

Senator POMrrEBE E Killed whom; a Haitian?
M~r. VALEr. Yes; a Haitian.
Senator POMEREN~E. Do you know Polidor St. Pierre?
MUr. VAzLrr. Yes.
Senator POMEBENE. HOw long have you known him ?
Mr. VAILrr. A long time.
Senator POMEBENE. Did S'Ou ever see him in prison at St. Mare?
Mlr. VaLrr. Yes.
Senator POMERENE. What were you doing there?
Mr. VaI~.r I was a prisoner.
Senator POMuEBENE. Do you know Capt. Fitzgerald Brown?
Mir. VALEr. Very well.
Senator POMIEBENE. Did you at any time see Capt. Brown in this prison?
MIr. VaLrr Yes; I saw him come to the prison sometime. He was captain.
Senator POMERENE. Did you1 at any time see him do anything; to Polidlor St,
Pierre?

Senator POMrEBlNE. Did you see him talking with Polidlor St. Pierre?
SUr. VarrrT. Nuo.
Senator POMERE~E. Did you see anybody else do anything to Polidlor St.
Pierre?

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884 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HABITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. VarrI. Yes.
Senator POMEBENE.. Who was it?
Mr. VAmEr. Detectives and gendarmes.
Senator POMEBEFE. DO you know the detectives' names?
Mr. VArrT. No.
Senator POMLERENE. Were they Americans or Haitians?
Mr. VArrT. Haitians.
Senator POMERENE. The detectives were Haitians?
Mr. VArrT. Yes.
Senator POMIERENE. Were the gendarmes Americans or Haitians?
Mr. VALEr. Haltians.
Senator POMERENE. What did these people do to this man Polidor St, Pierru?
Mr. VArrT. Capt. Brown arrested P'olidor St. Pierre, putting him in prison.
They came and mistreated him in prison in the absence of the captain.
The CHaznruaN. Who came and mistreated him?
Mr. VArrT. A gendarme.
The CHazaxaN. And what did they do?
Mr. VAzLrr. They beat him; they burned him.
The OR~zauxN. Burned him what,?
Mr. VAzLrr. Burned him with a hot fron.
The CHIAIrMAN. What kind of an Iron was it?
Mr. VAILwr. An iron with which they make the prison bars.
The CHiusaxa. Tell all that you saw done up there by these men to this
man Polidtor St. Pierre.
Mr. VArrT. They came and mistreated him when the captain wast not there.
When the captain came he was angry because they had mistreated him. When
Capt. Brown camle he took Polidlor out of the cell in the prison and put him in
a room belonging to the sergeant of the prison, and after he had put him in
this room he sent gendarmes to go and tell his relatives to bring food to him,
and had the doctor treat him three times a day.
The CHanrxaN. How long were you in that prison after the gendarmes had
mistreated Polidor St. Pierre?
Mr. VAzLrr. I had already two years in prison.
The CHArnxaNo. How long after that did you stay in prison?
Mr. VALar. I was three years and five months in the prison at St. Mare, and
I have been in prison 15 months here.
The CHArxxAN. Did you see the gendarmes or anyone else do anything else
to ]Polidor St. Pierre?
Mr. VaLErr. After they put him in the sergeant's room they did nothing else
to him.
The CHAIRMANP. Now, before this burning did you see him with handcuffs on?
Mr. VAwrT. Yes.
The CHAIaRMAN. Tell what if anything else, they did to this man.
Mr. VALp=r. They burned him with hot Irons and beat him.
The On~axaN.H Did you see them use any hot water with him?
Mr. VAlEr. That is not true.
The CHrAIRAN. Did they have him tied up with handcuffs on his wrlets, or
tied up in any way?
Mr. VALEr. Yes; in the beginning, when they arrested him, he was hangedl up,
so [indicating].
The CHAIBMAN. Who did this?
Mr. VALar. The prison sergeants and gendarmes.
The CHAInxArr. Did you see them hang him up in this way?
Mr. VArrr. The gendarmes were questioning him for what he had done, and
really they did hang him up.
The CHrA1RxaN. Was Cap~t. Brown there at the time that he was hanged opt
Mr. VArrT. I did not see him there.
The CHAlaxAN. D~id you see (!apt. Brown mlatreat this man in any way
at all?
MCr. VaLer. With his own hands; ne.
The CHAIRMAN. Or in his presence?
Mr. VAr~Er. No; Capt. Brown was not present.
The CHATRMANP. HOw long was this Polidor St. Pierre hung up by the hands
in this way?
Mr. Var~rr. At times when they were talking to him they would ifang him
up for half an hour at a time, and then after that take him down.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ANID SANTO DOINllr'o. 885

The CHalnxaN. How often di:1i they hang him up in that way?
Mir. VALET. About three times.
The CHlAIBMAN. Just tell how they would Imng him up.
Mr. VALrr. He was hanlndeuffed and there was a rafter in the prison, at
rope was fastenedi around thle chain of the handtcuff, thrown over the bar,
and he was drawn up until hie was standing on his toes.
The CHAlaxAN. Did he have abac~kles about his ankles?
Mr. VAILLr. No; that is not true. He dild not have irons on hris feet.
The CHAInxAN~. Iwt th~e witnless stand~ up) and indlicalte on his8 own person
the parts of the .bodyS of P'olidor St. P'ierre which were burned in the way he
has describ~ed.
(The witness stood up and indicated certain parts of his body.)
Mr. VALE~T. lie WasR burned over1 his back, over the backr of his legs, and
on his buttoclk.
The CHAIBMANa. I think that is all we care to inquire.
Senator Joh-Es. Wa(S hie also hurnedt on thle front of the? left leg?
Mr. VALET. He was burnedl inl several places. I can not tell you whether it
it was the right leg or the left leg.
Senator JONEs. Was hie burnled on the front of the leg?
Mir. VALET. I can neit tell that. Thalt was a long time ago andi I have been
in prison all the timet.
Senator JONES. Well, unless there is something further, we will excuse thle
witnlEss.~

BTATEMLENT OF MEa. JOSEPH LANOVE, PORT APU PRINCE.

Mr. bANG1u. Give your name.
Mr. LAnoU-E. Joseph 14tuoue.
Mr. ANGELL. DO 7011 lie ill POrt Ru Prince?
Mr. LANOVE. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. What is your occupation?
Mr. IA~YoZTs I am a newspaper man.
M1r. ANG.LL. HRve yoH laRkly beeH In the prisOD Of POrt Rlu Prihce?
)Ir. IANFOUE. Ye8.
Mir. ANGOEu.. WCere you liberated to-day or yesterday 7
Mr. LANOUE. I WR8 set fr~ee this morning.
Mr. ANGELL. DO yOH k11OW SiedelUs Valet, the Witness who hlas just tes-
tified ?
Mr. IANOZ.E. Ye8.
Mr. A~Poru~.. Have you been in prison with him lately
Mir. LANOUE. Yles.
Mr. ANGELL. Were you confined in the same prison with him at the same
time?
Mr. LANJOC'E Whenl I went to prison I found him there. That has been six
months ago.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you ever hear bledelu~~s Valet tell of what hre had seen
and heard concerning Polidor in prison in St. Mare?
Mr. LANOUE. YOS%.
Mr. ANGELL. YOU Were~ in the 70081 just DOW When the witness, Mledelus
Valet testified ?
Mr. LANOUE. Yes.
Mir. ANGELL You heard what he said ?
Mr. IAnoUlE, I understood what he said.
Mr. ANGELL. WVhat were you serving in prison for? Under what sentence?
Mr. IaNOUE. I was put in prison for having written in my newspaper ar~-
titles of an incendiary nature.
Mrt. IANOUE. What was your newspaper ?
Mr. IaN-OUE. The Courier Haitian.
Mr. ANGE~LL. Now, tell us whether you have at any time heard MeLdelus Valet
recount a different story concerning; the treatment accorded to Polidlor in the
prison at St Mare.
Mr. LANOU~E. Yes.
Mr. AnGELL. Did you ever hear Medelus Valet say that he had seen Capt.
Brown apply hot irons to Polidor2
Mr. 14K-OUE. He even said that it was he, Medelus Valet, who heated the
Iron for him.
The ORaInxraR. You have no personal knowledge about this matter at all?
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886 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI ANID SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. L~ANOUE. As a newspaper man I had some reports of this affair, but I
never had all of its details.
The CHzaxraNr. That does not answer the question. Do you know of your
own personal knowledge anything about this, or is your knowledge limited to
simply hearsay or what others have told you?
Mr. L~ANOUc. I have an idea of the facts, from thle story that has been told
to me by Mledelus Valet. We were contained in the same cell in the prison.
The CHarmxan. I want a direct answer. This Is an intelligent witness.
and what I want to know is, does he know personally anything about these
facts from his own knowledge, from what he saw.
Mlr. LaN~OUE. NO.
Senator JONEs. What is the nature of the testimony of this next witness
whom you are about to call?
Mr. ANGEIL. The nature of his testimony would be alleged facts concerning
his arrest by one Lieut. Jackson, continement in prison for one month, without
any charge against him, and other facts in connection with that.
The CHAIrMaAN. Does this show where he was countned, and what the nature
of the charge waste
Mr. AFGELL. NO, I just said that it was without charge.
The CHAIrMlAN. I think you did, and I stand corrected. Does it show where
he was confined, what prison?
Mir. ANCELL. In the gendarmerie prison at MI!ragioane.
The CHaaMxan. Does his name app~ear on the prison rolls or records up there
in thle name under which he now appears before us?
M~r. ANGELL. I don't know. I shall have to have him sworn and ask blin
that question. He would not know anything about it probably.
The CHarmuan. You may go aheadl. Let me suggest, however, that if you
have an affldavit here showing the facts as you claim them to be, we wiHl accept
that afidavit as a part of the record. It is in French, I take it.
Mr. ANGELL It is iD French. An asfidavit to a judge du paix saying that
this man appeared before him and made claim to these facts. This affldavit
is dated December 10, 1917, four years ago. I have here also-
The CHamuvAN. Now, let me ask you further. Is this justice of the peace
Still living?
Mr. ANGELL I shall have to ask that of the witness.
Senator JONEs. Where does the witness live? Where is his home?
The CHaIRMAN. Oh, have him sworn, and we will have himn go on and tell
briefly what he has to say.

SBTAERENT OF MR. DILON VICTOR, OF M6IRAGQOANE.

Mr. ANGnu.. Your name is Dilon Victor?
Mr. Vrcron. Yes.
Mr. ANGELT.. DO SOR 11?@ 18 MkragoRale?
Mr. VIrox. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. POU have lived there for a long time?
Mr. VICron. Thirty-seven years.
Mr. ANGEILL. Wer0 SOu arrested and confined in the prison at Mliragoane?
Mr. VIcronm. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. Was this in 19177
Mr. VIcron. The 3dl of November, 1917.
Mr. ANG'ELL. And how long were you confined in the prison?
MCr. VICron. Twenty-seven days.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know for what reason you were confined?
Mr. VIcTon. Yes.
Mr. ANGEu. What?
Mr. VzCron. I am an inhabitant-a planter. I have two pieces of property,
one piece of property in the first rural section of the Commune of Mliragoane
and the other In the fourth section in the plain of Food des Negres. ~Each
year I spent six months on one property and six months on the other.
The OnzaxarN. Now, what is al this about? What is the pertinency of this?
Mlr. ANGELT. I RSked why he was arrested and put in prison.
The CHAIRMzAN, Pe8; but I don't see the connection of this.
Mr. ANGOEu. It has something to do with a horse, Senator.
The CHAIBMAN. CO directly to the question as to what the charge was.
Mr. VIcroB. I was arrested by Lieut. Jackson. He wished to borrow my
horse. I told him no; before lending him my horse I wished it to have time
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INQUIBtY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 88?

to rest, for it had gone 9 leaguers distance. I told him this in a polite manner.
He invited me to come to the village for a question which would interest me.
When I came to the provotal office he told me that I had been making bad
reports about him. He caused me to go to the justice court--to the office of
the justice of the peace. When we got to the justice court the juge du palx
could not find any reason for trying me. Lieut. Jackson, therefore, took it
apon himself to send me to prison.
Mr. ANGEM.. What treatment did you receive in prison?
Mr. Vrcronr. I was put in handcuffed.
Mr. ANGEL.I. Well, proceed as to any other manner in which you were treated
in prison.
Mr. VIcron. He handcuffed me and hanged mue up.
Mr. ASozu.. How were you hung up and where?
Mr. Vxron. To an fron bar.
The CHamiuaN. Who hanged you up?
Mr. Vzeron The lieutenant himself.
Mr. Aon.L. To what were you hung up?
Mr. Vmon. He hanged me up to an iron bar.
Mr. ANG~Eu. By a rope or by a chain?
Mr. VICron.B By a chain.
Mir. ANGEu.. And where was the chain attached to your body?
Mr. Twr~ox. On my wrists.
Mr. ANGEL.. HRVe you still the marks of them on your wrists?
Mr. Vieon. Yes. [Exhibiting his wrists to the committee.]
Mr. ANGELL.Ve WheB OUCame Out of prison, did you see a doctor in
Mibragoane ?
Mr. VzCron. Yes.
Mr. Aaown. What was his name?
Mr. Vzcron. Dr. Dejean, who gave me a certificate.
Mr. AnGELL. Did Dr. Dejean give you medical treatment?
Mr. Vrmes. No. When I came out of prison he gave me (4 certilleate. He
did not want to receive me.
Mr. Amon~t.. The certificate I should like to offer in evidence is apparently
s~ignedi~~~~iiii~~~~iii by Dr. Dejean, to which this witness has just referred, and is dated
December 2, 1917, and recites in French--I am giving the substance of it very
brielly-that he has just examined Dilon Victor, this witness, and he has
found contusions and scars and marks upon his body, including specifle marks
apon his wrists. I would like to offer In evidence the statement of the doctor,
and also the document of the juge du paix, dated December 10, 1917.
The C~anIaxA Did you fix the date, or does the affidavit fix the date when
he was confined there?
Mr. ANGffu.. He stated that he was confined-he gave the date November,
1917, for 27 days.
The ORAUInxAN. Ask him this question, as to what was the reason for hang-
ing him up by the hands in the way he has deserlbed.
Mr. Eson. For my horse.
The CHAlrMANr. What does he mean by that? That is not very definite.
Mr. Vcrnon. For my horse, which I refused to lend him.
The Onz~maxaw. That is, to Lieut. Jackson?
Mr. VIcros. Yes.
The C~anPaxw. What was Llent. Jackson's first name?
Mr. VIcnros I can not tell you.
The Caunaxn. Where were his headquarters?
Mr. Vrcros At Mirag~oane.
The CH~ax~lw. How often had you seen him before this time?
Mdr. Vzcro. That was the first time I had ever seen him.
The CHaAIrANo. Was he an American ?
Mr. Vmon. Yes.
The OntupYAw. Was he a white man?
Mr. Vrcror. Yes. a white American.
The C~arwAax~. I think that is all.
Senator JoNoes. What did he want with the horse?
Mdr. VICro3. I don't know; but he took my horse for the service of the gen-
darterle.
Senator Josts. What had your hanging up to do with the horses
Mbr. VIcros. After I got out of prison. Dr. Dejean gave me a certifleate.


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888 INQUIRY INTO OCCUrPATIONU OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Senator JONEs. Make him understand. I want to have him explain what con-
necttion there was between his being hung up and that horse.
The IN'TERPRETEa. He says, Evidently he wanted to finlah with me in order
to take my horse."'
Senator JONEa. Could not he have taken the horse without hanging you up?
MIr. Vicron' That was his will.
Senator JONEs. Did he take the horse?
Mr. VIcTRo. Yes.
Senator JONsEs. How long did he keep you hung up?
Mrr. Vicron. About 24 days.
Senator JONESP. Did y'ou get the horse back?
Mr. Vrcron. Yes.
Senator JONEs. Who brought it back?
Mir. VICTRon He told me to come and get th~e ho~rse, anld it was I who cane
and got it.
Senator JONsw. Where did you get it?
Mr. VIcTRo. At Port Mallet.
Senator JONEs. Was it claimed that you had stolen the horse?
Mr. VICmon. No; never.
Senator JONF+s. You mean to say that he wanted to borrow the horse, and
because you said the horse was tiredl he hung you up and kept you in jail for
27days? Is that right?
Mr. Vicron. Yes.
Senator JON-Es. HOw long did he keep you hung up?
Mir. Vzerron. Twenty--four days.
Senator JONEs. Twenty-four days?
Mir. VIcTRo. Yes; and gave me a bath every day.
Senator JONFES. Did he give you anything to eat?
Mr. VICTRo. He gave me a piece of bread every 24 hours.
Senator JONEs. That was all he gave you, was it?
Mr. VIcTRo. Yes.
Senator JONEs. Did anybody else see you hanging there for 24 dayet
Mr. VIcTRon Yes; there was Corpl. Cambrompe.
Senator JONES. Who else saw you hanging there?
Mr. Vzeron. No one else.
Senator JON-Es. Was Corpl. Cambrompe a Haitian or an American?
Mr. Vrcron A Haitian.
The CHaIaxraR. Anything more, Mr. A~ngell?
Mr. ANGOELL. The word was passed to me that delegation of doctors is here.
The CHlzusaNo. Well, they said they wished to pay us a courtesy call, and I
said that we would receive them at 5 o'clock.
Mr. ANGOEL. There are a considerable number of dossiers filed in the form of
depositions which I should like to offer. I make mention of them at that time
(The documents referred to will be filed with the clerk to the com~mittee.)-
The CHAIBMAN. HRve you any further witnesses
Mr. ANGELL. That is all for this afternoon. Other witnesses are coming in
all the time from outlying districts. Word is passed up to me every half hour
'that some one has come in to testify.
The CHzaxAN.R The chairman desires to state before adjourning now, this:
The committee is very much grieved to hear that there Is any evidence of any
cruelties or torturing of any kind toward any persons, for any cause whatso-
ever. This committee is authorized only to make inquiry about these charger
and to report the facts to the United states Senate. Necessarily some of these
things come to us here for the first time. They will be more thoroughly in-
vestigated by the American authorities here on the island. And I want to say
to the people of Balti that neither the United States Government nor its Army
nor its Navy nor its Marines will ever permit, knowingly, the torture of any
prisoners. It may be that some of these things have happened. We are not
passing judgment now, but these matters are! going to be investigated, to the
end that justice may be done to all parties concerned. It may be as to some
of these charges that those who present them will want to present other evi-
dence confirmatory of what may be said here. It may be that those who are
accused will want to present further evidence. And I want to assure the people
of Halti that this committee and the Government of the United States only
desire the good of the people of Haiti. nothing else, and we want to leave this
impression with you. We shall probably have to leave in the morning, to go to


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATrION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 889

other sections of Haiti. because our time is necessarily limited, but these in-
vestigations will go on, whether we. are here or not.
AQnd allow me to suggest. further, that if we are not here, if the people who
have these charges to present will present them to Col. Russel, the commandant,
they will be thoroughly inquired into, and this information will be forwarded
to us at Washington if we are not here.
I want the Haitian people to believe that that is what we want to do.
This committee and its attaches more than appreciate the many very great
courtesies which have been shown to us, not only by the Haitian Government,
but by the citizens of Haiti as well.
Let me add this further. If the people of Haiti desire to send any other evi-
dence in the form of affidavits or depositions to the committee, let them be sent
to the Hon. Medill Mc~ormick, the chairman of this committee, in Wrashington.
I ask now that the interpreter may interpret what I have said.
The committee will now stand adjourned.
(Whereupon, at 5.45 p. m., the committee adjourned subject to the call of
the Chair.)


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATIONS AND ADMINISTRATION OF HAITI
AnDl SAN~ DOMIN GO.


MONDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1981.

UNITED STATES SENATE,
SELECT COMMITTEE ON HAITI AND) YANITO IDOMINGO~,
Hknche, Hariti.
The committee met at 11.1.5 o'clock a. m. at the gendarmerle. Hinche, Haiti,
Senator MUedill MicCormick presidlnin.
Present: Senators MlcCormlicki (chairman), Pomerene, Ocddle, and Jones.
Also present Mr. Walter Bruce Howe, and Mlr. Ernest Angell, in their re-
spective capacities as heretofore indicated.
STATEMENT OF MADAME EXILE ONEXILE.

The CHaInxaN. What is your name?
Madame ONExILE. Madame Exile Onexile.
The CHAIRMAN. Where do you live?
MIadame ONREXIT. Section La Guajon.
The C!HAIRMuAN. Will yOu explain to the witness that she is to tell only whrat
she herself has seen or heard ? Let her begin to tell then.
Madame ONEXILE. The first atrocity was a mule that I hand tied up in my
scarden. I went to take this mule. I did not find him. When I didl not find
him I came in and maude a report to the magistrat communal that I did not
find the mule in the yard.
The CHaIRMANa. Then, what happenedFtl ueioutemgy~ n
Madame ONExHJ:. I took the stampoftsmlermthmaittan
went to Tamoccque or anywhere that I could findl him. I found the rules in
the hands of Capt. Kelly, who was then at Cercle La Source. When I pre-
seated m~y certiflente for the male the mule was not there, he had sent it to
Carquiat to carry food for the gendarmes. When the mule returned Claptain
refused to turn the mule over to me and demanded 180 gourdes for it. I came
back to H~inche to get the 130 gourdes. CapDt. Kelly then1 locked me up in the
prison of Cerele La Source and two days later Capt. K~elly went out to re-
pla~-
The CHaraxAN. How long did you stay in prison?
Madame ONEXHJ:.p I entered the prison Saturday and they turned me loose
Sunday at 3 o'clockr in the afternoon, and then he did whatever he wished with
the mule.
Mr. ANGEu.. When did all this take place?
Madame ONEXH.E. Three years and five months ago.
The CHrarrnxaN. After putting you in prison did hre keep the mule?
Madame ONEXm~ILE. I came back here on a Wednesday.
M~r. ANsGELL. Came back here to Hinche?
Madame ONETH.E. Yes; to Hinche. Then, when I went away I stayed at homle
with my infant and I took sick and could not come back here.
The CHaaInxaN. Wait a minute. You had come back here?
Madame ONEXILE. I had come back and returned.
The CHAInxAN. You had come back here to staly with the children?
Madame ONmreXI And went back with my children.
The CHra~nxaN. Where were your children?
Madame ONEXH.E. At my habitation. When I came back to my habitation,
Capt. Kelly came out in charge of a patrol. He took my husband and hungj himn
to the rafters. He took our little bag of money and set fire to thle house. Hung
him to the rafters, and then set fire to the house. A little brother of mine wasu
622 ~22--pT 3-- 891

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892 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

there at the time, and they brought the little boy, my brother, to the prison and
made him work.
Mr. ANGELL. When was it ? How long ago that your husband was hung in
this manner?
Madame ONEXILE. It Will be two years and ten months on the 6th of January.
The C'HamYaN. Do I understand that he kept him hanging when the house
was burning? Was he in the house when it burned down?
Madame ONEXILE. Yes; he was hanging in the house.
Senator JONPEs. Was he burned?
Madame ON9EXILF. Y@8.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you see your husband hanging up there in the house before
it was burned?
Madame Ownnr~9. Yee. I saw that.
The IN'TERPRE~EB. A minute ago she said she thanked the good Lord that she
was not there or he would have done that to her.
Mr. ANGE&LL. Where were you when you saw your husband hung -Ip before the
house was burned ?
Madame ONJExHE. I Was in Rrampique, when this was done. It ceas my little
brother who saw it. I went to see my mother who was sick.
Senator POMEEEREN. So you did not see it yourself?
Madame ONOEXuaS. It was not I who saw it. It was my brother.
The CHAIRMAN. Where is your brother?
Madame ONEXILE. He is in Rampique, about two hours' ride.
Senator POMaERENE. DO I understand that the husband was burned to death?
Madame ONKEnHe Yes; my husband.
The C'minusu. What is thle name of this little brother in Ramplque?
Madame ONEXIILE DuIma8 JeaB.
Mr. ANGELL. HOW Old is he?
Madlame ONIPKLEC. Perhaps, at the most 28.
Mr. ANost.L Did you see the house after it was burned?
MCadame ONEXH.E. CertRBilg, I Baw the ashes.
Mr. ANGEE.I. HRv9 yOR eVer 8008 your husband since then?
Madame ONEXH.E. HOW was I going to see him?
Mr. ANGELL. Did YOU ever make a complaint about this?
Madame ONpEXILE. Yes.
Mr. ANGELL. TO Whhomiu od
Madame ONEXILE. TO Let od
Mr. ANGEILL When?
Madamle ONHH.LE. O)n November of last year.
The CHArnusn. For the record, the Chlair notes that the burning took place
in MIarch, 1919, and the complaint to Lieut. Wood at Bajon, in November, 1920.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you make any complaint to the Haitian authorities before
you complained to Lieut. Wood ?
Madame OHPnILE. There Were RO Haitian authorities at that time.
Senator POMERENE. Did you complain to, any officers here in this camp at
Hinche at that time, or at any time since?
MCadame ONHH.E. NO, sir; I did not.
The C~amussu. Have you got anything more to say on that or any other
subject ?
Macdame OwnH.IE. I have finished.
The CHAIRMAN. Are! you living near where the habitation was burned?
Madame ONPEXH.E NO, 817.
The CHamu~Aw. Who lives near there now?
Madame ONEXILE. Nobody. There is nobody in my habitation now.
Senator POMrEBE~E. WChat did Capt. Kelly put you in jail for?
MIladame ONr~xur. For a mule. On account of a mule.
Senator POMERENE. What did you do or say to Capt. Kelly?
MIadame ONPEXH.E. I said nothing.
Senator POMERENE. DO you know who took the mule?
Madame Ox~n.E. I do not know.
*Senator POMERENE. At that time were there Cacos here in Hinche?
Madame ONEXH.E. There were no Cacos at the time.
Senator POMERENE. Did your husband belong to the Cacos?
Madame ONEXHJC. NOVer.
Mr. ANGELL. How long after your husband was hung and the house was
burned did your brother tell you of having seen this?
Madame ONHHE.rs TWO months later.

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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AN4D SANTO DOMINGO. 895

The CHamuaro. Any more questions you want to ask, Mr. Angell?
Mr. ANGELL. NO.
Senator JoNoes. Where was your husband when the mule was stolen?
Madame ONKEft.E At bl8 60880.
Senator JONfEs. At his house?
Madame ONEEEE. 198.
Senator JONEe. Did he have a house different from yours?
Madame ONEXH.E., NO, Bir.
Senator JONJES. Why didn't he go after the mule?
MIadame ONEXH.LE. He was suffering with rheumatism.
Senator JONPEs. What was it that caused you to think that you would find
the mule with Capt. Kelly?
Madame ONEXILE. I complained, of course, a great deal when the male was
lost. and some one told me he had seen the mule at Cercle La Source.
Senator JONE8~. And Capt, Kelly wanted you to pay 13;5 gourds for the mule?
Madame ONOEIIIE. T9.
Senator JONES. And you came back home to get the money, did youth
MLadame ONEERIE. I returned to get the money and returned with 135 gourds
Senator JONE8. Why Wrere you willing to pay 135 gourds for a male which
belonged to you?
Madame ONEXH~.. I knew the mule was mine. Capt. Kelly asked me for
the money. I claimed the mule, and when I claimed the mule, Capt. Kelly
said I must pay 135 gourds for it. I wanted the mule real bad and I went
to get the 135 gourds and he refused to give it to me.
Senator JONEs. Was it a native mule?
MUadame OKEZLE. Yes, sir.
The CHamsaln. One more question and I am through. Did you see the
male in the possession of Capt. Kelly or any of the gendarmes?
Madame OEKrEE. I saw the mule in Capt. Kelly's possession.
Senator POMPEREs. Did Capt. Kelly talk French or Creole?
Mfadamne ONEEKE. Creole.
STATLERET OF aaR. PREVIOR 80OND.
The CHral-san. What is your name?
Mr. SOLONOD. Previor Solond.
The CHanmxaN. Where do you live?
Mr. 80~wND. SectiOR JUanrid8.
The OarrmuaN. Let him tell his story.
Mr. SmorDs. I was out in the country and I came in here on account of the
bandits.
Mr. Awarr.. Here to Hiinche?
Mr. SOIONHD. 198.
Mr. Anosu. When was this?
Mr. SOLOND. About two years ago, at the time of the Cacos. While I was
here my wife went out with a child to get some food. When she arrived at
her habitation, the marines killed my wife and child. At the time my wife went
to the country to get food, the marines arrived where she was at her habitation
Sandl shot her and the child.
Senator POYERIENE HOw do you know that?
Mr. ANGOEU.. Where were you at the moment that your wife and child were
shot?
Mr. SOLOND. I was here in the town.
The Os~zaxnax. Who saw the marines kill the wife and child?
Mr. SOoInD. The neighbors.
The CHaaznxaN. Can you give the name of the neighbors?
Mr. SoLOND. GraVIrsSO is One of the neighbors. This neighbor did not see
this. He found the woman dead and he buried her. Eight dlays later I went
out to my habitation and saw where she had been buried.
The CH~nzaxAn. Is there nobody besides Gravisse who saw the marines kill
her?
Mr. Soz~ore. Loorisea Phenor was another one of the Deighbors who saw it
Perhaps there are others, but I do not know.
Senator POMEBRExx Did these others that you speak of see the marines kill
her?
The INTERPRETEBO. I caD BOt get him to answer this question. The only ques-
tion I can get him to answer is that these assisted at her burial.

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894 IJQUrIRY INTO OCCUiPATION OF HATTI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Mr. ANGE~LL. Do you know~anyone who saw the marines or gendarmes kill
her?
The CHAIaRMAN. With~vn FOMP OWM yP
The INTERPRETERB. The same thing. He says they burled her.
T'he C1HAIRMrAN. All right.
Senator POMuEBeNE. How far la it from Hinche here where you were to the
pince where the wife was killed?
The INTERPRETER. He can not calculate It, but he says it is about the slame
dis~tance as from here to the second crossing of the river, coming in from
Marissade. That is about an hour's horseback ridec, andi about an hour and a
half on foot.
Senator JONEs. How old was thatf child?
Mr. SOLOND. About 14.
Senator JoN~ks. Was it buried with the mother?
Mr. SOLOND. YeB.
Thle ('HAIRMAN. This happened during the ep~och of the Cacos?
Mrr. ROT.OND. YPA.
The CHAIRM~AN. And he had run into Hinche to get away from the cacost~
Mr. SOLOND. The encos ran after me and stole what property I had and I nrn
into Hinche to save my life.
Senator POMERENE. How do you know that it was not the ncos that dhi( t lr-
killing?
Mr. SiOIDNhD. The encos at that time were far away.
Senator P'OMERENE. Where? You were not there.
Mr. SozoroND. I Was here.
Senator POMERENE. Were these neighbors whlo told you about the burial of
y-our wife and child--were they ncos?
M\r. SOLOND. I do not know.

STATEllENT OF MRt. CHARLES BUTSSEY EAROR.
The CHalanxAN What is your name?
Mr. Zaxon. Charles Bussey Zamor.
The CHALIRMAN. What i8 yOur profession?
Mr. Zaaron. Former senator of the Republic.
The CHaIBMAN. Where do you live?
Mr. Zaxo. At Hinche.
Senator POMERENE. Are you a brother of the former President?
Mr. ZAMaOR. Yes.
The CHAIBMAN. Will you proceed to give this commission facts which you
know of your own knowledge?
Mr. Zaxon. What I know personally and that, which came to my knowledge?
The CHAIRMAN. Give first those which you know personally.
Mr. ZAMOR. What I have to say is that I have very much suffered from the
occupation here at H~inche. First, I was brutallyF dispossessed and driven
from my house.
Mr. ANGELL. When?
Mr. Zaxon. About the 27th of March, 1919.
Mr. ANGELL, By Whom were you chased out of your house?
Mr. ZAMOB. I have never concerned myself with the oftleers of the occupa-
tion, and I can not tell you exactly the name, but it was by order of Col.
Hooker.
The CHAIBMANar. COBOBOOe.
Mr. ZAMOR. C01. HOoker asked Airst to rent my house, and I refused. He
said that day at noon, if between noon and 1 o'clock I did not give him the
house, that he would take it by force, which he did. At the same time two of
my mules and one of my burros were taken by the marines under order of
Col. Hooker.
Mr. ANGELL. Where were you at that time?
Mr. ZAMon. I was here at my house.
Mr. ANOars. Did YOU see the marines come and take the mules and; the
burro?
Mr. Zaxon. I not only saw it, but I even fought with one of the marines my-
self one evening. In spite of my efforts toward the military commander and
even toward the President of the Rep~ublic and the minister, I was never able
to obtain any satisfaction. After two years of the occupation I was able to
regain my house, having proces-verbal drawn up by the juge du pair, who is
here present. As I have said, I have suffered greatly from the occupation.
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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINCo. 895i

)Ir. ~AGEI.T Gre yOu ever paid for the use of your house by the mariners
here?
3Ir. Z~xon. Never, never, not until this day.
Mr. A.TGF.M. Did you ever demand payment ?
Mr. ZaxroB. Yes; I have made many efforts to receive payment, and up to
the present time I have never succeeded.
M1r. ANGOE.L. C88 JOn tell the names of the marines who lived in your house
adurng that period?
MIr. Zbxon. I can not tell you their names. I was so indignant against them
that I never even tried to find out who they were.
M1r. dAaGL.. Did you remain in Hinche during the time your house was occu-
pledl by the marines?
Mr. ZLxon. No; they put me out, and I had other houses and I found lodging
in other places.
Mir. AnGEI.E. Did you remain in Hinche?
Mr. Zaxon Yes; I was in Hinche. I had never left Hinche.
JIr. ANGEmL Have you actually seen the marines coming in and out of your
house during the period of occupation of it?
Mr. Zblxon Yes; often. All of the society here can attest to that fact, the
juge du paix and the magistrat communal.
The C~xnrsav. From whom of the occupation did you demand rent for your
house?
Mr. Zaxon. I asked the minister of the interior and the President of the
Repubic, since they are my chiefs.
Mr. Amon.L. Did you ever make a demand for rent or for restoration of your
house to any of the American military authorities In the occupation?
Mr. Zdxon. No. I merely asked that they give me back my house and rent
for the months it had been occupied, but the Government kept my letter without
giving any answer.
Senator POMERENE. What Government do you mean?
3Ir. Zaxon. The present Government.
Senator POMEBENE. POu mean by that the Haitian Government?
MIr. Zhxon. The Haitian Government during the occupation.
11se Cniaxsuar. Was there any otIncer of the American forces of whom you
asked your rent?
Mbr. Esxon. I could not address such a request to any of the oftierer, since it
was Gen. Hooker himself who took my house by force, and I could not ask
hile.
The C~anax.As~. Are there other matters of which the witness wishes to
speak?!
Mr. Zluoa Yes; there are other things, but it is so long that I prefer to
slaplify it in order to defend these poor inhabitants.
The UnisuYAN. I wonder if that would not better be reduced to paper. He
wants to engage in a general defense.
Mlr. AROara.. Ask him if he can not make a memoir.'
The CHataxua. That is what I mean. Would that he satisfactory to you?
Mr. Zaxon. If you will permit me to add, there is Mr. Marests Woolley, who
has a long list of the victims: and after he has given you this list, if you wish
to hear me again, I have much to say.
The CHnaxnan. I ask you to give to the commission a memorandum on the
condition of the people and the cruelties from which they have suffered, which
yea may remit through Mr. Stenio Vincent or Judge Nau, who will transmit the
mmiDRtra to the commission through the hands of Mr. Angell, counsel for the
union, of which they are members.
(The papers~ referred to will be filed with the clerk to the committee.)
STATEMLENT OF MR. ODALIS TEIJSMA

The Uniax~sax. What is your name?
Mr. Trt.Isau. Odalle Telisma.
The CH~rlaxaR. Where do you live?
Mr. TBJRMrA. Section La~ Guajon.
The CHanr~ax. What do you have to tell the committee?
)Ir. Tarusxa. I came here to make complaints of my father-in-law and nlon-
in-law. The Americans killed both at their homes in the month of October,
1920.

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896 INQUIBY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMIINGO.

The C~aIBaxA. Was it during the time of the Cacos?
Mr. TEMBMIAr. At the commencement of the Caeos. The first Haitian that the
American killed in Haiti was my father-in-law.
The C~armxan. Who saw the marines kinl him?
Mr. TEMSMA. When the marines came in the house they arrested anl those
who were in the house. When they arrested these people the white men (the
marines) told my father-in-law that he could remain in the house. They did
not appear to be all white men. It was gendarmes and two ofileere-two white
men-who arrested all these people.
Mr. ANGEL.. Where was this man at the time?
Mr. TEMMAa. I WR8 St my Own home.
Mr. ANGEu.. How far was your home from the place where these relatives
were arrested ?
Mr. TE~sMAr. About from here to thre river, about 10 minutes' walk. This
wats a man that was present. When the g~andarme5 and the two officers arrived
they killed this man (indicating a man present In the room). I asked him to
talk and he is afraid. He would not say anything. When he saw the gendarmes
and the white men with their rifles he was afraid, and he opened the side door
of his house and he ran. They shot at him. The gendarmes and the odikers
shot at him when he was running.
Mr. ANGELL. Shot at whom?
Mr. TELISMA. Shot at this man here (indicating; the same man).
The CH~rAIMAN. Did this man himself see the gendarmesJ enter the house or
did he see them raise their guns to fire?
Mr. TEuMSA. NO.
The CHamxlan. Then be is excused.
Senator POMERENE. Does the know what these men who were at his father-
in-law's were arrested fort
Mr. Tn.xaxA. I do not know.
Senator POMERENE. Were they Cacost
Mr. TEMBsMA. NO.
The CHalsMAN: Inasmuch as there is present, according to this witness, an
individual who saw what happened, speaking for myself, I see no reason for
continuing the examination of this witness.
Mr. ANGaER I think you are right.
Senator POMeERENE You might just ask one question here. He said some-
thing about his son-in-law being killed.
The CHa~luaxN. No; it was his brother-in-law.
Senator POMcaERENE I think he said his father-in-law and his son-in-law.
The Ona~MaxAN Were his father-in-law and son-in-law killed at the same
time?
Mr. TELusA. No; they did not die at the same time. They gave them to the
gendarmes to bring in.
The CHAIrMANr. Were they arrested in the same habitation?
Mr. TwasnAr. No, sir.
The CanaxAnl. Did he see with his own eyes the arrest either of his father-
in-law or his son-in-law ?
Mr. TEMSMrA. NO.
The CHlaxraNa. Then I am ready to release this witness. Is that satlisae-
tory to you, Mr. A~ngell?
Mr. Axem.I. Yes,; I agree.
The ORInxraan. The committee unanimously and Mr. Angell the counseL
agrees that there is no further examination to be made of this witness. Lt
him alt down.

STATEMENT OF MB. DORCEITIS JOBEPH.

The CHaBl~axAN. What is your namue?
Mr. JOsEPH. Dorcelius Joseph.
The CHaal~nxN. Where do you live?
Mr. JOBJEPH. Section La Guajon.
The CHAIRMLAN. Did YOU see the gendarmes arrest the father-in-law and the
son-in-law of Orlalis Telismat
Mr. JosILEr. Yes. They arrested these people in front of me.
The CHAmxaan. How many gendarmes were there?
Mr. JOBEPH. Eleven.


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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 897

The C~ansaan. And how many white officers?
Mr. JoaxPHL. And two white men.
The CHaznxaN. Who were they?
Mr. JoBEPEI. I don't know their names.
The CHAIBMrAN. HOW IOng ago was this?
Mr. JOsEPH. About two years ago.
The CHAIRMAN. At the beginning of the Cacos time?
Mr. JosePH. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you given the name of your habitation, of th~e section?
Mr. JOSEPa. Yes.
The CHAIBMAN. About how far fromn Hinche is that?
Mr. JOSEPH. If you leave now you would get there about 4I o'clock; in the
afternoon.
The CHamu~aN. About three and a half hours, about 9 miles. Will you tell
the commission where you were when the gendarmles arrived?
Mr. JOSLEPH. I Was at my father's house.
The CHamxauN. How near is that to the house of the father-in-law of Odalis
Tellama ?
Mr. JoS;EPa. About from here to thle other side of the river, about 1,000 yards.
The CHAIRMAN. What did you do when you saw the gendarmes coming?
Mr. JOSEPH. NOthing.
The CH~axaanr. Did you stay in your own habitation and watch the gen-
darmes enter the other house?
Mr. JOSEPH. I Was. right at mly house and I saw the gendalrmes tie and beat
these people, so I ran.
The CHarPxaN. After they tied and beat these people, what did you next see?
Mr. JOSEPH. I didn't see another thing.
The CHIaBmxN. Did you see the gendarmes at any time shoot the father-in-
law or the son-in-law with your own eyes?
Mr. JOSEPH. NO, sir; I didn't see it with my own eye%--the shooting.
Senator POMERENE. What was dlone with these men after they were burned
and beaten, as you say ?
Mr. JosEnH. I ran away and I don't know.
The CRAIBMAN~. When did you hear that they were d~ead?
Mr. JOSEPa. My mother saw the shooting.
The CHarmxaN. What did your mother say to you?
Mr. Joezen. She didn't tell me anything.
The CHAIrAN~~. Did she tell you that she saw the shooting?
Mr. JOBEPH. The mother didn't see this. The killing was done on the road
coming here.
Senator POMcERENE. Where is ble mother now?
Mr. JOSEPH. Section La Guajon.
Senator POMERENE. What's her name?
Mrt. JoSEPH. Madame Axcellus Joseph.
The CHAIBMAN, Why i8R't she here to-day?
Mr. JooxPa. She is sick,
Senator POMEBENpE. Were these people who were arrested Cacost
Mr. JOSEPH. No, sir; they were at their homes.
The CHAIRMAN~. Will you give the names of anybody who saw these mnen
killed on the road after they were taken?
Mr. JOSEPsH. Perhaps my mother could, but I can not.
The CHuAIAN. I dont' know anything more to ask him.
Senator POMERIENE. Are you related to the other man who was on the stand ?
M~r. JosePH. Yes; I am the brother-in law of this man.
The C~annuaa. You are a brother-in-law of this man?
)Ir. JoBEPH. Yes.
The CHaIBMtan. But you are not the brother of the man who was killed?
Mr. JOsEPH. I Rm 8 BOB Of the Old gentleman that was killed.
Senator POM[ERENE. Who; this man?
SMr. JOSEPHI. YO6; I WR8 R son of his father-in-law.
The UnmaxraR. Then you were the brother of the other man killed?
Mr. JOSEsa. It was this brother of mine who was killed.
Mr. AmFon.L. Were you injured or hurt in any way at the time of this arrest ?
Mr. JosePa. I was wounded.
Mr. ANGEr.I Where?
Mr. JOBEPH. There [indicating].

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898 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Senator POMrERENrE. How was he wounded?
Mr. JOSEPH. It came in here andi out there. [Indlesting a place above the
knee, a few inches above the right knee on the right side.]
The CHAIRMAN. Was thalt a bullet from a gun?
Mr. JOSIEPH. I don't know. I was running. I don't know whether it was a
bullet or not.
MIr. ANGETI. Do you know by whom you were shot?
MIr. JOSEPH. A white man; an Amerlean.
MIr. ANGEILr. Did you see the white American fire his gun?
M~r. JOSEPH. KO, sir.
The CHaarMaN. There is one quertlon I think we have not asked. Did you
see the bodies of your father and brother after they were killed?
M~r. JoBEPH. NO.
The CHAIrMrAN. CRD you give the names of anyb-ody who saw the bodies?
Mr. Josarn. A mlan by the name of Anesignr.
The CHwAIMAN. Did Anesigna tell you that he saw the bodies?
Mir. JOSEPH. No. He told my mother that.
Senator PoMERENE. Do you know where these men are buried ?
Mr. JoadsH. I know where the bodies are buried.
The CHzax~aw.. Do you know where Anesiga lives?
Mir. Jossesa. Yes.
The CHamx~aN. Tell where Anesign lives.
Mr. JOSEPH. Section La Guajon.
The CHamMlaan. Can you find him? Does he live there now?
M~r. JOBEPH. HO i8 there; ye8.
Senator POMrERENE. HRve We got this man's address, or where he lives?
Mr. ANGEII.. Y98.
The :HaBmaaN. Any more questions, Mr. Angell?
Mr. ANGEFLt. NO.
The CHanx~aN. That is all.
STATEMENT OF MB. JOSE DEREBIEB.

The CHAIrMAN. what'B yOUr Dame')
Mr. DERBEBIER. JOSe Derebler.
The CHaInxan. Where do you live?
Mr. DECBEBIER. LOS Pa118.
The CHzaxaw.~ How far is that from here?
Mr. DEREBIr.a About an hour and a half's walk.
The CHaInxaw. Tell your story.
Mr. DEEB~IER. Two little brothers of mine wTere killed.
The ORaImuaN. How old were they?
Mr. DEBEBIER. One was 15i and the other 25i.
The CalauBaH. How long ago?
Mr. DEREBsIER About two years in October or November.
The Owanuxw.. At the beginning of the epoch of the cacost
Mr. DEaaRBIR. Ye8.
The CHarmvaaa. How did it happen that they were killed ?
Mr. DEREBIEB The son that was 25 years of age was a cripple. He was sitting
on a bed of rice. The white man arrived with his revolver and killed him.
Mr. ANGlra., Where were you at the time this happened?
Mir. DEBEKBIEa. I was at my own house when this happened.
The Crarznx~o. How far was it from your own house to the place where
your son was killed?
Mr. DEBEBIEB. About from here to the market.
The INTzaRneER.B About 300 yards.
The CH~ax~rar. Did you see it with your own eyes?
Mr. DEREras.W No, sir; I did not see that. I saw them pass in front of
my house.
Senator POMwEREN. Let us make this clear. I understood him in the earlier
part of his examination to say his two little brothers, but it turns out he is
talking about his son. Make sure it is clear about that.
Mr. DEBE8IEa. TWO brother is right. They killed the crippled one with a
revolver.
The CHa~mxANa If he did not see the marines shoot him~wth a revolver, how
did he know that he was killed by white men with a revolver?
Mr. BEREIBIEB. The wife of the cripple saw this.
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INLQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 8QQ

The CHAlARAN. Where is she?
Mr. DEREBIER. She Is there.
The CH~AIRMAN.. Why is she not here to-day?
Mr. DEREBIER. She haS R smaRE child.
The CHAIsrMAN. Is She married again?
Mr. Dr.REBIER. She did not marry, but she has a baby.
The CHarrnxaN. She is not married, but shle has a man there?
Senator POMERENE. How about the other brother?
Mr. DEREBIER. After they killedl the cripple that was on this bed, this other
boy was in another room on another bed. The white man went in there and
told him to get up, took him by the arm.
The CHIAIBMAiN. What is the name of the wife of the brother who was killed?
Mr. DEBEBIrc. Viergeline.
The CHarrnxAN. Where does she live?
Mr. DEREBIER. Musien.
The CHaAIRAN. She was III the house, Viergelin?
Ifr. DEREBIER. Yes.
The CHARarMAh. She saw the other boy killed?
Mr. DEREBIEm. Yes; she saw himt. The same man that killed] the cripple went
into the next room and took the other boy by the arm and saidl Come out of
here, Garcon," and with the same revolver shot him twice.
The CHblmulN. Before these people were killed, did you see these men go
by your house?
Mr. DnER~EBIR Yes, I did.
The CHAIrMAN. Were the gendarmes with white officers?
Mr. DEREBIER. Three white men and many gendarmes.
Senator POMERENE. How many?
JIr. DEREBIER. I did not count the gendarmes.
The CHamBMAA. Is there anybody besides Viergeline who saw the shooting?
M~r. DEREBIEB. She was the only one. The neighbors heard the rifle shots
and ran.
Senator POMERENHE. We have not got that woman's address yet.
The CH~amasrN. Where does she live now?
Mr. DEREBIERn. LOs Palls.
The C~anuaN. Did you see these broth~ers of yours after they were dead?
Mr. DEREIBIEB. Yes, I did. I buried them.
The CHamuaNa~. Where did you bury them?
MIr. DER3BIE~R. Where they were shot.
The CHa~arauN. All right. Whant else have you to say?
Mir. DEREBIER. That is Hil.
M~r. ANGELL. Didn't you say something, about the house being burned. I got
Part of that.
Mr. D)EREBIER. They set fire to the house after they did this killing, and the
cripple who was in the house had part of his foot and leg burned.
The CHabr~axN. Did you see the house in ashes afterwards?
M~r. DEREBIER. Yes.
Senator ODDIE. Did you see it burning?
Mlr. DERBFIEn. I did not see the house burning.

STALTEMENT OF MBt. ERIA EMATNTEL.

Senator POMErzENrE. What's your name?
Mr. EMANUEL. Eria Emanuel.
Senator POMERmvs. Where do you live?
Mr. EMANUaEL. Section La Guajon.
Senator POMERENE. What do you want to say?
Mr. EM[ANUEL. The same report I want to make. They are brothers of mine
also, these boys that were killed, the cripple and the boy who was 15 years old.
Senator POMIERENE. Where were you at the time of this killing?
Mr. EMANUEL. I Was & Short distance Watching them, and ran and stopped a
short distance and watched.
Senator PoMERE~NE Tell now what you saw with your own eyes.
M1r. EMrAUELz. First, I 88W the white man shoot the cripple. I saw him walk
in. First I saw this white man walk in and take him off the bed, drag him up
to the door and shoot him.
Senator POMRaENE. Were you In the house at the time?

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900 INQUIBY INTO OCOUPATION OF HAITI AND SAinTO DOMINGO.

Mr. EMAN~UEL. No, no. I was behind at a short distance, behind a plantain
tree, watching this.
Senator PoxERENPE. HOW far from the h08807
Mr. EMANflUE. From here to the prison.
Senator POMEPBENE. About 80 feet?
Mr. EMANUEL.~ YeB.
Senator POMERENR.g Could you see in the house
Mr. EMANUEL. I could not see inside of the house, but I saw this killing.
Senator POMEBENE.o Did you see the second boy killed ?
Mr. Exnews.. I saw the second one.
Senator* POMERLE~O Where was he killed ?
Mr. Ex~war..m He dragged him out of this room into the yard.
Senator POMERENE. HOW dO you know he dragged him out, when you couldn't
see in there?
Mr. EMANUEL. I saw him as he was coming out of the door, dragging hion.
Senator POMERENE. YOU know the names of these white of~eere or menP
Mr. EMANUECL. NO, sir, I do not.
Senator POaE~BENs. Were the gendarmes Haitians or were they two white
men?
Mr. Exeuzz. Yes.
Senator POLERENE. How many of them were there?
Mr. EMANUEL. I didn't count them, but I think about 15i.
Senator POMERNrE. Do you know any of them?
Mr. EMarNvt.. I did not recognize them. They were not men from this part
of the country.
Senator POMgEREL. Have you seen any of them since?
Mr. EMaaNUEL. No; no. They left and went to Thomonde.
Senator POMERENE.~ Did y`ou or the other friends make any report of the killing
to the Haitian Glovernment or to the American soldiers or-offieers?
Mr. EMcANUL. My brother came in and made a report.
Senator POMERENE. A report to whom?
Mr. EM~ANUEcL. I don't know. The chief of the white men here. I don't kmno
his name.
Senator POMLERENE How long after the killing?
Mr. EManUEL. Right away.
Senator POMLEENE. Were there Caeos about here at that time?
Mr. Exarrron.. There were no Caeos near here at the time. They were far
away.
Senator POMEBENE. HOW 1ar &Wayl
Mr. IEMaAwre;. I do not know. I was not with them.
Senator POM[EBENE.g Were these brothers associated with or friends of the
CaCOst
Mr. EMANUELz. One was a cripple, and the other was very sick in his lege--ver
pore. They were not together with the Caeos.
Senator POMIEBENE. That doesn't answer the question. Were they friends of
the Cacostl
Mr. EiMA~NUEL Never.
Senator POMBER.NE Had the Oncos been stopping at that house
Mr. EMANUEL. NO.
Senator ODDIE Would youl know these men again if you saw them--these mlen
that did the killing?
Mr. EMIANU~EL. NO; I Would not recognize them now.
STATE'IENTT OF MADAME. MICHEL MAZINE.

The CH~sraxR. What is your name?
Madamne MAXINE. Madame Michel Maxine.
The CannraxA. Where do you live?
Madame MAXINPE. Section La Guajon.
The CuAmu~aw. What have you to tell the commission?
Madame Maxrms My mother and a brother that the Americans killed.
The CHAIRMcAN. When
Madlame MAXINE. About twfo years and six months ago that they killed lTt
mother.
The CHlaIMAN. And how long ago did they kill your brother?
Madame MARINE. The brother was taken prisoner by the white men sad
maltreated and sent to Cape Baltlen and died in prison.
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INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO. 901

The CHAIrMANv. When was th~at that the brother was taken to the cape?
Madame MaxrIns At the same time; they were taken at the same time.
The CHamluaN. Who saw your mother killed?
Madame MAXINE.. A little brother.
The CHaIamaN. Where is he?
Madame IAX~INE. The little brother did not come. He is not here.
The C~anaxAN. How old is he?
Madame MUAXINE. About 30 years.
The CHnaulan. Where does he live now?
Madame MAnxINE. M-y brother is 10 Section La Gunjon now.
The CHAIBMANP. What is his name?
Madame MlAXINE. TW'eO FRi'tvs.
The CHAIRMAN. Did you with your own eyes see your mother killed?
Madame MiAXINE. lies.
The CHanxMarn. W'ere there white mlen and gendarmeR together?
M~adamle MAX [E. Thlr~e Wc~re lio gendarmes--three white men.
The CIHATEMLAN. How did~ they~ comle to the habitation?
Madame MlAXiNE. Thley Wer'e passing; they wrere going along thle roadl and
came in.
The CrArmuaN. W'lhat did thecy do when they came in?
Madame MiAXINE. They Oclne ill fnd killed my mother.
The CHATRMAllN. HOW clid tlle2 hHDPPOH to kill your mother?
M~adamle MlAXINE. I don't kno~w. I had no husband. I was there alone. The
brother was at hris own house in thle samle habitation.
The INTERPRLEFBn What they mean by that is: They have one big house and
five or six little houses around it.
The C!HAIRMAN. Did they enter the house before they killed the mother?
Madamue MAXIN-E. Yes.
The C~araxah. How long were they in the house before they killed the
mother?
Madame MAXINuE. When they were arrived.
Senator POMERENE. Where were you when the mother was killed ?
Madame MAXINE. I was at my home.
Senator POMF.EBENE. Where was that? How far away from your mother's
home?
Madame M~AXINE. About an hour's walk.
senator POMEBENE. If you were an hour's walk away how could you see these
People kill your mother?
Madame ~AXINE.k A little brother of mine came and called me.
Senator POMERENIE. After she was shot?
Madame MLAXINE. Yes. Came and called me after the mother had been shot.
The CHalaxan. Did you see your mother after she was shot?
Madame ~AXInE. Yes; I buried her.
The CHarrxaNa. How was she wounded ?
Madamne lAXINE. Shot through the side and in both breasts.
The CHanrnMaa. Was the face crushed?
MCadame M1AXINE. And she was evidently shot in the house.
Senator POMrEREN Did you see the man who did the shooting?
Madame MARINs YOs: I sRW them; I saw three white men.
The OHAIBMLAN. And they took the mother off then?
Madame MCAxrNE. Yes.
The CHarrnxaN. Were there other men in the habitation besides the little
brother?
Madame MAXINE. Yes. They ran.
The CH1larnaaR. How many men were in the habitation?
Madame M1AXINE. A small brother and an aunt.
The CIaInamaN. They ran away?
Madame MCAXINE. They rats away.
Senator JONEs. Did you not say at one time you saw them killed, and then at
another that you were an hour's walk away?
The CHarrraxA. Yes.
Senator JONEs. Where were the Cacos at that time?
Madame MAITNE. I don't know.
The ClAIrMsla. Were the whites out chasing the Cacos?
Madame MAXInE. Ye8.
Senator POMEBENE.. How old was this little brother who came and told you
that this mother had been shot?.
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902 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATION OF HIAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO.

Madame MAXIN-e. About 30 years old.
The CHAIRMAN. And how old was the other brother whro ran away?
Madame MlAXINE. The one that ranl away with the aunt, ran over to hler
house.
The CHAIRMAN. HOW Old was he?
Madame MlAXINE. Thirty years old.
The CHAIRMANa. One of your two brothers?
Madame MAXIN'E. YO8.
The ORalnxAN. How old was the one that was taken to the Cape?
Madame MAINxhE. About 35.
Mr. ANGELL. Do you know where your mother is buried?
Madame M\AXINE,. I do. She is buried here in the habitation.
The CHAIBMAN. Have you anything more to say?
Madame MAXINE. NO.
The CHAIsrMAN. Mr. Interpreter, will you say that we regret the absence
of those witnesses who with their own eyes are allegedly to have seen these
events. The American authorities, rivil and militarry, are opposed to the ill
treatment of the people. The American oftkcers of the g~endlarmerle and of the
Marines are under instructions from their chief to assure the good treatment
of the people and to receive complaints. The American Government wrishes to
do everythingf possible to a~slure th~e people o~f the country, to make it possible
for the? people to work, andi to secure the prosperity of the people. There are
no more witnesses to-day, but a further investigation will be made of the events
and the ill treatment of which thle witnlesses have told. The commission asks
the people to help th~e officers and inspectors in making these investigations.
Any further investigation which is made will be forwarded to the commission
at Washington.
We? are going to ldjouurn thle session, and we bid those who are assembled here
good-by, and are going: on with our Inlbors elsewhere.
(Whereupon the commission adjourned, subject to the call of thle chairr)


MEMORANDUM6 OF INSTERVIEW IN THE HOIUSE OF TH1E PRIE8RT AT HINCHE

His name was Duclos, and there were also several other priests present, whose
names were as follows: Pere Leroue and --
These were here for the feast day next Thunrsdlay.
Present: All the Senators; Mr. Angell, Mr. Williams, and the rest of the
pat.The testimony from the priest at Hlinche was the most emphatic we have
yet heard, and was agreed to by all the other priests.
(1) The o~ccupation should not withdraw its marines or gendarmerie. This
country could not be lived in during the disturbance. The priest himself had
to leave from time to time. He owes his safety to the occupation. Both
gendarmes and marine offleers have done splendidly throughout. The captain'
here at Hinche is a man after the priest's own heart.
(2) There should be no national army.
(3) A local police force may come later, when thle country can afford it.
There then may be less petit larceny.
(4) Clol. Hooker and his offleers repeatedly offered Zamor rent for his house.
Theyv did not occupy It for long. Col. Russell s~aidl the house was used as a
hospital.
(5) All the working people here are very content with the occupation. It
has given them their first opportunity to work their land. In the town of
Hinchle there are perhaps only three or four who in their hearts are opposed
to the occupation.
(6) All the priests believe that decent living conditions and industry among
the people depend on peace being maintained by the Americans, and they said
that the country people began moving back into the plains immediately after
the revolution was put down.
(7) A local priest told Mr. Ang~ell that he had heard that the corree was
used from time to time up to 1918, but that it was common talk that the people
who worked in the corvee then got three meals a day for the first time in their
lives.




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1NQUUIRY INTO OCCUPATION AND AnMISISTRATION OF; HAIT1
AND SANTO DOMINGO.


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1921.

U~srrED STATES SENATE,
SEL.ECT COMMIITTEEr ON H1\rrr AND SASTo D)om(Noo,
P'lantationl of Atarlay;e, Hiaiti.
The! committee mlet ait 8 o'clock 8I. mn., at the r~~steldece of Mlr. Bulker, superinI-
tenden~t of the Amlerican West Indlies Co.
P'rtesent: Senator Oddlte and Mlr. Angell.

STATEMENT OF MA[DAMYE PHILOSCAR JOSEPH.

senator OuDDE. Where do you live?
Madamne JOSEPH. JNisSrlde.
Senator ODD)IE. Will you sa1Y what you have to say to the committee? We
can onlly lintenl to things that you hlave seen yourself or have heard yourself.
Madame JORHEPu. I w'ent to see my aunt and they' almost killed me, aind I
have the mlarks on my head.
Senator ODDIE. Who did it ?
Madame JOSEPH. Williams, with the gendarmes.
Senator OLDDIE. The gendarmes or the marines, the white or the black?
Madame JOSEPH. Haitians.
Mlr. ANGELL. Whenl was this and where?
Madame JOSEPH. In JHuaR~y, tWO SearS Rgo.
Mr. ANGELL. Where was this?
Madame JOSEPH. Ait Manlssade.
Mr. ANGE~IL. WRs this the time the Cacos were making trouble?
Madame JosEPEH. No; it was a white man, this same Williams who was going
around killing people. The Cacos had not yet come.
Mr. ANGELL. Did the Cacos come soon afterwards?
MUadame JOSEPH. YOS.
Mlr. bnANGtI. How long afterwards?
Madame JOSEPH. I can not tell exactly how long.
Mr. ANGOELL. WRs it 800H ?
Madame JOSEPH. Yes. I was suffering then and I can not tell.
Mr. ANGELL. What did Williams of the gendarmes do to you?
Madame JOSEPH. He gave me 15 blows with a stick on the arms and the head,
and I was bathed in blood, and hre askedu Marrcial if he was not going to kill
anybody, and Marcial said no," he didn't want to kill1 anybody.
Mr. ANGELL. Who was Ma~rcial?
Madame JOSEPH. ManrciRI, Who commanded Maiussadie.
Mr. AaNGEL. Was he a Haitian or an Aimerican?
Madamne JOSgEPH. A Haitian.
Senator ODDIE. Did the Americans know anything about this?
Madame JOSEPH. Yes; all the whites knew it.
Mr. ANGELL. Where were you when Williamns came in and beat you like this
Were you in your house?
Madame JO8EPai. No; I had left my house and gone to see my aunt.
Mr. AIFont. WVhere did you last lve? Was it right in Manissadle, or how far
from M~aisSade?
MIadame JOSEPH. It WRS outside of Ma~issade, In the country.
>Ir. ANGELL. How far from Maisalede? In which direction?
Madame JOSEPH. It was some distance from Maslssade, on the big road.
903

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904 INQUIRY INTO OCCUPATIONc OF HAITI ANcD SANcTO DOMINGO.

Senator ODMIE. Howf do you know that the Americans knew that Wllians
beat you?
Madame JOSEPH. I dOD't kBOw. but I know that it was Williams who beat see.
I did not have any right to make complaint, because if I had made comlplaint
I would have been killed.
Senator ODDIr. W'ho would have killed you?
Madame JOSEPHI. It WRs Wllllam8 With Marianll, who were big chiefs and
they would have killed me.
Senator ODDIE. So the Amerleans would not luxve had anything to do wilth
that ?
Madame JOSEPH. NO.
Senator ODDIE. Was any complaint made to the? Amerleans about thile
Madame JOSEPH. No; I could not make comuplaint because there were not
many Amerleans here at that time.
Senator ODMfE. Was Williams an American or a Haitiant
Madame JOsEPH. Williams was a white man. I don't know whether he was
an American or what.
Senator ODDIE. Was he a gendarme?
Madame JOSEPH. Yes.
Senator ODDIE. Was he working with the magistrat?
Madame JOSEPH. Yes.
Senator ODDIr. Were there many Americans there at the time?
Madame JOBEPa. What I know is what I say. What I don't know I have not
said.
BTATEMENT OF MR. IENOSITHENE TIFOUE.

Mr. ANGEtLL. What la your name?
Mr. TIrota. Menosthene Tifour.
Mr. ANGERu. Where do you live?
Mr. Trrova. Savanne Grande, in the Commune of Maissade.
Senator ODDIE. NOW, Will y08 tell the committee your story of what you
have seen yourself?
Mr. TI~oun~. The white man Williams killed my mother.
Senator ODDIE. When?
Mr. TIroun. It was in the month of Februaryv. The dlate I have forgotten.
Senator ODDIE. About how many years ago?
Mr. TINun. A year and a half.
Senator ODDIE. Where did this happen ?
Mr. TIwoun Near the Rio Frlo, close to the village. I had come fromn the
house going to the village to get some provisions. My mother was working la
the villnge and there she met up with a white man and the white man killed
her.
Senator ODME~. Who was the white man?
Mr. Trrous Williams.
Senator ODDIE. Was he a gendarme or a marine?
Mr. Twrorn. A marine.
Senator ODDIE. HOw did he kill her?
Mr. TIFoun. He met her and shot her.
Senator ODDIE. Did yOu see it?
Mr. TwFoCI. No; I was not there.
Senator ODDIE. Where Were yOR T
Mr. TI~ors. I was in the village.
Senator ODDIE. HOW far RWayP
Mr. TIFun. It was quite a distance.
Senator ODDIE. About how far?
Mlr. TInvar. I was in the village, a distance of about from here to that
tank or farther.
Senator ODDIE. How far would that be, about?
Mr. TIrous. But the river separates that place from the village.
Senator ODDIL S0 you could not see it from there?
Mr. TIFOUR. NO.
Senator ODDIE. HOw long; after that did you see your mother's body ?
Mr. TwForn. After my mother had died my Father went to Lieut. Williates
and asked permission to bury the body.
Mr. Anoxtr.. The same day ?
Mr. TIaova. The same day.

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