Title: ACASA newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103115/00032
 Material Information
Title: ACASA newsletter newsletter of the Arts Council of the African Studies Association
Alternate Title: Newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: African Studies Association -- Arts Council
Publisher: The Council
Place of Publication: S.l
Publication Date: December 1992
Subjects / Keywords: Arts -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 2 (winter 1982)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. designation dropped with no. 3 (spring 1983).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Vols. for Aug. 1992- include Directory of members: addendum.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 34 (Aug. 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00103115
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09794003
lccn - sn 92017937
 Related Items
Preceded by: Newsletter of the Arts Council of the African Studies Association

Full Text



[Number 35 December 1992]


ACASA Board of Directors

Simon Ottenberg, President
Maria Berns, Past President
Barbara Frank, Secretary-Treasurer

Directors Retiring at the ASA Meeting 1993
Acha Debela
Margaret Drewal
Janet Stanley

Directors Retiring at the Triennial Symposium 1995
Rowland Abiodun
Freida High-Tesfagiorgis
Nancy Nooter
Raymond Silverman

Membership Information (for residents of North America & Europe):
Barbara Frank, ACASA Secretary-Treasurer
Department of Art
SUNY at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY 11794-5400

Annual dues are $25.00, payable in January.
The ACASA Newsletter is published three times a year: April, August and December.

Membership Information (for residents of Africa & the Caribbean):
Janet Stanley, ACASA Newsletter Editor
National Museum of African Art Library
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560, USA.

Cover design is by Moyo Okedii, Nigerian artist from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, who
is currently teaching and studying African art history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Moyo's address: Department of Afro-American Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

I ,

ACASA Newsletter

December 1992

Call for ACASA Papers and Panels for 1993
African Studies Association Meetings, Boston,
December 4-7, 1993. Conference theme: Ecology
and Environmental Issues in Africa. Paper/panel
proposals must be submitted to ASA by March
15th, 1993 latest. The ACASA-sponsored panels are
being coordinated by Barbara Frank; therefore,
send panels and paper proposals to Barbara by
March 1st, 1993: Department of Art, SUNY at
Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5400. (516)
632-7255 office; (516) 474-2986 home; FAX (516)
632-6252. See ASA News October/December 1992
for further details and for copies of the submission
forms for panels and for individual papers.
The following are various ideas for panels.
Please contact the individuals listed if you wish to
participate, and/or contact Barbara Frank if you
have other ideas for panels or if you wish to
organize, chair or contribute a paper for any of
the suggested panels. Barbara will then submit the
ACASA proposals as a group to ASA.
* Roundtable on Historical Interaction and the Arts
of Southwestern Nigeria: Do All Roads Really Lead
to Benin? Short papers (10-15 minutes) are
solicited that deal with interactions among peoples
to the north of Benin, including the Ishan, northern
Edo, Akure, Ekiti, Oyo, Afenmai, Nupe, Jukun,
and Igala. (See also page 22 for fuller description
of Do All Roads Really Lead to Binin? series of
Barbara Blackmun
9850 Ogram Drive
La Mesa, CA 91941
(619) 627-2829
* Control and Display in State-Sponsored Festivals
Eli Bentor
Department of Art and Design
School of Visual and Performing Arts
Winthrop University
Rock Hill, SC 29733
(803) 323-2126


ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

1993 ASA in Boston 1
Business Meeting, November 1992 2
Board Meetings, November 1992 4
Fundraising Initiative 7
Code of Ethics 8
Textbook Committee 10
Book Distribution Program 10
Dues Alert 11
People in the News 11
Obituaries 12
Career & Research Opportunities 12
International News Roundup 13
Noteworthy New Publications 18
Serial Notes 20
Video and Film Notes 20
Forthcoming Conferences 20
Forthcoming Exhibitions 23

* Contemporary Issues in the Study) of African
Cloth and Clothing. A panel to focus on
unexplored or neglected themes in the study of
cloth and clothing, with a focus on current trends,
change and the methodological and theoretical
issues behind such study.
Tavy Aherne
Hope School of Fine Arts, 123
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405
(812) 339-8837
* Arts of Northeastern Nigeria (Recent Research).
Maria Berns
University Art Museum
University of California at Santa
Santa Barbara, CA 93106
(805) 893-2951
FAX (805) 893-7206

* Contested Traditions and Self-Representation.
"Stools from heaven, kings from Mecca, cows
from the sky: invented traditions and
self-representation" (provisional) / Sidney Kasfir
Sidney Kasfir
Art History Department
Emory University
Atlanta, GA 30322
(404) 727-6282
FAX (404) 727-4292

Roundtable on an ACASA Code of Ethics. See
report on the Code of Ethics, page 8.
Warren d'Azevedo
Department of Anthropology
University of Nevada
Reno, NV 89557
(702) 784-6704

Mary Jo Amoldi
Department of Anthropology
NHB 112
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560
(202) 357-1396
FAX (202) 357-2208

4 Popular Representation of Africa in the Wkst. An
interdisciplinary panel to examine the representation
of Africa in the popular press and in a range of
different media.
Enid Schildkrout
Anthropology Department
American Museum of Natural History
New York, NY 10024
(212) 769-5432
FAX (212) 769-5334

Suzanne Blier
15 Claremont Avenue
New York, NY 10027
(212) 584-4506
Street Art/Street Smart. A panel to focus on
street arts, such as sign painting and graffiti.
Rosalinde Wilcox
10520 Draper Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90064
(310) 838-6737

* Crossing Boundaries: Contemporary African Pop
Music. A panel to be co-sponsored by ACASA and
the newly formed ethnomusicologist group. Topic
could be revised to Pop Culture with sufficient
response from ACASA members interested in
presenting a paper on a multidisciplinary panel.

Cynthia Schmidt
African Studies Program
1200 Academy Street
Kalamazoo College
Kalamazoo, MI 49006-3295
(616) 337-7131 or 337-7133
FAX (616) 337-7251

Contemporary Art and Artists. A panel to focus
on a particular medium (such as print-making) or a
particular theme in the work of contemporary

Architecture and the Built Environment. A panel
to deal with environmental issues and the definition
of space in African architecture as ACASA's special
contribution in tune with the general theme of the
African Arts of the Western Hemisphere. A panel
to examine "New World" African arts, perhaps
with a specific regional or topical focus.

Africa Collects: African Sense of Display. An
idea for a panel that emerged from the roundtable
on the "Object as Art or Cultural Artifact?": A
panel to explore the ways Africans collect and
display art/artifacts, and aesthetic (or other) choices
they make as "consumers" and "exhibitors" of
Engendering Technology: African %Wmen Artists.
A panel to explore technologies particular to
African women artists as well as the role of
women in the success of male-dominated

Women and Masquerade. A panel to be
co-sponsored by ACASA and Women's Caucus on
the roles of women in masquerade performance.

Healing, Divination and the Arts.

ACASA Business Meeting
November 22, 1992
1. Comments (President Simon Ottenberg)

2. Task Force on Fundraising (Nancy Nooter)
Nooter reported that the primary emphasis of
fundraising efforts will be towards goal of
bringing African scholars and artists to
participate in conferences and undertake other
activities in the states, but that other kinds of
projects could also be considered. Nooter
outlined the suggestions made by the task force
as to possible fundraising activities including
sponsored events, sales/silent auctions and

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decanber 1992

direct appeals (see the full report on the
fundraising initiative, page 7).

3. By-law Changes (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg presented proposed changes in
by-laws to membership with caveat that the
changes could not be voted on until the 1993
ASA meeting. The proposed changes include a
nominating committee of two board members
and two representatives selected by the board
from the general membership and additional
nominations from the membership-at-large with
signatures of at least ten ACASA members in
good standing sent to the ACASA president.
Candidates would be asked to prepare
statements to be published in newsletter.
Membership responded favorably to changes
and suggested mail-in and/or absentee ballot,
possibility of including ballot in newsletter
with candidates' statements, results to be
announced at the annual business meeting.

4. 1995 Triennial (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg announced the potential change of
venue for the 1995 Triennial from Los Angeles
to the Center for African Art in New York.
Membership's response was positive but agreed
with Board on need for commitment from
other New York institutions. Discussion of
possible dates focused on late May-early June,
taking into consideration the possibility of
student housing and conflict with exams and/or
summer research plans. Other issues raised
included membership drive targeting collectors
and dealers, requirement that paper presenters
be members of ACASA, and likely increase in
attendance due to New York venue. Also
discussed was possibility of planning for a
silent auction at the Triennial to include the
work of contemporary artists, dinners and
other events/activities.

5. Financial Report (Barbara Frank)
ACASA membership is holding steady at 222
members (168 regular, 48 student, 6
institutional) reflecting an increase from 188
members just before the 1992 Triennial. [In
addition, there are more than 350 ACASA
members in Africa and the Caribbean.] The
balance of our account as of November 10,
1992 is $6,904.23 to which will soon be
added the registration fees from the Triennial
in the amount of $4,680.00 to be used for
stipends and travel fellowships for African
scholars to the 1995 Triennial. While ACASA's
costs for the Triennial were about equal to

amount of registration fees taken in, the
amount spent by the University of Iowa was
considerably more. Newsletter costs remain
about $2,500/year (August issue cost
$1,034.40). Members are reminded that they
will be receiving 1993 membership renewal
forms in January 1993 and are asked to share
them with anyone else who might be interested
in joining.

6. 1993 ASA Panel Ideas (Frank)
Suggested topics included continuation of
Roundtable on peoples within the orbit of
B6nin (Barbara Blackmun and Kathy Curnow)
and power plays behind state-sponsored
festivals (Eli Bentor). Barbara Frank will be
putting together ACASA's panel submissions
(for other proposed panels, see page 1) due
March 1st in order to meet the March 15th
ASA deadline.

7. Long Range Planning Committee (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg reported on draft of membership

8. Response to Janson Text (Maria Berns)
Berns presented critique done by Monica
Visona of the Janson text sent to Board
members and the response of lawyer Richard
Faletti suggesting importance of face-to-face
meeting. Blier reported on her continuing
correspondence with Prentice-Hall, that despite
stated desire to respond to concerns, they can
only do minor revisions, not major rethinking,
that African art will continue to be (mis)
treated this way because it provides contrast to
Western art. Discussion included possibility of
approaching H. W. Janson's son, Tony Janson,
directly, whether the battle is moot because of
other new texts being written, and need for
strategy to re-examine all of the introductory

9. CAA 1994 (Berns)
Maria Berns reported that she and Freida
High-Tesfagiorgis plan to organize a panel for
the 1994 CAA meetings to draw attention to
groups under- and mis-represented in
introductory texts.

10. Collaborative Archaeology-Museology Projects
(Bill Dewey & Merrick Pbsnansky)
Dewey and Posnansky reported on proposals
for collaborative projects that came out of the
USIA-sponsored travel of African
archaeologists and museum professionals to the
Society for African Archaeology meetings and

ASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 3

the Triennial last spring. African scholars have
proposed a wide range of rather modest
projects and need to link up with American
institutions. IPAM (International Partnerships
Among Museums, AAM/ICOM) is a potential
source of funding.

11. Code of Ethics (Warren d'Azevedo)
Call for participation of membership in a
dialogue on a code of ethics for ACASA.
Discussion included issue of repatriation as
implied within suggested code, advisability of
contacting CAA representatives currently
working on a similar code, existence of and
potential conflict with collections policy
statements required for museum accreditation,
concern to recognize wide range of points of
view, and need to balance guidelines with
respect for academic freedom.

12. Other Business
a. Announcement of the upcoming
interdisciplinary Fifth Stanley Conference
on "Iron, Master Of Them All" to be
held March 5-6, 1993 at the University of
Iowa (see page 20 for more details).
b. Call for papers for the Third Annual
PASALA Graduate Student Symposium to
be held at the University of Iowa March
7, 1993 in conjunction with the iron
symposium. Competitive travel scholarships
are available (see page 22 for more details).
c. Brochures will soon be available for the
Drew in West Africa program (formerly
the Parsons in West Africa program),
members are encouraged to spread the
word and urge participation of graduates
and undergraduates from their own
institutions (see page 12 for details.)
d. African Art Textbook Committee is moving
ahead with plans for a two-volume
publication to be coordinated by Robin
Poyner and Monica Visona. Plans include
an introductory-level text written by four
authors in consultation with editorial
advisors and an anthology of readings.
Discussion included need to balance
high-quality jazzy photos with moderate
costs. (See page 10 for more details).
e. Call for quality manuscript submissions on
African art topics to Art Bulletin by Hank
Drewal, who is one of the editors. (See
call for papers, page 13).
f. Request from Carol Beckwith for
information concerning festivals she might
photograph. Concerns raised included

problems of being asked to provide easy
access to field contacts and overly
romanticized nature of past projects.
g. Best wishes for a speedy recovery sent to
Doran Ross.

ACASA Board Meetings
November 21 and 23, 1992.
First ACASA Board Meeting, November 21,
1992. Present: Rowland Abiodun, Maria Berns,
Barbara Frank, Nancy Nooter, Simon Ottenberg,
Ray Silverman, Janet Stanley, Freida
High-Tesfagiorgis. Absent: Acha Debela, Margaret

1. Possible change of venue for 1995 Triennial
Symposium (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg read a letter from Doran Ross
asking the Board to allow the Fowler Museum
to withdraw as the host for the 1995 Triennial
(and offering the museum for the 1998
symposium). Ross indicated that he had
contacted Susan Vogel to see whether the
Center for African Art in New York might be
willing to serve as host institution. Ottenberg
said that Vogel was favorably disposed, and
quite optimistic concerning the prospect of
raising the needed funds ($20,000-$30,000).
Carol Thompson would be asked to serve as
Conference organizer. Critical to the success of
the symposium would be the collaboration of
other New York institutions including the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American
Museum of Natural History and the Brooklyn
The Board responded favorably to the
change of venue, postponing final approval
pending confirmation from the representatives
of various institutions in New York as to their
willingness to participate. Discussion included
recognition of need for a clear schedule of
what needs to be done to prepare for the
Triennial and for a more pro-active
participation of the ACASA board in the
planning and implementation of the Triennial
program. Question was raised as to whether it
would be possible to resubmit the USIA grant
for the participation of African scholars.

2. Task Force on Fundraising (Nooter)
Nooter reported on task force recommendations
to the Board (see full report on the fundraising
initiative, page 7). The Board applauded the
efforts of the task force and approved in
principle the idea of contributing towards ASA

4 ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decnber 1992

Challenge grant at least for the final year of
the drive, while at the same time withholding
some funds for short term ACASA projects.
Comments included looking at Women's
Caucus successful collaboration with various
institutions to bring African women scholars
and the need to work closely with host
institutions to provide African scholars with as
wide as possible exposure and to spread the
financial burden around. Board agreed with
task force's recommendation to move ahead
with idea of benefit cocktail parties and to
defer the benefit dinners.
Board endorsed various ideas for art sales,
while expressing concern that artists be
appropriately compensated for efforts with
perhaps percentage of royalties and copyright
fee. Board liked idea of sales of documentary
photographs, adding possibility of producing
posters and/or cards from exceptional field
photographs contributed by members. Board
also discussed potential of silent auction
(perhaps at Triennial) as long as no art objects
be included, except those offered by artists
themselves. Board approved the
recommendation that past and present Board
members be requested to contribute $100 each
to get endowment fund going and that a
lifetime membership in ACASA be offered for
a $1000 contribution to the fund. Board
discussed various ideas for gifts to accompany
such a contribution. Board also approved the
idea of individual sponsorships of scholars
from Africa if such sponsors could be found.
Board also discussed various sources for
mailing lists for direct mail appeal.

3. Collaborative Archaeology-Museology Projects
(Bill Dewey & Merrick PoIsnansky)
Dewey and Posnansky reported on proposals
for collaborative projects that came out of the
USIA-sponsored travel of African
archaeologists and museum professionals to the
Society for African Archaeology meetings and
the Triennial in March and April 1992. They
asked ACASA to act as a liaison between
African and American institutions; the former
would indicate their priorities for modest
projects (ca. $1000) and ACASA would attempt
to link the proposals with American institutions.
While the Board praised the intentions of
such efforts and agreed to provide moral
support for such collaboration, it stopped short
of full-fledged endorsement of individual
projects sight unseen due to potential legal
problems. However, the Board agreed that

such information could be publicized in our
newsletter and that members should be
encouraged to have their institutions follow up
on specific projects, the details of which could
then be worked out directly between the two
4. By-laws Changes (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg presented suggested revisions to the
by-laws which included clarification of Section
Ill: Structure and revised procedures for
nomination and election of Board members.
Board acknowledged that allowing term of
newsletter editor to be renewable would
provide more flexibility, but ultimately agreed
that editor must also be a Board member. It
was noted that there were no term limits for
Board members, thus under current by-laws a
newsletter editor could be nominated for a new
three-year term on the Board.
Board supported the planned addition to
the by-laws opening up the process of election
of Board members to the general membership
pending acceptance by membership in vote to
be taken at the 1993 ASA meeting after
publication of proposed changes in the
newsletter as required in Article IX.
5. Response to Janson Text
Board discussed Monica Visona's draft of a
letter to Prentice-Hall delineating factual errors
and expressing concern over gross
misconceptions perpetuated by Janson's text.
Ottenberg read passages from a letter sent by
lawyer Richard Faletti confirming the absence
of libelous statements in Visona's letter and
suggesting the importance of face-to-face
meeting in addition. Board agreed with need to
present concerns in person and discussed a
variety of steps to be taken: offering our
services to the publisher, seeking allies among
colleagues in other marginalized fields (Native
American, Oceania, Meso- and South
American) and proposing critiques of Janson
(and perhaps other introductory texts) to be
presented at CAA and perhaps published in Art
Journal. Berns and High-Tesfagiorgis agreed to
propose a panel for the 1994 CAA meetings to
bring together colleagues on under- or
mis-represented fields.
6. 1993 ASA Meeting
Board discussed the desirability of ASA
allowing ACASA to appoint one of its
members to the annual meeting program
committee, but acknowledged approval by ASA
not likely to be forthcoming. Ottenberg agreed

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 5

to bring up the issue with the ASA board.
Frank agreed to put together ACASA panel
and paper proposals for the 1993 Boston

7. Financial Report (Frank)
Board reviewed the financial report. Board
raised the possibility of higher registration fees
for non-members at the Triennial as well as
requiring ACASA membership for those
presenting papers.

8. Code of Ethics (Stanley)
Board agreed to present the talking points for
a code of ethics raised by the committee to the
general membership for discussion.

9. Long Range Planning Committee (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg reported on a draft of a membership
survey received from the committee. No action
10. Agenda for Business Meeting.

Second ACASA Board Meeting, November 23,
1992 (following the Business Meeting). Present:
Rowland Abiodun, Maria Berns, Barbara Frank,
Nancy Nooter, Simon Ottenberg, Ray Silverman,
Janet Stanley, Freida High-Tesfagiorgis. Absent:
Acha Debela, Margaret Drewal.
1. President's Comments (Ottenberg)
Ottenberg reported that ASA has achieved
substantial progress towards its goals for the
NEH challenge grant thanks to a $150,000
grant from the Ford Foundation and a $50,000
contribution from Nigerian Chief M. K. O.
Abiola. Also announced: attendance at this
ASA meeting is over 1,400 in comparison to
about 1,250 at St. Louis in 1991. David
Newbury has been appointed program chair for
the 1993 ASA meeting in Boston and Allen
Roberts has agreed to serve as arts
representative on the Program committee.
Frank will work with him on ACASA panels.
2. By-laws (Ottenberg)
Board discussed nomination procedures which,
if approved by membership at 1993 ASA
meeting, will go into effect for the 1995
election at the Triennial. Stanley objected to
inclusion of ballot in newsletter as suggested
during business meeting. Board agreed that the
by-laws should state that ballots be mailed to
the membership to be returned to ACASA
Secretary-Treasurer prior to the next meeting
(whether Triennial or ASA) when results will

be announced, thus opening electoral process
to members unable to attend meetings. Only
exception would be in event of a tie, when a
run-off would be done at the meetings. The
revised by-laws section will appear in the
newsletter prior to being voted on at the 1993
ASA meeting.
3. Membership Drive
Board discussed potential sources for a
membership drive, including museum
membership lists (Center for African Art,
various ethnic arts interest groups, Black
colleges) as well as advertising in various
publications, such as the INternational Review
of Black Art, African Arts.

4. Task Force on Fundraising
Board gave Nooter a mandate to form
committees to move ahead with implementing
various projects including exploring potential
artists and institutions for print project,
possibility of arranging for a competition with
prizes, seeking donations, such as advertising
in exchange for airline vouchers to bring
African scholars/artists, and the organization of
a silent auction for the next Triennial.

5. Response to Janson Text
Board approved efforts to review treatment of
African arts in survey texts.
6. Code of Ethics
Board agreed to charge d'Azevedo and Arnoldi
with forming a committee to take the next step
in developing a code of ethics for ACASA,
suggesting in addition that ACASA panels for
the 1993 ASA meeting include an Open
Forum/Roundtable on Ethics.

7. Financial Report (Frank)
Board discussed ways of reducing costs for
ACASA expenses at ASA meetings (lunches for
board meetings, ACASA party). Board
members will be asked to contribute towards
cost of breakfast or lunch served at meetings,
and the ACASA party may include a cash bar
to offset at least part of expenses.

8. ACASA Brochure (Berns and Frank)
Berns and Frank reported progress on revision
of text for a brochure to be used as part of a
membership drive. Doran Ross has offered
services of the Fowler Museum's graphic
designer to do layout. Berns will look into
price estimates for black and white vs. color
printing. Project will require ACASA to lay

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decenber 1992

out production funds before any return is
realized, but all felt this to be worthwhile.

9. Nominations to Board
The Board nominated Kathy Curnow, Bill
Dewey, Nii Quarcoopome, and Janet Stanley
for elections to be held at the 1993 ASA
business meeting.

Fundraising Initiative. The ACASA Task Force on
Fundraising Nancy Nooter (Head), Simon
Ottenberg (President of ACASA), Rowland
Abiodun, David Binkley, Jean Borgatti, and
Mikelle Smith Omari-Obayemi presented a
series of proposals which were approved by the
ACASA Board of Directors, November 21, 1992
and presented to the ACASA membership at the
business meeting on November 22. The task force
At the Triennial Symposium on African Art
held at the University of Iowa in April of 1992,
the ACASA Board of Directors appointed a special
task force on fundraising. The purpose of this
body is to devise and recommend strategies for
raising funds to enable African scholars to study,
lecture, or attend conferences on African art,
archaeology, anthropology, or museology at
universities, museums, or other institutions of
learning in the United States. The task force, along
with several other ACASA members, will serve as
a fundraising committee to oversee the fundraising
The recommendations that follow have been
contributed by members of the ACASA Task Force
on Fundraising and have received approval by the
task force as a whole. They constitute the first
group of strategies that ACASA proposes to
organize, to be followed by others in the future.
These proposals fall into three categories:
fundraising events, sales, and direct requests for
contributions. The consensus of task force members
is that several strategies may be employed
simultaneously at any given time. Some would
require major campaign efforts, and others would
operate on a more modest, grassroots level. But
nearly all would require volunteers to assist each
project's director. The fundraising committee will
appoint the project directors, each of whom will
then appoint his/her assistants. Each project
director should report to Simon Ottenberg or
Nancy Nooter.
The proposals that we plan to start with are
described briefly below. If you wish to assist the
committee in any of these efforts, we welcome
your participation and suggest that you contact the

person in charge of the project with which you
would like to work. Names and telephone numbers
of project coordinators are included here, or any
task force member may be contacted.

Fundraising Events:

Benefit Cocktail Parties
ACASA will ask a collector in each of several
cities to host a benefit cocktail party-cum-
collection-viewing and to donate the proceeds to
the ACASA Fund. Little organizational effort would
be required, except on the part of the
collector/host, whose party would be a
tax-deductible contribution. The host will also
receive a reward, such as free membership to
ACASA and a note of appreciation in the
newsletter. Because the proceeds would be net
gain, the contribution fees charged to guests can be
moderate. Anyone wishing to volunteer suggestions
or other assistance relating to this project should
contact Nancy Nooter, (202) 966-0306. (NOTE: If
cocktail parties prove to be successful and to
generate interest, we might consider a more
elaborate effort, such as benefit dinners, as a
future possibility).

Silent Auction
At the next Triennial Meeting in 1995, an
auction featuring unusual or witty prizes or events,
donated by ACASA members, will be organized.
Bids will be made on such things as a photograph
donated by the photographer, a print or painting
contributed by the artist, a dinner or cocktail party
with the winner's choice of guests, lunch or dinner
with a celebrity, tickets to a special event, and so
forth. Prospective volunteers for this event should
contact Maria Berns at (805) 893-2951.

Fundraising Sales:

Sale of Commissioned Print by an African Artist
ACASA will commission one print (signed and
numbered) by a well-known African artist, which
would be advertised through flyers included in the
regular mailings of various institutions and
businesses. An ad might be donated and run by a
journal such as African Arts. The committee for
this project should work through an institution,
such as the University of Iowa, which would have
all the facilities needed to implement the project,
e.g., an art school with print studio, a strong
program in African art scholarship, and a
university museum. "Selection of the print might be
facilitated by holding a competition, the winner of
which will receive a percentage of the proceeds
earned. Those interested in volunteering to help

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 7

with this project should contact Jean Borgatti at
(508) 799-2570.
Sale of Documentary Photographs
In a project similar to that described above,
ACASA will commission one documentary
photograph per year by an African photographer,
and one per year by an American or European
photographer. A specially-appointed committee will
select these from submissions by photographers,
with the winners receiving either a copyright fee
or a percentage of the proceeds. A portfolio will
be compiled over several years to be sold outright
or by subscription. These photos, all of which will
be protected by copyright, can also be sold
individually. Prospective volunteers for this project
should contact David Binkley at (816) 751-1210.

Direct Appeals For Funds:

Donations with Annual Membership Renewals
ACASA members will have an opportunity to
contribute annually to the fund by filling in a
contribution form at the bottom of the membership
letter, inviting members to "Double Your Dues" by
contributing an additional $25. A lifetime
membership option of $1,000 also will be offered.
Direct-Mail Fundraising Campaign
ACASA plans to conduct a direct-mail
fundraising campaign with the theme "Let's Give
Something Back to Africa," with letters sent to a
large number of people, all of whom have
benefited by their association with Africa. The
recipients of the letters will include all ACASA
members, and additional scholars, collectors,
dealers, and others with interests in African art
and culture. A time schedule will be established
for this fundraising campaign, probably September
of 1993 or April of 1994. Donors will receive a
package of benefits for contributions exceeding a
specific amount, such as free membership in
ACASA, free registration at the Triennial, citation
in the newsletter, and perhaps one of the prints or
photographs mentioned above under Fundraising
Sales. Volunteers to help with mailing lists and
follow-up calls should contact Nancy Nooter at
(202) 966-0306.

We hope for the success of this fundraising
effort for a worthy cause. Assisting our African
colleagues in coming to the United States as
visiting scholars will promote friendship, and
increase knowledge and understanding for all of us.
Please help us by offering to volunteer. The
ACASA Task Force on Fundraising.

Code of Ethics The following document contains
the "Elements of a Proposed Code of Ethics for
ACASA." It was submitted to the Business Meeting
of ACASA, November 22, 1992 by Warren
d'Azevedo, Janet Stanley, and Mary Jo Arnoldi:

This brief statement has been prepared in response
to the suggestion of members of ACASA who feel
strongly that the organization should have a
declaration of principles or a Code of Ethics. A
sub-committee was assigned at the Board Retreat in
Iowa City in April to present suggestions
concerning this matter to the membership at the
November meeting in Seattle. A number of existing
Codes and commentaries from related organizations
have been assembled and reviewed (see
References). The tentative outline given below is
intended as a guide to the topical categories that
may be appropriate in an ACASA statement of
principles, and about which the membership should
be afforded the opportunity to discuss and provide
in-put. It is suggested that a Committee on Ethics
be appointed by the Board to develop a draft Code
to be circulated for membership opinion and
revision prior to any formal action.

Outline of a Proposed Code

PREAMBLE: A statement of the purposes of
ACASA as an organization within ASA:
Description of its diverse international membership
that includes academic and non-academic students
and scholars of Africa and the Diaspora, museum
curators, gallery owners, professional art dealers
and private collectors, and representatives of many
related disciplines. Any Code of Ethics for such a
convocation of varied careers and interests must
address a common ground of principles about
which there can be a mutual understanding.
Therefore, the categories of concern outlined below
are necessarily general and intended to initiate
discussion toward the development of a statement
of standards of responsibility to which all members
of ACASA can refer as a guide to performance.

I. Acknowledgement of the unique privilege and
special obligations entailed by working with
the cultural heritage of another people:
informed consent, equitable partnership and
"ownership"; cultural conservation.

II. Relations with host culture and individuals:
respect for indigenous knowledge, expertise,
practices and beliefs; encouraging increased
involvement of African and other pertinent
scholars; recognition of modern African

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

I11. Relations with colleagues, students and the
professional disciplines: access to data;
awareness of relevant codes and customary
practices; reporting research; truth and
accuracy; academic freedom.

IV. Obligation to protect the integrity of historic and
artistic works; ethical guidelines for research,
publication, exhibition and management;
"intellectual property."

V. Field investigation: ethical constraints on
conducting research in another culture;
relations with local associates, scholars and
authorities; knowing the relevant national and
customary laws; giving credit.

VI. Collecting art and artifacts: defining the purpose
and relevance of acquisitions; acknowledging
indigenous claims to "ownership";
custodianship through gift or purchase;
private and professional collecting; museum
policy; repatriation; dealing or trafficking for
profit or other commercial uses; the function
of appraisals; illegal and corrupt practices.

VII. Monitoring: a proposed Committee on Ethics;
review of violations and complaints;
reporting to the Board; actions to revoke
membership; appeals.


"Code of Ethics for Art Historians, and Guidelines for the
Professional Practice of Art History." CAA Board of
Directors, 1975.

"Code of Ethics for Curators." Joan Lester, Museum News,
February 1983.

"World Archaeological Congress First Code of Ethics: Members'
Obligations to Indigenous Peoples." World Archaeological
Bulletin, February 1991.

"Code of Professional Ethics." International Council of
Museums, 1990.

"Museum Ethics." American Association of Museums, 1978.

"Guidelines for the Professional Practice of Art History."
College Art Association of America, 1991.

"A Code of Ethics for Conservators." American Institute for
Conservation, Museum News, April 1980.

"Statement of Ethics: Principles of Professional Responsibility."
American Anthropological Association, 1990.

"A Code of Ethics for Museum Stores." Museum News,
January/February 1992.

Macdonald, Robert. "Ethics: Constructing a Code for all of
America's Museums," Museum News, 71(3):52-65,
May/June 1992.

Mclntosh, Roderick J. "Resolved: To Act for Africa's Historical
and Cultural Patrimony," African Arts, 24(1):18-22, 89,
January 1991.

Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue for a New
Era. Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban (ed.). Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

"UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and
Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property." Adopted by the General
Conference of UNESCO, November 14, 1970.

Protocol for They That Giveth
and They That Taketh Away

Abstracted from the paper "Trophies of the Field"
presented by Warren L. d'Azevedo at the African
Studies Association Annual Meeting, November

1. The data, material or conceptual, used by me
were not acquired by stealth, deception or
betrayal of trust. There is nothing in my
work that violates the confidence of sources
and associates, or intrudes into matters
expressly constrained by local sanction or
forbidden to outsiders.

2. I have collected or disseminated nothing for the
purpose of sale and will guard assiduously
against its conversion as a commodity for the
international traffic in cultural property. What
I have acquired and taken away with me is
solely in connection with a specific program
of research and its stated professional

3. I consider cultural property to be any material or
nonmaterial thing that another individual or
group deems intrinsic to an exclusive identity
or heritage. In this sense, no such thing can
be mine to exploit without regard to the
network of social relations that created it:
therefore, my acquisition of it is burdened
less by legalistic argument about possession
than with the ethical constraints of
responsible human encounters.

4. I have cited by name, date and place each person
who has provided me with information or
guidance whether this be in the form of
material objects, recorded words,
performances, photographs, written texts or
other means of communication. Where this is
deemed infeasible for reasons of

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

confidentiality, matters of scruple, an
unwieldy volume of human resources, or
incomplete research records, I have given
credit as fully as possible and have justified
omissions or disguised identities frankly and
clearly within my work.

5. Should I know or suspect that anything I have
exhibited or published is in violation of the
above declarations, I understand that my
professional credibility is at risk and that my
actions could adversely affect my colleagues
and my profession.

This document is intended as a discussion paper
for ACASA members with the ultimate goal of
developing a code of ethics. A Task Force on
Ethics has been set up by the Board, which
appointed Warren d'Azevedo and Mary Jo Arnoldi
as co-chairs. They seek broad collaboration and
wide-ranging discussions from all members of
ACASA. A roundtable on ethics is planned for
ASA 1993 in Boston. Members in Africa are
strongly urged to join in this dialogue. Please
write or call Warren d'Azevedo at Department of
Anthropology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV
89557. Telephone: (702) 784-6704; or Mary Jo
Arnoldi at the Department of Anthropology,
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. Telephone:
(202) 357-1396.

African Art Textbook Committee. The African
Art Textbook Committee has been at work for
several years. In 1987-88, Robin Poynor made a
survey of all members of ACASA in an attempt to
reach those who teach African art courses. He also
collected syllabi from all respondents. The survey
was intended to gather information on where the
subject is taught, what courses are taught, how it
is presented, who teaches it, what texts and
readings are used, how successful these readings
have been, and what type of text book is
preferred. Poynor organized a roundtable for the
ASA annual meetings in Chicago in 1988 where
the results of the survey were discussed and
implications were explored.
The ACASA Board followed up by appointing
Barbara Frank to organize and head a
sub-committee to discuss a textbook as one of its
education initiatives. The committee, consisting of
David Binkley, Barbara Blackmun, Art Bourgeois,
Kathy Curnow, Barbara Frank, Robin Poynor,
Robert Soppelsa, and Monica Visona, has been

meeting at each ASA and Triennial since to discuss
developments and problems.
At the ASA meetings, November 1992, the
committee approved a general outline, but members
of the committee are still in the process of
massaging it into a more useful form. After its
next transformation, the committee will be happy
to share it with others who want to make further
recommendations. Robin Poynor has been elected
chair of the African Art Textbook Committee, and
Monica Visona was elected co-chair. Poynor and
Visona will work with several people who will
write major portions of the book. Specialists in
particular areas will be asked to criticize and edit
those sections relevant to their areas of expertise.
The committee will seek a publisher who is
willing to provide advances for writers and editors
to do the major portion of the work. At least one
publisher has expressed a willingness to do this.
The committee is presently seeking applications
from Africanists who have taught African art
history, who write well, and who will have some
time to devote to this project. Please send a
curriculum vitae, copies of course syllabi, and
writing samples to: Robin Poynor, 102 FAA,
University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611-2032.

ACASA Book Distribution Program sent the
following publications in August and November
African arts volume 25 (3) July 1992 and 25 (4) October
1992. (courtesy of the African Studies Center, UCLA)

History, design and craft in West African strip-woven
cloth. Papers presented at a Symposium organized by the
National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution,
February 18-19, 1988. Washington: National Museum of
African Art, 1992. (courtesy of the National Museum of
African Art)

Nigerian handcrafted textiles / by Joanne Bubolz Eicher.
lie-Ife: University of Ife Press, 1976. (courtesy of Joanne

Royal art of Benin: the Perls collection. New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992. (courtesy of William
Cecil Headrick and the Department of the Arts of Africa,
Oceania, and the Americas, The Metropolitan Museum of

African tribal sculpture from the collection of Ernst and
Ruth Anspach. New York: Museum of Primitive Art,
1967. (courtesy of Kate Ezra and The Metropolitan
Museum of Art)

Bibliography of Benin an / by Paura Ben-Amos. New
York: Museum of Primitive Art, 1968. (Primitive art
bibliographies). (courtesy of Kate Ezra and The
Metropolitan Museum of Art)

10 ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

,ACASA Dues Alert: The 1993 annual dues for
ACASA membership are $25.00; this represents no
increase over 1992. Dues are payable on a calendar
year basis: January-December. A membership
renewal form will be sent in January 1992 to
current members resident in North America and
Europe. Dues will be payable to Barbara Frank,
ACASA Secretary/Treasurer, Department of Art,
SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY
11794-5400. Those resident in Africa and the
Caribbean are complimentary members of ACASA;
they will not receive renewal forms.

Suzanne Preston Blier has accepted the new
tenured position in African art history at Harvard
University and will assume duty in the fall of 1993.
Terry Childs, an archaeologist specializing in the
metallurgy of Central Africa, has been awarded a
postdoctoral fellowship at the Smithsonian's
Conservation Analytical Laboratory, where she
began the one-year appointment in September
1992. Her research topic: "Iron, copper, and
socio-political change in southeastern Zaire."
Christopher DeCorse has also been awarded a
postdoctoral fellowship at the Smithsonian to begin
in early 1993. His topic is "Culture contact,
continuity, and change in West Africa, 1400-1900
A.D." Chris completed his Ph.D. in 1989 at
UCLA on archaeological excavations at Elmina,

L. C. Ekechukwu, of the Department of
Archaeology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, is a
Fellow at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York, during the academic year 1992-1993. Mr.
Ekechukwu is affiliated with the Department of
Objects Conservation, where he is learning
conservation techniques applicable to his work in
archaeology and with museum collections in
Nigeria. He can be reached at The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, Department of Objects
Conservation, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY
10028. Telephone: (212) 879-5500 extension 3057.

Gladys-Marie Fry, University of Maryland,
College Park, received a grant from the West
African Research Association to carry out research
on "The lash and the loom: slave weaving in the
ante-bellum South." She will explore African
weaving techniques in order to understand how
these may have influenced weaving done by
African-American slaves in the eighteenth and

nineteenth centuries. She will visit principal
weaving centers of West Africa to study the
weaving techniques, cloth production, dyes and
dyeing processes, design motifs, types of looms,
and beliefs concerning the idea that making a
perfect woven article brings bad luck.

Salah Hassan, SUNY at Buffalo, will be spending
six months' study leave in Nigeria to conduct
fieldwork on Hausa architecture. During his stay in
Nigeria, Salah will be affiliated with the
Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria.

Dele Jegede has accepted a faculty position at
Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana,
not far from his alma mater at Indiana University
in Bloomington. Dele, whose teaching
responsibilities will include African-American as
well as African art, will be taking up the new
appointment in early 1993. Dele leaves his current
position as Acting Director of the Center for
Cultural Studies, University of Lagos.

Babatunde Lawal, formerly of Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile-Ife, has taken a position in the
Department of Art History at Virginia
Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia.
Mikelle S. Omari-Obayemi, University of
Arizona, received a Faculty Research Grant and
Travel Award from the university for her work
"African women, power and art."

In October 1992, Simon Ottenberg was honored
with a chieftaincy title in Afikpo, Nigeria, in
recognition of his many years of personal and
professional association with the people of Afikpo.

Nii Quarcoopome, University of Michigan, will be
going to Ghana to conduct fieldwork during the
first six months of 1993.
Sara W. Smith, graduate student of Simon
Ottenberg at the University of Washington, spent a
ten-week predoctoral fellowship at the Smithsonian's
National Museum of African Art, where she
explored "The construction of Yoruba identity and
the creation of contemporary art."

Thomas H. Wilson, formerly of the Center for
African Art, has moved to become the Executive
Director of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles.
Tom is also the president of the Council for
Museum Anthropology.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 11

We have received notice of the death of Nwanna
Nzewunwa, Professor of History and Archaeology
at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, who
died on July 9, 1991. Professor Nzewunwa was
active in archaeological circles in Nigeria and West
Africa. The University of Cambridge, his alma
mater, has established an endowment in his honor.
Also from Nigeria, we had news of the death of
Tiani Mayakiri, one of the first-generation
Oshogbo artists.

Birmingham Museum of Art, Curator of
African, Native American and Pre-Columbia.
The Birmingham Museum of Art seeks a curator
to oversee all aspects of the Museum's African,
Native American and Pre-Columbian permanent
collections. Identifying and scheduling traveling
exhibitions. Organizing special exhibitions and
developing the permanent collections. Research,
lecturing and publication. M.A. or Ph.D. in Art
History or related field. Minimum two years
experience in a curatorial or academic position.
Demonstrated skills of organization, research,
connoisseurship, and demonstrated ability in grant
writing. Send letter, resume, and a transcript to:
Larry Baldwin, Birmingham Museum of Art, 2000
8th Avenue North, Birmingham, AL 35203-2278.
(205) 254-2565.

The School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
Assistant Professor, F/T. Salary commensurate with
qualifications and experience. Start September 1,
1993. Tenure track. Specialist in African, Asian or
Oceanic Art, well-grounded in traditional art
history, with commitment to effective undergraduate
teaching and to developing culturally diverse
approaches to required survey of world art. Further
responsibilities include courses through advanced
level in areas) of expertise. Opportunities for
curriculum development. Teaching experience
essential, and appropriate museum background may
also be taken into account. Ph.D. and record of
scholarly activity are preferred. Include
publications, names, and addresses of references.
Deadline: January 15, 1993. Contact: Jennifer
Arra, Art History Search Committee, Director of
Faculty Services, School of the Art Institute of
Chicago, 37 South Wabash, Chicago, IL 60603.


12 ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decnber 1992

West African Research Association Fellowships in
West Africa for American Scholars. U.S. doctoral
candidates and established scholars who wish to
conduct research in West Africa in any field of
academic study are eligible. Small grants not
exceeding $4,000 are available for travel and
partial support. All applicants should submit in
triplicate: curriculum vitae indicating language
ability and institutional affiliation; university
transcript if Ph.D. candidate; name of two referees;
a maximum 1,500-word proposal including
indication of the nature of the final product;
proposed itinerary with dates; proposed budget
from all sources.
West African Research Association
Fellowships in the U.S. for African Scholars.
One award of up to $5,000 will be offered to a
West African Ph.D. candidate or postdoctoral
scholar to conduct research at a U.S. academic
institution on Africa or African Diaspora related
topics. Application should be made jointly by the
scholar, who should be resident in Africa at the
time of application, and a faculty member of the
sponsoring American institutionss. All applicants
should submit in triplicate: curriculum vitae
indicating language ability and institutional
affiliation; university transcript if Ph.D. candidate;
names of two referees; a maximum 1,500 word
proposal including indication of the nature of final
product, and anticipated positive results on both
sides; budget and commitment of additional
fund/in-kind contributions from the U.S.
All applications should be sent to: Joseph E.
Harris, Chairman, West African Research Centre,
Box 682, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
20059, USA.

Drew in West Africa. Once again, Drew
University will be sponsoring this unique summer
study program which explores the artistic and
cultural heritage of Mali and C6te d'Ivoire. Now
in its tenth year under the able direction of Jerry
Vogel, the program will continue to offer
participants the opportunity to work directly with
potters, weavers, and metalsmiths in their village
workshops. In addition, the C6te d'Ivoire program
offers courses in West African art history,
archaeology and photography. The Mali trip will
run July 4-24, 1993, and the C6te d'lvoire
program will run July 22-August 21, 1993.
Brochures with complete application forms will be
available in mid-January. Application deadline:
April 1, 1993. For more information, contact:
Office of Off-Campus Programs, Drew University,

Madison, NJ 07940. Telephone: (201) 408-3438; or
Phil Peek, Department of Anthropology, Drew
University, Madison, NJ 07940. Telephone: (201)

Art Bulletin. Henry Drewal, as a member of the
editorial board of Art Bulletin, urges ACASA
members to submit manuscripts for consideration.
According to the statement by the editor-in-chief,
Richard Brilliant, the Art Bulletin "seeks once
more to establish itself fully as a forum for current
thought, develop a critical language that will be
accessible and interesting to a wide range of
readers." If you have a manuscript ready or an
idea in mind, please contact Henry Drewal at The
Newberry Library, 60 West Walton, Chicago, IL
60610 (where he can be reached through June

The Travel to Collections Program of the
National Endowment for the Humanities provides
grants of $750 to assist American scholars meet
the costs of long-distance travel to the research
collections of libraries, archives, museums or other
repositories throughout the world. Funds may be
used to cover the costs of transportation, lodging,
food, and photoduplication. Application deadline is
October 1, 1993. For information contact: Travel
to Collections Program, Division of Fellowships
and Seminars, Room 316, National Endowment for
the Humanities, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20506. Telephone: (202)

I Inta N s R

News from Australia
African Art Registry in Australia. David Dorward
reports on the project to create a national registry
of African artifacts in major public collections in
Australia: "Throughout 1991 and 1992, I have
been engaged in major project, funded by a
$30,000 grant from the Australian Research
Council, to locate and document African artifacts
in major public collections in Australia, including
The Museum of Victoria, The Australia Museum
in Sydney, The Macleay Museum of the University
of Sydney, The Queen Victoria Museum and Art
Gallery, Launceston, The Tasmanian Museum and
Art Gallery in Hobart, and The African Research
Institute, La Trobe University. The information is
being computer programmed to create a database
for an Australian national registry of African

This has been a major undertaking, involving
over 6,000 items so far. Each item was
photographed to museum quality with scales and
accession numbers on 35mm color slides. The slide
collection is currently housed at the African
Research Institute, La Trobe University. The
computer program contains data on the
museum/gallery location, accession number,
description, material, origin by country and ethnic
group, original source and data of acquisition and
other provenance information. The computerized
registry and slide collection will be accessible to
scholars and museum personnel for reference and
research. Eventually it is hoped to put the entire
Australian African collection, including
photographs, on video-disc and/or other computer
generated imagery for purposes of teaching and
There were a number of "discoveries,"
individual artifacts of major importance, such as
the hitherto undocumented B6nin pieces in the
Museum of South Australia, and the extensive
textile collection of the Museum of Victoria. While
masks and ritual objects are present in the various
Australian collections, the greatest strengths are in
domestic artifacts and materials with pre-industrial
African technologies, such as textile, pottery and
The emphasis of material culture and
technology within the older Australian collections
mirrors the commercial basis and bias of empire
motivating much of the late nineteenth-century
acquisitions policies of the major Australian
institutions. Not only did materials gathered in the
great colonial collecting expeditions by the
Pitt-Rivers and the British Museum find their way
to Australia, but also colonial officials and
missionaries, who settled in Australia, were
significant donors. Materials from South Africa
dating from the Boer War period are particularly
well represented.
Many items had clearly lain undisturbed for a
quarter-century or more and frequently contained
original notes, hidden in their folds by collectors.
Museum tasks such as conservation and cataloging
have been starved for funds for too long, and it is
the material fabric of the collections which is
showing signs of neglect. It can take weeks of
careful preparation before a bark cloth, which has
been stored in metal case for over fifty years, can
be unfolded. Museum records are at best patchy
and incomplete, based on inventories often taken
over thirty years ago. At times the attributions are
vague, inaccurate or misleading e.g., kaffir.
Considerable provenance research lies ahead, but
the task will be immeasurably facilitated by the

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 13

information which has been collected. The very
existence of the national registry containing
photographs and basic provenance records will
enable postgraduates and scholars to undertake
research on the African materials in Australia.
Already one Ph.D. candidate at Flinders University
is utilizing the database for his research on Maasai
and Ganda material culture.
Unfortunately, the sheer volume of African
material located overwhelmed the resources
available. It was only when the cabinets were
opened and material examined that it became
apparent that the numbers of items did not
necessarily correspond to the museums' indexes.
Not all the items listed could be located. Age had
turned some to dust years ago. More to the point,
cabinets frequently disgorged items which were
uncatalogued. Consequently, there was insufficient
funding to undertake photographing and data
acquisition on the African artifacts in The National
Gallery of Victoria, The National Gallery,
Canberra, the anthropology collection of the
University of Queensland in Townsville, the
Queensland Museum's African collection, on loan
to the Material Culture Unit of James Cook
University, The Abby Museum, Caboolture,
Queensland, or The Western Australian Museum,
Perth. It is hoped to carry on with these
collections and their incorporation into the national
registry with the support of smaller supplementary
research funding over the next few years. Private
funding has been secured to photograph and
document the 1,335 African items in the
Christensen Fund Collection (on long-term loan to
the Museum of Victoria), which is particularly
strong in the area of masks and ritual objects.
In addition, the African Research Institute has
recently received a fascinating collection of South
African artifacts from the Tunbridge sisters,
collected by their father when he served as an
Australian officer in the Boer War. The collection
is supplemented by Major Tunbridge's photograph
album and diaries, which are in the process of
being photographed for the Borchard Library
collection." David Dorward, African Research
Institute, La Trobe University, Bundorra, Victoria.

News from Ethiopia
Richard Pankhurst sends notice of the Third
International Conference on the History of the
Ethiopian Art to be held at the Institute of
Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University,
November 9-11, 1993. The conference will cover
all fields of Ethiopian art, both traditional and

modem. Papers are invited in any field of
Ethiopian art, including architecture and crafts, and
may be delivered in any language (though English
would be preferable). Participants will have the
opportunity to view paintings in churches in the
vicinity of Addis Ababa, as well as in the Institute
of Ethiopian Studies' newly re-installed art gallery,
and other collections.
Participants should, if possible, bring fifty
copies of their paper and a ream of copy paper. It
is planned to publish conference proceedings, and
participants should bring their conference paper, or
send it later, on IBM-compatible diskette using
Word Perfect 5.1. Notes should accord with the
style used in the Journal of Ethiopian Studies, and
should be placed at the end of the text. The
organizers would like to receive titles of proposed
papers as well as brief abstracts of not more than
100 words as soon as possible, not later than April
15, 1993. The registration fee is $50 for
participants from abroad. Accommodation is
available in one of Addis Ababa's numerous hotels,
or, if available at the time, at the University's
guest house. Contact: Richard Pankhurst, Third
International Conference on the History of
Ethiopian Art, Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis
Ababa University, P.O.B. 1176, Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia. Telephone: 71.29.01.

News from France
The Fondation Afrique Creations is co-sponsoring
an exhibition, Contemporary Artists from the
African Continent, in collaboration with the Institut
du Monde Arabe, May-June 1993. For information,
contact: Fondation Afrique Creations, 38 bis rue
Rivoli, 75004 Paris, France.

News from Germany
The symposium 'Terms of Art': New Art from
Nigeria in an International Context took place in
Dusseldorf in November 1991, organized by North
Rhine-Westphalia's Ministry of Education and the
Land's Art Collection. Nadja Taskov-K6hler and
Elisabeth Luchesi were responsible for the concept
and administration of this two-day interdisciplinary
dialogue. They invited leading German
ethnologists, internationally celebrated
exhibition-makers, representatives of national and
international institutions, and also Nigerian artists
and cultural policy administrators. The selection of
people giving papers showed that the dissemination
of contemporary African art is by no means as
is a matter of course with Western art within

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

the sphere of competence of the art business and
art institutions. What remains the meager
presentation of African art in the West has hitherto
almost exclusively taken place in museums of
ethnology or in institutions concerned with
development policy.
Art from Africa, whether traditional art or
contemporary creations, must still struggle for
recognition as art. Werner Schmalenbach and
Siegfried Gohr led the way in Germany in gaining
access for African art to art museums. In 1990 the
Ludwig Museum in Cologne, a stronghold of
contemporary Western art, showed traditional
African art independent of its socio-cultural
context, presenting it exclusively in terms of
aesthetic quality. It became apparent that the best
African art like the works of its early discovers,
Braque and Picasso is "world art," a
reassessment which got through to Capital, a
business magazine, which recommended African
tribal art as its market tip for 1991. The
German-Nigeria symposium was also ultimately
concerned with this leap from recognition of
African art as art to an opening up of the Western
art market to contemporary African creativity. It
was not just chance that the symposium's title of
"Terms of Art" also alluded to "terms of trade."
Informative and committed contributions by Luisa
Francia ("Perceiving the Unfamiliar") and Brigitte
March ("New Art from Nigeria in the Area of
Conflict between Power and the Market") made
particularly clear that terms are not good on the
German art market.
The Dufsseldorf symposium provided an initial
and important contribution, which must be
continued if information is to give rise to
cooperation. For that, however, it would be
necessary not just to talk about art from Africa,
but also put it on show and to discuss its
aesthetic quality. Fear of charges of Eurocentrism,
leading to attempts to exclude discussion of
aesthetic quality, results in Europe adhering to its
old colonial ideas about the African's magical
worldview and the creative but naive savage. The
fact that, despite all the unfamiliarity involved for
us in the art of other cultures, it is ultimately
artistic quality which makes dialogue possible, was
clearly demonstrated in the Cologne exhibition of
traditional African art. A presentation of carefully
documented contemporary African art, comparable
in quality, would also open up a "market." -
excerpted from a report by Gisela Zimmwemann-
Thiel in Kultur Chronik no. 1, 1992.

News from Ghana
Cape Coast Museum. Some $700,000 is to be
spent on converting the Cape Coast Castle into a
world class museum. It is envisaged that the
refurbishment will turn the castle, which was once
a major transit point for the trans-Atlantic slave
trade, into a major tourist attraction. Christine
Mullen Kreamer, a consultant of the Smithsonian
Institution, which is providing the funds for the
project, told a press conference in Accra that the
Museum would help attract tourists to Ghana and
would become a permanent site for the exhibition
of Ghanaian cultural heritage and traditions. Work
on the museum is scheduled for completion in
April 1993 and July has been earmarked for public
opening. from Vest Africa, September
28-October 1992.

News from Great Britain
One hundred Asafo flags, dating from 1850 to
1957, were recently on exhibition at the South
Bank Centre, London. These colorful flags which
combine Fante symbols with European heraldry are
documented in an accompanying book, Asafo!
African flags of the Fante by Peter Adler and
Nicholas Bernard (London: Thames and Hudson,
1992). 96pp. ISBN 0-500-276846. 12.95.

News from Kenya
The National Museums of Kenya appointed a new
curator, Geoffrey Clarfield, as head of the Division
of Ethnography to replace Aneesa Kassam who left
in 1991.

News from Nigeria
Bruce Onobrakpeya Honored. Our correspondent in
Nigeria writes that Bruce Onobrakpeya, one of
Africa's best-known print-makers, turned 60 on
August 30, 1992, and the art community in
Nigeria is organizing a series of events in his
honor. The Society of Nigeria Artists (SNA), in
consultation with the celebrant and in alliance with
the Committee for Relevant Art and the Committee
of Friends of Bruce Onobrakpeya, organized a
retrospective exhibition of the art of Bruce
Onobrakpeya at the National Museum, Lagos,
which was held from August 28th to September
4th. A small nineteen-page catalogue was
published, Bruce Onobrakpeya: a retrospective.
There was also a church service at All Saints
Church, Yaba, Lagos, on August 30th.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 15

"The Spirit in Ascent: Bruce Onobrakpeya at 60"
Call for papers.
One of the future events to commemorate the
60th anniversary of Bruce Onobrakpeya will be a
symposium entitled "The Spirit in Ascent: Bruce
Onobrakpeya at 60." Originally scheduled for
October 30, 1992, it is being rescheduled for the
spring 1993. It will be held in Lagos at the Yusuf
Grillo Auditorium, Yaba College of Technology,
School of Art Printing and Design, Yaba. This
notice is a call for papers on any aspect of the
work of the artist, either directly or indirectly, his
influence or the impact of his philosophy on
modem African art, the socio-cultural milieu which
produced him and/or the socio-economic conditions
which shape public perception and reaction to his
work. Suggested topics:

Myths and legends as constituents of
Onobrakpeya's prints

Onobrakpeya: excursions into anatomy of
animal and plant Kingdoms
Social realism in the art of Onobrakpeya:
escape to fantasy

Onobrakpeya: the primitivist in contemporary

Ovuomaroro Gallery as a teaching school

The artist as agent of cultural reification and

Please send a one-page abstract to (or for further
information contact): Mike Omoighe, School of
Art, Printing and Design, Yaba College of
Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; or Dele Jegede,
President of SNA, Centre for Cultural Studies,
University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba Lagos, Nigeria.

The Pan-African Circle of Artists (PACA) plans to
organize an international exhibition in Nigeria in
1993 to launch its organization. Interested artists
and benefactors are encouraged to contact PACA
spokesperson Mr. Krydz Ikwuemesi at P. O. Box
9228, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria. In the
meantime, PACA has acquired a temporary
exhibition space in Enugu and plans to hold local
exhibitions. See the ACASA Newsletter April 1992
for a report on PACA.

Igbo-Ukwu Revisited. A recently published article
on Igbo-Ukwu looks again for the Egyptian
connection: "The international factor at
Igbo-Ukwu," by J. E. G. Sutton in African
Archaeological Review (Cambridge) 9: 145-160,

Abstract: "Archaeomineralogical fieldwork in
south-eastern Nigeria combined with
metallurgical analyses has now all but
confirmed the local provenance of most of the
metals used in manufacturing the bronze and
copper vessels, ornaments and sculptures which
were kept and buried at Igbo-Ukwu about the
ninth or tenth century AD. This demonstration
may further support the view that the technical
skills and artistic inspiration of Igbo-Ukwu
were largely locally evolved. Yet the lack of
prototypes remains disconcerting. Such a large
collection of exquisite bronze artwork and
ritual objects is unparalleled for this region at
that period; and attempts to explain the
circumstances which gave rise to Igbo-Ukwu
remain unsatisfactory. It is argued here that,
whatever local factors, either religious or
secular, may have obtained at that time, there
was also international one. Presumably this
region was for a period producing a rare and
geographically specific mineral then in high
demand in the wider world. The bronzes may
be in effect the by-product of that mining and
production for export. It is suggested that the
principal trade-routes then may not have
crossed the Sahara to Muslim North Africa but
may have run eastward from Lake Chad region
to the Christian countries of the Nile. There
may be a hint of this in certain of the bronze
forms. Moreover, contact with Egypt, if not
indirectly with land beyond, is demonstrated at
Igbo-Ukwu by the vast numbers of imported
Art Comes to Lagos Streets By Uyilawa
Usuanlele. At social gatherings and other relaxation
spots, you are bound to find them, clutching their
sheets of paper, biros and pencils. They are either
portraying someone who catches their fancy or
trying to impress prospective patrons to part with
some token amount for their portrait. They are the
itinerant children artists of Lagos, whose ages
range from seven to thirteen. They go about Lagos
during the weekend exhibiting and hawking their
creative talents and wares.
A similar tradition exists in many European
cities, where people make their living in the streets
as artists. In Lagos it is a new phenomenon and
the idea is bound to spread. When and where did
it start? Nobody seems to have bothered to
document this development. Even now nobody can
tell exactly when this phenomenon started, except
that these children came into notice in the late
1980s in Lagos, which, though cosmopolitan, is

16 ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decnber 1992

also largely a major Yoruba settlement and cultural
Although these itinerant juvenile artists are
either school children or have passed through
school, the origin of this phenomenon should be
sought in the Yoruba cultural milieu with its
tradition of itinerant artists. This tradition has been
most developed in music and drama, which has
produced in modem times both the Yoruba
travelling theater and the Yoruba cinema. It is still
a common sight on weekends to find in many
Yoruba towns traditional drummers and comedians
moving from one social gathering to another
entertaining people for voluntary donations. It is
most probably this cultural milieu with its itinerant
artists tradition coupled with other social and
economic factors (including SAP, the notorious
Structural Adjustment Programme) that drew these
itinerant children artists into the streets of Lagos.
The economic incentive was confirmed in a
chat with Master Mukaila Adisa, a thirteen-year-old
student of Temidire High School Tolu-Ajegunle,
who admitted that he does this every weekend, not
only because of his love for art, but also as a
means of avoiding child labor which his parents
have been urging him into. He admitted that his
parents are not aware of his art practice, though he
shares the proceeds with the parents, who believe
that it is his earning from street trading. According
to Mukaila (who has established a place for
himself at the National Arts Theatre, Iganmu, as
the first and only itinerant child artist who finishes
his portrait work with water colour), he makes
between fifteen and thirty naira ($0.75-$1.50)
every weekend, and the leftover after sharing with
his parents constitutes his pocket money.
Their work is anything but childish, though it
cries not only for refinement, but also for further
development. They draw on any form of paper,
preferably thick paper, while the sketching and
shading is done largely with a biro pen which is
cheaper and more accessible then crayon and
watercolor. Now that these creative and enterprising
children have hit the streets, should they be left on
their own to continue in this rough form without
trying to guide their creative potentials towards
refinement and development of other art forms?
Because art receives little attention in the primary
schools, due to unavailability of professional art
teachers, there is an urgent need to find other
means of helping these children develop. If they
are left to reach secondary school or university
before benefiting from the guidance of art teachers,
they will not develop quickly, and their interests
might be lost before they get this far. Though
children's art workshops would be helpful, they

remain few and far between and are prohibitively
expensive. Children' art workshops should be
organized more frequently by various organizations
and made accessible to a larger number of
children. Non-governmental organizations have a
great role to play, as do the numerous private
galleries that are emerging in the country, which
can help organize such workshops. Many of the
children artists interviewed around the National
Arts Theatre are very enthusiastic about such
possibilities. Hear nine-year old primary school
pupil Mater Kayode Segun: "Sir, if you can start
the weekend school, I go attend, if you won't
charge money." Not only is there an urgent need
for such workshops, efforts should also be made at
producing art materials locally and more cheaply
too, so that they can be easily accessible to
children. Our children are already coming, we
cannot afford to leave them behind. We have a rich
heritage, which we should encourage our children
to advance.

See also Do All Roads Really Lead to Benin? on
page 22.

News from South Africa
Owl House. Athol Fugard's play The Road to
Mecca was based on the real life eccentric Helen
Martins, now deceased, who created a sculpture
garden mecca in her remote home in the South
African Karoo. Her artwork, still in its original
setting at "Owl House," is the subject of a new
book by Anne Emslie titled The Owl House.
Available from the Friends of the Owl House, c/o
South African National Gallery, P. 0. Box 2420,
Cape Town 8000, South Africa. Rand 89.99
(approximately $30).

News from the United States
The Fowler Museum of Cultural History at the
University of California, Los Angeles, inaugurated
its new $22-million museum building in September
1992 with four major exhibitions. Guests at the
opening gala on September 25th were able to view
the exhibition "Elephant: The Animal and its Ivory
in African Culture," curated by Doran Ross in the
7,400-square-foot J. Paul Getty Trust Gallery. The
"Elephant" catalogue, however, was not ready by
opening day, but is expected to be published in
February 1993. It contains nineteen contributed
essays, and will sell for $69 (paper $39). See also
Doran Ross' preview article on the exhibition in
the October 1992 issue of African Arts.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 17

The Center for African Art, New York, located for
the last eight years in a townhouse on East 68th
Street, has moved to SoHo and re-opens to the
public on February 13, 1993. The new site at 593
Broadway triples gallery space and makes room for
an auditorium, bookstore/gift shop and teaching
center. The interior is being designed by architect
Maya Lin. The inaugural exhibition, "Secrecy:
African Art that Conceals and Reveals," opening
February 13, 1993, and curated by Polly Nooter,
will explore how Africans have represented the
complex relationships between secrecy and
knowledge in their art and architecture. One
hundred works of art from thirty different African
cultures confront the paradox of indicating the
presence of secret knowledge/restricted information
(i.e in initiation, kingship and divination) while
coding or concealing its contents. For more
information, contact Paula Webster/Public Relations
at (212) 663-0142.

Canons of the New African Art. "Taste and
distaste: the canon of New African Art," an article
just published by Sidney Kasfir in Transition (New
York) 57: 52-70, 1992, examines African objects,
Western museums and the great 'tourist art' taboo
in the context of two past exhibitions at the Center
for African Art: "Africa Explores: 20th Century
African Art" and "Closeup: Lessons in the Art of
Seeing African Sculpture."

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond has
re-installed its African art collection to allow works
of art not previously on view in the gallery to be
exhibited, curator Richard Woodward reports.
Among them is a Luba royal stool, in which the
female figure who supports the seat is a visual
reference to the vital role of women as link with
the ancestors and source of future generations.

African Art in San Bernardino. A seventy-seven
piece African art collection, comprised of
'authentic tribal artifacts' intermixed with
contemporary prints and paintings, will be on
display October 17-December 17 at California State
University, San Bernardino, Art Gallery. Donated
to the permanent collection of the University by
ACASA member Jane Matthews of San Bernardino,
the collection includes headdresses and ceremonial
masks, sculptures and jewelry, musical instruments
and eating implements. The exhibition, entitled
"The Matthews Collection/African Art: Old and
New," contrasts traditional and contemporary
African art acquired in West and Central Africa
over a nine-year period. A catalog is also
available. For information: (714) 880-5802.

Conover-Porter Award. The arts of Africa: an
annotated bibliography. Volume 1: 1986 and 1987
compiled by Janet Stanley received an honorable
mention for the Conover-Porter Award for
excellence in Africana reference and bibliography.
The award, given biennially by the Africana
Librarians Council of the African Studies
Association, was made at the ASA meetings in
Seattle, November 1992. The second volume in the
series is scheduled for publication in January 1993.

African dream: visions of love and sorrow: the art of John
Muafangejo / by Orde Levinson. London: Thames &
Hudson, 1992. 120pp. 8.95.

African majesty: the textile art of the Ewe and Ashanti. New
York: Thames & Hudson, 1992. 192pp. $60.

Architectures of Mgeria: architectures of the Hausa and Yoruba
peoples and of the many peoples between: tradition and
modernization / by Kevin Carroll. London: Ethnographica
in Association with the Society of African Missions and
Lester Crook Academic Publishing, 1992. 124pp. 38.50.

Art de la Cote d'lvoire et ses voisins. lblume I: La confrerie du
masque (les hommes-pantheres); Iblume 2: An figuratif,
les statues / by Andre et Afo Guenneguez. Paris, 1992.
257 pp., 96 plates. FF 160.

Art of Cote d'lvoire / edited by Jean-Paul Barbier. Geneva:
Barbier-Mueller Museum, December 1992. 2 volumes.
(volume 1: text; volume 2: catalogue).
Containing contributions by Gilbert Bochet,
Alain-Michel Boyer, Reni Bravmann, Elze Bnryninx,
Ariane Deluz, Timothy Garrard, Anita Glaze, Pierre
Harter, Jean-Noel Loucou, Marie-Noel Verger-Fevre,
Monica Blackmun Visona, and Susan Vogel. SFr. 550.

Artn of everyday life in Ethiopia and northern Kenya from the
collection of Neal W Sobania; DePree Art Center &
Gallery, Hope College, Holland, Michigan, October
17-November 29, 1992 / with an essay by Neal W
Sobania and Raymond A. Silverman. Holland, Ml: Hope
College, 1992. 48pp. $10.00.

The an of the Maasai: 300 newly discovered objects and works
of an / by Gillies Turle, with photographs by Peter
Beard and Mark Greenberg. New York: Alfred Knopf,
1992. 160pp. ISBN 0-394-58323-X. $50.00.

Ans of Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. Volume 2: 1988 / by
Janet L. Stanley. Atlanta: African Studies Association
Press, 1993. $45. (Volume 1: 1986 and 1987 is $35).

Barbot on Guinea: the writings on Jean Barbot on West Africa
1678-1712 / edited by P. E. H. Hair, Adam Jones, and
Robin Law. London: Hakluyt Society, Second Series
volume 175 & 176, 1992. ISBN 0 904180 34 4. Order
from: The Hakluyt Society, c/o Map Library, The British
Library, Great Russell Street, London WCIB 3DG. UK.
55.00 (set of two volumes).

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

Jean Barbot, who served as a commercial agent on
French slave-trading voyages to West Africa in
1678-1679 and 1681-1682, began in 1683 an account
of the Guinea coast, based partly on his voyage
journals (only one of which is extant) and partly on
previous printed sources. The work was not finished
until 1688; the manuscript was translated into English
and enlarged with additional material and was
eventually published in 1732. Barbot's book had
considerable influence on later European attitudes to
black Africa and the Atlantic slave trade, and in
modem writings on both subjects is frequently cited as

The French account serves as the base for the present
edition and is presented in English translation, but
additional material in the later English version is
inserted. The edition concentrates on Barbot's original
information and is concerned mainly with Senegal,
Sierra Leone, the River Sess, the Gold Coast, and the
Calabars. The edition opens with an introductory essay
discussing Barbot's life and career and analyzing his
sources. Barbot provided a large number of his own
drawings of topographical and ethnographical features,
in particular drawings of almost all of the European
forts in Guinea. Many of these illustrations are

Bela, Pili-Pili, Mwense: peintres de Lubumbashi. Paris: Galerie
Maine Durieu, 1992. [14]pp. illus. (pt. color). Address
of gallery: 57, quai des Grandes Augustins, 75006 Paris,
France. Telephone:

Dress and gender: making and meaning in cultural contexts I
edited by Ruth Barnes and Joanne Eicher. Berg
Publishers, distributed by St. Martin's Press, January
1993. ISBN 0-85496-856-2. $19.95.

Harpes zandi / by Eric de Dampierre. Paris: Klincksieck for the
Sociidt d'ethnologie, 1992. FF 180.

Mami VWua oder Ein Kult zwischen den Kulturem / by Tobias
Wendl. Munich: Miinster, 1991. (Kulturanthropologisches
Studien, 19). 333pp. DM 38.80.

Mangbetu: art de cour africain de collections privies belges;
[exhibition at the Galerie de la Kredietbank, Bruxelles,
October 22-December 20, 1992] / by Herman Burssens
with the collaboration of Alain Guisson. Bruxelles:
Kredietbank, 1992. 92pp. OCLC 26985583. Price not

Mgerian artists: a who's who & bibliography / compiled by
Bernice M. Kelly; edited by Janet L. Stanley. Oxford:
Hans Zell Publishers, 1993. 601pp. 95/$175.

Covers more than 350 practicing artists in Nigeria and
outside, a general annotated bibliography of more than
300 entries, and a Chronology of Nigerian Art,

Nok terraconas / by Bernard Fagg; revised with added material
by Angela Fagg. London: Ethnographica in cooperation
with the National Commission for Museums and
Monuments, 1990. Price not stated.

Nubia: ancient kingdoms of Africa / by Joyce Hayes. Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts, 1992. 60pp., 32 color illus.
$12.95 (paper).

This catalog celebrates the opening of the Museum's
Gallery, which will house a permanent collection of the
art and artifacts of ancient Nubia.

Orbis Aethiopicus: Studia in honorem Stanislaus Chojnacki; natali
septuagesimo quinto dicata, septuagesimo septimo oblata
/ edited by Piotr 0. Scholz with the collaboration of
Richard Pankhurst and Witold Witakowski. Albstadt: Karl
Schuler Publishing, 1992. 2 volumes. DM 180 (volume
1); DM 280 (volume 2).

The second volume is devoted to archaeology and arts
with fourteen contributions. Among them are: "A
fifteenth century diptych by 'The artist of the red
eyes'," by Bent Juel-Jensen; "New look at the wall
paintings of the Rivergate Church in Faras," by
Malgorzata Martens-Czarnecka; "The depiction of boats
in Ethiopian ecclesiastical manuscripts," by Richard
Pankhurst; "Die Schlacht von Segale in einer
Athiopischen Volksmalerei," by Walter Raunig.

Ritual masks: deceptions and revelations / by Henry Pernet.
Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1992.
201pp. Translated from the French: Mirages du masque.

Symboles graphiques en Afrique noire / by Cldmentine M.
FaTk-Nzuji. Paris: Karthala; Louvain-La-Neuve: Ciltade,
1992. 190pp. Price not stated Ica. 100-120 FF).

Textiles in trade; proceedings of The Textile Society of America
Biennial Symposium, held September 14-16, 1990,
Washington, D.C. Los Angeles: Textile Society
Symposium, [1992).

One of the papers is by Brigitte Menzel entitled
"Textiles in trade in West Africa." The proceedings
are available from the Textile Society of America,
4401 San Andreas Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90065.
Price not stated.

What museums for Africa? heritage in the future; proceedings of
the Encounters, Binin, Ghana, Togo, November 18-23,
1991. Paris: ICOM, 1992.

For information, contact Elisabeth des Portes,
International Council of Museums, Maison de I'Unesco,
I rue Miollis. 75732 Paris. Cedex 15, France. For a
report on the conference, see ACASA Newsletter,
April 1992.

Yoruba metal sculpture / by C. 0. Adepegba. lbadan: Ibadan
University Press, 1991. 148pp. $24/13.50.

Boomerang Press is offering three recent titles in its Modern
African Art series: Painting in shades of Blackness: Ibrahim
Salahi by El Salahi ($25); What the madman said by Obiora
Udechukwu ($20); and A gathering fear by Olu Oguibe ($20).
Contact: Norbert Ass, Boomerang Press, Adolf-von-
Gross-Str.8, W-8580 Bayreuth, Germany.

Intercultural Education Services is offering two Cameroonian
titles: Cameroon Highland heritage, a detailed inventory of the
Gilbert and Mildred Schneider collection (100pp., $10.00), and
Prestige drinking horms, descriptive inventory of eleven horns
also from the Schneider collection (60pp., $6.00). Order from:
Intercultural Education Services, 417 N.E. 52nd Avenue,
Portland, OR 97213.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 19

For anyone is interested in using African reflections: art from
northeastern Zaire for classroom use (more than five copies),
the paperback edition may be ordered at the wholesale price
from: American Museum of Natural History Museum Shop at
(212) 769-5150; or contact Enid Schildkrout at (212) 769-5432.

Smithsonian Institution Press is having a book sale (until
January 31, 1993): African art in the cycle of life by Roy
Sieber and Roslyn Walker. Sale price: $26.95; African Islam
by Rend Bravmann. Sale price: $12.57; Icons: ideals and
power in the art of Africa by Herbert M. Cole. Sale price:
$26.95; Images from Barnum: German colonial photography at
the court of King Njoya, Cameroon, West Africa, 1902-1915
by Christraud Geary. Sale price: $7.98. Contact: Smithsonian
Institution Press, Department 900, Blue Ridge Summit, PA

St. Petersburg Journal of African Studies, a new
twice-yearly English-language journal, will offer
Africanists access to Russian and CIS scholarship
in all areas of African studies including the arts,
cultural anthropology and ethnology. The second
issue, for example, includes an article on Bari
figurines. Order from: Valentin Vydrin, Managing
Editor, African Department, Museum of
Anthropology and Ethnography, University
Embankment, 3 St. Petersburg, 199 034 Russia.
Annual individual subscriptions: $11 (Africa,
except South Africa); $19 (elsewhere); annual
institutional subscriptions: $19 (Africa, except
South Africa); $38 (elsewhere).

SADCC Association of Museums (SADCCAM)
Newsletter, which first appeared in 1992 as a
biannual publication of the museum association of
Southern Africa, carries reports of conferences and
general association news. The current chairman of
SADCCAM is Manyando Mukela of Zambia.

Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Edited by Chris
Scarre. volume 1, 1991. semi-annual. ISSN
0959-7743. $58.00. Covers significant
archaeological research, both theoretical and
descriptive. The focus is on general topics in
archaeology with special attention to the role and
development of human cognitive abilities as
reflected in the religion, iconography, and other
aspects of early societies.

Sixpence a door: black art in South Africa is a
52-minute video prepared by Gavin Younge (author
of Art of the South African townships). It features
Gerard Sekoto, Phutuma Seoka, Willie Bester, the

Shembe Church, Jackson Hlungwani, Noria
Mabasa, Bonie Ntshalintshali, among others. The
video is available in VHS in either NTSC or PAL
formats. Contact: Gavin Younge, Michaelis School
of Fine Art, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch
7700, Cape Town, South Africa. Price: Rand 300
(approximately $100).

In and out of Africa. A new documentary about
fakery, taste and racial politics in the African art
market, featuring Gabai Baar6, a Nigerian trader,
is directed and produced by Ilisa Barbash & Lucien
Taylor and is based on original research by
Christopher Steiner. The film shows how Baare
adds value to what he sells by interpreting and
modifying the cultural values of two different
worlds which are at once brought together and
kept apart. For further information, contact: Ilisa
Barbash, 90 Popular Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94708,
USA. Telephone: (510) 524-4448.

Dance and rhythm patterns of Guinea. Guinean
choreographer and ensemble director Kemoko Sano
has produced and directed a 54-minute instructional
videocassette entitled "Kemoko Sano Teaches
African Dance from Republic of Guinea, Vol. I."
A 44-minute lesson filmed in Guinea includes an
introduction, warm up and demonstration of steps.
The tape ends with ten minutes of news footage
from the opening night of Les Ballets Africains de
la R6publique de Guin6e at the Sadler's Wells
Theatre in London, September 18, 1990. Available
in VHS/NTSC format. Prices: $33.00 for
individuals; $53.00 for institutions. Send check or
money order payable to Louise Bedichek to Sano
videos, P.O. Box 442, Scarsdale, New York 10583,
USA. FAX (212) 826-4657.
Kemoko Sano has been choreographer since
1986 of Les Ballets Africains, the first professional
African dance troupe, founded in Paris in 1952.
He has directed music and dance ensembles for
over thirty years: the Prefectural Troupe of
Macenta beginning in 1960, Le Ballet National
Djoliba from 1973-1986, and Les Merveilles
d'Afrique de Kemoko Sano since 1986. Kemoko
Sano has trained musicians and dancers in Guinea
who have gone on to professional careers in
Europe and the United States.

"Iron, Master of Them All," The Fifth Stanley
Conference on African Art, organized and
sponsored by the Project for Advanced Study of

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, Decanber 1992

^^ Seria Notes

Art and Life in Africa (PASALA), the University
of Iowa, March 5-6, 1993.
Over the centuries, iron is the substance and
agent of transformation that has allowed Africans
to forage and hunt, till the soil, and assure their
own protection and prosperity. Iron creates and
saves lives, but takes them too. Iron-smelting has
been the pre-eminent transformative process, a
technology eagerly sought and jealously guarded.
Iron-smelting technology has often been considered
divine inspiration brought to humans by culture
heroes. Sacred kings were sometimes smelters and
blacksmiths. Iron objects were worn carried, and
used as tools and weapons; their mundane purposes
were matched and complemented by iron as a
master metaphor. Shrines were studded, graves
Smelting was abandoned or prohibited early in
the colonial period. Africa was flooded with iron
objects produced in Europe, including
machine-made replicas of pre-colonial iron currency
tokens that would further destabilize local
economies. Scrap from European consumption
added further sources of iron. African blacksmiths
shifted their skills to exploit these new sources of
and markets for iron; older methods integrated
with the technology, ideology, magic, and social
organization of smelting became obsolete.
Still, iron often has an other-than-utilitarian
sense of contemporary African. Although
blacksmiths still make iron knives, hoes, spears,
and a host of other tools, jewelry, and gadgets for
everyday use, they also make iron objects for
veneration or active magic. Blacksmiths themselves
are often felt to be imbued with mystical powers
of transformation, and like the iron objects they
produce, blacksmiths may be associated with
fertility, healing, and rainmaking. The
transformative principle of iron is deified by many
West Africans and African-Americans, whose
shrines nowadays may include iron engine blocks
besides heirloom weapons. Iron scrap from
consumer goods is recycled as tomb and shrine
Archaeologists have been at the forefront of
the study of iron in Africa, considering topics such
as the technologies and environmental consequences
of precolonial iron-smelting; the political economy
of iron-production; and the possession and trade of
iron objects. Films have been made recreating how
iron was once smelted in Africa. Historians have
traced the spread of particular smelting
technologies and tool types, and the correlation
between control of smelting and consolidation of
political power. Art historians have studied
aesthetics and iconography of particular iron

objects and the relationship between blacksmithing
and other forms of expression. Cultural
anthropologists have considered how iron features
in African political economy and religion.
Collections of iron tools, weapons, religious
objects, and currency token have been made, and
several exhibitions of iron objects have been
organized. Still, iron is understudied given its
importance to African cultural history, and there
has been very little cross-disciplinary discussion of
the ideologies and symbolism of iron smelting,
smithing, trade, and use. The Fifth Stanley
Conference of African Art will be a step in that
"Iron, Master of Them All" will be an
interdisciplinary forum of about a dozen scholars.
Its theme will be iron as a master metaphor -
more than metal, keener than cutting. The
proceedings will be published as a volume of Iowa
Studies in African Art, in what will be the first
collection on iron technology, aesthetics,
symbolism, and history to appear in the United
States. There will also be an iron exhibition
curated by Bill Dewey and Al Roberts. Eugenia
Herbert of Mount Holyoke College, whose book
on copper, Red Gold of Africa (1984), is a
landmark in the field, has just completed an
equally encyclopedic book on iron on Africa. She
has agreed to be discussant for the conference.
Conference participants will be:
Terry Childs, archaeology in Zimbabwe/Zaire,
Smithsonian Institution

Don Cosentino, folklore and art in West Africa
and Haiti, UCLA

Bill Dewey, art history in Zimbabwe/Zaire,
University of Iowa

Marie-Claude Dupri. anthropology in Congo/Gabon.
CNRS, France

Nicole AIchard, anthropology in Cameroon.
CNRS, France

Candice Goucher, archaeology in TogolGhana
and Jamaica, Portland State University

Jane Guyer, [tentative], anthropology in Cameroon.
Boston University

Scott MacEachern. archaeology in Cameroon,
University of Calgary

Pierre de Maret, archaeolotg in Zairt,
University Libre de Bruxelles

Patrick McNaughton, art hitow in Malli,
Indiana Universit

Allen Robetns, *naKtOey it
University if laws

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

The conference is open to the public, and ACASA
members are welcome to attend. Please direct all
inquiries to Bill Dewey at the University of Iowa,
Art History Department, Iowa City, IA 52242,
USA. Telephone (319) 335-1784; or Al Roberts at
the University of Iowa Anthropology Department,
Iowa City, IA 52242. Telephone (319) 335-0522.
FAX (319) 335-0653.

PASALA, University of Iowa, 3rd Annual Graduate
Student Symposium. Call for Papers. PASALA
(Project for Advanced Study of Art and Life in
Africa), University of Iowa, invites papers for its
3rd Annual Student Symposium to be held March
7, 1993. Open to graduate students in all areas of
African studies, the symposium will offer students
a scholarly forum to present and discuss their own
research relating to African expressive culture. The
student symposium follows immediately after the
Stanley Conference, "Iron: Master of Them All,"
March 5 and 6, 1993. Those interested in
participating should submit a one-page typewritten
abstract for a twenty-minute presentation along
with a cover letter, complete with name, address,
& telephone number. All proposals must be
postmarked by January 15, 1993. Travel
scholarships will be available on a competitive
basis. Please direct submissions and inquires to:
PASALA Graduate Student Symposium, School of
Art and Art History, W-150 Art Building, The
University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Do All Roads Really Lead to Benin? At the 1992
ASA meetings in Seattle, the first in a series of
three roundtable discussions was held, dealing with
historical interactions in the arts of southwestern
Nigeria. These roundtables, organized by Barbara
Blackmun and Kathy Curnow Nasara, are focusing
attention on mutual cultural influences among
B6nin neighbors, allies, and tributary states, and
B6nin itself from the fifteenth to nineteenth
centuries, particularly concerning political or court
arts. Since a fair amount of new historical,
scientific, and ethnographic research has been
undertaken within the past ten years, the time is
right for increased communication among scholars
interested in this region of Africa. Among areas of
inquiry to be examined are:
The nature and periods of political/
economic contact with other states for each of these
groups, based upon the best historical estimates
currently available;
Comparative internal traditions concerning the founding,
history, and political/religions leadership of each group;
4 The objects, ceremonies, and performances associated
with leadership, and local interpretations of their

In the first roundtable, the discussion centered on
Owo, Warri, Ijebu, Lagos, and the inland lagoon
trade behind southern Guinea Coast with
presentations by Barbara Blackmun, Kathy Curnow
Nasara and Rowland Abiodun. Future roundtables:
Roundtable I in 1993: Isoko, Urhobo, Bendel Igbo,
Ishan, Northern Edo, Akure, Ekiti, Oyo, Afenmai,
Nupe, Jukun, and Igala peoples.
Roundtable in in 1994: southern Guinea lagoons and
coastline, with special emphasis on the rjo and the
economic, political, and cultural interactions over several
centuries of the western Cameroon coast, Calabar,
Fernando Po, Principe, Sao Tome, Warri, Mahin, ljebu,
Lagos, Badagry, Ardrah, and Dahomey.
To participate or for further information, contact:
Barbara Blackmun, Department of Art History, San
Diego Mesa College, 7250 Mesa College Drive,
San Diego, CA 92111-4998. Office: (619)
627-2829. Home: (619) 461-5930.

Weekend Symposium on African-American Visionary
Art at Diggs Gallery, Winston-Salem, North
Carolina, February 1993. In conjunction with the
exhibition, "Ashe: Improvisation & Recycling in
African-American Visionary Art," the Diggs
Gallery at Winston-Salem State University will host
a weekend symposium, February 12-13, 1993
featuring leading scholars of Afro-Atlantic art
traditions. Exhibiting artists Bessie Harvey and
Lonnie Holley will speak about their work. Also
on hand will be scholars Robert Farris Thompson,
Judith McWillie and Regenia Perry who will
discuss the exhibit, the artists, the Africanisms,
aesthetics, and the theories proposed in the show.
The symposium is free and open to the public, but
preregistration is required. The Diggs Gallery is
located on the Winston-Salem State University
campus. For more information, contact: Brooke
Anderson, Diggs Gallery. Telephone: (919)
750-2458. See also the announcement of the
exhibition, page 23.

International Conference on Mande Studies,
convened by the Mande Studies Association, has
now been rescheduled to take place March 15-19,
1993 in Bamako, Mali. The conference theme is:
"The Mande: Past, Present and Future." The
preliminary program includes the following
art-related papers:
Carol Thompson, "Black, white in color: checkerboard
patterns, magic squares, and the history of the Mande
expansion in West Africa"
Victoria Rovine, "Being an artist in Bamako: an
examination of the Malian art market"
Kate Ezra, "Leo Frobenius' collection of Bamana art"

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

Georges Meurillon, "Initiations septennales du jo chez les
bamanan du Baninko"
Salia Mali, "La statuette jomaani dans le rituelle jarason"
Peter Weil, "Flexibility of form and the strength of
cultural context in Mande masking"

4 Mary Jo Arnoldi, "Capturing the new: a generation of
innovation in Malian youth puppet masquerade"

Barbara Frank, "Mande women potters and
reconstructing the history of ceramic traditions"

Peter Mark, "Oral tradition and the interpretation of
masking forms: the western Mandinka and the west
Atlantic peoples of Senegambia"
For information, contact Kathryn Green, ICMS
Organizer, Department of History, 3211 Humanities
Building, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706, USA.

A conference on Cloth, the Wbrld Economy and
the Artisan: Textile Manufacture and Marketing in
South Asia and Africa, 1780-1950 will be held at
Dartmouth College, April 23-25, 1993. Presenters
will include a broad spectrum of historians, art
historians, anthropologists, and museum ethnologists
from the USA, UK and India. Tentative list of
panels includes the following presentations of
special interest to Africanists (as well as other
papers by South Asian textile specialists):

Markets, Taste and Consumption, part 1: the Place of Indigenous
and Foreign Cloth in Larger Patterns of Consumption
Marcia Wright (Columbia University), "Weaving for
Marketless Exchange in South Rukwa (Tanzania-Zambia)
before 1924"

D. A. Swallow (Victoria and Albert Museum),
"Museums and the European Effort to Capture the
Indian Cloth Market during the late 19th century"
Markets, Taste and Consumption, part 1: Social and Cultural
Construction of Taste
Misty Bastian (University of Chicago/Harvard), "Wearing
Pyjamas in the Streets: The Impact of the Changing
Onitsha Market System on Igbo Clothing Practice,

Joanne Eicher (University of Minnesota) and Tonye
Erekosima (University of Port Harcourt), "19th-century
Patterns of Textile Use among the Kalabari"

Margaret Jean Hay (Boston University), "Christian
Missions, the Labor Market and Clothing in Colonial
Western Kenya"
Artisan Adaptations in Changing International and Regional
Judith Perani (University of Ohio), "Change and
Continuity in Hausa Textile Traditions"

Lisa Aronson (Skidmore), "Adaptations by Igbo Weavers
to Changing Patterns of Cloth Patronage in Southeast
Nigeria after 1900"

Artisan Linkages in a Changing International Economy
Richard Roberts (Stanford), "Guinee Cloth: Linkages in
Production, Trade and Colonization between Eastern
India and French West Africa, 1780s to 1890s"
Sandra Evenson (University of Minnesota), "Madras
Cloth and Links between India, England and Nigeria
during the Colonial Period"
Social Relations of Production
Elisha Renne (Australian National University), "Decline
and Resurgence of Women's Weaving in Ekiti, Nigeria"

Judith Byfield (Dartmouth), "From Finishers to
Autonomous Producers: The Emergence of Adire
Dyeing as an Industry in Abeokuta"
Africanist discussants include Nel Alpers (UCLA),
Christopher Steiner (Natural History Museum of
Los Angeles County), Sidney Kasfir (Emory). We
also hope to have with us Dr. Esther Goody,
Reader in Social Anthropology, Cambridge
University, distinguished Africanist and editor of
From Craft to Industry: the Ethnography of
Proto-Industrial Cloth Production. There will also
be an exhibition of Nigerian textiles at the Hood
Museum of Art curated by Tamara Northern,
senior curator, Africa. For more information
contact: Sidney Kasfir, Art History Department,
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322.
Telephone: (404) 727-6282; or Judi Byfield,
History Department, Dartmouth College, Hanover,
NH 03755. Telephone: (603) 646 2365.

Images de l'Afrique et du CongolZaire dans les
Lertres belges de langue francaise; Colloque
international en marge de l'exposition "Cent ans
de litterature au Zaire," 4-6 f6vrier 1993, a
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Organized by
University Catholique de Louvain (Uniti de
Th6orie litteraire et Litterature compare) and
Universitit Bayreuth (Sonderforschungsbereich
"Identitit in Afrika"). Coordinated by Peter Halen.
Contact: FLYR/LITT. College Erasme, Place B.
Pascal, 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
FAX: 010 / 47.25.79.

CAA in Seattle. For those who missed ASA in
Seattle, you have another opportunity: College Art
Association is holding its annual meeting there,
February 3-6, 1993.

"Ashe: Improvisation and Recycling in
African-American Visionary Art" to be held at
Diggs Gallery, February 2, 1993-March 29, 1993.
This exhibit will feature works by Bessie Harvey,

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992 23

Lonnie Holley, Nellie Mae Rowe, Hawkins Bolden,
Charlie Lucas, Z. B. Armstrong, Ralph Griffin,
Joe Light, JohiT Landry, and Leroy Person. All
create assemblage works improvised from castoff
items and other materials of the kind referred to in
the Euro-American modernist tradition "found
objects." And yet their work springs from a
different source. Although commonly referred to as
"self-taught," these artists are in fact singular
exponents of a longstanding tradition rooted in
their common African-American spiritual and
material heritage. Their art can be seen as
individual manifestations of what they've learned
from previous generations in an evolutionary
cultural continuum dating back to the great
civilizations of the Kongo, the Yoruba, the Ibo and
other Central and Western African peoples. It
speaks a creolized and updated version of an
ancient visual language rich in symbolic spiritual
meaning. These artists use a Kongo word defined
by art historian Robert Farris Thompson as
"strategic objects) in black Atlantic art, said to
effect healing and other phenomena." These works
were made to express a deep-seated spiritual
vision, and, in so doing, to "effect phenomena,"
as Farris Thompson says. In that sense, they are
embodiments of ashe, the Yoruba term spiritual
command, "the power to make things happen."

The exhibition, curated by Tom Patterson, will
consist of three to five examples of each artist's
work and photographs of the artists and their living
and working environments. An accompanying
forty-page catalog will contain an essay and
photographs of the artists and their work.

ACASA Newsletter seeks items of interest for
publication. Our newsletter reaches many who are
not able to attend meetings. Linking our members
via the newsletter is, therefore, crucial. Suggested
news items you can send: news of members (job
changes, new staff); activities (fieldwork, travel,
research in progress); conferences; exhibitions; jobs
openings; fellowship opportunities; new
publications. We are particularly eager to receive
contributions from members in Africa. Mail, phone
or FAX. The next ACASA Newsletter will be April
1993. Deadline for submitting news items is March
15, 1993.

The Editors thank contributors to this December
issue of the newsletter: Warren d'Azevedo, Louise
Bedichek, Barbara Blackmun, Kate Ezra, Barbara
Frank, Sidney Kasfir, Nancy Nooter, Richard
Pankhrust, Phil Peek, Robin Poynor, Allen Roberts,
Louis de Strycker, and Uyilawa Usuanlele.


Janet L. Stanley
National Museum of African Art Library
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560, USA
Telephone (202) 357-4600, extension 285
FAX (202) 357-4879


Mary Jo Arnoldi
Department of Anthropology
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560, USA
Telephone (202) 357-1396

ACASA Newsletter / No. 35, December 1992

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