Title: ACASA newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103115/00031
 Material Information
Title: ACASA newsletter newsletter of the Arts Council of the African Studies Association
Alternate Title: Newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: African Studies Association -- Arts Council
Publisher: The Council
Place of Publication: S.l
Publication Date: August 1992
Subjects / Keywords: Arts -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 2 (winter 1982)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. designation dropped with no. 3 (spring 1983).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Vols. for Aug. 1992- include Directory of members: addendum.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 34 (Aug. 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00103115
Volume ID: VID00031
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09794003
lccn - sn 92017937
 Related Items
Preceded by: Newsletter of the Arts Council of the African Studies Association

Full Text




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ACASA Board of Directors

Simon Ottenberg, President
Barbara Frank, Secretary-Treasurer
Rowland Abiodun
Maria Berns
Acha Debela
Margaret Drewal
Nancy Nooter
Frieda High-Tesfagiorgis
Raymond Silverman
Janet Stanley

Membership Information
(for residents of North America & Europe):
Barbara Frank, ACASA Secretary-Treasurer
Department of Art
SUNY at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794-5400

Membership Information
(for residents of Africa & the Caribbean):
Janet Stanley, ACASA Newsletter Editor
National Museum of African Art Library
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560

Cover design by Acha Debela

ACASA Newsletter

August 1992

Letter from Simon Ottenberg,
President of ACASA:

I was honored to be elected President at the Iowa
Triennial Symposium of African Art this spring. I
remain in office until the 1993 African Studies
Association meeting. It is a time of change for
ACASA. At the Iowa Triennial there were good
discussions of some of the changing needs of
ACASA, which took place during two Board
meetings, at the Business Meeting, and at an
all-morning retreat of former and present ACASA
board members (see the summary of the minutes
of the Business Meeting and the Board Retreat,
pages 2 and 3).
The Arts Council is growing in size and in the
demands that its members are making on the
organization for specific kinds of activities. At the
forefront is the frequent request to broaden the
pattern of electing ACASA Board members. The
Board expects to have a specific recommendation
for the Seattle meeting for members to vote on to
change the bylaws to meet this concern.
Another issue that we are working on is the very
strong desire to assist in bringing more African
scholars to our ASA and ACASA meetings, and to
increase our contacts with African scholars and
artists. This is related to developing a mechanism
to raise funds for the association. A committee has
been formed, with Nancy Nooter as Chair, to work
on a number of interesting suggestions as to how
to do so, whether we want to develop an
endowment fund, and for what purposes do we
wish to raise money that relate to the African arts.
If you have any suggestions concerning fund
raising or fund using you should contact Nancy
Nooter, 5020 Linnean Avenue, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20008. Telephone: (202) 966-0306.
Another concern is whether we should attempt to
develop our own statement of ethics in regard to
the purchase, use, and other aspects of African art.
Janet Stanley, at the National Museum of African
Art, has agreed to chair a Code of Ethics
Committee. Comments should be sent to her.

President's Letter 1
New Board Members 2
Business Meeting 1992 2
Board Retreat, April 1992 3
1992 ASA in Seattle 5
Triennial Symposium Final Report 6
Book Distribution Program 7
Leadership Award Address 7
People in the News 17
Obituaries 17
Opportunities 17
Query 19
International News Roundup 19
Noteworthy New Publications 23
Serial Notes 23
Video and Film Notes 24
Conferences Forthcoming 24
ACASA Directory 1992: Addendum 26

Doran Ross, of the Fowler Museum of Cultural
History, UCLA, has agreed to chair a Long Range
Planning Committee. We need to plan for our
development over more than a year or so at a time.
Because the Board only meets once a year at the
ASA annual meeting, and when we hold our
Triennial, developing specific programs is difficult,
so that we are going to have to go to some new
committees, such as a fund raising one, and
another for relationships with Africans and Africa
and probably several more. We hope that these
will strongly involve non-Board members as well
as a few persons from the Board to spread the
load, bring in new ideas, and provide a sense of
greater participating for ACASA members. Due to
financial restraints, these committees cannot meet
except at the Triennial or the ASA annual

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 1


meetings, but telephone, fax, and letter will do the

As is evident from this recent Triennial meeting,
and from the job situation, African arts is now a
well-established discipline in the United States, and
ACASA should be able to continue to accomplish a
great deal. But there is a heavy burden on us,
since at the time of our success academic and
artistic conditions in Africa have become
increasingly difficult, as a consequence of
economic conditions, and in some instances
political causes as well. ACASA cannot solve the
basic underlying conditions, but we have to
consider what, with our own maturity, relative
stability and wealth, we can best do to assist
African scholars and artists in their work. If you
have suggestions, please pass them on to me or to
our other Board members.

New ACASA Board Members
At the Iowa meeting the terms of ACASA Board
members Mary Jo Arnoldi, David Binkley and Lisa
Aronson came to an end. Mikelle Omanri had
earlier resigned from the Board. Thanks are due to
each of them for their good work for our
organization. Lisa Aronson agreed to stay on as
Secretary/Treasurer until July when she turned over
to the new holder of this position, Barbara Frank.
New members of the Board elected at Iowa City
are Rowland Abiodun, Frieda High-Tesfagiorgis,
Nancy Nooter, and Raymond Silverman. Welcome,
and we look forward to your active participation.

ACASA Business Meeting,
April 24, 1992 at the Ninth Triennial
Symposium of African Art,
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Business Report (Lisa Aronson):
ACASA now has 188 members compared to 200 as
of November 1991 at ASA, which represents a
good renewal rate for 1992. As of April 1992,
with most Triennial expenses already paid,
ACASA's budget is $9,624.44.

Newsletter and Book Distribution Program
Reports (Janet Stanley):
ACASA now provides members with three
newsletters per year (April, August, December)
and an annual directory that includes mailing
address, telephone, FAX, and E-mail numbers. The
directory is now published as part of the April

The Book Distribution Program continues in its
third year. Books and African Arts are sent to 125
institutions in Africa (except, at present, Liberia,
Somalia, Chad, and Zaire, where mail services are
suspended). The ACASA Board thanks those who
have made donations to this project. [See also the
latest report on the Book Distribution Program,
page 7).

Slide Project (Ray Silverman):
Most of the slides have been received from
contributing scholars. There will be a total of 160
slides in the pilot project slide set. The sets will
be available by November 1992.

Home Interactive Systems approached ACASA to
see if there is any interest in selling our slides to
them to be used for a digital system of images
from all over the world (500,000 total). While the
disk system is not completely out of reach for
African distribution, the price would be costly for
all involved and control of the use of the images is
questionable. Jean Borgatti moved, Warren
d'Azevedo seconded, that we turn down their offer.
Motion was approved unanimously.

Triennial Report
Scholarships: Two African colleagues received
ACASA stipends to attend the Triennial, Dele
Jegede (Nigeria) and T. K. Biaya (Zaire). Graduate
student stipends were granted to Morris Meyer and
Mbala Knanga (Northwestern University), Emily
Hannah-Vergara (University of Iowa), Christa
Clarke (University of Maryland), Chuck Bollong
(University of Arizona), and Laurel Birch Faulkner
(School of Oriental and African Studies, London).
Ivor Miller (Yale University) did not attend the
conference, and, therefore, did not receive his

USIA Grant: Through the auspices of the African
Studies Association, Bill Dewey, Mary Jo Arnoldi,
and Merrick Posnansky put together an initiative
grant to bring fourteen African colleagues for six
weeks to attend the Society of Africanist
Archaeologists Biennial conference in Los Angeles
and the Triennial in Iowa City and to visit other
institutions around the country. USIA provided
$135,000 to which the University of California at
Los Angeles, University of Iowa, ACASA, and
other institutions matched funds totalling $70,000.
In addition, University of Iowa sponsored four
additional scholars, Joseph Adande (Binin), Collette
Gounou (Togo), Marie-Claude Dupr6 (France),
Peter Garlake (Zimbabwe), and a number of
graduate students for the PASALA Graduate
Student symposium. Marla Berns thanks Edna Bay

2 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

and ASA for their financial help in bringing these
scholars to Iowa City.

ASA in Seattle, November 1992 (David Binkley):
So far there are four panel proposals: Recent
Research I (David Binkley); Recent Research II
(Bob Soppelsa); Art, Ideology, and Public Culture
(Clarke Speed); How Reflective is Reflective,
Roundtable (Mary Jo Arnoldi). Panel Chairs are
urged to get presenters to send abstracts on time.
Sidney Kasfir said that there is still a week to
submit panel topics before the Panel Programs
Committee meets on May 1-2.

CAA in Seattle, February 1993 (Acha Debela):
So far, no panel proposals have been submitted.
Acha Debela has agreed to organize a panel for
the one-time slot reserved for ACASA. There is
also one meeting allotted for ACASA, if we wish
to use it.

Election of new ACASA Board members:
Since ACASA received no written petitions for
additional nominees following the listing in the
December 1991 newsletter, the new Board
members will be as nominated: Rowland Abiodun,
Frieda High-Tesfagiorgis, Nancy Nooter, and
Raymond Silverman. The ACASA Board has put
forward Barbara Frank to be the new

The nomination/election procedures will be
discussed at the Board Retreat to be held April
26th. Joanne Eicher moved, and Jean Borgatti
seconded, that the minutes of the Board Retreat be
published in the next newsletter. [see this page]
Richard Faletti amended that only action and
agenda rather than entire minutes be published.
Barbara Blackmun amended that a request for
nomination appear in the August newsletter. All
were in favor of the amendments and the motion.

NEH Challenge Grant:
The Board will report on any decisions or actions
at the next ASA meeting. Edna Bay reports that
the brochure on the NEH Challenge Grant is
available at the registration desk.
Jansen art history text (Monica Visona):
Monica Visona distributed a draft letter to
members of the College Art Association (CAA) to
be discussed at the next ACASA meeting. Herbert
Cole moved that a revised version of the letter be
sent to CAA. He later amended the motion as
follows: (a) that a letter be sent to Prentice-Hall
criticizing certain sections of the Jansen text with
specific examples; (b) that a critical letter be
submitted to Art Journal (including excerpts from

Suzanne Blier's original letter to CAA on the
subject); and (c) an open letter be addressed to
CAA. Members voted unanimously in favor of the
amendment and the motion. All are encouraged to
submit comments on the letter to Monica Visona.

Respectfully submitted,
Lisa Aronson
ACASA Secretary/Treasurer.

Summary Report of the ACASA Board
Retreat, Sunday, April 26, 1992,
University of Iowa, Iowa City
Present: Rowland Abiodun, Mary Jo Amoldi, Lisa
Aronson, Maria Berns, David Binkley, Herbert
Cole, Warren d'Azevedo, Henry Drewal, Margaret
Drewal, Joanne Eicher, Paula Girshick, Nancy
Nooter, Mikelle Omari, Simon Ottenberg, Phil
Peek, Merrick Posnansky, Phil Ravenhill, Doran
Ross, Christopher Roy, Roy Sieber, Fred Smith,
Janet Stanley, Susan Vogel, and Roslyn Walker. All
are present or past ACASA Board members.
Selection of Board Members:
The dissatisfaction with the present system of
nominating board members, expressed at the
Business Meeting, was discussed, and various
suggestions made. Among the suggestions was a
Nominating Committee of two Board members and
two members-at-large appointed by the Board, and
allowing others to be nominated from outside the
Nominating Committee. Statements by the
candidates should be published in the ACASA
Newsletter outlining their qualifications and
particular interests in ACASA's activities. Voting
would be by the full membership at the annual
Business Meeting. Changes in the bylaws would be
required. A proposal to change the bylaws will be
presented to the members at the Seattle meeting in
November 1992.

ACASA's relationship with Africa
and the African Diaspora:
Strong sentiment was expressed by numerous
persons that we need to extend our activities to
increase contact with African scholars and artists in
Africa and African-oriented ones in the Caribbean,
and to help more of them to come to the United
States for meetings, study, writing, and research.
Among the suggestions were:

a. Having ACASA representatives in selected
African countries specifically designated to
provide information for the ACASA Newsletter
on African art activities in their particular
countries and neighboring ones.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

b. Announce in the ACASA Newsletter
collaborative projects with African scholars,
with reference to field research, works in
progress, etc. And, similarly, for African
scholars to announce possibilities for research
in their countries.

c. To bring a substantial number of Africans to
the next Triennial, as was successfully done at
the Iowa Symposium.

d. Have an ACASA recent research panel, or
roundtable open to African colleagues at our

e. The ACASA Newsletter to list funding
possibilities for the benefit of Africans both in
and out of Africa.

f. ACASA to play a supportive role to funding
institutions in developing museum training
programs for Africans in Africa and the
United States.

g. Locate funding sources for students from
Africa, for professionals and artists to come to
the United States. We should either voluntarily
or compulsorily collect funds from ACASA
members for this.

h. Prepare low price teaching modules on
African art, craft and technology for use in
Africa, which could be interfaced with our
slide project. Merrick Posnansky and Barbara
Frank will consider the feasibility of combining
the module and slide projects.

i. Form a committee to consider these matters
in detail.

Budget and Funding:
There was general agreement that we need to
increase our funding so as to extend our
relationships with African scholars and artists, and
for particular projects. There was debate, but no
agreement, as to whether we should try to build
up an endowment fund and only draw on the
interest, which would delay substantial expenditures
for a number of years, but then provide us with a
steady income, or whether we should raise money
primarily to be spent to cover our needs as we go
along, or whether some combination of both
strategies would be best. In any case, funds raised
now can be funneled through the ASA NEH
Challenge Grant.

Ideas for raising money included each past and
present Board member pledging to donate $100
each year to encourage other ACASA members to

donate, adding either a compulsory or a voluntary
donation fee on the annual dues statement, holding
an art auction, asking dealers each to donate the
proceeds of one art object sale to ACASA for a
year, asking all members to donate one speaker's
honorarium a year, exploring the possibility of
obtaining funding from SSRC and other funding
agencies for specific projects, and holding dinners
for collectors and dealers with a guest ACASA
speaker to raise money. It was agreed that we need
to define precisely what we need the funds for
before asking for funding.

A task force was formed, chaired by Nancy
Nooter, with members Mikelle Omari, David
Binkley, Rowland Abiodun and Jean Borgatti, to
report at the Seattle ASA meeting.

Relationship with ASA:
It was suggested that every year that ACASA
should put forth a member to run for the ASA
Board. It has been very helpful to have Chris
Geary on the ASA Board, and we are a large
enough organization to be able to continue to do
so. We also need to encourage ACASA members to
join ASA.

Long-Range Planning:
The need for long-range planning was
acknowledged. The possibility of a questionnaire to
members on their interests was suggested. An
Ad-Hoc Committee was formed with Doran Ross
as Chair, and Joanne Eicher, Phil Ravenhill, Henry
Drewal, Skip Cole, Warren d'Azevedo and Susan

Jansen and other art history texts:
The issue of the poor quality of Jansen and other
general survey texts on art history, with respect to
coverage of African art, was discussed. Skip Cole
and Hank Drewal will write a critique, with the
help of Suzanne Blier, if she is willing, to be
published in Art Journal and African Arts.

Code of Ethics:
Some persons present felt strongly that ACASA
needs a Code of Ethics. Janet Stanley, Warren
d'Azevedo and Mary Jo Arnoldi will bring ideas to
the Seattle meeting.

Art History Course Survey:
Roslyn Walker indicated that she would be
interested and willing to survey where and in what
departments African art history is taught in
colleges and universities in the United States.

The Object as Art:
A panel on the Object as Art was suggested for

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

the Seattle meeting, either as a roundtable or a
Contemporary African art and artists:
The consensus is that this topic is being addressed
in ACASA now. Ache Debela is planning to
propose a panel on the topic for the next CAA

ASA Annual Meetings
Seattle, November 20-23, 1992
The African Studies Association annual meetings
will take place in Seattle, Washington, from Friday,
November 20th to Monday, November 23rd at the
Westin Hotel. There will be five ACASA-sponsored
panels in Seattle, a smaller number than usual,
probably a consequence of the strong commitments
to the Iowa Triennial last April. The five panels

I. The Object as Art/Cultural Artifact:
An Open Forum.
A roundtable organized by Roslyn A. Walker,
with opening remarks by Roy Sieber, and
others invited to take part.

II. Art, Ideology, and Public Culture.
Chair: Clarke Speed.
Nii Quarcoopome, "'Obilisks' of the Gods:
Morphology and Meaning in Dangme Public
Patrick McNaughton, "Clarity and Obscurity
in the Mande World."
Simon Ottenberg, "The Installation of a
Village Head in Wara Wara Bafodea
Chiefdom, Sierra Leone."
Clarke Speed, "The Paradox of Public Art
and Private Ideology."
Discussant: Mary Jo Arnoldi.

III. How Reflective is Reflexive: Methodological
and Ethical Issues Surrounding Restudies of
Early Africanist Art Scholarship: A Roundtable.
Chair: Mary Jo Arnoldi.
Warren d'Azevedo, "Sins of the Fathers:
Bringing Home the Data in an Age of
Roy Sieber, "Rethinking Early Museum
Collections of African Art and Material
Culture: Interpreting the Sources in the Late
20th Century."
Kate Ezra, "Restudies of the Bamana and
Dogon-From Frobenius to Dieterlen."

Christraud Geary. "German Ethnological
Theory and Field Collecting Before World
War 1."

IV. Recent Research in African Art I.
Chair: David Binkley.
Christine Mullen Kreamer, "Art Rich/Art
Poor: Whose Values?"
Barbara Frank, "Cracks in the Model: Women
Potters Resist Stereotypes."
Patricia Darish, "The Aesthetics of Shoowa
Design Panels."
Discussant: Kris Hardin.

V. Recent Research in African Art II.
Chair: Robert Soppelsa.
Joseph Nevadomsky, "The Costume and
Weapons of the Benin Brass Horseman."
Robert Soppelsa & Jerry Vogel, "The
Environmental Sculpture of Ake Dje: Messages
from the Poet's Garden."
Rachel Hoffman, "Objects and Act in
Contemporary Dogon Performance."
Herbert Cole, "Three Onitsha Signwriters:
Money, Style, Fashion, History."
In addition to panels, note these meetings:

ACASA Business Meeting
Sunday, November 22, 11:30 a.m.-l:00 p.m.

ACASA Board Meetings
Saturday, November 21, 11:30 a.m.-l:00 p.m.
and Monday, November 23, 7:30 a.m.-9:00 a.m.

Other highlights of the Seattle meetings:

Tenth Anniversary of ACASA
Reception, Saturday evening, November 22nd,
probably at the home of Simon Ottenberg.

Seattle Art Museum:
The Katherine White Collection of African Art is
now on permanent exhibition at the new downtown
Seattle Art Museum. It is a major feature of the
new museum, located only a few blocks from the
Westin Hotel, and should not be missed. A much
written-up collection, by Robert Thompson and
others, it is well worth a trip to the museum.
There is also an impressive permanent exhibition
of the John Hauberg collection of Northwest Coast
Indian art on the same floor of the museum. The
Curator of Ethnic Arts at the Seattle Art Museum,
Pam McClusky, will host a tour of the museum
and the African collection for a small fee on
Monday, November 23rd, the fee to pay for
security, since the museum is normally closed then.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 5

The museum was designed by Venturi and
Associates, and itself is an interesting object to

Exhibitions of modern African art:
There will be two small exhibitions of
contemporary African art from Seattle collections
at galleries within walking distance of the hotel.
The emphasis will be on West African art, but
there will be some from South and East Africa.
These will be curated by graduate students from
the University of Washington, Simon Ottenberg and
Pam McClusky.

Exhibition of African narrow strip-cloth:
There will be a small exhibition of African
strip-woven cloth at the center at the University of
Washington, curated by Leslie Grace and Simon

African films:
Four new African-produced feature films will be
presented several times during the conference at
the Seattle Art Museum. Two are from Cameroon,
and one each from Guinea and Mali. It is expected
that two of the African film makers will be coming
to Seattle, and there will be a discussion session
on African film production.

A series of videos will also be shown during the
day at the Westin Hotel on Saturday, Sunday and
Monday, on various topics, grouped into four
categories: Development, Arts, Politics, and History.

There will be an African musical group playing for
listening and dancing Saturday and Sunday evenings.

The Ninth Triennial
Symposium on African Art,
Post-Triennial Report:
The Ninth Triennial Symposium, held at the
University of Iowa April 22nd to 26th, had a
record attendance more than 500 registrants.
There was also a substantial showing by African
scholars. We owe much thanks to Chris Roy, Allen
Roberts, Bill Dewey, many officials and students at
the University of Iowa, and to the University Art
Museum for preparing such an interesting event.
The accommodations and the setting at the
university and in Iowa City were most gracious.

Of the more than 500 persons registered at the
Symposium, there were fourteen African
museologists and archaeologists sponsored by the
United States Information Agency in cooperation

with the ASA, as well as other African scholars
and artists. We cannot thank the USIA enough for
sponsoring these African scholars, and the
cooperation of the ASA Secretariat in this project
indicates how useful our association is with the
ASA. Some twenty-two panels were held, in
addition to which there was a preliminary day of
papers concerned with museum issues in Africa
and the West. The Stanley Collection at the
University of Iowa Art Museum was on full
display, a rich and varied fare in types of pieces
and their geographic location.

A number of themes were evident at the
symposium. The growing interest in contemporary
African art was reflected in the number of panels
and papers on this topic, and by the presence of a
number of African and African-American artists as
panel speakers, including El Anatsui (Ghana) from
Nigeria, Gavin Jantjes (South Africa) from
England, Eddie Chambers from England, Rashid
Diab (Sudan) from Spain, Barthosa Nkurumeh
from Nigeria, and Michael Harris from the United
States. This is a field now receiving increasing
scholarly recognition and attention.

Also showing growing strengths were museology
and archaeology, the former concerned with serious
problems in the presentation of African objects and
with the many issues facing African museums
today. The problems of archaeological research and
collections also received good attention. For
probably the first time we had a whole panel
devoted to the arts of Malawi.

The Second Annual PASALA Graduate Symposium
Sunday morning allowed for twelve graduate
student papers, the students being partially funded
by PASALA. These were excellent and well
attended, indicating a next generation of strong

The Arnold Rubin Award for Outstanding
Publication went to Enid Schildkrout and Curtis A.
Keim for African Reflections: Art from
Northeastern Zaire (University of Washington Press
and the American Museum of Natural History,
1990). The ACASA Leadership Award was given to
Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus at the
University of Washington. [The full text of his
acceptance speech follows this report]. There was
also for the first time a book exhibition at the
Triennial Symposium with more than fifteen
publishers and vendors displaying books, catalogs
and videos. This will become a regular feature of
future Triennials. On the lighter side, we had the

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

pleasure of dancing to Afropop music Friday and
Saturday evenings.
The next ACASA Triennial will be held at the
University of California, Los Angeles, in 1995.
Please do plan to come! Doran Ross promises an
excellent program, using the newly constructed
Fowler Museum of Cultural History as the host

ACASA Book Distribution Program
In June 1992 the following publications were sent:
African Arts, October 1991 and January 1992;
Treasures of a Popular Art: Paintings on Glass
from Senegal by Thomas M. Shaw; and Benin:
September 21 to November 24, 1968, The Museum
of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas. Our thanks to
donors, the publishers of African Arts at UCLA
and to ACASA member Gail Feher of
Oceanie-Afrique Noire, New York.

The next mailing will include Royal art of Benin:
the Perls collection, the catalogue of the Perls
collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York. This donation was made possible by
William Cecil Headrick and the Department of the
Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. Our
thanks to ACASA member Kate Ezra for
coordinating this effort. We will also be sending
Nigerian handcrafted textiles (1976) donated by
Joanne Eicher and History, design and craft in
WVst African strip-woven cloth (1992) from the
National Museum of African Art.
In addition, most of the publishers and vendors
who participated in the Triennial Book Exhibition
agreed in advance to donate the display copies to
the ACASA Book Distribution Program. These
books, mainly single titles, will be sent to select
institutions based on the subject and geographical
focus of the books.

Where Have We Come From? Where Are We Heading?
Forty Years of African Art Studies
Simon Ottenberg
University of Washington

ACASA Leadership Award Address
April 25, 1992, Iowa City

I am honored to receive the Leadership Award.
There are other scholars more deserving, and I am
not certain as to why the mantle has fallen to me.
Others have worked longer in the field of African
art and have produced the most stimulating and
articulate materials. But having been selected, I
will provide some personal perspectives on African
art studies, first reflecting on what our field was
like forty years ago, say 1952, when I was an
anthropology graduate student at Northwestern
University. It was another scholarly world; this will
provide prospective on how much the field has
grown since then. Then I will comment on some
current issues.

Forty years ago there was no African Studies
Association, no ACASA, no journals such as
African Arts and Arts d'Afrique Noire. The sole
African studies program in the United States, at
Northwestern, was located almost entirely within
anthropology. No African languages were taught,
no history or political science. Since Melville J.
Herskovits, William R. Bascom and Richard A.

Waterman formed its core, the program had strong
interests in the African arts. At Columbia
University Paul S. Wingert in art history and the
anthropologist Ralph Linton at Yale also had
concerns in African art. Other than this there was
little work in America, although Robert J.
Goldwater had published his Primitivism in Modern
Art in 1938, and there had been a major exhibition
at the Museum of Modern Art organized by James
Johnson Sweeney in 1935 (Sweeney 1935).
Herskovits (1945) had exhibited at the Denver Art
Museum in 1945, and Alfred Stieglitz at his
Gallery 291 in New York as early as 1914 (Frank
et al 1934: 314 and plate xiii). Roy Sieber, who
had begun his interest in African art at the
University of Iowa, finished his Ph.D. there in
1957 on this topic, probably the first to do so in
African art history. That was the same year that I
completed my Ph.D. at Northwestern, but in my
case in anthropology and not on an art topic. The
meeting in Iowa City these past few days is a
return for Roy under much richer scholarly
conditions, a tribute to his years of scholarship,

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 7

teaching and exhibiting in the African art field.
Anthropological interest in the arts forty years ago
was mainly with the American Indian under Boas's
influence, and that of his students. He died in
1942 but his book, Primitive Art (1928), was the
standard text in America. I do not think that in
1952 that there was one teaching position at a
university anywhere in the world designed
specifically for African art studies.

British social anthropological took little interest in
African art at the time. J. C. Mitchell's classic
study, The Kalela Dance, did not appear until
1956; but Elizabeth Colson, primarily noted for
her social anthropological studies, had published a
small work on Plateau Tonga material culture,
including art, in 1949. Only much later did a few
social anthropologists become interested in the arts.
In France, work on the Dogon by Griaule,
Dieterlen and others had started, and Griaule's
Masques Dogons appeared in 1938. There was a
concentration of activity in Nigeria, with
Duckworth, Murray, Bernard and William Fagg,
Jones, Jeffreys, Bascom and Meyerowitz already
writing in the late 1930s and the 1940s and
beyond, with some early work by Nigerian authors,
including the Oni of Ife.1 A few museums, such as
the Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, had begun under
colonial auspices and some research institutes had
started or were about to: the East African Institute
of Social Research, the West African Institute of
Social and Economic Research, the
Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, though none were art
oriented. Brousse, a Belgian Congo art journal had
begun by 1939.

African art studies was already an old tradition in
Europe, dominated by anthropologists. By forty
years ago Olbrechts (1946), von Sydow (1930) and
Vandenhoute (1948) had published major works on
Africa.2 The emphasis of African art studies was
on wood and metal objects, with some interest in
rock art; body adornment, weaving, architecture
and pottery were secondary. This followed Western
conceptions of art and its distinctiveness from
crafts. The focus was on West and Central Africa,
the emphasis was on male-produced art forms;
most Africanist art scholars were male. It was a
period of exploration and description in African
art. While a number of art objects were already in
Europe, few were in America. Except for Justine
Cordwell's pioneering Northwestern Ph.D.
dissertation (1952), there was only a small interest
in African aesthetics in America, though there was
some in Europe.

We thought of ourselves as objective scientists,
largely employing a natural history model; many
African objects in the West were in natural history
museums. The data was there and it was our
delight to get it, to arrange and publish it. We did
not employ the term "positivist" to describe
ourselves, although the word goes back to earlier
times than my academic youth. It has lately been
applied as a critique. There was little of what we
would call theory. Diffusionist ideas, such as the
Hamitic hypothesis of Egyptian influence on Black
Africa, were being put aside; however, Herskovits
was developing a more historically oriented
diffusionist view of Afro-American culture, The
Myth of the Negro Past being published in 1941.
Culture area studies were still in vogue, with the
age-area hypothesis, a simple geographic placing of
cultures. We spent much futile time arguing over
its uses. Herskovits first published his culture areas
of Africa in 1924 (Herskovits 1924), in an attempt
to sort out African cultures on a regional basis.
Yet the major focus was on specific cultures as
discrete units. African art studies were not
supported by a richness of publications in related
fields, such as anthropology, history, and
archaeology; extensive work was just commencing
in these areas. Rather we looked back to the
colonial works of Rattray, Junod, Meek, the Talbots
and others, for basic information on the arts. In
America we were suspicious of colonialism, but
not in a sophisticated manner.

African art was largely housed in anthropology and
natural history museums, rarely in art museums. In
America, for example, it was found at the
American Museum of Natural History, the Harvard
Peabody Museum, the Field Museum, and the
National Museum of Natural History. Few galleries
in Europe or America displayed African art, there
were few collectors compared to today, and not
many exhibitions and catalogs. African objects
were only beginning to be viewed as art, except
among some artists and their followers, and a few
scholars. African art was still in its ethnologicc
stage" (Maquet 1979:3). Herskovits, Bascom, Fagg,
Griaule and others were trying to show the
creativity and complexity of African arts and
cultures, their order and rationality, against strongly
held stereotypes. The battle for the acceptance of
African art is largely won today, with its spread to
art museums, galleries, dealers and critics,
paradoxically, in the face of increasing disorder in
African social and political life.

In 1952 there were few full-time specialists in
African art. Many anthropologists had other

8 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34 August 1992

interests as well. There were rarely panels at
professional meetings on the topic. I remember
Herskovits telling me that he would present a paper
on an African topic at an anthropological meeting;
then his colleagues would pat him on the back and
go on talking about the American Indian. But
African art had some greater prominence in Europe
forty years ago.

This was the period when scholars had an interest
in what we called "primitive art," a different
world from European, or much of Asian art.
Those interested in African art were often also
involved with the art of the American Indian and
Pacific peoples. Few of us today in the African art
field also control these other areas, unless we teach
them, though fascinating concepts and parallels
exist. So little literature on African art was
published that full control over it was possible if
you knew French and German. Today, we are
more specialized and few of us can even keep up
with the African art literature. Of course, there is
also greater interest in the decorative and
household arts today, in textiles, architecture, in
southern and eastern Africa, in exploring the arts
of previously neglected groups, in the history of
art, its archaeology, and in tourist and the popular

African art study is now fully professionalized,
backed by strong institutionalization. There is the
National Museum of African Art, the Center for
African Art, the physical separation of the Museum
of Mankind from the British Museum, the
specialized African art journals, the teaching
positions at major universities, sometimes
associated with African Studies centers, the
extensive private collections, the art museum
holdings and exhibitions, the numerous galleries,
an extensive network of widely travelled African
and Western dealers, and a growing interest by
African-Americans in the African arts. In Africa
there has been the growth of national museums
since World War II, and of non-university art
centers such as the Oshogbo group in Nigeria and
a contemporary stone carving workshop in the
National Gallery in Zimbabwe, and also of
universities where African art history and the
various arts are taught; now African scholars,
largely trained in the West, are themselves training
others in Africa. Scholarly leadership in African
arts might have by now passed more strongly into
African hands, despite its spectacular growth in the
West, but for the crippling economic and political
problems there.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

These changes in the past forty years have
occurred in the context of the massive movement
of African objects to the West, to museums,
collectors, scholars and galleries, from a wide
range of African sources, sometimes legally,
sometimes through theft from sacred sites and
traditional storage places and from African
museums, and at times from the pillage of war.
Much of the finer pieces, as judged by Western
standards, are now in the West. While, in some
cases this has stimulated the production of
replacement objects in Africa, it also presents
difficulties for the scholar in Africa in terms of
access to objects. The past forty years has also
seen the accumulation of an immense quantity of
published information on African art, a great deal
in the context of ritual and ceremony, a largely
descriptive literature that we are just beginning to
digest, and in the process, moving more and more
to theory and conceptual analysis.

This scholarly "high" that we are on leads to a
sense of satisfaction. We have put the concept of
the "primitive" behind, although the general art
world has not. We are in some collaboration with
African scholars and artists. African art history has
come to dominate the field in comparison to the
number of anthropologists in it; in both fields the
quality of research and publication is high. African
archaeology has developed its own identity. There
are now complex interrelationships between
scholars in these three fields, which are proving to
be profitable. Now all of Black Africa is our
concern as well as the African-American
connection. Teaching African art at the university
level now occurs in England at London and
Norwich. We possess a large corpus of art objects
to study. We are well institutionalized. However,
there are some problems and tensions in African
art scholarship today that I want to address, which
are a consequence of our success.

One obvious matter is that we have reached the
stage in the growth of our field that we need to
write histories of its development, for ourselves
and for our present and future students. If
reflexivity has any meaning in this world, which
we call post-modernist for reasons not always clear
to me, it should mean that we reflect on our past
work and attitudes as scholars toward Africa as an
aid to understanding our present condition of work,
doing so without "bashing" past scholars, but
rather trying to learn from their experience.


Then there is the question of what we mean by
tradition. It has become fashionable to say that
there is no such thing as tradition in African art in
the sense that it has been and is continually
changing in its reproduction, being invented,
reinvented and recombined. I find it hard to avoid
employing the term. I know of no simple substitute
term, but I am unhappy in its presence. Whenever
I run across such a general world, including
"primitive," and even "the other," I note that there
are ambiguities, which relate to our Western
ambivalences. To some of us tradition simply
means the past, or a precise time in the past. To
others it is an element in the present which seems
to have survived. Some scholars employ tradition
as a baseline to contrast with the present, as I
have taken 1952 for this talk, which is also, in
part, about tradition. Our Western values and their
ambiguities intrude on the term. We put a high
economic price on older objects, particularly, of
course, since they are likely to be scarce. Here
economic and scholarly interests sometimes blend.
The West now greatly values the African past
through its arts. This past is distant enough to be
almost romantic. But the West much devalues the
African artistic present, except for tourist arts in
largely non-professional circles. This is reflected in
the surprisingly little public interest in
contemporary visual arts of Africa (though not in
literature), but I am pleased to note that at this
conference the interest has flowered. The fact is, if
we cannot isolate the object from its social setting
in Africa, we cannot also isolate it from its social
setting in the West. A full understanding of
African objects requires analysis of both. We have
to recognize our own society's nature with regard
to African art: highly acquisitive and competitive,
with immense economic and political resources, a
society with still considerable racist tendencies.

Though Africa has gone through very substantial
changes in the past, I feel that those since World
War II have been more widespread, more
penetrating to the most isolated of hamlets, more
fundamental in an economic and a political sense,
in the rise of urbanism, in increased world
interaction, in mass communications, in migration,
than probably any previous fifty years in African
life. At roughly the same time African art
scholarship, as African studies in general, has
become well established; these events are all highly
related. We are, in fact, a part of the fundamental
changes that have been going on in Africa in the

past fifty years. We contribute to them in our way
and are influenced by them as well.

Most of the older forms of African art have been
profoundly altered since World War II-even if the
objects themselves are made as before, their
context and setting have changed. The Okumkpa
masquerades, which I first observed at Afikpo in
1952-53, are still occasionally performed, and
some of the masks, costumes and types of satiric
skits still occur, but the context differs. The secret
societies which put them on are now of minor
importance, many non-Afikpo now watch the
performances, the masquerades are sometimes
video-taped by an Afikpo who owns a store, where
he sells copies. Afikpo with VCRs sit around at
night replaying the tapes, allowing the
anthropologist to gather additional aesthetic
comments from the viewers. The organizational
order of Afikpo in the 1950s has given way to a
much greater complexity and diversity. The Afikpo
that I knew in the arts and in other ways is largely
gone. I lament this for it destroys my sense of
self-identity with matters that have been immensely
rich for me, even as I find the new is also of
great interest. It is becoming harder to talk of
villages in Africa today as it is of farming towns
in America anymore. Africa has gone to
magazines, newspapers, TV, VCRs, radio, tape
cassettes and recorders, to its own kind of physical
and social mobility. Africa is moving into a world
of popular arts, fairs and festivals, TV and radio
performances, recordings, with some producers and
performers travelling to many countries, a continent
of films, of art events, museums, and the extensive
publication of literature. We are into studying
international trade patterns of recently produced
objects, the politics of art in modem states, and
the increasing secularization of the arts, despite the
growing influence of Islam and Christianity in
Africa. As we are largely writing on and
exhibiting older objects from a past world,
representing that face of Africa to the public, arts
that the public and some of our scholars consider
to be "pure" and to represent the "real" Africa,
fundamental changes in African arts and life are

Africa, in this century, has seen a great amount of
conflict, competition, chaos and disorganization,
whatever positive gains have also been made.
Studies of contemporary arts and the artists own
statements reflect this. But with some notable
exceptions, little scholarship in the visual arts
seems directed toward these areas of social life,
particularly with regard to the more traditional,

10 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

often ritually associated art forms. This may be
because one frequent function of art is to unify, to
go beyond conflict to reflect the potentially of
unity. But I suspect that many of us, as scholars,
would rather consider the unities the art suggests
than the social and competitive conflicts associated
with it. It is simpler to organize our materials this
way, and less disturbing for us and for museum
audiences. Objects sitting quietly in the peaceful
atmosphere of museum cases somehow find it hard
to reflect the competitiveness of everyday life in
Africa. We prefer to show the positive and
cohesive view of African life in the face of so
many popular negative stereotypes in the West. So
we often depoliticize African tradition in our
writing and our exhibitions. Conflict and
competition exist between artistic producers,
amongst performers and among performing groups.
While a performance unites those involved, it also
separates them from others. The subtle reflection
of social conflict in ritual that Victor Turner so
ably discussed needs better attention in our studies.
There are aesthetic elements in witchcraft
containment; here aesthetics is directly related to
life and death. Consider also the role of artistic
forms in succession disputes and the consequences
to aesthetics of poverty. At Bafodea in Sierra
Leone, when I returned in 1988, because of
exchange control problems, there was no imported
cotton on which the weavers had come to depend;
women had already given up growing and spinning
cotton for their men to weave, preferring
commercial cloth. As a consequence, most weavers
had simply given up the work, though one was
weaving blankets in wool by stripping down
second-hand sweaters. Conflict and competition,
poverty and dislocation, are reflected more in the
African arts than we have dealt with. We see these
more clearly in our own arts. What is impressive
is that, despite all the problems in Africa today,
the arts have flourished so well, a tribute to
African stamina, creativity and determination.

I have mentioned the term aesthetics a number of
times in this talk. It is a word that is now coming
into greater usage among Africanist scholars. But I
do not think that we yet know what it means; we
need work in this area. Sometimes we simply
employ it as a substitute for the word art. It seems
more sophisticated, more impressive, though few
of us are familiar with its development in Western
thought, and though among Africanist scholars, as
elsewhere, there is no agreement as to its meaning.

I consider that it concerns a number of interrelated
elements. Primarily, it has to do with the
appreciation of form and style and the skill behind
these, though style and form are difficult to clearly
delineate from content and meaning in the ordinary
observer's mind and in that of the performer and
producer. To me aesthetics also involves emotional
reactions to form and content, that area for which
we are so ill-equipped as African art scholars to
study seriously. And I follow Bateson (1973) in
arguing, though he called it art rather than
aesthetics, that aesthetics involves a different form
of communication than the ordinary, in that it is
specifically concerned with linking the levels of the
unconscious with the conscious, which is one of its
attractions, which is why aesthetics also always has
emotional content, and why we seem to seek
aesthetic experience as we do warmth, liquids,
food and sex, though, perhaps, not so consciously.
Aesthetics also has an evaluative quality to it, as
Robert Farris Thompson (1974b) has clearly shown,
whether verbalized or not. We are all evaluating
beings and aesthetics is a prime area for this;
another is politics.

Whether my view of aesthetics is a possible one or
not, we need to develop our concepts more
clearly.3 In applying such Western criteria as mine
for scholarly use, I am aware that there are
African societies that are quite articulate concerning
their own aesthetics, such as the Yoruba as
described by Thompson (1971, 1974a, 1974b),
Abiodun (1990), Lawal (1974), the Drewals (1983)
and others. Aniakor (1982) suggests some differing
qualities for Igbo aesthetics. Rich and very
important aesthetic conceptions exist distinct from
ours, or partially overlapping with them. This is
very important, for it not only leads to a better
cross-cultural understanding of aesthetics but can
sharpen and shape our own Western analytical
views. One difference between our aesthetic
conceptions and that within African groups may be
that ours looks somewhat more externally, being
based on experience with a wide variety of art
cultures, whereas African ones, at least in the past,
have been somewhat more internally focused, based
more on the arts of the group and of surrounding
peoples. Ours grows out of external variety, though
still tending to lie within a Western European base,
theirs grows more out of the intensity of internal
experience, frequently linked to ritual. With
contemporary African art, however, African artists
are experiencing a wide variety of external cultural
influences. Other cross-cultural aesthetic issues
arise. Can an African culture have a rich art
tradition without a highly verbalized aesthetics?

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 11

Why do some African cultures appear to have
richer art traditions than others, or are richer in
one field, such as sculpture or music?

Over the years I have written a number of items
from a psychological viewpoint (Ottenberg 1975:
chap. xiii, 1982, 1988, 1989a, 1989b). However,
for whatever I am known for in the field of
African art, it is not this work. Only a few
scholars have been interested. Most art historians
and anthropologists cannot fit psychological
explanations into their scheme of things, unless it
is the psychology of perception; it appears to be a
different level of analysis. It does not seem to
answer the questions that they raise. Partly this is
because the theories, Freudian or otherwise, are so
Western in origin and orientation that they raise
questions of authority and hegemony. Also, a
psychological approach to art argues for some
commitment to concepts that seem speculative and
difficult to substantiate without clinical experience
as patient or therapist. Despite these negative
factors, I will continue, at times, to look at the
psychological side of art. The approach raises
issues of the fundamental commonness of some
(but not all) underlying psychic processes in all
humans despite evident cultural differences in
behavior. If this is so, may there not be, after all,
an underlying universal aesthetic, however difficult
to get at? May we not have a better understanding
of the aesthetics of another culture if we
comprehend its psychology of and in its art?

I don't always find the psychological approach
useful, and I don't feel that it has to be employed
everywhere, nor that when used, that extensive
employment of its jargon is necessary. There are
several ways that scholars can approach the topic.
One is in the investigation of a people's own
psychological understanding and usages. Paul
Riesman (1986) explored this in a seminal
SSRC/ACLS review paper, Suzette Heald did so
for the Gisu (1982), and I have tried this approach
in a recent paper on Limba weddings (1989a). To
get at a people's own sense of the nature of human
behavior and deviations from it, of what selfhood
and personhood mean to them, and the
relationships of these to aesthetics, seems possible
without a deep reading of Western psychology.

Another psychological area, on which Anthony
Forge (1970) has ably written on in Melanesia, and
which I have considered in a book on boys
growing up at Afikpo (1989b), is the issue of how
children learn aesthetics as they mature. This goes
beyond the question of children being apprenticed,
say to a potter or a musician, to the broader issue

of what exposure all children have to the arts as
they mature, how they acquire aesthetic knowledge
and skill. I am now surveying children's
masquerades in West Africa. I am surprised to find
how widespread it is. Clearly, children are not just
passive learners of aesthetics, but are active
participants in its acquisition and in creating new
art forms. Information of these sorts offers another
approach to questions of the fundamental nature of

African Art in Art Museums
To turn to a different issue. What is the impact on
our scholarship of the substantial movement to the
exhibiting of African objects to art museums in
recent years? There is much recent literature on
museums and exhibitions, so that I will make only
limited comments. The movement parallels the
current change of anthropology from a scientific to
a more humanistic stance. In the past twenty years
there has been a growing series of impressive
African art exhibitions and catalogues from art
museums, as well as a number of second-rate
ones. There has been the development of museum
jobs in African arts and the publication of many
exhibit catalogues as outlets for Africanist art
scholars. We have begun the analysis of that
colossal collection of African objects that now
resides in the West. There is now a better
understanding and appreciation of form, style and
history by Africanist art historians through the
minute examination of African objects in art
museums, which Africanist anthropologists often do
not do, being more concerned with objects in
performance and in cultural background. There is
now much debate concerning the values involved in
viewing the objects in themselves and for
themselves, as against viewing them more in
cultural context, which reminds me of a similar
argument not to long ago in literature: should it be
understood on its own, or in the context of its
social and cultural milieu.

To some extent this is a matter of choice. Some
prefer one view, some delight in the other. I align
myself with those who believe that both approaches
are important and that one can either examine
objects first and then their cultural context, or the
reverse, as long as you do both. In my book on
Afikpo masquerades (1975) I employed the former
approach, which seemed to work well.

But as an anthropologist, I have an unease at some
of the current displays of African art in art
museums. As Sidney Kasfir (1984: 184) has

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

written in her seminal paper "One Tribe, One

In what might be called the 'masterpiece
syndrome' in the collecting and publishing
of African works of art, pieces of
exceptionally high quality and technical
excellence are obviously preferred to
mediocre works which may be far more
widespread and representative of the
culture. While this is understandable, it
does have the effect of limiting judgments
about collective styles to the output of a
handful of master carvers, and not of a
more broadly-based sample.

Is it not paradoxical that our own field research
and writing frequently deal with objects varying in
quality from the extraordinary to the ordinary to
the inferior, whether we are employing our own
criteria of quality or that of those we research, yet
the art museum largely prefers the extraordinary;
even some anthropology and natural history
museums now do so more and more. Of Fang
ancestral figures Fernandez (1971:360) writes: "(I)t
is a curious fact that I never found a case in
which a statue was refused. The view seems to
prevail that any statue can serve its function atop
the reliquary whether it is aesthetically satisfying
or not." As scholars, what do we do with this
attitude, not uncommon in Africa? So far, very

The reasons for the emphasis on the extraordinary
in African art are quite clear. The extraordinary is
what art museums generally prefer to show of any
culture and of any period. It is an aspect of our
Western culture to do so. To do so is more
attractive to audiences in the West, seeking the
spectacular, the unusual. People like to see pieces
which they know or suspect are very expensive,
rare and old. It is easier to obtain grants to exhibit
the extraordinary. It's attractive to Africanists as
well, for it shows that African art is equal in
quality to the arts of the West, of China, Iran and
Japan. It shows that Africans have skill, capability
and have "culture," in the Western sense, have had
"civilization" in the popular meaning of this term,
in the face of other views of African life that are
not complimentary. These are all valid reasons. I
take great pride that there is a United States
government museum in our capital devoted to
African art, that a major holding is in African art
in the new downtown Seattle Art Museum, in the
city where I live. I am joyful over the magnificent
collection of African art in the University of Iowa
Art Museum that we have been viewing in the

course of this symposium, and that African art
exhibits are now widespread and common in
Europe, America and in Africa.

Still, as an anthropologist, I have an unease about
so much exhibiting of the extraordinary. I suppose
that I should not tell others how to do their
"thing" if it is not my "thing." To each his own,
perhaps. And I appreciate the energy and drive of
many persons that have been necessary so that
African art is being shown in art museums at all,
which was not the case in the past, and where it
reaches a larger public than in ethnographic and
natural history museums. Yet, still I am troubled,
for these exhibits provide an essentially one-sided
view of African aesthetics. The judgment as to
what pieces are extraordinary is generally a
Western and not an African one, though this is not
always clearly recognized. In some cases the
African judgments might be the same, but they are
often not fully known. The Afikpo mask most
frequently seen in art exhibits in the West is mma
ji or the yam knife form. Its prongs down the
vertical center line and its knifelike top projection
make it attractive to us. But my sense is that at
Afikpo it is quite an ordinary mask and that people
there consider the ugly-faced forms to be more
extraordinary. These art exhibitions, then, do not
provide an idea of the range of quality of art
objects that exist in a culture and of the more
typical ones that the African is likely to
experience. One may get this, of course, by
examining objects in museum storage, but this is
viewed by few persons. Art museums employ video
tape, photographs and sometimes film as
broadening devices, though these are also often
highly selective, sometimes also toward the

It is true that anthropological and natural history
museums have collected and still collect objects of
a broad range of quality by either Western or
indigenous standards, and their exhibits tend to
deal with a wide scale of qualities of pieces, as
well as presenting more cultural, and sometimes
historical, background than some art museums do.
So perhaps the answer to my unease is simply to
let art museums display the extraordinary and other
institutions the wider range of objects. But the
unease remains since the role of art museums in
African art has become so dominant in recent
years, and anthropology and natural museums
frequently have less rotating exhibit space than art
museums, as the Field Museum and the National
Museum of Natural History. I find that I live in
two differing conceptual worlds. At one hand I am

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 13

an anthropologist concerned with a range of
qualities in my research and writing, and on the
other hand, with the magnificence of a limited
number of exceptional objects in art museums, and
through art collectors' and dealers' contacts. I have
a dual sense of African art, each approach with its
own language, its own style. My basic concern is
that many of the art museum exhibitions, while
providing a very positive view of African art, give
little understanding of the art-embedded-in-culture,
of the cultural experience of Africans with the arts.
Because of the negative views toward African
cultural and social life prevailing in the West, I see
opportunities missed. One resolution might be a
series of exhibitions which would explore specific
African cultures' own aesthetic evaluations rather
than ours, doing so through exhibiting a range of
qualities of their objects, from what they consider
extraordinary to the ordinary, even to the inferior.
Such exhibitions would be based on sensitive field
research and would have complexities, for, of
course, opinions often do not agree within a
culture as to aesthetic quality, though some
variations can be seen in the light of status, social
roles, age and gender. But then the African voice
in our art world would be more prominent than it
has often been. Further, an exhibition that contrasts
Western aesthetic canons of an African art with
those of the Africans' culture also would be very
worth while.

Interrelationships Between the Arts,
Culture and Social Behavior
While African art studies are moving toward the
exploration of exceptional objects, the field is also
going in a different direction, toward a greater
understanding of the interrelationships of different
art forms-objects, dress, music, dance, and their
relationships to culture and social behavior. I see
two main thrusts here. One is in performance
studies, so ably summarized by Margaret Drewal
(1991) in her recent SSRC/ACLS review paper that
I will say little here. The approach may offer one
resolution to the problems of exhibiting that I have
just explored, through the presentation in museum
settings of performance genres, as in the recent
Caribbean Festival Arts exhibit. A performance
view may be equally applicable to the older
ceremonial forms in Africa as to newer ones,
integrating ritual and aesthetics. But there still
remains the problem of a single individual, or even
of two persons, having the skill to research and
successfully analyze the various arts in
performance, which suggests the need for more

collaborative projects. But as we struggle with the
limits that our Western orientations have created for
us, such as I have explored above, so its presence
is felt here as well. For we are so singular in our
operations, we so much delight in the style of
going it alone in research and writing, except for
husband and wife teams, and our evaluation of the
academic and scholarly performance of persons is
so much based on the individual. We, who so
much love to study the collaborative aesthetic
behavior of Africans are so remarkably
uncollaborative with other scholars in our own
research and writing, though not at professional
meetings, at teaching and museums, or in ACASA.
This limits the possibility of a true performance
approach, as well as greater association with
African researchers.

The other path to the analysis of the
interrelationships of different artistic genre looks
less to performance than for key common qualities
which exist in all or a number of art forms in a
society, including everyday social life. Robert Farris
Thompson's (1974a) pioneer research in this
approach is a good case in point, as well as Kris
Hardin's Kono aesthetics study (1987, 1988), Sarah
Brett-Smith's Bamana article (1984), James
Forrest's book on a Tidewater North Carolina
community (1988) and Adrienne Kaeppler's (1978)
study of melody, drone and decoration among the
Tonga in the Pacific. I, myself, found among the
Limba of Sierra Leone that a number of art and
social forms held certain common themes: a
tendency toward bilateralism, an accent on
repetition, and a non-hierarchical quality to social
life and to design.
Two arguments are involved here. First, that there
are underlying qualities of form in the various art
forms in a culture, despite apparent distinctiveness
of style, skill and training. Underlying forms give
the arts a unity, whether recognized by those
involved or not, and provide a distinctive style to
the culture that goes beyond the arts to social
behavior. This calls to mind Fernandez's opposition
and vitality among the Fang (1971) and Laura
Thompson's logico-aesthetic integration in Hopi
culture (1945). The end product of analysis may be
an underlying aesthetic quality to the whole culture
that can be contrasted with that in other cultures.

The second argument of this approach, particularly
that of Hardin (1987, 1988) and Forrest (1988), is
that in looking for underlying aesthetic features,
one should do so by first observing behavior in
every life, rather than in those areas that we in the
West normally call the arts. The rhythm of women

14 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34. August 1992

pounding grain perhaps relates to the rhythm of
women musicians at a performance, the motions of
daily labor are incorporated in complex, subtle and
disguised form in the motions of dance, and
appreciation of the body in performances grows out
of cultural concepts of the body in general. The
approach suggests that for any culture, the heart of
aesthetics is intimately tied to everyday experience,
thus raising questions concerning the everyday in
those areas we call art. Does the everyday
influence the arts or the reverse, or what is more
likely, both processes may go on at once, but how?
This will take some working out. The approach
intrigues me, of course, since it suggests that there
are unconscious mental operations going on in the
culture involving basic aesthetic features which are
not generally verbalized by its members.

In conclusion, I have talked of the extraordinary in
art, of aesthetics, and also of performance. In my
years as a scholar I have never met a more
extraordinary group of scholars than those in
African arts, nor better performers. The aesthetic
style is open and congenial. I have always had a
feeling of close intellectual warmth and
cooperation, a willingness of you to share ideas
and data. I hope that the professionalization of
African art scholarship, now virtually complete,
does not alter these qualities. I thank you all, for
you helping me to lead a happy and productive life
as an Africanist art scholar.


1. These scholars mainly published in Nigeria
Magazine and Nigerian Field.

2. Also see Gerbrands (1990) for a discussion of
European scholarship on African art before World
War II.

3. Maquet (1979, 1986) has attempted to present a
systematic approach to the anthropology of
aesthetics. Kris Hardin is preparing to publish a
book on this topic.

References Cited

Abiodun, Rowland. 1990. "The Future of African
Art Studies: an African Perspective," in African
Art Studies: The State of the Discipline, pp.
63-89. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of
African Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Aniakor, Chike C. 1982. "Igbo Aesthetics (An
Introduction)." Nigeria Magazine 141: 3-15.

Bateson, Gregory. 1973. "Style, Grace, and
Information in Primitive Art," in Primitive Art

and Society, editor Anthony Forge, pp.
235-255. London: Oxford University Press for
the Wenner-Gren Foundation for
Anthropological Research.

Boas, Franz. 1928. Primitive Art. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press.

Brett-Smith, Sarah. 1984. "Speech Made Visible:
The Irregular as a System of Meaning."
Empirical Studies of the Arts 2, 2: 127-147.

Colson, Elizabeth. 1949. Life Among the Cattle
Owning Plateau Tonga. The Material Culture of
a Northern Native Rhodesia Tribe. Livingstone:
Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, Occasional
Papers, no. 6.

Cordwell, Justine M. 1952. Aesthetic Aspects of
Yoruba and Benin Cultures. Ph.D. dissertation,
anthropology, Northwestern University.

Drewal Henry J. and Margaret T. Drewal. 1983.
Gelede Art and Female Power Among the
Yoruba. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Drewal, Margaret. 1991. "The State of Research
on Performance in Africa." African Studies
Review 34, 3: 1-64.

Fernandez, James. 1971. "Principles of Opposition
and Vitality in Fang Aesthetics," in Art and
Aesthetics in Primitive Society, editor Carol
Jopling, pp. 356-373. New York: Dutton.

Forrest, James. 1988. Lord I'm Coming Home:
Everyday Aesthetics in Tidewater North
Carolina. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Forge, Anthony. 1970. "Learning to See in New
Guinea," in Socialisation: The Approach from
Social Anthropology, ed. P. Mayer, pp.
269-291. London: Tavistock, Association of
Social Anthropology, Monographs, no. 8.

Frank, Waldo, Lewis Mumford, Dorothy Norman,
Paul Resenfield and Harold Rugg. 1934.
America and Alfred Stieglitz: A Collective
Portrait. New York: Literary Guild.

Gerbrands, Adrian A. 1990. "The History of
African Art Studies," in African Art Studies:
The State of the Discipline, pp. 11-28.
Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African
Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Goldwater, Robert. 1938. Primitivism in Modern
Art. New York: Harper.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

Griaule, Marcel. 1938. Masques Dogons. Paris:
L'Institut d'Ethnologie, Travaux et Memoires,
no. 33.

Hardin, Kris. 1987. The Aesthetics of Action:
Production and Reproduction in a WVst African
Town. Ph.D. dissertation, anthropology, Indiana

Hardin, Kris. 1986. "Aesthetics and the Cultural
Whole: A Study of Kono Dance Occasions."
Empirical Studies of the Arts 6, 1: 35-57.

Heald, Suzette. 1982. "The Making of Men: The
Relevance of Vernacular Psychology in the
Interpretation of Gisu Ritual." Africa 52: 15-36.

Herskovits, Melville J. 1924. "A Preliminary
Consideration of the Culture Areas of Africa."
American Anthropologist 26: 50-63.

Herskovits, Melville J. 1941. The Myth of the
Negro Past. New York: Harper.

Herskovits, Melville J. 1945. Backgrounds of
African Art. Denver: Denver Art Museum.

Kaeppler, Adrienne. 1978. "Melody, Drone and
Decoration: Underlying Structures and Surface
Manifestations in Tongan Art an Society," in
Art and Society: Studies in Style, Culture and
Aesthetics, editors M. Greenhalgh and V.
Megaw, pp. 261-274. London: Duckworth.

Kasfir, Sidney. 1984. "One Tribe, One Style?:
Paradigms in the Historiography of African
Art." History in Africa 11: 163-193.

Lawal, Babatunde. 1974. "Some Aspects of Yoruba
Aesthetics." British Journal of Aesthetics 14:

Maquet, Jacques. 1979. Introduction to Aesthetic
Anthropology. Malibu, CA: Undena.

Maquet, Jacques. 1986. The Aesthetic Experience:
An Anthropologist Looks at the Visual Arts.
New Haven: Yale University Press.

Mitchell, J. C. 1956. The Kalela Dance: Aspects of
Social Relationships Among Urban Africans in
Northern Rhodesia. Livingstone:
Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Papers No. 27.

Olbrechts, F. M. 1946. Plastiek van Kongo.
Antwerp Standaard Boekhandel.

Ottenberg, Simon. 1975. The Masked Rituals of
Afikpo: The Context of an African Art. Seattle:
University of Washington Press.

Ottenberg, Simon. 1982. "Illusion, Communication
and Psychology in West African Masquerades."
Ethos 10, 2: 149-185.

Ottenberg, Simon. 1988. "Psychological Aspects of
Igbo Art." African Arts 21, 2: 72-82, 93-94.

Ottenberg, Simon. 1989a. "The Dancing Bride: Art
and Indigenous Psychology in Limba
Weddings." Man 24: 57-78.

Ottenberg, Simon. 1989b. Boyhood Rituals in an
African Society: An Interpretation. Seattle:
University of Washington Press.

Riesman, Paul. 1986. "The Person and the Life
Cycle in African Social Life and Thought."
African Studies Review 29, 2: 71-138.

Sweeney, James J. 1935. African Negro Art. New
York: Museum of Modern Art.

Thompson, Laura. 1945. "Logico-Aesthetic
Integration in Hope Culture." American
Anthropologist 47: 540-553.

Thompson, Robert F. 1971. Black Gods and Kings:
Yoruba Art at UCLA. Los Angeles: Museum
and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and
Technology, University of California, Occasional
Papers no. 2.

Thompson, Robert F. 1974a. African Art in
Motion: Icon and Act. Berkeley: University of
California Press.

Thompson, Robert F. 1974b. "Yoruba Aesthetic
Criticism," in African Art in Motion: Icon and
Act. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Vandenhoute, P. J. L. 1948. Classification
stylistique du masque Dan et Guere de la Cote
d'Ivoire Occidental (A.O.E). Leiden:
Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Mededelingen
no. 4.

von Sydow, E. 1930. Handbuch der afrikanischen
Plastik. Band I. Die westafrikanische Plastik.
(all published).

16 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

Two ACASA members recently received a
fellowship and a grant from the J. Paul Getty
Trust. Salah Hassan of SUNY Buffalo was
awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship for 1992-1993.
His research topic is "The Life and Works of
Malam Haruna: The African Artist as an Individual
Creative Personality." Rowland Abiodun of
Amherst College was awarded a Senior Research
Grant as part of a five-person team from Amherst
College and the University of Massachusetts. The
team's research project is "The Shock of
Re-cognition: Artistic Representation and Cultural

Henry John Drewal, Evjue-Bascom Professor of
Art History at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, has been awarded a Newberry
Library/NEH Fellowship for 1992-93 to conduct
research and writing on "Art History and
Hegemony in Latin America: The African

Gerhard Kubik, of the Institute for Ethnology at
the University of Vienna, and Moya Aliya
Malamusi, head of the Oral Literature Research
Program in Chileka, Malawi, will be Fellows in
the Department of Musical Instruments at the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from
January 4 to March 4, 1993. Both scholars have
written extensively on the art and music of
Malawi. Dr. Kubik and Mr. Malamusi are available
for lectures. Contact Dr. Ken Moore or Dr. Kate
Ezra at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Warren Robbins, Founding Director Emeritus and
Senior Scholar of the National Museum of African
Art, presented a slide lecture, "Unmasking Picasso:
How the Traditional Art of Africa Fueled in the
20th Century Revolution in Art," at Stanford
University, the California Cultural Alliance in
Sacramento, and the Palm Springs Desert Museum
in California, Marshall University and Huntington
High School in West Virginia, the Harvard Club of
New York City, and the Philadelphia Museum of
Art. In addition, he delivered a commencement
address for the University of Michigan School of
Art on "Concerning the Artist in the Year of Our
History, 21,000," spoke at the unveiling of a major
sculpture by the late Chaim Gross in New York
City, and delivered a eulogy in a memorial
program for semanticist and African art collector,
Senator S. 1. Hayakawa, in Mill Valley, California.

Grace C. Stanislaus, formerly a curator at the
Studio Museum in Harlem, has been named
director of the Bronx Museum of the Arts in New
York. Among the exhibitions she has curated were
"Contemporary African Artists: Changing
Tradition" in 1990, organized for the Studio
Museum, and "Five Contemporary African
Artists," for the Italian Pavilion at the 1990 Venice


William Fagg (1914-1992), former Keeper of
Ethnography at the British Museum, died in
London on July 10th. His obituary in the London
Times (July 14, 1992) states that he "was
pre-eminent in establishing the study of African art
as a legitimate concern of art historians and
anthropologists." In recent years, Fagg was a
consultant at Christie's, and he is well-known to
the African art community for his several landmark
books including The sculpture of Africa,
Afro-Portuguese ivories, Nigerian images, and
Yoruba: sculpture of Vkst Africa. Bill Fagg was
one of the first recipients, along with Roy Sieber,
of ACASA's Leadership Award in 1986. His
obituary in the Times concludes that "he loved
music: to work with him at the British Museum
was to be treated, through his whistling, to a daily
concert of the works of the great composers. The
lesson in all of this, perhaps, is that to be well
versed in other cultures, one must first be well
versed in one's own."
John Povey, long-time editor of African Arts from
its founding in 1967 until his retirement from the
University of California, died in May at his home
in California.


Associate Dean, Center for Advanced Study in
the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art [GM13
($46,210-$60,070) or GM-14 ($54,607 $70,
987)]: Four-year appointment effective July 12,
1993; to administer the Center's program of special
meetings and publications, conduct original
research, and design and direct a Center research
project. The Associate Dean assists the dean in the
direct formulation of policies regarding short- and
long-term operation of the Center. Requires
knowledge of art history as evidenced by an
advanced degree and/or record of scholarly
publications. Preference given to applicants whose

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992


field is othlr than western art (e.g., Islamic,
Asian, Pre-Columbian, African or Oceanic). Two
to three years of professional experience
performing similar work assignments are required.
U.S. citizenship required. Submit a Standard Form
171 "Application for Federal Employment"
indicating Museum Specialist (Art) as the position
and #92-45 as the vacancy announcement number.
Deadline for the receipt of applications is
November 13, 1992. A copy of the vacancy
announcement and/or the required application form
may be obtained by leaving a message on (202)
842-6283. Completed applications should be sent
to: Personnel Office, National Gallery of Art,
Washington, D.C. 20565, USA.

The Center for Advanced Studies in the Visual
Arts fellowship programs: In the Senior
Fellowship program, the Center awards
approximately six Senior Fellowships and twelve
Visiting Senior Fellowships for the study of the
history, theory, and criticism of art, architecture,
and urbanism of any geographical area and of any
period. Applicants should have held the Ph.D. for
five years or more or possess a record of
professional accomplishment. Deadlines: For
Visiting Senior Fellowships and Associate
appointments September 21, 1992, for March
1-August 31, 1993; March 21, 1993, for
September 1, 1993-February 28, 1994; September
21, 1993, for March 1-August 31, 1994. For
Senior Fellowship and Associate appointments -
October 1, 1992, for academic year 1993-94.

Predoctoral Fellowships are available for scholarly
work in the history of art, architecture, and urban
form. The ten fellowships, which vary in length
from one to three calendar years, are intended to
support doctoral dissertation research. Applicants
must have completed their residence requirements
and course work for Ph.D. as well as general or
preliminary examinations before the date of
application. Students must know two foreign
languages related to the topic of dissertation.
Deadline: November 15, 1992.

For information about these programs: Center for
Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National
Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 20565, USA.
Telephone: (202) 842-6480; FAX (202) 408-8531.

The National Humanities Center offers thirty-five
to forty residential fellowships for advanced study
in history, philosophy, languages and literature,
classics religion, and history of the arts, among
others. Scholars from any nation are eligible.
Applicants must hold a doctorate or have equivalent

professional accomplishments. The Center awards
fellowships to senior scholars and to promising
young scholars, who should be no more than ten
years beyond the completion of graduate study and
should be engaged in research beyond the revision
of their dissertations. While most of its fellowships
are for individuals, the center considers
collaborative projects. Deadline: October 15, 1992,
for academic year 1993-94. For information:
Fellowship Program, National Humanities
Center, P.O. Box 12256, Research Triangle Park,
NC 27709-2256, USA.

The Schomburg Center for Research in Black
Culture of the New York Public Library has an
exceptional opportunity for an Art Collections
Manager. Will be responsible for the organization,
management and development of the Center's Art
and Artifacts Division. Duties will include
processing, cataloging and managing the collections
of African-American and African paintings, prints,
sculpture and artifacts and providing public access
to them. Qualified candidates must have advanced
training in African-American and/or African Art
History or Museology. MLS from an ALA
accredited Library School or a Master's degree in
Fine Arts, Art History or Museum Studies is
highly desirable. Minimum of four years
experience organizing and managing fine art,
artifact, sculpture, and poster collections in a
research library or museum required. Knowledge of
cataloging in an on-line environment desirable.
NYPL offers a competitive starting salary plus
excellent benefits. For prompt consideration please
send resume in confidence to: Human Resources
Dept. DC-2, New York Public Library, 8 West
40th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10018,

Art Journal is seeking articles for an issue
tentatively titled "Clothing as Subject," to be
guest-edited by Nina Felshin. The focus will be on
the use and significance of clothing as a vehicle
for the expression of meaning in the 20th century
art. The subject can be approached from a
historical, iconographic, theoretical, or formal
perspective. Papers are sought that freshly address
some aspect of clothing's role in the major
movements of the earlier part of the century.
Papers might also examine such topics as why
certain garments that recur in the history of art are
selected for their sexually evocative and symbolic
character; the role of clothing in Happenings and
performance art of the 1960s and 1970s; and the
contemporary phenomenon in which many artists
employ clothing abstracted from the human form.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

Particularly encouraged are interdisciplinary
approaches that reflect clothing's important
relationship to other areas, such as fashion,
psychoanalysis, feminism, and gender studies.
Artists are invited to submit proposals for projects.
Deadline: December 15, 1992. Send submissions
to: Nina Felshin, 27 West 96th Street, New York,
NY 10025, USA.
"Visual Representation, Spectatorship, and
Narrative" will be the subject of a book. Articles
of 15-25 pages or two-page abstracts on the topic
of visual representation and/or narrative are invited
for a collection of essays focused on the use of
plastic arts in narrative. Articles can discuss any
period; British, American, European, and
non-Western perspectives considered. Deadline:
December 15, 1992. Contact Patricia Johnson,
Humanities Division, Literature Program, Penn
State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057; or
Jane Kromm, Humanities Division, Art History
Board of Study, SUNY Purchase, Purchase, NY
10577, USA.

Robert Soppelsa is gathering information for a
catalogue raisonn6 of the bronze relief plaques
from the kingdom of Benin. He would be
interested in hearing from anyone having
knowledge of plaques, particularly ones that have
not been published or that were not listed in Philip
Dark's 1982 Illustrated Catalogue. Please contact:
Robert T. Soppelsa, 1655 Illinois Street,
Lawrence, KS 66044 (913) 841-1935, USA.


News from Belgium
The export of imitation textiles to the tropics was
the subject of an exhibition at the Ethnographic
Museum in Antwerp from March 21, 1992 to June
14, 1992. This exhibition highlighted the influence
of non-European textiles on the taste and the
production of Dutch and Belgian weaving mills
during the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth
centuries. From the eighteenth century on, chintzes
inspired from India were in great demand. The
export to tropical countries of cotton materials,
inspired by Indian and West African design, was
much more important than the local consumption.
A 128-page illustrated catalog, Bontjes voor de
Tropen, accompanies the exhibition. Price: 835 FB.

News from England
At Oxford University a step has been taken, after
acrimonious debate and strong pressures over the
plundering of archeological sites in Mali: the
Research Laboratory for Archeology and the
History of Art, which carbon dated the Turin
Shroud, is refusing to authenticate West African
terracotta figurines unless from recognized and
reputable sources. extracted from an article in
the Manchester Guardian Weekly, July 5, 1992,
"Greed that is tearing history out by its roots," on
trafficking in illegal antiquities and art works.

London has a new gallery devoted to showing high
quality modern African art. The Savannah Gallery,
directed by Ghanaian Leroi Coubagy, plans to
exhibit African art in all media that will showcase
the best of contemporary Africa. His opening
exhibition in April featured fellow Ghanaian
Kwabena Gyedu and in July, Ato Delaquis held a
solo exhibition at Savannah. Address: The Savannah
Gallery, Derbyshire Street, London E2 6HQ, UK.
Telephone and FAX: 071-613-3072.

"Black studies are getting a timely shot in the arm
through a special initiative. CETTIE (Cultural
Exchange Through Theatre in Education) has
moved to the forefront of a new challenging
educational frontier museum learning. The
group's latest project, A Pattern of Light was a
commissioned drama for the Museum of Mankind
in Piccadilly. It was devised around the important
collection of artifacts from the Belgian Congo,
1900-1909 in the exhibition 'Images of Africa'
recently on display. Over a two week period the
CETTIE team held intensive all-day programmes
for nine secondary schools at the museum to
'challenge perceptions of Africa and Africans.'
Using masks, shadow play and a narrator, CETTIE
re-enacted the drama surrounding the transference
of Congolese artifacts to the British Museum in the
first decade of this century. Hungarian-born
ethnographer Emil Torday (1875-1931) was the
man responsible for this collection. His sympathetic
study of the Kuba people and their culture
revolutionized the perceptions of 'Darkest Africa'
which most Europeans had adopted at the time.

"CETTIE won a Gulbenkian Museum and Gallery
Award in 1990 for a similar project at the
suffragette movement and black inventors. A
Pattern of Light was funded through a 1991
Sainsbury's award for Arts Education, the London
Arts Board and the City of Westminster. Ace
designer Keith Khan created the set and costumes
for the production. The project was filmed by

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 19


black video company CEDDO. Backup educational
packs for students and teachers will be made
available as an educational resource for schools and
museums." excerpted from Vest Africa, May
11-17, 1992, page 820.

News from France
Musee d'Arts Africains, Ocdaniens & Amerindiens
(MAAOA). On March 20th the city of Marseille
opened a new museum dedicated to the arts of
Africa, the Pacific, and the Americas, three
continents with which this city has always had
commercial and cultural relations. The curator is
Alain Nicolas. The museum is not an
ethnographical museum, but is more concerned
with aesthetics and anthropology. It will collaborate
with researchers from CNRS, ORSTOM and
EHESS. One of the first exhibitions was dedicated
to Pierre Guerre and his collection of African art.
In June, MAAOA opened an exhibition of Fang

Professor Bernard Dupaigne has been appointed the
new Director of the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie,
Mus6e de l'Homme, Palais de Chaillot, 75116
Paris, replacing Professor Jean Guiart. Francine
Ndiaye is still African curator.

News from Kenya
Answer to Kenyan Mystery Lies Amid Ancient
Ruins excerpted from The Washington Post,
June 1992. "Recent work by a young Kenyan
archaeologist suggests that the stone towns,
although heavily influenced by Arab culture, may
have started as African settlements that gradually
grew rich and cosmopolitan through trade, serving
as gateways for the flow of goods between Africa's
interior and distant lands such as Arabia, India,
Persia and China. "The interpretation has
changed," said George H. 0. Abungu, head of
coastal archaeology at the National Museums of
Kenya, who performed the new research. "If you
look at the culture, it's basically African. If you
look at the structure and layout, it's basically
African. That has been the case since the 7th or
8th century."

Some researchers consider Abungu's views radical,
pointing out that the architecture, inscriptions and
technology of the stone towns are more
characteristically Arab. But the work has ignited
new interest in the long-neglected ruins . .

Few of the ruined coastal towns have been
carefully studied. Abungu said that of more than

100 such sites in Kenya, fewer than 50 have
undergone any excavation. Most are heavily
overgrown, and many are threatened by weather,
erosion and encroaching land development.

Abungu and other African researchers are working
to change the situation. With a grant from the
Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with
Developing Countries, archaeologists from nine
African countries have established a regional
program to study the development of urban centers
along the coast and at a few inland sites. Mtwapa,
a ruined town a few miles north of Mombasa, is a
good example both of the towns' archaeological
value and of the challenges faced by researchers
trying to preserve them. Its ruined buildings are
spread over more than 50 acres, but much of the
valuable seaside land has been bought for
development, and only about 12 acres are protected
by the government. The site is so overgrown that
in many cases, tree trunks have encased the
crumbling walls of buildings . .

Abungu said the oldest ruins found at Mtwapa date
from the 12th or 13th century but that some of the
coastal towns are much older. Excavations of the
earliest settlements, such as Shanga and Manda in
northern Kenya, have uncovered the remains of
typical round, African mud-and-thatch dwellings
dating from the 8th century. Overlying these are
later stone buildings, but the town's original layout
is preserved. Abungu said some of the coastal
settlements eventually covered up to 70 acres and
contained as many as 15,000 people . .

Abungu said that James Kirkman and Neville
Chittick, British archaeologists who first excavated
many of the sites, were surprised to find stone
buildings in Africa. To them, "that meant that
these things had to have been built by people other
than Africans," he said. "They looked at them as
seafacing, with all the initiative coming from

Detailed excavations of some of these settlements
have since shown that the earliest inhabitants were
herders who also engaged in some farming and
fishing. The earliest towns had a large central
building, probably used for rituals. Later levels
show a mosque replacing the ritual building, and
shards of imported pottery appear, evidence of
trade with the outside world. But Abungu said the
predominance of locally made pottery argues
against the towns' being strictly the creation of
Arab immigrants . .

Kirkman, Chittick and other archaeologists also
believed that the coastal towns were cut off from

20 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

the African interior by the thorny, inhospitable
bushland adjoining the coast. But Abungu
disagrees. In research for his doctoral thesis at
Cambridge University, he performed excavations at
Ungwana, a ruined town at the mouth of Kenya's
Tana River, and at sites upriver as far as 190
miles inland. He found artifacts such as glass
beads from India and alabaster beads from the
seashore at some of the inland sites. He also
traced close similarities in style between the pottery
found at the upriver sites and that found at
Ungwana, supporting the theory that there was
trade or other contact between the coast and the

News from The Netherlands
African Art Events in Maastricht, a series of
exhibitions, June 28-August 27, 1992 includes a
showing of Zairian artists at the Hotel Maastricht,
"Les Peintres du Grand Atelier" featuring, Lema,
Mavinga, N'Damvu; the self-taught artists Banza,
Nkusu, Safi; and "Popular Art Painting" with Art
Bodo, Lelo, Moke, Cheri Samba, Syms,
Simsimaro. At the European Centre for
Development Policy Management, one can see
"Les Peintre de Lubumbashi" with Bela, Mwenze,
and Pili Pili. Elsewhere in the city is a showing
"Vrouw en Kunst" with the self-taught painter
Moseka, and at the Galerie Louis van Bever, the
painter Mambengi is featured.

News from Nigeria
International Conference on Benin Studies was held
in Benin City, March 22-29, 1992 to commemorate
the centenary of the treaty Benin Kingdom
"signed" with the British on March 26, 1892. The
conference was opened by the Oba Erediauwa who,
in his keynote address, advocated that the territory
and the people be referred to an "Benin" not as
"Bini" (as sometimes found in the literature). The
well-attended conference was intended to reawaken
interest and promote research in Benin history and
culture, which it was felt, have remained
understudies and marginalized. A major observation
at the conference was that most papers revolve
around the kingship at the expense of other
institutions and phenomena of the society. Of the
forty papers presented at the conference, three
related specifically to art: "An investigation of
some Benin court costumes and their relationships
to the costumes on the ancient arts of Benin," by
Ohioma Pogoson (University of Ibadan), "Benin
heads: formal and structural symbolism" and

"Women in Benin art," by Abel Mac Diakparomre
(Delta State University), and "Art in precolonial
Benin," by Richard 0. Amayo (College of
Education, Ekiadolor).

An outcome of the conference was the creation of
an International Society for Benin Studies (ISBS) to
carry forward research on Benin. The ISBS plans
to publish the proceedings of the conference and
hopes to begin a journal and eventually establish a
center for Benin studies. Persons interested in these
efforts and in the activities of the ISBS may
contact: International Society for Benin Studies,
c/o Mr. Uyilawa Usuanlele, Research Division,
National Council for Arts & Culture, P.M.B.
2959, Surelere, Lagos, Nigeria.

News from Sen6gal
The West African Museums Project (WAMP) and
ICOM announce plans for a Directory of African
Museum Professionals. This directory is an
outgrowth of the international conference, "What
Museums for Africa," held last November in
B6nin, Ghana and Togo. The plans are to identify
high and mid-level technical and scientific
professionals working in museums or
museum-related institutions, to identify individual
and institutionally significant practical experiences,
and to organize this information in an easily
accessible data base for publication and
distribution. The Directory will be published in
March 1993. For information, contact: WAMP, BP
357, Dakar, Senegal. Telephone (221) 22.50.57 or
ICOM, 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15,
France. Telephone (33.1) 47.34.0500.

News from South Africa
The BMW Art Car Collection is one of the
world's rarest modem art collections with its
origins in the mid 1970s when the French racing
driver, Herv6 Poulain sought and obtained BMW's
permission to have his racing BMW 3.0 CSL
painted by his friend Alexander Calder. His idea
proved so popular that over the years more and
more BMW'S were painted. The cars no longer
race, but form a unique exhibition of BMWs, mn
over twelve cars. BMW South Africa has managed
to secure four of these cars, painted by Robert
Rauschenberg and others, tor a series of
exhibitions in Johannesburg, Durban and Cape
Town. In addition, BMW Germany and BMW
South Africa have invited a South \h A'n arti, t
paint a car. This artist, Esther Mahtank, has
painted a BMW 525i in the unique Ndehek As0..

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

The Esther Mahlangu car will have its world
premier and will be the star of the local
exhibitions. Esther is the first woman to be invited
to add to the BMW international Art Car
Collection and in future years will bring to many
world famous exhibition centres an example of
traditional South African ethnic art.
"Deaf artist Tommy Motswai is the winner of this
year's Standard Bank Young Artist Award. Motswai
won the coveted prize for his boldly coloured
works which show shrewd insight into human
behaviour, said the organizers. Apart from the
prize money of Rand 8,000, the award also ensures
an exhibition of his work at the Standard Bank
National Arts Festival in Grahamstown. After the
festival the work will be shown at major art
galleries throughout the country.

"Motswai attended the Kutlwanong School for the
Deaf, where he now teaches art and sculpture.
After leaving school he trained at FUBA Gallery
and the Johannesburg Art Foundation, and in 1988
he spent a year studying at the University of
Bophuthatswana. Motswai has been the recipient of
several awards. In 1987 he received the Volkskas
Atelier Merit Prize, the Sol Plaatjie Graphic Art
Award and Excelsior Award. In 1986 he was one
of the artists chosen to represent South Africa at
the SA Association of Arts Exhibition in Monte
Carlo. And one of his works was chosen for the
1991 Cape Triennial currently touring South
Africa. Many of Motswai's works are exhibited in
galleries around the country." from Southside
(South Africa) March 7-17, 1992.

News from the United States
Schienberg Lecture in African Art Established at
Birmingham Museum of Art. On February 21,
1992, Alfred L. Schienberg died at his home in
New York City. Alfie was a respected African art
dealer, appraiser, consultant, scholar, and author.
He was a long-time friend of the Birmingham
Museum of Art, and his efforts on behalf of the
institution contributed greatly to the growth of
Museum's African art collection. In Alfie's
memory, the Museum has established a fund to
support a yearly lecture by a leading scholar in the
field of African art. This annual event will assure
continuing interpretation the Museum's collection
and will increase public awareness of African art
culture in the Birmingham community and the
region. The museum welcomes contributions to
help support the Alfred L. Scheinberg Lecture.
Memorial donations may be sent to: Scheinberg

Lecture Fund, Attention: Ellen F. Elsas,
Curator, Birmingham Museum of Art, 2000
Eighth Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabama
35203, USA.

National Visual Artists Archive: African,
Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans. North
Carolina Central University in Durham, NC, has
established an African, Hispanic, Asian, and Native
American Visual Artists Archive, which will be
actively maintained in the form of slides, videos,
catalogues, books, resumes, and bibliographies.
The Archive requests any of the above materials
for inclusion in their National Visual Artists
Archive. This Archive will be linked to OCLC, a
national information database used by most colleges
and universities, and listed in international,
national, and regional art publications. The benefit
to artists, researchers, art administrators, curators,
and students will be immeasurable. All contributors
will be recognized and catalogued. Materials will
be limited to 20th century artists. Please send
materials to: Rosie G. Thompson, NCCU
National Visual Artists Archive, NCCU Art
Department, P.O. Box 19555, Durham, NC
27707, USA. Telephone: (919) 560-6391.

"Beyond Nsukka Hills," an exhibition of prints
created by faculty and students of the University of
Nigeria, Nsukka and organized by printmaker
Barthosa Nkurumeh, will be featured September
1-October 4, 1992 in the Sawhill Gallery of James
Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia. The
show is part of a cross-cultural printmaking
exchange between the universities. From November
9-December 9, 1992, prints by faculty and students
from JMU, organized by printmakers Rita and Jack
MacCaslin, will be exhibited in the Ana Gallery of
the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. For further
information please contact: Rita MacCaslin, Art
Department, James Madison University,
Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807, USA. Telephone:
(703) 568-6216. [The contact for this international
exchange came about via the ACASA Newsletter -

Recycling as a Folk Aesthetic. The Museum of
International Folk Art in Santa Fe is organizing a
major exhibition, publication, and symposium
tentatively titled "Recycling as a Folk Aesthetic"
scheduled to open November 1994. The museum's
director, Charlene Cerny, is looking for objects to
include in the exhibition, especially the works of
traditional and visionary artists who incorporate
works commercial, industrial, and post-industrial
throwaways. The exhibition will pay homage to
human ingenuity and will also investigate some of

22 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34. August 1992

the deeper issues that recycling suggest: poverty,
the solid waste disposal crisis, and cultural
hegemony. Examples of recycled objects are festival
masks and costumes made of discarded watchbands
and Christmas ornaments, Plains Indians buckskin
dresses ornamented with thimbles, dustpans
fashioned from license plates, and rugs woven from
plastic bead wrappers. If you have ideas, please
contact: Charlene Cerny, Museum of
International Folk Art, P.O. Box 2087, Sante Fe,
New Mexico 87504, USA. Telephone (505)

From Africa
The collection of W F P Burton. Johannesburg:
University of the Witwatersrand Art Galleries,
1992. [The Burton collection in the Ethnological
Museum of the University of Witwatersrand is
comprised of objects collected among the Luba and
neighboring people in Zaire in the late 1920s and
1930s. The catalogue also contains six essays by
Anitra Nettleton, Tom Huffman, Fiona
Rankin-Smith and others]. Price: Rand 50; $40.
Available: University Art Galleries, University of
the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050,
South Africa.

Images of man: contemporary South African Black
art and artists, by Eric J. de Jager. Fort Hare:
Fort Hare University Press, 1992. [A pictorial and
historical guide to the collection of the University
of Fort Hare housed in the De Beers Centenary
Art Gallery]. Available from Clarke's Bookshop,
211 Long Street, Cape Town 8001, South Africa.
Price: Rand 176 + 20 postage and handling.
There is also a collector's edition of 100 copies at
the price of Rand 320.

Principles of 'traditional' African art, edited by
Moyo Okediji. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Moyo Okediji,
1992. 128pp. Price: $25. Available in the U.S.
from Janet Stanley, National Museum of African
Art Library, Washington, D.C. 20560.

From Europe and North America
L'art africain contemporain = Contemporary
African art by Pierre Gaudibert. Paris: editions
Cercle d'Art, 1991. 290pp. [This directory gives
nearly 4,000 addresses in forty-two African
countries, allowing direct contact with artists,
galleries, and museums with interest in

contemporary African art]. Price: 250FF in France;
290FF elsewhere. Distributed by: La
Documentation Franqaise, 124 rue Henri Barbusse,
93308 Aubervilliers, France.

Assuming the guise: African masks considered and
reconsidered. Williamstown, MA: Williams College
Museum of Art, 1991. Price: $14.95. Telephone:
(413) 597-2429.
History, design and craft in Vest African
strip-woven cloth: papers presented at a symposium
organized by the National Museum of African Art,
Smithsonian Institution, February 18-19, 1988.
Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African
Art, 1992. 168pp. [Includes introduction by Roy
Sieber and papers by John Picton, Rita Bolland,
Peggy Gilfoy, Judith Perani, Merrick Posnansky,
and Joanna Edwards]. Complimentary copies of
this publication will be distributed to the regular
mailing list of the National Museum of African Art
Library and to the recipients in the ACASA Book
Distribution Program.

Luba zoo: Kifwebe and other striped masks by
Marc Felix. Bruxelles: Zaire Basin Art History
Research Centre, 1992. (Occasional paper, June
1992). [62]pp. No price stated. Available from
Marc Felix, 20 avenue Marie-Clotilde, 1170
Bruxelles, Belgium. Telephone: 32-02-6727054.

New currents, ancient rivers: contemporary African
artists in a generation of change by Jean Kennedy.
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press,
1992. 208pp. Price: $45.

New sacred art from Oshogbo. Bayreuth:
Iwalewa-Haus, 1992. [announced for spring 1992].
Address: Iwalewa-Haus, Zentrum fur Modeme
Kunst Afrikas, Universitit Bayreuth, PF 101251,
D-8580 Bayreuth, Federal Republic of Germany.


International journal of cultural property is a
newly announced serial, which aims "to draw
together all the different disciplines which bear on
questions of cultural property and to offer a focus
for a modem interdisciplinary study." It is
published for the International Cultural Property
Society and edited by Norman E. Palmer (UK). It
is to be published by Walter de Gruyter, P.O.B.
110240, W-1000 Berlin 11, Federal Republic of
Germany. Two issues per year. Subscription price:
DM 220.

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

Kalahari review; a new journal for a new southern
Africa. [A new literary journal focusing on
Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and other
southern African countries]. Subscription price:
$24, individuals; $30, institutions. ISSN
1060-0310. Editorial office: 4000 Cathedral
Avenue, N.W., 138B, Washington, D.C. 20016,


"Vessels of the Spirits: Pots and People in North
Cameroon." This 50-minute videotape explores the
role of pottery in the daily, social and religious life
of North Cameroonian peoples. Pots are people
and people are pots to the inhabitants of the
Mandara highlands of North Cameroon. The
videotape documents unusual techniques of
manufacture of utilitarian and figurated sacred
pottery among the Mafa, Sirak and Hide, and
shows how pots are assimilated to people by their
decoration and in their capacity to contain spirits,
including those of God and the ancestors. Pots are
shown being used in economic, social and ritual
contexts, in the latter as tools for communication
with the spirit world. Opening and closing
sequences of a festival that involves the release,
wild run and recapture of bulls make the point that
the bulls symbolize the spirits and that the
ceremony is the central religious rite precisely
because it offers a general formula for human
action. Purchase price $225; rental, $60; 2-day
preview, $10. "Vessels of the Spirits" is available
from: Barbara Murray, Film Library, the
Department of Communications Media,
University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive
N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4.
Telephone: (403) 220-3709.

"Yoruba Performance," a new video by Henry
John Drewal. This 24-minute VHS video, filmed
among the Ijebu-Yoruba in 1986, documents a
series of nine performances that includes: (1)
Young female initiates dancing for Olomitutu, the
deity of "cool water"; (2) Egungu masking in
honor of the twins; (3) Egungun masking for the
collective ancestors during an annual rally; (4)
Dancing of elders during an Oshugbo festival; (5)
Ifa divination ceremony Itefa; (6) Agemo
masking honoring the founders of towns and
markets; (7) Orisha initiation ceremony marking
the heads of devotees; (8) Jigbo masking for forest
spirits; and (9) Okosi, boat regatta on the lagoon.
Price: $50 (includes shipping); international, add
$5.00. Orders (pre-paid) to: Henry Drewal,

Department of Art History, Elvehjem Museum,
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

"Textiles in Daily Life" is the focus of the Textile
Society of America's third biennial symposium, to
be held September 24-26, 1992, at the Seattle Art
Museum's new downtown facility. A diverse group
scholars, museum professionals, and artists from
North America and abroad will be in attendance.
Panels will address themes such as reconstructing
daily life through archaeological textiles; textiles
and daily life in early America; and textiles in the
daily life of artisans. For information: Suzanne
Baizerman, 2236 Commonwealth Avenue, St.
Paul, MN 55108, USA.
The third conference of the International
Association for the Study of Traditional
Environments (IASTE), addressing the theme
"Development vs Tradition: the Cultural Ecology
of Dwellings and Settlements," will be held
October 8-11, 1992, at the Union International des
Chemins der Fer in Paris, France. The conference
will focus on the dialectic tension and the potential
balance between development and tradition, given
the ongoing effects of modernization. The final
schedule includes 125 papers from scholars
representing forty countries. Keynote speakers
include Oleg Grabar, Anthony King, Paul Oliver,
Zmarak Shalizi, Wolf Tochtermann, and Gerard
Toffin. For registration information please contact:
IASTE '92 Conference, Center for
Environmental Design Research, 390 Wurster
Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA
94720, USA. (510) 547-7814. Fax: (510) 643-5571.

ll1th Annual Conference of the Archaeological
Association of Nigeria will take place at the
Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria,
Nsukka, from Monday 23rd to Wednesday 25th
November 1992. The theme of the conference is:
"Nigeria's Indigenous Technology" with the
following sub-themes:

(1) Pottery-making and classification (including
site designation and standardization of pottery
classification). For this sub-theme there will be
a panel led by Michael DiBlasi (Boston

(2) Food production and processing (traditional
farming techniques/food processing and

24 ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992

(3) Metallurgy (traditional methods of working
ferrous and non-ferrous metals);

(4) Arts and crafts carving, cloth weaving
and dyeing, basket and mat weaving;

(5) Traditional architecture and building

(6) Traditional medicine;
(7) Transport and communication;
(8) Resource management (natural and cultural)
in Nigeria, including resource management
policies which encourage the development of
Nigeria's indigenous technology.

Prospective participants are invited to attend and
present papers on the themes of the Conference. In
addition, there will be commissioned papers on the
major theme and on the sub-themes. Details will
be announced later. There will also be an
excursion to areas of archaeological interest in
Nsukka and environs.
Accommodation: (1) Ikenga Hotel (172.50 naira,
double; 207 naira, double; (2) Elrina Hotel (165
naira); (3) CEC Guest House U.N.N. campus (50
naira, single; 80 naira, double; 100 naira,
bungalow; (4) NUCCON Hotel (165 naira).

Interested individuals should contact: Dr. A. I.
Okpoko, Institute of African Studies, University
of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, indicating title of
paper, choice of accommodation, and whether you
are interested in the excursion.

The Roger Bastide Association, in collaboration
with the Ethnological Laboratory of the University
Paris V and the Creda (EHESS, Roger-Bastide
library) is organizing an international symposium
under the tile "Roger-Bastide and the Multiple:
Meeting of Cultures and Convergences of
Disciplines," which will take place from September
7-14, 1992 at the international centre of
Cerisy-la-Salle (Manche). Among the topics to be
covered are art and society; religion and theology;
the sacred and the syncretisms; and anthropology
and psychoanalysis. For information contact:
Philippe Laburthe, UER des Sciences Sociales,
University Ren&-Descartes, 12, rue Cujas, 75005
Paris, or: 22, rue d'Athenes, 75009 Paris,

Mande Studies Association has set new dates for
its postponed international conference to be held in

Bamako, Mali. "The Mande: Past, Present and
Future" will now take place March 15-19, 1993.
For information, contact: Kathryn L. Green,
ICMS Organizer, Department of History, 3211
Humanities Building, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Telephone (608) 263-1800. FAX (608) 262-2150.
Bitnet: klgreen@wiscmacc.

College Art Association 1994. The CAA 1994
annual conference will take place in New York at
the New York Hilton and Towers January 27-29,
1994. Guidelines for submission of proposals are
published in CAA News May/June 1992. Deadline:
September 1, 1992. Acha Debela is ACASA
Representative for CAA.

v v v

ACASA Newsletter seeks items of interest for
publication. Our newsletter reaches many who are
not able to attend meetings. Linking our members
via the newsletter is, therefore, crucial. Suggested
news items you can send: news of members (job
changes, new staff); activities (fieldwork, travel,
research in progress); conferences; exhibitions; jobs
openings; fellowship opportunities; new
publications. Mail, phone or FAX. The next
ACASA Newsletter will be December 1992.
Deadline for submitting news items is November
15, 1992.

The Editors thank contributors to this April issue
of the newsletter: Ellen Elsas (Birmingham), Kate
Ezra (New York), Rita MacCaslin (Harrisonburg),
A. I. Okpoko (Nsukka), Simon Ottenberg (Seattle),
Warren Robbins (Washington, D.C.), and Uyilawa
Usuanlele (Lagos).


Janet L. Stanley
National Museum of African Art Library
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560, USA
tel. (202) 357-4600. ext. 285
fax (202) 357-4879

Mary Jo Arnoldi
Department of Anthropology
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560, USA
tel. (202) 357-1396

ACASA Newsletter / No. 34, August 1992 25

Directory of Members: Addendum


1992 ACASA DIRECTORY: Addendum & Corrections

Norbert Aas
Adolf-von-Gross-Str. 8
Bayreuth, 8580
0921-608240 (WORK)

Suzanne Basso
21 Hathaway Lane
White Plains, NY 10605

Suzanne Blier
15 Claremont Ave.
New York, MY 10027
212-864-1988 (HOME)
212-584-4506 (WORK)

Donal A. Brody
15918 20th Place West
Alderwood Manor, WA 98037
206-745-3113 (HONE)

Enrico Castelli
Istituto di Ethnologia
via dell'Aquilone, 7
06100 Perugia
075-930-6401 (HOME)
075-585-3834 (WORK)
075-585-3831 (FAX)

Elisee Coulibaly
12 Rue Fessart
Paris, 75019

Brenda Danilowitz
435 Oakview Drive
Orange, CT 06477
203-799-3975 (HONE)
203-795-5525 (WORK)
203-799-8389 (FAX)

Acha Debela
Computing Center for the Arts
North Carolina Central University
Box 19555
Durham, MC 27707
919-560-5308 (WORK)
919-560-5012 (FAX)
achaanccu7.acc.nccu.edu (EMAIL)

Roberta Ann Dunbar
U of NC-Chapel Hill
CB 13395, 401 Alumni
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3395

Marie-Claude Dupre
Coussangettes 63840

Joanne B. Richer
2179 Folwell Avenue
St. Paul MM 55108
612-645-2914 (HOME)
612-624-7710 (WORK)
612-624-2750 (FAX)

Sheri Fafunwa
Art Department
Central Conn. State University
1615 Stanley St.
New Britain, CT 06050
203-826-7853 (HOME)
203-827-7322 (WORK)

Alan D. Frank
514 15th Ave. E.
Seattle, WA 98112
206-323-0154 (WORK)

Barbara Frank
Department of Art
SUNY at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY 11794-5400
516-474-2986 (HONE)
516-632-7255 (WORK)

REily Hanna-Vergara
243 East 81st St. Apt. 3E
New York, NY 10028
212-879-5500 (WORK)

Francis Harding
Africa Dept.
SOAS-University of London
Thornhaugh St., Russell Square
London, WCIH 0X9

Pat Hewitt
Sainsbury Centre
Sainsbury Research Unit
University of East Anglia
Norwich, NR47TJ
0603-592498 (WORK)
0603-259401 (FAX)
p.hewitt@uk.ac.uea (EMAIL)

Leon Hirsch
25 Oakland Drive
Port Washington, MY 10050-4125
516-767-9248 (HONE)

Sabine Jell-Bahlsen
451 Broome St.
New York, NY 10013
212-226-7854 (WORK)

Brooke Kidd
7103 Sycamore Ave.
Takoma Park, MD 20912
301-270-6727 (HOME)

Nary Ann Littrell
Dept. of Textiles and Clothing
Iowa State University
152 LeBaron Hall
Ames, IA 50011-1120
515-294-5285 (WORK)
515-294-9449 (FAX)

Patrick MNcaughton
4415 N. Old State Rd. 37
Bloomington, IN 47408
812-334-3614 (HOME)
812-855-2548 (WORK)

Susan Nickiewicz
2225 C. Parker St.
Berkeley, CA 94704
510-841-9702 (HOME)
510-549-3781 (WORK)
510-549-1046 (FAX)

Nancy Neaher-Naas
6 Sunset West
Ithaca, NY 14850
607-347-4590 (HOME)

Nikelle S. Omari-Obayemi
Department of Art
University of Arizona
Tuscon, AZ 85721
602-621-1251 (WORK)
602-621-1307 (FAX)

Diane Pelrine
Art Museum
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405
812-334-3614 (HONE)
812-855-1036 (WORK)

John Picton
17 Danvers Road
London, NB7HH
81-340-9754 (HOME)
71-323-6282/6259 (WORK)
71-436-3844 (FAX)

Christine N. Postles
P.O. Box 3, Main Street
Cheswold, DE 19936
302-734-7237 (HOME)

Elizabeth Ann Schneider
876 Melville Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94301
415-328-3448 (HONE)

Thomas K. Seligman
Stanford University Museum of Art
Stanford, CA 94305-5060
415-552-8846 (HOME)
415-725-0462 (WORK)
415-725-0464 (FAX)

Thomas Shaw
70 LaSalle St., #12D
New York, NY 10027
212-865-4021 (HONE)
908-727-2000 (WORK)

UCLA Library
Serials Department
A1581 URL
Los Angeles, CA 90024

Monica Blackmun Visona
1852 S. Pierson Ct.
Lakewood CO 80226

Susan Vogel
Center for African Art
560 Broadway, Suite 106
New York, NY 10021
212-966-1310 (WORK)
212-966-1432 (FAX)

Stephanie Wahbeh
4319 Eaton
Kansas City, KS 66103
913-722-4108 (HOME)

Ingrid C. Wehrle-Ray
108 S. Nt. Vernon Drive
Iowa City, IA 52245

Jeri B. Williams
308 Westwood Plaza 1143
Los Angeles, CA 90024

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