Title Page
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Guide to Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00103081/00001
 Material Information
Title: Guide to Florida
Series Title: Floridiana facsimile & reprint series
Physical Description: xix, 146, 6 p. : illus. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: "Rambler"
Publisher: University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 1964
Edition: Reproduction of 1875 edition
Subjects / Keywords: Guidebooks -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. xix)
Statement of Responsibility: by "Rambler." A facsim. reproduction of the 1875 ed. with additional illus. Introd. by Rembert W. Patrick.
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Full Text

1T 0 1 .

By "DE ] 8l4 4.)"




University of Florida Press

Floridiana Facsimile & Reprint Series


published under the sponsorship
of the
of the


Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 64-66300



THE decade after the Civil War was an era of growth
for Florida. White Floridians looked askance at the
Republicans in state offices, and they feared that the
influx of Negro homesteaders might make their state
solidly Republican in politics and overwhelmingly Negro
in population. However, the conservative white people
recaptured political control in 1877. Even before that
date wealthy Northerners had discovered the attractive-
ness of the state as a winter vacation land. Invalid and
semi-invalid were finding comfort in Florida, and along
with the sick came pleasure-seekers, speculators, and
Transportation companies and hotels were quick to
capitalize on this interest. To further their economic
well-being they printed attractive brochures and em-
ployed writers to guide more tourists into Florida. One
of the earliest and most successful of these books was
Rambler's "Guide to Florida." Subsidized by advertisers
and evidently published to emphasize the comforts of
boat travel, the book was an immediate success. The
first edition of 1873 was followed by others in 1875
and 1876. The second edition was two pages longer
than the first, but identical through the first 130 pages.
The format was changed in the third edition, which
because of smaller type was not as readable as the
earlier editions.


This facsimile reproduces the text of the edition of
1875. It is, however, a composite in that the best illus-
trations of all the editions have been selected, and the
second map, printed only in the 1876 edition, is also
reproduced here. To make amends for the incorrect
spellings and the absence of many first names of in-
dividuals in the text, the correct spellings and first names
are given in the index, which is itself an addition to
the book.
The University of Florida Press acknowledges its
indebtedness to the St. Augustine Historical Society
for the use of the various editions in reproducing this
volume; Doris Wiles, Administrative Historian of the
Society, was particularly helpful. The generous assistance
of the Ray Sutton McGehee Foundation of the Jack-
sonville Paper Company made possible the publication
of Rambler's "Guide to Florida," the seventeenth volume
in the Floridiana Facsimile and Reprint Series.
University of Florida General Editor of the



IN the twentieth century tourism has joined agricul-
ture and industry and business as a major factor of eco-
nomic production. Many villages and towns now derive
most of their income from tourist expenditures. Some
small countries and a few states of the United States
receive more of their income from tourism than from any
other single source. Among these latter is Florida.
Historians have detailed the economic effects of the
discovery and exploitation of the New World on the
economy of Europe. In dollars, modern tourism dwarfs
the value of all the trade between Spain and her colo-
nies. A billion dollars' worth of gold and silver were
shipped from America to Spain in the entire sixteenth
century. This addition to the European supply of preci-
ous metals, tremendous at the time, altered the course of
history. But in the single year 1963 more than $2 billion
were spent by tourists in the state of Florida. By 1960
travel on a world-wide basis amounted to $22 billion,
and it had replaced wheat as the number-one industry
of the world. Furthermore, every economic indicator
showed that tourism in 1963 had done no more than
enter upon its potential. In 1961 the Georgia Gover-
nor's conference on tourism classified travel as a growth
industry destined for a thirtyfold increase within a
The contrast between the number of tourists in Flor-


ida in 1963 and the number of settlers entering the
American colonies of European countries in past cen-
turies and decades also reveals the economic importance
of present-day tourism. Approximately 200,000 Euro-
peans, mostly Spaniards, settled in the New World dur-
ing the sixteenth century; in 1963 more than 12,000,000
visitors spent vacations in Florida. If one relies only on
the number of those who settled in the English colonies,
the comparative figures are even more astonishing. In
contrast to the number of tourists in Florida in 1963,
only about 25,000 Puritans settled in New England dur-
ing the Great Migration of the 1630's. An even smaller
number of so-called Cavaliers entered Virginia in the
1650's, after the Puritans had won control of the British
government. Hundreds of articles and books describe
and interpret these migrations to the British colonies of
North America. In contrast to this interest in colonial
settlement, only a small number of writers have depicted
the cause, course, and results of tourism in the modern
The name of the first tourist is not recorded in his-
tory. Perhaps he wandered no more than a few miles
from the undefined boundaries of his tribal lands to see
and report on the civilization of a neighboring people.
In the ancient world Persians visited the city states of'
Greece, and citizens of Athens and Sparta went into the
empires of the East. Romans traveled to all places bor-
dering on the Mediterranean Sea. In the Middle Ages
Marco Polo spent many years in the Orient and late
wrote for the ages of his experiences. The Age of Dis-
covery spawned tourists who returned to their native
lands to recount their exotic adventures for their sedate
fellow men.
One of the first travelers in Florida was Jonathan
Dickinson. Shipwrecked on the east coast of Spanish



Florida in 1696, he and his party traveled north to the
settlement at St. Augustine. There he was received hospi-
tably and sent on to his English compatriots in South
Carolina. After Florida became American territory, hun-
dreds of visitors from the southern states and some from
the northern states inspected the recent addition to the
nation. Among them were men seeking homesites and
others desiring to describe the former Spanish province
for readers at home. These were adventurers and jour-
nalists, not tourists, but some of them settled in Florida
and the reports of others stirred their fellow Americans'
interest in the semitropical land.
During the territorial and statehood eras a trickle of
tourists entered Florida. New England's Ralph Waldo
Emerson visited St. Augustine. Although never within
150 miles of Tallahassee, the moralist and minister re-
corded in his journal "reminiscences" of the people and
buildings in the territorial capital. His account came
from conversations with residents of St. Augustine and
from tourists who had actually visited Tallahassee. Other
tourists gave more honest, or even less reliable, accounts
than Emerson's of their sojourns in Florida. They were
responsible, however, for an ever-increasing number of
visitors who sought the warmth and sunshine of Florida
before the Civil War.
The internecine American conflict virtually eliminated
civilian travel to Florida, but it sent thousands of north-
ern military men into the state. After the war many of
the latter returned to establish farms or engage in busi-
ness enterprises. Their letters to relatives described Flor-
ida's mild climate. More important were the dispatches
of newspapermen reporting on conditions in the con-
quered land. Interwoven with their comments on the
economic and political situations were descriptions of
lakes and rivers, beaches and coasts, and flora and fauna.



Few of them could resist contrasting the warmth and
sunshine of Florida in winter to the ice and snow of the
They also dwelt on the romantic aspects of Florida's
history. The fable of Ponce de Le6n's search for a foun-
tain of youth was retold again and again. The tale of
the Indian princess who saved the life of Juan Ortiz was
compared with John Smith's account of the merciful
deed of Pocahontas. The courage of Spanish conquista-
dors was magnified; the savage of a bygone age was
ennobled; Indian women were endowed with a primi-
tive beauty; trees overhung with Spanish moss were
symbols of a romantic land; and one smell of the orange
blossom would send a reporter into raptures.
Bunyanesque tales were exaggerated in retelling. One
Floridian in the Indian River area grafted orange and
grapefruit buds on a sour orange tree. For many years
he harvested bushels of oranges and grapefruit from his
peculiar tree. After decades of production, he trimmed
the tree, leaving only a stump and the orange and grape-
fruit branches. The axe, however, could not end produc-
tion in the salubrious climate of Florida; juice flowed
from the stumpy branches of the tree. Its owner attached
faucets and sold at a penny a glass pure orange juice
from one faucet and grapefruit juice from the other.
Folklore transformed the mosquito from a pest to a
superinsect. Nettings were no protection for sleeping
humans. Large mosquitoes had hordes of miniature
brothers who could slip through the closest weavings,
feast on the slumbering humans, and take blood back to
their large brothers. Screen doors were no serious deter-
rent to mosquitoes. The strong, muscular ones pushed
the small ones through the woven wire. The latter then
unlatched the door to let the big mosquitoes into the
house. The big ones outside grew big indeed. One Flor-


ida settler took a picture of his young orange trees dur-
ing the height of the mosquito season. He sent it to a
friend in New York City. In reply the New Yorker
wrote: "Those trees are scrubby, but the turkeys roosting
in them are large and fat."
These tales advertised Florida. Instead of frightening
away prospective tourists, the exaggerated stories of
mosquitoes, alligators, and snakes stimulated their inter-
est in the exotic, semitropical land. Harriet Beecher
Stowe bought land in the hope of rehabilitating her son.
When her hopes turned to dust, she brought her quiet
little preacher husband to spend the winters at Mandarin
on the St. Johns. Her descriptive articles, printed in her
home-town newspaper at Hartford, Connecticut, de-
scribed the delights and difficulties of living in Florida.
In the 1870's thousands of tourists were sightseeing
in Florida. They arrived at the gateway city of Jackson-
ville by railroad and steamer. The latter was the slower
but more comfortable means of travel. From Jackson-
ville the tourists traveled by railway to Starke, Gaines-
ville, and Cedar Key; or they took the cars to Callahan
and from there to the state's capital at Tallahassee. An
even more popular excursion was up the St. Johns River
by steamer to Palatka, and from there up the Ocklawaha
to Silver Springs. After returning from that natural
wonder, the sportsmen continued up the south-to-north
flowing St. Johns to Mellonville (Sanford) where
hunters found an abundance of wild animals and game
birds. Fresh and sea waters around the state abounded
with fish, apparently awaiting the fisherman's hook.
Concurrent with this rising interest in Florida came
changes in American economy that made vacations pos-
sible for many people. War and peacetime profits built
fortunes for Northern entrepreneurs. Managers and their
assistants received sufficient salaries to enable families to



enjoy travel. Bankers and owners of mercantile estab-
lishments had surplus funds. The vacationer found a
status symbol in visiting faraway places, and later telling
friends of his experiences away from home. The in-
dustrialization and urbanization of the United States
brought tourism in their wake.
At the same time steamships and railroads offered the
traveler comfort and speed unknown in any preceding
age. The most luxurious travel was offered on the coast-
wise and river steamers. On board, passengers slept in
well-appointed staterooms and strolled on wide decks.
In salon and dining room they conversed with fellow
vacationers. The trains were faster than steamships, but
were also noisy, rough, and dirty. Short lines and varia-
tions in track gauges necessitated frequent change of
trains, and added the boredom of waiting to the discom-
fort of moving. Meals were boxed before boarding the
train, or the tourist took his chance at the tables set by
boardinghouse keepers along the route. The comfort
and pace of the 1870's would seem antiquated today, but
almost a hundred years ago people marveled at their
advanced modes of travel.
Advertising stimulated the individual's desire for
travel. Owners published pamphlets extolling the attrac-
tions of their hotels. Railroads and steamship lines
printed brochures vaunting their modern conveniences
and luxuries. Businessmen paid professional writers to
describe the scenery and climate of Florida, and adver-
tised in guidebooks.
Not all of the wealthy Americans toured Europe. The
more adventurous avoided beaten paths and sought
primitive Florida. Individuals looking for investment
opportunities found an undeveloped region where the
profit potential was tremendous. The rise of Germany
and the Franco-Prussian War temporarily checked travel



in Europe. The frightened rich sought warmth and sun-
shine at home, and found both in Florida.
Advertising after the Civil War, however, was di-
rected more to the ill than to the healthy. Northerners
with tuberculosis were bombarded with statistics on the
high death rate from consumption in their home state
and the low rate in Florida. Sufferers from asthma were
promised immediate relief. Every type of lung and
throat trouble was curable in Florida. The waters from
sulphur springs were "efficacious in all forms of con-
sumption, scrofula, jaundice, and other bilious affecta-
tions; chronic dysentery and diarrhea, diseases of the
uterus, chronic rheumatism and gout, dropsy, gravel,
neuralgia, tremor, syphilis, erysipelas, tetter, ringworm,
and itch. . ."1 Semi-invalids on rigid diets could enjoy
hearty meals after a few weeks on Florida beaches,
breathing the warm sea air. Publicists encouraged the
sick to compare Florida with other resort areas. "One
invalid, who had for years kept one jump ahead of death
by wintering in various countries, reported the climate
in St. Augustine better than that of any part of Europe
and superior to that of the islands of the West Indies."2
But as early as 1869 pleasure seekers outnumbered
the ill. Ledyard Bill reported 25,000 travelers in Florida,
half the number claimed by boastful Floridians, and the
most numerous of these were pleasure seekers. Accord-
ing to Bill semi-invalids were second, with land specula-
tors and individuals contemplating settlement in the
third and fourth places.3 Writing under the pen name
of Sylvia Sunshine, Abbie M. Brooks stated that Florida
was "the spot for the jilted lover to forget his idol, and
the disconsolate lady her imaginary devotee; for those
fretted by the rough edges of corroding care to retire
and find a respite from their struggles; the bankrupt who
has been conquered in the battles of brokerage, to visit



and be reminded God has given us more treasures to
delight us than the dross which passes from our grasp
like a shadow, but which all are struggling and striving
to win; the store-house of the fathomless deep, where
we can contemplate that great image of eternity; 'the
invisible, boundless, endless, and sublime.' "4
Sylvia urged historians to meditate on the past and to
reconstruct it in the peaceful atmosphere of Florida. She
warned all visitors to bring ample funds to Florida. Al-
though native Floridians charged only fifty cents for a
square meal, Northerners, who owned or managed the
best hotels, were accused by Sylvia of taking two dollars
from tourists for meals. Most mysterious of all enigmas
to Sylvia was the way a native found out the name and
financial rating of a visitor. If the vacationer was not
rich, he would not be bothered by Floridians; his only
problem, Sylvia declared, was boardinghouse keepers,
who had adopted the motto of "Pay as you go, or go
The thousands of vacationers of the 1870's foreshad-
owed the millions of tourists to come in the twentieth
century. Today the travelers may question the meaning
of college boys and girls working at vacation resorts who
lag behind the crowd at social functions and whisper:
"Let the peeks go first." Peek is the colloquial name for
the paying guest. Tourists may also wonder why they
are referred to as "ducks." The term originated because
of the preponderance of females among vacationers.
These tourists are "large of bosom, broad of beam, flock-
ing together, waddling amiably behind a guide, and
quacking all the time."6
Even in the 1870's tourists fell into three categories
by those catering to them: The transient tourist, who
hurried through a region or state to reach a desired loca-
tion; the hopper, who stopped often to view many dif-



ferent attractions at a number of different places; and
the terminal tourist, who went directly to a predeter-
mined destination for a long stay. Some states and cities
were bridges to more fortunate areas where tourists re-
mained for weeks and spent most of their vacation
funds. From the beginning of modern tourism Florida
was one of those fortunate states to which the vacationer
came for an extended stay.
Among the first of the postwar tourist guidebooks
was Rambler's "Guide to Florida." A commercial project
of the American News Company, the book was hastily
written by an author who relied on two sources for his
historical summary of Florida and on his own experi-
ences for his descriptive tour of the state. Almost one-
fourth of the book was composed of advertising by
hotel, mercantile, and steamship companies. In addition
to their advertising, steamship lines may have subsidized
publication. The map inserted before the Frontispiece
detailed the water routes in Florida. The 1876 edition
contained a second map which emphasized the routes
from the North to Charleston and Savannah. The author
dwelt on the delightful experiences of passengers on
steamers, and compared their comfort with the hard-
ships endured by those who chose trains. The sales of
the book, however, were sufficient to justify a second edi-
tion in 1875 and a third in 1876. The latter edition was
smaller in format and type than the ones of 1873 and
The map of Florida drawn and engraved by Fisk and
Russell of New York would win no prize in a spelling
bee. Palatka was spelled correctly in the legend, but
printed Pilatka on the map. Callahans, Stark, Gainsville,
Newmans, Withlockoochee, and Dale were given for
Callahan, Starke, Gainesville, Newnans, Withlacoo-
chee, and Dade. On the map Cedar Key was correct for



the town's name, but in the text the author used the in-
correct form of Cedar Keys. Also interesting were the
omissions of important present-day sections and cities
of Florida. The area below Lake Okeechobee was not
shown at all, and Daytona Beach, Orlando, and St.
Petersburg did not appear. These omissions, though, are
indicative of the recent development of central and south
Florida and not of the ignorance of the mapmaker.
Railroad lines within the state were marked. But un-
less the towns and cities served by them were important
areas for steamship travel, the author dismissed the rail-
roads with no more than a reference. The main lines
were from Fernandina to Cedar Key and from Jackson-
ville to Chattahoochee. The short lines were the Tocoi-
St. Augustine and the Tallahassee-St. Marks railways.
Despite its name, the Jacksonville, Pensacola, and Mo-
bile Railroad extended no further west than Chattahoo-
chee. The Florida East Coast, Atlantic Coast Line,
Seaboard Air Line, and Southern railroads were not
shown because they' did not exist in the Florida of the
1870's. Other than mapping the rail routes and men-
tioning them in the text, the railroads were ignored.
Steamship companies were not willing to advertise their
Rambler's history of Florida was limited to the period
of discovery and settlement. Fifty-six pages described
the territory from its discovery by Ponce de Le6n in
1513 to the revenge of Dominique de Gourgues in
1568. The remaining two and a half pages summarized
the era from 1568 to 1821, the date when Florida be-
came a possession of the United States.
The author dramatizes the romantic past. Ponce de
Le6n was searching for a fountain of youth or a "Foun-
tain of Rejuvenancy." The story of Juan Ortiz is told in
detail. The beautiful Indian princess who saved him



from death by burning, and later spirited him from her
father's domain, thereby losing her chance to become
the bride of a young, handsome chief, raises the boast
that "Florida possessed a Pocahontas long before Capt.
John Smith owed his life to that renowned maiden."
All the Indian girls met by De Soto were alluring and
beautiful. The beauty and grace of an Indian queen and
her handmaidens made many an aging male of the
1870's recall the days of his courtships. By implication
he could recapture the spirit of those days by spending
a vacation in Florida. Dofia Isabel died of a broken
heart when her husband, De Soto, failed to return from
his great adventure.
Many of the author's historical errors are traceable to
his two sources, Fairbanks7 and Irving.8 The work of
these pioneer historians has been corrected by modern
scholars. According to the Rambler, Ponce de Le6n
sighted Florida on March 27, 1512-actually he saw an
island of the Bahamas on March 27, 1513, and reached
the coast of Florida on April 2. The author is frequently
confused by Spanish names. Alvar Nufiez Cabeza de
Vaca is referred to as Alvar Nufiez, Nufiez de Vaca,
and Cabeza de Vaca. Panfilo Narvaez first name is
spelled Pamphilo. No accent marks are given for Span-
ish or French names, but this omission may have been a
deficiency of printer's type instead of ignorance by the
author. He, however, assumes the reader knows the first
names, and many individuals are referred to only by
their last names.
He directs many of his appeals to the invalid. Accord-
ing to him, Florida was preferable to any other place in
the United States for those who suffered from consump-
tion, asthma, and rheumatism. The state's climate was
superior to the resort cities of France and Italy. In Flor-
ida, he erroneously claimed, there was no such sudden



changes in temperature as were true of Nice and Flor-
ence. On the sixty-hour voyage from New York City to
Charleston, the invalid, Rambler reported, almost invari-
ably improved in health. In comparison with a trip by
train, from which it often required half the winter for a
passenger to recover, the invalid on a steamer arrived in
Florida relaxed and ready to engage in hunting and
The meals on shipboard and in the hotel dining rooms
were superb. Beef, mutton, and poultry from New York,
fish and game from South Carolina and Florida were
prepared to appeal to sophisticated palates. At the St.
Johns Hotel in Palatka there were "delicious waffles,
noble wild turkey (nobly served), tender lamb, adoles-
cent chicken, light, sweet bread, potatoes, green pease,
and other delicacies that ravished the heart and made
glad the digestive apparatus."
Few hotel proprietors and boardinghouse keepers
listed their prices in the advertising section of the guide.
Some merchants advertised their "segars," but T. A.
Pacetti, a "Graduated Pharmaceutist," had cigars for
sale. One drugstore sold wines and liquors, in another
these liquids were mainly for medicinal purposes, and
in a third only for medicinal use. B. Genover sold
groceries, furniture, hardware, liquors, and "segars."
Greenleaf's Museum of Florida Curiosities charged no
admission, but sold "Sea Beans, mounted in every style;
Alligator Heads, Alligator Teeth, carved and mounted;
Orange, Royal Palm, Palmetto, Break-axe, Mangrove,
and other Canes." In addition Daman Greenleaf adver-
tised "Pink Curlew Wings, Egret and Heron Plumes;
Flamingo and Fawn Plumes, Sea Shells and Coral; Alli-
gator Eggs, etc., etc." Furchgott, Benedict and Company
of Jacksonville claimed their establishment to be the
"most beautiful and finest Store in the State." Also in



Jacksonville, the Metropolitan Hall dealt in foreign
liquors, fitted out excursion parties, offered a "Billiard
Saloon" for pocket and carom contests, and rented space
for "Concerts, Theatrical Representations," and other
Florida hotels and springs advertised their services.
The manager of Green Cove Springs enumerated the
many ills cured by the healing waters of the springs.
The Brock House at Enterprise appealed to invalids,
tourists, and sportsmen. The Railroad House at Tocoi
promised meals at any hour and "First-class beds and a
'Cuisine,' in every respect unexceptionable." The Orien-
tal House at St. Augustine charged only a dollar a day
for a room, European plan.
Rambler's guide is an interesting introduction to the
Florida of almost a hundred years ago. Although his
writing does not win a place for the author among the
literary men of America, the guide does help to explain
the origin and rise of tourism to the status of a major
contributor to the economy of Florida.


1. Rembert W. Patrick, "The Mobile Frontier," in Journal
of Southern History, XXIX (February, 1963), 5.
2. Ibid., 6.
3. Ledyard Bill, A Winter in Florida (New York, 1869),
4. Sylvia Sunshine, Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes
(Nashville, 1886), 27.
5. Ibid., 169. 6. Patrick, op. cit., 14.
7. George R. Fairbanks, History of Florida (Philadelphia,
1871). Rambler is careless in copying and his quotations
from Fairbanks are not accurate. For instance, the De Bry of
Fairbanks becomes De Bray in Rambler's "Guide to Florida."
8. Theodore Irving, The Conquest of Florida by Hernando
De Soto (New York, 1851).



rt if)


By "RNiBIr ."


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. Q(


Florida-Its Discovery. 7
De Ayllon-Narvaez-Nunez De Vaca. 11
De Narvaez-1528. 13
Hernando De Soto. 20
Don Tristan De Luna-1559. 41
The Huguenot Settlements-1562 42
De Gourges. 52
Florida; Its Geography and Climate, etc. 60
Climate. 63
How to Reach Florida. 65
Charleston 69
Objects of Interest. 73
Savannah. 78
Fernandina. 85
St. John's River. 86
Jacksonville. 87
St. John's River. 90
Mandarin. 91
Hibernia. 92
Magnolia. 92
Green Cove Springs 92
Picolata. 93
Tocoi. 94
Orange Mills. 94
Palatka. 94
Enterprise. 97
Mellonville. 99
Sanford. 100
St. Augustine. 102
Ocklawaha River, 116


HAD Christopher Columbus, on leaving the
Island of San Salvador, proceeded Westward,
he would have ultimately discovered the
coast of Florida; for the Gulf Stream, then an
unknown power, would have swept him to
the Northward-the difference of Latitude re-
quired for the purpose. But, influenced by
the description of the natives, of a land of
wealth bearing to the southward, he directed
his prow thither, and brought up on the coast
Cuba. Thus was reserved to one of Colum-
bus' companions, (Juan Ponce de Leon,) the
honor of the discovery of the peninsula; a
most romantic incident of History.
In 1512, the brave old soldier, Ponce de


Leon, was Governor of Porto Rico. He had
carved his way to glory and wealth, but never-
theless aspired to equal Columbus in renown,
and for that purpose fitted out an expedition.
It was whilst discussing the subject with
his followers, and arguing as to the course to
be pursued, that an Indian Cacique narrated
to them a wonderful story; that, not many
leagues away, towards the setting sun, there
existed a land of great riches, and exceeding
all others in beauty of scenery. But, what
was most extraordinary, it possessed a mar-
vellous fountain, whose waters had the power
to renew youth and give vigor to those who
bathed in or drank them.
Ponce de Leon had witnessed such wonder-
ful things in his several voyages, that he was
prepared to give credence to the most exager-
ated accounts.
What if it should prove true?" soliloquized
the old warrior, as he listened to the inter-
"And why should it not be ? Have I not
already discovered marvels, which in my
youthful days I would have deemed impossible


as this? Ponce de Leon will, in giving to the
world a rejuvenating fountain, be entitled to
greater renown than those who merely gave
wealth and continents to their sovereigns."
An expedition of three vessels was imme-
diately fitted out and set sail from St. Germain,
Porto Rico, in March 1512. Ponce de Leon
directed its course to the Bahamas. He vis-
ited the various localities where the fountain
might be, but his search proved fruitless.
Island after island was explored, and the
waters tasted and bathed in, yet the desired
effect was not produced. Nothing daunted,
the brave soldier steered to the Westward;
and, on Palm Sunday, the Pascua Florida of
the Spaniards, (27th March, 1512) he dis.
covered land ahead-a land of such magnifi-
cent vegetation and variety of flowers, that
he gave to it the name it continues to bear-
On April 2, 1512, Ponce de Leon disem-
barked a little to the northward of St. Augus-
tine, planted a cross, and took possession of
the country in the name of his sovereign. He
then turned his attention to the search for the


" Fountain of Youth;" and, in its absence,
gold and precious stones. He found neither,
and two months later returned to Porto Rico.
In spite of his want of success, De Leon
made a brilliant report of the value of his
discovery, and was rewarded by the Crown
with the title of Adelentado, or Governor of
Florida; in return for which he agreed to
conquer and colonize it. This, however, he
did not appear in any particular hurry to do;
as it was not until nearly ten years later that
he again set out for the peninsula.
In the meantime, several explorers had vis-
ited its shores and described it as a vast con-
tinent, and not an Island as he supposed it to
be. At this time, Cortez was in Mexico; and
the reports of his conquests and spoils incited
Ponce de Leon to put on foot a second expe-
dition, in the hope of meeting with a like suc-
cess. He sailed, therefore, with two vessels;
but no sooner had he landed in Florida, than
he was attacked by the natives with such
fierceness that, after a severe conflict, the
Spaniards were compelled to re-embark and
return to Cuba. Ponce himself received a



wound, from the effects of which he died, soon
after reaching the Island. His epitaph was:
"In this sepulchre rest the bones of a man
who was a Lion by name, and still more
by nature."


SHORTLY after the death of Ponce de Leon,
Diego Miruelo, the captain of a small Span-
ish vessel, being driven by stress of weather
to the coast of Florida, received from the na-
tives,in traffic, a quantity of gold and silver.
With these he returned to St. Domingo ; and
the accounts he gave of the country he had
visited caused much excitement on the Island.
At that time there was, in St. Domingo, a
company engaged in gold mining, at whose
head was a distinguished young nobleman
named Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon. This gen-
tleman, as will be seen, was possessed of
keenness and a daring spirit.
De Ayllon, fearing, no doubt, his annual
statement for the year 1521, would make but
a sorry figure, owing to the scarcity of labor



on the Island, determined to visit the main-
land, and secure a couple of cargoes of the
savages so plausibly described by Miruelo.
Now, owing to the efforts of Las Casas, the
Spanish crown had prohibited the enslaving
of the natives of the New World. This pro-
hibition, however, did not include the Caribs,
who were said to be cannibals. De Ayllon,
consequently, gave out that the two vessels
he was fitting out were for the purpose of
obtaining Caribs; but, sailing directly to the
mainland, he was driven by stress of weather
and the unknown currents further to the
north than he anticipated, and came to an-
chor on the coast of what is now South Caro-
lina, at a place called Chicora, but which he
named St. Helena.
Here the Indians at first fled in terror at
the sight of ships and white men, whom they
beheld for the first time ; but the Spaniards
soon quieted their fears; and they returned,
bringing presents of furs, pearls, and small
quantities of gold and silver. The Spaniards
gave them trinkets in return, and invited
them on board their vessels, to which the



confiding natives repaired in considerable
numbers. Securing them below the hatches,
the Spaniards weighed anchor and set sail for
home. One of the vessels foundered at sea,
and of the poor captives confined on board of
the other, the ancient historian says: these
Indians profited them nothing, for they all
died of care and grief."
De Ayllon shortly afterwards obtained from
his sovereign the appointment of Governor
of Chicora; he fitted out an expedition of
three vessels to conquer his new dominion,
landing near St. Helena. The inhabitants
received him with apparent cordiality; but,
after feasting his soldiers for three days, they
rose upon them in the night and massacred
almost the entire force; including De Ayllon


THE next expedition to Florida was con-
ducted on a grander scale; it was led by
Pamphilo de Narvaez. De Narvaez, who was
a distinguished soldier, had been sent by Ve-



lasquez, the Governor of Cuba, to Mexico,
with nearly two thousand troops to supersede
Cortez, whose brilliant career had excited
the jealousy of the Governor. Instead of
turning over the command of his three hun-
dred warriors to Narvaez, Cortez, at night,
fell upon his rival; and, after a short struggle,
in which Narvaez lost an eye, took him pris-
oner. Then almost the whole of the new
comers went over to Cortez.
When, subsequently, Narvaez proceeded to
Spain, he was consoled by having conferred
upon him the Governorship of Florida. He
immediately fitted out an expedition of five
vessels; and, on April 12th, 1528, landed on
the west coast of Florida; near what is now
called Tampa Bay. There he landed three
hundred men and forty-five horses. Against
the advice of some of his followers, Narvaez
determined to at once penetrate the country
in search of an empire which should rival
Mexico or Peru. His companions had coun-
selled their remaining by their ships, and
coasting along the continent; but Narvaez
was not to be moved; and, after instructing




his captains to take the vessels to some con-
venient harbor to await his arrival, he started
on his march, in a northerly direction.
Instead of finding the rich country they
had fancied, the Spaniards could scarcely
scrape the wherewith sufficient to keep body
and soul together; whilst the natives, differing
totally from those of Mexico, contested every
inch of ground, with a desperation that dis-
couraged and astonished the Spaniards. His-
tory offers few such records of suffering as
is narrated in the pages which describe the
march of Narvaez through Florida. Narvaez
found nothing but swamps and starvation,
with hostile Indians on every hand. After
losing a large number of his force by sick-
ness and the arrows of the natives, Narvaez,
in despair, called a council of his officers.
His hopes of wealth and conquest were at
an end; he sought how best to escape'from
the country before they should all perish.
Irving says: To proceed along the coast in
search of the fleet, or to retrace their steps,
would be to hazard the lives of all. At length
it was suggested that they should construct


small barks, launch them upon the deep, and
keep along the coast until they should find
their ships. It was a forlorn hope, but they
caught at it like drowning men. They ac-
cordingly set to work with great eagerness;
One of them constructed a pair of bellows out
of deer skins, furnishing it with a wooden
pipe. Others made charcoal and a forge.
By the aid of these, they soon turned their
stirrups, spurs, crossbows, and other articles
of iron, into nails, saws, and hatchets. The
tails and manes of the horses, twisted with
the fibres of the palm-treee, served for rig-
ging; their shirts, cut open and sewed to-
gether, furnished sails; the fibrous part of the
palm-tree also was used as oakum; the resin
of the pine trees for tar; the skins of horses
were made into vessels to contain fresh water;
and a quantity of maize was secured, after hard
fighting with the neighboring natives. A
horse was killed every three days for pro-
visions for the laboring hands and the sick."
Having at length, by great exertions, com-
pleted five frail barks, on the 22d of Septem-
ber they embarked from forty to fifty persons




in each; but they were so closely crowded
that there was scarcely room to move, while
the gunwales of the boats were pressed down
to the water's edge. Setting sail from this
bay, which they called the Bay of Caballos,
they proceeded on, for several days, to an is-
land, where they secured five canoes, which
had been deserted by the Indians. These
having been attached to their barks enabled
them to sail with greater comfort. They
passed through the strait between the island
and the mainland, which they called the Strait
of San Miguel, and sailed onward, for many
days enduring the torments of hunger and
parching thirst. The skins which contained
their fresh water having burst, several men,
driven to desperation, drank salt water and
died miserably. Their sufferings were aggra-
vated by a fearful storm.
At length they approached "a more popu-
lous and fertile part of the coast," upon which
they landed, occasionally, to procure provi-
sions; and were immediately involved in
bloody affrays with the natives. Thus harass-
ed by sea and land, famishing with hunger,


their barks shattered and scarcely manage.
able, these unfortunate wanderers lost all
presence of mind, and became wild and des-
perate. They were again driven out seaward,
and scattered during a stormy night.
At daybreak three of the tempest-tossed
barks rejoined each other. In the best-man-
ned and fastest sailer, was Pamphilo de Nar-
vaez. Alvar Nunez, who had command of
another boat, seeing the Adelantado making
for the land, appealed to him for aid; but
Narvaez replied, that it was no longer time
to help others, but that every one must take
care of himself." He then steered for the
land, abandoning Alvar'Nunez to his fate.
After sailing along the coast for many days,
Narvaez anchored one night off the land. His
crew, with but two exceptions, had repaired
on shore, in search of provisions. These two
were a sailor and a page who were sick. In
the meantime, a violent northerly gale sprung
up; and the boats, in which was neither food
nor water, were driven to sea. They were
never heard of afterward, and thus ended the
ill-fated expedition of Pamphilo de Narvaez.


Narvaez had embarked at a point near Ap-
alachicola Bay, and set out in his frail vessels
to reach the Spanish Settlements in Mexico,
under the impression derived from the charts
of the day, that these were nearer to him
than the shores of Cuba. The truth, however,
was, that the latter were scarcely four hun-
dred miles distant, whilst the nearest Spanish
settlement was eleven hundred miles away.
This error doubtless cost him his life. At
the time of his death, there remained alive
about one hundred of his followers, but they
gradually separated; and, through hunger and
the arrows of the natives, were reduced to four
persons-Cabega de Vaca, Treasurer; Cap-
tain Alonzo Castillo; Captain Andreas Doran-
tes; and Estevanico, an Arabian Negro or
Moor. These owed their safety to their being
considered by the Indians great medicine-
men. De Vaca, according to an account
which he published on reaching Spain; had
performed some remarkable cures, which he
acknowledged surprised himself.
Having spent six years with the tribe he
designates as the Mariannes, De Vaca and his


three companions, by that time fully conver-
sant with the language and customs of the In-
dians, set forth to attempt the task of reaching
the Settlements in Mexico. Their experience in
the healing art did them good service, for by
it they were enabled to pass through the many
tribes who occupied the shores of the Gulf of
Mexico. They crossed the Mississippi, and at
length reached, in safety, Mexico, from whence
he returned to Spain, where he published the
interesting account of his adventures. De
Vaca was the first white man who traversed
the Cotton States; and to him belongs the
credit of the discovery of the Mississippi, and
not to De Soto. Narvaez's fleet searched for
the Governor during the space of a year, and
then returned to Cuba.


ONE would have thought that the sad fate
of Narvaez would have deterred further ex-
peditions to Florida; but such was not the
case, and the story of the adventures of De
Vaca, fraught with sufferings, seemed only



to stimulate the adventurous spirit of the day.
It was not the aspiration to glory, but the
greediness of wealth which inspired those ad-
venturers. They believed in a continent ex-
ceeding Mexico or Peru in precious metals,
and therefore sought it. When Hernando de
Soto, the companion of Pizarro, announced his
intention of fitting out an expedition, thou-
sands flocked to his standard.
Hernando de Soto belonged to one of the
noblest families of Spain; he was born in 1501.
At an early age, having, as an old Chronicler
says, but his sword for his estate, he joined
D'Avilas, who had been made Governor of
the West Indies. De Soto found favor in the
eyes of the latter, and, in 1531, was given com-
mand of a body of men, with whom he joined
Pizarro, then on his way to the conquest of
Peru. Pizarro soon recognized in De Soto a
leading spirit; he made him second in com-
mand. Uniting prudence to valor he was ever
foremost in every struggle, and invariably
De Soto had the good fortune to capture the
Inca, and to put to flight his forces. The con-



quest of Peru achieved, Pizarro would have
retained De Soto with him, but the latter de-
termined to return to Spain. This he did in
1536, carrying with him, as his share of the
spoils of the Inca, 180,000ooo crowns of gold. He
appeared at the court of Charles V., sur-
rounded by a splendid retinue, creating a
sensation which made him the lion of the
hour. His influence at court increased, and
was strengthened by his marriage with Isa-
bella de Bobadilla, daughter of De Aviles, one
of the most powerful nobles of the kingdom.
It was about that time that De Vaca
brought to Spain the tidings of the fate of
Narvaez. De Soto sought De Vaca; and,
after listening to his narrative, hastened to the
Emperor, and offered to conquer Florida at
his own expense. His Majesty was gracious-
ly pleased to grant the request, and conferred
upon him the title of Adelantado, in addition
to that of Governor of Florida and Cuba for
life. As we have already said, no sooner was
it known that De Soto was fitting out an ex-
pedition, than thousands flocked to his stan-
dard; but he chose only the young and vig-



orous, such as could best endure the hard-
ships and dangers of the expedition.
On April 6, 1538, De Soto sailed with a
fleet of ten vessels. His force consisted of a
thousand men, commanded by the 61ite of the
Spanish cavaliers. In the largest vessel, the
" San Cristoval," a ship of eight hundred
tons, was the Governor, his wife Doria Isa-
bel, and his family and retinue. The fleet
touched the Canary Islands and reached San-
tiago de Cuba in May.
De Soto remained in Cuba a year, acclimat-
ing his forces and obtaining information as to
the Continent he was about to visit. Indian
guides from the Florida Coast were obtained,
and every precaution taken to ensure the suc-
cess of the enterprise. All being in readi-
ness, the expedition started in May, 1539;
and, on the 25th of the same month, disem-
barked its thousand men and 350 horses at
Tampa Bay. De Soto remained awhile in
the vicinity of his landing, endeavoring to
conciliate Hirrituqua, the powerful Cacique
of the neighborhood. His efforts proved
vain -the Chief was obdurate. This can be



readily understood when we know that Nar-
vaez, in a transport of rage, for a trivial
cause, had ordered the Cacique's nose to be
cut off and his mother to be torn by dogs.
Whilst attempting to negotiate with the
Chief, De Soto learned that a follower of
Narvaez was living with a neighboring tribe,
whose chief was named Mucoso. He was
greatly pleased with the news, as he fully
appreciated the importance to the expedition
of having as guide one who had been living
in the country ten years, and who was doubt-
less familiar with the language and customs
of the natives. De Soto at once set about
securing the person of Juan Ortiz-such was
the Spaniard's name; he accordingly des-
patched his trusty lieutenant, De Gallegos,
with a company of lancers, under the guid-
ance of an Indian, on an embassy to the
Cacique Mucoso, soliciting the release of
Ortiz, and inviting the Chief to his camp,
with promises of friendship and munificent
In the meantime, Mucoso, learning of De
Soto's arrival in the neighboring province



and fearing that it was his intention to con-
quer the whole country, despatched Ortiz on
a mission to the Governor to pray De Soto
not to lay waste his whole territory, and that
in return he and his people would be devoted
to his service. Ortiz, highly pleased with his
mission, set out, accompanied by a body of
chosen warriors. They had proceeded but a
short distance, when, at the edge of a forest,
they suddenly came upon Gallegos and his
lancers-the companions of Ortiz retreating
to the woods; but Ortiz, forgetting that, with
quiver at back, a bow and arrow in hand, and
his head adorned with feathers, he differed
but little from his companions, scorned the
advice, and marched forth to meet his country-
men, who, he thought, would recognize him.
The Spaniards, seeing the Indians, at once
charged upon them, driving them to the
woods, leaving one dead upon the field.
Ortiz was nearly ridden over by a trooper-
he cried out lustily, Seville," at the same
time making the sign of the cross. The
Spaniard reined in his horse, and learning he
had found the object of their search, seized



Ortiz by the arm, lifting him upon the croup
of his saddle, and dashed off with him to
Gallegos, who returned to De Soto in great
glee with his prize. The Governor received
Ortiz in the warmest manner, sympathized
with his past sufferings, and at once ordered
him arms, clothing, and a horse.
Ortiz narrated his experience to De Soto; it
was most romantic. It appeared that Nar-
vaez, upon landing in Florida, sent back to
Cuba, with despatches, one of his smallest ves-
sels, upon which was Juan Ortiz-she imme-
diately returned laden with supplies for the
forces; but by that time Narvaez had marched
into the interior. The Spaniards, from their
vessel, saw on shore some Indians, who pointed
to a letter in the end of a cleft stick fixed in
the earth. Believing it to contain instructions
from Narvaez, they made signs to the Indians
to bring it to them, but this they declined
to do.
Juan Ortiz and three companions then went
to the shore in a boat; but were no sooner
landed than they were in a moment surround-
ed and hastened away. The crew of the ves-



sel, alarmed at the treatment of their ship-
mates, and the number of the enemy in sight,
set sail, leaving Ortiz and his companions to
their fate. By this decoy, the Indians secured
the captives required to gratify the Cacique's
revenge upon the Spaniards, for Hirritriqua
was smarting under the loss of his nose, and was
overjoyed when the prisoners were brought
before him. They were placed under a strong
guard until a festival day, when one by one
they were made to run the gauntlet, and in
this way three of them perished miserably.
Ortiz had been reserved for the last; and the
chief, to vary the entertainment, ordered him
to be bound to a staging of poles, and a fire
kindled under him. The first part of the order
had been executed; and Ortiz, who was then
but eighteen, was stripped and bound to the
stake. At that moment, the beautiful daugh-
ter of the Cacique, who was about the same
age as Ortiz, saw the dreadful fate of the
youth; she was moved by compassion; and,
throwing herself at her father's feet, begged
him to spare the stranger's life. Hirritriqua
granted her request; and thus Florida



possessed a Pocahontas long before Capt.
John Smith owed his life to that renowned
But Ortiz led a sorry life of it; he was made
to labor like a slave, and was subjected to
cruel treatment. He would have perished
from starvation, had it not been for food fur-
nished him by his lovely protector. One night
the, Cacique's daughter came to Ortiz, and
told him that her father had determined to
sacrifice him at the approaching festival; and
that all her entreaties had failed to shake his
determination. She added that a trusty guide
would, that night, lead him to Mucozo, a
neighboring chief, who loved her and sought
her in marriage; and who, for her sake, would
protect him.
At the appointed time, Ortiz met the guide,
and was safely conducted to Mucozo, who re-
ceived him warmly, and finally became greatly
attached to him. His hospitable reception
displeased Hirritriqua, who made repeated
demands on Mucozo to give up the fugitive.
The latter, nevertheless, maintained inviolate
the sacred rites of hospitality, notwithstanding



that the hand of the lovely maiden depended
on his acquiescing.
Ortiz had been among the Indians nearly
ten years, when De Soto made his appear-
ance; and, as it may well be supposed, he was
overjoyed to rejoin his countrymen. His first
act was to bring about friendly relations be-
tween De Soto and his noble protector, Mu-
cozo. In this he succeeded so well, that whilst
the Spaniards remained in that part of the
country, they were the best of friends. When,
subsequently, the fleet sailed from the neigh-
boring harbor, many things with which the
Spaniards did not wish to be encumbered
were presented to Mucozo, who found him-
self abundantly provided for. It took many
days for the Indians to carry to their villages,
the clothing, weapons, and various stores
which the Spaniards had given them.
De Soto, as we have already stated, landed
in Florida at Tampa Bay. From that point
he took his route to the north and east, pass-
ing through Ocala and Tallahassee, from
whence he despatched an exploring party,
which penetrated far into the interior. Hav-



ing received a favorable report as to the rich-
ness of the country to the north, he pushed
forward in that direction, having first sent
orders to his fleet to meet him at Pensacola
Bay. De Soto crossed the Savannah river,
near the present site of the City of Savannah;
and entered what is now the State of South
Carolina. There a pleasing incident occurred,
which we can do no better than relate in
the words of Fairbanks, in his History of
Near the Atlantic coast, in South Caroli-
na, De Soto came into the territories of an
Indian Queen, invested with youth, beauty,
and loveliness, who is styled by the old
Chronicles' the Ladie of the Countrie.' Upon
De Soto's approach, he was met by a lady
ambassadress, sister of her Majesty, who de-
livered a courteous speech of welcome; and,
within a little time, the Ladie came out of the
town in a chaire, whereon certain of the prin-
cipal Indians brought her to the river. She
entered into a barge, which had the sterne
tilted over, and on the floor her mat ready
laid, with two cushions upon it, one upon


another, where she sat her down, and with her
came her principal Indians, in other barges,
which did wait upon her.
She went to the place where the Governor
was, and at her coming, she made this speech:
' Excellent lord, I wish this coming of your
lordship's into these your countries to be
most happy; although my power be not
answerable to my will, and my services be
not according to my desire, nor such as so
high a prince as your lordship deserveth, yet
such the good will is rather to be accepted
than all the treasures of the world, that with-
out it can be offered; with most unfailable
and manifest affection, I offer you my person,
lords, and subjects, and this small service.'
"After this courteous and graceful speech
from the throne, it may be inferred that so
gallant a cavalier as De Soto must have re-
plied in equally complimentary style. The
princess caused to be presented to the Ade-
lantado rich presents of the clothes and skins
of the country; and, far greater attraction for
them, beautiful strings of pearls. Her Ma-
jesty, after some maiden coyness, took from



her own neck a great cordon of pearls, and
cast it about the neck of the Governor, enter-
taining him with very gracious speeches of
love and courtesy; and, as soon as he was
lodged in the town, she sent him another
present, of not quite so delicate and refined a
character, but no doubt considered by her of
far greater value, namely, some hens. Per-
ceiving that they valued the pearls, she ad-
vised the Governor to send and search certain
graves that were in that town, and that they
should find many. They searched the graves,
and there found fourteen measures' of pearls,
weighing two hundred and ninety-two pounds,
figures of various kinds-little babies, birds,
etc., were made of them," reminding one of
the recent excavations at Chiriqui.
The people were brown, well made, and
well proportioned; and more civil than the
other tribes which had been met with in
Florida; they were likewise well shod and
The Spaniards, worried and fatigued by
their tedious and fruitless marches, urged
their leader to settle in the country, as the



climate was mild, the lands rich and produc-
tive, and the coast afforded good harbors to
shelter their ships. But the Governor re-
plied, that he intended to seek treasures
such as Atahualpa, Lord of Peru, possessed.
Doubtless the country was a good one, that
pearls of value abounded therein, yet there
was not sufficient inducement to retain him
there. And, as De Soto was firm and decided
in his opinion, though giving ear to those of
others, his followers acquiesced in his views.
The fair princess seems to have been ill
requited for her hospitable reception of the
Spaniards. Held as a hostage (for the good
behaviour of the Indians, it is presumed), De
Soto insisted upon her accompanying him,
which she did for many days; until, one day,
turning aside into the forest upon some slight
pretext, she disappeared, not without suspicion
of design, as there happened to be missing at
the same time one of the Spaniards, who,
report said, had joined the fair princess for
weal or for woe, and had returned with her
to her tribe."
From South Carolina, De Soto proceeded



to Georgia, which he penetrated as far as the
borders of Tennessee, but failed to find the
gold which the natives of the sea-board, with
the hope of getting rid of him, had stated
would there be found in abundance. Turn-
ing his steps to the south-west, he passed
through Georgia and Alabama, and reached a
point near Mobile, where news was brought
that the fleet was awaiting him but a few days'
journey off, in the spacious harbor of Ochuse,
or Pensacola.
It would have been well if the valorous
Spaniard had then abandoned his hopeless
enterprise, and had re-embarked his discour-
aged followers, who had undergone eighteen
months of hardship-well, if he had returned
to Cuba, where Dofia Isabel was anxiously
awaiting his coming. But De Soto had de-
cided never to return to his native land until
he had discovered the land where wealth
abounded. So, binding Ortiz, who, alone be-
sides himself, knew of the proximity of the
fleet, to secrecy, he directed his course to the
northward and westward; and, after a march
fraught with dangers and difficulties, emerged


from the swamps and forests of the wilder-
ness, in the Spring of 1541, upon the banks of
the Father of Waters, the Mecassabe, near
the present site of Memphis.
That year he spent exploring the country
west of the Mississippi, and in April he re-
turned to the river, intending to send de-
spatches to the fleet, to be conveyed to Donia
Isabel. But the end of the brave soldier was
In the long marches through the swamps
and lowlands, he had contracted a fever, which
increased rapidly, and made him aware that
his last hour was at hand. He prepared for
death with the calmness of a soldier, appointed
Louis de Alvarado to the chief command, and
required his officers to take the oath to obey
and serve him faithfully. This done, the dying
Governor called to him his followers, of whom
he tenderly took his last leave, calmly address-
ing them while they wept. De Soto soon
after expired.*
Thus perished Hernando de Soto, the most
distinguished of the many brave leaders,



whose names are honored as the discoverers
and settlers of the Western World. His fol-
lowers, fearing to bury him on the shore, lest
the Indians should desecrate his grave, hol-
lowed out the trunk of a live oak of sufficient
diameter to contain the body. Therein they
placed the corpse, closed its opening with
planking, and at midnight conveyed the re-
mains to .mid-stream, where the river was a
mile in width and nineteen fathoms deep,
They there committed to the deep the mortal
remains of their commander.
De la Vega, in his history qf the expedition,
says: The discoverer of the Mississippi
slept beneath its waters. He had crossed a
large part of the Continent in search of gold,
and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-
Our fair readers will ask what became of
the eighteen measures." of pearls. Alas! in
one of the villages where De Soto established
his quarters, the natives, at night, fired the
building; and it was quite as much as the
Spaniards could do to save themselves, much




less the pearls which, together with quan-
tities of stores and equipment, were utterly
De Soto died on 21st May, 1542. His suc-
cessor, Louis de Alvarado, at once summon-
ed a council of his officers to determine the
best course to pursue. They decided to leave
the country; but how to do so with the least
embarrassment was the question. One of
the officers, Juan de Anasco, urged the Com-
mander to push through to the frontiers
of Mexico, offering to show the way. He
insisted that the distance was not great.
therefore his advice prevailed, and, in the
early part of June, they commenced their
march onward.
The Spaniards had not proceeded far on
their way, when they discovered that one of
their number was missing; a young Cavalier
of good family named Diego de Guzman. It
appears that the gay Diego, in a foray, had
captured a most beautiful Indian girl, with
whom he at once fell most desperately in love.
As this fair damsel was also missing, the Span-
iards concluded the pair had gone off togeth-


er. To make sure that such was the case, the
general summoned to him the several chiefs
of the province who were in his escort, and
gave them to understand that, unless the des-
erter was brought to his camp, he would be
led to believe the Indians had murdered him;
in which case their lives should be the penalty.
The alarmed chiefs sent forth their scouts,
who soon returned with the news that Guz-
man was with his fair captive's father, a neigh-
boring Cacique, living on the best in the land
and treated with great kindness and distinct-
ion. De Gallegos, who was a friend and
townsman of De Guzman, wrote beseechingly
to him, to remember that he was a Spaniard
and a Cavalier, and not to desert his God, his
countrymen, and his native land. His elo-
quent appeal was returned the following day,
with the endorsement, in charcoal, De Guz-
No other word did the young Cavalier
vouchsafe to his companions in arms, but the
messenger said he had no intention nor wish
to rejoin the army; whilst the Cacique sent
word that his son-in-law, who had restored




to him a beloved daughter, was not detained
by force, but remained of his own free will.
The Governor, upon this, abandoned any fur-
ther attempt to recover De Guzman, and re-
leased the chiefs; who, however, accompanied
him to the frontier.*
For many weary months, the brave little
army forced its way onward to the westward,
reaching the roaming grounds of the Buffalo,
and beholding, in the distance, a lofty chain of
mountains At last, despairing of ever reach-
ing Mexico by that route, they reluctantly
set out on their return to the Mississippi,
which they reached in the Autumn of that
year. Wintering in the villages they found
upon the banks, and which they fortified, they
set to work to build seven vessels for the trans-
fer of the force. Francisco, a Genoese, who
had been throughout invaluable to De Soto in
building bridges, rafts and boats, superin-
tended the work. He was assisted by several
soldiers, who had inhabited the sea-coast
of Spain. Notwithstanding their combined
efforts, it was not until the early part of


July that the vessels were completed, and
the preparations made for taking their de-
Of the gallant host that had landed with
De Soto, but three hundred and fifty survived
to embark on the frail vessels comprising the
fleet. It started from the mouth of the
Arkansas river, upon the bosom of the Fath-
er of Waters-the highway, as they hoped,
to their distant home.
The Indians had eagerly watched the pre-
parations of the Spaniards; and had sent word
far and wide that their common enemies
were about to depart, and thus evade the ven-
geance they had hoped to wreak upon them.
The tribes gathered from the surrounding
country; they harassed the Spaniards as they
passed down the river; and when, at last, they
reached the ocean, many had been killed by
the arrows of the natives. From the mouth
of the Mississippi, the Spaniards coasted along
the shores of Louisiana and Texas for nearly
two months, and at last reached the Spanish
settlements in Mexico. Here they were
warmly received by the Viceroy, De Mendozo,



who sent those who so desired to Spain, while
others he took into his service.
Poor Dofia Isabel, the wife of De Soto, dur-
ing these three years, had never ceased to send
fleet after fleet to seek and carry succor to her
husband, but they returned without tidings of
the Governor. At length, one of her faithful
captains reached Vera Cruz, in October, 1543,
and there learned the death of De Soto; and
that, of his brave men, but three hundred had
reached Mexico alive. When this sad news
reached Donfa Isabel, the blow proved too
great for her too bear; and it is said she soon
died of a broken heart.


NOT many years elapsed before the Spanish
Monarch ordered the Viceroy of Mexico to
prepare another expedition for the conquest
and settlement of Florida. This expedition,
which consisted of fifteen hundred men, set
sail, under the command of Don Tristan de
Luna, in the Spring of 1559, from the port of
Vera Cruz. The fleet reached Pensacola Bay


in safety; but a few days after coming to an
chor was entirely wrecked, together with the
greater part of the supplies. This misfortune,
and the unfavorable reports of the country
brought to De Luna by scouting parties, which
he had sent into the interior, caused the gen-
eral to render such accounts to the Viceroy as
to induce him to recall the expedition-not,
however, before its members had suffered pri-
vations which equalled those of their prede-
De Luna's expedition was the last sent by
the Spanish to Florida. At that time the
Spaniards regarded as Florida the whole shore
of the Continent, from the frontier of Mexico
to the Chesapeake. We will conclude this
brief history of Florida by narrating only what
occurred in the peninsula which now consti-
tutes the State of that name.


THE year 1562 marked a new era in the his-
tory of Florida and of the Continent. By the
withdrawal of De Luna, there was left not a



single settlement of Europeans on the Conti-
nent of North America beyond the boundaries
of Mexico. That year, however, witnessed
the first attempt at colonization ; and that, too,
by the French.
The Huguenots, wearied with struggling
against persecution, were seeking homes away
from their native land. Encouraged by Ad-
miral Coligny, the head of the Protestant
party in France, an expedition for America
was fitted out, under Capt. Jean Ribaut, and
sailed in February, 1562. Ribaut, with his
two vessels, entered the St. John's River on
the Ist of May, but remained here a short
time only. He proceeded to the northward,
until reaching Port Royal harbor, where he
determined to found the Huguenot settlement.
The site was selected upon an island, a fort
erected, in which he left a small garrison,
while he returned to France to obtain colon-
ists and supplies for the settlement. On his
arrival home, he found the Civil War at its
height, which debarred his return to the suc-
cor of the colony. The colonists, discouraged
by the long absence of their commander, put


to sea in a small pinnace which they had con-
structed, in the mad hope of attempting to
reach France. Fortunately they were rescued
by an English vessel. Two years later, Co-
ligny being again able to turn his attention to
his favorite scheme of colonization, despatched
three small vessels to Florida, under command
of a companion of Ribaut, named Rene de
Laudonniere landed at the present site of
St. Augustine; but on the following day en-
tered the St. John's River, where he deter-
mined to found a settlement.
The site chosen was at St. John's Bluff, just
within the mouth of the River, where the re-
mains of the works they constructed are still
said to exist. Laudonniere erected a fort,
which he named Fort Caroline, and from it
made many excursions to the surrounding
country, and seems to have kept on excellent
terms with the Indians. He, however, ac-
complished nothing; and, relying on receiving
supplies from France, which of course did not
come, the garrison was reduced to the verge
of starvation. Their Indian friends got tired




of supplying their wants, particularly when
they found the stock of Parisian notions "
brought by them was exhausted; they refused
longer to bring in provisions. Had it not been
for a lovely widbw, the Queen of a neighbor-
ing tribe, Laudonnibre and his companions
would have inevitably perished. But the
Queen, taking pity of.their distress, sent them
in the nick of time some boat-loads of corn and
beans, which were gladly welcomed by Ren6
and his followers. Fairbanks tells us the fol-
In De Bray there is an engraving made
from a sketch of Le Moyne's, who accompan-
ied a deputation, representing her Majesty in
her state procession. At the head appear two
trumpeters blowing upon reeds. Then follow
six chiefs bearing a canopied platform, on
which is seated, shaded by a leafy canopy, her
Majesty, in the person of a beautiful female.
Around her neck is a cordon of pearls; brace-
lets and anklets adorn the person, et prceterea
nihil. On each side walk other chiefs, hold-
ing large feather shades or fans; beautiful
young girls, bearing baskets of fruits and flow-


ers, follow next to the Queen, and then war-
riors and her household guards."
In 1565, Coligny, to succor and render per-
manent the colony in Florida, fitted out seven
vessels, upon which he embarked six hundred
and fifty persons; comprising not only the
representatives of some of the best families of
France, but many artisans and their families.
The colonists carried with them seed, and im-
plements wherewith to till the land; indeed,
every requisite for a permanent settlement.
They sailed from Dieppe, under the command
of Ribaut, on the 23d of May, 1565; but, en-
countering stormy weather, it was not till the
29th of August that they reached Fort Caro-
line, where they found Laudonnitre on the eve
of departing for France.
In the meantime, whilst Coligny was fitting
out this expedition, word had been carried to
Spain that the French Huguenots, whom they
looked upon as heretics, were on the point of
seizing Florida, a land to which the Spaniards
claimed exclusive right. Philip II. at once
encouraged the fitting out of an expedition to



thwart their purpose, and soon found the man
whom he needed to accomplish this object.
This was Pedro Menendez, who, having
been successful in several naval expeditions,
had acquired considerable fame and wealth.
His life had been blighted by the loss of a fa-
vorite son, who had been shipwrecked on the
coast of Florida, on board a treasure ship re-
turning from Mexico.
In the hopes of finding his son, Menendez
embarked his fortune in the new expedition,
spending a million of ducats for its equipment.
The King had been lavish in his promises to
assist Menendez, but in the end furnished a
single vessel, and two hundred men. In spite
of this, Menendez set sail for Florida, from
Cadiz, on the Ist of July, 1565, with a fleet of
thirty-four vessels. Many of them were ships
of from six hundred to a thousand tons, the
whole fleet carrying a force of nearly three
thousand persons.
It will be noticed that Ribaut's vessels had
left France a month in advance of Menendez,
but the latter reached the coast of Florida on
the same day as the French, though not with



the fleet with which he sailed from Cadiz; for
only a third of them were with him, the
rest having been wrecked or dispersed.
Menendez landed on the coast on the 28th
of August, 1565, the fete of St. Augustine,
in whose honor he named his settlement-a
name it retains at present. From the Indians,
Menendez learned that the French were but a
few leagues distant to the north, and at the
mouth of St. John's river.
The French heard of the arrival of their
enemies, and sent out a vessel to reconnoitre.
It soon returned, and reported to Ribaut that
the Spaniards were engaged in landing at St.
Augustine, and in fortifying the place. Ribaut
at once resolved to get rid of so dangerous a
neighbor by surprising him before he could
strengthen his defences. Leaving a small gar-
rison at Fort Caroline, he embarked his whole
force; and, on the ioth of September, set sail
for St. Augustine. No sooner had he started
than a gale arose and drove him far beyond
his destination. Menendez, meantime, had
started overland to surprise Ribaut. He was
guided by two Indian chiefs, enemies of Lau-




donniere. The country was nearly impass-
able, from recent heavy rains; but Menendez
persevered in the march, and at dawn of the
third day they arrived at Fort Caroline.
Without losing a moment, the Spapiards at-
tacked the fort, which offered but a feeble re-
sistance; it was soon captured. An indis-
criminate massacre of men, women and chil-
dren took place that casts everlasting disgrace
on the name of Menendez. Some of his pris-
oners he hung upon the neighboring trees,
placing over them this inscription: No por
Franceses, sino- por Luteranos." (" Not as
Frenchmen, but as Lutherans.")*
Menendez, having left at Fort Caroline a
garrison of three hundred men, returned to St.
Augustine, where, this victory over the Hu-
guenots caused great rejoicings. In the midst
of the revelry, word was brought that Ribaut's
fleet had been stranded at Matanzas Inlet, some
distance below St. Augustine, and that his
force was endeavoring to cross to the main-
land. Menendez set his army in motion, and
soon arrived at the scene of shipwreck.

* Fairbanks.


Here a long parley took place, the French
doing their possible to obtain terms of sur-
render, by which Menendez would spare their
lives and furnish them means to return to their
own country." All that could be obtained
from him was, that he would treat them as
God directed him." Two hundred of Ribaut's
companions, considering the tei ms extremely
suspicious, made their escape in the night,
to the southward. In the morning, Ribaut,
most of his officers, and one hundred and fifty
men, unconditionally surrendered to Menen-
dez, having faith in his clemency. The French
claim that Ribaut was promised his life and
the lives of his followers, but this the Spanish
historians deny. At all events, by the orders
of the general, the shipwrecked soldiers were
marched into the woods in detached parties
and cruelly butchered.
The two hundred who had fled, made their
way to Point Canaveral, where they hastily
threw up some works to defend them; and
then commenced building a vessel from the
materials of a wreck which they found there.
Upon learning of their whereabouts, Menen-




dez sent them word that if they would surren-
der, he would protect them and treat them as
Spaniards. Most of them accepted his terms,
and, singular to narrate, the Spanish comman-
der kept his word. They became a part of
the colony, and afterwards some of them re-
turned to France.
The fearful massacres perpetrated by Gov-
nor Menendez created considerable excite-
ment throughout Europe; but Spain ap.
proved of the deed, which was commended
by Philip II. and his people as a righteous
act. France made numerous demands upon
the Crown of Spain to revenge the murder
of their countrymen; but Charles IX. and his
Court felt little sympathy for the misfortunes
of the Huguenots, and treated the matter with
Menendez, having disposed of Ribaut, turn-
ed his attention to strengthening the defences
of St. Augustine, and placing the settlement
on a permanent footing. A strong fort was
built, a cathedral and other buildings erected,
and magistrates and others appointed to ad-
minister the government of the province.


He then set out to explore the shores of
the peninsula in search of his long-lost son;
and for months persevered in the task. He
visited innumerable bays and inlets; and,
through his interpreters, sought among the
Indian tribes information which might shed
light upon the fate of his child. At last, to
his great joy, he was told that, near Cape
Florida, seven Spaniards, shipwrecked years
before, were living with the Indians. Reach-
ing the Indian Settlement, Menendez was
bitterly disappointed to find his son was not
among them. Sick at heart, he invited the
seven Spaniards-who had been with the
natives twenty years-on board his vessel,
and returned to St, Augustine.


In 1567, Menendez deemed it to his interest
to visit Spain, and ordered a vessel to be built
to convey him thither. By his command,
this craft was of twenty tons burthen. In
this little yacht, which would have done
credit to herself and her builders in a regatta



of the present day, Menendez ran to the
Azores in seventeen days, and landed in Spain
after the shortest passage of the period. At
the Spanish Court he was received with
the highest honors; but when he asked for
material aid for the struggling colony, and to
be reimbursed for the enormous outlay he had
made in crushing the Lutheran pirates-as the
Huguenots were then termed-he found
them slow to respond to his demands. For
more than a year he remained in Spain, and
at last succeeded "in getting his bill honor-
ed," besides being made Governor of Cuba.
He arrived at St. Augustine in the Spring
of 1568, and learned with grief and rage that
a serious accident had happened to his faith-
ful garrison at Fort Caroline; nothing less
than the massacre of the entire party, by De
Gourges, the Huguenot.
Dominic de Gourges was a brave soldier;
from his early youth he had led a life of adven-
ture; captured by the Spaniards in battle, he
had been made a galley-slave. He was also
taken by the Turks, but was afterwards re-
captured by his countrymen.


Returning from a successful voyage to
Brazil, he arrived in France to learn of the
massacre of the French at Fort Caroline.
From that moment he determined to devote
his life and fortune to avenging that dastardly
De Gourges did not ask the assistance of
the French Government for his proposed ex-
pedition; he carefully concealed his designs,
but made his preparations with all possible
haste. Having secured a permit for a voyage
to Africa. to obtain a cargo of slaves, he en-
listed about one hundred and eighty soldiers
and sailors for the purpose.
After a long and stormy voyage, De Gour-
ges arrived with his three vessels, at Fernan-
dina, then called La Seine by the French. It
was there that he made his preparations for
avenging his countrymen and co-religionists.
Among his troops was one who had accom-
panied the unfortunate Laudonnibre, and who
understood the language of the natives. This
proved a fortunate circumstance; for no
sooner had the vessels anchored in the beauti-
ful harbor, than the Indians assembled on the




beach to contest the landing of the detested
Spaniards, as they supposed De Gourges'
party to be. But the above-mentioned soldier
explained to the chief, Satourioura, the nat-
ure of the expedition. He was pleased with
the news, and promised to rally to De Gour-
ges' aid thousands of warriors, who would aid
the French in exterminating the common
enemy. Then they brought to the French a
lad, one Peter De Br6, who had escaped from
the massacre at Fort Caroline, and had come
to them. He proved of great service as an
interpreter and in obtaining correct informa-
tion .as to the strength and position of the
The preparations being completed; accom-
panied by the forces of his Indian ally, De
Gourges set out for Fort Caroline. He reach-
ed it, and surprised the garrison, which was
unprepared for a land attack.
Finding themselves surrounded, the gar-
rison threw down their arms and attempted
to make good their escape. They were, how-
ever, either slain or captured. Taking the



survivors to the spot where Menendez, three
years before, had executed the Huguenots,
De Gourges hanged the Spaniards to the
branches of the oaks; and, taking down the
former inscription placed over the French
bodies by the Spaniards, he replaced it with
the following; I do this, not as unto Span-
iards, nor as to outcasts, but as to traitors,
thieves, and murderers."
De Gourges and his followers then re-em-
barked, amid a perfect ovation from the In-
dians, and safely returned to France.
This humiliating blow of De Gourges, to-
gether with other discouraging events, damp-
ed Menendez's enthusiasm for colonizing. He,
nevertheless, made many excursions to the
surrounding country, and even reached the
shores of the Chesapeake. The Colony, not-
withstanding, did not flourish; so, when called
to Spain to take command of the Spanish
fleet, he was pleased to leave Florida for ever.
He died soon after reaching Spain, in 1574, in
the fifty-fifth year of his age.
Menendez left the government of Florida in
the hands of his relative, the Marquis de Me-



nendez; and, from that time until 1586, its
history presents little of interest.
In that year Sir Francis Drake, the English
freebooter, on his way to England, surprised
and captured St. Augustine, which, at the
time, was a well-built and flourishing town.
The family of Menendez continued governing
Florida for nearly one hundred years. In
1665; an English pirate, Captain John Davis,
captured and pillaged the town.
South Carolina, having been settled by the
English, constant troubles arose between the
Colonists and the Spaniards. Governor
Moore, in 1702, attacked St. Augustine, but
met with a disastrous repulse. In 1740, Gov-
ernor Oglethorpe, of Georgia, also met with
a like result before the walls of that city. In
1762, Cuba fell into possession of the English;
and when peace was declared during the fol-
lowing year, Great Britain transferred it to
Spain in exchange for Florida.
Captain James Grant was the first English
Governor. One of his earliest acts was the
issue of a proclamation referring to the salu-
brity of the climate, and the extreme age at-



trained by the inhabitants of the country.*
In this, and in other ways, he endeavored to
attract emigration to the shores of Florida.
In 1766, a certain Dr. Turnbull, a Scotchman,
having obtained from the Crown the conces-
sion of a large tract of land below St. Augus-
tine, he called it New Smyrna. To it he
brought, from Smyrna and the Balearic Isles,
fifteen hundred Greeks and Minorcans, whom
he settled there.
Ten years later, these colonists secured
from the magistrates at St. Augustine, a de-
cree cancelling their agreement with Turn-
bull; and almost the entire number removed
to St. Augustine, and colonized, where their
descendants still remain, forming the most
industrious and interesting portion of the
In 1821, Florida was ceded to the United
States. Of the long wars with the Seminole
Indians it is unnecessary to remark -the
visitor to Florida will continue to find
among the old inhabitants many who have
gone through those bloody scenes, and


who take interest in narrating much which will
interest the visitor.

We will here terminate our brief sketch
of the history of Florida, referring the reader
for more ample information, to the History
of Florida by Fairbanks; and to Irving's
Conquest thereof-of which the writer has
availed himself for much of the foregoing in-



FLORIDA is the most southern of the States
of the Union, and extends down to latitude
25o N. The peninsula is four hundred miles
in length, with an average width of about one
hundred miles. It contains 59,268 square
miles of territory, and a population of about
two hundred thousand; the white and colored
being nearly equal in numbers, the whites
slightly predominating.
The surface of the country is remarkably
level. The lands in the upper portion of the
State, near the boundary of Georgia, are of a
rolling character. A large proportion of the
land is covered with forests of pine and cy-
press. The most remarkable feature of the
State is its numerous navigable streams and


lakes, and its wonderful mineral springs,
which probably gave rise to the fable of the
Fountain of Rejuvenancy, to which Ponce de
Leon aspired possession. The Indians, from
the earliest times, had resorted to these foun-
tains for medicinal purposes, and knew well
their beneficial effects. Even now the waters
continue to enjoy their ancient reputation,
and thither strangers repair in search of
These springs are probably the largest in the
world, giving instant birth to rivers which
would in Europe be called important streams.
Williams, in his history of Florida, thus des-
cribes two of the hundred which exist in that
The Wakulla River rises about ten miles
N. W. from St. Mark's, from one of the finest
springs in Florida. It is of an oval form, the
largest diameter of which is about six rods.
It is of unknown depth and perfectly trans-
parent. In looking into it, the color resem-
bles a clear blue sky, except near the border,
where it has a slight tinge of green, from the
reflection of the surrounding verdure, which
overhangs it in drooping branches and waving


festoons. The Eastern side presents a rugged
rocky precipice; all else is in an abyss of
boundless depth. Squadrons of fish are seen
careering round their own world' in perfect
The big Spring of Chipola offers a very
different scene. Here a river bursts from the
earth, with a giant force, from large masses
of rugged rocks, with furious rapidity, as
though impatient of restraint. The orifice
opens to the southwest from a high bank cov-
ered with large oak trees. This orifice is
thirty feet by eight feet wide. A large rock
divides the mouth almost into two parts. This
spring at once forms a river six rods wide and
eight feet deep, which joins the Chipola River
at about ten miles distance."
The River St. John's is one of the most re-
markable and beautiful in our country. For
a hundred and fifty miles its average width is
nearly two miles; and, in many places, it en-
larges into lakes ten and twenty miles in
width. Of its many beauties we shall have
occasion to speak further on.




The wonderful salubrity of the climate of
Florida is its greatest attraction, and is des-
tined to make it to America what the South
of France and Italy are to Europe,-the refuge
of those who seek to escape the rigor of a
Northern winter. The sudden changes ex-
perienced at Nice or Florence are unknown
in Florida.
So well convinced are our physicians of this
fact, that they now advise their patients to
seek health in Florida, within three days' reach
of their homes and friends, in lieu of going
abroad at a stormy season of the year.
Florida, as a resort for those suffering from
pulmonary disease, is preferable to any other
portion of America. The census of 186o fur-
nished the following evidence on this subject.
It gives the average number of deaths from
Consumption as follows:
One in 254 in Massachusetts.
One in 473 in New York.
One in 757 in Virginia.
One in 1139 in Minnesota.
One in 1447 in Florida.




The following Summary of Observations, taken from the
Army Afeteorological Register," are introduced to show the
equability of the climate of Florida, as compared with that
of other parts of the United States:

St. Augustine, Fla..

Tampa Bay, "

Key West, .

West Point, N. Y..

Fort Snelling, Min.

Jan. Feb.

57.03 59-94
61.53 63.54

66.68 68.88

28.28 28.80

13.76 17.57






Apr. May.

68.78 73.50

71.82 76 64

75.38 79.10
48.70 59.82

56.34 58.97






July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. YEAR

St. Augustine, Fla.. 80.90 80.56 78.60 71.88 64.12 57.26 69.61

Tampa Bay, 80.72 80.43 78.28 74.02 66.94 61.99 71.92

Key West, 83.00oo 82.90 81.92 78.11 74.66 71.03 76.51

West Point, N. Y.. 73.75 71.83 64.31 53.0442.23 31.98 50.73

Fort Snelling, Min. 73.40 70.05 5886 47.15 31.67 16.89 46.54

The above indicates the mean tempera-
ture, the result of over twenty years' observa-



The sulphur baths at Green Cove Springs,
and other points in Florida, have been pro-
nounced as efficacious for the cure of Rheu-
matism as those of Sharon and Richfield,
whilst St. Augustine is the refuge of those
afflicted with that dreadful disease, Asthma.
We have never heard of an instance where re-
lief was not obtained.


The choice of a route to Florida is, of
course, the first and most important consider-
tion to those who intend going thither. Ac-
cording to our opinion, the Steamers of the
New York and Charleston, and New York
and Savannah lines, offer the best mode of
conveyance. They are in all respects the
most advisable whether for the invalid or
pleasure seeker. The following comprise the
vessels running to the places named, and
form a splendid fleet of first-class ocean





"Manhattan "-M. S. Woodhull, Commander.
Champion "-R. W. Lockwood, "
"Charleston "-James Berry, "
James Adger "-T. J. Lockwood, "
Georgia "- Holmes,
South Carolina "-J. T. Beckett, "
Sailing from Pier 29 North River, at 3 P. M., every
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. JAS. W. QUIN-
TARD & Co., Agents, corner of Warren and West
Streets; or WM. P. CLYDE, 6 Bowling Green.


Leo "-Dearborn, Commander.
"Virgo "-Bulkley, "
Every Tuesday, from foot of Wall Street, at 3 P. M.
MURRAY, FERRIS & Co., Agents, 6I and 62 South
Herman Livingston "-Cheeseman, Commander.
General Barnes "-Mallory, "
Every Thursday, from Pier 43, North River, at 3
P. M. WM. R. GARRISON, Agent, 5 Bowling Green.
San Jacinto "-Hazard, Commander.
San Salvador "-Nickerson, "


Every Saturday, from Pier 43, North River, at 3 P. M.
WM. R. GARRISON, Agent, 5 Bowling Green.

We refer to advertisements of above com-
panies, which will be found at the end of this
volume; and in the event of any further infor-
mation being desired, the traveller cannot do
better than apply at one of the different offices
named, where he will be treated with cour-
tesy, and placed in possession of any informa-
tion he desires.
The voyage to Charleston or Savannah is a
short one, it seldom exceeding sixty hours in
time; and experience has proven that the in-
valid almost invariably improves at sea. The
vessels are provided with an excellent table
and careful attendance, such comforts as it is
impossible to procure on any other route.
For those in good health, the trip is a most
enjoyable one. The class of passengers avail-



ing themselves of these steamers are invariably
pleasant and agreeable companions-tourists
from all parts of the United States, Boston,
New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis,
Cincinnatti, etc-scarcely a city but is repre-
sented on board of them.
Travelers who go by land should leave
either by the morning train at 9, or by the
9:30 evening Express, on the New Jersey
R. R. The morning train connects at Balti-
more with the Steamers of the Bay Line for
Norfolk, the least fatiguing route. The cap-
ital suppers and comfortable state-rooms fur-
nished on board that line will long dwell in
the memory of the Southern traveler. The
evening train carries the passenger via Wash-
ington and Richmond.
Until recently there was no comfortable
resting-place on the road south of Norfolk or
Richmond, but now the Purcell House at
Wilmington, North Carolina, supplies the
want; and, under the care of Colonel Davis,
the weary traveler will soon recuperate.
Invalids, and others not pressed for time,
should divide the journey thus-Leave New



York by the morning train, and sleep at
Washington; pass the following night at
Richmond, the third at Wilmington, arriving
at Charleston the fourth day. The Arlington
at Washington, and Exchange at Richmond,
are strictly first-class hotels.
A well-supplied lunch-basket will not be
amiss when starting from Richmond to Wil-
mington, as it is impossible to obtain a good
meal on the road.
At Charleston, travelers will find Omni-
buses waiting at the Steamship Wharf, and
Railway Depot, to convey them to the various
Hotels, and to the Steamers of the Florida


Charleston is one of the oldest cities of the
Continent (settled in 1679), and is also one of
the most interesting and enjoyable. Its situa-
tion, almost directly upon the sea, with the
waves of the Atlantic in full view from its
wharves, is unsurpassed. Its harbor is a fine
one, with ample water front to supply the




demands of its commerce. Charleston has a
beautiful promenade, on the apex of the
peninsula on which the city is built, and from
it can be viewed Fort Sumter and the islands
forming the entrance to the Bay-Morris and
Approaching Charleston by steamer, the
city seems to rise from the sea. On misty
mornings, the effects of mirage in the har-
bor are very remarkable. The city then
appears raised high above the horizon, and
entirely detached from it- whilst Sumter
seems thrice its former size. On one or two
occasions, during the war, this phenomenon
spread consternation through the city, as the
whole blockading squadron was made to ap-
pear within the obstructions, and fast ap-
proaching the wharves. The situation of
Charleston for commercial purposes is admir-
able, being nearer to the ocean than most
other Atlantic cities of importance. Its har-
bor, which is capacious and secure, is easy of
access to vessels of large tonnage.
Indeed, Charleston possesses all the requi-
sites of a great commercial seaport, and there



is no doubt that, once relieved from her pres-
ent exorbitant taxation, she will make rapid
strides in prosperity. Three great lines of
railway connect the city with the interior, by
which the products of the South and South-
west can be brought to her wharves at the
lowest rates. The recent discoveries of rich
deposits of phosphate rock in the districts
about the city, have proven to be of great
importance, and many millions of dollars and
thousands of laborers are profitably em-
ployed in digging and preparing it for mar-
A very erroneous impression prevails as to
the extent of business transacted in Charles-
ton, it being far greater than is generally sup-
posed. Her wholesale trade in dry goods,
groceries, etc., is very large-nearly as great
as before the war, and greater than any other
Southern port, except New Orleans. She re-
ceives a large quantity of cotton and lumber,
naval stores, rice, and phosphates. In spite of
bad government, high taxes, the ravages of fire,
and the unfortunate investments in Confede-
rate securities," Charleston is undoubtedly


progressing, and but few years will be requir-
ed to restore her to her former position.
A growing confidence in the final restora-
tion of an honest State government is again
attracting capital from abroad; and many
transactions have of late taken place in real
estate, within the city, on terms which, to
those accustomed to the prices current in
Northern cities, would seem preposterously
low. Fine dwellings, with beautiful gardens
attached thereto, are selling for from six to
ten thousand dollars-in many instances the
same buildings having originally cost double
that sum.
The resources of Charleston for a pleasant
sojourn are varied, and visitors, in great num-
bers, avail themselves of them during the
winter months. The hotels have always been
celebrated for their comfort and good cheer.
Unfortunately one of the favorite resorts, the
" Mills' House," is now closed; but the
"Charleston," a strictly first-class hotel, is kept
in excellent style, and has been recently en-
larged to meet the demand of increased
business. It is admirably managed and ap-





(To face p. 73.)


pointed, and the building is one of the orna-
ments of the city.
The Artesian Baths attached to the house
form one of its greatest attractions. The
waters, which flow direct from the wells, are
equal in softness to the most famous springs
of Germany.
In the building is an office where tickets to
Florida can be obtained. At the office of the
hotel carriages can be procured to visit
several places of interest in and about the
The "Pavilion Hotel" is a well-kept, com-
fortable house, to whose advertisement we call


The public institutions of Charleston are
numerous, and well worthy of a visit. The
Orphan Asylum is an exceedingly fine build-
ing, from whose cupola a most extensive view
of the city and harbor can be obtained. St.
Nicholas' and St. Philip's Churches are fine
edifices-the former was built from designs




of Sir Christopher Wren, who was also the
architect of the building known as the Old
This building is one in which many prom-
inent historical incidents were enacted. It
was the Government House in the Colonial
days; and during the Revolution its cellars
were the dungeon in which the British con-
fined the prominent patriots-from it Hayne
was led to execution. Charlestonians regard
the building with interest and affection, and
hailed with pleasure the act of the Washing-
ton government in repairing it, for it had
fallen into almost total ruin. A great number
of shells, during the bombardment, had tra-
versed it from roof to cellar. It is again used
as the Post-office, and, though much altered,
still bears traces of its original architecture.
The church-yards of Charleston contain
many ancient and interesting monuments,
some bearing exceedingly quaint inscriptions.
Calhoun's tomb is in St. Philip's yard.
The Battery, lined with rows of beautiful
residences, is the favorite afternoon promen-
ade. At sunset, the visitor, leaning over the


parapet rail, watching the waves break against
the sea-wall, cannot but appreciate the beauty
of the scene. Seaward lies Sumter, with a
fleet of vessels, large and small, passing to
and fro around the fortress. On the right is
James' Island, with the grove of giant pine
trees, known as the Hundred Pines, standing
out in bold relief against the sky; whilst, look-
ing up the Ashley, a view is obtained of a
beautiful river, with banks lined with groves
of magnolia and live oaks.
King Street is the Broadway of Charles-
ton, where the traveller can supply himself
from stores well filled with every commo-
The markets form a point of interest, and
should be visited. On Saturday night the
scene presented is curious, and peculiarly
There are several beautiful drives in the
environs of Charleston; to Magnolia Ceme-
tery,-to Lowndes' Avenue, to Belvidere,-
to the Four Mile House, and to the Ship-yard.
The roads, in most places, are bordered by
live oaks, magnolias, and pines, from whose



branches hang masses of gray moss, present.
ing a most unique appearance-whilst, in the
Spring, the hedges are filled with wild flow-
ers-the beautiful Cherokee rose and yellow
jessamine growing in tropical profusion, and
climbing high among the branches of the
The Charleston phosphates afford interest
to the agriculturist and the naturalist, who
should not fail to visit the region of theii
whereabouts. A recent work says:
In this region are found the most won-
derful remains of ancient and extinct species
of animals. There are whole acres richly
studded with fossils. Among these have been
recognized the bones of the Mammoth, Mas-
todon, Megatherium, Mylodon, Megalonyx,
Phocodon, and several varieties of the Sauri;
also teeth and bones of the shark, and numer-
ous other fishes in great variety; also teeth
and bones of the horse, dog, sheep, ox and
hog, differing but little, if at all, from those
belonging to our present domestic animals.
Pieces of pottery have been discovered com-
bined with stone hatchets, etc., in the same



bed, and almost identical in their character
with remains of the extinct animals, etc.,
found some years since, near Abbeville, in
France. It is said that human bones were
found, but the evidence to that effect is not
positive. This strange collection, this sepul-
ahre of the ages, where animals, now extinct,
sleep side by side with others; the ancestors,
perhaps, of our daily companions-where men,
beasts, reptiles and fishes, would seem to have
found a common grave-these fossils occur in
the post-pleiocene strata. They have been
described in the scientific journals by Pro-
fessor Holmes, whose articles attracted many
savans; among them, Agassiz, Count Portalis
and Leidy."
A visit to the Phosphate works in the vici-
nity of the city, will well repay one. The
rock can be procured in Charleston, without
the labor of a journey to the diggings. The
trade in fertilizers has assumed extensive pro-
portions. Since its discovery, its production
has reached a figure representing several
millions of dollars annually.
No one should leave Charleston without



visiting the numerous points of interest in the
harbor, made memorable by the stubborn con-
flicts between the Confederates and the forces
of the Federal Army and Navy. The excur-
sion to Forts Sumter and Moultrie, and to
the batteries on Morris, Sullivan and James'
Islands, is a delightful one, and can be safely
made in the comfortable yacht Eleanor, which
makes several trips daily from the Florida
Steamship Wharf.


The visitor will find Savannah a beautiful
city, abounding in pleasant walks and drives.
It is one of the most prosperous cities of the
South; one which does an enormous business
in merchandize, cotton and lumber. Its
wharves, during most of the year, are crowd-
ded with vessels.
The situation of Savannah, her perfect rail-
road facilities, etc., guarantees her a brilliant
future. She already receives nearly one sixth
of the cotton crop, and new avenues to trade
are constantly increasing. Much of the pros-



i 11111