A STUDY OF ARCHITECTURAL
PRESERVATION IN ST. AUGUSTINE,
This study was prepared by graduate students in the
Department of Architecture, University of Florida, as
part of their regular course work in architectural
preservation. The purpose of this academic exercise
was to direct an analysis of the architecture and
urban character of St. Augustine and of the problems
and processes of preservation within this historic
community. The study was divided into the following
- Preservation efforts outside the Historic Districts
- Preservation organization within St. Augustine
- Preservation funding sources and costs
- Design criteria for St. George Street Commercial
- The administration of Historic Districts: A
Comparison of Cities as they Relate to St. Augustine,
Board of Regents
State of Florida
Preservation Organizations within St. Augustine
The primary purpose of this report is to present a dis-
cussion and review of the major individual organizations
currently involved in preservation efforts within the city
of St. Augustine. The report is divided into two distinct
sections: the first is a technical description of each
individual organization based on its written charter, its
goals, and current objectives; its development and growth
in the paste and its exisitng status in St. Augustine. The
second section is a. discussion of the problems which exist
with the organizations today, both internally as an indi-
vidual body, and externally, as one group dealing with
another. This leads to a series of generalized recommendations
based on information gathered by various class members
through personal interviews, discussion, and research.
At the end of this report is a. list of terms often used in
architectural preservation which should become familiar to
individuals and groups involved in the contemporary devel-
opment of all areas in.St. Augustine, both historic and other
ST. AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL
The historical Society is the forerunner of the preser-
vation effort in St. Augustine, with its origin beginning
in 1883. In its early years, its primary goals were oriented
toward historic archeology and the formation of a historic
research library, with emphasis on the history of the St.
Augustine area. Earlier efforts resulted in the operation
of the Castillo de San Marcos for twenty years prior to the
National Park Service takeover in 1935, the purchase and
maintenance of the "oldest house" in 1918, and the aqu.-
sition of other "historic houses" and sites for the purpose
of architectural preservation and interpretation.
Currently, their efforts have been directed toward
architectural preservation, in which four different phases
have been observed: preserve buildings as is (stabilization),
restore buildings to an earlier period (restoration), re-
construct buildings on earlier foundations (reconstruction),
and construct modern buildings with respect to the historic
environment (compatible design). The society's efforts in
acquiring research information or the history of the St.
Augustine region has resulted in one of the largest col-
lections of research material available to the;puiblic.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
The National Park Service, a federal agency under the
Department of the Interior, as a result of the Presidential
Proclamation No, 1713 (43 Stat. 1968), dated Oct. 15, 1924
proclaimed Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marco), together
with its historic structures and objects, a national mon-
ument. The primary function is to maintain and preserve the
Castillo and its surrounding lands (including the City Gates)
for the benefit and enjoyment by the people. The Park Ser-
vice has continued this direction since its beginning, and
for all practical purposes, will continue to do so in the
future. Unlike other organizations concerned with preser-
vation activities, the survival of "the Park Service is not
dependent upon the income of the "tourist industry" within
St. Augustine. The Park Service is funded soley by the
federal government, and thus they are freed from many of the
problems and restrictions that are experienced by the other
preservation organizations within St. Augustine. The Park
Service has p. strong'working relationship with many of the
preservation oriented'groups within St. Aug'ustine.
HISTORIC ST. AUGUSTINE
Established in 1959, the Historic St. Augustine preser-
vation Board (originally the St. Augustine Historic Restor-
ation and Preservation Commission) was created by state
statute as a. result of the foresight of local organizations
who realized the historic value of the St. Augustine area and
their own inability to successfully preserve and restore
the district. The board was established as a state funded
body whose purpose it is to acquire, restore, and preserve
historic properties within St. Augustine for the benefit and edu-
cation of the general public. The makeup of the board consists
of a seven member body appointed by the Governor of the
state. All but two of the board's members must be residents of
the state of Florida.
In its beginning, the board directed its efforts toward the
development of a. general master plan which called for the restor-
ation of an eight block area near the Castillo de San Marcos.
The restoration was intended to help depict a general cross-
section of the growth and change of St, Augustine during
its changing periods of occupation. The board has continued
in this direction with the development of a revised master
plan in February of 1976. The plan defined the board's
goals and objectives, and as a result, the board
has directed its efforts toward the preservation of the
colonial city plan, the preservation of the city as. a
living community reflecting the historic past through .its
architecture, and to reserve a portion of the city for in-
terpretive orientation. The Board has been the primary
mechanism behind the architectural restoration and recon-
struction of St. Augustines past, as well as being one of
the only organizations currently involved with the arch-
eological research of St. Augustines history.
Currently, the Board is continuing in this direction, but
has been severally hampered as the result of many factors.
Probably, the most apparent, has been that of fincial set-
backs as imposed by. th- state. The Board is financed
solely by state funds whichsince its creation, have been
significantly reduced, largely as a result of the creation
of similar Boards within the State of Florida. Due to
restrictions imposed upon the Board by the state in accept-
ing private funds, another organization was created which
would act as a "right-arm" to the Preservation Board itself.
ST. AUGUSTINE RESTORA--
TION FOUNDATION, INC.
The St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, Inc. was founded
in 1962 by a group of interested citizens, whose primary
function is to accept private funds and the donation of
properties, while working closely with the Preservation
Board. The Foundation has much more latitude in raising
funds in the private sector and lacks the restrictions of
"state red tape" that continually haunts the Preservation
Board in its work. Through the years, the Foundation has
been able to acquire a. large amount of properties, with-
in the eight block area. near the.Castillo, which are then
leased to the Preservation Board for operation and inter-
pretation purposes. The Foundation and the Preservation
Board while working together, have been largely respon-
sible for the development of the San Augustin Antiguo
area (the eight block area near the Castillo).
Currently, the Foundation is continuing to work with the
Preservation Board, but has also concentrated its efforts
on other projects outside of the San Augustin Antiguo
district, One of these projects has been the reconstruc-
tion of a 1580 St. Augustine settlement, north of the
aging proper preservation efforts within the city of St.
Augustine. As in any other similar situation, the effect-
iveness of any such mechanism is totally dependent upon
the expertise of the individuals who enforce -it. This
is probably one of the major problems within St. Augustines
preservation efforts and will be discussed more closely
later on in this paper. The city and county's efforts in
the preservation activities within St. Augustine has been
in the past and will continue to do so in the future, only
in the capacities as discussed above.
Efforts, within the scope of preservation, have been recently
created by private groups and individuals to preserve
specific areas outside the major historic districts. One
such area is the Lincolnville area., which is a. predominately
black area. Residents,,. through their own awareness of the
potential of the neighborhood in which they live, are' con-
centrating their efforts to upgrade,as well as. preserve,
the historical and physical qualities of their neighbor-
hood. Another example is a group of private individuals
who have organized their efforts collectively, in order to
preserve the architectural quality of their neighborhood,
The area in which these people have been working is the
Waterstreet area, wthich'is located directly adjacent to the
Ripley Museum. The organizations described previously in
this section, have advised and cooperated with these private
efforts and should continue to do so in the future. This
evidence of "preservation activities" by private individuals
within the City of St. Augustine becomes a very healthy
situation in which preservation can benefit many individuals,
and should definitely be encouraged.
Another- area of private effort which should be mentioned,
is that of the merchants who are located within the San
Augustin Antiguo District or directly adjacent to it. Efforts
generated by these individuals have created one of the
biggest problems within the scope of preservation. It is
not the responsibility of this section to discuss this area
of concern in any great detail, but to mention it only
as an aspect of private efforts in the preservation move-
ment, whether good or bad.
The large impact of religion on the development of the city
becomes apparent when reading the history of St. Augustine.
It is for this reason and because of their direct contri-
butions and involvement with contemporary preservation
activities that they are mentioned here. The various religious
bodies have primarily been concerned with preservation efforts
concerning their own historic properties.
Currently, the Greek Archdiocese of North and South America
is involved with the construction of St. Photios shrine
within the courtyard of the Avero House, which is located within
the San Augustin Antiguo area.
Involvement by public groups in preservation:efforts within
St. Augustine has generated a large amount of positive
action for the city. One such organization is the Colonial
Dames, whose efforts have resulted in the architectural
restoration of the Ximes-Fatio house located south of the
Plaza. Other public organizations such as the Library
Association, the Cross and Sword, and the staff of the Lightner
Museum also participate in efforts to present the historical
past of St. Augustine to the public.
Involvement between the city of St. Augustine and the state
university system has been largely neglected by reports concern-
ed with preservation within the city. Kathy Deegah's archeo-
logical work in St. Augustine has been instrumental in the
interpretation of the city's historical past, as well as
providing an excellent laboratory for archeological. students
from both Florida State University and the University of
Florida. The Architectural Preservation Department of the
University of Florida has been involved in many projects
within St. Augustine. One major example has been the develop-
ment of a complete set of architectural inventories,
by graduate students within the program, of-every structure
within all five of the designated historic districts. There
has been a strong liaison between preservation efforts and
the universities in other facets of the city's growth as
well, including historical research and the creation of
an excellent resource section within the P. K. Younge
Library located at the University of Florida. Hopefully,
such cooperation can continue to benefit all who are
involved in the study of St. Augustine.
While there is no doubt that the objectives which promoted
the formation of each of these organizations were very
real ones, and that each organization has been sincere
in its efforts to address these objectives, there is clearly
a lack of cooperation among these groups. Often there is
not only a total lack of cooperative effort, but a. total
absence of communication as well.
Before investigating the inter-relationships of these groups,
one must realize the very important fact that the primary
goals of one organization are often quite different from
those of the other groups. Although this is one of the
prime factors leading to the present lack of cooperation, it
should not be viewed as a negative factor in itself. The
various goals to which the groups have addressed themselves
help to form a broad base for preservation efforts in
St. Augustine. While it presently inhibits cross cooper-
ation, it insures that all phases of preservation will be
approached from numerous angles at the federal, state,
and local level,
The unnecessary negative result of this multiple approach,
though, is that the organizations have often let themselves
become insulated from one another, especially when critical
decisions are made affecting the development of the whole
city. This is due to the absence of two very important
parts of any large preservation effort:
-a master program to set guidelines for cross
contact between the various organizations which
would include a clear hierarchy of power and
final authority! a. concise inventory of the laws
affecting preservation in the St. Augustine area
and the establishment of legal parameters for en-
forcing these laws when necessary.
--an active master plan- not for organizational
operations- but for the growth of the city and
its historic district. While several master
plans have been written in St. Augustine's
recent history- some with excellent proposals and
guidelines- there presently does not exist, nor
has there ever existed, a. master plan created
with the input of all the organizations previously
mentioned, with clearly defined leagal author-
ity to enf6rc'eguidelines when necessary, (zoning,
architectural standards, codes, eminant domain,
It is these two factors- a lack of an orgizational structure
as well as a master growth plan- which have been responsible
for questionable decisions as well as total non-action
concerning matters critical to St, Augustine's growth.
While all of the organizations clearly address themselves
to Saint Augustine's historical character, they do so in
distinctly different ways, and this, then, is the be-
ginning of the divisions and rifts which have segmented
the city's preservation efforts,
For, example, the National Park Service's primary pur-
pose in St. Augustine is to preserve and maintain the
Castillo de San Marcos as a monument of national signif-
icance, Tourists, profits, and growth are all important,
but clearly secondary to this purpose. Although it de-
rives income from the tours given at the fort, the Nation-
al Park Service, being a federal agency, is assured of
at least a minimal budget even during the off-years in
On the other hand, the Historic Saint Augustine Preser-
vation Board, a state agency created by the Florida legis-
lature in order to obtain, restore, and maintain various
sites in historical St, Augustine, is critically dependent
on tourism income, as well as state monies appropriated
by an often unpredictable state government. Not only are
the budget sources of this organization often unpredict-
able, so to are the positions held by members of the board,
who are appointed by the governor to serve in the agency.
This, then, is not to say that these two organizations
have not or will not cooperate with each other on matters
of mutual interest, but clearly, the differences in the
nature of their structure demonstrates that they must yield
to very different pressures, making joint cooperative
efforts all the more difficult.
Just as the National Park Service works in the framework
of the federal government, And the Preseavation-Board in a
state structure, so to must the input of the city gov-
ernment be structured within the local political system.
It is this segment which probab&bly has the most import-
ant role to play,(i.e. legislation, laws, and enforce-
ment,) but which has been the least effective to date.
Even more than the state-ruled board, local city officials,
as representatives of the people who live and work in
St. Augustine, are subject to the.inherent instability of
a. small political systems
--position-holders are often elected, or appointed
to set terms of office.
--Budgets directly and immediately represent the
economic growth or decline of the area; unlike
the more stable budget of the Park Service, or to
a much lesser extent, the state.
--Unlike the state and federal agencies created
specifically for the purpose of preservation ef-
forts, city officials must be in the uncomfortable
position of having to deal With preservation in
the context of all of the rest of the city's prob-
lems and needs.
The blatent result is that the city government-- the most
important organization in St. Augustine's preservation ef-
fort because of all the factions it must represent and be-
cause of its potential to create and enforce laws that aid
preservation,- is, sadly, weekend because of the compro-
mises it must make in dealing with all of the views it
The city is not only weakening its own power by not hav-
ing effective and enforceable preservation policies, it
is also weakening the opportunity for state and federal
agencies to operate effectively as well. While the state
and federal government take active roles in the preservation
efforts they have addressed themselves to within St. Aug-
ustine, they have and must take care not to appear as in-
truding governmental agencies oblivious to local govern-
ment. If they are to respect St. Augustine"s city politi.
cal system, then they need and deserve an effective frame-
work of city policies which they can use to achieve their
Of the possible agencies in which new ideas can be test-
ed, it is the local city framework which is probably the
safest testing ground. State, and especially federal,
agencies can rarely "express" a new idea, a proposal, or
opinion without it being considered as a final directive
by the general public. One spokesman for the National
Park Service complained that it was nearly impossible
for him to take part in multi-agency group discussions
because any views he expressed-- no matter how casual--
were immediately blown out of proportion by the local
press as "federal objectives" of the park service. As
a result, the agency which operates the single most val-
uable resource in St. Augustine- the Castillo- is
forced into a passive role because of an unreceptive
and suspicious public attitude.
This suspicion and quasi-paranoia exists not only in
context with the federal level, but between many smaller
groups and organizations as well. It is probably the
most intense between those whose interests are primarily
commercial- at the expense of history, and those whose
interests are primarily historical-- often at the expense
of local commerce. In between these two extremes lie a
whole range of varying beliefs which often appear quite
fuzzy and inter-mingled to the outsider not familiar with
the day to day operations of St. Augustine's preservation
The group most representative of commerce in the his-
torical area is the Merchants Association, which in-
cludes many of the businessmen on the south end of St.
George street. Much, if not most, of the business in the
downtown area and in the historical district is from people
who have come to St. Augustine because of its historic
past. Many of St. Augustine's merchants, in their quest
to "give the public what it wants," and to "make a-buck,"
devise plans for their own welfare which often would
cheapen and irreparably harm the very historical character
which brings the visitor to the city in the first place,
This, then, brings us to another of the key issues in
St. Augustine's contemporary development. While America
tolerates and often promotes the "main street" businessman
to "grow, expand, profit, remodel, improve, serve, and
prosper," it becomes clearly obvious even to the
outsider-that this typical small town growth can't co-
incide in an area already given national importance, at
least not unless there is an active master plan, clear and
concise city policies to regulate commercial interests,
and a designated city power to enforce those policies
quickly and effectively when the need arrises. This
leads to another important point. While commerce opper-
ating within the city should be regulated in order to
protect historical resources, it is clearly unfair to the
owners of commercial establishments to demand that they
follow city policies which are often vague or undefined or
which are often applied unfairly when and if they are
applied at all. While one may not agree with the growth
plans of various shopkeepers in St. Augustine, one can
certainly sympathize with the complaints of having to
deal with the "final word" of three different agencies
all at the same time, as in the case of one perplexed
businessman who has just opened a new shop location in
the historic district,
Unfortunately, placing the burden of preservation leader-
ship on the city is not an easy and simple decision.
Just as we cannot expect small-town commercialism
to develop without a regulatory framework to protect
the nationally significant aspects of St. Augustine,
can we expect a small-town government to be able to
adequately handle the responsibility of guiding the
growth of St. Augustine? In St. Augustine's local
governmental system as it exists today, critical de-
cisions regarding historic areas can receive little,
if any more, attention than the locally significant
problems at hand. Even if the city were to create so-
phisticated guidelines for historic preservation, it is
doubtful that elected city officials, who aren't required
to have a keen understanding of the historical signifi-
cance of the city they serve, could be expected to
administer and interpret these guidelines effectively.
To say that it is the city which, with state and federal
input, should have the final authority in St. Augustine's
preservation process, and then to conclude that the
city governmental system, as it exists today, is not capable
of making important decisions affecting this nationally
significant area, would seem contradictory. The intention,
though, is to point out the need for an agency which does
not yet exist: a city-run agency-- an extention of the
city government-- which would consist of appointed pro-
fessionals whose sole purpose it would be to study,
monitor, guide, control and administer preservation
efforts in St. Augustine.
While this program would be administered by the city,
ideally it could rely on funding from all three levels
of government-- the national, state, and local-- which
could help to counteract the budget instability which is
currently a problem with existing agencies.
Being a direct arm of the city government, this agency
could take an active part in city legislation which would
guide St. Augustine's preservation effort. In addition,
the agency could,
--act as a go-between in resolving the city's more
mundane,tday to day issues with the much more
significant problems with its historical area.
--direct local, but none the less important, pres-
ervation efforts of private citizens and merchants,
The current drive to renew the predominantly black
residential area of Lincolnville, for example,
is a case in point. The proposal to turn the south
end of St. George street into a pedestrian mall,
another. These are examples of local projects
which need clear and immediate interpretations of
the historical significance of the area, guide-
lines for improvements, and a defined source of
authority with whom Citizens can w6rk to achieve
-address the need for funding and support by em-
ploying a professional grant seeker to locate any
available government funding, solicit donations, and
write grant proposals for the city.
In addition to these functions, a city agency could be the
most effective in correcting one of the most serious prob-
lems which is slowing progressive preservation in St. Aug-
ustine today a lack of interpretive and educational
information aimed, not at the visiting tourist, but at
the resident of St. Augustine. While one of the chief
aims of the Preservation Board, for example, is to
educate and inform the many visitors of its historical
buildings, many, if not most, of the residents of the city
lack a clear understanding of the development of their
own community. A large proportion of the questionable
decisions influencing the city's growth made by local
residents and merchants may often be made not because
of a lack of interest in historic preservation but be-
cause of honest ignorance.
A city-sponsered "awareness program" could work at all
levels- schools, business, civic groups, industry, etc.-
to create a genuine appreciation of the St. Augustine his-
torical environment. Not only would the residents them-
selves benefit from such a program, the long range effect
would be to create a receptive climate for the efforts of
state and federal sponsored projects, hopefully minimizing
the conflicts which exist today. Equally important is
the fact that once residents fully understood the unique
qualities of their city and the significance of their
city to the country, they would probably be more willing
to support-- both in belief and with financial backing-
a city sponsored preservation agency.
It is important that the creation of such an agency not
be considered as a replacement for the other organiza-
tions which currently exist in St. Augustine, especially
the Preservation Board. The primary intent of the city
agency would not necessarily be to actually take part
in the physical aspects of preservation (purchasing of
property, restoration, reconstruction, etc.,) but to
instead provide professional help, to establish guide.
lines- including architectural review, to define and
interpret the authority of the city, and most importantly,
to create a positive environment for all of the other
organizations so that they may work effectively toward
their stated goals and objectives.
PRESERVATION: FUNDING SOURCES
PREPARED BY: Lawrence Freedman
There are many funding programs and sources available to
local governments and individuals interested in the pres-
ervation effort. Some preservation programs are more ob-
vious than others and often, it may require a skilled finan-
cial expert to locate them. This portion of the study will
deal with various federal, state and local funding programs.
The second section will examine some of the costs incurred
in an adaptive use venture.
FEDERAL FUNDING PROGRAMS:
Department of Housing and
The federal government has established many programs that
provide direct and indirect financial support to the pres-
ervation effort. Funding programs designed to aid preser-
vation can be found under almost every department of gov-
ernment. Major funding programs are available under the
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the
Department of Commerce, the Small Business Administration
(SBA), the Department of the Treasury and the Department
of the Interior. It is important to consider all federal
funding sources even if the word "preservation" does not
appear in the stated title or text. Many programs can be
adapted to solve preservation problems as well as meet the
Most HUD-assisted development programs can be applied to
preservation, and the private profit motive is not over-
looked. HUD programs are intended to attract private in-
vestment and, thus, act as a stimulus to preservation ac-
Community Development Block Grants: This program became
effective in 1974, and established an entirely new rela-
tionship between the federal government and local govern-
ments. Under the new act, grant money will be funded
directly to local governments, who are in a position to
determine the proper usage based on local priorities. The
grant must serve the needs of low to moderate-income res-
idents or meet urgent community development needs. In the
field of preservation, block grant money has been appro-
priated for planning, acquisitions, restorations of public
and private properties and the creation of revolving funds.
The monies do not have to be used for National Register
structures or districts and can be applied to other preser-
vation projects. Grants 1o nt `ave to be matched and can
even be used to match other federal grants,such as the U.S.
Department of the Interior funds for historic preservation.
Home Improvement Loans-Title I: To enable property improve-
ment, Title I funds insure loans. FHA-approved lending
institutions may participate in the program and they provide
the actual loan. The loans may not exceed 12 years and
must apply to single or multi-unit housing. Loans can be
made up to $15,000 for a single-family residence and $5,000
per dwelling unit for multi-unit buildings, with a limit
Historic Preservation Loans-Title It Residential properties
listed under the National Register can be eligible for a
special Title I loan. The insured loan can be applied to
preservation, restorationor rehabilitation. Residential
properties within a National Register Historic District can
also qualify for the loan. Loans can be $15,000 for a
single family house and $30,000 for a two-family unit.
Home Ownership Subsidy-Section 235: Section 235 is basie-
cally designed to allow low and moderate income families
to purchase new or rehabilitated housing. HUD insures the
mortgage for the lender and then will provide assistance
in the form of supplemental payments to the purchaser. The
purchaser must be either handicapped, single and over 62
years of age or a family of two or more. Income limits
for the purchaser is based on area income and housing costs.
Public bodies and private non-profit organizations may
participate in the program by selling rehabilitated housing
to Section 235 recipients.
Rent Subsidy-Section Eight: Families of lower income can
be assured of adequate housing through supplementry rent
payments. Preservationists will be most interested in the
aspects of "existing" and "rehabilitated" housing assistance.
Sponsors and developers can participate, often together.
While Section Eight programs do not finance rehabilitation,
it makes projects feasible by assuring the sponsors and
developers income through payment of rent subsidies.
Rehabilitation Loans-Section 312: As part of an overall
neighborhood improvement effort, Section 312 money can be
applied to upgrade privately owned property to building
code standards. This program applies to both residential
and non-residential property. The structure must be sit-
uated in a federally aided area such as an urban renewal
area or where block grant funds are being allocated.
Loans are offered at 3 percent and terms may not exceed
Department of Commerce: The Department of Commerce funds economically depressed
areas. Usually, funding is supplied to stimulate activity
and in turn create new jobs. Often the jobs are related
to the tourism industry and often preservation can be
EDA Redevelopment Area Loan Program; Funds from the EDA
will be distributed to cities for reinvestment to promote
economic development in that area. Because of the rela-
tively low budget recently, redevelopment area loan funds
will be very competitive. The major intent of the program
is to promote tourism or increased industrial facilities
Small Business Administration:Loan Programs: The Small Business Administration (SBA)
will provide loans in order to aid a small business in con-
verting or improving a facility as long as the main ob-
jective is to increase commercial activity. The structure
must be existing and applicants must be unable to obtain
Department of the Treasury:
Department of the Interior:
General Revenue Sharing: Under the General Revenue
Sharing program, federal tax revenues are directly dis-
tributed to state and local governments. The state is
allocated one-third, with the remaining funds to be dis-
tributed to local governments to do as they wish. The
revenue can be used to match other government funding pro-
grams, or it can be directed into other programs which
serve the needs of the community. Preservation projects
can and often are funded by the grant. The local govern-
ment is required by law to hold at least on public hearing
concerning the usage of the funds.
Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aids In 1966, the National
Historic Preservation Act declared by Congress stated
that maximum encouragement should be given to any agency
or individual who undertakes the process of preservation
of an historic property. The Grants-in-Aid program pro-
vides funds to states by allocating up to 50 percent of the
costs of state and local preservation expenses. Each state
determines its own criteria but assisted property must be
listed in the National Regester. Privately owned property
is eligible for restoration assistance provided that the
owner maintains the integrity of the property for a deter-
mined period of time. State and local governments as well
as nonprofit organizations are eligible for grants-in-aid.
Tax Reform Act of 1976:
Federal Funding Case Study:
Tax incentives for the preservation and rehabilitation of
historic structures and buildings were established by the
Tax Reform Act of 1976.
"The Act amended the Federal Income Tax Code
with provisions to: Stimulate preservation
of historic commercial and income producing
structures by allowing favorable tax treat-
ments for rehabilitations; and
discourage destruction of historic buildings
by reducing tax incentives both for demoli-
tion of historic structures and for new con-
struction on the site of demolished historic
Eligible structures must be located in a National Register
Historic District, located in an historic district as out-
lined by state or local government or individually listed
in the National Register of Historic Places.
An example of a preservation project which received total
federal support occurred in Gainesville, Florida in 1975.
After many years of effort,to save the aging Hotel Thomas,
Historic Gainesville, Inc. (HGI), initiated a plan to buy
the hotel and adapt the 20,000 square foot building into
office and museum space.
First a feasibility study was performed to convince local
officials that the building was structurally sound and
capable of being rehabilitated. In order to pay for the
$30,000 study, the city and county commissions matched a
grant from the American Revolution Bicentennial Adminis-
tration. Once the building was pronounced restorable, it
was seen as a needed source of revenue if used for private
as well as governmental functions.
On April 4, 1975, the city of Gainesville bought the Hotel
Thomas for $317,700, with Historic Gainesville Inc. con-
tributing its original $300 purchase option. The city's
acquisition was one of the largest in the Nation exercising
Federal revenue-sharing funds. Since 1975, the hotel has
received $1,500,000 in revenue sharing bonds, an Economic
Development Administration (EDA) grant totaling $1,250,000
and a National Park Service grant of $31,000.
Breakdown of Funding Sources for the Hotel Thomas:
ARBA grant $ 15,000
County funds 8,000
City funds 7,500
Total $ 30,000
Breakdown of Funding Sources for the Hotel Thomas: (cont.)
Cost of Buildings
EDA Grant 1,250,000
NPS Grant 1l,000
STATE FUNDING PROGRAMS:
State Grant-in-Aid: State, county and local governments
and private, nonprofit preservation organizations are
eligible for state grants-in-aid. The property must be
eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.
Project funding is provided on a fifty-fifty basis. The
state will provide fifty percent, while the matching fifty
percent must be raised from local government, nonprofit
organizations or individual funds. (50f%/50% applies to
State and Local Tax
Revolving Funds to Aid
Generally, State and local governments have established
tax laws which have discouraged the preservation and re-
habilitation of historic structures and sites. Govern-
ment can create new ways to stimulate preservation by of-
fering tax advantages to its citizens. The following is
a list of possible tax incentives which could have a pos-
itive effect on preservation
Tax credits or deductions of State income or prop-
erty taxes for rehabilitation and maintenance of
Tax credits or deductions on local property taxes.
Abatements cr partial abatements of property taxes,
i.e., partial or complete exemptions for qualified
Alternate valuation methods i.e., assessment of
property value on the basis of existing use or other
than fair market value.
Revolving funds can be established on a natlenal state or
local basis. In any case, the main objective of the-fund
is to establish a monetary base in order to buy, sell and
maintain property. With capital at hand, the revolving
fund can purchase endangered structures or property directly
as opposed to finding a sympathetic buyer. Properties
may be restored, easements may be placed on them, and they
may be resold or leased to parties'will maintain them.
Case Study of Local Pres-
As properties are sold, the money returns to the fund and
can then be used to save another endangered property.
On a local level, cities in other sections of the country
have taken steps to finance and stimulate preservation
in their communities. The city of Springfield, Mass., has
taken measures to get the effort off the grounds One of the
major criteria for a successful program is that all parties
must be willing to make initial concessions.
The first step to be taken was by the city of Springfield,
who agreed to set very reasonable tax rates. This was seen
as a measure to aid a rehabilitation project's profitability.
The cities financial institutions collaborated to create
loans for projects available at a lower than market rate.
Project developers agreed to lower their rate of return
during the early phases of the project. It was not until
a project began to show profit that the tax rates and loan
terms were renegotiated.
Sources of funding for many of the projects came from a 17
million dollar mortgage pool established by the cities
financial institutions. The funds were allocated to devel-
opers who could not market rate loans. The funds were to
be provided at lower than market interest rates. The rates
and terms were delt with on an individual basis as were the
tax rates. As the pool became depleated, more funds were
added to replenish it.
The city of Springfield also initiated a city facade grant
program. In 1977, the city's Community Development Depart-
ment allocated some of its federal block grant monies to
fund the program. The program encouraged owners of old
buildings to clean and restore their facades by paying only
two-thirds of the cost. The city paid the other one-third
while also supplying architectural advice and guidelines
for the preservation and redesign of storefronts and build-
RECOMMENDATIONSs The City of ST. Augustine can and should adapt many of the
successful programs of other cities to meet their own pres-
ervation needs. Below are recommended steps that could be
taken in order to achieve a more comprehensive preservation
The City of St. Augustine should determine all
residents who are eligible for tax benefits from
the Tax Reform Act of 1976. Each citizen should
be notified and made aware of all provisions.
At the present time, the City of St. Augustine
does not receive any federal funding for reha-
bilitation programs. The only federal aid that
the City does receive comes via the State Archives
for the restoration of homes not for residential
use. In the past several years, a total of $136,238
has been granted for historic preservation.3
The City must apply for all types of federal grant
The City should conduct an indepth housing study
to provide sufficient information to meet HUD
requirements for determining assisted housing needs.
Based on average income levels, the City should
consider federal programs pertaining to low and mod-
erate income families.
The City should hire a full time financial expert
or grantsman to obtain federal grants.
Local financial institutions should collaborate
with city government to organize special loan pro-
The City should consider establishing facade grant
programs to local merchants.
ADAPTIVE USE OF A COMMERCIAL Many of the funding programs preceding this section can
BUILDING- be applied directly to adaptive use projects. Funding
sources range from federal revenue sharing and Small
Business Administration loans to city sponsored facade
grant programs. What ever the source of funding or loan,
an adaptive use project will incur standard expenses which
will add to the cost of a project. Some of these expenses
will be examined in this section.
A typical building type found in almost every section of
the country is the 19th century commercial structure. The
building is generally 20 to 25 feet wide and 50 to 100 feet
deep. The building is usually sandwiched between two
adjacent structures. The structure was probably built
between 1865 and 1900, has two to four stories and is Ital-
ianate in detail.
The estimated cost of adapting a building of this nature
will range between 15 and 40 per square foot. The wide
range in cost is based on the initial costs of new stairs,
exits, elevators and restrooms. All buildings must have
these requirement and as the building area increases, the
price per square foot will drop.
Exterior Preservation Costs: The main objective of preservation concerning the exterior
portion of a building is to enhance the original design.
The extent of work to be done on the exterior will depend
upon the overall condition of the facade. This in turn
will determine the limits of the rehabilitation costs.
A typical 19th century building is considered to have four
distinct horizontal zones on its facade. "From the ground
up, the first zone would be the storefront; the second, an
ornamental frieze; the third would be one, two or three
stories of masonry punctuated with narrow rectangular win-
dows; and the fourth, a cornice, usually with a frieze and
brackets on the roof line." Each of these zones can be
expected to vary in cost per square foot depending upon
the degree of rehabilitation needed.
Zone 1: The storefront is an area on the facade which can
can be expected to have gone through some degree of change.
Basically because it is the most accessible portion of the
building facade. One can expect improvements to range in
price from $15-$20 per square foot of exterior building
Zone 2: The horizontal band above the storefront is called
the lower frieze. It was usually constructed of wood, sheet
metal or cast iron. Often this portion of the facade was
removed to provide room for a "modern" sign. Replacement
could cost as much as $200 a linear foot.
Zone 3: This zone will be the least expensive because it
ZONE 4: $30 to $35 / sq. ft.
ZONE 3: $2 to $2.50 / sq. ft.
ZONE 2t $25 to $30 / sq. ft.
ZONE 1: $15 to $20 / sq. ft.
FACADE: $10 to $15 / sq. ft.
underwent the fewest changes. Usually all that is neces-
sary is to remove paint or clean the surface. Cost for
this zone may range from $2.00-$2.50 per square foot.
Zone 4: The upper cornice is probably the most expensive
portion of the facade to rehabilitate. Cost for repairs
of this zone may run $30-$35 per square foot of building
Interior Preservation Costss Below is a listing of interior details which should be con-
sidered when estimating the cost of an adaptive use projects
Sprinkler systems in a building of this type can be
installed for as little as $1.25 per square foot.
this will aid in insurance costs later.
Stairs, Older buildings will generally only have
one stair. A four foot wide fire stair with fire
rated inclosures will cost between $40-$50 per square
When a total HVAC system is needed, cost can run
between $5-$8 per square foot. Provided that all
ducts remain exposed.
Electrical costs will run about $2-3 per square foot.
It is clear that the cost per square foot will vary depend-
ing on the overall square footage of the building. One sug-
gestion for overcoming the high square footage cost would
be to rehabilitate more than one adjacent building and
share the cost of the expensive element such as elevators
and stairs. In this way, rehabilitation and adaptive use
might seem more feasible.
U.S. Department of the Interior, Tax Incentives for Re-
habilitating Historic Buildings (Washington D.C.
1978) p. 1
2Anne Derry and H. Ward Jandl, OAHP: Guidelines for Local
Surveys (Washington D.C., 1978) p. 58
Jacksonville Area Planning Board, Comprehensive Plan
Elements (Jacksonville, 1977) p. 239
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Economics Benefits
of Preserving Old Buildings ( Washington D.C. 1978)
Derry, Anne., and H. Ward Jandl. OAHP: Guidelines for
Local Surveys; A Basis for Preservation Planning,
Washington D.C., 1978
Jacksonville Area Planning Board, Comprehensive Plan Elements:
St. Augustine Fla. Jacksonville; 1977
National Trust for Historic Preservation, A Guide to Federal
Programs, Preservation Press; Washington,,1974
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Economic Benefits
of Preservation, Preservation Press; Washington, 1978
Springfield, Mass. It's Time for Springfield, City of
Urban Land Institute. Adaptive Use, Development Economics,
Process and Profiles, Washington D.C. ULI; 1978
US Department of the Interior. Tax Incentives for Rehabili-
tating Historic Buildings, Washington D.C. 1978
US Department of Housing And Urban Development. Programs
of HUD, Washington D.C. 1978
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR
ST. GEORGE STREET
During the past few years people have become increasingly
more aware of the historic districts in their cities. This
awareness has generated a more concerned attitude as to
what should be done with them. The basic issue, however, is
economic gain and how a historic district might benefit or
hinder a city's potential for growth. As a result, some
cities have elected to restore and reconstruct their dis-
tricts in order to stimulate interest in the commercial
activities. In many cases there is no concern for historic
documentation prior to any restoration/reconstruction work.
Some cities, like St. Augustine, have choose to do historic
reconstruction. Other cities, however, have choose to tear
down their districts and replace them with new commercial
St. Augustine is fortunate in that it is considered to be
the oldest city in the nation. As a result, its historic
district is an important economic factor in terms of gene-
rating tourist revenue. The question arises, however, as
to what should be done with the adjacent district, south of
Hypolita Street and north of the Plaza, which lack thorough
documentation and has developed an integrity of its own
over the years.
STATEMENT OF INTENT
The intent of this study is to propose alternatives and set
up guidelines which the adjacent district, south of Hypolita
Street and north of the Plaza, can follow.
These proposals and guidelines should respect the historic
development of St. Augustine. At the same time they should
provide a quality environment that would make the district
a contributing factor to the growth of St. Augustine and the
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
Restored North St. George St.
San Agustin Antiguo is the name given to the two most north-
ern blocks of St. George Street in St. Augustine. These
blocks, between the historic City Gates and Hypolita Street
including parts of Cuna Street, represent a current inter-
pretation of the town as it was in the late 18th century
with examples of the First Spanish Period (1565 to 1763),
the British Period (1763 to 1784), and the Second Spanish
Period (1784 to 1821). The restoration/reconstruction ef-
fort has been spearheaded by the State of Florida through
the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board with other
groups and individuals providing property and money for ad-
ditional construction. Most of the restoration is now com-
plete with the structures in active use throughout the year,
housing State exhibits and small, tourist oriented commer-
cial outlets. Based on historical and archeological evi-
dence, most restored buildings retain in scale, texture,
and spatial arrangement that has been St. Augustine's trade-
mark for the past four centuries.
The scale of the street, supposedly the oldest in the United
States, is perhaps the most noticeable feature which makes
this area unique even within the old Spanish town. Appro-
ximately twenty feet wide, the asphalt street is bordered
by buildings or courtyard walls rising to a height of at
least six feet. These walls are broken only by doorways,
windows, and gateways at the first level, while at the sec-
ond, many houses have balconies of various sizes reaching
into the street. The courtyards, which are an integral part
of every house, contain foliage which helps the scale of the
area by forming a canopy and and casting shadows in the court-
yards and over the walls into the street.
Stucco is the most widely used surface material for exterior
walls facing the street, this is applied to stone masonry
or coquina bearing walls in the older structures. Many re-
constructions were made of concrete block with a stucco fin-
ish to match the original. Some buildings have no stucco,
but preferred instead to leave the stone or coquina exposed.
This practice is a recent one to make the buildings look old,
as most people don't understand that the stucco is actually
the original material. Frame structures are also present,
representing the British period.
Windows are of styles representing the different occupation
periods. Spanish structures have wood casement windows with
interior shutters (from the First Spanish Period) or exterior
shutters (from the Second Spanish Period). They can also
have an exterior wood frame (rejas) which was from both the
First Spanish Period and the early British period. British
windows are usually wood double hung with nine panes over
six. These usually have shutters on the exterior. All win-
dows are small, as required in load bearing masonry walls,
and usually arranged symmetrically on the facade. The build-
ings are relatively free of ornament, as they were construct-
ed in a new environment by people who were in need of only a
roof and four walls. The Historic St. Augustine Preservation
Board has added lights to the corner of some of the buildings.
These are 19th century in style but fit in and go almost un-
noticed during daylight hours.
Public parking is limited to two metered lots, one east, the
other west of St. George St. between Cuna and Hypolita Streets.
These have been made to fit into the area, with walls to the
streets and landscaping throughout. These are model parking
lots with easy access to St. George St. through a courtyard
which makes an effective scale transition from the automo--
bile to an exceptional pedestrian space. The problem is that
spaces are limited, and they fill up quickly on summer week-
ends. Once full, people have no indication as to where they
may find more spaces. These are available, north of the City
Gates at the Information Center, at the Castillo San Marcos,
private lots, and several lots south of Hypolita St. These
need to be integrated more with the visitor flow in the area.
All utilities are hidden, with electric service underground
to avoid unsightly power lines. Service to the commercial
structures is done during off hours so as to not interfere
with the visitors.
I I- -TTE T, 7
San Agustin Antiguo existing condition
San Agustin Antiguo; existing condition
State owned buildings
privately owned buildings
city parking lot
private parking lot
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
COMMERCIAL DISTRICT OF
NORTH ST. GEORGE ST.
North St. George Street, between Cathedral Street and
Hypolita Street, is a two block commercial district made
up largely of one, two and three story masonry buildings.
Most of the buildings were built between the turn of the
century and the 1930's. Some of the buildings have
retained the Beaux-Arts elements of their initial design
while other buildings from the same period have taken on
more contemporary fascades and store fronts. Colonial
period fascades have been placed on several stores within
this area, reflecting both Spanish and British influence.
These fascades are not indicative of original buildings
and the motifs are largely unauthentic in detail, materials
etc. Due to poor initial quality and lack of continued
maintenance, many of the buildings and fascades are very
much out of line with the potential that St. George Street
has, as a link with downtown St. Augustine.
Preservation projects have not been very prevalent along
this section of St. George Street. Several residences
have been reconstructed, restored, and adaptively used.
These projects have been financed privately, and through
local organizations. The fires of 1914 destroyed most of
the buildings within this area. Businesses sprung up with-
in this area in response to its location to the downtown
area. Flagler's hotels and the boom times stimulated
growth throughout St. Augustine and this St. George Street
area was an appendage of that growth north towards the fort.
While the turnover rate of businesses in this district has
been high, most of the buildings are a statement of the
boom period. The often bleak times of some of these
businesses has resulted in minimal or inappropriate pres-
ervation of this typical main street U.S.A. commercial strip.
St. George Street and its buildings form an important tran-
sitional and circulatory link between the downtown plaza
and the historic district. Presently St. George Street is
a narrow one way street, north from Cathedral to Hypolita,
with a left turn only at Hypolita. Parallel parking
spaces are available and used on St. George Street. The
narrow width does not facilitate parking, car traffic, and
pedestrian movement without problems. The privately owned
tourist tram service brings passengers up this section of
St. George Street to Hypolita, from Cathedral Street with-
out a stop. People may discharge or load at Hypolita Street
and Cathedral Street. There are no provisions for inter-
action between the two north and south points.
Parking for automobiles is available behind the stores on
both the east and west sides of St. George Street. However,
people must walk directly through businesses, or to either
Treasury Street or Hypolita Street, to get to St. George
Street. On weekends and at night, this condition discour-
ages activities that depend on major use of these periph-
ery parking lots. At the present time St. Augustine does
not have a mass transit system, therefore people must walk
drive, or bike to this area. This puts a great deal of
emphasis on the parking facilities.
All deliveries, garbage pickups(dumpsters), exhaust ducts,
HVAC compressors, overhead electrical services and trans-
formers occur on and around the rear of most of the St.
George Street businesses. The unorganized nature of these
services, encroaching on the rear of these buildings and
visible from the parking lot, generate an unpleasant and
chaotic, though not atypical space. The additional con-
gestion caused by delivery vehicles at the rear of the
stores further increases the shortcomings of the parking
Many of the commercial buildings original qualities would
be desirable and should be recommended for preservation
consideration in their own right. The restored and re-
constructed residences within this commercial area, as well
as the improving quality of the historic district, have
begun to establish a preservation priority for this area.
The growing preservation understanding has begun to estab-
lish a very strong dichotomy between the historical and
commercial attitudes in the St. George Street area.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
RESTORED NORTH ST. GEORGE ST.
COMMERCIAL DISTRICT NORTH
ST. GEORGE ST.
It would be valuable to compare the two St. George Street
areas north and south of Hypolita Street as a means of
delineating the problems and attributes of each area.
Both of the areas have a great deal in common, yet both
areas definitely have their own specific elements, organ-
ization, and character. The strongest element acting on
the north and south zones is St. George Street itself.
The street has its problems today due to the changes that
occur between the two districts.
The circulation artery was scaled as a street for carriages,
horses and pedestrians. The violation of this intended
scale at the south end of St. George Street is very appar-
ent and occurs at several levels. The presence of cars
on St. George Street restricts pedestrian traffic to the
sidewalks, almost exclusively. Even if traffic is light
the curbs and parked cars generate a conflict of people
vs. car paths. The historic district at the north end
of St. George Street does not experience the conflict
between the people and cars. The individual is at ease
to experience the historical space and associated buildings
within a personal reference.
The circulation and parking conflicts are generated by the
very basic function of each of the two areas. The south
commercial end of St. George Street has a much greater
local traffic and requires quick, easy access to the
stores. Store front parking would not be necessary in
order to achieve this end. Parking facilities to the
east and west can handle the requirements, but a sensitive
rehabilitation of the lots must take place. The restored
historic district is by its nature a tour, which is best
experienced by foot. As long as people can arrive to
the area conveniently, they will be content to spend their
time walking through the historic district. The majority
of parking required for the historic area is for visitors,
or individuals involved in the historic experience. The
sensitive historic organization of the public parking
north of Hypolita develops an attitude about the district
that even the local residents appreciate. Public parking
lots dominate the east and west areas behind St. George
Street between Treasury and Cuna Streets, providing good
linear contact with all the buildings if they choose to
utilize it. Private parking lots located at the north end
of St. George Street provide a very important access point
for the entire north end. While these city gate area lots
are important they are generally too popular and consequent-
ly quite congested and not at all isolated from the histor-
ic experience. During peak visitor periods, parking
between Hypolita and the north city gates is at a premium,
causing congestion and disorganization. The parking areas
south of Hypolita should answer this demand and stimulate
activity and a degree of unity for the entire St. George
Street circulation artery.
A unified St. George Street area must develop and main-
tain a sensitive transition. Several factors dictate the
transition, or rather lack of transition, that presently
exists between the historic district to the north, and
commercial district to the south. Traffic traveling
north on St. George Street to Hypolita Street, and traffic
on Hypolita going west, restricts and inhibits pedestrian
traffic through the intersection. As long as this condi-
tion is maintained, so will much of the separation between
the commercial and historic districts. If the pedestrian
circulation on St. George Street is reestablished, unifica-
tion and transition through spatial and architectural
relationships must be evaluated and developed.
Due to the recent restoration and reconstruction efforts,
much of the historic district has a unified character that
is felt throughout the community. The major elements of
the historic character develop a degree of spatial and
architectural articulation and differentiation that is
seldom experienced in contemporary architecture. The
street walls and building fascades develop as the organi-
zational constant that ia penetrated, enclosed, and termin-
ated. Relationships and interactions occur along the walls
and do so as a result of repeated characteristics such as
one and two story fascades, balconies, various roof types,
windows, doors, sideyard loggias and foliage.
Comparatively, the commercial area south of Hypolita Street
reflects the typical development of many commercial areas
built during the first thirty years of the twentieth cen-
tury. Rebuilding St. George Street after the 1914 fire
followed the economic pressures of the 1920's boom time.
The downtown growth and development dictated not only
functional transition, but also architectural transition.
Stores were built that would hopefully provide the econom-
ic link with the busy downtown area. Architectural cycles
followed the various economic cycles, as evidenced by the
store fronts and rear service areas. Alterations appear
to respond only to the various immediate concerns, rather
than the original proportions, architectural details,
enclosure materials and finishes. Where the experience of
the historic district begins to read as a sequence of ele-
ments and events, the commercial district lacks the unifi-
cation and differentiation to form a transition between the
plaza and the historic district, as well as between itself
and the historic district.
Presently the restored colonial historic district extends
along St. George Street from Hypolita Street north to the
historic City Gate. The following proposal would extend the
restoration and reconstruction to the colonial period along
St. George Street from Hypolita Street south to the Plaza.
Hypolita Street would be the midpoint and transition area
between the two districts.
Before such a program can be undertaken, however, an exten-
sive historic documentation effort must be made to determine
the location and character of the buildings that existed
in this area during the colonial period. A problem arises
in that sources for this type of documentation are very
limited., There are a few old maps on record as well as a
couple of books written by Albert Manucy. His first book
came out in 1960 and is entitled Elements of St. Augustine
Architecture. The second book, The Houses of St. Augustine,
came out in 1962. Both books provide detailed information
in terms of historical analysis, construction techniques,
use of materials and detailing. A summarized version of
The Houses of St. Augustine has been adopted by the St.
Augustine Architectural Review Board into Local Zoning
Ordinances. These ordinances act as guidelines for deter-
mining the appropriateness of a building in the historic
districts. The following text is taken from these ordinan-
"A distinctive architectural style influenced by the tra-
ditions of the Spanish, English, Minorcans and early
American inhabitants as adapted to utilize available mat-
erials and meet local conditions of climate. This style
is simple, unpretentious and functional. The style is des-
cribed and documented in the book "The Houses of St. Augus-
tine" by Albert Manucy, published by the St. Augustine
Historical Society in 1962. Houses were built flush with
the street line, with the remainder of the front line en-
closed by a wall or fence through which access was gained
to the side yard and the house. A few doors opened direct-
ly on the street after 1763. Houses imparted a massive but
well-proportioned look and were, one to two and a half
stories in height. The most common floor plan was a simple
rectangle with a loggia to the side or rear. Stairs to
upper floors were located at one end of the loggia in a
protected alcove. Some houses had an added wing, and a few
were U-shaped. Ground level floors were of tabby (shell
concrete) at or near grade, although some wooden floors
set close to the ground appeared late. Wooden second floors
were carried on exposed beams. Tabby or coquina walls were
always plastered inside and outside. White is the only
color described, and was dominant well into the 19th centu-
ry. Some late exterior walls were scored in ashlar pattern.
Openings were generally large. Early doors were heavy and
and solid, the six-panel door appearing after 1763. Windows
with inside shutters and protecting wooden grills (rejas)
were the rule until 1763. Iron grillwork was never chara-
cteristic of Spanish St. Augustine. After 1763 double-hung
windows with glass panes appeared, and shutters moved to the
outside. All woodwork was simple and somewhat heavy.
Street balconies were common; the early forms supported by
corbelled beams. Some second stories were of wood, usually
clapboard. Chimneys were rare before 1763, common there-
after. Decoration and ornamentation was minimal and simple.
Before 1762 flat roofs were present, particularly on masonry
houses; they were rare thereafter. Pitched roofs of both
gable and hip types were commonest and were covered with
thatch or wooden shingles. Tiled roofs are not character-
istic of the St. Augustine Style. In interpreting St.
Augustine architecture as a basis for construction under
this Zoning Ordinance aspects of scale, proportion, fabric
and texture shall approach the historic modes in so far as
possible and practical, but the rule shall be to give rea-
sonable latitude for modifications and adaptations necessi-
tated by modern use and convenience, both in business and
Although the Albert Manucy book was used to set up these
guidelines, some people question its authenticity. After
all, it is only one man's interpretation of the past. As a
result, other sources should be thoroughly investigated be-
fore any decision is made concerning the authenticity of a
building in this district.
In order to carry out the restoration/reconstruction program
the State government would have to be involved. Its primary
role would be to buy out all the private property along St.
George Street from Hypolita Street south to the Plaza. This
would allow for major changes to occur within the existing
environment. Such changes would also involve a great amount
of financial support which only the State government can
The first major change would involve the tearing down of the
existing commercial buildings along the St. George Street
area. These buildings, in their present state, are typical
examples of a downtown commercial strip that developed during
the 1930's in most small towns across the United States.
Some of them have been reworked to imitate the Spanish or
British colonial period styles. Lack of understanding, how-
ever, of those periods in terms of detailing and relationship
of one building to another has resulted in historically
inaccurate imitations. A few existing buildings have been
restored accurately and, therefore, should be left in place.
These are the Peck House, the Governor's House, and a private
residence. The Peck House has some original walls which date
. .. ..
------ -if- ----Sl- --ter
C) PECK HOUSL
S restored buildings to be left in place
Existing buildings to be left in place
back to the 1750's. The rest
of the building has been, sup-
posedly, reconstructed accord-
ing to historical documentation.
The Governor's House is a res-
toration that was completed in
1968. The east portion of the
building dates back to the co-
lonial period, that is prior
to 1821. The west portion,
however, has developed in three
stages; 1833, 1913, and the
late 1930's. In order to pre-
serve the integrity of the co-
lonial historic district, this
portion of the building should
be torn down. Finally, the
private residence, located on
Treasury Street, is right now
in the process of being resto-
red. This project is entirely
an individual effort in terms
existing buildings to be torn down
approximate area of study for the proposal
m m~mm~ m Fm Fin Fml nm m m
-~ .--- -
m m m m
PROPOSED RESTORATION/RECONSTRUCTION PLAN BASED ON HISTORIC MAPS
&T. GEORGE STREET
The re-routing of vehicular traffic is another major change
that must be dealt with. The primary concern would be to
close off St. George Street from vehicular traffic starting
at Hypolita Street and going south to the Plaza. This pro-
posal would allow people to walk through and experience the
whole restored colonial historic district without any major
interruptions. It would also preserve the integrity of the
Another concern would be to de-emphasize the importance of
Hypolita Street. At the present time, it serves as a two
lane, east-west axis for vehicular circulation. As a result
it reinforces the separation between the restored historic
district and the commercial district by acting as a barrier.
Once the commercial district is torn down and restored to
the colonial period, however, this separation is no longer
a valid statement. The two districts should, then, make a
more unified statement in terms of transition and pedestrian
circulation. One cannot, however, ignore the importance of
Hypolita Street as a tourist drop off area for trams. The
proposal for this situation would then be to make the street
narrower as to allow only one-way tram traffic going west
from highway A1A. The tourist drop off area would remain
in the same place as it is in now, between St. George Street
and Spanish Street. Although this proposal would interrupt
the unity of the historic district along St. George Street,
it would respond to the needs of the elderly and the handi-
cap people who are unable to walk the whole distance.
Cathedral Street is another concern that must be addressed
in order to unify the historic St. Augustine. This is a
four lane street that ties in directly with the Bridge of
Lions. According to historic maps, however, there was no
street in that location in the year 1762. The Governor's
House, unlike today, was linked physically with the whole
district of St. Augustine. The ideal situation, then,
would be to close off Cathedral Street to vehicular traffic
from Charlotte Street to Cordova Street. This solution
would resolve three problems. First of all, it would allow
the Governor's House to become, once again, unified with the
rest of the historic district. Secondly, it would allow the
Plaza and the Governor's House to become the starting points
of the colonial historic district at the south end with an
uninterrupted pedestrian walkway unifying them with the his-
toric City Gate at the north end. Finally, it would create
a transition zone as well as an entrance condition from the
city into the historic district of St. Augustine. The only
problem that might arise as a result of this solution is that
vehicular traffic will increase in volume on King Street.
Along with the change in vehicular traffic circulation one
must also consider the provisions for car parking in this
area. The most practical solution would be to concentrate
Proposed parking for tourists
Closed off street
new street (1762)
-- pedestrian access from parking
-. vehicular access to parking
one-way tram traffic only
all the parking into one or two zones as has been done in
the present restored historic district. This way they can
be visually isolated and, therefore, not interfere with the
historic sequence of events along St. George Street. Access
to these lots, from the city, could be gained from Cordova
Street and Spanish Street on the west side and from
Charlotte Street on the east side. The diagramatic map on
the previous page shows one of the possible alternatives to
the parking problem. It also shows pedestrian access from
these parking lots to the Governor's House and the main
circulation axis, St. George Street.
In order to complete the restoration/reconstruction program
some minor factors also have to be considered. One of these
is the removal of utility poles and high-power electrical
wires from St. George Street. Electrical supply as well as
all other utilities could be brought in underground and from
the back. This way the historic colonial character along
St. George Street will not be interrupted with anachronistic
elements. All traffic signs should be removed as they no
longer will apply to the historic district. Elements such
as fire hydrants, which are required by code, should be in-
corporated with the historic environment so as not to draw
attention to themselves. Perhaps the fire department should
be made aware of the location of all equipment that is
needed to fight fires in this area.
In conclusion, the extension of the historic colonial
district along St. George Street, from Hypolita Street
south to the Plaza, would involve some major changes in
the existing environment. These changes would involve a
great amount of financial support that, probably, only
the State government could provide through historic orga-
nizations. The importance of St. Augustine as the nation's
oldest city, however, makes this a viable proposal.
The main advantage of this proposal is that it would tie
the two districts together. First of all, St. George
Street would serve as a major unifier in terms of pedes-
trian circulation. The colonial historic period with the
side entrances, courtyards, shingle roofs, scale, texture,
proportion, rhythm of buildings and other design criteria
would unify the two districts in terms of visual percep-
tion. The north end would become a starting point with the
entry condition being the historic City Gate. The south
end would become a starting point as well as an entry con-
dition. It would also be, as mentioned previously, the
transition zone between the city and the historic area of
Saint Augustine. As a result, the two districts become a
unified historic sequence of events that one must really
experience by walking through it.
The disadvantage of this proposal is that it would require
the tearing down of a more recent historical period, that
of the 1930's. This area of study has acquired a character
of its own over the years. The buildings vary in architec-
tural style from Art Deco to Beaux Arts. Although the qua-
lity is not too impressive; the rhythm, scale, and relation-
ship of buildings tie them all together to a point where
one begins to ask whether it would be better to leave every-
thing the way it is. The commercial activities of this
district are also oriented more towards the city dweller,
who wants to buy a washing machine, rather than the tourist.
As a result, there is an interaction between the merchants,
tourists, and the city dwellers which makes this area,
perhaps, the most active and dynamic of all. The proxi-
mity of Flagler College to this area also allows for stu-
dent interaction. One, therefore, has to evaluate the
restoration/reconstruction proposal with these factors in
mind. The intent of this study was to propose alternatives
and address as many issues as possible without making a
conclusive statement as to what is better for Saint
The commercial district of St. George Street, located between
Hypolita street and Cathedral Street, is currently in need of
a visual connection with the tourist oriented restored district
to the north. This link is necessary to tie the San Agustin
Antiguo area into downtown St. Augustine by extending its
character and style south of its physical border at Hypolita.
This would be to the advantage of the merchants in the area
by attracting the tourists, with their spending money, to
venture beyond the restored district's current boundary.
Their buildings would also get a much needed facelift, which
would unify the variety of styles currently in the area. The
result would be a pedestrian mall which would attract both
the tourists and the locals to the district.
Accomplishing this task first requires a quick architectural
comparison between the restored district (North) and the
North A courtyard is included as an integral part of each
structure. This provides for a rhythm of solid to void at
a one to one ratio.
South: The block between Hypolita and Treasury, east and west
elevations, are completely built up with no noticeable dif-
ference from one building to "the next. There are no voids
in these elevations. The southern block is different with
the east elevation containing only the restored Peck house
at the street line with the Cathedral set back half a block
with an open space facing the street. The west street ele-
vation includes three typical 1930's structures on the north
half block with the south half being a walled parking lot
with a small walk-up banking unit breaking the continuity.
In conclusion, the rhythm is non-existent with one nondescript
building after another.
North: The pedestrian street is bordered by a nearly cont-
inuous wall of at least six feet in height. This wall is
violated only by windows, doors, and courtyard openings.
The street, being only fifteen to twenty feet wide, is also
broken by balconies at the second level of many structures.
This all gives a feeling of containment which the pedestrian
fits into well.
South The main problem with the scale of this district is
the presence of the automobile. This creates the need for
sidewalks which force the pedestrians onto a narrow strip of
concrete right up next to the buildings. This fact alone
causes great conflicts to the pedestrian when crossing Hypol-
ita into the commercial district. The buildings have large
display windows and minimal structure at the first level,
which greatly opposes the scale of the north end. The side-
walks and automobiles, which this section was built for, have
forced the facades to a distance of about twenty to thirty
feet apart. This is a noticeable difference which must be
corrected in this proposal.
North: This section has only textures which are easily as-
sociated to by the people using the area. These include wood,
stone, coquina, and stucco. These have all been used in a
scale that was designed to be applied and worked by hand.
South: Many materials used here are obviously manufactured
industrially. These include glazed tile, opaque glass, glass
block, and large display windows. These are all of a smooth,
cold feel which is not comfortable to a human passing nearby.
North: All signs are small, handmade, and usually free stand-
ing or hanging from a balcony or bracket. There are no window
signs allowed and there is a lack of copywrited logos and
national corporation signage.
South Although most signs are tasteful, some are large,
plastic, lighted affairs which are not in scale with a ped-
estrian street. The problem is that most signs were designed
for the automobile passing through the area.
North: Many trees are visible from every part of the street.
These hang over the courtyard walls to provide shade on the
street as well as an overhead space defininition to the ped-
estrian. Also apparent are gardens in the courtyard of each
building. These create spaces that are inviting to the vis-
South: There is no foliage in this area.
North: Parking is in a walled, landscaped lot with access
to St. George Street at mid-block. The entrance from park-
ing to the street is through a landscaped courtyard, making
an effective scale change leading onto the street.
South The one city lot, west of St. George between Hypolita
and Treasury, has some trees and planting but access to St.
George Street is by walking around the buildings to Treasury,
then to St. George. Moving from a parking lot to a street
as pedestrian access is a situation to be avoided.
The first step in unifying the two areas would be to elim-
inate all unnecessary features. These include utility ser-
vice and especially automobiles. This allows the pedestrian
to continue walking in the center of the street beyond Hyp-
olita. This alone would greatly enhance the area. Also
beneficial is the elimination of the noise and smell of the
mechanical creations. Taking out overhead utilities would
clean up the area giving it a neater appearance.
Having converted the street to a pedestrian mall brings up
the next situation. With pedestrians continuing in the street
for its entire length, it will become apparent that the rhythm
and scale of the space is not of the same quality as the north
district. This, together with the need for access from park-
ing to St. George Street at mid-block, leads to the need for
selected demolition of buildings ehich are either out of place
in the area or in a site where their removal will better serve
the entire block. In keeping with the rhythm of the north
district, the buildings to be removed are those spaced bet-
ween better buildings and those more capable of being adapted.
The space created by their removal will be converted into
landscaped courtyards onto which each remaining building can
open with display windows and entrances. Certain spaces will
be open on both east and west ends to allow entry from park-
ing, while others will be open only to the street. These
spaces could be used for exterior eating when part of a rest-
aurant, display for a gallery or shop, parties, or just re-
With the buildings removed, the problem now becomes one of
scale and texture. The rhythm and circulation problems are
solved by the removal but what remains is still a poorly
maintained and altered street of 1930's buildings with their
modern materials. These cold, shiny materials are certainly
not in keeping with the textures of the north end. The pro-
blem with scale is that these buildings are separated by
restored building-_ to be left in place
existing building to be left in place
existing building to be removed
facade to be extended to street
S new stucco on masonry wall
a twenty foot wide street with
two, three to five foot side-
walks. The north end, without
sidewalks is a pleasant fifteen
to twenty feet wide. Both these
problems can be solved by ext-
ending the facades to the cur-
rent sidewalk edge, bringing
them to the same edge as the
restored district. The design
of these new facades must meet
the criteria described in the
posal. With proper materials
and craftsmanship, the build-
ings should appear to have been
constructed by the colonial
carpenters many generations ago.
It will be structurally possib-
le to move the facades forward
due to the fact that these lin-
ear buildings are deeper than
they are wide. This means that
the structural, load bearing
walls are perpendicular to the
street with the roof framing
running laterally. This allows the existing facade to be re-
moved. With this done, the side walls can be extended to the
street and a new facade constructed. If the structure runs
with the street in any buildings, it will be acceptable to
place columns along the existing front wall and extend the
new facade from these.
Some design problems are inherent in placing a commercial
function into a colonial structure. One is the need for dis-
play windows to show off the items in the store, this can
be made up by placing these windows on the courtyard side
and then diverting pedestrians into the courtyard. Another
problem is service. This will be handled at the rear of the
stores as they do now. The revision will be to group the
service needs of two to four stores into one enclosed area.
that will be accessible to service vehicles but hidden from
the parking in the area (see map, next page).
With the new unity of the districts it will become clear that
the use of Hypolita Street must be reconsidered. It is cur-
rently used for one way traffic and as a drop off point for
a private tram operation. Automobiles are out of place in
this critical area and their use must be stopped. The tram
can be very useful for bringing people into the area from
outlying parking lots. Its drop off at the midpoint of the
street should be retained.
f remaining buildings
l proposed tourist parking
- pedestrian walkway
Vehicular access to parking
--- pedestrian access from parking
In conclusion, the unification
of the two districts could be
beneficial to both, by creating
one area in town that appeals
to both the tourist and the re-
sidents. The north district
would become less isolated from
the residents and employees of
downtown because these people
would be more attracted to a
well designed shopping mall than
the current conglomerate of build-
ings, and with more people in
this area they will be more like-
ly to continue into the restored
district. The south area will
benefit, because by cleaning up
its act it will attract more
residents and tourists alike.
The second floors may become at-
tractive as professional office
space instead of its current use
as storage or vacancy.
The disadvantages are that the
buildings now represent an era
of growth in the area, and pos-
sibly should remain as such. The money spent to demolish some
buildings and extend facades on others could be spent restor-
ing the buildings as they were at the time of construction.
Also, if the proposal were to be carried out, many businesses
in the area would have to relocate because of demolition or
or the fact that they would not fit into a revised mall sit-
uation. It would be unfair to move selected tenants out of
an area where they have been an integral member for years.
The proposal, though, does have many advantages and features
that are worthy of investigation.
COMPROMISE ALTERNATIVE FOR
ST. GEORGE STREET
The Compromise Alternative acknowledges; the need for a
commercial district on North St. George Street, the area's
own architectural and historical significance, and its sen-
sitive relationship to the restored historic district. This
alternative shall address a plan or method for improving the
overall quality of the St. George Street commercial district.
Many of the buildings in this area generate an historical
reference through materials, details, and design qualities
that people associate with. Unfortunately, there has been
an erosion of the overall quality of this area due to eco-
nomics, attitude, and time. As delineated in the commercial
district analysis, there are many problems that prevent a
strong organization and commitment to one unified direction
or attitude about the future of St. George Street. Two pri-
mary goals shall organize this alternative. The first is to
improve the overall quality of the commercial district and
its specific relationship to the local residents, students,
tourists, and commercial facilities. The second goal will
be to generate a more unified transition between the down-
town plaza and the north historic district, through an im-
provement of the architectural environment on St George St.
St. George Street's commercial district may be analyzed as
an area of conflict between various levels of architectural
quality. Conceptually and pragmatically, circulation quality
must be reviewed for its own problems as well as those that
directly affect the area.
Vehicular circulation,to and around the commercial district,
is the primary method of bringing people to the stores on St.
George Street. The first priority for St. George Street's
traffic problem would be to eliminate the parallel parking.
Areas on the street could be set aside for standing only.
This would be necessary in many cases for the elderly and
until access from the rear parking lots can be improved. As
progress is made towards the implementation of St. George
Street as a pedestrian street, the one way traffic north
should be halted. Special transit vehicles should not be
ruled for use on the street but violations of pedestrian speeds
and scale should be carefully considered.
At the present time, traffic travels westbound on Hypolita
Street, east on Treasury Street, and west on Cathedral Place.
This activity must be reduced or removed in order to avoid
disruption of the pedestrian circulation path on St. George
Street. Closing of the east-west streets to motor vehicles
would not only be in keeping with the historic district but
it would require an evaluation of Cordova St., Spanish St.,
Charlotte St., Castillo Drive.(AlA), and the parking lots to
the rear of the stores. The inner north-south streets
(Charlotte and Spanish) will have to be redirected to provide
one way service to the district parking lots from the larger
north-south streets (Castillo and Cordova).
There would be benefits and short comings of such a traffic
proposal. By eliminating east-west streets through the dis-
trict, local traffic and deliveries would be forced to go
either north or south to merely cross the district. This
would be beneficial in the reduction of "short cut" traffic.
Tourists might find this directional one way system easier to
follow, providing all routes were well marked. If an organi-
zation is apparent and visitors are given a direction, they
would probably be willing to walk from the Castillo parking
lot to the St. George Street district or vise versa. To
facillitate this desired interaction between the entire St.
George Street district, and the fort,means that Castillo
Drive must be considered for serious changes. Castillo Drive
is a major artery for traffic through the city, entoAnastasia
Island and to points south. Traffic analysises- have been
conducted of this particular problem and some improvements
of the pedestrian concern on Castillo Drive have been made.
On a seasonal basis, it might be possible to provide and en-
force or encourage alternative routes for all, other than
local traffic. Any solution will not be easy, do to the
many other concerns on Castillo Drive, such as restaurants,
motels, and shops. Despite all problems the traffic issue
must be resolved to provide access for many tourists and res"
dent shoppers to the St. George Street area.and also improove
St. George Street's circulitory relationship with the fortt.
As the number of visitors to St. Augustine's "quality" at-trac"
tions grows, so will all of the traffic problems. If an oorga'e
ization can be generated to eliminate the majority of visi tors
motor vehicles, this would greatly improve conditions. Sucfl
an alternative might involve a remote parking facility and
use of people trams or mass transit units to transport peop-le
to and from the district. A similar system might be used to
carry on sightseeing tours of the "quality" attractions.
Changes in the parking facilities behind the St. George Str.ee0
stores must be carefully considered along with the traffic
problems. Perhaps some elementary problems can be corrected
very soon while others will require very thorough investigateiO'r
and planning. Some solutions will require considerable money -ta-y
investment and compromise of certain stores and facilities.
Buildings may have to be eliminated but there would be poten-
tial for some buildings to be increased in useable square
footage. The operational concept of all decisions should be
for the improvement of the relationships between the parking
lots and the stores. Most of the customers are going to ap-
proach the businesses from the parking lots, and their impres-
sions of the district must not be ruined by the chaotic
conditions that presently exist at the service entrances.
There are four major issues that must be dealt with for the
improvement of the store backs. They are serviceable utilit-
ies, refuse pickup, deliveries-service, and pedestrian-custo-
mer access. Utilities such as electrical and telephone
should be moved below grade. Electrical transformers that
supply the high energy requirements, could be consolidated
and either get fenced in or buried below grade, in whole or
in part. Air conditioning compressors could also be screened
from view but a consolidation,' of these units into several
areas might make the enclosures less conspicuous. HVAC units
that are on rooftops should be considered for placement with-
in the stores. Efficiency of the units would be increased
and the changes could be made during rehabilitation or adaptive
use work. Presently there are many dumpsters at various
orientations and locations around the parking lots. These
unsightly and malodorous waste recepticles could be consoli-
dated within relatively sanitary and screened areas. There
must not be any interference with the emptying of the dumpsters.
Service and delivery vehicles are required by all the stores,
and while.they do not represent an unsightly element there
must be space for deliveries without the trucks interfering
with automobile circulation or pedestrian access to the stores.
pedestrian access to the commercial district is the primary
concern of all changes that should take place. The rear
entrances to the stores will have to be improved in order
to orient and welcome shoppers. These spaces hold the poten-
tial to be as important as the St. George Street fronts. The
buildings were designed with a definite front and rear and
it would be a violation of the original design to try and
imply that the rear should be treated as storefronts. Stores
that wish to have rear access should work towards integrating
the entry condition into the service area. Pedestrian circu-
lation alleys should be made between buildings to link the
parking lot with St. George Street. A well thoughtout,
designed, solution will be required to make the parking work
with the service-utilities enclosures and still allow organ-
ized, oriented, and informed pedestrian interaction.
Despite the growing importance of the rear parking facilities
St, George Street is the organizer for all interaction and
activity in this area. This organizational aspect relies on
the unification and differentiation as the architectural
quality. There has been a loss of this basic architectural
quality that grew out of the early 1900s development.
This organization of Beaux-Arts stores was a typical develop-
ment for many cities throughout the country. In many cities
these types of buildings are the exclusive objects of preser-
vation efforts. Preservation studies have labeled this archi-
tecture as a "Main St. U.S.A." style. In St. Augustine these
buildings have been overshadowed by the much older preserva-
tion concerns of "historic St. Augustine". As part of St.
Augustine's development it is possible for these "Main St.
U.S.A." buildings to act as the transitional element between
the downtown area and the restored historic district. Improve-
ment in the total architectural quality will not only unify
these stores but also improve their relationship with the
older preservation efforts in the district.
If an all out preservation effort is to be approached for
this area, a very thorough historical research process must
be undertaken to learn as much as possible about the buildings.
From this information a direction can be taken towards uses
for the buildings and working the stores into the overall
plans for the area. There might be the potential of intro-
ducing some "authentic" reconstructed buildings from one of
the Spanish or English periods but they would have to be
worked into the district and relate to the "Main St. U.S.A."
criteria. The research and study should produce an under!-
standing of certain physical characteristics, such as build-
ing relationships and architectural elements.
Most of the relationships along St. George Street are based
on scale, proportion, setbacks, height, roof shapes, wall
enclosure, pattern and rhythm, foliage, building details,
materials, textures, and colors. It would be possible to
make certain relationships with the historic district and
downtown through an understanding of elements that can be
identified with specific areas. These elements must not be
a violation of relationships within the commercial district.
The specific design criteria for this district is much dif-
ferent from the historic district and attempts at mixing
the two criteria are the cause for much conflict today.
While it is possible to categorize these storefronts with a
specific style there are elements that make this "Main St.
U.S.A." strip very unique. The width of the street is the
same as it was during the earlier periods. The new stores
were added on with little consideration to relationships
with the street and other buildings. Sidewalks were included
but these did little to improve the scale. Issues such as
these must be carefully considered before making decisions.
Using the design criteria of this area, as a foundation, there
are certain changes that could be made right away to improve
the architectural quality. There will be no personal motor
vehicle traffic on St. George Street so all traffic signs
can be removed. All store signs must be changed to relate to
the pedestrian scale and conform to the appropriate immage.
Mass produced franchise signs should be removed and avoided.
Awnings must be checked for authenticity and changed as nec-
essary. Utility lines and poles should be removed and/or
placed below grade. The poles may represent the way it was
but the scale does not work with circulating around them.
Street lights of the era could be installed in place of the
larger poles. Repainting of the buildings can be undertaken
right away. Research should indicate the proper colors and
if paint is to be removed professional consultation should
Many improvements will be very costly and can best be achiev-
ed over a period of time. This would be the case of several
buildings that are quite old but have received cosmetic
fascade treatments. These treatments have been very unauthen-
tic attempts to relate to the historic district. Other fas-
cades try to imitate Spanish Mediterranean and early south-
west U.S.A. styles. None of these styles were used in St.
Augustine prior to the fascade treatments. Red tile roofs
also fall into this category. If reconstruction or rehabili-
tation back to the original fascade is not possible or if a
building is fairly new and totally out of context, total
fascade alteration can take place to work with the controlling
and and existing built environment. Specific design criteria
guidelines would have to be developed and followed for the
specific conditions on St. George Street. Scale of the build-
ings, proportion of the openings, heights, widths, should
respect the adjacent buildings. Specific materials and the
textures can be delineated as favorable elements of the
district. If the guidelines ore carefully considered, a
compatably designed new structure could be introduced into
In order to allow circulation between St. George Street and
the rear parking facilities a pedestrian alley was suggested.
An alley could be introduced in place of a building that can-
not be rehabilitated to work within the overall plan. Rest-
room facilities and information centers,that are badly
needed in this area, could be located in this space. Additional
store window display space could be added along the existing
building sides. Foliage and natural textures would really
improve the overall transition between St. George Street and
the town. Due to the small scale of St. George Streeturban
amenities such as benches, planters, trash cans, and phone
booths should be very carefully considered, if not ruled out
At the south end of the commercial district St. George Street
falls out onto the Plaza and Cathedral Place. A wall, gate,
and/or foliage might be used here to further define St. George
Street as a special place and pedestrian artery. The solu-.
tion must relate the scale, textures, and materials that
the individual will experience, as he enters the district
here. Those leaving to the south will be notified of a
termination of this experience and start of a new one.
North St. George Street's commercial district must evolve
a concept that will deal with the problems and potential
that this area has. The possibilities for this area are
numerous, as long as controlling design criteria is drawn
up and enforced. Issues that presently segment St. George
Street must be resolved to unify the district and develop
a quality architectural environment.
PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF
UTILITARIAN EXISTING CONDITIONS.
SThe following visual presenta-
tion is a supplement to the text
found in the Comprehensive
SAnalysis Existing Conditions
section for the area south of
5 Hypolita Street to the Plaza.
It shows existing conditions in
the back of the commercial buil-
dings along St. George Street.
These are typical examples of
parking facilities, lighting,
S\ utilities, service access and
maintenance. They are impor-
tant issues that are to be dealt
with in the three design pro-
posals found in the second part
of this study.
1- Parking facility at the south-
west corner of St. George
Street and Hypolita Street.
2- Parking and service facilities
looking east across Spanish
3- Overview of parking facilities
and rear, exterior facades of
4- Electric high-power wires and
step-down transformers, part
of utilities, that need to be
considered for remodification.
5- Looking north from service area and parking
facility at relationship of commercial and
residential facilities in terms of circulation
and utility service.
6- Detail of maintenance ser-
vice and remodification of
a brick structure.
7- Looking north at Hypolita
Street from service area and
parking facility for a furni-
8- Parking facility and electric
power distribution system
looking southwest at Charlotte
Street. Southern Bell build-
ing is on the left.