Iguana Specialist Group newsletter (ISG newsletter)
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Iguana Specialist Group

Volume 7 * Number 2 * Winter 2004

ISG Meeting Minutes
November 15, 2004
Suva, Fiji

Welcome and Introduction - Alberts & Hudson
Bula! Thanks were expressed to Peter Harlow (Taronga Zoo) for the extensive
planning and organization of a successful Conservation and Management Plan
Workshop for the Fijian Crested and Banded Iguana and also for the fantastic
field trip to Yadua and Yadua Taba. The rich cultural experience of staying in a
traditional Fijian village, combined with the incredible opportunity to view the
spectacular crested iguana in its native habitat will be long remembered. A
truly unique experience that was enjoyed by all.

Left to Right, Back Row: Joe Wasilewski, Glenn Gerber,; Allison Alberts, Jeff Lemm, John
Kunna, Rick Hudson, Ivan Rehak, Robert Fisher. Middle Row: Pita Biciloa, Tandora
Grant, Bonnie Raphael, Karen Graham, Joe Burgess, Stacie Hathaway. Front Row: Rick
Van Veen, Victor Reynoso, Peter Harlow, Chuck Knapp, Steve Conners.


2004 Research Update for Cyclura cychlura cychlura
and C. c. figginsi. Charles Knapp (John G. Shedd
Aquarium and University of Florida), Audrey Owens
(University of Georgia), and Coleman Sheehy, III
(University of Florida).

Andros - The 2004 Andros iguana (Cyclura cychlura
cychlura) research focused on adult reproductive ecol-
ogy and hatchling survivorship, dispersal, and habitat
preference. We were able to monitor nests in termite
mounds from previous years every one to three days to
observe nesting behavior, verify oviposition dates, and
document nest site fidelity. Based on a lack of used
termite mounds and defending females, we are confi-
dent that nesting did not occur before the May investi-
gation at monitored nests. The first nest of the season
was discovered on 8 May. We know of one nesting
event after our 13 June departure date. Nesting fe-
males ranged from 31 to 46.5 cm SVL (mean = 38.6).
A total of 22 nests were excavated with clutch sizes rang-
ing from 5 to 18 (mean = 10.1). Of these nests, six
females nested in 2003. One of the repeat females
nested in a different mound after the attendant ter-
mite mound colony from 2003 died. Another female,
after partially destroying her 2003 mound while test
digging in 2004, oviposited her clutch in sand. We
also uncovered an additional nest oviposited in sand
from the same study area. Egg predation by crabs
(Cardisomaguanhumi) was confirmed from three nests
and suspected in four additional nests. The entire clutch
was lost in such events.
Hatchlings ranged from 8.1 to 10.6 cm SVL (mean =
9.6) and 31 to 55 g BM (mean = 42.4). Thirty-six
hatchlings were affixed with radio transmitters and
tracked between 18 and 28 days. Twenty-one of these
hatchlings were confirmed eaten by snakes (Alsophis
vudii and Epicrates striatus), one was suspected taken
by a bird, one was suspected taken by a fish, and six

were unknowns with stationary underground transmit-
ter signals. A single day over water dispersal distance
of 2.3 km was recorded for one hatchling. Of the eight
hatchlings alive at the end of the study, six occurred in
mangrove habitat > 50% of observable time.
We were told of anecdotal accounts of people selling
up to 40 iguanas in April 2004 from a hunting camp
on the west side of the island. We also were told of a
different group of people selling 10 iguanas from the
same camp at the end of 2003. We investigated the
camp in May and discovered increased signs of activity
from our previous 2000 to 2003 visits. Usually, igua-
nas are taken back to settlements to be sold alive, but
we found evidence that iguanas were killed at the camp.
The ground was literally covered with shed iguana skin
and we found bones from a minimum of three igua-
nas. We returned to the same camp in August and
noticed that it was used again after our May visit. Al-
though people use the camp as a base for multiple pur-
poses such as crabbing, sponging, fishing, and collect-
ing wood, iguanas are always taken when the opportu-
nity allows. Therefore, the increased activity at the camp
concerns us because it represents more iguanas being
taken from the wild. Although other transitory camps
are used, this camp is a permanent fixture on the west
side ofAndros and we recommend that it be dismantled
and the perpetrators warned that illegal activity will
not be tolerated.

We were able to visit South Andros and Mangrove Cay
High Schools in September and present iguana educa-
tion posters that incorporated artwork from the stu-
dents. We, and the posters, were well received and ad-
ditional presentations will be made on North Andros
in 2005.
Pasture Cay, Exumas - We only were able to visit Pas-
ture Cay for one day in May to study the translocated
population of Cyclura cychlurafigginsi. Of the 16 origi-
nal founders (11 males, 5 females), we captured seven
males and three females. Two additional animals were
seen but eluded capture. Since the 2002 translocation,
two male iguanas are confirmed dead (2003), and two
were not seen or captured in 2004. We are concerned
for the largest remaining males on the island. When
translocated originally in 2002, the two males captured
this past May weighed > 7 kg. In May 2004, the males
had lost 2.9 and 3.4 kg of their initial BM and did not
appear healthy. We heard from multiple sources at the

Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park (ECLSP) that the win-
ter was unusually cold. John Iverson described the same
conditions and reported finding an unusually high num-
ber (27) of iguana carcasses. We also found the first
iguana carcass from the translocated iguana colony from
Alligator Cay in the ECLSP.
The remaining iguanas gained up to 1.15 kg in mass
from 2002 and appeared healthy and active. At least
20 burrows were observed constructed in the sand sur-
rounding the island. A minimum of three second-year
hatchlings and two first-year hatchlings were detected
on the island. We captured one second-year iguana with
a BM of 118 g and SVL of 13.7 cm. Rats were again
trapped from the island, confirming their presence.
Lee Stocking Island - Sandra Buckner and Chuck Knapp
visited Lee Stocking Island to perform a habitat suit-
ability analysis for a potential iguana (C c. figginsi) trans-
location. The details of the study are outlined in a re-
port drafted by both SB and CK. That habitat is suit-
able for iguanas and we support a translocation based
on our recommendations outlined in the report.


Cyclura pinguis: 2004 update. Glenn Gerber
(Zoological Society of San Diego) and Kelly Bradley
(Dallas Zoo).

For the third year, the Anegada iguana project received
funding from the IIF toward fieldwork related to the
headstart and release program. Additional support for
the project came from the Morris Animal Foundation
to support health screening ofheadstarted animals, and
the IUCN/SSC Sir Peter Scott Fund through the ISG
for fieldwork, educational initiatives, and publication
of a Species Recovery Plan resulting from a workshop
held in Miami in April 2004 (see ISG Newsletter 7(1)).
The first release of headstarted Anegada iguanas took
place in October 2003, with the release of 24 animals
ranging from 4-6 years of age and 750-2050g. These
animals have been tracked every month or two since
their release and 20 of the animals (83%), including
the five smallest animals released, survived their first

year back in the wild (see ISG Newsletter 7(1) for fur-
ther details). In October 2004, a second group of 24
headstarted animals were returned to the wild using an
identical release strategy to that employed in 2003 ex-
cept that the minimum size of released animals was
reduced from 750g to 550g in an effort to determine
the minimum size iguana that can coexist with feral
cats. As in 2003, 12 iguanas (6.6) with surgically im-
planted radiotransmitters were released at each of two
study sites located in the core iguana area: Windlass
Bight (coastal sandy scrub) and Middle Cay (interior
limestone woodland). To date, one animal released at
Middle Cay has died (only the transmitter was recov-
ered). The other 23 animals released this October are
doing well and have established home areas within
400m of their respective release sites. At two months
post-release, animals have increased in mass by 5-260g.
In July, a single nest was located in the Windlass Bight
area and fenced off. Unfortunately, only two hatchlings
were recovered from the nest in October, as only three
of the eight eggs laid resulted in emerging juveniles
and one of these escaped. However, five additional
hatchlings were captured from various locations in Oc-
tober. All seven animals were transferred to the
headstart facility managed by the BVI National Parks
We are grateful to Rick Hudson, Sandy Hurlbut, AJ
Marlar, Nina Palmer, and Bonnie Raphael for health
screening and surgical implantation of transmitters. For
assistance in the field we thank Carol Andersen, Cynthia
Bennett, Kim Harding, Elyse Kitterman, Kerri
Mitchell, Lee Pagni, and Joe Wasilewski.


Booby Cay Report, Cyclura carinata bartschi.
Joe Wasilewski, Steve Conners, John Bendon.

A trip to Mayaguana and Booby Cay, Bahamas, was
undertaken in October 2004 in order to assess the is-
lands post-hurricanes Francis and Jeanne. Sustained
winds were reported at 140mph and storm surges cov-
ered parts of the respective islands. Damage was mini-
mal as it seems the people are well prepared for hurri-

canes. A small percentage of vegetation (misc trees and
shrubs) was destroyed. Iguanas were abundant as on
previous trips and during the course of one day 65 ani-
mals were observed of all size classes including juve-
niles. Three beaded animals were seen. The perpetual
goat problem exists, with goat tracks covering the
entire Cay.
There are plans for major development of Mayaguana.
A new airport terminal is near completion. Approxi-
mately 2500 second homes are planned along with a
hotel/resort with up to 3500 rooms. Presently, the en-
tire population of Mayaguana is no more than 400
people. The plans seem quite an undertaking, but
Mayaguana is the last frontier in the Bahamas. The
airport expansion already exists with the terminal able
to far exceed its present capacity. If development pro-
ceeds as planned, it is highly likely there will be an in-
crease in visitation to Booby Cay. This would increase
the likelihood of disturbance to the iguanas either di-
rectly, or through the introduction of feral predators.
Future Goals:
- Address the issue of analyzing blood
* Continue transect surveys and publish
population results.
* Meet with Bahamian officials again to
address goat problem.
* Discuss and analyze feasibility of gaining
National Park Status.

CUBA - Rehak

Cuban Iguana Update. Ivan Rehak (Prague Zoo).

The PHVA meeting for the Cuban iguana was held at
the Havana Zoo, Cuba, on January 20-23, 2003.
Thirty participants representing 14 institutions formu-
lated, on the base of scientific analysis, a plan for con-
serving the Cuban iguana to assist in saving this unique
animal for the future. Cuban iguanas do not represent
either a direct threat or any health, hygienic, or epide-
miologic problem for man. They are highly important
creatures for biologic, scientific, and cultural reasons.
Their conservation requirements utterly agree with pro-
tection of other important animal and plant popula-

tions, especially regarding the dry coastal forest. Con-
servation of a healthy coastal ecosystem, its biological
diversity, and its natural beauty has great importance,
not just ecologically and culturally, but also economi-
cally. The Cuban iguana is an ideal flagship species (as
the object of admiration, respect, rightful patriotism,
and human care) for conservation measures.
During a postconference stay in 2003, I visited some
important localities on the Cuban mainland, from the
Guanahacabibes in the west to the Sierra Maestra in
the east. The present state of Cuban iguanas still gives
us hope for the animal's survival. This is supposing
that distribution areas will stay protected against ruth-
less exploitation and that people will be not indifferent
to the fate of the animals, but on the contrary, people
will grant them protection, support, and help.
PHVA results showed the necessity of scientific and
conservation research. I have taken responsibility for
helping to fulfil some research tasks, and have submit-
ted a proposal for an international project covering
phylogeographic analysis of wild populations in Cuba
and its satellite islands, an assessment of genetic varia-
tion (within population) in the largest wild popula-
tions, assigning the animals belonging to the principal
lineages of the global captive population to their geo-
graphic origin, evaluating genetic variation and the con-
servation value of current breeding stocks, determin-
ing the principal behavioral factors (social structure and
activity patterns) affecting demographical output, de-
termining growth rates, reproductive effort, and other
life history traits in captive populations, and relation-
ships between these traits and explanatory variables (ori-
gin, inbreeding, mother's condition, feeding strategy,
etc.). The realization of the project on an international
level was not yet successful with regard to finding a
way to export samples for genetic analyses from Cuba.
However, in 2004, a similar national project has started
to be conducted at Charles University at Prague, Czech
Republic, using specimens held in European Herpeto-
logical Collections. At present, the samples are being
collected and the first results and publications should
appear during 2005 - 2007.
According to the decision of the Ambibian and Reptile
Taxon Advisory Group of the European Association of
the Zoos and Aquaria, the European captive popula-
tion should be intensively managed as an EEP (Euro-
pean Breeding Program), which I will coordinate.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC - Hudson (for Ramer)

Ricord's iguana, Species Recovery Plan Update. Jan
Ramer (Indianapolis Zoo) and Rick Hudson (Fort
Worth Zoo).

To develop a regional conservation strategy for the criti-
cally endangered Ricord's iguana, a five year (2002 -
2007) Species Recovery Plan was drafted under the
auspices of the ISG in November 2002, and a local
Ricord's Iguana Recovery Group (RIRG) was formed
with the task of implementing the plan. The overall
goal was to prioritize the conservation actions neces-
sary to ensure the long-term survival of Ricord's iguana
throughout its natural range. In response to one of the
objectives in the 2002 SRP, a meeting was organized to
revisit the SRP and to adjust priorities and recommen-
dations in response to this new information. Hosted
by ZooDom, a group composed of local RIRG and
ISG members met on 27 - 28 July 2004 to conduct a
second workshop to review progress and update the
SRP. Prior to this meeting, some participants were
hosted by Grupo Jaragua, where they traveled to the
Barahona Peninsula, visiting a newly identified
"hotspot" for C. ricordi distribution near Pedernales.
The discovery of this robust population has important
implications for the conservation of this endangered
iguana, and was a decisive influence on the direction
of the revised SRP. Future work in this region will
focus on two main components: capacity building and
field research. Plans to cultivate support among the
local community (by creating economic opportunities)
coupled with a public awareness campaign are taking
shape, and preliminary efforts are already underway
by Grupo Jaragua to protect this area under the local
municipality. A small grant from Riverbanks Zoo
Conservation Fund to investigate the socioeconomic
impact of Ricord's iguana conservation in this area was
awarded to Grupo Jaragua and Indianapolis Zoo in early
2004. Field research will be directed at gaining a clearer
understanding of the biology of C ricordi (nesting ecol-
ogy, feeding and habitat requirements, threats) in or-
der to better design an effective conservation strategy.
The other priority region for habitat surveys is the south
shore of Lago Enriquillo, where a population of Ricord's
iguana is suspected to exist but needs to be confirmed.
It was also recognized that the population on Isla
Cabritos continues to be an important study popula-

tion, and Indianapolis Zoo and ZooDom will continue
the transect and habitat work they started there in 2003.
Baseline biomedical work on all three populations, in-
cluding genetics, is also recommended. Field studies
should include investigating the relationship with the
sympatric C. cornuta.
The Education objective, including curriculum devel-
opment and local capacity building initiatives in the
Pedernales region, is moving ahead thanks to two grants
totaling $34,000 from the US Fish & Wildlife Service
and AZA's Conservation Endowment Fund to the In-
dianapolis Zoo. Both Grupo Jaragua and ZooDom
will be involved with implementing this objective,
which strives to create awareness and encourage par-
ticipation and support among the local community for
protecting the newly identified "Pedernales hotspot for
C. ricordi."
The Captive Management objective recommends new
directions for the ZooDom program. For ricordi, the
emphasis will shift to applied research to better define
the factors necessary for successful breeding and man-
agement. Incorporation of new bloodlines should be
done periodically from the wild using only hatchling
or juvenile specimens. It was recommended that the
rhino iguana breeding and release program should be
scaled back and phased out.
Finally, a strategy for approaching external funding
sources over the next two years was developed that in-
cludes the International Iguana Foundation, U.S. Fish
& Wildlife Service, Indianapolis Zoo, AZA Conserva-
tion Endowment Fund, and Disney's Wildlife Conser-
vation Fund.
Many thanks to Alfonso Ferreira and ZooDom for
hosting the meeting this summer, and to Sixto
Inchaustegui and Grupo Jaragua for their remarkable
hospitality during the pre-meeting field trip to

GRAND CAYMAN - Hudson (for Burton and Binns)

Status of the Blue Iguana Recovery Program. John
Binns (International Reptile Conservation Fund) and
Fred Burton (National Trust for the Cayman Islands).

In 2004, all but one of 84 viable eggs hatched success-
fully, despite complications imposed by Hurricane Ivan
in September. During July and August, "Team Blue,"
assembled by the IRCF and comprised of 13 volun-
teers from the US, UK, and Cayman Islands, includ-
ing representatives from the Indianapolis, Tulsa, Knox-
ville, and Phoenix Zoos, built 102 juvenile and 30
hatchling cages. Subsequently, Fred Burton and local
volunteers constructed 25 iguana retreats used to en-
courage the fidelity of released iguanas to specific re-
lease site locations in the Salina Reserve, which is in-
tended to establish a second reintroduced population
now that the QEII Botanic Park is nearing carrying
capacity. To date, 13 females have been released and
appear to be doing well. The release effort will con-
tinue into January.
Dorothea Schwab of Wild Wings Vision continued
filming for the Blue Iguana DVD "Too Blue to Lose."
Film of Hurricane Ivan's aftermath and effects on iguana
habitat will be edited into the original storyboard. One
version of the film, aired on the VOX (documentary)
channel in Germany on 27 November 2004 and
reached an audience of 1.1 million, will be sold inter-
nationally along with an English language version
(funded by Deutsche Offshore - Cayman Ltd.). John
Cleese of Monty Python fame has agreed to narrate
the latter, expected to be available in fall 2005. Pro-
ceeds from the sale of the DVD will go to the Blue
Iguana Recovery Program.
Immediately after Hurricane Ivan passed, Fred Bur-
ton, Matt Goetz (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust),
and Nick Lewis (private sector), made multiple at-
tempts to reach the Botanic Park, but the south road
was too heavily damaged and debris-strewn to allow
passage. Eventually, emergency services bulldozed
through the debris and allowed the team to make their
way close enough to hike into the park. Miraculously,
although heavily flooded, the facility was intact and all
of the iguanas had survived and appeared healthy. Sub-
sequently, cages have been re-outfitted with retreats,
rocks, palm leaves, and branches. Also, construction

of six sub-adult cages to make smaller cages available
for hatchlings and new cement pens was completed.
Although the overall progress made in 2004 was prom-
ising and difficulties associated with the hurricane may
actually provide some opportunities for improving fa-
cilities and building support, concerns remain. The
greatest of these is in finding or generating the funds
to pay warden and keeper wages, because, without
them, management of a facility with 200+ captive ani-
mals will be impossible.

JAMAICA - Van Veen

Jamaican Iguana Recovery Project, 2004 Update.
Rick Van Veen and Byron Wilson (University of the
West Indies).

Predator Control - John Kunna and Rick Van Veen
completed the eighth year of pitfall trapping, moni-
toring the effect of mongoose 'trapped' and 'non-
trapped' areas on population structure and abundance
of ground lizards and other animals within the Jamai-
can iguana's known distribution. Exotic mammal trap-
ping (see Table 1) continued through the year (Jan-
Dec) along with an increased effort toward controlling
feral cats, dogs, and pigs in the iguana nesting areas.
Preparations are also underway to produce locally made
mammal traps for the expansion of the current trap

Table 1: Body Count (Feb-Oct 2004)
Predator/Pest Number Extinguished
Mongoose 61
Cats 7
Rats 46
Goats 3
Charcoal Burners 2
Dogs 3
Pigs 25

Reproduction and a New Population - 13 females were
observed nesting at the two known communal nesting
sites, however, only seven clutches hatched producing
64 hatchlings, all of which were PIT tagged, weighed,
and measured. Nineteen of the 64 were radio tracked,
19 went to the Hope Zoo to join the head-start pro-
gram, and the rest were released. An additional 13
were found to have hatched at a new nest site, and two
other potential nest sites were also found. A new popu-
lation was confirmed in the Wreck Bay area, along with
anecdotal evidence of a further communal nesting area.
Four captive bred Jamaican iguanas were also produced
at the Hope Zoo from a small colony of young adults.
Management Issues - Dr. Byron Wilson now 'heads
up' the field project and has continued to expand project
interest with regular student field trips and collabora-
tion with other researchers (i.e., feral pig and mon-
goose parasitology). Management of the Portland Bight
Protected Area (PBPA) has now been resolved, with
the National Environment Agency (NEPA) delegating
the management authority of the Hellshire Hills and
Goat Islands to the Urban Development Corporation
(UDC). Preliminary discussions with UDC regarding
collaboration, conservation, and preservation of the
PBPA appear very positive.
Radio-tracking Hatchling Iguanas - 19 iguana
hatchlings were radio-tracked between September 2 and
November 2. At this point, six remained alive, the fate
of three is unknown, and the remaining ten radios were
retrieved without the animals suggesting they are likely
to have been victims of exotic predators. On three
occasions, mongooses were observed actively search-
ing retreat sites that were in use by hatchling iguanas.
We finished with dispersal data for 15 animals and
home range data for 11 animals. A dietary list of 25
plant species was compiled, and of these 3-4 species of
vines appeared to be most important. There was strong
retreat site fidelity, and retreat site selection appeared
distinctly uniform; hatchlings preferred half-fallen dead
hollow trees, 6-15cm in diameter, with a north-west-
erly aspect. No doubt these are the same resources
sought after by illegal forest users (charcoal burners).


Turks and Caicos iguana, Cyclura carinata carinata,
Research Update. Glenn Gerber and Allison Alberts
(Zoological Society of San Diego).

In addition to ongoing support from the San Diego
Zoo, grants for the Turks and Caicos iguana project were
received from the Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund,
through the IIF, and the Steve and Carol Weinberg
Foundation. Disney funds are being used to support
fieldwork, educational initiatives, and completion, pub-
lication, and implementation of the Turks and Caicos
iguana Conservation and Management Plan (CAMP)
drafted at the 2003 ISG meeting in Providenciales.
Lorna Slade, a UK conservationist residing in the TCI,
has been contracted to finish the CAMP document and
begin implementation. The plan is nearly complete now
and scheduled for publication in early 2005. Lorna re-
cently implemented a small-scale trapping program for
feral cats on Little Water Cay with assistance from the
Turks and Caicos SPCA and the TC National Trust,
and a $2000 contribution from a local developer
(Johnstons). In partnership with the NGO Island Con-
servation, additional funds are being sought to imple-
ment an island-wide cat eradication program to safe-
guard this important population.
Funds received from the Weinberg Foundation are be-
ing used to complete nutritional analyses of food plants,
dietary analyses of scats, and construction of a detailed
habitat GIS for each of the six islands that constitute
the translocation program (source islands: Big Amber-
gris Cay, Little Water Cay; reintroduction islands:
French, Bay, Middle, and Six Hills Cays). Each of the
translocation and source cays were visited in May to
collect data for ongoing studies of survival, growth, re-
production, habitat use, nutrition, and diet. In addi-
tion, vegetation surveys were conducted on each cay to
quantify the abundance and distribution of plant spe-
cies and aid the construction of a habitat GIS. In June
and August, a nesting study was undertaken on Little
Water Cay to quantify reproductive parameters. Twenty
nests were monitored during the study, but fieldwork
was terminated before all the nests hatched due to Hur-
ricane Frances. Joe Burgess, Todd and Kym Campbell,
Mike Fouraker, Rick Hudson, Sue Keall, Andy Keech,
Jeff Lemm, Karen Lisi, Bryan Manco, Greg McMillan,
JP Montagne, Earnest Rupp, Catherine and Dan

Stephen, Tarren Wagener, and George Waters provided
valuable field assistance in 2004.

In spite of the above advances, a significant setback for
TCI iguana conservation occurred this year with the
announcement of a proposed large-scale development
for the Bay Islands National Park. The park, which
will be declassified if the development plan is approved,
includes two islands with iguanas: Major Hill Cay and
East Bay Cay. The latter cay supports between 5,000
and 10,000 iguanas, the largest extant population out-
side of the Ambergris Cays (the largest of which is pres-
ently under development). Worse still, the develop-
ment plan calls for a causeway connecting the cays to
North Caicos, providing easy access for cats and dogs
and virtually ensuring the extirpation of iguanas. Our
strong opposition to this development has been made.

sizes (0.62 g and 1.2 g) on performance. Slight in-
crease in mean race time correlated with increased trans-
mitter size, although tests differences were not statisti-
cally significant. Two transmitter sizes were used to
radiotrack 19 hatchling iguanas at the Grand Anse and
Louvet sites. One male and two females carrying small
transmitters traveled over one km. Of these, one fe-
male traveled 1.56 km, crossed a ridgeline, and settled
near an adjacent beach. In contrast, a male with a large
transmitter traveled 400 m to a good food source. Ten
animals slipped their transmitters during the study.
Three of the recovered transmitters showed slight dam-
age that could indicate predation. Two recovered trans-
mitters were glued dorso-laterally to new hatchlings, a
method that we recommend for future studies.

MEXICO - Reynoso

ST. LUCIA - Graham

St. Lucia iguana Update. Karen S. Graham (Sedgwick
County Zoo) and Matthew Morton (Durrell Wildlife
Conservation Trust).

Because the Saint Lucian Green Iguana is very difficult
to locate throughout its range, population census ef-
forts have been concentrated at the two known nesting
beaches, Louvet Beach and Grand Anse Beach. From
late February through mid-May, nesting indices were
recorded in order to generate a nesting population in-
dex for future monitoring efforts. Five active nests were
excavated with a mean of 21 eggs (range 17-21). This
substantiates the use of hatchling-emergence surges
(mean 19.5) to estimate nesting female population size.
Three females radio-tagged at Louvet Beach in March
were followed back to their home ranges (1.61 km, 1.57
km, and 80 m). A female radio-tagged in September
2003 migrated >2 km to Louvet Beach in May.

Hatchlings were counted at each beach
from mid-May through mid-August
(est. 1300 at Louvet Beach, est. 140 at
Grand Anse). Gender, body measure-
. C. acanthura
ments, physical appearance, and emer-
C hemilopha
gence time were recorded for each . hilh
hatchling. Forty-seven hatchlings were C macrolopha
subjected to racing and climbing trials C. pectinata
to test the effects of two transmitter C similis
C clarki

GARP Analysis and Conservation of Ctenosaura.
Victor H. Reynoso, Rocio Ponce, and Gina Gonzilez

The study objective was to evaluate how much of the
actual expected distribution of black iguanas has
warrantied protection through Mexico's Natural Areas
Program. The methods used for this study were:
- Collect data from museum collections.
- Georefer the data with actual distribution coordinates.
- Model GARP potential distribution areas.
- Cut overprediction of models with natural subregions.
- Overlap natural protected areas.
- Cut potential distribution within natural areas.
- Calculate the percentage of pixels of the potential
distribution contained within the natural areas.
Analyses were performed for C. acanthura, C.
hemilopha, C. clarki, C. similis, C. pectinata, and C.

Pixels in Pixels in
Potential Natural
Predicting Distribution Protected
Models Total Pixels Areas Areas Ratio





Cyclura Studbook
Tandora Grant (San Diego Zoo, CRES)
The Cyclura studbook contains a record of all animals
that have lived in US zoos and some non-zoo facilities.
The current living population is (M.FUnk):
Cyclura cornuta cornuta: 27.23.21 (71) in 20 zoos
Cyclura cychlurafigginsi: 1.5 (6) at the LA Zoo
Cyclura nubila nubila: 7.7 (14) in 4 institutions
Cyclura nubila caymanensis: 1.0 at the Atlanta Zoo
Cyclura ricordi: 1.3.14 (18) at ZooDom (Dom. Repub.)
Cyclurapinguis: 9.9 (18) at the San Diego and Miami
Metro Zoos. The US population consists of 1.2
founders and 2.1 potential founders. There are ap-
proximately 56 animals living in the headstart facility
on Anegada. 24 were released in October 2003 and
24 were released in Fall 2004.
Cyclura collei: 8.11 (19) in 6 institutions. Approxi-
mately 32.25.61 (118) are living at the Hope Zoo in
Kingston, including 24 hatchlings from 2003 and 19
from 2004. There were six deaths due to the recent
hurricane, but an additional four were captive-hatched
in the headstart facility.
Cyclura lewisi: 12.9 (21) in 9 US institutions, 19.19.37
(75) at the Grand Cayman breeding facility prior to
the 2004 hatching season. The US population is cur-
rently represented by six founders and an importation
of 5.5 animals scheduled for Jan 2005 will add an ad-
ditional six founders. The Grand Cayman facility
has 7.5 founders and 3.1.1 potential founders.
Headstarting of juveniles from nests in the QEII
Botanic Park continues with 52 collected in 2003 and
25 raised in 2002, which are scheduled to be released
in December 2004.

ISG Veterinary Advisor Update
Bonnie Raphael (Wildlife Conservation Society)
A grant from the Morris Animal Foundation (MAF
provided funding for three years for the purpose of: es
tablishing baseline health profiles of free-ranging igua
nas; performing and establishing protocols for health
screening of head-started iguanas; and providing train
ing to local veterinarians. The grant covered five spe
cies of iguanas (C lewisi, C. collei, C. c. stejnegeri, C
ricordi, and C. pinguis) and involved veterinarians anc
veterinary technicians from the Wildlife Conservatior
Society, Indianapolis Zoo, Toledo Zoo, and For
Worth Zoo.
Initially the health assessments consisted of: physical
exam; blood sampling and analysis including whit(
blood cell count, packed cell volume, total solids, chem
istries, minerals, and vitamin D; and fecal examination
via direct and floatation methods for parasites and bac.
trial culture.
Samples obtained from free-ranging animals was morn
limited than originally anticipated. A total of four C
lewisi, 10 C. pinguis, 19 C collei, 20 C. c. stejnegeri, an
23 C. ricordi samples were collected and analyzed
Samples collected from captive animals included 62 pre
release and 30 captive non-release C. lewisi, 49 pre-re
lease and 25 captive non-release C. pinguis, 80 total cap
tive C. collei, and 25 total captive C. c. stejnegeri.
In February 2004, Drs. Reichard, Ramer, Marlar, Lung
and Raphael met to compare data from all groups. Some
of the conclusions regarding the health status of head
started animals are: 1) there are low rates of endopara
sitism; the longer C. lewisi are held in captivity on dir
substrate, the more likely they are to have endopara
sites; 2) there are low rates of Salmonella sp. in captive
animals; and 3) there were no infectious diseases iden
tified in the animals sampled.
Health screening of headstarted animals needs to bN
done close to the time of release of those animals. Basec
on the findings of screens that have already been con
ducted, it is apparent that the health screening process&

of individual headstarted animals can be streamlined.
A new protocol has been developed to reduce the num-
ber of laboratory tests needed and to perform all rel-
evant tests for individuals on-site within days of re-
lease. The pre-release health screening protocol for
headstarted animals is: 1) perform a physical exam in-
cluding weighing; 2) collect whole, heparinized blood
and perform a white blood cell count using the Natt
and Herricks method and determine packed cell vol-
ume and total solids; and 3) collect feces and perform
a direct microscopic exam.
In order to monitor the collective health of the captive
animals, full work-ups need to be performed on 10%
of the captive animals in the facility every year. Some
of these can include pre-release animals. The testing
includes white blood cell counts (Natt and Herricks),
total solids, packed cell volume, direct and floatation
fecal exam, fecal/cloacal culture, mineral and chemis-
try panels, and vitamin D determination.
In addition to the routine health screening, in 2003
and 2004 transmitters were surgically implanted
intracoelomically in a total of 48 headstarted C. pinguis.
Animals were released 10-14 days after the surgeries.
Survival of the 2003 cohort at one year is 84% and
100% for the 2004 group at 60 days.
In addition to the testing done using MAF funds, two
other species were sampled this year. WCS veterinar-
ian Stephanie James performed health assessments on
free-ranging wild Allen Cays iguanas (C. cychlura
inornata) during John Iverson's field season and Nancy
Lung, veterinarian at the Fort Worth Zoo, did the same
on free-ranging wild Cyclura rileyi. Funding was pro-
vided by WCS and the Smithsonian, respectively. This
was significant in that health assessments have now been
performed on all nine species of Cyclura. Final results
and comparisons among species are pending.
A medical records survey was conducted via email re-
quest. Twenty-eight North American institutions re-
sponded, sending medical records encompassing 100
years, 380 medical records, 978 individual entries, and
110 necropsies. Six Cyclura species were represented.
Of the 114 occurrences of parasites, oxyurids and en-
tamoeba were reported most frequently. Other para-
sites included external mites, strongyloides, trematodes,
cestodes, mesocestoides, trichuris, physeloptera,
coccidea, flagellates, balantidium, nycthotheris, and one

possible cryptosporidea. Trauma (lacerations, fractures,
lameness) accounted for 118 entries, and there were
seven accounts of thermal burns and 9 accounts of
hypothermia. Infections (abscesses, pneumonia, and
others) were recorded 89 times, including renal failure
in 34 accounts, and 50 reproductive events (gravid,
oophoritis, salpingitis, egg yolk peritonitis, and egg
binding). Calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D related
problems (metabolic bone disease, tetany, and hypoc-
alcemia) were reported 32 times, anorexia and lethargy
in 22 accounts, one report of bladder stones, and ten
accounts of intestinal obstruction/obstipation/sand
impactions. No attempts were made to apply statistics
to the results.

Husbandry Manual for West Indian Iguanas
JeffLemm (San Diego Zoo, CRES)
Husbandry manuals are helpful additions to captive
animal management programs and are suggested com-
ponents to IUCN SSC Species Survival Plans. The
West Indian Iguana Husbandry Manual was conceived
at the ISG meeting in 2002, held in the Dominican
Republic. Surveys were sent to researchers working
with WI iguanas, as well as institutions working with
the animals in captivity. One researcher and 14 cap-
tive facilities responded. To date, the husbandry manual
contains roughly 25 pages (single-spaced, without pho-
tos) that include information on natural history and
captive management from these facilities. The Cap-
tive Management section consists of short chapters on
Population Management, Quarantine, Housing, Cap-
ture and Restraint, Reproduction and Nesting, Record
Keeping, and an additional husbandry protocol for
Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima). Publi-
cation is dependent on the arrival of the chapters on
Nutrition and Health/Medical. Once the sections are
complete and the photos are added, the manual will be
translated into Spanish. The estimated size of the com-
pleted manual is roughly 50-75 pages. It has yet to be
decided if it will be published as a hard copy or a CD.

International Iguana Society Report
Joe Burgess (IIS)

In the past year, the IIS has focused its funding efforts
on the Grand Cayman and St. Eustatius iguanas. In
Grand Cayman, $2,000 was donated to purchase sup-
plies for upgrading and expanding the facilities' iguana
enclosures and purchasing a maintenance shed. An
additional $2,300 was donated from the Rob Dorson
memorial fund (IIS member who passed away). In St.
Eustatius, $1,000 was donated to purchase and erect
signs throughout island (airport, shopping area, hik-
ing trails, and near iguana habitat) which give basic
information about Iguana delicatissima (see photo).
Several IIS members also volunteered their time to help
with the iguana translocation project in the Turks and
Caicos Islands and the facility upgrade and construc-
tion in Grand Cayman.

The IIS is planning to host an auction at the National
Reptile Breeders Expo in Daytona in 2006. Auction
proceeds will go to the following projects: 1) San Sal-
vador, C. rileyi; 2) Jamaica, C. collei; and 3) Anegada,
C. pingius. The IIS will also host evening iguana talks
highlighting several species and will construct infor-
mational and educational displays for Expo visitors.

The IIS will undergo a few structural changes in the
upcoming year. IGUANA magazine will begin includ-
ing articles pertaining to other reptiles sympatric with
iguanas to appeal to a broader audience and hopefully
increase membership. Additionally, although not dis-
cussed at the meeting in Fiji, IIS has now been incor-
porated into the IRCF and is no longer a separate en-
tity. IRCF will


One of the world's rarest
lzards, these Iguanas are
native to only a few
Caribbean islands.
They are protected
by international law;
harming or harassing
them In any way is illegal.

Please protect them I

magazine and
the IIS mem-

International Iguana Foundation Report
Rick Hudson (Fort Worth Zoo)
Organized in August 2001, the IIF now has 14 Board
members representing a range of partner organizations
including Zoos (11), Corporations (Disney), Wildlife
Trusts (Durrell) and Foundations (IRCF). The Shedd
Aquarium is ready to come on board soon. The IIF
just passed a major funding milestone, surpassing the
quarter million mark ($260,439) raised for iguana con-
servation since 2001. Pledges by Board members ac-
count for -$45,000 annually and grants and donations
represent the rest. The Disney Wildlife Conservation
Fund has been particularly generous to the IIF, having
contributed $48,750 through their DWCF grants and
$20,000 in dues for a total of $68,750. The 2004
DWCF grant ($16,000) funded the implementation
of the Turks & Caicos Iguana Conservation and Man-
agement Plan. The IIF is currently administering grants
from Morris Animal Foundation and the IUCN/SSC
Sir Peter Scott Fund (for Anegada).

Additionally, individual board members responded to
various requests for emergency aid or special needs in
2004 by sending funds or staff members to assist. For
the Hurricane Ivan relief effort on Grand Cayman, the
following partners responded: Woodland Park Zoo,
Indianapolis Zoo, Houston Zoo, Sedgwick County
Zoo, Audubon Zoo, Zoo Conservation Outreach
Group, and Disney's rapid response fund for a total
$11,376 in cash, equipment, and staff support. Ear-
lier in the year nearly $3,600 was raised for the Blue
Iguana Recovery Program by the Herp Department at
the Sedgwick County Zoo and the Woodland Park Zoo
provided another $2,000.

For hurricane relief at Jamaica's Hope Zoo, the follow-
ing responded: San Diego Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo,
Disney's rapid response fund, and Sedgwick County
Zoo's AAZK chapter, totaling over $6,000 in funding
and staff support. The Hellshire Hills field project
benefited from additional support from Audubon Zoo,
IRCF, and the Houston Zoo that allowed IIF to pro-
vide a $2,500 match to a Miami Metrozoo grant.

The IIF has awarded at total of$137,280 in three grant
cycles (2002 - 2004) to the following projects:

- Grand Cayman blue iguana recovery program:
3 grants for $36,000.

- Jamaican iguana recovery program: 3 grants for
- Anegada field research and conservation: 3 grants
for $37,000.
-* San Salvador iguana, Bahamas: 1 grant for $7,500.
-* St. Lucia field research and conservation: 2 grants
for $13,000.
-* Ricord's iguana in the Dominican Republic: 1 grant
for $11,000.
The IIF will be restructuring their annual grant sched-
ule for 2005, moving from a spring to a fall time frame.
This will allow the IIF Board to periodically meet in
conjunction with the ISG, with the first joint meeting
scheduled for November 2005 on Andros Island, Ba-
hamas. The IIF web site (www.iguanafoundation.org)
is now set up to accept on-line donations and credit
cards. The donor side of the web site allows us to man-
age the growing donor database and to set up new fund-
ing drives and campaigns. Currently, the Jamaican
iguana is the primary focal point for fund-raising ac-
tivities. Another high priority need is a vehicle for the
Anegada field project. IIF has allocated $4,000 to-
ward the purchase of a small used truck, contingent
upon matching funds from an outside source. The
Anegada iguana recovery program is making signifi-
cant progress, having released 48 headstarted iguanas
in two groups in 2003 and 2004, primarily with IIF
support. Zoos that regularly provide staff resources to
this project include Fort Worth, Dallas, and San Di-
ego. Finally, the IIF received their first Endangered
Species permit from USFWS to import ten Grand
Cayman blue iguanas for the U.S. captive program.
Tandora Grant will return with them in January 2005.

Public Relation Issues and Iguana Conservation
Joe Wasilewski (.?\.... .. Selections)
The ISG should develop some type of protocol for deal-
ing with film makers. There is potential to raise needed
funds to support various projects throughout the Car-
ibbean. The Crocodile Specialist Group has developed
a collaboration with a major network and has made
scientists available for film making. The company pays
a negotiated amount for such a service on an annual

basis. The scientists then develop their own deal in
order to compensate them for their time. This is done
on an individual basis with charges such as a daily fee
for the principal investigator and assistantss, expenses,
per diem, and a donation to the respective project. The
same type of agreement should be arranged for the ISG,
as film makers are heading away from crocodiles re-
cently and iguanas could be featured extensively.
There is a potential problems with filming iguanas.
Along with budgetary problems, iguanas are not as
desirable to film as crocodiles. Simply put, viewers
expect too much blood and sex. The concept of film-
ing iguanas is an untapped resource and much of the
work will take place on location: the respective island.
Captive animals could be used to supplement natural
history films. Be aware that some film companies will
need extensive guidance to portray the appropriate
message; editing by the scientists is mandatory.
In Summary:

* Short films could be produced locally and used
by the respective countries in schools in order to
raise awareness.
* Each taxon should be represented in such a
* Proper editing could produce a film to be sold to
an international network equals dollars earmarked
for future conservation work.

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

The Alliance for Zero Extinction is an initiative led by
a group of biodiversity conservation organizations to
identify and protect the last remaining habitats for the
world's most endangered species. The Alliance aims to
stem species extinctions, beginning with terrestrial ver-
tebrates whose populations and distributions are best
known, and including other species as soon as suffi-
cient information becomes available to assess their threat

level. By starting with the species that are most endan-
gered, the Alliance aims to create a front line of de-
fense against extinction that will hold until broader scale
conservation efforts can restore sufficient habitat to
enable populations to rebound. The AZA mission is
to pinpoint and conserve epicenters of imminent ex-
To be listed a AZE site must meet three criteria:
Endangerment. An AZE site must contain at least one
Endangered (EN) or Critically Endangered (CR) spe-
cies, as listed by IUCN - World Conservation Union.
Irreplaceability. An AZE site should only be designated
if it is the sole area where an EN or CR species occurs,
or contains the overwhelmingly significant known resi-
dent population of the EN or CR species, or contains
the overwhelmingly significant known population for
one life history segment (e.g., breeding or wintering)
of the EN or CR species.
Discreteness. The area must have a definable boundary
within which the character of habitats, biological com-
munities, and/or management issues have more in com-
mon with each other than they do with those in adja-
cent areas.
Both the ISG and IIF have signed an MOU with AZE
and agreed to participate. It is in our best interest to
have key iguana locales listed as AZE sites because those
species then become eligible for funding through Con-
servation International's (CI) Critically Endangered
Neotropical Species Fund. Already, and without the
benefit our ISG/IIF input, the Jamaican iguana pro-
gram received funding from CI because the Hellshire
Hills ecosystem is listed in the AZE database map. The
group discussed other potential candidates for AZE list-
ing including Grand Cayman blue iguana, Utila iguana,
and the Fijian crested iguana. The ISG will provide
additional recommendations as the intricacies of the
criteria for listing become better understood.

Iguana-friendly Development Guidelines

Ideas were discussed for drafting iguana-friendly guide-
lines for island countries pursuing land development.
This initiative was formulated at the TCI Iguana

Flora. Natural areas should be incorporated into de-
velopment; inclusion of iguana food plants; no inva-
sive plants used for landscaping; minimal use of
Exotic Animals. Containment of pets - leashed dogs
and no cats (guidelines tailored to a resort vs. private
homes); spay and neutering required; permanent iden-
tification and registration required; no pets during con-
struction phase; no livestock or domestic fowl.
Design. Minimal footprint; build into existing land-
scape; speed control, road signage, golf carts where prac-
tical (no ORVs); include footpaths and/or boardwalks
to contain foot traffic; protection of nest sites and ac-
cess to nest sites; work through homeowners associa-
tions where applicable.
Conservation and Science. Interpretive materials, edu-
cational signage, brochures, opportunities to donate to
conservation efforts; no feeding of iguanas, emphasize
the danger to iguanas and people; provide training for
staff members of resorts (include etiquette for visitors);
establish conservation and impact fee (from mitigation
funds?) and hold funds in bond in event that feral
mammals invade and require eradication; allow (fund?)
assessment by iguana biologist before construction; al-
low (fund?) ongoing biological monitoring during and
after construction; enforcement of legislation with pen-
alties for harassment or removal.
A task force consisting of ISG members Lee Pagni,
Glenn Gerber, and Steve Conners was formed to ex-
pand these guidelines and screen existing guidelines for
sea turtles for additional ideas.

IIF Funding Priorities
Highest Priority for 2005
Crested Iguana - Fund team of Fijian negotiators to
visit Yanuya Island to meet with landowners of Monu
and Monuriki regarding establishment of captive breed-
ing program and habitat restoration: $3,000 FJD x 3
trips over 6 months. Potential to fund or match funds
through the International Conservation Fund for the
Crested Iguana (ICFFCI).

Jamaican Iguana - Maintain field effort in Hellshire
and begin baseline surveys for Goat Islands: Rick Van
Veen salary ($12K), new cat traps, PIT tag reader, so-
lar power for field camp, and ongoing health assess-
ments for headstarted animals.
Anegada Iguana - Maintain headstarting and release
program (identification of nests and collection of
hatchlings, ongoing health assessments for headstarted
animals: $750 for 10 animals plus vet travel, monitor-
ing program for wild population, and vehicle ($4K ear-
marked, need additional $4K - potential to match
through IIS/IRCF funds next August).
Turks & Caicos Iguana - Address need for cat eradica-
tion on Little Water Cay (implementation of IC rec-
ommendations from feasibility study).

Middle Priority for 2005
Ricord's Iguana - Capacity building for local commu-
nity in Pedernales region and additional surveys in
southern coast of Lago Enriquillo. Consult with Jan
Ramer for other needs. Potential for Disney funding.
Andros Iguana - Public education initiatives, govern-
ment involvement in designating protected areas, and
full-time educator and evaluation. Potential for Disney
St. Lucia - Seed funds for education component as
needed and investigate potential for gene flow between
Grand Anse and Louvet. Karen Graham to consult
with Matt Morton for other needs.

Lower Priority for 2005
Ctenosaura - Genetics of Gulf of California species: $5K
for fieldwork.

San Salvador Iguana - Await field report from 2004.
Consult with Bill Hayes and Ron Carter for other
needs. IIS is planning support for this work.
Mona Island Iguana - Consult with Miguel Garcia for
project needs.
Exuma Islands Iguana - Pasture Cay population moni-
toring to determine effect of rats and compare to Alli-
gator Cay.
Fijian Banded Iguana - Survey large inhabited islands
for abundance: Kadavu, Ovalau, Gau, and Koro. One
week is needed on each island.
Grand Cayman - Salary for Facility Manager,
radiotracking, ongoing health assessments for
headstarted animals? Consult with Fred Burton for
project needs.

Joint ISG and IIF Meeting 2006

The ISG annual meeting is planned for November
2006 on Andros Island, Bahamas and will be held in
conjunction with the annual IIF meeting. The meet-
ing is tentatively scheduled for Nov 5-9 or Nov 12-16.
Chuck Knapp will be coordinating the event and will
soon provide final dates. The tentative schedule will
be: Day 1 - field trip, Day 2 - Recovery Plan Wkshp,
Day 3 - Recovery Plan Wkshp continued and 1st part
of ISG meeting, Day 4 - ISG meeting continued, and
Day 5 - IIF Board meeting.

Iguana Specialist Group and Fiji National Trust Co-
Sponsor Conservation and Management Plan Work-
shop for Fijian Iguanas

On 10-11 November, 2004, the IUCN SSC Iguana Spe-
cialist Group and the Fiji National Trust co-sponsored a
Conservation and Management Plan workshop for Fiji's
native crested (Brachylophus vitiensis) and banded iguanas
(B. fasciatus). The workshop was held on the Laucala cam-
pus of the University of the South Pacific, and was attended
by 50 participants from both within and outside Fiji. The
purpose of the workshop was to develop a comprehensive
strategy to guide conservation of Fiji's native iguanas by iden-
tifying and prioritizing the actions needed to ensure their
future survival. For crested iguanas, a series of key objec-
tives was identified, including prioritization of islands most
suitable for long-term survival, implementation of a com-
prehensive management plan for the Yadua Taba Crested
Iguana Sanctuary, recommendations for field research on
iguanas and their habitats, development of captive breeding
and reintroduction strategies, and establishment of educa-
tion, awareness, and ecotourism programs. For banded igua-
nas, about which much less is currently known, a research
agenda was developed that focuses on collection of baseline
data, genetic studies, and education needs. Results of the
workshop will be published early next year.

Following the workshop, participants had the opportunity
to visit a traditional Fijian village on Yadua Island, home to
the custodians of the crested iguana sanctuary on nearby
Yadua Taba. Following a traditional sevusevu ceremony,
permission to visit the sanctuary was given, and participants
had the rare treat of viewing an extraordinarily dense popu-
lation of crested iguanas in the wild. After returning to the
main island ofViti Levu, the annual Iguana Specialist Group
meeting was held in Suva on November 15. The meeting

centered on planning discussions for a number of key taxa,
as well as special sessions on public relations and the media,
iguana friendly development guidelines, and funding pri-
orities for 2005.

Fiji National Participants:
BillAalbersberg (Institute ofApplied Sciences, USP); Pita Biciloa (Yadua
Taba Senior Ranger, National Trust of Fiji Islands); Ramesh Chand (Kula
Eco Park, Korotogo); Indra Devi (National Trust of Fiji Islands); Eliza-
beth Erasito (National Trust of Fiji Islands);l Linda Farley (Wildlife Con-
servation Society, South Pacific); Philip Felsted (Kula Eco Park,
Korotogo); Gunnar Keppel (Department of Biology, USP); Craig Morley
(Department of Biology, USP); Clare Morrison (Department of Biol-
ogy, USP); Alifereti Naikatini (South Pacific Regional Herbarium, USP);
Jone Niukula (National Trust of Fiji Islands); Rob Perry Jones (CITES,
WWF Fiji); Luke Qiritabu (Department of Environment, Fiji); Avisaki
Ravuvu (National Trust of Fiji Islands); Sereima Savu (National Trust of
Fiji Islands); Manasa Sovaki (Department of Enviroment, Fiji); Apisai
Tinakoro (National Trust of Fiji Islands); Marika Tuiwawa (South Pa-
cific Regional Herbarium, USP); TeriTuxson (Mamanuca Environment
Society); Di Walker (Mamanuca Environment Society); Dick Watling
(Consultant Biologist, Fiji); Praveen Wignarajah (Greenforce and Na-
tional Trust of Fiji Islands)

International Participants:
Allison Alberts (San Diego Zoo, USA); Joe Burgess (International Iguana
Society, USA); Steve Conners (Miami Metro Zoo, USA); Robert Fisher
(U.S. Geological Survey, San Diego, USA); Glenn Gerber (San Diego
Zoo, USA); Karen Graham (Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, USA); Tan-
dora Grant (San Diego Zoo, USA); Peter Harlow (Taronga Zoo, Austra-
lia); Stacie Hathaway (U.S. Geological Survey, San Diego, USA); Sara
Hicks (Taronga Zoo, Australia); Rick Hudson (Forth Worth Zoo, USA);
Scott Keogh (Australian National University, Australia); John Kinkaid
(San Diego Zoo, USA); Wendy Kinsella (Taronga Zoo, Australia); Chuck
Knapp (Shedd Aquarium and University of Florida, USA); John Kunna
(Jamaican Iguana Recovery Project, Jamaica); Jeff Lemm (San Diego
Zoo, USA); Bonnie Raphael (Wildlife Conservation Society, New York,
USA); Ivan Rehak (Praque Zoo, Czech Republic); Victor Reynoso
(Instituto de Biologia, Ciudad Universitaria Mexico, Mexico); Jennifer
Taylor (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Australia); Rick Van
Veen (Jamaican Iguana Recovery Project, Jamaica); Joe Wasilewski (In-
ternational Iguana Society, USA).

Alberts, A.C., R.L. Carter, WK. Hayes, and E.P. Martins.
2004. Iguanas: Biology and Conservation. University of
California Press, Berkeley. 341 pp.
An, J., J.A. Sommer, G.D. Shore, J.E. Williamson, R.A.
Brenneman, and E.E. Louis, Jr. 2004 Characterization of
20 microsatellite marder loci in the west Indian rock iguana
(Cyclura nubila). Conservation Genetics 5:121-125.

Arias, Y., S. Inchiustegui, and E. Rupp. 2004. Cyclura
ricordii on the Barahona peninsula: a preliminary report.
Iguana 11(1):9-14.

Gerber, G. 2004. An update of the ecology and conserva-
tion of Cyclurapinguis on Anegada. Iguana 11(1):23-26.

Henderson, R.W and R. Powell. 2003. Islands and the
Sea. Essays on Herpetological Exploration in the West
Indies. Contributions to Herpetology 20. Society for the
Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York. 304

Knapp, C.R. and A.K. Owens. 2004. Diurnal refugia and
novel ecological attributes of the Bahamian boa, Epicrates
striatus fowleri (Boidae). Caribbean Journal of Science
Levering, K. and G. Perry. 2003. Cyclura pinguis (Stout
iguana, Anegada rock iguana) juvenile predation. Herpe-
tological Review 34(4):367-368.

Perry, G., K. Levering, and N. Mitchell. 2003. Cyclura
pinguis (Stout iguana, Anegada rock iguana) juvenile be-
havior. Herpetological Review 34(4):367.

The Taxon Report for the Anegada Island iguana,
page 12, Spring Newsletter 7(1) 2004, was
authored by Glenn Gerber (San Diego Zoo) and
Kelly Bradley (Dallas Zoo).

ISG Contact Information

Allison Alberts, Co-Chair
Zoological Society of San Diego
Email: aalberts@sandiegozoo.org

Fredric Burton, Deputy Chair
National Trust for the Cayman Islands
Email: fjburton@candw.ky

Richard Hudson, Co-Chair
Fort Worth Zoo
Email: RHudson@fortworthzoo.org

Miguel Garcia, Deputy Chair
Department of Natural and Environmental
Resources, Puerto Rico
Email: miguelag@umich.edu


ISG Newsletter
Published by the
Zoological Society of San Diego
Applied Conservation Division
15600 San Pasqual Valley Road,
Escondido, CA 92027

Tandora Grant
Allison Alberts