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CONSTITUTION OF THE
"Back to Broward"League
The name of this organization shall be "Back to.
The objects of this organization are:
SECTION I. To aid in the drainage and develop-
ment of the Everglades.
SECTION 2. To cooperate, for the common wel-
fare, with all men interested in the Everglades.
SECTION 3. To place before the people of Florida
the real facts with regard to the Everglades, its history,
its present status and its future possibilities.
SECTION 4. To inform the people of the State of
Florida of the obligations and duties incurred and
assumed by them with reference to the drainage of the
Everglades and the manner in which these obligations
and duties have been treated by the several State
SECTION 5. To urge the immediate redemption of
all pledges made by the State and its Officials with a
view to saving the honor and reputation and the fair
name of Florida.
SECTION 6. To urge that future State Administra-
tions avoid the mistakes of those in office since the death
of Napoleon Broward and, "Going back to Broward,"
adopt and carry out, in its essentials, the drainage plan
of this greatest of Florida's sons.
Membership in this League may be held by all com-
mercial, agricultural, marketing and. other organiza-
tions, and firms, corporations and individuals interested
in the drainage and development of the Everglades, that
apply for membership, and cooperate to further the
objects of this League.
ARTICLE IV-LOCATION OFOFFICE AND
BRANCH ORGANIZATIONS'. .. '.
The General Office of this Leagie shall be at Ft.
Lauderdale,. Broward County, Florida,; but branch
offices may be:established at any place in Florida .where
a sufficient number-of persons apply for. membersiiiin:;
the League. . .. .
ARTICLE V--OFFICERS.:: ',
The carrying out of. the objects of he League s
be; so far-as iti- in his poiwier ,the du typf.each i.eM E.
but shall- be particularly the. duty- ofhd'f.
officers: i Ai'-E ecutive Coittefe offivenmm s
be chosen. Ifrot the membership t l dgeii
dent, .Vice.Presiitde a.andS.i y :ef
,:...shall- be., memi err of the Ex.~ie 'CimtlWa
:-., chosen byqri'-, -: :;T 7 t~.:'. .,.
;; ..- :'!..; :: ,...(:, ,. .".', .:';,?,
Description of the Everglades
The Everglades is an immense prairie containing
over four million acres of land. Its watershed contains
three million acres additional.
The flood waters from Lake Okeechobee and the
watershed to the north and west thereof overflow the
bulk of this great prairie at certain seasons of the year,
and make it too wet for successful cultivation.
The Everglades, while nearly level, slopes gradually
from about six feet above sea level in the southern and
eastern portions near the coast, to about 20 feet above
sea level near Lake Okeechobee. With this elevation it
can readily be seen that it is not a difficult engineering
feat to build enough control canals to carry off the flood
waters from the lake, and enough other canals and
laterals to carry off the rainwater that falls upon the
The Everglades is the biggest single body of reclaim-
able land in the world and is among the easiest and
cheapest to reclaim. A comparatively few dollars per
acre spent in drainage works will reclaim this vast prairie
and make it one of the most valuable assets that the State
of Florida possesses.
Size of the Everglades
Four million acres does not spell very much in cold
figures, but a few comparisons will serve to illustrate.
The Everglades is larger than Escambia, Santa Rosa,
Okaloosa and Walton counties combined. For another
illustration, Gadsden, Liberty, Leon, Franklin, Wakulla
and Jefferson counties combined will just about total the
Everglades acreage. In Central Florida, the total land
surface of Bradford, Clay, Alachua, Putnam and Marion
counties could all be contained in the Everglades with
room to spare.
The State of Connecticut is not far from being the
same area as the Everglades. It would take two States
the size of Delaware to make the Everglades. The State
of Rhode Island supports half a million people, and the
Everglades is four times as large as Rhode Island.
The Everglades is approximately half the size of
Holland, and Holland supports a population, mostly
farmers, of six million. At this rate the Everglades, when
drained, should support three million people.
With only one family on every 80 acres, leaving the
towns out of account, the Everglades would support
50,000 families, or with an average of five members to
the family a population of 250,000. This is a conserva-
What Is Produced and Can Be Produced
in the Everglades
In those portions of the Everglades now most nearly
drained, the wonderful ability of the Everglades soil to
produce various crops has been already proven.
Nearly everything that has been tried grows very
rapidly and luxuriantly.
Grapefruit and other citrus fruit trees mature rapidly
on Everglades soil, and the fruit is excellent. Vegetables
of nearly all kinds are produced in abundance, yielding
in some cases several hundred dollars per acre in a single
Sugar cane, grasses and forage crops mature rapidly
and seem to be at home in Everglades soil. Grasses and
forage crops can be cut many times throughout the year.
Cattle thrive particularly well on the Everglades.
Hogs, both pure blooded stock and native, thrive here in
a most satisfactory manner.
Other States regard their reclaimed wet lands as the
most valuable land within their boundaries. Florida has
in its Everglades a more wonderful area of reclaimable
land than has any other State in the Union.
In many parts of the Middle West, Illinois for
example, with about a five months' growing season, the
best farming land is valued at over $200 per acre. With
a twelve months' growing season, how shall we value our
Everglades land ?
With the Everglades reclaimed and added to the
State's other millions of acres of productive land, Florida
will take the position to which it is justly entitled-the
leading farming State in the Union.
State Taxes from Everglades, When
Drained, Should Pay Florida's
If we value Everglades land, when drained, at only
$15.00 per acre, as much of the South Florida prairie
land now in crop is returned for assessment, the Ever-
glades when drained would be valued for taxation at
Sixty Million Dollars and would produce at the present
State millage $300,000 per year in State taxes. Un-
drained, and in its present condition, the Everglades
produce less than $50,000 State tax.
When drained and placed under cultivation, how-
ever, the assessed value per acre of the Everglades should
be $50.00 per acre instead of $ 5.oo, and would probably
be thus assessed. The total assessed value of $200,000,000
would produce a State tax of One Million Dollars per
year, or more than enough to pay all the expenses of the
State Government in Florida on the present basis of
Back to Broward
And His Policy of Real Drainage
Over Half of the Land in Florida Was Received
by the State Subject to the Condition
1. More than 20,000,000 Acres Accepted by Florida
Under the "Swamp and'Overflowed|Land Act."
These lands were scattered over nearly every county
in the State, and represent the richest undeveloped asset
of the State. They will yet make Florida the richest
farming State in the Union, but a change of policy is
necessary to bring about this result.
2. Greedy Corporations Scramble for Possession of
Lands That Should Have Been Used to Pay for Their
Paying no attention to the proper disposition of the
"swamp and overflowed" land, public servants yielded
to the demands of railroads and transportation canal
companies and proceeded to give away approximately
17,000,0oo acres, the heritage of the people of Florida.
All a railroad seemed to need was a name and a board
of directors to get a share of the rich spoils. There
followed a riot of squandering these lands. In blocks of
all sizes from a few thousand acres up to over 2,500,000
acres to one corporation the "swamp and overflowed"
lands were diverted from the people and their proper
use of financing drainage, and were illegally granted to
3. Broward Found "Bank Account" Overdrawn.
When Broward was inaugurated as Governor, he
found land grants outstanding, the total .of which
exceeded the total acreage of "swamp and overflowed"
lands in the State. Several million acres more had been
granted than actually existed.
He maintained that the so-called "State" lands in
the Everglades should be devoted to reclamation, and
after having sold several hundred thousand acres for
drainage purposes, he reiterated time and again that if
any further funds were needed, all of the remaining
"State" lands in the district would be used, if necessary,
to complete this great work.
The Contract of the State of Florida
With the United States
1. On the Part of the United States.
(We quote some of the most vital clauses only.)
"AN ACT to enable the State of Arkansas and other
States to reclaim the "Swamp Lands" within their
"BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and House of Repre-
sentatives of the United States of America in Congress
assembled, That to enable the State of Arkansas (and
other States) to construct the necessary levees and drains
to reclaim the swamp and overflowed lands therein, the
whole of those swamp and overflowed lands, made unfit
thereby for cultivation, which shall remain unsold at the
passage of this act, shall be, and the same are hereby,
granted to said State .. ....
S "PROVIDED, however, That the proceeds of said lands,
whether from sale or by direct appropriation in kind,
shall be applied, exclusively, as far as necessary, to the
purpose of reclaiming said lands by means of the levees
and drains aforesaid .. .. ..
"SECTION 4. AND BE IT FURTHER ENACTED, That
the provisions of this act be extended to, and the benefits
be conferred upon, each of the other States of the Union
in which such swamp and overflowed lands, known as
(and) designated as aforesaid, may be situated.
"Approved, September 28, 1850."
I I M
2. On the Part of the State of Florida.
(We quote the most vital clauses only.)
"AN ACT to secure the swamp and overflowed lands
lately granted to the State, and for other purposes.
"SECTION I. BE IT ENACTED BY THE SENATE AND
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE STATE OF FLOR-
IDA IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY CONVENED, That the gov-
ernor is authorized, and hereby requested, to take such
measures as to him may seem expedient and most to the
interests of this State, in securing and classifying the lands
lately granted to this State, designated as 'swamp or
overflowed lands' .
"That there shall be, and hereby is, created and con-
stituted a Board of Internal Improvement for the State
of Florida . to determine upon and recommend
plans for the reclamation of swamp lands, and to appraise
the value of said lands . .
"Approved January o10, 1853."
Later, in 1855, the Internal Improvement Board was
changed to its present form. (We quote a few impor-
tant clauses from the Internal Improvement Fund Act
"SECTION 2. BE IT FURTHER ENACTED, That for
the purpose of assuring a proper application of said fund
for the purposes herein declared, said lands and all the
funds arising from the sales thereof, after paying the
necessary expenses of selections, management, and sale,
are hereby irrevocably vested in five trustees, to wit:
In the governor of this State, the comptroller of public
accounts, the State treasurer, and attorney general, and
the register of State lands, and their successors in office,
to hold the same in trust for the uses and purposes here-
inafter provided . . .
"SEC. 16. BE IT FURTHER ENACTED, That the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund shall . .
make such arrangements for the drainage of the swamp
or overflowed lands, as in their judgment may be most
advantageous to the Internal Improvement Fund, and
the settlement and cultivation of the land . . ...
Passed the house of representatives December 29.
1854. Passed the senate January 2, 1855. Approved by
the governor January 6, 1855.
There is no question but that the foregoing consti-
tutes a contract between the United States Government
and the State of Florida.
The Supreme Court of the United States Says These
Lands Should Be Used for Drainage Purposes.
(We quote from certain opinions handed down by
the highest court in the nation.)
"The State, in accepting the grant, was bound to
devote the lands to the accomplishment of the purpose
which Congress had in view, and there was an implied
agreement on her part to take all the measures reason-
ably within her power to make their application effectual
to that purpose.
"Upon general principles she could not tax the land
while the title remained in the United States; nor while
she held them as Trustee of the United States, which in
view of the law, is one and the same thing."
"The contract" (between the Federal Government
and the State-as it was so declared by the court) "re-
quired the State to appropriate the lands granted to the
purpose of reclaiming them."
In addition to the fact that the contract between the
United States and Florida as to drainage and applica-
tion of swamp and overflowed lands to drainage pur-
poses is undoubtedly legally binding and enforceable,
It has even greater significance in that it is morally
binding, and the people of Florida need no legal process
to make them keep their solemn pledges. We believe
that the people of Florida will, by their votes, elect State
officers pledged to carry out the contract with the United
States, to fulfill the sacred trust of drainage, and thus
save the honor of Florida.
The Broward Campaign
1. Broward's Platform-"Recover Swamp Lands
Illegally Granted and Use Them to Pay for Drainage."
Broward showed what it would mean to the State of
Florida to develop its swamp and overflowed lands-to
apply them to the purpose of drainage, first wresting
them from the hands of selfish interests.
2. Broward Was Elected. He Saved Millions of
Acres of Everglades Land for Drainage Purposes.
He used the lands, saved from grasping railroad
corporations, for the purpose of paying for drainage, sell-
ing them from time to time as became necessary, in
accordance with the conditions of the original grant from
the United States Government.
3. Broward's Plan- "Drain by Units" -Leave
Drained Lands Behind the Dredges.
His plan further contemplated finishing drainage as
the dredges moved forward, and selling the land in
drained areas at a drained-land price to carry on the
-work. After the work was well started he did not ex-
pect to sell undrained land at ridiculously low prices, nor
would this have to be done if his plans had been carried
The Everglades Boom Begins
1. Land Operators at First Shy of the Proposition,
But Induced by State Officers to'BuycLarge Tracts.
The only method at first of deriving large enough
sums of money to prosecute the work seemed to be by
means of sales of Everglades lands to colonization com-
panies, which in turn would sell the same to small buyers
to make their homes upon. After many negotiations,
several large land operators were found who bought big
tracts upon the assurance of State drainage, thus furnish-
ing means to the State of Florida to start the drainage
2. Sales to Thousands of Would-Be Settlers.
There followed a period of land buying hardly
equalled in the history of any State. The wonderful
Everglades, the region of mystery, the home of the
Seminole, were at last to be drained by the State of Flor-
ida, and homes made for millions of people where before
existed only a trackless swamp. The Everglades ap-
pealed to the imagination, they were something big,
something different from the ordinary land proposition.
Great enthusiasm was aroused and people vied with each
other to buy. Extensive advertising and wide-spread
publicity on the part of the State and colonization com-
panies attracted thousands of purchasers. Many an
agent has said, "It was no trouble to sell Everglades
land; it sold itself." And, moreover, all these buyers
were fortified with the oft-repeated statements, "The
project can not fail." "It is a State project." "The
State of Florida is back of it."
Everglades Advertising Brought
Prosperity for the State
The Broward administration will long be remem-
bered as a period when Florida began to grow in popula-
tion and wealth as never before. The newspapers and
magazines all over the country contained glowing ac-
counts of Florida's great reclamation enterprise, her
balmy tropical climate and her wonderful agricultural
possibilities. Florida was brought into the public eye
more prominently than ever before, through Napoleon
Broward's pledge to drain the Everglades, and the fact
that the work was actually under way. The words
"Florida," "The Everglades," were on the lips of thou-
sands of people in every State in the Union. Interest in
Florida was general. People flocked into the State.
Colonization projects in many parts of the State were
organized. Business all over the State was greatly
stimulated. Land values all over the State were in-
Millions of dollars were made by the people of Flor-
ida at large through the wide-spread publicity accorded
to the Everglades.
Florida's Pledges Which Induced
20,000 People to Buy Land
in the Everglades. Drainage
of the Everglades a State
Duty. The Pledges
I. Verdict of People.
2. Acts of Legislature.
3. Pledges of State Officers.
1. The Verdict of the People.
Broward was elected governor on a platform promis-
ing the drainage of the Everglades. The people of Flor-
ida thus placed themselves on record before the world.
No campaign in Florida before or since has had the
publicity of the Broward campaign. The news was
heralded to every city and village throughout the Union,
"The State of Florida is going to drain the Everglades."
2. Acts of Florida Legislature, Providing for Drain-
age of Everglades, Gave Land Buyers Confidence in
In 1905, in 1907, again in 1913, the Florida Legis-
lature (the Representatives of the People) passed laws,
calculated to bring about the drainage of the Everglades.
In 1915 the law was again worked over to the adminis-
All these various laws were passed to provide for
drainage of the Everglades, and to place the exclusive
control of all drainage operations in the hands of the
3. Pledges of State Officers.
From so many it is difficult to select a few. We will
use direct quotations only.
(Extract from Quarterly Bulletin of the Agricul-
tural Department of the State of Florida July I, 1909.)
"These lands (Everglades) are being rapidly and
successfully drained by the State as well as by private
and corporate owners . . ."
"The general surface of the Everglades was thus sub-
ject to great changes prior to the inauguration of the
system of drainage now so successfully under way."
This same matter quoted above was moreover used
again in 190to and still again in 1911 in agricultural re-
ports from the same office.
From the Minutes of Trustees of Internal Improve-
ment Fund, November I, 1911 :
"The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
and the Board of Drainage Commissioners have funds in
hand and available for the completion of the contracts
made, and in addition have a sufficiency of land together
with the drainage tax being collected, to construct such
other canals as conditions may warrant."
From Supplement to Florida Quarterly Bulletins of
the Agricultural Department April I, 1915:
"In the campaign of 1905, the successful candidate
for Governor was elected on a platform pledged to the
drainage of the Everglades, and since that time, not-
withstanding the many obstacles necessary to be over-
come, reclamation by drainage has on its own merits,
gradually become one of the fixed policies of the State."
If you were a citizen of another State and had read
the foregoing and many similar statements, would you
have any doubt as to Florida's being pledged to drain the
4. Advertising Matter Was Sanctioned and Paid
for by State Officers out of Public Funds to Aid in the
Selling of Everglades Lands.
At a meeting of the Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund (State officials), April 9, 1912, a
resolution was passed providing for the spending of ap-
proximately $i,ooo to partially pay the cost of a junket-
ing trip of newspaper men, in company with the State
officials, through the Everglades, for the purpose of send-
ing out broadcast "accurate information" regarding the
condition of the land, its value, etc., to keep the army of
small buyers in good heart and keep their money com-
ing in to the land companies so that the land companies
could continue their payments to the State. We quote
from the "Souvenir" booklet (published and distributed
in 1912), which was the product of the junketing trip,
paid for in part by the State officials.
"Now comes man, driven by necessity to complete
God's plan and by cutting a half dozen canals .
Presto! North America's tropical winter garden is
ready for the sower. ."
"On account of the combined drainage and irrigation
methods of reclaiming the Everglades, it can be truth-
fully described as one of the safest reclaimed land proj-
ects, from an agricultural or investment standpoint, ever
attempted ..... ."
"The Everglades can be practically reclaimed by the
system of canals now (1912) in course of construction
"Gone forever are the Everglades. In their place
Florida today has 4,000,000 acres of tillable land, won-
"If the facts concerning the Everglades were gen-
erally known, there would be a rush of settlers to Florida
and the land of the Everglades that would see this
wonderfully rich area thickly populated with thriving
farmers from the North within a few months."
5. Senate Document Widely Used as Land Selling
Senate Document No. 89, Sixty-second Congress,
First Session, contains many promises of State reclama-
tion of the Everglades. The Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund, at a meeting held August 30, 1911,
authorized their Secretary to order 10,000 copies of this
document, the reasons given in the minutes being that
the said document contained
". .. .all official reports on said subject, both Na-
tional and State to date."
The statements made in Senate Document No. 89
were thus made the official utterances of the State officers
in regard to the drainage of the Everglades. These
documents were widely distributed.
Among the quotations set out in this Senate Docu-
ment we append the following:
From resolution adopted by the Legislature of Flor-
ida January 6, 1848:
"RESOLVED BY THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRE-
SENTATIVES OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA IN GENERAL
ASSEMBLY CONVENED, That Congress be requested to
grant to this State all of said lands (the Everglades)
. on condition that the State will drain them and
apply the proceeds of the sale thereof, after defraying
the expense of draining, to purposes of education."
From resolution adopted by Florida House of Repre-
sentatives May 31, 1909:
"RESOLVED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
That in view of the magnitude of the operations involved
in the drainage of the swamp and overflowed lands of
the State, and of the vast importance thereof, and of the
great benefit to be derived therefrom, it is of vital inter-
est to the people of the State that the drainage opera-
tions now being conducted by the Trustees of the Inter-
nal Improvement Fund should be prosecuted with vigor
and economy, to the end that large areas of immensely
valuable lands may be placed upon the market by the
State, to secure desirable immigrants and to encourage
the development and use of the almost limitless natural
resources of the State, thereby increasing the wealth of
the State and leading to a corresponding reduction in
From Minutes of Trustees of Internal Improve-
ment Fund, vol. V, page 267:
"THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE TRUSTEES
OF THE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND, ALL BEING
PRESENT, That the Trustees adhere strictly to the provi-
sions of the Act of January 6, 1855, Chapter 610o, Laws
of Florida, as to their powers and duties and the purposes
for which said trust was granted, and that they will
assert their rights and defend the title to the lands
granted and irrevocably vested in them for the purposes
therein set forth of reclaiming said lands by means of
levees and drains."
As further proof of the acknowledgment of the
drainage obligation, even at the very hour that the drain-
age-trust-lands were again being diverted to other pur-
poses, we quote below from the minutes of the Trustees
of the Internal Improvement Fund of December 27,
". . The Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund are engaged in the work of draining and reclaim-
ing the Everglades, which were patented to the State
of Florida by Act of Congress of September 28, 1850,
such work being directed and required to be done by an
Act of the Legislature, approved January 6, 1855, im-
posing upon the Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund of the State of Florida the trust of drainage and
reclamation of the swamp and overflowed lands acquired
by the State under the said Act of Congress; and
". . In the execution of the trust of drainage and
reclamation of said lands the Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund are compelled to expend large sums
of money, which sums are derived from the sale of
swamp and overflowed lands and a drainage tax of five
cents per acre upon the lands lying within a certain
drainage district; that the sale of the lands, or pledging
of them, to secure loans, is absolutely necessary to a con-
tinuation of the work of drainage and reclamation of
the lands and of the discharge of the trust aforesaid."
6. All the Dealers in Everglades Land Naturally
Gave the Widest Publicity to All These State Pledges.
The 20,000 or more buyers of these lands look to us,
the people of Florida, to see to it that our public servants
make good our promises of drainage.
They appeal to us to direct our State officials to
go back to the Broward policy of actually draining the
lands which the State has permitted to be retailed to
small buyers, and not spreading over the entire map and
measuring results by dollars spent rather than by acres
Let Us Save the Honor of Florida!
Broward's Plan Upset After
1. Plan Abandoned of Actual Drainage of Lands
Which State Permitted to Be Sold to Small Investors
and Even Helped to Sell to Them.
The plans of succeeding administrations have varied
as political expediency and pressure from different
quarters prompted this or that change. The land sold
to small investors as early as 1909 is largely still un-
drained. These people have waited since 1909-those
who have not died rior allowed their land to be sold for
taxes. They feel that they have been betrayed and they
now appeal to us to insist that our public servants carry
out the solemn pledges of drainage.
We Must Save the Honor of Florida.
2. The Present System of "Holding Out" the
Swamp and Overflowed Lands from the Purpose for
Which They Were Received, Is Crippling the Project.
One of the first acts of the present Board of Trustees
of the Internal Improvement Fund was to pass a resolu-
tion, February, 1913, reading in part:
"It is the opinion of the said Board that the drain-
age should be supported and carried on by the drainage
tax which is levied upon the land within the drainage
district, and that the State should not be required to dis-
pose of its lands for such purposes."
Map of Florida showing an area equal to the 20,00o0.000 acres of "swamp
and overflowed" lands taken over from the United States Government by
Florida under the trust of drainage- equivalent to more than half the area
of the State.
Mlap of Florida showing approximate acreage held by the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund of the State of Florida, March, 1916. Note
how Florida's birthright has shrunk as a result of using this rich heritage
for railroads instead of drainage.
Map of Everglades Drainage District showing approximate acreage held
by the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of the State of Florida,
March, 1916-only about 1,500,000 acres being left after giving away most
of the land to railroads.
This resolution has never been rescinded, although
a subsequent resolution states that the Board is willing
to sell a "reasonable acreage" for the purpose only of im-
proving certain canals. But this offer to sell a "reason-
able acreage" is worthless, as the greater portion of the
lands will not sell, being still largely under water and
This failure to place the so-called "State" lands
within the Everglades district back of the project in a
proper manner and use them as a basis of credit is fatal
to the sale of bonds in sufficient quantities to properly
finance the drainage.
It Is Up to The People of The State to Insist
That The Officials Use These Lands for the Purpose
for Which Florida Received Them.
Damage Done by Present Plan
or Lack of Plan
1. Project Is "Eating Its Head Off."
There is no way of enforcing the collection of drain-
age tax against so-called "State" lands and passing valid
title thereto, any more than the State capitol building
can be sold for a State debt, or the county jail for a
Because of the mismanagement of the project, and
interminable delay of drainage, the privately owned
lands are being rapidly forfeited to the Commissioners
of the District for non-payment of drainage taxes, and
there is no provision for the Commissioners paying any
taxes. For non-payment of State and county taxes also,
privately owned Everglades lands in great quantities are
reverting to the State, and the State, of course, pays no
The security is thus dwindling, and it can not be
expected, therefore, that bond buyers would be especially
attracted to Everglades drainage bonds.
The present authorized bond issue is wholly inade-
quate and will only build some of the general works and
drain comparatively little land, even if the bonds should
250,ooo acres of Everglades land, similar to that sold
in 1912 in large blocks for $15.00 per acre, was offered
in 1915, because the owner could not pay his taxes, for
$2.00 per acre, with no takers. A shrinkage of value
apparently front $15.oo to $2.00 per acrel
The project under the present reactionary policies is
going backward, regardless of the supposedly large sums
of money spent, to which the officials point with great
2. Florida's Credit Injured.
There is no question that the failure to make good on
the Everglades project has hurt the sale of drainage
bonds all over the State and has frightened away mil-
lions of dollars of capital that would otherwise have been
invested in Florida for various forms of development.
Florida's name is a laughing stock in financial circles;
she is pointed out with scorn as the State that has failed
to make good her solemn obligations. Because of the
reactionary policy and questionable acts of her public
servants, tens of thousands of would-be citizens have
almost learned to doubt the integrity and good faith of
their principals, namely, the people of Florida them-
selves. It has, therefore, become a matter touching the
individual and personal honor of every citizen of the
Now that the plain, unvarnished facts have been
called to their notice, the people of Florida may be
depended upon to rise up in their might as one man, and
in righteous indignation stamp out forever the blighting
system of withholding or diverting the drainage-trust-
lands from their proper purpose.
To restore confidence and save the honor of Florida,
and thus prepare for a new era of prosperity, the
people of the State must require the officials to carry
out their honor-bound contract of drainage with the
people of the United States. The swamp and over-
flowed lands received by the people of the State from the
people of the United States under the provisional trust
of 1850, and almost all of which have been illegally
diverted or withheld by unfaithful officials, must be re-
stored to their rightful purpose, and the Everglades
drainage project placed upon a sound business basis.
3. The Fair Name of the State Blackened. Indi-
vidual Buyers Blame the State.
Read these extracts from their letters:
"We do not ask for sympathy, but for justice, as we
were not deceived so much by the big land owners as by
the State. The State undertook to drain the Everglades
when it accepted them from the Federal Government.
It set a time when the main canals would be finished
when it let the original contract to the Furst-Clark Con-
struction Co. in June, 19Io, stating that all the canals
under contract are to be completed within three years
from July I, 1910. It has also at different times sent out
literature lauding the fertility of the Everglades, and
stating that the drainage would be pushed with all
vigor, and in one at least giving the idea that the land
near the canals would be available for farming behind
"We all think we have been gold-bricked by . .
and the State of Florida."
"When this purchase was made, it was made on the
representation that the State of Florida was back of the
drainage proposition. Whether legally back of it or
not, they were back of it morally in permitting the prop-
aganda to be made."
Hundreds of letters are in existence written, in the
same tone as the foregoing, by buyers of Everglades land.
4. What We Are Losing.
Hundreds of letters are also in existence written to
Boards of Trade, Commercial organizations, the Ever-
glade Drainage League, and individual citizens, from
THEY CAME TO BOOST, BUT WENT AWAY
TO KNOCK WHEN THEY FOUND THE
GLADES NOT DRAINED AS PROMISED
-., / -
buyers of Everglades land showing that these lands were
ought for ho-- ,es. We are losing the grandest oppor-
tunity ever offered to any State to add to its population
Not only is the district near the Everglades suffering,
but all portions of the State. Not only are all Florida
drainage projects viewed with suspicion on account of
the failure of the Everglades project to date, but all
Florida land has suffered a loss in actual value, or has
failed to appreciate in value, from the same cause.
We are actually losing thousands of settlers each year
through the odium attached to the Everglades opera-
tions. There are disappointed land buyers in every city
and village in every State, and they do not hesitate to
condemn all Florida for its failure to make good on
drainage of their lands.
If you had bought land five, six, or seven years ago,
under promises of drainage, and it was nrc only still
undrained, but no provision made fo- its drainage,
would you not think and say, as do the present buyers,
that the State has been a party to a gigantic land
swindle; would not you advise your friends (as they do)
to "Stay away from Florida?"
We must Save the Honor of Florida and make good
with these people, and thereby counteract as far as pos-
sible the untold injury sustained by reason of the bun-
gling policies of our State officials.
The Miserly Policy of "Holding
Out" State Lands, Worthless
and Covered With Water
We justly condemn a miser for denying himself
food, clothing and the decencies of life, in order that he
may hoard up money.
The lands in the Everglades were given to the State
for a definite purpose, to be used for drainage, in order
that the lands might become habitable, grow crops, and
add to the population and wealth of Florida. In their
present condition they are worthless, covered with water,
inaccessible. The people of Florida are not going to
approve a policy of "holding out" these lands for the
mere satisfaction of counting so many hundred thousand
acres (under water). The State officials are now with-
holding them from their rightful use, as the miser does
Florida has promised the United States Government
and the people of other States to drain the Everglades
and to use the lands within the district for that purpose.
We must not break our pledges to them, but must use
the means available the lands themselves to carry
on the work to successful completion.
Not a dollar of public money from the general State
treasury should be used to carry on the work-no State
appropriation or general State bond issue should be
asked. The so-called "State" lands within the district
will finance the project, if properly used for that purpose.
Save the Honor of Florida.
The Remedy-"Back to Broward,"
and Policy of Actual Drainage
of the Lands Held by
Like most problems, the remedy, in final analysis, is
quite simple and might be expressed briefly as follows:
(I) Go back to the first principles of plain honesty
and apply the drainage-trust-lands for the sole and un-
mistakable purpose of drainage, as was clearly implied
and expressed by the Congress of the United States in
its Act of September 28, 1850.
(2) Elect only such men to the State Senate and
House as believe in carrying out this trust honorably,
and who will pledge themselves to enact a law that will
make it impossible to further divert or withhold from
drainage the lands which were granted for that purpose.
(3) Find out where the candidates for high execu-
tive offices stand on this vital subject, and elect a State
Administration which is in harmony with this plan to
SAVE THE HONOR OF FLORIDA.
(4) When enacting a new law to straighten out
the present Everglades entanglement, provide specifically
for transferring the project and management to a
separate commission resident in the district, clothed with
ample authority to concentrate the drainage operations
and to complete the reclamation progressively on the
unit plan; also provide a method of taxation for drain-
age purposes sufficiently flexible to meet every contin-
gency; also confer necessary authority upon the commis-
sioners to provide whatever security may be required,
including the lands within the district, to facilitate the
issuing of bonds on a business-like basis, and in such
amounts as will conform with estimates of capable
engineers, such bonds to be marketed from time to time
as needed to vigorously prosecute the drainage operations
and keep pace with economic requirements.
These essential points are included in the platform
and statement of principles of the "Back to Broward"
League, which appears below.
A Short Statement of Facts and" a Definite Program
to Repair the Damage Done.
We believe that the State of Florida made such
promises of drainage as induced people to buy Ever-
We hold that the State of Florida should carry out
the promise of Everglades drainage promptly and effi-
ciently, particularly in the areas which the State per-
mitted to be sold to thousands of small investors, under
promise of State drainage.
We maintain that the present failure to complete
drainage in the areas owned by small investors, is caused
by the mismanagement of the project and consequent
lack of funds.
We believe, and base our conclusions upon the most
careful investigation, that this lack of funds is caused
by the fact that the original plan of completing the
drainage of definite areas was changed, and that the land
given by the United States Government to be used to
finance drainage works has been diverted to other pur-
poses, and withheld from drainage purposes, by Florida's
We know that the balance of 1,400,000 acres of so-
called "State" lands still remaining in the 'Glades is
absolutely subject to the conditions of the original grant
by the Government, that they should be used as a basis
of credit to carry on the Everglades drainage work, and
that when drained they should be sold and the proceeds
used to supplement the drainage taxes in creating a sink-
ing fund to retire the bonds.
We maintain that when this residue of 1,400,ooo000
acres is unreservedly placed back of the drainage prop-
osition, a long step will have been taken towards prop-
erly financing the Everglades drainage project.
We believe that with the proper financing arranged
for as outlined above, not only can the general works be
continued, but intensive drainage works can be under-
taken at once in the areas sold in small tracts.
We believe that the Everglades project should be
placed in the hands of a special Board of Commissioners,
who should be located on the ground instead of at Talla-
hassee, five hundred miles away.
We believe that these Commissioners should be
clothed with proper authority to employ necessary
engineering talent, and to do all other things needful to
vigorously prosecute the drainage work in an efficient
In the interest of justice, and in the name of twenty
thousand people who bought land in the Everglades on
the strength of Florida's drainage promises, we ask that
these things be done.
What the Everglades, Drained
and Reclaimed, Means to the
State in Material
1. State Tax from Everglades Now About $50,000
per Year; When Drained Should Produce $1,000,000 in
State Tax Annually.
The greatly added revenues from this source will
naturally reduce the taxes to be paid by people residing
in other parts of Florida.
2. The Drainage of the Everglades Will Easily
Double the Population of Florida.
Land values all over Florida will increase. The
density of population largely regulates land values.
Lands in the West, for example, with one person or less
every ten square miles, were valued $1.25 per acre, the
Government price. Land values in those same sections
today with a family on every 80 acres are $Ioo to $200
per acre-the same acres exactly. If the doubling of the
population of Florida added only an average of $5 per
acre to every acre in the State, it would add nearly
$200,ooo,ooo to land values. It could scarcely be
doubted that the doubling of the State's population
would add much more than $5 per acre to the value of
lands in your neighborhood. On this basis, if you own
8o acres, for example, an added $5 per acre would mean
$400 to you-this actual selling value added by an in-
crease in population only.
3. Rapid Settlement of the Everglades Means Pros-
perity of State.
Completion of drainage and settlement of the Ever-
glades by thousands and tens of thousands of buyers
mean more markets for lumber; more business for whole-
sale houses and retail merchants, and consequent growth
of our cities; more goods shipped in and more goods
shipped out; more traffic on railroads and more rail-
roads and steamship lines for the traffic; more employ-
ment for labor, skilled and unskilled; more money in the
State from the outside, hence more money in our banks,
and millions of dollars additional to drain other districts,
and to develop Florida's resources. All these benefits
and countless others will result from Florida's "making
good" on her drainage promises.
Prepare for Prosperity
Prepare for unprecedented progress and develop-
ment, by making good on the State project of Everglades
Drainage; by making good with the people who have
accepted State promises at par value and bought these
lands because thereof; by letting the world know that
the citizens of Florida are jealous of their honor and that
they are demanding that their State officials make good
the sacred contract with the Federal Government.
When the drainage-trust-lands in the Everglades are
restored to their proper status and actual steps are
taken to Save the Honor of Florida, the State will be
the beneficiary of unlimited favorable publicity through-
out the length and breadth of this great land. The
whole countryside will ring with unstinted praise of
Florida's progressive spirit and the honorable determina-
tion of her citizens to carry forward to sure success the
unfinished work of her greatest and noblest son. Words
of thanksgiving will issue from the lips of unknown
thousands, whose hard-earned savings have been invested
in this, the world's greatest reclamation enterprise, the
Confidence will be re-established. The State will
experience an influx of immigration and capital surpass-
ing all previous records, and every county in Florida
will receive its share of benefits.
If it were possible to peer beyond the veil, we feel
sure that the benign spirit of our beloved Broward would
be seen pouring his blessing upon the head of every
honest and loyal citizen who does his part to bring about
this happy result.
Florida "Expects Every Man to Do His Duty."
"Back to Broward" League
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
A. B. LOWE, PRESIDENT
ROBERT J. REED, VICE-PRESIDENT
W. I. EVANS, SECRETARY-TREASURER
W. C. KYLE
F. A. BARRETT
On account of the misappropriation of the
"swamp and overflowed" lands and general mis-
management of the drainage trust, less than one
acre in ten has been drained in the sixty-five years
since the land was received by Florida from the
All present drainage work in the Everglades
should be continued, but much new work, especi-
ally in areas sold to small buyers years ago, on
Florida's pledge of drainage, should be undertaken
without delay and pushed vigorously to early
League Is Strictly Non-Partisan
Advocates Principles Only
The "Back to Broward" League is a strictly non-
partisan organization and does not advocate the candi-
dacy of any particular aspirant or aspirants for State
office. Its activities are impersonal and its principal
object is to impress upon all candidates and the public at
large the importance of adopting a business-like policy
for the drainage of the Everglades, in harmony with the
contract existing between the State of Florida and the
In order to learn the views of the various candidates
on this important matter of rehabilitating the Ever-
glades project, a letter was mailed by the League during
the month of April to all who had announced their
intention to run for the offices of Governor, Comptroller,
Treasurer, Attorney General and Commissioner of
Agriculture of the State of Florida.
All who desired to do so were thus given an oppor-
tunity to express their views and outline their plans with
reference to this subject. Up to the date of going to
press the following replies had been received:
Letters from Candidates for
Candidate for Comptroller.
Replying to your recent inquiry about my attitude toward reclama-
tion of the Everglades, I can say I have been friendly to this great
project from the beginning, having voted for it when submitted to the
people during Governor Broward's administration, and otherwise
assisted the cause.
I am a friend to the proposition and favor pushing it to a success-
ful conclusion as rapidly as conditions will permit.
For some time drainage bonds have been on the market without
buyers. During the same period municipal bonds found ready sale.
The same force, the power of taxation, is behind all alike. Then whyi
the difference in demand? Evidently because, to bond buyers, at least.
municipal bonds represent going concerns, while not enough work has
been done on the drainage project or what has been done is not suffi-
cient to make its bonds attractive to investors.
We can not hope to reclaim all the 'Glades at one time, nor afford
to wait the long years necessary for its accomplishment. In my judg-
ment, we should use our energies towards reclaiming portions of it at
a time, so that the same may not only be reclaimed but be developed
and quickly bring into being the wonderful possibilities of this fertile
soil, thereby restoring confidence in this great project, to be followed
by renewed activity and new life, whereby your section of our great
State may soon come fully into its own.
A. J. ANGLE,
Candidate for Comptroller.
I wish to congratulate the people of Broward and Dade Counties
in their efforts to redeem the pledges made by the people of Florida to
drain the Everglades.
Since the inception of the Drainage Project by Governor Broward,
I have been heartily in favor of the drainage of the Everglades, and if
I am placed on the Internal Improvement Board by being elected
Comptroller of Florida, I shall use all the influence i possess toward
the successful termination of this project.
If necessary, the State lands should be placed behind the bonds
the same as the privately owned land, because the land undrained is of
no value, while if drained and placed on the tax books would produce
hundreds of thousands of dollars in State taxes alone.
I appreciate the criticisms of the people of other States who have
purchased these lands and have been disappointed in the delay of drain-
ing the lands they bought, and that the people of Florida will approve
of the policy that I hope to carry out, if possible, of completing the
drainage of the lands bought by small investors for the past few years
and have held for, say, six or seven years. This should be the first
duty we perform in order that the people of Florida would continue to
live up to their reputation of doing the right thing.
All existing contracts should, of course, be carried out in spirit
and in letter.
S. J. CATTS,
Candidate for Governor.
Your letter was handed me in Marianna yesterday.
In reply will say I favor the drainage system of the Everglades
and the hastening the completion thereof both by the canals being put
through on the East Coast and the widening and deepening of the
Caloosahatchee River on the west.
If we can succeed in doing this work perfectly we will have the
richest section of the earth open to settlement.
If I am elected Governor I will help in this course in every way I
ION L. FARRIS,
Candidate for Governor.
In a speech delivered at Ft. Lauderdale on February 14, 1916, in
the Broward County Court House, Broward County, Florida, I com-
menced the "Back to Broward" fight for the drainage of the Ever-
glades. I said then, and I say now, that if I am elected Governor.
thus becoming Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund, I shall work, fight and vote to have all the lands
owned by the State of Florida within the Everglades drainage district
placed behind the project as pledged by Governor Broward, either as
pledged for the payment of bonds or by sale of the land as may from
time to time seem most advisable so far as the lands may be necessary
I shall vote, work and fight for the adoption of a plan which will
insure adequate financial arrangements for the drainage of this land.
My present idea is for a bond issue, secured by all taxes from privately
owned lands within the Everglades Drainage District, and all land
owned by the State within that district. I am opposed to the levying
of taxes upon any land in the State of Florida outside of the Ever-
glades Drainage District for this purpose.
I shall vote, work and fight for the appointment of a Drainage
Board which shall contain the best engineering, business and adminis-
trative talent obtainable, to work under the direction of the Trustees.
The main drainage office ought to be located on the ground, at the
most convenient and accessible place for directing the work. As it is
now, the State is endeavoring to handle a $400,000,000 project from an
office located five hundred miles away, two days' distant in point of
time. Such a method of operation would not be employed for a day in
any private business of such magnitude.
I shall work, vote and fight as a member of the Board of Trustees
of the Internal Improvement Fund, for the adoption of the unit plan
of drainage. It is foolish and useless to attempt to drain the Ever-
glades as a whole. It is impracticable in the first place, and in the
second place even if it were practicable, it is not desirable.
I will do all in my power to have some of the land in the Ever-
glades-as large a tract as possible-drained and reclaimed completely
without delay. This is necessary in order that public confidence in
Florida may be reestablished, and the effects of all the unfavorable
publicity which Florida has received on account of mismanagement of
the Everglades affairs counteracted so far as that be possible. Besides
that, 10,000 or 20,000 or 30,000 acres, or as much more as can be
drained immediately, when settled and cultivated by thousands of
homeseekers, who are now ready, willing and anxious to go upon the
land, would be of far more value to the people of the State than all
the millions of acres of undrained land which are now in the 'Glades.
I shall endeavor, first, to drain the lands which have been sold to
small purchasers, redeeming the credit and reputation and the honor
of the State so far as that is within my power, and showing to the
world that the people of Florida are jealous of Florida's honor and
bound by Florida's promises.
I will do all that lies within my power to save for the State all the
lapd that I can, but the land I save will be drained land, not sub-
merged land, and it will havesome real value.
I will work diligently, and use all the influence at my command to
induce the Federal Government to extend financial assistance to the
Everglades and all other drainage projects in Florida.
I have made this fight in every section of Florida from the begin-
ning of this campaign and I shall continue the fight to the end.
I commenced my public career in 1004 as a follower of the late
lamented Governor Napoleon B. Broward on this issue.
I know what his plans and policies were, and 1 shall do every-
thing in my power to carry out his promises to the people and the
pledge of the people to the world.
L. S. GRINER,
Candidate for State Treasurer.
No reply received up to May o1th..
C. P. GWYNN,
Candidate for Comptroller.
No reply received up to May 10th.
F. M. HUDSON,
Candidate for Governor.
During my three terms in the State Senate, I have endeavored by
my record to convince my constituents that it was my earnest desire
to serve them and the State of Florida.
I have always been a friend to the EJverglades drainage project.
I supported Governor Broward's measures while he was in office, and
I still believe that his policies were based upon sound law and sound
reason. I believe that every vote that I have cast on that question has
been consistent with his policies.
Under the original Act of Congress all of the lands of the Internal
Improvement Fund in the Everglades territory are held in trust and
are dedicated to the accomplishment of drainage. These lands should
be sold or encumbered or used in any other way that is best calculated
to secure drainage.
Common justice demands that tlose who are suffering most, viz.,
settlers on the Everglades lands, and those who bought lands there for
home t.i,, 1.... iould be relieved first, if it is possible to do so.
IIl-. iL-....- I hope to see accomplished. I have tried on more
than one occasion to state this position in language that no one could
When I was in Miami last, I had an extended interview with Mr.
W. J. Kackley, an engineer, who has made an exhaustive study of the
entire question. I found Mr. Kackley's views most interesting and
He stated my own views so aptly that I finally asked him this
question: "What would you do with reference to the drainage project
if you were Governor?"
By way of preface, he said, "No man can say positively at this
time with any degree of intelligence what he would do with regard to
Everglades drainage if he were Governor. It would be impossible,
without the data in hand, to formulate a fixed and final policy either
with regard to the administrative or legislative acts which are desir-
Mr. Kackley then proceeded with numerous suggestions which I
requested him to reduce to writing. He has since submitted to me a
statement which is too extensive to publish within the scope of this
article, but the gist of his views is contained in the following extracts:
"One of my first acts .. would be to appoint a commission
to investigate and render report upon the Everglades drainage project
from the standpoint of a business undertaking. .On this com-
mission there should certainly be an attorney, a financier, an authority
on agriculture and general farming, and an engineer. These men
should be authorities in their respective lines of work, and should be
the best men obtainable in the United States.
"As Governor I should make certain recommendations and sug-
gestions to this commission regarding the matters to be investigated.
I should instruct them, first, to determine the truth regarding every
feature of the project and regardless of whether it hurt any individual
". .. My instructions would furthermore contain among other
"1. Investigate and report upon the matter of conflict of interests
between the State, land companies and individual buyers, and recom-
mend a method of eliminating this conflict.
"2. Investigate and report upon all land sales and land grants
made by the State to date, and report upon the matter of responsibility
for the drainage of these lands,
"3. Investigate-and report upon the present policy of administra-
"4. Determine the probable agricultural value of the lands from
the standpoint of productiveness, after they are reclaimed. In this
connection, attention should be called to the fact that very probably
it will be necessary to produce staple crops instead of winter vegetables
when more than a few acres in the Everglades are available for agri-
"5. From a consideration of the economics of the undertaking
and in the light of a purely business project, should the Everglades be
reclaimed as a whole or in sections?
"6. Investigate and study the engineering reports which have
been rendered on the project and determine whether sufficient data are
now available to permit of the intelligent planning of reclamation
"7. If sufficient data are not available to warrant proceeding
with extensive drainage work, would the commission recommend the
reclamation of a small portion of the 'Glades as an experimental
"8. I should explicitly call the attention of the commission to
the advisability of studying all matters which pertain in any manner
to the possible success or failure of the settlers in the Everglades.
"9. I should instruct the commission to recommend a compre-
hensive policy of administration and finance to be applied to the
"I should furthermore appoint an engineering commission to in-
vestigate the project and to report upon engineering phases of the
undertaking. This commission should be composed of engineers
acknowledged by the engineering profession as authorities on drainage
engineering. This commission should give specific recommendation
regarding the size and capacities of the necessary drainage works.
"With the two foregoing reports as guides, one to the administra-
tion policy, and the other to the engineering and construction policy,
I should then remove the administration from politics by creating a
Board of Drainage Commissioners to be appointed by the Governor.
The chief engineer and all other employees of the commission should
hold office under civil service, and I should in every possible way
endeavor to see that this Board and all employees were entirely re-
moved from political influences.
"I should be guided by the recommendations of these two com-
missions in my administration of the Everglades project. I will fur-
ther say that I would not be willing to carry on any extensive drainage
operations without such a report and without such advice . . ..
Mr. Kackley is not speaking as an engineer. Professionally he
has decided views as to the proper and necessary procedure to accom-
plish drainage. But he intends what he has said as his opinion of
what views a layman, unfamiliar with engineering, ought to be ex-
pected to hold. In other words, he has pointed out the course that
he thinks a Governor ought to pursue to arrive at a correct conclusion,
and he thinks that such a course would lead to the same conclusions
which he holds, but which he has not expressed in the statement from
which I quote above.
This is exactly the contention that I have been making. I have
insisted that we need more light on the subject, and that we ought to
learn as we go, and go as we learn.
I announced that in case of my nomination I should thereafter
devote myself to a most painstaking investigation of the question so
that I might thoroughly familiarize myself with it down to the minute
details. I now reiterate that promise.
I recognize, however, that Mr. Kackley's suggestion is the best
yet offered for acquiring the data necessary to a final, just and effec-
Those who know Mr. Kackley will agree that he is a competent
and disinterested critic, and that his heart is in the work of Ever-
glades drainage. I know of no way to give better evidence of my
continued interest in the drainage project than to say that I approve
the views above expressed by Mr. Kackley, and accept them as my
own. This I can consistently do, because in principle they are views
that I have already expressed.
W. V. KNOTT,
Candidate for Governor.
No reply received up to May 10th.
J. C. LUNING,
Candidate for State Treasurer.
No reply received up to May lo0th.
W. A. McRAE,
Candidate for Commissioner of Agriculture.
No reply received up to May 10th.
E. P. THAGGARD,
Candidate for Comptroller.
No reply received up to May 10th.
THOMAS F. WEST,
Candidate for Attorney General.
Nu statement for publication received up to May 10th.
F. A. WOOD,
Candidate for Governor.
No reply received up to May 10th.
S T ,\ M P
"Back to Broward" League
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Tear off this Back Cover-Put StamP on
reverse side and mail it TODAY
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"Back to Broward" League
I Believe -
That Florida's promises of Everglades drain-
age are binding upon Florida's citizens.
That all present contracts should'be completed,
but that all future drainage work in the Everglades
should be concentrated and completed in.# its and
that lands sold to small investors five, six and seven
years ago should be drained first, as Governor
That no State bonds should be issued, neither
should general State funds be appropriated by the-
Legislature for Everglades drainage. All so-called
"State" lands in the Everglades district should be
unreservedly dedicated to drainage and placed
back of bonds, in order that ample funds may be
raised for drainage as was intended by the Con-
gress of the United States when granting these
lands to the State. The present issue of bonds is
too small to give real drainage for any considerable
area, even if sold in its present form.
That with the project standing on its own feet,
the Everglades district is entitled to "home rule"
j and local commissioners, even as any other drain-
age district in Florida.
That the present policy of ignoring State
pledges of drainage reflects upon the fair name of
the State and isgreatly injuring all sections thereof.
That every candidate for State office should
pledge himself to SAVE THE HONOR OF FLORIDA =
and, if elected, to carry out the principJes set.-
] If you believe in these principles, sign your
name below and mail this card to the League
| headquarters; this makes you a member of the
"BACK TO BROWARD" LEAGUE. There are no
dues. Sign here:
THE RECORD COMPANY,, SAINT AUGj.T iNE FLpRIDA ,.
The National Prison Association
OF THE UNITED STATES
The National Prison Association of the
United States dates its organization from the
meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 12-18,
1870. It was incorporated the next year un-
der the laws of New York. Meetings were
held irregularly until 1883, when the Associa-
tion was reorganized. Since that year it has
The Congress at Albany was the largest and
in many respects the best that has been held.
A large number of official delegates had been
appointed by governors and mayors, and the
registration, numbering over 400, represented
all parts of the United States and Canada.
The next meeting will be held in the autumn
of 1907 at Chicago under the presidency of
Hon. E. J. Murphy, warden of the Illinois State
Prison at Joliet.
OFFICERS FOR 1907
E. J. Murphy, Joliet, 111.
lev. J. L. Milligan, LL.D., Allegheny, Pa.
l'ev. Frederick Howard Wines, LL.D.,
Samuel G. Smith, D.D., St. Paul, Minn.
Samuel J. Barrows, D.D., New York, N. Y.
(. S. Robinson, Des Moines, Ia.
Ben B. Lindsey, Denver, Col.
Lt. Col. A. G. Irvine,
Stoney Mountain, Canada.
Rev. D. H. Tribou, Philadelphia, Pa.
Col. A. C. Kelton, U.S.N., Portsmouth, N. H.
(Cen. Cecil Clay, U. b. Dept. of Justice,
Frank B. Sanborn, Concord, Mass.
Michel Heymann, New Orleans, La.
Frederick G. Pettigrove. Boston, Mass.
lolhn J. Lytle, Philadelphia, Pa.
A. K. Sanders, Hagood, S. C.
0. B. Gould, St. Paul, Minn.
James R. Read, Allegheny, Pa.
Edward A. Fuller, Suffield, Conn.
Philip E. \lulliin,
A. S. Aleserve,
T. J. Clark.
\inm. F. Slownii. D.D., LL.D.,
Kansas City, Mo.
Colorado Springs, Col.
Frank C. Sumner, Hartford, Conn.
Edwin R. Rogers. Toronto, Can.
E..F. Morgan. Richmond, Va.
J. C. Whyte, N\ew Westminster, B. C., Canada.
W. H. Haskell, Lansing, Kan.
L. B. Dresser, St. Croix Falls, Wis.
David B. Oliver, Pittsburg, Pa.
Martin Dewey Follett, Marietta, Ohio.
Win. H. Hart, Indianapolis, Ind.
Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows, i,. ...., Ill.
Henry Town, Waupun, Wis.
George 0. Osborn. Trenton, N. J.
Douglas Stewart, Ottawa, Can.
James D. Reid, Michigan City, Ind.
F. W. Blackmar, Lawrence, Kan.
Archibald Yell, Repressa, Cal.
W. IH. Moyer, Atlanta, Ga.
J. S. Mann, Raleigh, N. C.
T. P. Thompson, New Orleans, La.
Amos W. Butler, Room 52 State House,
Joseph P. Byers, Randall's Island,
New York, N. Y.
11. 11. Shirer,
L. C. Storrs,
\V. C. Graves.
Fred 11. Mills, No. 97 Warren St.,
New York, N. Y.
-Mrs. Isabel C. Barrows, No. 135 East 15th St.,
New York, N. Y.
Board of Directors
Henry Wolfer. Stillwater, Minn.
C. V. Collins, Albany, N. Y.
Charles R. Henderson, D.I., Chicago, Ill.
Gen. R. Brinkerhoff, Mansfield, Ohio.
James W. Cheney, South Manchester, Conn.
R. W. McClaughry, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.
P. R. Costello, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Rev. Wnm. J. Batt, D.D., Concord, Mass.
Joseph F. Scott, Elmira, N. Y.
Wm. McC. Johnston, Allegheny, Pa.
E. S. Wright, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Frank L. Randall, St. Cloud, Minn.
James A. Leonard, Mansfield, Ohio.
Otis Fuller, lonia, Mich.
Dr. J. T. Gilmour,
M. M. Mallary,
Rev. A. M. Fish,
A. K. Sanders,
N. F. Boucher,
.Charles A. Hook,
T. B. Patton,
T. D. Wells,
C. E. Haddox,
Z. R. Brockway,
C. W. Bowron,
J. M. Platt,
Andrew J. Wilcox,
A. D. Beemer,
N. N. Jones,
Geo. L. Sehon,
Rev. J. J. D. Hall,
John L. McDonnell,
Board of Directors
Trenton, N. J.
St. Vincent de Paul, Can.
Hagood, S. C.
Bismarck, N. D.
New York, N. Y.
Moundsville, W. Va.
Elmira, N. Y.
Green Bay, Wis.
Howard, R. I.
Ft. Madison, Ia.
Joseph F. Scott,
R. W. McClaughry,
Dr. J. T. Gilmour,
Charles R. Henderson, I
N. F. Boucher,
Elmira, N. Y.
Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.
).D., Chicago, Ill.
Bismarck, N. D.
Committee on Criminal Law Reform
Frank S. Roby, Chairman,
Julius M. Mayer,
Roger Phelps Clark,
Simeon E. Baldwin,
('. S. ilobinson,
Charles A. De Courey,
New York, N. Y.
Binghamton, N. Y.
New Haven, Conn.
Des Moines, la.
Committee on Preventive and Reformatory Work
W.. H. Whittaker, Chairman,
C. W. Bowron, Green Bay, Wis.
H. F. Coates, Alliance, Ohio.
Dr. Katharine Bement Davis, Bedford, N. 1.
Alvah S. Baker, Concord, Mass.
Dr. W. V. Coffin, Whittier, Cal.
F. L. Paddelford, Golden, Col.
M. M. Mallary, Pontiac, Ill.
B. D. Hayward, Kearney, Neb.
Mrs. Emma O'Sullivan, Toronto, Can.
Committee on Prevention and Probation
Julian W. Mack, Chairman,
W F. ~ .. ,1.1. :
Mrs. Ophelia L. Amigh,
E. R. Rogers,
Ben B. Lindsey,
Mrs. Elizabeth Tuttle,
Miss Grace Johnston,
New York, N. Y.
Red Wing, Minn.
Committee on Prison Discipline
James A. Leonard, Chairman,
C. E. Haddox, Moundsville, W. Va.
Mrs. Anna MA. Welshe, Auburn, N. Y.
John L. Whitman, Chicago, Ill.
Miss Emily E. Rhoades, Indianapolis, Ind.
Douglas Stewart, Ottawa, Can.
Mrs. Frances A. Morton, lSherborn, Mass.
Joseph F. Scott, Elmira, N. Y.
Committee on Discharged Prisoners
\Mrs. Maud Ballington Booth, Chairman,
New York. N. Y.
Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows,
Joseph S. Pugmire,
I-T. II. Hart,
.f. W\. Comfort.
1. A. Whittier,
l'ev. E. A. Fredenhagen,
lev\. F. A. Foy,
John '. Taylor,
I.. A. Snivelvy,
Red Wing, Minn.
Nutley, N. J.
Committee on Statistics of Crime
S. J. Barrows, D.D., Chairman,
New York, N. Y.
lIe\. Frederick H. Wines, Scranton, Pa.
Ernest P. Bicknell, Chicago, Ill.
Amos W\. Butler, Indianapolis, Ind.
Charles R. Henderson, D.D., Chicago, Ill.
.John Koren, Boston, Mass.
THE NATIONAL WARDENS' ASSOCIATION
Frank L. Randall,. St. Cloud, Minn.
E. F. lorganu,
Andrew J. Wilrox.
Howard, R. I.
(. E. Haddox, Moundsville. W. Va.
NATIONAL CHAPLAINS' ASSOCIATION
Rev. Albert J. Steelman. Joliet, Ill.
ev. Aloys AM. Fish,
Rev. F. J. Leavett,
Rev. J. L. Sutton,
Rov. Francis HI. Pierce,
Trenton, N. ..
Baton Rouge, La.
Dannemora, N. Y.
Rev. W. E. EdAin, Jeffersonville, Ind.
Rev. D. R. Imbrie, Hoboken, Pa.
THE PRISON PHYSICIANS' ASSOCIATION
Dr. W. D. Stewart, Moundsville, W. Va.
Dr. Henry A. Jones, Howard, R. I.
Dr. Frances W. Potter,
South Framingham, Mass.
Dr. 0. J. Bennett, Allegheny, Pa.
Th / -
*.-**i '-..-' ^y _" *^ "y c'
-l -*'** .
-I 3 Er
141 Bro edway,
F)ew York ,ty.
PLEASE READ YOUR POLICY.
... .... ..... . : _ _
-, 1 "_- l^I
I E IMPORTANT !
It is necessary that this Company
be IMMEDIATELY NOTIFIED IN
WRITING of each and every acci-
dent causing bodily injury, however
slight, if covered by this policy.
WHEN INJURED OR SICK SEND THIS
NOTICE OF ACCIDENT OR SICKNESS
UNITED STATES CASUALTY COMPANY,
141 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY
I am insured in your company and submit particulars relating to my case, as follows .
N a m e i n f u ..... ... ......................................................................................................................................-- -.----.. ... ...................--------- -....... .. ... ...............
umbr of Pocy.......................Name i ....d.............................. d of Polc ......................................................
Number of Policy..... ....... ........Kind of Policy ...
D ate of Injury or Illness ......... .... .... .......................... ........................... ..... ............ at.. ........... ... o'clock ............
A t thT e tim e I w a .as at ..............................- .................... .......... ...... ......... ... ... ..
At the time I was engaged as follows .......................................................................................
Nature of Injury or Illncss .................................................... ..........................-... ...................
It was caused by (State particulars fully ) .............................................................................................. ...........
iMy present condition is as follows .......................................--...............--....-- ------- ---
............................... .............................. .............................. ............................... ..... . ......... .......... . ........... . ..... . . . .. .
It has prevented me from attending to the following business duties :_._.. ____"
........................................................... -................................... -----.. -----. ------------ -----. -----. -------------------................................................... ............... ...................... .
I shallprobably be so disabled for. ........ ..... weeks................ days.
The following persons will furnish information, if requested ........................... ...................................... .....
I was first attended by Dr ............................................................. ..... ....., of. ..................................................
I am now being treated by D r. ............................ .................................. ..... of_ ............................
I hold no other accident or health or benefit insurance and have never claimed indemnity, except as
follow s ................................................... ....... ........... ........................................ ....................................... ................... . ............... .... .
Please send me blanks (for proof and further particulars) to the following address :
Number and Street. City. State.
(S ig nz e d ) ----- ---- ------_ ................... ------------ ----------------------------------------- --------------------- -------------
(S gned) ................................ ............................. ...... .......... ................. ....... ........-
D ated at ............... ..... ................................ S tate of ...... .. ., this ....................day of .........................................., 19o ........
P. A. & H. 336-8.'06-10M-19629
*0 4 r
- NEW YORK
.... _.4 ..-- -'. ..
PLEASE READ YOUR POLICY
SCHEDULE OF STATEMENTS:
(a.) Myfull name i ----- ) Class No.... .-.
<", A / _
(c.) My weight is..... .....-- pounds. (d.) My height is .....----- feet,-...... -.............. inches.
(e.) I wa...--years of age i the-- day of. --.-, 1 90--. () I am not colored.
(g.) My t.& No -
address is i City,---.-. State, -- ... -.-.( ... --- .....
6 aa member
(h.) The firm orporati n with which am nneced as am is
The business (
address is city,. -.. .-../ -/ State, -----
(i. ) My occupation is--, .
.--------- ------ --
.*. r .... .. . ..:.:. - -- - ----------
....... ....................... ..... ...... - - --............. .. ...... ..... ... -.. ..... .... .
(j.) My duties arenly such as pertain to office duties, financial management of my affairs and business,
traveling for business or pleasure, and pursuing the ordinary forms of recreation, except as follows:
(k.) My weekly earnings from the occupation stated above are in excess of the maximum weekly indemnity
named in all the accident policies and certificates carried or applied for by me, except as follows:
l. ) I have no accident insurance, except asfollows: ,
- ..... n --- ---------
(n.) I have no application.for accident insurance pending, e.vcept as follows :
(n.) I have never had any.application for accident insurance declined or acceptance postponed, and ho com-
pany or association or order has ever cancelled or refused to renew a policy or certificate'for me,
except as follows:
(o.) I am in full possession of all senses and bodily members, free from any intemperate habit, local, con-
stitutional, functional or organic disease, mental or physical disorder, defect, deformity, impairment or in-
firmity, and I have not consulted a physician or taken treatment during the past two years,
except as follows :
(p.) I have never received or been refused compensation for any accidental injury, and I am not now making
claim for any, except as follows :
(q.) I have not in contemplation any special journey or undertaking, except as follows:
(r.) I have not had any accidental injury during the past 7 years, except as follows:
INJURY DATE DURATION
-, e ue a."- ------ . .-... .. ....... .. ............................................................
.' '- .. d.. .-"- .......... (if h urviving, otherwise to my
-,, i i'- I. executor or administrator);
(-.) Whose relationship to me in -,-. ... .. .... ..... .-- ...... --
( -,) W-llr-,. post Office address is ..-- '-..."'- / ..
(v.) Whose ige on lust birthday waf -- years; (w.) Whose weight is pounds;l (a.) Whose
heighi is :........feet. ..........inches; and (y.) Who is mentally and physically sound.
Policy No.HP 2131.
The Home Policy of Accident Insurance
Class No.................. .................
HOME OFFICE: 141 BROADWAY, NEW YORK(I
n COniberatin o ............... ---------------------------- -dollarspremiumand the statements contained in the Schedule of Statements" attached
hereto and hereby made a part hereof, whicl eents the Insured akes and warrants to be true by the acceptance of this Policy, the United States Casualty Company,
herein called the Company, insures, subje theprp visions and conditions and limits herein, .
------I---------- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- ---- ------- ----.-.... ...- "A - --_--- -- --- ---
............-.......-.---............................. o............. .......... ..........
herein called the Insured, or twelve months beginning at noon, standard time, on the........ ............................................ day of ...T. .. : ..-:.... .L..-- 90.. ..
against disability or death resulting directly and independently of any and all other causes from bodily injury effected solely through external, violent and accidental
means, hereinafter called such injury, as follows :
SECTION I If any one of the following losses shall result directly from such injury within ninety days from the date of the event causing such injury and independently
of any and all other causes, the Company will pay, subject to the provisions and conditions herein and in lieu of all other indemnity (the
additional indemnity set forth in this Section and Section V excepted), the amount specified for such loss, viz.:
Loss of Life, other than as specified in Section IV $5,000.00
" Both Hands by actual separation at or above the wrist 5,000..
" Both Feet by actual separation at or above the ankle 5,000.00
" One Hand and One Foot by actual separation at or above the wrist and ankle 5,000.00
" Entire Sight of Both Eyes, if irrecoverably lost . 5,000.
" Either Hand by actual separation at or above the wrist 2,500.00
" Either Foot by actual separation at or above the ankle 2,500.o
;f ;rrp.n1p1JU 1n.. 1 i b t00o
Entire Sight 01 Onej ii ii.UVyeijrrecover .
IF ANY ONE OF THE ABOVE LOSSES OCCURS WITHIN NINETY DAYS
In addition to the amount specified above for any one of the losses enumerated above, the Company will pay an indemnity of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week
for the time between the date of the event causing such injury and the date of such loss, not exceeding ninety days.
IF ANY ONE OF THE ABOVE LOSSES OCCURS AFTER NINETY DAYS
If such injury shall, from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, wholly and continuously disable the Insured and
prevent him from transacting any and every kind of business and from engaging in any occupation for wages or profit for a period exceeding ninety days, and such
injury shall, after the expiration of said ninety days and within two hundred weeks from the date of the event causing such injury (during which time such disability
shall have been total and continuous), result in any one of the losses enumerated above, the Company will pay the amount specified above for such loss and in
addition thereto an indemnity of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week for the period of such disability and such total loss of time, not exceeding two hundred
Indemnity for lose of life and any indemnity which may be due the Insured at the time of his death shall be payable to the Beneficiary named
in said Schedule of Statements," if surviving, otherwise to the executor or administrator of the Insured.
SECTION II TOTAL LOSS OF TIME INDEMNITY
IF SUCH INJURY SHALL NOT RESULT IN A LOSS ENUFIERATED IN SECTION I
If such injury shall, from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, wholly and continuously disable
the Insured and prevent him from attending to each and every duty pertaining to his occupation, the Company will pay, subject to the provisions and
conditions herein, an indemnity of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.oo) a week for the period of such disability and such total loss of time, not exceeding two
hundred consecutive weeks.
PARTIAL LOSS OF TIME INDEMNITY
IF SUCH INJURY SHALL NOT RESULT IN A LOSS ENUMERATED IN SECTION I
For a period not exceeding twenty-six consecutive weeks during which the Insured shall, by reason of such injury, from the date of the event
causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, be continuously disabled and prevented from attending to one or more
important daily duties pertaining to his occupation, or for like disability not exceeding twenty-six consecutive weeks immediately following total
loss of time, the Company will pay, subject to the provisions and conditions herein, an indemnity of not less than Six Dollars and 25 cents ($6.25) nor
more than Eighteen Dollars and 75 cents ($18.75) a week, depending upon the extent of the loss of time.
Payment shall not be made-for more than two hundred consecutive weeks total loss of time and partial loss of time combined. Payment of indemnity
under this Section shall be in lieu of all other indemnity, the additional indemnity set forth in Section V excepted.
SECTION III If such injury is sustained, (i) while the Insured is riding as a passenger in or upon any railway passenger car using steam, cable, compressed air or
electricity as a motive power; (2) or, while a passenger on board a steam vessel licensed for.the regular transportation of passengers; (3) or, while a passenger within a
passenger elevator (elevators in mines excepted); (4) or, is caused by the burning of a building while the Insured is therein,-then the amount payable shall be double
the amount that would otherwise be payable as provided in Section I or Section II.
SPECIAL DEATH INDEMNITY
SECTION IV If freezing or hydrophobia, caused by external, violent and accidental means, or the involuntary and unconscious inhalation of gas or other poisonous
vapor, shall, independently of any and all other causes, result directly in the death of the Insured within ninety days from the date of exposure or injury, the Company
will pay, subject to the provisions and conditions herein and in lieu of all other indemnity, the sum of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,ooo.0o) to the Beneficiary named in
said "Schedule of Statements," if surviving, otherwise to the executor or administrator of the Insured.
ADDITIONAL INDEMNITY FOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS
SECTION V If such injury shall, within ninety days from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, necessitate one of
the surgical operations enumerated in the "Schedule of Surgical Operations" set forth below, the Company will, in addition to the indemnity otherwise herein provided, pay
the amount specified.for such operation in said Schedule, but payment shall not be made for more than one operation resulting from any one accident. No payment will
be made for operations not enumerated in said Schedule.
'L SCHEDULE OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS
Thigh.................. ...................... 100 .
L eg .................................................
Arm above elbow ............................
Foot, Hand .or Forearm ...............
One or more- entire Fingers ............
One or more entire Toes .................
Shoulder, Hip of Knee-Joint.......
Elbow, Wrist or Ankle joint ............
REDUCTION OF DISLOCATION OF
Shoulder, Elbow. Hip, Knee or Ankle
W rist or Jaw ...................................
One or more Fingers.....................
REDUCTION OF FRACTURE OF
T high................................ ........
Any Bones of the Pelvis or Sacrum...
Knee Cap or Leg Bones (one or both)...
U pper A rm .....................................
Nose, Lower Jaw, Collar Bone or
Forearm (one or both bones)............
W rist or H and................................
Two or more Bones of Foot (not toes)
One or more Toes .........................
One or more Ribs...........................
Breast Bone....... ..................
Two or more Fingers .................
Coccyx .. ..........................
HERNIA (Abdominal) Cutting operation
for radical cure of Reducible, Irre-
ducible or Strangulated form ......... $100.
LAPAROTOMY (Opening of abdominal
cavity for operation on organ therein) 100.00
TETANUS- Injection of anti-tetanic
serum into frontal lobe of brain...... 100.00
SKULL TREPHINING for fracture...... 100.00
PERITONITIS (See Laparotomy)
SEQUESTROTOMY (Removal of dead
bone)............................................... 3 5 .00
GUNSHOT WOUNDS-Removal of shot
or bullet not necessitating.Amputation
or Laparotomy........................... 25-00
SYNOVITIS (Inflammation of the lining
membrane of a joint) Incision for...... 25.00
SUTURING wounds of scalp or other parts 5.00
II I j
SECTION VI If the Insured shall be entitled to indemnity for an injury and such injury is enumerated in the "Schedule of Optional Indemnities" set forth below, he
may elect, subject to the provisions and conditions herein, to receive in lieu of all other indemnity (the additional indemnity set forth in Section V excepted), the amount
specified for such injury in said Schedule, provided he shall signify his choice in writing to the Company at its Home Office in New York City within two weeks from the
date of the event causing such injury. If such injury is sustained as defined in Section III, then the amount payable under said Schedule shall be double the amount spec-
ified for such injury in said Schedule. Payment shall not be made for more than one of the indemnities enumerated resulting from any one accident.
S SCHEDULE OF OPTIONAL INDEMNITIES
One or more entire Toes...............$200.00
One or more entire Fingers........... 160.00
COMPLETE DISLOCATION OF
K nee ......................... ..........
W rist........................................... ....
Elbow................. .......... ........
Shoulder ................... ......... ....
Two or more Bones of Foot (not
Toes) ............... ..............$160.00
Two or more entire Toes........... 60.00
Two or more entire Fingers........... 60.00
COMPLETE FRACTURE OF
Skull, both tables .........................
Collar Bone ..................................
Lower Jaw .....................................
Leg (tibia and fibula) ......... ..... 200.00
Knee Cap ............................... ..200.00
A rm ............................................... 16 0.00
Two or more Rib ........................... 100.00
Two or more Bones of the Foot
(not Toes)............................... 120.00
Two or more Bones of the Hand
(not Fingers).................................... 120.00
Two or more Toes.................... 100.00
Two or more Fingers..................... 100.00
MEDICAL ATTENDANCE INDEMNITY
SECTION VII If such injury shall not result in disability or death, but shall require treatment by a physician, the Company will reimburse the Insured for the cost
thereof, not to exceed Twenty-five Dollars ($25.oo00), provided the physician's receipt and affidavit on the Company's blank is furnished the Company at its Home Office in
New York City within thirty days from the date of the event causing such injury.
SECTION VIII If such injury shall not result in death, but shall, from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes,
wholly and continuously disable the Insured and prevent him from attending to each and every duty pertaining to his occupation and shall, during the period of such
disability and such total loss of time and within ninety days from the date of the event causing such injury, be the direct and sole producing cause of permanent paralysis
whereby he shall suffer the irrecoverable' loss of the entire use of both hands or both feet or one hand and one foot, and as a result of one of said losses shall be prevented
from transacting any and every kind of business and from engaging in any occupation for wages or profit for a period of fifty-two consecutive weeks from the date of ,aid
paralysis, and if within ten days after the expiration of said fifty-two weeks he shall be examined and adjudged by duly qualified medical authority satisfactory to the Com-
pany to be permanently paralyzed and as a result thereof has suffered one of the losses specified in this Section, the Company will pay, subject to the provisions and conditions
herein, Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week for said period of fifty-two weeks and Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week for the period, not exceeding ninety days, of such
disability and such total loss of time between the date of the event causing such injury and the date of paralysis, and will also pay in addition to said weekly indemnity
the sum of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,ooo.oo). Payment of indemnity under this Section shall be in lieu of all other indemnity.
SECTION IX If such injury shall not result in death, but shall, from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, wholly
and continuously disable the Insured and prevent him from transacting any and every kind of business and from engaging in any occupation for wages or profit and shall,
during the period of such disability and such total loss of time and within twenty-six weeks from the date of the event causing such injury, be the direct and sole producing
cause of the Insured becoming irrecoverably insane, and if, within said period of twenty-six weeks of such disability and such total loss of time, he shall because of such
insanity be legally committed to a State or duly licensed asylum or sanitarium for the insane, and shall be there continuously confined for a period of two years, and if
within thirty days after the expiration of said two years he shall be examined and adjudged by duly qualified medical authority satisfactory to the Company to be irrecover-
ably insane, the Company will pay to his legal representatives, subject to the provisions and conditions herein, an indemnity of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week for said
period of two years and Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00) a week for the period not exceeding twenty-six weeks of such disability and such total loss of time between the date
of the event causing such injury and the date of insanity, and will also pay to said representatives, in addition to said weekly indemnity, the sum of Five Thousand Dollars
($5,000.o0). Payment of indemnity under this Section shall be in lieu of all other indemnity.
SECTION X BENEFICIARY INDEMNITY
If the Beneficiary named in said "Schedule of Statements" is one person and a female over eighteen and under sixty years of age and is not insured under any other
policy issued by the Company, then and not otherwise this Policy shall also insure, during the period covered by this Policy and subject to its provisions and
conditions, the person so named as Beneficiary against the effect of external, violent and accidental injury, (i) if caused solely and directly by the disablement or
wrecking of a railway passenger car using steam, cable, compressed air or electricity as a motive power, while said person is riding as a passenger therein;
(2) or, if caused solely and directly by the wrecking or foundering of a steam vessel licensed for the regular transportation of passengers, while said person
is on board such vessel as a passenger; (3) or, if caused by the burning of a building, while said person is therein, as follows : If such injury so sustained shall,
within ninety days from the date of such injury and independently of any and all other causes, result in any one of the following losses, the Company will pay to said
person for non-fatal injury the amount specified for such loss. Payment shall not be made for more than one loss resulting from any one accident. Indemnity for loss
of life shall be payable to the Insured.
Loss of Life ......................... .........................
Loss of Both Hands by actual separation at or
above the wrist.............................................
Loss of Both Feet by actual separation at or above
the ankle.................................. ..............
Loss of One Hand and One Foot by actual separa-
tion at or above the wrist and ankle................
Loss of Entire Sight of Both Eyes, if irrecoverably
COMPLETE DISLOCATION OF
Ankle ................................................. .........
Elbow ............................................. ............
Two or more Toes.........................................
Two or more Fingers.......................................
Loss of Either Hand by actual separation at or
above the wrist........................................
Loss of Either Foot by actual separation at or above
the ankle........................... ..........
Loss of Entire Sight of One Eye, if irrecoverably lost
Loss of One or More Entire Toes by actual separation
Loss of One or More Entire Fingers by actual
separation .......... .... ..............................
COMPLETE FRACTURE OF BONES OF
Skull, both tables .......................................
Thigh ................ ................... ..... ..........
Pelvis ................................ ...............
Patella (K nee Cap) .........................................
L eg ................... .........................................
Clavicle (Collar Bone)...............................
Scapula (Shoulder Blade) ............................
Arm .................... ........................ ..
Two or more bones of Foot (not toes)..............
Two or more bones of Hand (not fingers)...........
Two or more Toes ..................................
Two or more Fingers ...............................
Two or more Ribs ......................................
Lower Jaw .......................................... ......
BENEFICIARY WEEKLY INDEMNITY
In case of non-fatal injury (other than those enumerated in the above Schedule) sustained as provided in this Section and which shall, from the date of the event
causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, wholly and continuously disable said Beneficiary and prevent her from transacting any and every kind
of business and from engaging in any occupation, the Company, subject to the provisions and conditions herein, will pay her for such disability and such total loss of
time, for a period not exceeding ten consecutive weeks, a weekly indemnity of Fifteen Dollars ($i 5.00).
BENEFICIARY OPERATION INDEIINITY
If such injury so sustained by said Beneficiary shall, within ninety days from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all
other causes, necessitate one of the surgical operations enumerated in said Schedule of Surgical Operations," the Company, subject to the provisions and condi-
tions herein, will pay her, in addition to the indemnity otherwise herein provided, one-half the amount specified for such operation in said Schedule. Payment shall
not be made for more than one operation resulting from any one accident. No payment will be made for operations not enumerated in said Schedule.
INDEMNITY FOR INJURY TO CHILDREN
SECTION XI This Policy shall also insure the Insured, during the period covered by this Policy and subject to its provisions and conditions, against the effect of
external, violent and accidental bodily injury sustained by any child of the Insured between the ages of one year and fifteen years inclusive, as follows : If such injury
shall, within ninety days from the date of the event causing such injury and independently of any and all other causes, result in any one of the following losses, the
Company will pay to the Insured the amount specified for such loss, viz. :
Age at Last Birthday and Indemnity Payable
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
LOSS of Life, or Both Hands by actual separation at or above the wrist, or Both Feet by actual separation at $30 $34 $40 $48 $58 $140 $168 $200
or above the ankle, or One Hand and One Foot by actual separation at or above the wrist and ankle 9 10 11 12 13 to 15 inclusive
$240 $300 $380 $460 $520
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
LOSS of One Hand by actual separation at or above the wrist, or One Foot by actual separation at or above $15 $17 $20 $24 $29 $70 $84 $100
the ankle 9 10 11 12 13 to 15 inclusive
$120 $150 $190 $230 $260
PROVISIONS APPLYING TO THIS POLICY
Provision i Written notice as soon as may be reasonably possible after the occurrence of an accident must be given to the Company at its Home Office in New York
City of injury or death on account of which a claim is to be made, together with the date of the event causing the injury or death and the name and address of the
Insured. Affirmative proof of death, or of dismemberment, or of loss of sight, or of duration of disability must also be given to the Company at its Home Office in New
York City within two months from the date of death, or of dismemberment, or of loss of sight, or of the termination of the period of disability for which claim is made.
Affirmative preliminary proofs under Sections VIII and IX must be given to the Company at its Home Office in New York City within two months from the date of the
beginning of paralysis or insanity, and affirmative final proofs under sections VIII and IX must be given to the Company at its Home Office in New York City within two
months from the date of final examination required under said Sections. Legal proceedings for recovery hereunder shall not be brought before the expiration of three
months from the date of filing proofs with the Company at its Home Office in New York City. nor brought at all unless begun within twelve months from the date of
death, or of dismemberment, or of loss of sight, or of the termination of the period of disability for which claim is made, or of the final examination for paralysis or insanity.
Claims not brought as required herein shall be forfeited to the Company.
Provision 2 Any medical adviser of the Company shall be allowed to examine the person or body of any person insured by this Policy, or the person or body of any child
of the Insured, in respect to any alleged injury, disability, or cause of death, as often and in such manner as he may require, and shall also have the right and opportunity
to make an autopsy in case of death.
Provision 3 No claim against the Company shall be valid in excess of the insurance granted by this Policy unless written permission allowing such excess shall have
been endorsed hereon and is signed by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company. All premiums paid for such excess and all other premiums due the Insured
shall be refunded on demand of the Insured or his legal representative.
Provision 4 The Company's liability on account of injury to or the death of the Insured shall not extend to more than one Section of this Policy, except as provided in
Section V. Any claim shall be subject to proof of interest, and no assignment of interest under this Policy shall be valid unless consent thereto is endorsed hereon and is
signed by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company. The insurance hereunder does not extend to nor cover disease in any form. In the event of death
resulting, wholly or partly, from any means or act which if used or done by the Insured while in possession of all mental faculties would be deemed intentional or self-inflicted,
then the amount payable shall be one-tenth the amount that would otherwise be payable, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.
Provision 5 The consent of the Beneficiary shall not be requisite to a surrender or an assignment of this Policy or to a change of Beneficiary or to any other change
in this Policy. All indemnity is payable to the Insured, unless otherwise specified.
Provision 6 If the Insured shall be injured, fatally or otherwise, in any occupation classified by the Company as more hazardous than that stated in said
" Schedule of Statements", the Insured or the Beneficiary, as the case may be, shall be paid only the amount fixed for such increased hazard in accordance with the
classification of risks by the Company. The double indemnity provided under Section III and Section VI shall not apply to any injury, fatal or otherwise, sustained
while getting on or off or while being upon the step or steps of any conveyance referred to in said Sections.
Provision 7 The Company may cancel this Policy at any time by mailing notice of cancellation to the Insured's address appearing on the Company's records with its
check for the unearned part, if any, of the premium.
Provision 8 No erasure or change appearing on the face of this Policy as originally printed, and no change or waiver of any of its provisions, conditions, limits or
statements shall be valid unless endorsed hereon and signed by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company. Notice given to or the knowledge of any agent or
any other person shall not be held to waive any of the provisions, conditions, limits or statements hereof.
In witness whereof the United States Casualty Company has caused this Policy to be signed by its President and Secretary, but it shall
not be in force until countersigned by a duly authorized representative or the Company.
Countersignedc: / //ry
. ........ .... .. .... ............ ....... ... .. . .. ...
CERTICATE OF IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION
If by reason of bodily injury during the time this Policy is in force the Insured shall be physically unable to communicate with relatives or friends, the Company will,
upon receipt of a telegram or other message giving this Policy number, immediately transmit to said Beneficiary any information it has respecting the Insured, and will
defray all expenses necessary to put the Insured in communication with and in care of friends, but such expense and the liability of the Company under this para-
graph shall not exceed the sum of One Hundred Dollars ($1oo.oo).
NAPOLEON B. BROWARD,
Candidate for Governor of Florida.
of Ihe Steamer "Thrce Friends," and a
Filiibstering. Trip to Cuba.
I was born on a farm, in Duval county, Florida, April 19, 1857. We
went to Hamilton County in 1861, and remained there until 1867,
when we returned to the farm in Duval county .
TRACES OF THE CIVIL WAR AT MY OLD HOME.
A great transformation had taken plaiee. The houses and ,fences
were all burned; and the great oaks that stood southeast of the house
were burned on the side next to the fire, and were scarred on the oppo-
site side by shot and shell from the Union gunboats. The house and
1he battery-which were on the southeast edge of the .farm, at the
mouth of Cedar creek-had been fired upon. It was here that tor-
pedoes had been set by our troops. The shores were strewn with
white pine lumber and spruce carlins, which at one time had consti-
tuted the cabin work of Union vessels.
The highlands of the oli farm had grown up in great clusters of
chinquapin bushes and live oak saplings, some of them twenty feet
high. The lowlands were covered with a dense growth of tall
grasses and weeds, together with great clusters of myrtle and other
shrubs. It was here that we did our first hard work. 'Father had
fenced in the field and built a single pen log house, into which we at.
AN HUMBLE START AT HOME-MAKING. .
Without money to buy either mules, horses or cattle, we began to
elear away the weeds, bushes and grass from the heavy ground on
1he margin of the river. This accomplished, we turned over the soil
with our hoes. Here we planted Irish and sweet potatoes, sugar
r-ane, beans, English peas, etc. In addition, we had a garden of cab-
1;age, turnips, beets, lettuce, asparagus and onions. This work was
done chiefly by mother, brother, and myself, the largest of my sisters
doing chores, such as bringing the water, passing measures of seeds,
etc., while father was busy securing for us something to eat.
As children we were much encouraged at hearing our mother tell
of the delicious Florida-grown Irish potatoes, and the luxury of aspar-
1,iius. which none. save the rich. enjoyed. I alone of the'children had
a faint recollection of how delicious the lettuce was, fixed up with
cream and sugar, which,was raised by us during the first year of the-
Civil War. We planted four sacks of Irish potatoes, which produced
one. At first the English peas were promising and beautiful, but
they soon turned yellow and died. The sugar cane, however, bade-
fair to be a success. Brother and I pulled the shucks off a stalk
about once every day to see how fnany joints had ripened, until we
had counted seven and eight joints to the stalk.
There was a path near the fence, across which a tree had fallen,
thus breaking down the only safe-guard to this promising patch of
sugar cane. The tree had fallen across the path at such an angle as,
to turn a drove of hungry cattle from the path into the cane patch,
and they, in one night, had almost destroyed our fondest hopes. Ima-
gine our disappointment. We were not discouraged, but immediately
went to work and repaired the fence.
IN QUEST OF HEALTH.
The following year we suffered from chills and fever. Being dosed
with tartar-emetic; a period- of cholagoguefollowed, bitter enough to
have cured, but it did not. Finally in quest of health, we moved from
the old place to a new one. The change--and the liberal use of what
we had learned Was a.new cure for fever and ague, to-wit: quinine-
restored to us our wonted strength again. With the use of a drag
seine we caught fish enough to supply the table. Mother procured a
contract from an uncle of ours, by which we earned one cent each
for making 1-3x12 inches water oak pins to be used for rafting timber.
Thus we struggled along until I attained ihe age of a dozen years,
lacking two months, at which time our mother passed away. We
then moved to the old Broward Homestead, where an uncle and some
aunts lived. A few months later my father died and my aunts moved
to Jacksonville, taking my sisters with them
Brother and I remained on the farm, accomplishing about as much
growing corn and potatoes and caring for the hogs as two boys at
our age could be expected to do, in the absence of any directing hand
to aid and encourage them. Each of us possessed a dog ("Ring" and
"Lady") and a gun. The woods abounding in deer, turkeys and squir-
rels, the hunting of which furnished us a profitable and pleasing re-
PIONEER DAYS OF MY EARLY BOYHOOD.
Our nearest neighbor lived two miles distant. At night we would
bar the doors, before commencing to cook supper, which frugal meal
usually consisted of hominy, pealed sweet potatoes, a piece of pork-
all boiled together in the same pot. The supper completed and eaten;,
we would lean 'our guns against the wall near the. head of the bed,
and place i bowie knife in a crack of the 16g house within reach. As
soon as the fire had gone out we were in bed with the quilt securely
f covering our heads to prevent hearing the doleful sound of the screech
owl's crying, which the superstitious old darkeys had led us to be-
lieve was the omen of bad fortune.
We remained here for two years, visited occasionally by an uncle-
Sometimes, on the Sabbath day, we walked four miles to visit another
uncle. On one occasion my brother and I wished to accompany Mr.
Abram Geiger and his family to church on the following Sabbath.
My uncle's wife had cut out a pair of new linen trousers for each of
us. She had completed my brother's, but the illness of one of the
children prevented the completion of mine. I was determined to wear
my new pants when I rode to church the next Sunday with my little.
sweetheart, (Mr. G'eiger's daughter) so I sewed the pantaloons my-
RA-FiLIG LOGS FOR A LIVELIHOOD.
When my brother was twelve years of age, I was fourteen." At
this time we went into a log camp owned by an uncle. We raftrdi
logs for him for a year.. At this labor we both contracted fever- and'
'ague, and our maternal grandfather took us on quite a journey, from.'
the north to the south side of the river, where his farm and orange-
grove were situated. Here we regained our health, and, later, went:
to work on his farm, for which services brother received fifty dotllas
a year, and I seventy-five dollars. This was, as intended by him, to
Tbe a great encouragement to us;- and we worked here two summers,
Attending a country public school at Mill Cove during the winter
season. Grandfather paid my brother's board, while I earned mine
chopping wood, building rail fences, etc., for Mr. P. P. Lord, a
A SMALL BOY'S COMPOSITION.
I here insert a composition written a few years ago by one of Mr.
Lord's little boys, when requested by his teacher, Miss Duval, to write
S a composition on the life of some great man.
"Our teacher toldus to write about great men. I am going to
write.about Mr. N. B. Broward. He is a very great man. Last year
he ran for Sheriff and beat Bowden. When he was a little boy he
used to board with my father. He was poor, and had to make his
own way. Now he is famous. He was a pale face boy, but now he is
a big, fat man, able to work. He goes to Cuba and carries powder
and shot and dynamite to the Cubans. His boat is called The Three
Friends. She can outruff any other boat in the United States. One
time the Spanish, boats got after her and she whipped them. all. The
Spaniards are so afraid of Mr. Broward and his boat that they have
o)ffeeed a large reward for her capture. Now the Three Friends is
-tied up, with two revenue cutters watching her, but when she wants
to go to Cuba she's going. I could tell a great many other good
things about Mr. Broward, but I must stop now.
(Signed) P..P. LORD."
ROUSTABOUT ON A STEAMBOAT.
After, remaining with my grandfather two years, I worked on a
steamboat for an uncle--Captain Parsons-first as cook and assis-
iant fireman. As a cook, however, I was not a success, and later I
served on this steamer as a deckhand and wheelman. I remained in
this service during the summer months, and attended public school
at New Berlin in the winter, boarding with the light house keeper,
f- COD FISHING ON THE GRAND BANKS.
From New Berlin, Fla., I went to Cape Cod, Mass. I found that
the fishing season at this port had not begun, on account if the
-continued and excessive cold weather. Snow was on .the ground
eighteen inches deep, and large blocks of ice were lying about the
shore. Far from home, without money, shelter or employment, I
-was confronted with the serious problem of how to sustain myself.
The sole avenue of escape was the possibility of securing employment
on a schooner-the only vessel in port at the time-which was about
to sail to some foreign country. Would the captain want my services
or not, was the question.
Knowing that only men of the most rugged physique were employed
in this business, and fearing that as I approached the captain I might
be attacked with a coughing spell, as a result of whooping cough,
S which was contracted at school, and that he would think me con-
sumptive, I stepped into a store, took a drink of water to control
mny cough, walked quickly up to Captain Newcomb of the schooner
"'Emma Linwood" and'asked, "Captain, do you want to ship a man?"
The captain looked at me with the piercing eye of an X-ray; but with
bated breath, I stood the examination, trying all the while to swallow
my Adam's apple in a renewed effort to keep down the coughing
spell, which I feared might come upon me before the test was over.
Thanks to the drink of water, his answer was in the affirmative, and
I shipped in his schooner for the banks of, New Foundland, whither
I desired to go to engage in the pursuit of cod-fish catcalling. Here
while I was clad only in Kentucky jeans and gingham shirt I keenly
realized why my Northern shipmates were clothed in warmest
For .about two years I-followed the sea ,on sailing vessels, freight:
ing lumber, and on fishing 'vessels, sailing oyster boats, etc., after,
which I was employed on various steamboats plying the St. Johns
River, touching at Palatka, Sanford, Enterprise ,Mayport and Jack-
sonville. I served one year as a bar pilot on the St. Johns bar.
CLIMBING UP IN LIFE. '.-:
At a later date, Captain David Kemps and I became owners of
steamboats which were engaged.in carrying passengers and mail be-
tween Mayport and Palatka. Continuing in this business until 1887,
I then became interested in operating a wood yard in Jacksonville.
In the year 1887, I was appointed Sheriff of Duval.County, by Gov-
ernor Perry, to fill the unexpired term-'of H. D. Holland, deceased..
I was again appointed Sheriff in 1889, by Governor Fleming, for two.
years. At the expiration of this term of office I was a candidate
for the office of Sheriff, being elected and re-elected repeatedly untik
1900, when I was honored by the people as a member of the Legisla-
ture from Duval County. After the adjournment of the Generalf
Assembly, I was appointed a member of the State Board of Health,
by Governor Jennings, which position I still hold.
BUSINESS AND POLITICAL CAREER ..;
In addition to my political vocation, I was engaged during the year
1890 in the phosphate enterprise on Black Creek, in Clay County,
Florida. In 1891 and 1892 I was interested in the phosphate mining
business at the head of the Iehtucknee River, on the line of Suwannee
and Columbia counties. In 1895 I again became connoted with the
steamboat business, having designed the model and moulds of the '.
r steamer Three Friends, and superintended the building of this tug.
In 1895, and for the two succeeding years, I served as a member
of the Jacksonville City Council; and, later, as a Police Commis-
sioner of that city.
In 1896 I was captain of the steamer Three Friends on several of
her trips, while conveying war* materials to the Cubans.
Durifig the years 1902 and 1903, I was engaged in the wrecking
,_ .-r --z ~_Cljit_--i~~-iC-L -~ii-jjP~LEYIIUP---------C--~
business at Key West, my family and I having spent a part of that
time very happily among the l....il ble people of that Island City.
At present time I am in the towing and wrecking business between
Jacksonville and Key West-and sometimes Tampa.
NAPOLEON B. BROWARD.
An Open Letter as Candidate for Governor,
. T"OTHE DEMOCRATIC VOTERS OF FLORIDA:
About two months ago I announced my intention to become a can-
didate for the Governorship of Florida, before the Democratic pri-
mary of this year. I realize that to be the Governor of Florida is an
ambition worthy of any of her sons. The holder of that position
occupies the highest political trust .within the power of her people
to bestow, and the man to fill this position should be one whose sole
object is to give to all the people a fair, honest and impartial admin-
istration-of the affairs of the State under his executive control.. On
the other hand, I am mindful of the fact that the position carries
with it a great responsibility.
I am a native of the State of- Florida, and have always taken an
interest in her progress and prosperity, and firmly believe that she
'has only fairly begun to be the state which her vast resources will
*enable her to become. I am familiar, also, with her political history,
for the'past quarter of a century, and I stand upon the platform of
the Democratic party, National and State. As the campaign pro-
gresses it is my hope that I will see the people of the different sec-
tions of the State and discuss, as I shall be ready and willing to dis-
cuss, any questions of Democratic policy or doctrine, but I now
desire to discuss what seemed to me'to be the most important issues
in this campaign.
-REPUBLICANS SAILING UNDER DEMOCRATIC FLAG.
'The Hon. AVilliam J. Bryan, in his speech accepting the Demo-
,ratic nomination for the Presidency delivered at Indianapolis, Ind.,
August 8th, 1900, said: "Man, the handiwork of God, comes first;
money, the handiwork of man, is of infetrior importance; but upon
all the important questions today Republican legislation tends to
mn'ake money the master and man the servant."
In Florida there is, practically speaking, no Republican party in
!name, but as there are always men arrayed upon one side or another
-of public questions, there is in reality today a Republican ,party' in
Florida, although it pretends to be a phrt of the Democratic party.
'This condition of affairs was realized and the people warned by the
platform adopted by the State Convention at Jacksonville, in June,
1900, embodied in the twenty-first plank of said platform, which
reads as follows:
PLANK NO. 21 FROM STATE PLATFORM.
"We warn the people that an attempt is being systematically made
by avowed Republicans, through the connivance and co-operation of
persons claiming to be Democrats, tP subsidize the press' of Florida
for the purpose of teaching Democrats false doctrines, and of keeping
at the front, under the guise of Democracy, men as leaders of Democ-
racy who will be subservient to trust magnates, and who will, under
the pretense of conservatism, attempt to instill Republican doctrines
antd oppose the principles of true Democracy. Such newspapers
should, under no circumstances, be given any patronage controlled
by officers elected by the Democratic party. This insidious attempt
to corrupt the Democracy through the medium of newspapers claim-
ing to be Democratic must be thwarted in every way. Subserviency
to Republican influences of any sort is incompatible with true De-
mocracy, and should receive no encouragement from Democrats.
Avowed Republicanism is infinitely more tolerable to true Demo-
ATTEMPT TO DEFEAT PRIMARY ELECTION LAW.
At the DImocratic Convention, the Democratic party of Florida
,was pledged by the twenty-second plank of its platform to provide
by law for primary elections for the nomination, in white Demo-
-cratic primaries, of all candidates for office, both State and County,
.and United States Senators, and to carry out that pledge, a commit-
tee was appointed to draft a primary law and present it to the Legis-
qature of 1901.
I was a member of that Legislature, and I was one of those who
.contended for the adoption of the primary election law as prepared
by the committee appointed by the State Convention, but notwith-
.standing that every member of that Legislature was elected as a
Democrat, and was bound by the platform, which pledged the, honor
of the party "to the carrying out of the same to the full extent that
Sthe united strength of the-party in the State may render possible,"
sufficient influence was brought to bear upon the Legisature of ,9010.
by men styling themselves Democrats, together with some other mem-
bers who objected to some of the features of the bill, to compass the
defeat of the bill presented by the committee, which provided against
fraud, bribery and intimidation and other vicious influences, and the
primary law finally adopted was the most that could be obtained at
that time. In the primary election of 1902, which followed, it was
made apparent that the law was defective and needed improvements,
but the people did well in the Legislature of 1903, on account of con-
tinued opposition, to prevent the repeal of the primary election law
then on the books.
WHY I PREFER PRIMARIES TO CONVENTIONS.
It is hardly necessary for me to make argument in favor of a pri-
mary election law against the convention system. I am a Democrat
who believes in the platform of my party, and would, therefore, up-
hold it until changed by the proper authority, but if arguments-
be needed upon the relative merits of the primary system as opposed
to the convention plan, I should say, briefly, that I consider the pri-
mary election law the most important of all our laws, as it places
the power of nominating candidates where it ought to be, with the
individual voter. Therefore the candidate will more likely represent
the will of the masses- who nominated him, than though he were nomi-
nated by a convention composed of a few delegates, and as all law
should be but the reflex or expression of the conscience of man. an.d
as all power is inherent in the people, the more our lawmakers are
imbued, with the conscience, heart and will of the people, the source of
all political power, the purer will be the laws enacted by them. The
nearer to the spring or fountain head, the purer will be the water;
so also with our laws, the closer the makers are to the people that
those laws are made to protect and benefit, the more beneficial will
Under the convention plan the voters have no choice in naming
the nominee of their party, and simply are permitted at the general
election to ratify the nominations made by the delegates elected to
the convention. It is true the railroads did not try to control the
voters when delegates were elected, but found it much cheaper to con-
trol by bribery; furnishing of passes, promises of favors and in nu-
merous other ways delegates elected to those conventions, and when
the delegates got to the conventions, they began to do those things
which they considered would be of benefit-to themselves in a political
way, and not for the benefit of the people they were sent to represent.
In other words, under the convention plan, a few men nominated
the ticket and the great masses voted for it in order to continue to be
_ ~____ _
Democrats, regardless of whether the choices made suited thenmor not.
Under the primary system each man's vote counts for the candidate
of-his choice and the people are directly consulted, and thus is car-
ried out the provision in our Bill of Rights, that all political power
is inherent in the people.
* MY PLEDGE TO MAINTAIN 'THE PRIMARY.
I believe that the primary system is on trial, and that the people,
if they favor it, need a man as Governor who will plege them, as I
here do now, that I will not only oppose, to the utmost of my ability,
any attempt to repeal the primary ereotion law, but that I will veto
any such bill passed by the Legislature seeking to repeal said pri-
mary election law, unless it has first been submitted to a vote of the
people and they vote for its repeal; and I further pledge the people
that I will do my utmost to strengthen and perfect the system and
that I will cheerfully approve any bill tending in that direction.
AMENDMENTS I WOULD RECOMMEND..
I would recommend these amendments, strengthening it as follows:
First-Fixing a severe penalty for bribery or the miscounting of
Second-Making the calling of a primary election mandatory with
the State Democratic Executive Committee instead of optional as it
As long as the people have the primary election law, qualify for
and vote in the primary, and see the votes counted correctly,. that long
will they elect to office men of their choice, thereby controlling their
own political affairs, and in no other way.
THE RAILROAD COMMISSION LAW.
Another very important question for the consideration of the Dem-
ocratic voters of the State, is the legislation known as the Railroad
Commission Law. The Railroad Commission Law was repealed
by the Legislature of 1891. A committee of merchants and brokers,
accompanied by myself, I being then engaged in the phosphate busi-
ness. appeared before a legislative committee of the House and Senate
of the session of 1893. We urged upon them the necessity for legisla-
ftion for the correction of abuses then existing. among them being the
rebate system; and the discriminating freight rates against locali-
ties and individuals, and we so impressed them with the necessity
a of legislature' for the protection of individuals and commerce, from
railroad abuses, that the Legislature took up the matter of the re-es-
tablishment of the Railroad Commission, but the friends of the people
in the Legislature were defeated by a few votes.
EFFORTS I MADE FOR IT YEARS AGO.
I began the agitation for the passage of another Railroad Com-
mission Law, and, in order to sh-,-w that I am not simply talking to
catch votes, I desire to call the attention of the people of Florida to
a letter written by me to the Florida Times-Union, at that time a
Democratic newspaper, on July 28th, 1894. Then, together with
others, I induced the Hon. D. U. Fletcher to run for-the State Senate
on a Railroad Commission platform, but we were again overcome by
railroad money and their manipulations, they, at that time, having
with them the Governor and the Chairman of the State Democratic
I was among those who persistently fought for the Railroad Com-
mission Law which was adopted in 1897, improved by'amendment in
1899, and is considered the most effective legislation upon thlt sub-
ject enjoyed by any Sthte in the Vnion. The Democratic platform
of 1900 endorsed this Railroad Commission, and yet at every session
of the Legislature there are men claiming to be Democrats trying to
weaken, destroy and reepal this law.
BENEFITS OF THE RAILROAD COMMISSION.
It is the only court in this State to which a citizen of the State,
whether rich or poor, can apply and get relief without any cost to
himself. The power is ample and the gentlemen wh'o have held the
position of Railroad Commissioners since the passage of the new law
in 1 97, have always shown themselves willing and anxious to adjust
any matters within their control.
The passenger rates have been reduced from four and five cents per
mile on the main lines, to three cents per mile. the freight rates on
staples have been very much reduced as have also the rates on vege-
tables and oranges, to the great benefit of the people, and recently,
the matter having been brought.to the attention of the Commission
that the railroads of the State are discriminating against,Florida
ports in favor of ports beyond the limits of the State. a phosphate
rate of one cent per ton per mile has been ordered put into effect.
It has been estimated that the saving to phosphate shippers alone
by this will amount to TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS
PER ANNUM, enough to pay the maximum expenses allowed to the
Railroad Oommission for over thirteen years.
The fact that the railroad companies have submitted to these re-
ductions shows that they realized the justice done, and further shows
that for all the years when we were without a commission they were
taking that much more money out of the earnings of the people of the
State than they were justly entitled to receive.
PERSONAL AND PROPERTY RIGHTS ENTITLED TO PROTEC-
I am in favor of the honest acquisition of wealth and desire to en-
courage industry, economy and thrift. I believe in the maxim of
equal rights to all and special privileges to none, and that property
rights are more secure when human rights are respected; yet it is a
fact that the railroad companies, at every session of the Legislature
and men under their control, make diligent efforts to repeal the Rail-
road Commission Law, and thiis is not done from any belief on their
part that their rights are invaded, or that they do not get justice from
It is interesting to note that the first litigated case arising from an
order of the Railroad Commission was by .one railroad company
against, the Jacksonville Terminal Company to compel- the recogni-
tion of' its rights. It is only when they desire to do' injustice that
this branch of the State Government is objectionable to them.
ANOTHER RECOMMENDATION.AND PLEDGE.
In order that such atteinpts may be futile, if elected Governor, I
shall recommend and urge the Railroad' Commission be made a con-
stitutional part of the State Government, just as the Supreme Court,
the Circuit Courts and other branches of the Government now are. If
that were done the Commission could not be abolished except by a *
constitutional amendment adopted by a vote of the people, and if I
am elected Governor, I pledge the people of Florida that I will veto
any bill that seeks to weaken or repeal this law, unless it is first sub-
mitted to a vote of the people and they vote for its repeal.
WHY I BECAME A CANDIDATE.'
My belief in these important public measures is my reason for be-
coming a candidate for the office of Governor, and it was because I
believed that they -were in danger of repeal that I announced -my
Against the private character of the other gentlemen who have an-
nounced their candidacy for this position I have no word of criticism
or censure, but every man's public and political record is a proper
subject of comment whenever he appears before the people for their
CORPORATE INTERESTS SOLID FOR MR. DAVIS.
These corporate interests which have so persistently fought the
Primary Election and Railroad Commission Laws, through their
newspaper, the Times-Uniori, are supporting the Hon. R. W. Davis
for the Governorship, as are also the other -newspapers that are' con-
* trolled in their interests, among which are the Miami Metropolis, the
West Palm Beach News, the St. Augustine Evening Record, the White
Springs Herald and a dozen or more other newspapers controlled by
the railroads; and they areinducing many other newspapers through
the State to fall into line for their candidate.
Believing, also, that they will elect, if they can, a majority of the
members of the Legislature in sympathy with them politically, that
they may be able to control them, and'realizing the great danger
that we are always subjected to from the latter source, as the corpo-
rations elect many of their agents and attorneys to the Legislature;
and knowing that numbers of persons in addition thereto are usually
elected members of the Legislature, who are of that colorless form
of politics that may mean anything. some induced by persuasion, some
by free passes, and some by other means or favors, I concluded that
the people of Florida should be put on their guard by getting some
one to become their candidate for the Governorship who would pro-
tect the people so far as it would be in his power to do so.
Many people, in'-iuding myself, tried industriously to persuade to
become a candidate for Governor some one of the many whom we
thought could and would define the issues, and whom .we believed
would make an active campaign; but failing in this, it was concluded
that I should make the effort, hence my candidacy.
WHY MR. DAVIS WON'T DO.
At the time of becoming a candidate, it appeared to me that unless
the voters were aroused to a realization of the situation, the Hon. R.
W. Iavis would probably be nominated and elected to the position,
and I considered then, as I do now, that while Mr. Davis at heart is-
in favor of legislation beneficial to the people, as distinguished from
private and corporate interests, yet I believe that his long associa-
tions and close alliance with men. Republican in fact., and Demo-
cratic only in name. would control his actions should he be chosen as-
I asked of him a pledge that he would not, if he were elected Gov--
ernor allow, if in his power to prevent, the repeal of either the Pri-
mary Electicil Law or the Railroad Commission Law. and his reply to~
the effect that I could tell my friends PRIVATELY that he would
support and defend these measures, did not seem to me to b- the kind
of a declaration a candidate should make upon questions of such vital
interest -to the people. There should be no secrets concerning such
measures kept by a candidate from his.constituency. It was only af-
ter I had made this request of Mr. Davis, telling him at the time that
I made it that I wanted to know his position on these measures, that
T decided that Mr. Davis. who had been so long in public life, was not
the proper man for Governor.
1_1_~__1 __ ~__~__ _~~__~_ __
MR. DAVIS' AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
I heard him give his life's history to the voters, and I was struck
with the peculiar obligations he would be under to the corporations
in the event of his election. According to his own biography, he came
4o this State and located in Green Cove Springs, in Clay Gounty. He
was ejected a member of the Legislature from Clay County, and was
chosen Speaker of the House of Representatives for the Legislative
session of 1885. He appointed the House committees of that session.
During that session of the Legislature he so impressed himself upon
fhe representatives of the Railroad Corporations that immediately
.after its adjournment, he left the county that had so honored him,
and located at Palatka, the headquarters of the Florida Southern
Railroad Co., to be the general counsel of that company under the
presidency of Sherman Conant.
CORPORATION CANDIDATE FOR GOVERNOR IN 1888.
He appeared at the St. Augustine Democratic State Convention,
Ihree years after as the pronounced choice for Governor of the land
grant railroads of the State, which had obtained land grants aggre-
gating many millions of acres of the State's best lands. The land
sought to-be obtained as bonuses for the building of these railroads
were in value sufficient to have paid for their construction by the
State, and would have left the State as absolute owner. I remember
that a special train load of his shouters were brought to that conven-
tion, but that fact injured his chances.
ALWAYS FAITHFUL TO THE RAILROADS.
He subsequently appeared before the Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund as counsel for the railroads and obtained for them
large amounts of land. From that tine. until his election to Congress
he was never out of their employ, and ever their faithful attorney, ap-
pearing one day (I am. reliably informed) in Tallahassee before one
State Board to urge the conveyance of lands to the railroads on the
grounds that the railroad had cost the stockholders a vast amount of
money and were very valuable, and later the same day; appeared be-
fore another Board in the same Capitol building to urge a reduction
.of the tax assessments on' the ground that the railroad was not so
very valuable after all.
PLEASED.THE CORPORATIONS AS CONGRESSMAN.
He was elected to Congress in 1896, and has served there ever since.
At least one Congressional Convention specifically instructed him to
work for the passage of an act giving to the Inter-State Commerce
Commission power to control inter-state freight rates and passenger
Shares, but if he has ever introduced a bill, or made a speech, or been
in any way active in advancing this measure so much antagonized by
the great railroad corporations of this country, I have neve. heard
of it. He at least has not antagonized them enough to prevent them
from furnishing him with annual free passes, on which he rides free,
while drawing from the United States Treasury twenty cents per mile
for traveling between Palatka and Washington.
A PERTINENT QUESTION.
Mi. Davis says that he resigned his position as counsel for the rail-
roads, when he was elected to Congress. Why then does he still re-
ceive free annual passes from the railroads? Is it for legal services,
or is it because he is a member of Congress? If only as a Congress-
man, then what consideration does he give them as a Congressman?
The Hon. Charles M. Cooper, whom Mr. Davis succeed in Congress,
was, during his whole career in Congress, very active in endeavoring
to give the people relief from the burdens of the exorbitant freight
rates on their products shipped to Northern markets, and he urged
actively the passage of an act of Congress giving the Inter-State Com-
merce Commission power to fix rates on inter-state shipments. As a
result, he was never tendered a pass over any railroad during his
CongressioDal career. The Congressman who is true to the interests
of the people is never pat under obligations for passes.
And so with Hon. Stephen R. Mallory, one of Florida's United
States Senators. Although threatened with political oblivion for
his activity ii securing the establishment of the Inter-State Commerce
Commission, when a member of Congress some years ago, he has ever
kept aloof from improper railroad influences, and is today known
throughout the length and breadth of this land as one member of the
United States Congress who has never made use of a railroad pass
during his long public career as a faithful servant of the people.
SOME MORE PERTINENT QUESTIONS.
The people of this State have expressed in their Constitution their
opinion that a Governor or a member of the Legislature should not
be under obligations .to railroads for free passes. Do the people be-
lieve that it is improper for a Governor andmember of the Legislature
r) ride on free passes, but that it is proper for a member of Congress
to ride on free passes over the State, making his canvass for Gover-
The State Constitution prohibits your Governor from putting him-
self under obligations for free passes, but this member of Congress,.
as a candidate for Governor, is continually putting himself under obli-
gation for free transportation to the very railroad companies which
are now suing the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, of
which board, if elected Gvernor, he will be chairman, to obtain from
the State millions of acres of lands, deeds to which are now refused
by that Board on the ground that the corporations are not legally
entitled to the lands.
And there is now in the .State Treasury, to the credit of the.Internal
Improvement Fund $318,505.00, the proceeds of sales of lands claimed
by those corporations. Those corporations claim that the Board of
Trustees, of which the Governor is Chairman,,should pay over to them
all the moneys arising from the sales of lands, amounting to
Do the people believe that Mr. Davis will be unhampered by obliga-
.ions for free passes?
A PROBLEM IN MATHEMATICS.
Again, Mr. Davis announced, more than two years in advhnce, that
he would not be a candidate for election to Congress in 1904. He
gave as his reason that he could not afford the financial sacrifice to
remain in Congress, where he gets a salary of $5,000.00 per annum,
with twenty cents per mile for traveling between Palatka and Wash-
ington on free passes, and an opportunity to practice law on the side,
which he has always done at good compensation.
He, however, promptly announced himself as a candidate for Gov-
qrnor at .2:_!,.'_.i per annum, where he will have to include in his
oath 6f office the proposition that he, for four years, will quit riding
on free passes. He will get no mileage for traveling to or from Talla-
hassee. He cannot continue to practice law. Unless he expects at
the end of his term as Governor to re-enter the'service of the corpora-
tions at a very large salary, even larger than he got after his career as
Speaker of the Florida Legislature, can he explain why he is too poor
to remain in Congress at $5,000.00 per year arid perquisites, but rich
enough to be Governor at $3,500.00 a year and no perquisites.
THE PEOPLE CAN CHOOSE.
The more I considered these things, the more I became convinced
that the people of Florida could not afford to force Mr. Davis to give
up $5,000.00 per annum, twenty cents per mile traveling expenses
and free passes everywhere, and a lucrative law practice, to serve
them as Governor at $3,500.00 per year-and nothing else. And yet
the people of Florida know that Mt. Davis' best friends arid clients
have ever been the railroads of the State, and that if he were forced to .
serve the people four years faithfully as Governor, and should fail as
Governor to prove the friend of the corporations that have so long
and so powerfully been his friend, they woul never again employ
him in any capacity, so I decided myself to become a candidate and
give the people an opportunity to elect a Goverpor who has never
allowed himself to be put under obligations to the land grant corpora-
lions of this State, and who will not be hampered, as Chairman of
1he Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, in voting
against giving away the State's lands, or in adjusting their claims to
the money now in the State Treasury.
WOLVES IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING.
The Florida Times-Union and the other papers in this State con-
trolled by the Republican corporations, announce that Mr. Davis is
the "people's candidate" for Governor, and style him "Our Bob," and,
yet, these are the papers that in almost every issue contain denuncia-
rions of life-long Democrats and National and State platforms of the
Democratic party, and they are the papers referred to by the twenty-
tirst plank in the.Democratic State platform of 1900. They are like
the Republican who said he had too much sense to be a Republican in
Democratic State. Their voice is Jacob's voice, but their hands are
"the hands of Esau," but they never lose an opportunity to sing the
praises of Mr. Davis nor to vilify and malign myself and the other
Candidates for this office.
MR. DAVIS' OBLIGATIONS.
Mr. Davis travels about over the State with his pockets full of
passes, and supported by all the real Republican, but nominally Dem-
ocratic, newspapers in the State. Do you want a man as Governor
who had extended to him these favors by the interests opposed to the
Primary Election Law and the Railroad Commission Law, and whb
may justly be said to-be their attorney and agent? If it is so impor-
tant to these interests to fill our legislative bodies with their agents
and attorneys, both National and State-these interests who have
,heir agents always present at the State Capitols to take-care of the
business of their employers-why is it not a good idea for the people,
who are never present at the State Capitol. but are always absent, to
elect as their- representative a man upon whom there are no such
aimsm, who has never been supported by these influences, who has
always had to fight against them in business and political life?
WHY THESE FAVORS ARE GRANTED.
Are not these favors intended to influence men in official positions?
There are more%'ays of influencing and controlling men than by the
direct use of money. The successful support in the election of a can-
didate by these influences is enough to make him feel under obliga-
tions to them. I quote from a letter written by an attorney of the
Santa Fe Railroad to a member of the Illinois Legislature:
"Your letter of the 22nd to President Ripley, requesting an annual
over the railroad of this company, has been referred to me. A couple
of years ago, after you had been furnished with an annual over this
line, you voted against a bill in which you knew this company to be
directly interested. Dn you know of any particular reason, therefore,
why we should favor you with ari annual this year?"
These passes are not given to public officials as compliments, but
are given for favors rendered or to be ri-nde,-ed. It is all hire and
Governor LaFollette, of Wisconsin, in his speech on "Good Govern-
ment," delivered at the Old Settlers Association, at Keneshaw, Wis.,
Aug. 10, 1903, quoted from a letter written by a United States Sena-
tor this paragraph:
Sit is expecting too much of human nature that a Senator whose
every association is with the great railro.ad corporations, and whose
political lives depend largely upon them, should, in good faith, ap-
prove a measure that would, to an extent, make railroads a servant to
The people and to be subject to the Commission (meaning the Inter-
State Commerce Commission) when a question of rates is raised.
The Senate Committee is by a large majority, men who bear those re-
lations to railroads."
RAILROADS ENTITLED TO FAIR TREATMENT.
I am in favor of the construction of railroads and other transporta-
tion lines, and believe that we should cheerfully pay transportation
rates high enough to insure them reasonable dividends on their tapi-
Jal actually invested; that lhey should receive at the hapds of our
Legislature fair treatment in the protection of their property rights.
I am glad to have the officers of railroads and their employees .par-
ticipate in all our political affairs, as individuals, and have each
man vote for the man of his choice, but I am unalterably opposed to
corporations in politics.
CORPORATIONS KNOW THEIR SERVANTS.
If your Governor is true to the people he cannot be unfair to the
railroads, because the people are interested in the protection of rail-
road and all other property; but it has been demonstrated too often
before this, in the repeal of the former Railroad Commission Law, and
in other matters, that when corporate interests get control of a Gov-.
eminent they use it to their own advantage and to the detriment of
the people. The people are sometimes mistaken and deceived in a.
man they have supported for public office, but the railroad and cor-
z porate interests select'a. man they know they can control, and are
never deceived in such matters. .
MR. MAYS' LEGISLATIVE RECORD.
Another candidate for the Governorship, Hon. D. H. Mays, has
-his record as a legislator: In 1891, when elected with two other leg-
islators from Jefferson County (the people of that county favoring
the re-election of Senator Call to the United States Senate) Mr. Mays
voted once for Senator Call, then permitted the railroad forces to use
his name as a candidate, to prevent Senator Call's election. He con-
tinued to do this for several weeks, until Senator Call was elected
without his vote, although his fellow-fnember of the House and Sen-
ate from Jefferson County refused to join him, but consistently voted
as the people desired them to-for the re-election of Senator Call.
Mr. Mays was also a member of the Legislature, and elected Speaker
of the House in 1897. The Democratic voters of Jefferson County still
favored the re-election of Senator Call to another term in the United
States Senate, but Mr. Mays did not vote for Senator Call, but for a
gentleman who was the Vice-President of the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad. He continued to yote for him against Hon. J. N. C.
Stockton and Hon. S. R. Mallory, both of whom were candidates of
the people-and in spite of the fact that the other member of the
House and the Senate from his county refused to vote with him for
the railroad candidate.
We cannot have a Government "of the people, by the people, for
the people," if public officers act as Mr. Mays did in both of these in-
stances. We will have instead a Government of our officers, by our
officers, for our officers.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.
I am mindful of the fact that a good education is the most valuable
heritage that we will le able to leave to our children; therefore I be-
lieve in a longer school term for the children attending our free
schools, .and favor liberal apporpriations for our colleges.
CIVIL WAR PENSIONS.
The 'patriotic service and self-sacrifice of our soldiers and sailors in
the Civil War, should guarantee to the deserving needy ones, or their
widows, such reasonable pensions as an appreciative people are ever
ready to pay.
STATE TROOPS AND NAVAL MILITIA.
The manifest patriotism of our Florida State Troops and Florida
- Naval Militia should be encouraged by the most liberal support com-
mensurate with a reasonably economical administration of our State
GOOD PUBLIC ROADS. .
I favor the passage of such laws,as will best tend to the improve-
ment of our system of public roads, hard surface or otherwise, as may
be most practicable. As automobiles cost little more now than a
good horse and buggy, or horse and wagon, it is to be hoped that our
people in the country, will, in the near future, find it easier to cover
_ ____~_~ _1_~1_ _I_ ___~~~~
distances to the school houses, and make near neighbors, in point of
time, even of those living many miles apart.
It has occurred to me that tome of our people may think that my
criticisms are too severe. But to you, fellow citizens, I will say thai
S you cannot regret more than I do the conditions that make these
" criticisms necessary; but I am impelled to use plain language, feeling,
as I do, that the man who is too timid to put the people on notice 0f
impending danger, even at the risk of momentarily appearing harsh,
would be too timid to aggressivelyy meet and combat such danger.
once he is elected to the high position of your Governor.
If I am elected Governor, I promise you that I will be the Gover-
nor for the whole people and enforce the laws protecting the humap
and property rights of all alike.
Respectfully submitted to the Democratic People of Florida.
NAPOLEON B. BROWARD.
Napoleon B. Broward on Important Issues,
-- .; .... ~\
Jacksnville, Fla., July 28, 1894'..
To the Editor of The Tines-Unwion :
Shall Florida seaport towns have the trade that they are naturally
entitled to? 'Shall the phosphate miners be permitted to be prosper-
ous, or shall they suffer the same fate that the loggers have always
fared? Shall the market for oranges always be limited to the sea-
port cities of the United States, where the freight rates are fixed by
steam vessels, with the prices of oranges in Cincinnati, Chicago and
other inland cities fixed by New York and Philadelphia prices, with
the freight added from the last two cities to the former ones and with
the freight rates to the inland and western cities double what it is to
New York and Philadelphia?
In other words the railroads are compelled to carry oranges and
S other freights to New York at a reasonable rate, because of the com-
petition of the steamship lines; but to Chicago and Cincinnati they
charge as much freight from Florida as a ship will carry it to Phila-
delphia or New York for, and then ship it and pay the railroad freight
o such inland cities.
The idea of being compelled to pay $.60 per box on oranges to Cin-
cinnati or Chicago, or in other words, pay $180 per carload'to freight.
-,: 20 .
oranges, whereas, if we desire to purchase a horse in Chicago and
have him shipped to Florida, we can procure a whole box car, ship in
it the horse, bale of hay, sack of oats and a man to take care of him,
,all for $31, and all kinds of merchandise in the same proportion.
In reality, the effect of this business is to get nearly all the money
that our oranges bring and, perchance, if they should bring any more,
to offer every inducement to have us spend our money purchasing
goods 1,200 miles from home, and then bring then to us cheaper than
a wholesale merchant in any of our Florida towns can get them
freighted fifty miles. With such an arrangement can our orange'
growers or home merchants thrive? Such discrimination as this is
Then two of our local railroads enter into an agreement with two
'outside railroads, which makes it impracticable for any other outside
railroad to reduce the freight North or West. In other words, the
F. C. & P. R. R. and the J., T. & K. W. R. R., two years ago entered
into an agreement with the S., F. & W. R. R. and the E. T. V. &
41. Ry. by which the two Florida roads above mentioned receive $24.00
per carload, or.eight cents per box, on oranges, above their local
rate from the two outside railroad companies above mentioned, and
the two Florida roads, on their part, agreed that if any outside rail-
road should reduce the rate North or West on oranges they would
put up the local rate so high on such shipments that it would force
all oranges over the above named outside, railroads. This blood
anoney alone, amounts to $400,000 per annum, or thereabouts.
DISCRIMINATION IN PHOSPHATE RATES.
Abuses -of the phosphate industry and discrimination against Flor-
ida's seaport towns are more marked still. Three years ago Florida
hard rock phosphate was worth in London or Liverpool, from $24.00
to $27.00 per ton; pebble phosphate from $12.00 to $14.00 per ton.
We had a Railroad Commission in Florida at that time, and the
S :rate of freight per ton from Fort White Junction to Lake City, over
the S., F. & W. (a distance of eighteen to twenty miles) was fifty
cents per ton. From Lake City to Jacksonville, sixty miles, the
rate fixed by the Railroad Commission was 79 cents. Add the two
together and the rate was $1.29 to Jacksonville, or about $1.40 to *
$1.50 to Fernandina. At the same time the railroad rate of freight
-per ton on the same phosphate from Ft. White to Savannah was
$1.70 per ton; to Brunswick, Ga., it was about $1.60.
DISTANCE DIDNIX COUNT.
See the difference in distance of the above seaports., From Ft.
White to Jacksonville it is not more than eighty miles; from Fernan-
dina to Ft. White it is about 100 miles; to Brunswick, Ca., 160 miles.
and from Ft. White to Sannah, Ga., 216 miles. This was about as
much discrimination as any people could be called upon to stand
peaceably. But in two weeks from the time the Legislature, by a
vote of 18 to 19, repealed the Railroad Commission Law, the freight
from Ft. White to Lake City, a distance of twenty miles, was in-
* creased to 42.00 per ton on phosphate rock, and $1.05 from there to
Fernandina or Jacksonville, making freight from Ft. While to Jack-
sonville. eighty miles. '.i:. per ton on phosphate, and to Fernandina,
about 100 miles, $3.05.
After the Railroad Commission Law was repealed the rate was
fixed at ^2.'.5 to Savannah, and about $2.77 to Brunswick, thereby
giving Savannah, 216 miles distant, an advantage of ten cents per
ton over Jacksonville, eighty miles distant, and the same over Fer-
nandina, 100 miles distant, and gave Brunswick 25 or 30 cents ad-
vantage over Jacksonville or Fernandina, when the distance to Jack-
sonville was only one-half as far and Fernandina a little over one
half as far. See the significance of even the rate before the Railroad
Commission Law was repealed, which shows determination to dis-
criminate against the Florida seaport towns.
Savannah and Brunswick had a little the advantage of Fernandina
and Jacksonville in trans-Atlantic freight, because they had an estalb-
lished foreign trde. which caused ocean freight to be a little cheaper.
TO INJURE FLORIDA TOWNS.
The railroads fixed the rate to Savannah and Brunswick with a
view to giving them the trade against the Florida towns. The price
of hard rock phosphate has decreased in London and Liverpol from
$24.00 per ton to $15.00 per ton; yet we pay $1.00 per ton more rail-
road freight now than then. We compel a phosphate miner to pay
A60.00 per carload freht on phosphate rock, which is imperishable,
to haul it ei htv miles, while lumber is freighted over the same rail-
roads from and to the same points for $15.00 per carload, and jetty
rock to and from the same points fi-T $15.00 and $20 00 per carload.
It is the same game that has been played with such destructive effect
on nearly all of our loggers and sawmill men, orange growers and
farmers. The motto appeared to be. "We (the railroads) will leave
them enough margin to barely subsist on and we will take all the
Today Florida seaport towns are being ruthlessly robbed of what
they are legitimately entitled to, namely: the export shipments andr
S coastwise shipments of Florida phosphate.. If our phosphate miners
are given reasonable rates they will shut out of the markets of the
world nearly every phosphate competitor. Florida has already shut
out Canada from shipping phosphate to Europe; she has Carolina
selling at a loss of 1i cents per ton, and she is underselling France
and Germany. By giving our miners a reasonable rate, Florida
would practically supply the markets of the world with phosphate,
and the demand for phosphate is increasing rapidly. With reason-
able treatment in a few years Florida should be shipping 2,000,000
tons per annum, valued at the seaport from which shipped abroad
Let us see who is entitled to portions of this enormous amount of
First-The laborers in the mines would receive about $3.00 per ton,
or six million dollars per annum; next, the railroads in Florida (and
not in Georgia) another inland transportation lines in Florida
should receive about $1.50 per ton, or three millions of dollars, which
equals $30.00 per carload, which is a very high rate of freight, when
we consider that the haul will not average over 120 miles.
Second-Stevedores, warehouse men and laborers, 65 cents per
ton, or $1,300,000. 1
Third-Pilots on our rivers and bars. At 2,000 tons each it would
require 1,000 ships to carry this amount of rock. Pilot fees on each
ship would average $100, making $100,000.
Fourth-Each of these ships would pay out to merchants for coal
and other supplies at the port at which she loads $1,000, making
Fifth-Tug boats and lighter men, $50 each vessel, or $50,000.
Now for the milk in the cocoanut. What transportation lines?
What stevedores? What wharf owners? What pilots? What mer-
chants? What tugboats?-Georgia's or Florida's? I say Florida's,
every time. Georgia is taking care of herself, be it said to her credit;
but railroads that make their money in carrying the goods of Florida
people, are helping Georgia at Flordia's expense.
We have several splendid seaport towns with plenty of water to
float ships to carry our products. Ther is Punta Gorda, Tampa,
iPensacola, Sanford, Palatka, St. Augustine, Jacksonville and Fer-
mandina, the latter a magnificent port. We should have a rate per
anile fixed by law on phosphate, oranges, cattle, etc.
SOME LAWS SUGGESTED.
I would suggest -two statutes as follows:
First-That in no case shall the aggregate charge for freight be as
-great for a short haul in the State of Florida as for a long haul.
Second-That a rate for freight be fixed per mile, for, this reason:'
Punta Gorda is nearer one phiosphate-. center than any other ship-
ping port. Tampa is nearer another, and the shipper is entitled to
get his goods to the nearest-and, naturally, the. cheapest route to
shipboard. Sanford is nearer to another phosphate center than any
other point Where water transportation may be had, and Palatka is
nearer to another, and so on.
But some will say that Sanford and Palatka are not seaport towns.
Suppose a rate of freight is fixed per mile. Say Sanford is fifty
miles from one phosphate center, and a rate of one cent per mile per
ton was arranged, which would be fifty cents per ton to Sanford; and
the rate over the remaining distance by rail to Jacksonvilie or Fer-
nandina or Mayport should be $1.00 per ton, and that the shipper
can have phosphate taken down the river by lighter or tugboat to a
seaport for $.75 per ton, (which could be done very easily, propor-
tionally), and as cheaply from Palatka to seaport as from Sanford.
Are they not entitled to these rights?
In the next place this would revive the old river business, that
made Sanford and Palatka and many other places along the grand-
est of all rivers, the St. Johns. The people along the river could sell
wood to tugboats, and it would tend to make neighbors of our people.
A few years ago wharf property was worth twice as much in Jack-
sonville as it is now, because the St. Johns River was being used for
what it was made for, for moving freight, and was teeming with craft
of all kinds.
WOULD REDUCE TAXES.
If we wish our taxes reduced in Florida let us buld up Florida
values, by shipping our goods through Florida seaports and towns,
and build up our own State by spending our money at home. If the
people of Florida will give their trade to, and do their shipping
through, Florida towns, the property of Florida will so increase in
value as to reduce the rate of taxation very materially.
The people of our country have the right to demand justice of the
railroads of Florida. Why should the phosphate mine owners, who
live in Jacksonville and own property there, be compelled to ship
their phosphate through other seaport towns. There is at least one
and one-half million dollars of cash money invested in the phosphate
industry in Florida by Jacksonville people, yet the spectacle is pre-
sented to us of these men being compelled to move either to their
mines, or. to some seaport town outside of the State of Florida, to be
able to attend to the shipping of their phosphate rock.
I don't blame the railroads for taking all. they can-get, and making
the long haul every time, if the people will stand heedlessly by, with
theirnmouth open, and be treated this way. I believe that noth-
ing short of just and proper legislation willdo us any good. A few
of us tried to get such legislation at the hands of the last Legislature,
but we were met by strong opposition from Jacksonville and other
parts of Florida.
NAPOLEON B. BROWART).
Filibustering in Florida
(Copied from "The Florida Life," Dated November, 1897.)
By CAPT. N. B. BROWARD.
If the reader w-ill glance at a map of North America he will'see-
that the Island of Cuba lies about one hundred miles south of the
mainland of Florida. The Florida Keys consist of numberless small
wooded islands, sandbars and reefs. These extend about one hun-
dred and seventy-five miles, east and west, and about thirty-five miles
north and south.
Here is the haven of the filibuster. Here, also, is the supposed
home of the pirate Kidd, and the burial place of his vast treasures;
and it is said that more than one person has become enriched within
the past ten years by digging up some of this hidden wealth. Many
of these islands are inhabited by the Erglish, who came from the
Bahamas to engage in wrecking and gathering sponges. These peo-
ple are commonly called Conchs. probably because they can be seen
engaged in their work on the reefs by day, and at night they disap-
pear as completely as do the conch fish in their shells. They are a
sturdy,. honest set of men.*given to hospitality, and are ever ready to
risk their lives in the rescue of shipwrecked-humanity. The other'
keys are inhabited largely by Cubans and others of Spanish descent.
Key West is one of these. The city of Key West, beautifully, located
on the island bearing its name, is one of the most unique cities in the
world. Its name is thought, by some, to imply its locality, being near
the western part of the group of keys, but it does not so derive it.
Its Spanish Cayo Hueso, n~eaning Bone Key, and this has been cir-
rupted into "Key West." As a matter of fact, Tortugas Island, one
of the Florida. Keys, is sixty miles west of that city. The population
of Key West is largely Cuban, so is that of Tampa. Many of the
most respected business men in all parts of Florida are Cubans.
These coming to this State left behind them vast estates on the
Island of Cuba, leaving there on account of the part they had taken
in the ten years war against Spain. This war was inspired by a de-
_ __ _11
sire for liberty and self-government, and against the oppression and
corrupt rule of the officers sent from the mother country to govern
the island. Defeated in the ten years' war, these people sought our
shores, and here, in that part of America that is free, have breathed
the air of freedom ever since, and becoming surcharged with that
, precious boon, have longed for the day when they could return to
their native island, and, by the aid of the liberty-loving people of the
United Staites. set Cuba free. This has been their wish by day, and
their prayer by night.
Is it any wonder, then, that the people of the United States, and
esipedally thc.se of Florida, having rebelled against a tyranny much!
less onerous than that now borne by the Cubans. should enlist our
sympathies in her behalf? We, who have breathed the air of liberty
for over one hundred yeams. could not do otherwise than say to these
Cubans. in their present effort to throw off the Spanish yoke: "God-
speed." Our women pray for it; our men work, aye, fight for it.
The (uban armies are today recruited from hundreds of Americans
drawn there by patriotism and by the love of adventure. But how
to get to Cuba is the burning question with these heroes. Filibus-
tering expeditions answer tht question, and I dare say that not a
month goes by but from one to five vessels find their way from free
America to tyranny-beridden Cuba. each loaded with arms and men.
Their twenty odd years stay in Florida and associating with her-
people has attracted to them that warm esteem anO, love that pleasant
association generally brings. Take into consideration their nearness
to Cuba all tend to stimulate the natural sympathy of a people strug-
gling in a red-handed war to obtain what we already enjoy. it would,
indeed, be surprising if Florida were not the home of the filibuster.
The twenty odd years acquaintance with fre th institutions has in-
creased Cuban love of liberty. The true patriots compare these to
*a vast garden of beautiful flowers covering all from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Ocean, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.
While enraptured for a moment with this their thoughts revert to the
country of their nativity, and what is g,-in2 o-n the.ie neivc( tlihem to
desperation, their beloved island, appropi ia t'lv named the QQ:en rif
the Antilles. and should be the garden sipot iof the weterprn lni,-.milpr..
tied to an old despotism whose laws -riiuh out every lauiliale anmh
tion of her people.
While I was building the steamer Tlirte FrienJd tlhee imen. c,.-,r' r
of them, their hearts burning with I'atrikL Henrirv' fanimous zan'ing: ,
"Give me liberty or give me death," lamie often 1i the sliipyard and l
talked with me about their distressed country. They wanted my boat
to carry them to Cuba. 1 assured tliem that I would think more of
myself should I muster up courage to help them, and that I would,
provided it could be done without violating the laws of my country.
I have seen them leave these shores with desperation marking their
every look, leaving behind them family and friends, leaving peace and
plenty, to seek only the opportunity to offer their lives for the free-
dom of their native land.
Florida, on account of her proximity to Cuba, her vast seacoast,
and the ease with which a vessel can slip out from any one of a
hundred inlets, bays and rivers, eluding Uncle Sam's watchful war-
ships, affords the best facilities for filibustering. Along her coasts
come the innocent looking steamers, tugboats and other vessels appar-
netly seeking a tow or salvage. Anon either the warships Vesuvius,
Wilmington, or Nashville, and the revenue cutters Boutwell or Colfax
ever on the lookout with banked fires espies one of them, fires up and
gives her chase. Perhaps she may overhaul her only to find a vessel
engaged in peaceful industry. But the most innocent craft, when
overhauled, may show a Quaker manifest, and yet, at the critical
moment, either deliver the needful contrabands to another vessel, or
herself receive them and place them in safety on Cuban shores. It is
'not for me to say that this is done. But I do say this: With but
few exceptions, the people of this country do not regard filibustering
as any violation of law. According to Spain's claim there is no war
in Cuba. What then is there to prevent any one carrying cargoes
to Cuba during a time of peace which might be declared contraband
in a state of war?Our government, it seems to me, has taken a
queer attitude on this question, and one which I think the people of
this government condemn. Be that as it may, I hold that carrying
arms and men to Cuba now is just as legitimate as carrying them
from Jacksonville to Key West.
THE THREE FRIENDS.
It has been suggested that I say a few words about my snug little
steamer, "The Three Friends," as her name has been more or less
mixed up in this filibustering business during the past two *years.
As she has been dragged into the United States Court more than
once, and so have I, charged with filibustering from Florida to Cuba,
and as we are not yet out of the woods, of course the reader could
hardly expect me to say what I have done on her as her captain,
whether or not I have taken her to Cuba with arms, munitions and
men, and so forth and so on. The attorneys in the United States
Court, representing this Government, did try to prove that I did take
"The Three Friends" to Cuba on a filibustering expedition; but the
witnesses who went on the stand to prove that fact found some dif-
ficulty in proving that the place where they said we landed in the
sight time was the Island of Cuba, and the judge dismissed that
But I can, without violating any of the neutrality laws, say that
"The Three Friends" is one of the trimmest little crafts that ever
showed her heels to another, whether warship or what not. She was
built right here in Jacksonville, in 1895, on lines gotten up by myself,
improving upon other tugs upon the St. Johns River. She is staunch,
and behaves herself well in a heavy sea. She makes easily, when
properly trimmed-well, a good many knots an hour. While she was
being built the Cuban colony in Jacksonville took the liveliest interest
in her. Somehow the word got out that she was being built for the
filibustering business, and every day the Cubans would come down to
the shipyard and examine, her and comment on the probabilities of
her success in the mission they had mapped out for her.
Last winter she was visited by hundreds of tourists, and each one
had a kind word to say about her, all imagining that she was regu-
larly engaged in the filibustering business from Florida to Cuba.
Her name has a history. While she was being built her three
owners, George A. DeCottes, my brother, Montcalm Broward, and
myself found'it difficult to agree upon a name for her. Finally we
agreed to sell the privilege of naming her to the highest bidder and
Mr. Charles M. Ellis acted as auctioneer. Bidding was spirited for
awhile and the privilege was finally knocked down to Mr. DeCottes
for $80.00, and he, in honor of her owners, named her "The Three
The above letter was dictated by me and printed in the "Florida
Life" in November. 1897.
NAPOLEON B. BROWARD.
First Trip of the Three Friends,
(The following story was written recently by me, and covers the
first trip of "The Three Friends." There were seven other trips of
that steamer. The other trips were attended with many dangers, be-
ing fired upon by two Spanish gunboats on one occasion and chased
several times. On the last two trips she was commanded by Capt.
W. T. Lewis, Capt. O'Brien, better known as "Dynamite Johnny," and
SCapt. E. S. Tuttle. The engineers were Mr. John Dunn and Mr.
Amander Parsons. On all of the trips we either had in charge of the
Cubans Dr. J. D. Castillo of Santiago, or General Nunez, now Gover-
nor General of Havana Province. The executive ability of General
Castillo and General Nunez was only equaled by their. self-sacrificing
devotion and sublime patriotism and fortitude.
NAPOLEON B. BROW\ARD.)
One day in the month of February, 1896, two Cuban patriots, ac-
companied by an interested friend, Mr. C. B. Barnard of Tampa, met
by appointment with Mr. J. A. Huau, Cuban-American, Mr. J. M.
Ba'rs, .attorney, and Capt. N. B. Broward. in the cigar factory owned
by Mr. Huau.
Here a contract was discussed betwten Messrs. Huau. Hernandez.
Freeman and Barnard, on the part of the Cuban revolutionists, and
Messrs. Barrs and Broward, on tl.e part of The Three Friends, to
take to Cuba a company of Cuban patriots under the command of
General Enrique Colasso, and, also, to tow over on the same trip
ihe schooner Stephen R. Mallory of Cedar Keys, laden with arms and
By taking them on the Three Friends and towing the schooner
loaded with munnition-' of war. it would avoid a violation of the law
against "carrying an armed expedition into a foreign country with
whom w, are at peace." Of course the owners of the Thee Friends
were desirous of avoiding any violation of the United States Statutes.
When the provisions were agreed upon, a contract was quickly
drawn up by Attorney Parrs and. as soon as two of her owners. Mr.
Geo. A. Deoottes and Capt. Montcalm Broward could be consulted.
it was signed.
THE EXPEDITiON TIN HIDING IN TAMPA.
General Colasso and his staff of Cuban patriots were in hiding at
Tampa. Sixty-five of his men were on the little schooner Ardell
lying behind the Florida Keys. These Keys r islands be2'in near
Miami, and continue irn a southwesterly direction for two hundred
miles. They vary in length from a few hundred feet to thirty miles.
Behind the first, or seaward, row, there are numbers of small islands.
with narrow, crooked channels between almost innumerable sand
bars, which make it almost impossible for revenue cutters to catch
the small vessels, once they get behind the first row of keys.
Seaward from these is Hawk Channel. This is deep enough for-
boats drawirn eleven feet of water. It has shoals of coral rock out-
side of it. withoccasional channels between them. The water here is
so transparent that bottom can be seen sixty feet ivwn and v.geta-
tion of varied hues, large fans, many feet in width and two to six 4.
feet high. reflecting all the colors of the rainbow. Looking 'down
through, a water glass, one will frequently jerk one's head up, as
some huge rock comes nearly to the surface of the water Around
these, many beautiful colored fish, striped and spotted, are hovering
to keep out of the way of larger ones.
The islands are composed of coral rock, with a very thin covering
of rich. soil which supports a very dense growth of hard wood. They
are sparsely inhabited by a prosperous, sturdy people, who are en-
gaged in farming, fishing and gathering sponges.
PREPARING TO EMBARK.
Gen. Colasso and his staff were in the house of a friend in Tampa.
with Pinkerton detectives constantly on the watch for them. The
arms and the ammunition were in a warehouse in C(edar Keys. they
also, being closely watched by Pinkerton detectives in the pay of
Spain and "Uncle Sam."
Mr. Z. P. Freeman was at once sent to Cape Sable in search of the
schooner load of men. He was to tell them that, though they had
been twice disappointed in the non-arrival of the expected steamer
from New York, and twice driven from the Florida Keys by revenue
cutters, that now, at last, a contract had been made with the Three
Friends to take them to Cuba.
Another messenger was despatched to brave Captain Elliott, tell-
ing him to secretly load on his swift little schooner, Stephen R. Mal-
lory, the arms antl ammunition that was lying in the warehouse at
Cedar Keys. Captain Elliott and his crew, aided by our sympathiz-
ers of the Cuban cause, successfully loaded the schooner on a dark,
rainy night. She started at once on her trip to Caesar's Creek, where
she was to be joined by the Three Friends. Caesar's Creek leads to
the place where the treasures of pirates are supposed to be secreted.
When off the coast near Tampa, the Mallory was chased by a Uni-
ted States revenue cutter, McLain, but she succeeded in making her
escape. The McLain succeeded in capturing another small schooner,
before she could transfer her load of arms and ammunition to the
Mallory. This little schooner was towed into Tampa, after having
been hove-to by a shot across her bow. There she unloaded, and her
cargo was shipped to Jacksonville, marked groceries, and consigned
to John G. Christopher, who was, at that time, a wholesale merchant;
1is goods occupying a warehouse on one of the wharves. Upon the
arrival of the cargo in Jacksonville, Mr. Huau notified General Co-
lasso in Tampa.
PINKERTON DETECTIVES OUTWITTED.
In the night a closed carriage drew up to the house, in Tampa,
where Gen. Colasso and his staff were secreted, shadowed by detec-
tives. The Geenfal and his staff quickly entered and were driven to-
ward Port Tampa. At a point agreed upon, the party, except one.
jumped out; he drove on toward Port Tampa and there boarded the
ship just starting for Key West. The detectives following him board-
ed also and were soon out at sea, they feeling confident that they were
close to the wiley General. Imagine their chagrin, could they have
seen the General and his staff leave the carriage, in the darkness,
and enter another which took them twenty-five miles to Plant City,
where they boarded the northbound train.
Before daylight next morning, they got off at Orange Park, twelve
miles from Jacksonville, where they were met by Alfonso Fritot, the
gallant gentleman who rendered such valuable service to the strug-
ling Cubans. IHe took them in a naphtha launch to Clark's Mill,
Jacksonville. They drove from here in a closed carriage to the resi-
dence of Mr. J. M. Barrs at daybreak the following morning, where
they remained secreted while the frustrated detectives stood around
on the deck of the steamship at Key West, watching for the General
to go ashore, which he failed to do. As the ship was leaving Key
West for Havana, the detectives stepped off and wired Jacksonville
and Tampa that they had been outwitted. At once M1r. Huau's
house at Jacksonville, and Mr. Figarado's, at Tampa, were closely
The steamer Three Friends, lying at her dock. was being rapidly
overhauled and everything made ready for her long trip. Prepara-
tions were made without attracting much attention, but when she
took on a hundred tons of coal, sixty barrels of water, provisions
enough for a small army, and erected two pair of heavy davits, the
Spanish Vice-Consul, Senor Hariatague, could be seen looking at her
in a very interested manner.
A RAPID DASH TO THE OPEN SEA.
The night of the 11th of March was cold, dark and cloudy. Aftee
dark the Three Friends, with full crew aboard, hoisted on a naphtha
launch and two very large yawls, then rapidly but silently she moved
to the Christopher warehouse. Here every man worked as if his life
depended upon getting the cargo on board in the shortest possible
From here, it was But a short run to DeCottes' mill, three miles
down the St. John's River. Here Gen. Classo, Col. Hernandez, Duke
Estrada. Messrs. J. M. Barrs and A. W. Barrs. and that faithful
Cuban patriot. Mr. Huau. impatiently awaited her coming. Those
departing and those left behind parted with many expressions of
friendship and good will.
Capt. Broward. in a deep whisper, gave the order, "Cat off your
lines." Then calling to the engineer, Mr. Johl Dunn, "Give her full
speed ahead." the Three Friends plunged into the darkness and was
lost to sight, driving rapidly down the river to the ocean twenty-five
miles away, making such speed that the small fishing boats along the
river were thrown violently upon the platforms, or else high up on
REVENUE CUTTER IN HOT PURSUIT.
Although the departure was made with the utmost celerity, the
Spanish Vice-Counsel notified the Collector of 'Customs that the Three
Friends was gone, and that there was something suspicious about it.
The Collector despatched a messenger to Capt. Kilgore of the revenue
cutter Boutwell, to catch the Three Friends. Capt. Kilgore started
at once in pursuit, with his revenue cutter, and made inquiries as he
went, of the fishermen along the river.
One fisherman at New 'Berlin trying to launch his boat from
the platform where she had been thrown by the passing steamer,
said: "Some darned beat passed here, throwing my boat up on the
platform; and if she kept on at the same rate of speed she will by
now have reached a place too hot for you to cateh her in." The Bout-
well proceeded on her way to the mouth of the river. Here she asked
the keeper of the pilot boat whether the Three Friends passed during
the night. 'God knows what passed here; something the color of
blue dawn, with her forward deck piled high with boats, and hdr
after deck filled with boxes, or something of the kind. The swell
she made in passing washed our decks and floated our boats."
THE THREE FRIENDS IN DISGUISE.'
Capt. Khlgore turned his boat and proceeded back to Jacksonville
in time to hear the newsboys, along the street, calling at the top of
their voices, "Morning paper,.tell you all about the Three Friends go-
ing to Cuba with Gen. Colasso and the whole Cuban army aboard!"
By this time, could Capt. Kilgore have seen the Three Friends, he
would not. have known her. In place of white, she had donned a coat
of steel-gray paint. Her name boards were turned inside out and
bore in great white letters this name, "The Ox." She was fifty miles
southeast of St. Johns bar on her way to Casar's Creek. three hun-
dred and fifty miles away. to meet the schooner Stephen R. Mallory.
The day passed without incident. The engineers carefully ad-
justed caps on the journals of the engines, adjusted the keys on the
three crank brasses of the main engines, leaving them the least bit
slack to avoid the possibility of heating, in case we were met by some
Spanish or United States cruiser and had to drive hard to prevent
capture. We use the word "met" because we were not afraid of
anything overtaking us.
The boys kept a steady lookout from the top of the pilot house for
spooks in the shape of cruisers, battleships, revenue cutters, or in fact
anything with a smoke stack in her. They adjusted and readjusted
their glasses continually, trying to find the best place to mark them,
so that they would not need to be adjusted in time of excitement.
While the boys were thus busily engaged, our Irish engineer, who
could not resist the temptation to gibe them a little, called out:
"Bietter make those glasses fast to your hands, for if you should
sight a Spanish cruiser, they'll look so small you'll be wanting a
megaphone to look through instead. (A megaphone is a speaking
trumpet about four feet long.) Some of you will be speaking
through spy glasses and speaking, through megaphones."
THE FIRST DAY OUT.
Gen. Colasso and his staff walked around the boat for some time
but they finally all settled on the mahogany bitts in the bow of the
boat. A small number of porpoises had, for some time, been playing
around the bow of thp steamer. in the spray and waves made by her
rapid progress through the water. These the Cubans watched with
quite a show of'interest, discovering at the same time a rainbow,
which the condition of the weather and the water caused to hang
directly over the Three Friends bow. This the General and his staff
took to be omen of success for this Pfiht they were making for liberty.
Many expressions of satisfaction and joy were heard, concerning their
good fortune in being at last out to sea and on their way to Cuba.
Gen. Colasso was heard to say: "We are fighting for political liberty
and the right to worship God as we please."
Finally the steward rang the bell for dinner. Much chaffing
formed a feature of the meal. Single men were joking about the
sweethearts left behind, mli'ried men were, teased about their wives.
chances for better men. should the Spaniards catch us. After din-
.ner. the Captain and crew were all treated to cigars by the Cubans.
and such fine ones that we all wished for days when we might enjoy
nothing else but cigars of this quality.
Afternoon drew to evening, and then the night settled down.
Many realized for the first time the sensation of darkness upon the
sea. All was quiet on board 'till about nine that night, when, round-
ing Cape Canaveral. we saw off our port how the lights of three ves-
sels, carried in a very peculiar manner, approaching us. Every one
became very excited, as we seemed, at least, to be approachiriz a very
strange fleet. Finally we discovered that it was a tinabot with a tow
of large derrick barges, and our relief was indescribable..
SUC('ESSFI'L MEETING WITH THE STEPHEN R. MALLORY.
Nothing worthy of mention happened during the "night. Toward
daylight the wind sprang up fresh from the northeast, and with it
came a sharp sea, on which we rolled and tumbled until that after-
noon, when we entered Hawk Channel, off Cape Florida. Near where
Caesar's Creek flows into Hawk Channel, at a place called Elliot's
Key, we saw a schooner anchored. This schooner was found to be
the Stephen R. Mallory. We anchored and sent a small boat to the
schooner, telling Capt. Elliott that the Three Friends would proceed
south at daylight, for him to follow with the schooner and we would
both anchor near Indian Key. We selected Indian Key as a conven-
ient point for getting under way quickly, as one of the revenue cut-
ters was patrolling the coast and the Friends and Mallory might be
compelled to put out to sea on short notice.
The wind was blowing a gale from the northeast and the waves
were running very high. When near Turtle Harbor we saw a strange
steamer putting out to sea in face of the storm, being washed fore
and aft by the waves. On getting out to sea, the strange craft headed
parralel with our course, just outside of the reef, while we were just
inside. Much to our satisfaction, we soon found.by close scrutiny
that the strange steamer was none other than the famous Cuban fili-
buster, the Commodore. She had taken us for a revenue cutter and
was trying to outrun us, and we, believing her to be a Spanish gun-
boat trying to shadow us, had been driving at a rapid rate of speed.
determined to pass her and get far enough ahead to cross her bow at
a safe distance before night, as, should the Winona, the revenue cut-
ter patrolling Hawk Channel, show up to the westward, and this
prove a Spanish gunboat to the southward, with the Florida Keys
to the northward, we would be compelled to run back to the eastward,
which we did not want to do. In this event, the supposed Spanish
gunboat would have the advantage of the Gulf stream current, aiding
him about three knots an hour. Although we soon made her out,
she was not so fortunate in determining the character of the Three
Friends, as she was a comparatively new boat and known to bitt few
sailors. As soon as we headed the Commodore, she turned off at
right angles and headed for the Bahama Banks, in a -southeasterly
The crew on the Mallory had become so alarmed at their position,
that they had spread every yard of canvass that her spars could
hold and she was coming on like a thing of life. In fact, she was
so buried in the water by the pressure of the winds on her canvass
that all that was visible of hr were her sails and spars.
About ten o'clock the Three Friends rounded to and anchored
close to InDdian Key. We immediately lowered our naphtha launch
fromm the davits, and Mr. A. W. Barre, Col. Hermandez and Capt Lewis
jumped in. They proceeded with all speed through the crooked
channel, between the numerous sand bars, that they might get into
the wide waters of the Gulf of Mexico before night. Then she could
continue on duiing the night to where the schooner lay anchored
with her load of Cuban patriots, who had been waiting so patiently
for so many days. Lack of comfort on a small schooner, sixty feet
long, for sixty-five men, is very great.
CAPT. ELLIOT STRICKEN WITH PARALYSIS.
The whole crew alternated in watching on the Mallory and Three
Friends through the n;ght and until five the next afternoon, when
we discovered our launch returning. By looking far beyond her on
the horizon, we could see a schooner heading our way. Capt. Elliot
of the schooner Mallory, stood with the spy glass in hand watching
the approaching vessel, as did also Capt. Broward of the Three
Friends; then with raised voices they discussed the situation. Sud-
denly Capt. Elliot disappeared down in the cabin of his vessel. Soon
after Capt. Broward was notified by one of the crew of the Mallory
that Capt. Elliot was very sick.Going on board, to his keen regret,
he found Capt. Elliot to be violently stricken with paralysis.
Returning to the Three Friends, he told Gen. Colasss the sad and
disturbing news. also informing him that he would not tow the Mal-
lory to Cuba with her captain so desperately ill, but that he would
take the Mallory alongside and load the arms and ammunition she
carried onto the Three Friends. The General said, through his inter-
preter: "As you please, Capt. Broward, we rely upon your judg-
ment." The Mallory was unloaded with considerable difficulty, on
account of the rolling and pitching of both vessels in the choppy sea
of the channel. By four in the morning, the unloading of the Mal-
lory was completed, and she started on her way as rapidly as she
could toward Key West. The crew hoped to reach Key West before
death seized their brave captain, but although a Cuban had supplied
them with medicine for the captain's relief, he died that evening be
fore the vessel reached Key West.
THE THREE FRIENDS TAKES ON A CARGO OF PATRIOTS.
Immediately upon the departure of the Mallory, the Three Friends
raised her anchor and ran alongside of the schooner Ardell, took the
Ouban patriots on board, who had for several months been subjected
to many hardships and privations-mosquitoes not being the least of
them. For much of the time they had been piled up on board of the
little schooner, sleeping on dedk, and eating such food as could be
cooked on one little stove.
As soon as they were all on board, they called "Goodby" to Mr.
Freeman and the captain and crew of the schooner, while the tug-
boat headed south across Alligator Reef to the open sea. Once out
over the reef into the open sea, the sun just rising above the horizon,
we gave three long blasts of the whistle, and three loud cheers for
-Cuba Libra," then all partook of a good breakfast. After shaking
hands all around and becoming acquainted, we began discussing victo-
ries on the battlefield and the new republic, none of us at that time
being able to even imagine the privations and horrors that were in
store for a million and a half of people, whose greatest crime was a
desire "for political liberty, and a right to worship God as they
pleased." And why not? Did not the citizens of their great sister
republic fight for the same privilege':
At about eleven in the morning we came in sight of Double Headed
Shot Keys. Capt. Broward told (Gen. Colasso to get his men ready,
as he would land that night. "Why," said Gen. Colasso, "eo quickly,
Captain? My people have generally been on shipboard, trying to land
and being driven off, for days and sometimes weeks. What time will
we be there?" The captain told him that we could be there by night,
if we dared to, but that we would have to stay out of sight of land
till after dark. The General then asked that if we had time to spare,
to run further to the eastward, where we could loek around Salt Key
for a schooner that frequently took small quantities of arms and am-
munition that would be buried on Salt Key by patriots, being dropped
by small boat loads from passing ships on this isolated key. We
looked, but no schooner was there. Our spare time being used up
in this way, Capt. Broward shaped a course for near the lighthouse
at Cardenas on Key Pedro. The light was sighted about nine that
night, the light bearing south southeast about ten miles.
ALMOST WRECKED IN THE BREAKERS.
Under the agreement with the General, the pilot Santos was to take
charge at this point and steer the Three Friends to the landing point.
It was rainy, now, and quite dark; quite a fresh breeze was blowing
from the northeast. To the south and west the whole skies were col-
ored with lights from great fires, supposedly from the burning cane
fields. Upon taking the wheel, Santos headed the boat south, where-
upon Capt Broward ordered him to change her course to southwest.
The Cuban objected, but obeyed the order.
In the course of a half hour Santos again headed the boat south,
insisting that he was twenty miles west of Pedro lighthouse, as he
was out of sight of it. Capt. Broward tried to explain to him that
he could not see the lighthouse becanise of the heavy rain that was
falling, and not on account of the distance from the lighthouse. He
insistedI rnfn r- in-., the boat fi'thlier to the westward, but finally
he yieltled to the pilot, as far as the cours-e of the boat was concerned,
but he stopped the engine end told the mate to throw the lead.
The first time that the lead went overboard the response came from
below: "No bottom;" next was "Twenty-four feet." The captain
rang "Full speed astern," but before the headway of the steamer
could be stopped, her bow was in the breakelm, in twelve feetof water.
He continued to back the boat until she was in twenty-four feet of
water. Then the pilot said: "This is the place where we desire to
land." The anchor, prepared with a rope cable, was soon lowered to
bottom and the steamer swung around. Meanwhile the crew had not
been idle. The cargo had all been hoisted on deck, and everything
made ready to assist in the landing as soon as the word was given.
The lifeboats were speedily lowered into the water. Gen. Yasques
and Chas. Silva, with five other Cubans, manned her and started for
the shore on a reconnoitering expedition.
LANDING IN FUBL VIEW OF THE ENEMY. .
Instead of waiting for the return of this boat, the pilot ordered the
other boats launched and loaded. 'This done, fifteen Cuban troops
started for the shore in each of the large boats, together with large
quantities of arms and ammunition. They had only been gone a few
minutes when two men returned with the first lifeboat, and reported
that we were off a Spanish town; that the large building, just visible
in the darkness 100 yards on our starboard side, was a Spanish
fort. He also reported that Gen. Vasques and four men were guard-
ing the door to the fort, hoping to keep the guard from coming out.
The three large lifeboats had filled with water as they struck the
beach, and one of them had gone to pieces. The Cubans were then
diving up the arms and ammunition, and digging holes along the
beach with their machetes, in which to bury them.
The General at once ordered Col. Hernandez to go ashore with the
steamer's lifeboats and bring back with him the Cubans that had
landed. This information was interpreted to Capt. Broward by Col.
Hernandez. as was also the information that the pilot had missed the
landing place agreed upon, by a distance of two miles, where they
were expecting a conjunction with Gen. Lacrett's force. He suggested
to Capt. Broward that they would try to get the men back and at-
tempt a landing the next night. Capt. Broward suggested, however,
that the Spaniards would be so much on the alert the next night that
a landing anywhere in the vicinity would be impossible, and he added
further that if it were a Spanish town, by landing the whole force of
Cubans they might make it a Cuban town before morning. The Gen-
eral responded, "We will go ashore."
MOST REMARKABLE CHIVALRY OF THE CUBANS.
When the decision was made, Capt. Broward ordered his men to
man the boats; this the sailors declined to do. Then the Captain of-
fered to give the Cubans his two boats, but Duke Estrada, noticing
the name "Three Friends" on the boats, said: "That will not do,
Captain, the Spaniards will apprise your government, when the boats
are found, and it will give you away. Your steamer will be seized
and this fact will be used as evidence against you." Capt. Broward
then ordered the name scraped off, but the name was found to be upon
the oars and bailer buckets as well. They all insisted that tho Cap-
tain was taking too much risk.
This chivalry and solicitude on the part of the brave Cubans pre-
vailed,.and Capt. Broward exclaimed: "I will row you ashore my-
self." Immediately Mr. Patterson, the second engineer of the Three
Friends, spoke up: "If you are going, I will go with you." Then
the two sailors spoke up: "We will go, captain, if you will send us
in separate boats, but we have a quarrel and will not go in the
same boat." Capt. Broward cheerfully supplied each with a boat.
They each took nine Cubans and rowed them to shore; then, return-
ing, took nine more, which made an end of the party.
These last had scarcely left the steamer a moment on their perilous
journey ashore, when the search light of a small gunboat was thrown
on the beach, revealing to the Spaniards the presence of the Cubans
on the beach, engaged in burying their arms and ammunition. The
Spaniards at once opened fire on the Cubans, while the Cubans fired,
in turn, on the searchlight of the gun boat. The light went out imme-
diately. Whether the lens was broken by the Cuban fire, or whether
the men on the gun boat thought it wisest to putout the light, we did
not know. By this time the whole beach was lit up for a distance of
several hundred yards, by the fire of the Cuban and Spanish magazine
THE THREE FRIENDS IN CLOSE QUARTERS.
Tlfis was exceedingly interesting to the captain and crew of the
Three Friends. The men on board all got their guns ready to repel
boarders from the gun boat. Capt. Broward ran. to the pilot house
for his, but while tIere, by the aid of his spy glass, he discovered a
large gun boat off the port bow about a mile. He rushed aft on the
upper deck, and called to the men below: "Do not use your guns;
the fire will attract the attention of a large gun boat on our port side.
Get your axes and lie under the bulwarks. If this small gunboat at-
tempts to board us, use them. I promised the sailors that we would
not leave them on the beach. Rather than do it, if capture is -immi-
nent, I will beach the boat and we -will all fight together."
Just then the two boats came alongside, the men pulling with all
their might, as one would expect men to row with bullets flying over
their heads from many directions. They were just landing the two
boat loads of Cubans, within thirty yards of the fort, when the firing
began. They left neither friends nor relatives on shore, and their
chief desire at this moment was to get back to the United States.
A RACE FOR LIFE.
Capt. Broward gave the quick commands, "Make the first boat fast
to the davits, second fast to the first. Lewis, cut your anchor cable.
Dunn, go ahead full speed." And the race for life had begun. I
say "race for life," because it meant that, in very truth. Every man
on the Three Friends had heard how Capt. Fry and his fifty-eight
gallant men, the crew of the ill-fated filibuster Virginius, had been
captured and shot by the Spaniards, in the early 70s, for work very
similar to ours.
The Three Friends was running parallel to the line of coast, slightly
to the northeast, the large Spanish gunboat was headed east, across
the Three Friends bow. The Spaniard was on the outside of the bay,
the Friends still on the inside, and the first streak of light was visible
on the eastern horizon, indicating approaching day.
Just above this, and across the whole heavens, there hung dark
clouds. A slight rain was falling. In the darkness, the salt spray
from the side and bow of the boat made a streak of bright phos-
phorescent light. Mr. A. W. Barrs had his overcoat wrapped around
the binnacle light, leaving only a spot about the size of a dollar visible
to Capt. Broward, by which to steer his boat. Nearer and nearer the
two steamers approached each other. The Spaniard having the
shorter course to run, held his comparatively small opponent an easy
WONDERFUL ESCAPE OF THE LITTLE FILIBUSTER.
Capt. Broward at last gave this order to the mate: "Line all the
men up on the port side and have them ready to get in the boats."
"What do you intend doing?" Capt. Lewis asked. Capt. Broward re-
sonded : "I shall run into him as we head, and I believe that both
boats will be sunk by the collision. We will have the advantage,
though of having ol1r boats overboard and our men ready. He will
have to lower his, and I believe we can get the start and beat them
back to the Cubans we have just landed."
On getting nearer to the Spanish cruiser, Capt. Broward put his
wheel hard a-starboard, and the Three Friends turned at right angles
and headed west. The northeast wind blew the smoke of the Three
Friends back into the bay and the Spanish cruiser, believing that she
had doubled on her track, turned her bow toward the bay. The Three
Friends' course was then altered to the northward and headed out
of the bay. In another moment they were 1 ith lost to each other in
the darkness and rain.
HOW THE CUBANS FARED.
The Cubans ashore were driven from the town, but were met by a
detachment of Gen. Lacrett's men who heard the firing. Thus .re-in-
forced, they returned and captured the Spanish garrison on the
beach, engaged in hauling the Cuban war materials from the beach
* into the fort. This done, the Cubans scattered through the town,
making themselves more comfortable by replenishing their scanty
store of food and raiment. Suddenly they were startled by the roar
of cannon and rapid fire gun.
In the confusion that followed, the Spanish troops escaped into
the fort from the small Cuban guard placed over them. The gunboat
that was trailing the Three Friends, as she thought, but was in
reality following her receding smoke in toward the bay, was met by
her smaller consort who had discovered the Cubans on the beach an
hour before, burying their arms and ammunition in holes around the
fort. It was the combined cannonading of these two gunboats that
now drove the Cuban patriots from the town.
The Cubans too well remembered the total destruction of a similar
expedition, landed at this same point, during the ten years war in
the early '70's. This point is a narrow neck of land, seaward from
Cardenas and Matanzas. The Spanish troops, starting from Carde-
nas and Matanzas, cut them off and killed every one of them. These
Cubans knew there was no time to lose, consequently they immediate-
ly started to get off this neck of land to the broad country beyond.
The Spaniards started out from Matanzas and Cardenas as soon as
they heard the firing, knowing the enemy must be on this strip of
land, not knowing that tjiey had Lacrett's army also to reckon with.
The Spaniards were repulsed next day with considerable loss.
THE THREE FRIENDS SAFE IN KEY WEST.
The Three Friends, after dodging the Spanish cruiser, made straight
for Key West. Suddenly the morning star shone between the rifts
of cloud. The engineer, seeing it first, rushed along the gangway to
the pilot house, throwing a tin plate and spoon overboard on his way.
"Throw the cargo overboard and lighten the ship. The Spaniards
are upon us," he exclaimed. There was a lot of cargo on board that
had not been landed. He rushed to the pilot house. "Captain," he
cried, "see her headlight there?" All turned breathlessly toward this
orb, when the Captain said: "The morning star."
After this little scare the cargo was put below, all empty boxes
were thrown overboard and the decks were washed clean. By twelve
o'clock the Three Friends arrived in Key West, anchoring in the har-
bor. She was immediately boarded by the officers from the revenue
cutter, and we were asked what we had on board. Capt. Broward
told them that we were loaded with coal, water, arms, ammunition,
picks and shovels." "Well, you are very frank, to say the least,"
said one of the officers. "Who does the cargo belong to?" "It is
consigned to Mr. A. W. Barrs, who is on board," Capt. Broward
said. As Mr. A W Barrs had the right to own arms and ammuni-
tion they could take no exception.
Capt. Broward at once reported what had taken place to Mr. Poyo,
a Cuban patriot member of the local junta at Key West, who in turn
wired Mr. Huau at Jacksonville.
NAPOLEON B. BROWARD.
(The end of the first one of tle eight trips made by the Three
-- .. '. . .,.. -" ..... ...7 _- ..
;'' C 1%.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~,- : :Y a "....- ~:~; .!Y .' --'.i -7F: ---.-.:'::~" ......... .... -- -- ..... "" ,m
The Tug 'Tinc- Ircilunls" an Capialit iIeoitif 13. Browardd a)uPin- the Cuban Filibustering Days.
loun .Bow r )
The Truth Told in Rhyme
Will pay five dollars to anyone who will
beat this truth in time.
Mr. Brown, from the Ocala town,
Is kicking 'cause he lost the ground,
And why he did, 'tis sad to tell-
His young .jackass had learned to spell.
This little donkey learned to write
And for Carlos would show his spite.
He took his little pen in hand
And wrote a little circular.
Thinking it would help his pa,
But before it was quite cold,
This scribe so smart, this knight so bold.
Wis made to eat the lie he told.
His pa was beat clean through the heat,
And then to try to save his meat
He took the train to: Jacksonville.
There he met Colonel "Bob" and Bonaparte W
And asked for coin from the very'start.
He filled his little pocket book
And then .for home the train he took.
He first was for Napoleon, but now he is for
He changed his sentiments quite fast,
And now for Bob hi. vote will cast.
The men like Brown'and Zewadski
Are like a brand of bad whiski,
Will make you sick as sure'as fate,
So spit 'em out,'fore it's too late.
STATEMENT OF CHARLES W. SCOVEL,
PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
IN RELATION TO
WASHINGTON, MAY 15-19, 1906.
PUBLISHED BY THE
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS,
ERNEST J. CLARK, SECRETARY,
Members of Tommittee.
JOHN J. JENKINS, Wisconsin, Chairman.
RICHARD WAYNE PARKER, New Jersey.
DE ALVA S. ALEXANDER, New Jersey.
CHARLES E. LITTLEFIELD, Maine.
ROBERT M. NEVIN, Ohio.
HENRY W. PALMER, Pennsylvania.
GEORGE A. PEARRE, Maryland.
JAMES N. GILLETT, California.
CHARLES Q. TIRRELL, Massachusetts.
JOHN A. STERLING, Illinois.
BENJAMIN P. BIRDSALL, Iowa.
JOHN H. FOSTER, Indiana.
DAVID A. DE ARMOND, Missouri.
DAVID H. SMITH, Kentucky.
HENRY D. CLAYTON, Alabama.
ROBERT L. HENRY, Texas.
JOHN S. LITTLE, Arkansas.
WILLIAM G. BRANTLEY, Georgia.
The bill before the Committee was No. 18,804, "To
regulate the business of insurance within the District of
Columbia ", introduced April 30th, 1906, by Hon. Butler
Ames, of Massachusetts, being a second revision of orig-
inal bill offered by him in December. The amendments
referred to were supplied by him at the opening of this
The hearing occupied a week, and is fully set forth in
a 400-page publication from the Government Printing
Office. The following pages are reprinted from that offic-
ial volume-the asterisks showing wherever discursory
matter has been omitted for the sake of brevity.
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY,
Wednesday, May 16th, 1906.
The Committee this day met, Hon. R. W. Parker in the
STATEMENT OF CHARLES W. SCOVEL,
PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
MR. SCOVEL. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the com-
mittee : I think it proper first to state in what way I,
as president of the National Association of Life Under-
writers, and Mr. F. E. McMullen, of Rochester, N. Y.,
the second vice-president, and Mr. E. J. Clark, of Balti-
more, the secretary of the National Association of Life
Underwriters, come to be present in Washington at this
hearing. It is for the sole reason that this bill and its
consideration form part of the work of the national insur-
ance convention, called last February by a preliminary
committee of which Superintendent Drake was chairman,
with the express concurrence of President Roosevelt, and
to which convention our association was, without any so-
licitation or prior knowledge whatever on our part, kindly
invited to send delegates. We are, therefore, not volun-
teers, nor do we come representing the home offices of
the companies, all or any. We are here, so to speak, as
"friends of the court", if I may use the phrase. The
National Association of Life Underwriters is the only
national life insurance body. Our position among all
insurance men is unique, in that, as a body, we have
no relation whatever to the home-office managements,
to all of them or to any. The association must be non-
partisan as to them, for the reason that, everyone of us
representing a different company, we can only have
common ground by leaving individual companies out.
Our associations have, therefore, been recognized as
standing in a peculiar sense for the common ground
shared by all the reputable old-line companies; for the
cause of life insurance as a whole.
During my momentary absence from the room yester-
day the learned actuary from New York, Mr. Dawson,
took occasion to make some remarks which, after I re-
turned, I heard himself refer to as "a very serious
charge" against our association, including with it, you
may say, the members of the Chicago convention and
those who have participated in the formation of the Ames
bill. It all seemed to be based upon the circular letter to
our members which I hold in my hand, and I desire first
to thank Mr. Dawson for having said of it: "It is a doc-
ument which I think you"--this committee-" can not
very properly decline to take official notice of." We had
sent copies of the letter to the committee members indi-
vidually, and we are thankful to Mr. Dawson for making
a little more sure that it would be read.
He speaks of it from two or three standpoints, but I
should not go to any great length in answering the
charges, except that the subject-matter with which they
are interwoven forms really a part of the substantive dis-
cussion before this committee. It constitutes on the part
of the gentlemen an argument why the ideals and conclu-
sions of the Armstrong committee should be followed or
considered by Congress rather than those that came from
Chicago. There, evidently, was the head and forefront
of the offending of the letter.
It pointed out what various prominent persons had said,
and what the conditions showed, as favoring Chicago
rather than New York. It pointed out, in the first place,
that the Armstrong committee's bills were prepared un-
der abnormally excited and hasty conditions. On that I
need say nothing more than what has been already heard
in this presence. No more, indeed, than was said by the
gentleman himself, who spoke of laboring night and day
and Sundays, also, in intolerable toil. It is not under
those conditions that calm, judicious legislation? is ordi-
narily brought forth. Also what we heard from one of
the actuaries who was called in by the Armstrong com-
mittee during its final consideration of those bills, and
who said that they were told: "This is an emergency
that must be met" and out of which there must be hard-
ships upon the innocent companies. That was testified
before you as being repeatedly said. Those are the con-
ditions and it is idle to deny it.. It is perfectly patent on
the face of the thing.
The Armstrong committee has done a great service, as
I am very glad to have this opportunity of saying, and as
I have said before our associations in various parts of the
country repeatedly; no longer ago than Saturday night,
before the meeting of our association at Louisville, in the
presence of the insurance commissioner and leading citi-
zens, saying that every insurance man in the country
should get down on his knees and thank God for that
investigation. I feel that from the bottom of my heart.
As an investigation it was a remarkable success. As
investigators it is doubtful if any such body has ever
done more remarkable work. But when they come to
legislate, then, instead of being in the position of a
judicial, legislative mind, they are in the condition of a
judicial sentencing mind. It is like a court that has just
gone through a disgusting criminal case and is consider=
ing how to punish the offenders. That is not the frame
of mind in which to get up a model code. And that
frame of mind, I believe, has had great influence upon
the results of their work.
The word "conspiracy" was repeatedly applied, and
very strongly. Without taking time to quote the lan-
guage at all, it was said that this was a conspiracy, of
which the conspirators were the managers of the national
association, to undo the work of the Armstrong Committee,
to "kick its bills out" next year. Let me say very
plainly that of these charges there was no scintilla of
evidence adduced with the exception of this letter; not a
single substantive fact was added nor was any fact here
stated controverted. The whole matter of which the
gentleman spoke was a matter of deduction and infer-
ence, which any one member of the committee I believe
to be quite as capable of making for himself as the gen-
tleman who spoke. And if it were merely a matter of
the accusations against us, I would be perfectly content
to leave it at once by placing the letter in everyone's
hands and asking him to judge for himself. But the
matter does also take in a comparison of the respective
points of view and ideals of legislation which is germane
to this discussion; and for that reason I shall proceed a
That the Armstrong bills were not regarded as final by
themselves is best shown by the comment of Chairman
Hughes the next morning after they were introduced :
"It is well to remember that the legislature sits at
Albany every year to correct mistakes." That was after
saying that he believed the bills were about as good as
they could be made now, and so on. The first idea that I
saw in print anywhere that you were to look to the next
legislature of New York for revision was from the lips
of the eminent counsel. Then, in an official message
from the governor of Massachusetts to his legislature, of
which I have quoted a small part, occurs this very re-
markable paragraph from the governor of a neighboring
I am informed that no State except New York has attempted to act in
advance of this report [referring to the report of the national insurance
convention to come in September] and those persons best qualified to ex-
press an opinion upon the conditions of legislation in that State believe
that the bills pending in the New York legislature may, if passed now,
require revision next year.
In like manner this circular letter of ours quotes the
strongly contrasting ideals and principles set forth in the
recommendations of the Chicago committee on March 22.
Although the Armstrong bills were pending, and their
report and recommendations had been before the country
for weeks, it was upon the Chicago principles that the
Ames bill was founded. And that bill was recommended
to the consideration of the Congress by the President of
the United States with a very strong expression of his-
entire faith in the ripe judgment and single-minded purpose of the in-
surance convention which met at Chicago and of the committee of that
convention which formulated the measure herein advocated.
Gentlemen, that is the conspiracy: our calling the at-
tention of the country at large-that is, of our member-
ship throughout the country-to the fact that those things
had been said by those men, and that they indicated that
the States generally were not so likely to follow New
York as to follow Chicago. I was also able to say, with
no small measure of pride, that we had communicated-
and I believe agreeably-to the Chicago Committee and
to the President not only that our association was glad
to express its hearty concurrence with the main prin-
ciples that had been advocated by them, but also that
we believed that our membership throughout the coun-
try would prove to be no small factor in helping to
bring the press and the public and the legislators to
agree with them. This "conspiracy" to spread the
knowledge of what I have just read I cheerfully admit,
barring the name.
One other matter that the gentleman referred to par-
ticularly, and that impliedly formed a basis of accusation,
was the thought that seemed to be in his mind that we
favored the preliminary term plan over and above the
select and ultimate plan with which his name has been
so intimately connected. * * Now, as to these
two methods of valuing policies. Our association has
always endeavored to keep within the lines that we are
most familiar with, and upon a purely actuarial question