Title Page
 Table of Contents
 History of Rolf's Hall
 Program and space requirements
 Design criteria
 Outline specifications
 Cost estimates
 Schematic architectural soluti...

Rolf's Hall general purpose classrooms and graduate assistants offices
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102908/00002
Finding Guide: Historic Preservation Documents
 Material Information
Title: Rolf's Hall general purpose classrooms and graduate assistants offices
Series Title: A Proposal for the adaptive use of Rolf's Hall
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Gonzalez, Sergio Jr.
Publisher: Sergio Gonzalez, Jr.
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Historic preservation
Coordinates: 29.649239 x -82.344518
General Note: UF AFA Historic Preservation document 181
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: UF00102908:00002

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    History of Rolf's Hall
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 39
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    Program and space requirements
        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Design criteria
        Page 51
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    Outline specifications
        Page 123
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    Cost estimates
        Page 139
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    Schematic architectural solution
        Page 143
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Full Text



sergio gonzalez jr.



I Il. I ~' I

AE- 684 Programming for Adaptive Re-Use

Preservation Department

College of Architecture

University of Florida

F.Blair Reeves, F.A.I.A., Professor

Fall 1977


I would like to express my gratitude to the following individuals
for their guidance and assistance in the preparation of this program.

Gary Koepke, University Physical Planning Consultant
Gordon Nuce, Occupational Health Safety Inspector
Hershel Shepard, Architect, Jacksonville, Florida
Neil Webb, Associate Director University Physical Planning
Jim Zowarka, Space Facilities Analysis Supervisor, Planning Department


Title Sheet ............................................... 1

AE-684 Program Title Sheet ...................................... 2

Acknowl edgements ................... ................... .......... 3

Table of Contents ............................................ 4

Introduction .............................................. 6


History of Rolf's Hall ......................................... 11

Rudolph Weaver, Architect ....................................... 14

Definition of Gothic Architecture ............................... 15

Development of Unversity of Florida ............................. 20

Rolf's Hall Existing .......................................... 30

Meetings ................................................ 38

Program and Space Requirements .................................. 44

Design Criteria ............................................. 51

Codes .................................................. 55

1 ' L

I _


Outline Specifications ......................................... 123

Preliminary Cost Estimates...................


Schematic Architectural Solution................


This program is the second of three consecutive exercises which

form part of the preservation program. They are in the following


AE-683 Technology of Preservation- Problems and processes of

preservation involving building inspection, documentation

and maintenance:

A group of buildings on the University of Florida campus were selected

for a survey of existing facilities and conditions. Among them,

Flint Hall, Anderson Hall, The Women's Gym, Newell Hall and Rolf's

Hall. Each student was assigned a building for research and study.

AE-684 Technology of Preservation- Programming involving the adaptive

re-use of buildings:

The contents of this program involve the research, documentation,

analysis and justification of the adaptive re-use and rehabilitation


OFFICES". It also includes preliminary outline specifications and

a preliminary cost estimate of new use of the building.

AE- 685 Technology of Preservation- Design for adaptive re-use:

The intent of this last exercise will be to finalize and propose an

architectural solution based on the requirements described in the

previous course. Reduced drawings of this proposal shall be included

with the program.

Some of the buildings under study were originally placed on the

endangered list. This meaning they were scheduled for demolition

due to their conditions and because they did not present feasible

alternatives for adaptive use.Presently an attempt is under way

by fellow students to reverse this situation. They will attempt

to preserve these buildings by designing and proposing new uses

for them.

Rolf's Hall however, was never on the endangered list but was

chosen along the others because of its age and characteristics.

It also offered a good exercise for adaptive use.

Rolf's Hall is owned by the University of Florida. Presently it

is leased by the Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences,

( I.F.A.S. ). They have no intension of leaving the building in

the near future. It is mainly being used as offices and some

classrooms. I.F.A.S. is responsible for the maintenance of the


Meetings were held with University of Florida administrative

officials to determine the future use of the building. After

discussing all possible alternatives it was concluded by the

officials that when the building is released by I.F.A.S. it would

be converted to classrooms and some offices as needed. At these

meetings it was not possible to determine what departments of the

University would occupy the building. Presently the University

is not in need of more classrooms space however, by the year 1980

the demand would be evident. Also by converting the building to

classroom use it would follow the general concept of a student

oriented campus.

This being the most realistic solution, I have elected to prepare

a program that would fit this future need of the University of


The program herein attempts to deal in detail with all the func-

tions of the building and steps to be taken to correct a series

of problems with the building. Most importantly, the building

must be updated to meet all present day codes.

The ultimate goal is to have a building which is functional and

one in which we all can be proud to have.

Sergio Gonzalez Jr.



Rolf's Hall was designed and built between 1926 and 1928. Rudolph

Weaver, Architect for the Board of Control of Florida Institutions

of Higher Learning, was responsible for the conception of the design

and construction documents. These documents are preserved by

Physical plant at the University: of Florida.

Rolf's Hall is located on the North East corner of Union drive and

Stadium road on Buckman drive. The original plan intended to

accommodate four identical buildings on its present site. A common

courtyard would serve as central core for this building complex.

Main entrances and stair-towers to the buildings preceded the common


This building like many others on campus is a good example of

Coligiate Gothic Architecture. It originally consisted of three

main levels and attic level with exterior dormers. The construction

is of exterior bearing walls full of fine penetration details, red

brick and cast stone trims. Reinforced concrete columns support

its concrete joist floor system. Floor covering is of terrazzo and

vinyl asbestos tiles. Baseboards, picture mouldings, doors and

window ~frames are of fine oak.

Rolf's Hall was originally designed to house the Holticulture

department. Its three levels were used as follows :

First Level- Bullitins, mailing room, editor, district agents,

secretaries,.stenographers, vice director of extension, directors

assistant, directors office, directors study, telephone exchange

and file rooms.

Second: Level-Agronomy offices 1 & 2 agronomy classroom, research,

library stores, poultry husbandry classroom, poultry husbandry

office, veterinary classrooms, veterinary office, experimental

station library.

Third Level- Entomology office, library, quarintine department,

mimeograph, general office, nursery inspection, administrative,

office, entomology laboratory, microscope room.

The attic level was not assigned.

WEAVER, RUDOCPH. (1880-ll/10/19414) Gainesville, Fla. (F.A.I.A.)
Widely known in the field of architectural education, Mr. Weaver was born
in the borough of Roxbury (nowl Johnstow~n), Pa., and attended schools in his
native town. During 1907 he received a preparatory training in architecture
at Philadelphia's Institute of Technology, attended Atlier Hornbostle of the
Beaux Arts Society of Architecture in Pittsburgh for a year, and after a
summer course of study at Harvard in 1909, the young man concluded his
preparation for a career in architecture during six months study in Europe.
In the fall of 1909 Mr. Weaver accepted an invitation to teach architecture
at the University of Illinois, and two years later left to fill the post of College
Architect at the University of Washington. During the twelve years he
remained there he planned a number of buildings for the campus, including
the Mechanical Arts and Agriculture buildings, the President's house and a
number of dormitories. He also organized and subsequently became head of
the Departmnent of Design at the Univ;ersity.
In 1923 Mr. Weaver moved to Moscow, Idaho, where he prepared a
campus plan for the State University, established a School of Architecture
and Allied Arts. Two years later h w appointed Archnect o;f th Flrid
State Board of Control, and opening an office in Gainesville he continued in
practice there the rest of his life, engaged in designing many buildings for
colleges of higher education in the state. He also served as architect of other
public buildings in Tallahassee, among them the State Offce Building, and
the Martin Building, the latter erected originally for the Department of Roads.
An architect of prominence in Florida, Mr. Weaver was a past-president and
one of the Directors of the State Association of Architects, and a member of
the Florida North Chapter, A.I.A., raised to Institute Fellowship in 1935....In
'addition he served on the Gainesville Planning Association after 19191 and
was active in many civic organizations. rl
--References National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 34; Who
Was Who in America, 1943-50. j.,

September 28
1 93 8

'H WEAVER, Director
to the Board of Control

Dr. Jo~hn'J. Tigert, President
UIniversity of Florida si a
Campus .;~

Dear IOr. Tligert:

~ :' e',are sending you for your information the cubic foot prices
on several obf ~the buildings, which are comparable as to type of. con-.
struction.; ~ differences s ,in~ arrangement calling for more partitions,
doors, toilets,. etc. etc.,-azs well as differences.in the amount of
plumbing, lighting, etc. a~ccount~ for much of the variation of cost.
For instance, the Infirmary has an elevator and a large amount of
plumbing and fixtures of various kinds. The Chemistry-Pharmacy has a
great amount of plumbing anda electrical installation. The North Corm-
_itory ha~s cross walls, each section a fire-proof stairway, each suite
of rooms a.1savatory with plumbing leading to it, etc.


Njame i'

EngineeringLia~b., U~. of F.
'Elorticultural Eilig., U. of ]F.

Ch~emistry-Pharmacy,, U. of 'LL.
EistoryP Bldg.qlst Unit.P.S.Cl.Y.
P. g. Y'onge Ladb. School -

Infirmary, U.~o of


North Dormitory-, U. of F.
PYA #51092-1-F
Gilchrist Eall, F.S.C.T.

Year Built .

th fl. 1937

uCt.ft. cost


Temporedy vood trim -

Light fixtures and
fin. floors 2nd, 3rd
& 4thn 1s. not includ.ed

35.75 :



1932-33 19.2

1930-31 41.23/:





1927-28: 36.6-

Very truly years,


page 90), executed main1~j~S the Gothio style. ln is compari-
son) ore! would ask which of the twvo types of p an (Geo ~~an and
G~la~ssic ei ng one typ /and Gothi Baother) a the bett ., A
bildiscuss othF~otic brings slth ce tin ltt~racti e quali~-

tis of that style as well as some of a~ disadvantages.

0 EM\L)diff93lkiGotlic Arch~itecture
The archlitectural term "Gothlie* was employed by

Sir Christopher W~ren in thle seventeenth century as a term of re-

proach for this architectural style which had departed from those
classic lines that he was instrumental in re-establishing in this

country. (20:500.) This term is nowt, by common consent, given
to architecture similar to that of the medieval Europe of the

thlirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The outstanding characteristics of Gothic have
'been selected from a comparative analysis of Gothio and Renaics-

eancre architecture as given by Sir Bannister .Fletcher, in his
'Pi~stogry of Architecture.n (20t547.) These characteristics are
listed here as a hiasty survey of the st~yle.

A. Planpay-- Plans are largelyz the fortuitous result of the vari-
ous necessary parts arranged for convenience rather than
for symmetry. They are usually oblong in sha~pe.
Towrere, often crowned with spires, are frequently used and are
predominant features which accentuate the verticality of
the design.

B. WaIlls,-- Wa~lls are often constructed of rubble masonry not laid
in horizon-tal lines, or of brick and rough flint in patterns.\

Gables are steep, pierced with windows and finished either
with stone parapets or ornamented verge boards.
Skyglines a~re characterized by rising towers.

G. 02gnJningg.-- Alrcades of pointed arches are characteristic and
in cloisters are frequently filled with tracery.
Door and window openings have their sides or jambs in recessed
planes, richlyS mouilded.' Openings are placed with rcegard
to convenience rather than to symmetry of position one
ovPer another.

D. Roofs.-- The external treatment of roofs is characterized in
general by towers and spires, high gables, and elaborate

E. Columns.-- Columns are used structurally, and the classic pro-
por~tions between heightC and diameter are not observed.
The column is chiefly7 used as a pier.

F'. Ornament.-- Carvi~ng, often boldlfy executed and grotesque,
possesses a decorative character in? harmony wi~th the rTchi--
tecture, and enriches doorways, windows, but-tresses and
gargoyles. The sturdy craftsmanship. employed is determined
by s-tructural form. Exuternal color schemes are usually the
result of the combination of the materials used.

From the above ou~tline, it is seen that the style is

most flexible, both in plan and elevation. Be~ause of the absence

ofr symmretrly, it is very picturesque when used for academic purposes.

The modern university requires buildings of ~a public

nnature, buildings of a residential character, and also structures

ut~ilt.itarian in value, such as shops, heating plant, etc. Since

needs vary, it is practically required that the style adopted be

as flexible as possible.

Of the Gothic, there are several styles, each of

which has a precedent of its own. These styles include Jacobean,

Ti~udor, and Ecclesi~astical Go-thic. The modern Collegiate Gothie

is examplified:c in the newr dining halls at Princeton U~niversity

(see page 51), the Chapel at the Uniiversity of Chitcago (see page

45)$, and thle Lawz Courts Buidldng at; the University of M~ichigan,
as w~ell~ as thez newr Harkness Miemorial Quadrangle at Yale. Still

another striking example of the modern conception of ~the Collegi-

ate Gothic Is the nCathedral of Lear~ningR (see frontispiece) byr

Chrarles 3., Klauder. This shows further the elasticity of Gothice

archteft~cture. It dus to be noted, however, ~that building costs of

structures of thle-Gothic styles are somewhat hrigher than those

of thne Georg~ian or Irtalian Renaissance styles.

H~iscellaneousn ~t~yles of Architectu~r~e

Quite in. variance with t~he classic and Go ~lic

stiy~les is thle Sdigenous type of architlec~ture found ~Gthe Unis-

versilty of New ~mexi. This tyfpe of architec~turfJt tisdapted from

tihe Puebloo Indian villah .s and is entirely tBive in it's origin.

The atyle lands itself to th praifrie Swell as to the surround-

~ing mountainous country, and, be (I jeteoted in white s~tucco,i

possesses an air of coolnese,/i~lch c0~t~rasts with the warm and

arid climacte o' that te

Ano trr example o~f native arel ecture is to beo

found at the pr osed plant of Rolline College, pter Park, Flo-

rida, whereta~e entire group will be eJxecuted in a Me" terraneanl



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The following drawings depict the present location of existing

walls in Rolf's Hall. The building is now occupied by 1.F.A.S.

The purpose of showing these drawings is to be able to show the

changes that have occurred since it was built. Existing stairs

are not shown here due to lack of space.

As expressed in our first report of AE-683 in which we analyzed

the existing conditions of the building we came to the following


Rolf's Hall is in excellent structural condition and its exterior

architectural features have not been altered. The new stair tower

on Buckman drive built to update the building, imposes itself

on the site but does not destroy the integrity of the south wall.

The rear stair tower is an earlier addition.

It was pointed out in the report that the major concern was the

maintenance of the building. Windows, floors, vegetation on exterior

walls, dirt on cast stone and others are among the several main-

tenance problems.

During the many interior alterations of the building walls were

randomly located without considering the architectural value of

space. This resulted in walls on window mullions, bisecting original

interior walls,etc.

These and many other problems as well as new adaptive use will

be the basis of this program. I will make recommendations as to how

to correct all these problems and at the same time provide the

new facilities for classrooms and graduate assistant offices.

a x



;' ~":-:WHA T1 IS UATSI t.j- :

5~The Gainesvill Urb~an Area TransportationStudyj ori
G:UATS, is the c t urban transportation planning program for the Gainesville
Urbanized Arma. This plainnng program is required in order -
:to arceive Federal funds .for transportation project. ":-1

:The GUATS'program officially began in 1971 and is
administeredd by the Metropolitan Transportation Planning p
Organization [MTPOJ for the Cainesville Urbanized Area. ~
~The MTPO has responsibility for overall pmgram direction,''
evaluation, pnd fundingl approval..

6T~ MTPO is composed of the five City of Gainesville t
CommissioneA:s. and .- the five Alachisa County'
IjConimissioners Non-votiLng members of the MTPO induc'lue
~two representative~ ~ of the. Florida Department of.

p nning process is su ed 6j a Technical Advi~y:
Comimittee [TAC] and Citizens Advisory Committee [CACJ
wvhichiiptavide both 'technical 'and citizen Input and makre :;
recommendations to the MTPO. The staff of the North
Central Florida~ Regional.Planning: Councl serves as the
stff t th MTP --t r;. r t ''; I ... .;( A d


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.IVIE ElT Illl

MEETING: University of Florida administrative officials, October

26, 1977 at 2:30 p.m., at the office of Mr. Gary Koepke

and Mr. Jim Zowarka.

Present at this meeting wre John Myers, Ray Manning and

myself. We prepared the following questions:

1- What functions were either not included or cut out of building

Y A program?

Koepke: All functions were included in general purpose building A.

2- Can we get a copy of program for general purpose building A?

Koepke: Copy is only available in my office and can be seen any

time you desire to see it.

3- What reports, studies, etc. exist on Rolf's Hall?

Koepke: He does not ~know, but perhaps Mr. George Freman from

I.F.A.S. may know.

4- What are the possible uses of Rolf's Hall for the future?

When I.F.A.S. is ready to give up the building the use planned

for it will be general purpose classrooms and if possible some

offices for graduate assistants.

5- In what form does the'university keep records of maintenance

costs of campus buildings?

Koepke: With respect to Rolf's Hall only I.F.A.S. can tell you

what there expenses for maintaining the building are.

6- At what point does maintenance funding stop ?

Until the building is scheduled for demolition.

7- Is I.F.A.S. policy the same ?

Must check with them.

8- What status would a building have after rehabilitation?

Koepke:We do not know.

9- What is preferred for HVAC for campus buildings?

Chilled water for Rolf's Hall from plant at Weaver Hall. Rolf's

has its own heating system.


MEETING: Hershell Sheppard, Restoration Architect, October 21,

1977, at 1:30 p.m. Present at the meeting were John

Myers, Ray Manning and myself. The meeting was held on

the site. Among the things discussed were the following:

1- We asked Mr. Sheppard what his thoughts were about converting

Rolf's Hall into a Student oriented activity center fot General

Purpose building A. His answer was that it would be best to see

not only that. possibility but to explore others as well.

2- He suggested, in relation to the enormous amount of vegetation

growing on the exterior walls,that we should invite the University

of Florida landscape office to come out and evaluate the situa-

tion and to make recommendations as to possible solutions.

3- Mr. Sheppard went on to investigate the type of premolded stone

used in the building. It was determined that the majority was

cast stone and that there would be no problems in matching

missing stones.

4- With respect to the exterior windows he found them to be in

good condition although scrapping and repainting would be


5- In addition he mentioned that depending on how energy efficient

the building is, it would be necessary to replace the windows..

According to Mr. Sheppard, the heat loss and gain is an impor-

tant factor in preserving the windows. However,. money can be

saved by reworking the windows.

6- As far as the existing A/C handling units on the first and second

levels, he feels that they perhaps outlived there usefulness.

It would be feasable to install new units that could be located

in special rooms. A dropped ceiling could be installed in the

corridors to match the top of the door transom, were all a/c

ductwork be accomodated. This would hide all the exposed ducts

and pipes now in the building. He added that the present a/e

system does not meet present day codes.

7- All operable door transoms must be checked against code regulations.

8- Existing center floor tiles on corridors can be replaced by

new tiles very easily.

9- As we entered the attic level he.paoposed that the corridor be

moved closer to the center in order to provide more comfortable

offices, if we chose to do so.

10- It was highly evident that a sprinkler system would be necessary

for the entire building, especially if attic space is used.

11- Looking at the roof he pointed out that the flat brick tiles

are still available and that replacing them would be no problem.

12- Access to the attic must be studied. He feels that the present

access violates codes.

13- Last, we discussed our most important problem of the energy



The intent of this program is to determine the space requirements

for the General Purpose Classrooms and Graduate Assistant Offices

and the relationship of these functions. The program was prepared

after meeting with University of Florida administrative officials.

After meeting with these officials it was determined that the

future use of Rolf's Hall would be classrooms and graduate assis-

tant offices. These facilities will be used by those departments

in need of classroom space and offices.

The following is a summary of occupancy by levels:

Fi rst Level

Second Level

Third Level

Fourth Level

Attic Level








Classroom Space


Bathrooms, Storage, M.E. etc.

4,616 sq.ft.

1,122 sq.ft.

700 sq.ft.

6,438 sq.ft.

Second Level:

Classroom Space


Bathrooms, Storage, M.E. etc.

4,519 sq.ft.

1,122 sq.ft.

797 sq.ft.

6,438 sq.ft.

Third Level :

Office Space


Bathrooms, storage, M.E. etc.







6,438 sq.ft.

Fourth Level:

Office Space


Bathrooms, storage, M.E. etc.







6,438 sq.ft.


9,232 s .ft.


9,232 sq.ft.


2,000 sq.ft.


Provide two levels with classrooms facilities. These are to be

the First and Second levels. Classrooms can be flexible to accomo-

date a minimum of 12 students and a maximum of 32 students with

one instructor. They should be carefully designed to use the

existing available space to the best advantage. Standard seating

arrangement is desirable.

The reason of providing the First and Second levels for classrooms

is that it will be used for code purposes as the main occupancy

of the building. It also provides with rapid accessibility to

students attending classes.

Classrooms can be used for a variety of purposes such as conference

rooms, student council rooms and mainly for class reunion.

One wall of classrooms shall be provided with classroom equipment

such as chalkboard and projection screen.Provision should be made

for automatic operation blinds on all windows.

Classroom shall be provided with individual non folding tablet

armed chairs and one instructors desk and chair.

general requirements for classroom design:

- Sufficient space is needed near the front of the room for setting

up audiovisual equipment, such as projection screens and charts.

- Ceilings should be a maximum of 9 1/2 ft. high.

- Light from windows should, if possible, come over a pupils left

shoulder. No instructor should be required to face the windows

when addressing the class from the normal teaching position.

- Ceilings and or walls should be acoustically treated.

- Floors should have a cushioning material.

- Consideration should be given to the type of venetian blinds that

ride in -side channels and are easier to operate and to clean.

- A double electric outlet should be located on each of the three

interior walls.

- A fire alarm system is required.

- All doors should have a vision panel of tempered or wire glass.

0- Door hardware should be such that doors cannot be locked from

inside the classroom.

Graduate Assistant Offices:

Provide two levels designated to be,third and fourth levels, as Graduate

Assistant Offices. Offices to be flexible to accommodate from two to

six graduate assistants per room. They should be designed to use the

existing available space to the best advantage.

Each graduate assistant shall be provided with a personal space no

smaller than 100 sq.ft. This space shall be provided with a divisionary

movable partition no taller than 6'-0" in height. It shall also contain

book shelving and electrical and telephone outlets. These outlets can

be operated from existing walls. Each space shall also contain one

desk, reference table and chair in addition to two visitors chairs

and a filihg cabinet.



1- For economic purposes when designing for classrooms and offices

consider maintaining as much as possible the existing concrete

block walls which are original to the building. All other partitions

can be removed particularly if they were placed incorrectly. This

did occur in many areas in the building as was recorded in the

study of existing facilities.

2- All original existing doors shall be kept and renovated to original


3- A new air conditioning system shall be installed for each floor.

Existing system is obsolete and must be replaced. New system shall

be installed in such a manner that it will not be visible or

obstructive. A room on each floor shall be provided for this

purpose. The corridor ceilings shall be dropped in order to accomo-

date ductwork. Special care should be taken to lower wood mouldings

now existing.

4- An elevator shall be provided to carry people specially the handi-

capped to each of the floors. This elevator shall be placed in the

most feasable location and its mechanical room in the first floor.

5- All bathrooms shall be remodeled with new fixtures and must be

capable of providing space for the handicapped.

6- New partitions in the graduate assistant offices shall be of the

movable type and no more than 6 feet in height. Care should be

given to provide sufficient electrical supply to each graduate

assistant office.

7- Classrooms shall accommodate between 12 and 32 students. Each class-

room shall be provided with all the required conviniences for ins-

truction such as chalkboards, screens, furniture, etc.

8- Graduate assistant offices shall accommodate cubicles of 10x10 feet

minimum and as:many per office.

9- Existing sructural floor system and exterior bearing walls shall

not be altered~or moved under any circumstances.

10- Attic level shall remain as is and used as storage space.

11- Due to improper entrances to the building located in the rear and

in the side it is important to study the possibility of designing

an entrance that would give new identity to the building. The re-

orientation of the building can be directed toward Buckman Drive.

12- Building should be brought up to code standards. This is the most

urgent matter to be taken into consideration.

13- All fire escapes are to be removed and recorded for future reference.

14- Particular attention should be given to exterior courtyard at the

rear of the building. It should be enlarged and enhanced to provide

the students with *a relaxing atmosphere.

15- Attention should be given to the front grounds. They should be

landscapped and a sence of orientation given to the front entrance

if any.


The following parts deal with those specific areas relating to codes,

based on the new proposed occupancy of Rolf's Hall. Due to the intensity

of areas to be covered I-proceded to copy only thode parts of the code

pertaining to the new occupancy. The purpose is:to refer as often as

possible and as needed to these sections of the code, rather than to

look up these sections in the code directly. This would avoid a certain

amount of confusion.

In working the final solution it is much easier to refer to the program

for all the specific needs rather than to look for information in

several books.

The parts are devided as follows:

Part 1 The southern building code

Part 2 The life safety code

Part 3 The report of the 1970 fire safety code.



Occupancy of the building to be the following:

FIRST Level -

SECOND Level -

THIRD Level -



General Purpose Classrooms

General Purpose Classrooms

Graduate Assistant Offices

Graduate Assistant Offices


The main use of Rolf's hall shall be classrooms, therefore the main

occupancy for code purposes shall be group C schools.


TIhe purpose of this Code is to provide minimum requirements
to safeguard life, health and public welfare and the protection of
IProperty as it relates to those safeguards b~y regulating and control-
ling the design, construction, alteration, repair, equipment, use and
occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of all build-
ings or structures and app~urtenances thereto.

T~he Standcardl Iluildling Code is dledicated to the development
of better b~uildin~g construLc~tionl and greater safety to the public
anld uniformity in b~uildling law\s; to the granting of full justice to all
building materials on aI fair basis of the true merits of each material;
andi to development on a soundl economic basis for the future growth
of our Nation through unlbiused andc equitable dealing w~ith building

This 1973 Edtition Iclrepresets thle many revisions and changes
officially approvedl at Anlnual Conferrences for the years 1945-1972,
and is a comp~rehensive dloculmenlt providing for the use of all safe
materials or methods of construction.

406.1 SCOPE
Buildings in which people come together for education or in-
structional purposes shall be classified in Group "C" School Oc-
Group C School Occupancy shall include, among others, the
following :
Schools Universities
Colleges Academies

(a) Parts of buildings used for the congregating or gathering of
75 or more persons in one room shall be classified as in Group E -
Assembly Occupaancy-(See Section 408), regardless of whether such
gathering is of an educational or instructional nature or not.
(b) Schools for business or vocational training shall be classified
in the same occupancies and conform to the same requirements as
the trade, vocation or business taught.

1. Allowable Height andi Area ................... .... ........................0 .
Heights and Areas are based upon type of construction used.
2. Types of Construction .................. ........ ............. ..Ch pe VI
3. Exuit Requirements ...................... ....................Chpe XI
4. Protection of Vertical Openings.................. ........... .....701
5. Protection of W all Openings.................. .... .. ..... ..............7031
6. Sprinklers and Stanldpipes ................................901 to 902, inclusive
7. Mixedl Occupanlcy andi Separation Requiremen~ts..........................1
8. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation ................2001 to 2002, inclusive
9. Heating Requirements .............. .....................Chpe VIll

1. Separ'ation of Boiler andi Furlnace Room.... .. ........... .................812!
2. Non-combustible Stairways Required ............................Chapter XI
3. Corridor~s ................. .. ... .. ... ............... h p e XI
4. Unilateral Light ................ .......................................00.4
5. No classroom shall occupy a basement area which is fifty (50)
percent or more below- ground level.
G. Every heating appliance which produces an unprotected open
flame shall be prohibitedl.
7. Storage and handling of flammable liquids shall be prohibitedl.
8. Where permanent motion picture projectors are used, booths
shall be p~rov~idedl, as set f'orth in Section 512.16i.
9. Rooms used for day care nurseries, kindergarten or first grade
pupils shall nlot be located above or below the floor of exit dis-
charge. Rooms used for second grade pupils shall not be locatedl
more than one story above the floor of exvit discharge.


Third Floor
and Above

Type Construction Used**

Square Feet per Floor

Type lac"::': No Limit
Type II 80 Ft.
Type IIIP Two
Type IV^' Two

No Limit
No Limit

No Limit
No Limit

No Limit
No Limit
Not Permitted
Not Permitted

SType VP: Two 8,000 8,000 Not Permitted

*"Floors located immediately above usable space in basements or cellars shall have a fire-resistance rating of
not less than one-hour except where an approved automatic sprinkler system is provided; provided, however,
that where basements or cellars ar~e used as classrooms or assembly- rooms they shall be counted as a story.
*'*At least one-hour interior fire-resistive construction shall be used throughout in all Group "C" (schools),
two or more stories in height.
::::The Area of a one-story Type III, IV, or V building may be increased one hundred percent (100%~) if
the building is surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than sixty (60) feet, and
there are not less than twfo exits provided from each classroom, one of which opens directly to the exterior
of the building. For other allowable area increases, see Section 403.
aln all Group "C" occupancies of Type I Construction, the partitions, columns, trusses, girders, beams
and floors may be reduced by one hour if the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler sys-
te~m throughout but no component or assembly may be less than one hour fire-resistance.


4 Far~ty, andt fire walls shall ex-
4 tend not less than three (3)
feet above the roof, except that
fire walls need not extend above
the roof where the roof is of
non-combustible construction for
the area withinl forty (40) feet
of each sidle of the w~all.

F'Ior walls facing on a. street
or public place thirty (30) feet
or more in w\idlth.****


606.1- GENERAL
Type V Construction--is that construction not meeting the re-
qluirements of Type III, b~ut inl whichl the exterior walls are of
masonry or reinforced concrete or of approved materials or assembly
of materials that provide fire-resistance as required in this Section,
and in which the inter~ior framing is parltially or wholly of unpr~o-
tected wood, or of unprotected iron or steel, except that fir~e prlotec-
tion shall be provided,, as requiredl by this Section.


606.3 -A~LLOW ABHLE H-EIGHTS SECTIONS 404 to 411, inclusive

606.4I-ALLOWABLE AREA SECTIONS 404 to 411, inclusive




Party Walls
Fire Walls

Exterior Bearing

Exterior Non-Bearing
(See Section 60(8.3)

For buildings located
F~ireo District***''

For~i building s located
the F~ire District.***

in the



0 18


Interior Bearing

In~terior Non-Bearing

Supporting Mlasonr~y
or Bearing Wall]s
Supporting Roof
Other Columns
Supporting Masonry
or Bearing Walls,
Columns, Girders,
Supporting Roof
Other Trusses
Other G~irders

Other Beams

The use of combustible con-
struction for interior bearing
partitions shall be limited to the
support of not more than two
(2) floors and a roof.
Enclosure for vertical open-
ings-Sect. 701. Buildings with
mixed occupancies--Sect. 412.
All other partitions--Sect. 702.

Shall be same rating as re-
quired for the wall it supports.

Sec. 702.2

See Footnote for fire-resistance
See Footnote for fire-resistance

FLOORS See Footnote for fire-resistance
Deck Construction *" requirements.
Deck Construction

AB3BREVIATIONS: "N.C." means Nonl-Combustible.
NOTE (1) Buildings of Type V Construction two or more stories
in height, except one and two family dwellings, floors
located immediately above usable spaces in basements or
cellars and above furnaces shall have one hour fire pro-
tection except where basement or cellar is equipped with
an approved automatic sprinkler system.
;:In buildings three or more stories in height, (unless
6 10


sprinklered) all walls, partitions, floors and their support-
ing structural members shall provide not less than one (1)
hour fire-resistance within the building and the ceilings
underneath the roof shall be the same as required for the

In all Group D (Institutional) occupancies; and in Group
C (Schools) two or more stories in height; at least one
(1) hour interior fir~e-resistance shall be used throughout.

**This requirement applies only to structural members
supporting masonry walls except that this does not apply
in one story buildings or where the only masonry sup-
ported is a masonry veneer.

***Exterior walls shall extend not less than eighteen (18)
inches above the roof, except that parapet walls need not
be constructed on buildings where the roof slopes more
than four (4) inches vertical to twelve (12) inches hori-
zontal from the back of the exterior wall of such buildings
or where the exterior wall of such building is located
fifteen (15) feet or more distance from the property line
or is located on one alley or public way of fifteen feet or
more in width.

PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS ................................Section 703

FIRE STOPPING ................. .... ...................Seto 705

STAIRWAY CONSTRUCTION .................... .....................eto 1115

ROOF COVERING ...................... ....................Scin 301 and 706


a. Gutters and Leaders ..............................Section 712

b. Dormer Windows ....................................Sectio 709

c. Towers, Spires and Cupolas ..................Section 713

d. Cooling Towers ........................................Seto 715
e. Tanks ................... ......................Seto 714

f. Skylights .................... ... ......... ....... ...e to 707

(Exits and Exit Access)


(a) In every building her~eafter' erectedl means of egress sha:ll
comply with the minimum lrequirements of this Chap~ter.
(b) Means of eg-ress shall consist of continuous and unobstructedl
paths of travel to the exterior of a building at all times. Meanis of
egress through any room or space usedl as a kitchen or prleparation~
of food shall not. ~e p~ermittedl.
(c) Where unusually hazardous conditions exist, additional mieanis
of egress facilities shall b~e provided as required b~y thle Buildinlg
Official, when necessary to assure the safety of the occupants.
(d) No building shall hereafter he altered so as to reduce the
capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this Chlapter
nor shall any change of occupanncy be made in any building unless
such building conforms with the requirements of this Chapter.
(e) Stairways, rampls and passagewayr s usedl for requir~ed exitsi
shall be of non-combustible construction except where otherw~ise
specifically permittedi by Sections 1115-Stairways; 1112--Exit Out-
lets; and 1118--Ramps.

(a) A MEANS OF EGRESS is a continuous path of travel
from anly point in a building or structure to the op~en air. outside at
ground level and consists of two separate and distinct parts: (1) the
exit access, and (2) the exit. A means of egress comprises thle
vertical and horizontal means of travel andi may include the rooml
space, doorway), corridor, hallway, passageway, stairs, ramp, lobby,
fire escape, escalator, andt other paths of travel.
(1) EXIT is that portion of a means of egress which is separlatedl
from the area of the buildling from which escape is to be
made, by walls, floors, doors or other means which prlovide
the protectedl path necessary for the occupantt s to p~rc~eedt
with safety to the exterior of the building.
(2) EXIT ACCESS is that portion of a means of egress which
leads to an entrance to an exit.
NOTE: An interior aisle, corridtor, hallway, or other means
of travel used to reach an exit stair or doorway is nlot aIn
exit, except where the maximum allowable distance of travel
to an exit is exceeded--at which point it shall be treated as
part of the exit or is so located, arrangedl, andt enclosedl at
to constitute an integral part of an exit facility.
11- 1


(a) Exits shall b~e so located that the distance from the most re-
mote point in the floor area, room or space served by them to the
nearest exit shall be not more than 150 feet (in office buildings,
hotels and apartments where floor areas are subdivided into rooms,
the distance of travel to an exit shall be measured from the corridor
entrance to such rooms, however the travel distance to the corridor
entrance within any room shall not exceed the maximum distance of
travel to an exit measured along the line of travel). In buildings pro-
vi~ied with a complete automatic fire sprinkler system the distance
may be increased to 200 feet. In Group H, Hazardous occupancies the
distance shall not exceed 75 feet. In Group G, Industrial occupancies
and in public parking decks having at least 50%0 of its perimeter open
to the air at each story, the distance may be increased to 200 feet in
unsprinklered buildings and 300 feet in sprinklered buildings.
(b) Where more than one exit is required, they shall b~e locatedl
as remote from each other as is pr1acticable.

(a) Every room or floor space of a building, occupied by seventy-
five (75) persons or more, or occupied by a Group H, Hazardous
occupan~cy, shall have not less than tw~o (2) independent exits.

(b) In Group E-2, Small Assembly Places, there shall be at least
two exit ways, and in Group E-1, Large Assembly P~laces, there shall
be not less than three (3) exitways, except that where more than
1,000 persons are accommodated there shall be at least four (4)
(c) There shall be not less than two (2) exits serving every
floor area, except that in the following cases there may be access
to one (1) exit provided such exit is enclosed by construction as
specified in Section 1106, but affording in no case less than~ onle-
hour fire-resistance:

Where one exit is permitted:
1. In Group A, Residential Buildings having no floor over three
thousand five hundred (3,500) sq. ft. in area, of Type I,
or of Type II Construction, or of other types of construction
provided not over two stories in~ height. Maximum distance of
travel to reach an exit from the entrance door to any living
unit shall not exceed 30 feet.

11- 2

2. In Group B-1, Office Buildings having no f'loor over three
thousand five hundred (3,500) sq. ft. in area and not over~ two~
stories in height provided the occupant content shall n~ot ex-
ceedl 40 p~ersons above the street floor. Maximum dlistance of
travel to an exit shall not exceed 75 feet.
3. In Group B-2 Occupancies at street; floor levecl having a floor
area less than 2250 sq. ft. andi a distance of travel to an exit
not exceeding fifty (50) feet.
4. In Group F storage occupancies, one story only, and having a
floor area less than 2,500 sql. ft., with a distance of travel
50 ft. or less.
(d) Sufficient exit facilities shall be provided so that the ag-
gregate capacity of all such exits, determined inl accordancee with
this Chapter, shall not be less than the occupant content as dleter-
mined from Section 1105.1.
(e) It shall be unlawful to occupy any part of a building by
a greater number of persons than that for which exit capacity,
as prescribed in this Chapter, has been provided.


(a) Group D-2, Institutional occupancies, all dloorw\ays to areas
housing bedridden patients, and dloorways between p~atien~t occupied
spaces and the required exit, andL all exit doorw~ays pleading to the
exterior shall be not less than 44 inches in clear width except that exit
doors so located as not to be subject to use by patients, may be not
less than 36 inches in clear widtht. Requiredl corr~idors, ramps, or
passageways shall be not less than 8 feet in clear' width in all areas;
occupied by patients or serving as part of the means of egress from
patient areas.
(b) Corridors in all Group D, Institutional occupancies shall be
subdivided by smoke-tight partitions at intervals not to exceed 150
feet. Doors in such partitions shall be tight fitting. Suchl doors may
have wire glass panels of not mor~e th~an 720 square inches. Smokte
stop doors shall open inl the direction of exit travel only andt shall be
provided with approved door holding devices of the fail safe type
which will release the dloor(s) causing it to close upon the detection
of products of combustion other than heat; by a device complying
with the requirements of "Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signal-
ing Systems, U.L. Standard 168." (See Section 1117.1)

In rooms in which are locatedl steam boilers, oil firedl incinlerators,
or apparatus using or producing gas or vapor, the maximum distance
of travel to an exit shall not exceedl 50 feet.

11- 3

Exits and exit access shall be so arrangedl that no dead end
pockets or hallways shall occur in excess of 20 feet in dlepth.

(a) One half of the reqluiredl unit of exit width for buildings
connectedl by a coveredl mull shall leadl to the outside by means other
than through the mall. T'he coveredl mall connecting buildings shall
have not less than tw~o (2) indeplendlent exits locatedl as r~emotely
as practical from each o~ther andi shall have a total number of units
of exit widlth equal to that requiredl for the exits from the buildings
which ar~e within a 100 foot travel distance to the exits from the mail
plus that requir~ed for 1 person p~er foot of mall width. The maximum
distance of travel to an exit measured within the mall shall not
exceed 200 feet. In order to prlovide free and unencumbered travel
in the mall to the outside, each side of the mall floor area shall be
provided with an unobstructed space, not less than 10 feet in widthl,
parallel to the building lines andi extending to the exit from the mall.
(b) Enclosed and tunneled walkways shall not be accepted as al
required means of egress unless they comply with the provisions
of this chapter. When the length of enclosed or tunneled walkways
not meeting the provisions of this chapter for required exits, is more
than one and one-half (1%) times the maximum allowable distance
of travel of the most restrictive occupancy being connectedl, one or
more exits from the enclosed or tunneled walkway shall be provided.
Such exits shall be locatedl as remotely from the points of connection
between the enclosed or tunnleledl walkway andi the buildings as is

(a) It shall be prohibited to use public corridors, separated from
building use areas by fire rated partitions and providing access to
exit, for return and/or exhaust from adjoining air conditioned spaces
through louvers or other devices mounted in corridor doors or par-

(b) Except in institutional or presidential occupancies, Paragraph
1104.5 (a) may be waived by the authority having jurisdiction provid-
ing corridors are equipped with approved fire detectors sensing
products of combustion other than heat arranged to automatically
stop supply, return and exhaust fans and close louvers or other de-
vices mounted within the corridor doors or partitions.

11- 4


For determining the exits required, the minimum number of
persons or the occupant content of any floor area shall in no case
be taken less than specified below~:
Minimum Occupant
Content Floor Area
Occupancy per Person*

Group A--Residential 125 Sq. Ft.
Group B3-Stor~es-street floor
and sales basements 30 Sq. Ft.
-upper sales floors 60 Sq. Ft.
Office Buildings and other
Group B occupancies 100 Sq. Ft.
Group C-Schools--classrooms
and recreation 20 Sq. Ft.
--laboratories, museums,
libraries, and similar rooms 30 Sq. Ft.
-shops, vocational, administrative rooms 100 Sq. Ft.
--gymnasiums 15 Sq. Ft.
Group D--Institutional-sleeping departments 125 Sq. Ft.
--treatment departments 250 Sq. Ft.
Group E--Assembly--with fixed seats 6 Sq. Ft.
-A~ssembly--without fixed seats 15 Sq. Ft.
Group F--Storage 300 Sq. Ft.
Group G--Industrial 100 Sq. Ft.
Group H--Hazardous 100 Sq. Ft.

*The occupant content of floor areas of the building shall be com-
putedl on the basis of the specific occupancy classification of the
building. Where mixed occupanucies occur, the occupant content
of each occupancy area shall b~e computed on the basis of that
specific occupancy.
NOTE: The above Minimum Occupant Content Floor Area per
person applies to NET area of the listed rooms, or similar rooms
of prime occupant content for Group C--Schools and NET area
for the assembly rooms or areas of Group E--Assembly occu-
pancies. GROSS floor area shall apply to all other above listed
occup~ancies. In computing net areas, it is not intended to include
areas such as corridors, stairs, toilet rooms and other similar
rooms or areas. Where fixedl seats are installed or are to be in-
stalled, the occupant content may be established as determined by
the actual number of fixedl seats installed or to be installed to a
seating plan accepted andi approved by the Building Official.

11- 5

Signs stating the maximum seating capacity shall be conspicuous-
ly posted by the owner of the building in each assembly room, audi-
torium or room used for a similar purpose where fixed seats are not
installed. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notice or to
permit more than this legal number of persons within such space.

(a) The widthl of the means of egress shall be measured in
units of 22 inches. Fractions of a unit shall not be counted except
that 12 inches added to one or more full units shall be counted as
one-half a unit.
(b) The width shall be measured in the clear at its narrowest
point. Handrails may project 3%/ inches and door jambs 1 inch on
each side of the measured width.

(a) The capacity or number of persons per unit (22 inches) of
means of egress through doors, corridors, stairs andi other p~aths of
exit travel shall be in accordance with the following Table:

Person Per Unit (22 inches) of
Exit Width
Level Travel (Corridors,
doors, ramps, etc.) Sar

Group A--Residential 60 45
B--Business 100 60
C--Schools 100 60
D--Institutional 30 22
E--Assembly 100 75
F-Storage 60 45
G-Industrial 100 60
H-Hazardous 60 45

(b) The minimum aggregate width of main entrance doorways
for Group E Assembly occupancies shall be sufficient to accommodate
50 percent of the occupant content but in no case less than 36 inches.
Main entrance doorways shall be considleredi as p~art of the reqluire-
rnents for the means of egress.
(c) The capacity of exit stairways constructed in accordance
with Section 1115 shall not exceed the limits specified herein and
may be used as a required exit from all floors which they serve.
If, for example, three (3) stairways are required to serve the third
floor of a building and a like number are required for the second

11 -6

floor, the total number of stairways required shall be three, not
six, and the capacity of the stairway shall be determined by the floor
having the highest occupant content and not the total occupant con-
tent of the building.
(d) The aggregate width of passageways, aisles or corridors
serving as access to exits shall be at least equal to the required width
of the exit. Where all travel to any exit is along the same access to
the exit, the width of the access shall be at least equal to the exit;
wvher~e there are several accesses to an exit each shall have a widthl
suitable for the travel which it may be called on to accommodate.
(e) The minimum width of any means of egress shall be 30
iY nches in the clear.
(f) Where exists serv\e more than one floor, only the occupant
content of each floor, considered individually, need be used in com-
p~uting the required capacity of the exits at that floor; provided that
such capacity shall nlot be decreased at any point along the exit fa-
cility in the direction of exit travel. When exits from floors above
an~d below converge at an intermediate floor, the capacity of the exit
from such intermediate floor shall not be less than the sum of the
widths of the exits converging on such intermediate floor. There shall
be no reduction in the cap~acity of the exits along the means of egress
from the building.

The width and exit capacity of escalators complying with the
requirements of Section 1122 shall be as specified for stairways ex-
cept that the maximum width of escalators shall not exceed 48 inches.


(a) In all buildings, four (4) stories or more in height, except
one and two family dwellings, and except in those occupied by forty
(40) people or less above or below thle story at street level, all in-
terior stairways including platforms, landings and hallways connect-
ing them to the doorway leading to the outside, shall be completely
enclosed with partitions of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance.
Structural members supporting all such enclosing walls and parti-
tions, anld floors or roofs that form a part of the enclosure shall
have at least 2-hour fire resistance also.
(b) In all buildings not over three (3) stories in height, except
inl one and two family dwellings, all required interior stairways shall
be enclosed in partitions of at least one-hour fire resistance.
1. Private interior stairw\ays located within a dwelling unit need
not be enclosed.
(c) In Group E, Assembly occupancies, all exit enclosures shall
be not less thanl 2-hour fire-resistance.

11- 7

(d) Stairways in buildings of Group G, Industrial occupancies
that are not required for exits and that serve only one floor above
the first floor may not be required to be enclosed, provided the occu-
pancy of the building is of low fire hazard and provided the omission~
of such stair enclosure is approved by the Building Official.
(e) Basement or cellar stairs: Except in one and two family
dwellings, basement or cellar stairways located under stairways from
upper stories shall be completely enclosed by construction providing
fire resistance not less than required for the stair enclosure above
the basement but in no case less than 1-hour fire resistance.
(f) In stair enclosure walls or partitions protecting the stair
from the interior of the building, nlo openings except the necessary
doorways shall be permitted. (This shall not, however, prohibit the
use of fire windows of approved type, in stair enclosures provided
they open to the exterior of the building and are located at least
ten (10) feet from any other wall opening.) Such doorways shall
be equipped with approved self-closing fire doors, except that when
enclosing partitions ar~e not required to provide over 1-hour fire-
resistance, approved self-closing metal or metal-covered doors or solid
core wooden doors of the flush type of nominal thickness of at least
one and three quarters (1%/) inch in all parts, may be used.

No enclosure shall be required for a flight of "monumental"
stairs (as used in public buildings, stores, hotels, office buildings, etc.)
from the main street entrance floor to the floor next above or floor
next below or for stairs leading to a mezzanine or balcony from the
main floor when:
(a) Such stairs are not a required part of the building exit facili-
ties, and
(b) Such stairs are not connected with corridors providing access
to exits.


(a) Any exterior balcony, porch, or gallery may serve as a means
of egress if it complies with all the requirements as to width, ar-
rangement and materials of construction that are specified in this
Chapter for means of egress and provided they comply with the
requirements of the following paragraphs of this section.
(b) All balconies andi other open spaces whether serving as a
means of egress or not, shall have solid floors substantially level, and
when located more than 3 feet above grade, shall be provided with
guard rails supported for not less than 36 inches, nor mor~e thanl
42 inches above the floor. The space between guard rails and floors
shall form an enclosure of solidly, slatted, grill or screen construction,
in which the openings, if any, have a dimension, in not less than one
11- 8

direction, of not mor~e than 8 inches, except that a bottom rail or curb
shall be employed no more than 2 inches above the floor. Construction
of guard rails shall be adequate in strength, dlurability, and attach-
menlt for its purpose as prescribed in Section 12041.2.
(c) Balconies, porches or galleries serving as means of egress
inl climates subject to snow~ or ice shall have a roof to prlotect against
the accumulation of snow and ice.
(d) Blalconies or other open spaces serving as a means of egress
shall be maintained as a I~reuired p~ath of travel without obstr~uctionl
so as to maintain the required minimum w'idth of exit travel.
(e) Balconies, porlches or galleries having structural concrete
floors shall have all sup~porting framing members of non-combustible


(a) For h~alconies or galleries of Group E, Assembly occupancies
having a seating capacity of over 50, at least two means of egress
shall be prlovidedl, one from each side of every balcony or gallery,
leading dlirectly to a street or exit court.
(b) All interior stairways and other vertical openings shall be
enclosed andi protectedl as pr1ovided in this Chapter, except that stairs
may' be open between balcony andt main assembly floor in occupancies
such as theaters, churches andi auditoriums. The means of egress
capacity required for balconies or galleries shall be dletermined on
the same basis as those required for the occupancy use.
(c) The maximum distance of travel for balcony or gallery from
any seat to an exit shall be determined on the same basis as the
building occupancy.

Not less than one exit to a street, exit court, or passageway to
a street, 3 feet or more in width, shall be provided from each sidle of
the stage of every Group E-1, Large Assembly Place, and from each
side of the sub-stage or basement or cellar under the stage, and an
exit not: less than 30 inches wide shall be provided from each fly-
gallery andi from the gridiron. An iron ladder shall be provided lead-
ing from the gridliron to a scuttle in the stage roof; such scuttle
shall be not less than 2 feet x 3 feet in size and shall be provided
with a metal-coveredl or non-combustible trap, door. Each tier of
dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress,
each not less than 2 feet-G inches wide, one of which shall lead di-
rectly into an exit court or street. All exit stairs shall be constructed
of non-combustible material as prescribed in~ Section 1115, Stair
Construction. Stair exits from stage and dressing rooms need not be
11 -9

For thle requirements in Group E, Assembly occupancies, sco
Section 512, and for Church occupancies see Section 514.

(a) Every required exit shall provide continuous and pr1otectedl
egress discharging finally into a street, anl opecn space leading to a1
street, or into an exit court or passageway leading to a street or
into an approved open space having access to a str~eet.
(b) Such exit courts or passageways shall be enclosed with con~-
struction providing not less than 2-hours fire resistance.
(c) The width of such courts or passageways shall be n~ot less
than the width of the exits tributary thereto. There shall be no re-
duction of width in the direction of exit travel. Such courts or pass-
ageways shall be not less than 8 feet in height.
(d) Slope of floors inl exits shall not exceed one foot in ten fecet.

(a) In every Group E-1, Large Assembly Places, a foyer con-
sisting of a space at the main entrance of the auditorium or place
of assembly shall be provided. Such foyer, if not directly connected
to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a
straight and unobstructed corridor or passage to every such main
entrance and exit.
(b) The width of foyer at any point shall not be less than the
combined width of aisles, stairways, and passageways tributary
thereto. The foyer shall be at the same level as the back of the
auditorium, and exits leading therefroml shall not have a steeper
gradient than one foot in ten feet.

In theaters and similar Group E, Assembly occupancies, where
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not
available and are allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, such
use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the required
clear width of exits. Such waiting areas shall be separated from the
required exitways by substantial permanent partitions or by fixed
rigid railings not less than 42 inches high.


1115.1 GENERAL
(a) Exterior and inter~ior exit stairwfays shall be constructcte
of non-combustible materials throughout in the following buildlings:
(1) All buildings of Type I and of Type II Construction.
11 -10

(2) All buildings of Group C--Schools three (3) stories or more;
of Group D--Institutions; Group E-1 Assembly Occupancy,
and Group E-2 three (3) stories or more.
(3) All other buildings three (3) stories or more in height or
occupied by more than forty (40) persons above or below
the first story at street or grade level, except 1 and 2 family
dwellings and buildings of Type VI Construction.
(b,) Except when locatedl within a dwelling unit, all interior stair-
wrays shall have solid risers. Exterior stairs may have open risers.
(c) Interior stairs constructed* of wood, except those with open
risers, shall be firestopped as specified inl Section 7i05.
(d) Except in 1- andt 2-family dlwellings which are less than
three (3) stories in height, no. closet shall be located beneath stairs
that are in whole or part of combustible construction; such space
shall be left entirely open andl free from encumbrance.
(e) Except inl 1- andi 2-family dwellings the undersidle of interior
stairways, if of combustible construction, shall be protected to pro-
vidle not less than 1-hour fire-resistance.
(f) In buildings two or three stories in height with balconies,
porches or galleries where each room opens directly into such areas,
exit stairways may extend from floor to floor on the outside pro-
vided such stairways are protected by a one-hour fir~e-resistive sep-
aration from the building. In buildings four (4) or more stories in
height, two (2) hour protection shall be provided.

(a) In Group E, Theaters andi Assembly occupancies, no exit
stair from a lower story shall lead to an exit doorway serving an
exit stair from an upper story.
(b) In no case shall a stair from a lower story lead to an exit
doorwvay serving an exit stair from an upper story, unless such
stair from below is separated at its upper end from the stair above
by partitions equal to the fir~e rating of the stair enclosure.

(a) Treads and risers of required stairs shall be so proportioned
that the sum of two (2) risers and a tread, exclusive of projection
of nosing, is not less than twenty-four (24) inches nor more than
twenty-five (25) inches. The height of riser shall not exceed seven
and three-quarter (7%4) inches, and treads, exclusive of nosing, shall
be not less than nine (9) inches wide. Every tread less than ten
(10) inches wide shall have a nosing, or effective projection, of ap-
proximately one (1) inch over the level immediately below that tread.
(b) Treads shall be of uniform width and risers of uniform
height in any one flight of stairs.
11 -11

(c) The use of winders and/or spiral stairways, is prohibited inl
stairways serving as required exits.

(a) No flight of stairs shall have a vertical rise of more thanl
twelve (12) feet between floors or landings; provided that in stair-
ways serving as exits in buildings of Group E Theater and Assembly
occupancies, such vertical rise shall not exceed eight (8) feet betweenl
(b) The length and width of landings shall be nlot less than the
width of stairways in which they occur.
(c) In buildings of Group E Assembly occupancies, flights of
less than three risers shall not be used in stairways, interior or
exterior, passageways, at. entrance or elsewhere in connection withl
required exits. To overcome lesser differences in level, gradlients not
exceeding one foot in ten feet may be used.

(a) All stairs shall have walls with handrails, or well secured
handrails or guards on both sides of stairs of not less than thirty (30)
nor more than thirty-four (34) inches high.
Stairs of less than forty-four (44) inches in width may have
handrails on one side only. Horizontal runs of rails around op~en
wells shall be not less than 36 inches high.
(b) When the required width of a flight of stairs exceeds eighty-
eight (88) inches, one or more intermediate handrails, continuous
between landings, substantially supported and terminating at the
upper end in newels or standards shall be provided and there shall
be not more than sixty-six (66) inches between such adjacent hand-

1115.6 WIDTH
(a) Stairs serving as required means of egress shall be clear
of all obstructions except that handrails attached to walls may pro-
ject not more than 3%/ inches at each side within the required widlth.
(b) Width of stairs shall not decrease in the direction of exit
(c) The minimum width of any stair serving as a means of
egress shall not be less than 36 inches, except that stairs in Group D),
Institutional Occupancies, shall be a minimum of 44 inches.

(a) Stairs serving as required means of egress shall have a mini-
mum headroom clearance of six feet eight inches (6' 8"), measured
vertically from the nearest nosing to the nearest soffit. This minimum
shall be maintained for the full required width of stairs and landings.

11 -12


(a) Fire escapes, or outside stairs not meeting the requirements
this chapter, shall not be permitted except as approved by the
gilding Official for existing buildings not over four (4) stories in
light, where additional exits are necessary and conditions do not
!rmit the use of more adequate exit facilities.
(b) Exter~ior fir~e escaples constructed with the approval of the
lildling Official on buildings heretofore erected, shall conforml so
r as possible with the requirements of this chapter. Fire escapes
.all be constructed of non-combustible material and shall be ar-
nged andi located so that they can readily be reached by occupants
the building andt so that safe egress is provided at thle foot of
e fire escape.
(c) All openings located within ten (10) feet of exterior stair-
tys or fire escapes shall be protected w~ith approved self-closing fire
ors or approved fire w\indowvs.
(d) Exterior stairw\ays, unlless otherwise enclosed by non-com-
stible materials, shall be pr1ov-ided throughout with metal mesh or
her rigid guardls at least three (3) feet high on each unenclosed
le of such stairway. All glass used in the construction of such en-
,sure~s shall be wired glass.


(a) Every exit doorway shall openly into an enclosed stair-way, a
r1izontal exit, a fire protected corridor or passageway, meeting the
quiremnents of this chapter andt providing continuous protected
:ress to a street, or to an exterior open space leading to a street.
The clear height of exit doorways shall be not less than six feet
dt six inches (6' 6").
(b) No exit doorway shall be less than thirty-six (36) inches
w\idth except that in Group, D, Institutional occupancies, doorways
ring as exits for areas housing bedrliddenl patients shall be not
ss than forty-four (44) inches in width.
(c) Exit doorw~ays shall Sw\ingp inl the direction of exit and shall
,t obstruct the ti'avel along any required exit, except that doors
vung flat against the walls may project not more than six (6)
ches. No door shall at anly point in its swing reduce the required
idth of an exit stairw~ay or landling to less than thirty (30) inches
lr interfere with full use of the stairs. Doors from individual rooms
cupied by less than 50 people may open into such room or space.
(dl) No exit dloorway shall open immediately upon a flight of
airs. A landling of at least the w~idth of dloor shall be provided.

11 -13

(e) All doors designed to be ktept normally closed inl connection
with exits, such as doors on stair enclosures and smoke stop doors,
shall be provided with reliable self-closing mechanism and shall not
at any time be secured in the open position, except stair doors in
schools and smoke stop doors in hospitals may be kept normally open
for operating convenience provided that qualified personnel is con-
tinually available to assure prompt closing of doors in case of fire or
other emergency.

(f) Smoke barriers, horizontal exits, stairway enclosures andi
other fire doors opening on extitways shall be self-closing and so
maintained or shall be provided with approved door hlollinlg devices
of the fail safe type which will release the door(s) causing it to
close upon the detection of products of combustion other than heat
by a device complying with the requirements of "Smoke Detectors
for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, U.L. Standardl 188."
(g) Required exit doors shall be openable from the inside without
the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or effort. When exit doors
are in pairs, manually operated edge or surface. mounted flush bolts
and surface bolts are prohibited. If approved automatic flush bolts
are used, that door leaf shall have no door knob or surface mountedl
hardware. The unlatching of any leaf shall not require more thanl
one (1) operation.
(h) For required width of doorways, serving exit stairways and
the exit capacity of doorways, see Sections 1105.2 and 1105.3.

(i) Locks, if provided, shall not require any key to operate from
the inside, except as may be required for mental and penal institu-
tions, except this requirement shall not apply to exterior exit doors
in a Group B, E-2, F or G Occupancy if there is a readily visible
durable sign on or ad jacent to the door stating "THIS EX(IT TO
shall be in letters no less than 1" high on a contrasting background.
The locking device must be of a type that will be readily distinguish-
able as locked. The use of this exception may be revokedl by the
Building Official for due cause.

(a) The exit doors of schools (except doors of individual school
rooms), motion picture theaters, and theaters of any capacity shall
be equipped with latches (fire exit bolts) which release when pres-
sure of not to exceed 15 pounds is applied to the releasing devices
in the direction of the exit travel. Such releasing devices may be
bars or panels extending not less thanl two-thirds of the width of
the door and placed at heights suitable for the service required, but
not less than 30 nor more than 44 inches above the floor.
(b) The exit doors of all other places of public assembly having
capacity in excess of 600 persons shall be equipped with latches (fire
exit bolts) as provided in the proceeding paragraph.
11 -14

Where required doors are operated by power which is activated
by a photo-electric device, floor mat, wall switches or other approved
device or as well as doors with power assisted manual operation, the
design, installation and maintenance shall be such that, in the event
of power failure, the door may be manually opened to permit exit
travel. These doors shall be openable as is required for other non-
power operable doors.

(a) Approved revolving doors may be used between street floor
and street as required exits except as noted in paragraph (e) below,
but not within five (5) feet of the swing of the wings at foot of stairs
from upper floors nor within 3 feet of the swing of the wings at
head of basement stairs. Where used there shall be at least one
swing door exit within 20 feet of each revolving door, with there
being no fewer swing doors than revolving doors as individual exits,
except as provided in paragraphs (c) below.
(b) Each revolving door shall receive egress credit equal to the
dimension of the clear opening between the extreme ends of the
enclosure walls, less that space occupied by all of the wings when
collapsed in a "book-fold" manner an~d moved to the extreme egress
(c) Revolving doors may serve as exits, without swinging doors,
for street floor elevator lobbies if no stairways or doors from other
parts of the building discharge through the lobby, and the lobby has
no occupancy other than as a means of travel between elevator and
(d) All approved revolving doors shall be:
1. Equipped with means to prevent their rotation at too
rapidly a rate to permit orderly egress. (A rate of 12 revolutions
per minute is recommendedl, and
2. Equipped with emergency collapsing devices such that
each of the wings will collapse in either direction when a force
of not more than 180 pounds is applied on the outer stile of the
wings at push bar level, and all of the wings must collapse to-
gether into a "book-fold" position.
(e) Revolving doors may be used in the following occupancy
classifications in accordance with this section:
Group A--Residential
Group B--Business
Group F--Storage
Group, G--Industrial
Group C--Schools--Only at main entr~ances of administrative
buildings where not subject to emergency use.
11 -15

Group D-Inlstitutional-Only at main entrances of adlminis-
trativ-e buildings where nlot: subject to emergncy)
Group E-Not permitted as required exits.

(a) N~o door, when opening or wrhen fully op~en shall In-ujec~t he(-
yond the building line. (See Chapter XXTI, Use of P'ublic Property).
(b) Every dloor usedl as a means of egress or ingrecss in cafe'cs,
restaurants, or in any building of Group E, Assembly Occupancy,
shall be considered as an exit doorway and shall meet all the requ]lire-
ments as set forth in this chapter.


(a) The width and enclosure of exit rampls shall be as 1requiredl
in Section 1112--Exit Outlets.
(b) The slope of ramps shall not exceed one foot in ten f'eet.
(c) Surface of ramps shall be of non-slip material.
(d) Exit ramps shall be of non-combustible construction except
as otherwise permitted for stairs.
(e) Ramps shall comply with all requirements for stairways so
far as those requirements ar~e applicable.

(f) In all public buildings such as, but not limited to, public
libraries, city halls, court houses and public schools that have their
main floor level above or below ground level shall hav~e at least onel
ramp at a public entrance to the building accessible and available for
use by the Physically Handicap~ped using wheel chairs, braces or
crutches. Ramps for Physically Handicappedl shall not have a slop~e
greater than one foot rise in twelve feet, or 8.33 percent, or 4 degrees
50 minutes. Ramps shall have handrlails on at least one side, 32 inches
in height, measured from the sulrace of the ramp, that are smooth
and extend one foot beyond the top andi bottom of the ramp,. Ramp~s
shall have a level platform at the top at least three (3) feet wide and
shall extend at least one foot beyond each side of the doorway. It shall
have at least six (6) feet of straight clearance at the bottom.


(a) A horizontal exit is a horizontal passageway through a fire
wall or through a two-hour fire-resistive partition into another
building or into another section of the same building, provided how-
ever, that horizontal exits may comprise not more than fifty per-
cent (50%) of the required exits from any building or floor area
except for exits in mechanical or equipment rooms.
11 -16

(b) The width of horizontal exits shall not be less than requiredl
for exit doorways. The exit capacity of horizontal exits shall be as
specified in Section 1105.3.
(c) Horizontal exits shall be equipped with at least one (1)
approved fire door of a self-closing type. No automatic slidling fire
door shall be used on horizontal exits. Door openings shall be pro-
tected as specified in Section 7i03.
(dl) Floor area on either sidle of a horizontal exit shall be suf-
ficient to hold the occrupants of both floor areas served, allow\ing~
not less than three (31) square feet net clear area per person.

(e) The ar~ea into which a hlorizonltal exit leads shall b~e p~ro-
vided with exits adequate to meet the requirements of this Chap~ter`,
but not including the addled capacity imposedl by persons e'ntering it
through hlorizontal exits from another ar1ea. At least one of its exits
shall1 leadl directly to the exterior.i

(f) Where there is a dlifferenlce of level between connectedl ncarea,
ramps, not steps, shall be used, meeting the requirements of Section
(g) Doors in horizontal exits shall b~e kept unlocked ani ~un-


(a) In all buildings four (4) stories or more in height, of other
than Type I or Tylie II Construction, one enclosed exit stairway shall
be continued from street grade level to or through the roof level ex-
cept where roofs have a slope greater than one in four. Such stairway
shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that
it continues to the roof.

(b) Where roofs are usedl for roof gardens or for other purposes,
stairw~ays shall be p~rovided as required for such use or occupancy.

(c) Where no stairway extends to the roof, scuttles shall h~e
provided of size not less than tw\o (2) feet by three (3) feet, giving
access to the roof.


(a) Elevators shall conform w~ith the requirements of' the "Safety
Code for Elevators, Dumbwvaiters and Escalators, ANSI A17.1-1971l,"
as applicable unless otherwise specifiedl.
(b) Elevator shafts shall be enclosedl andi protected from the rest
of the building as specified by Section 701.3?.

(c) Elevators shall not be located in a common enclosinig shuft
with anl exit stairwnay. See Section 7i01.3.


(a) Unless otherwise specified, escalators shall comply13 w\ithl the(
cquirements for escalators in thle "Safety Codle for Elevator~s, Dumb-
aiters and Escalators, ANSI A17.1-1971."


(a) Exits shall be indicated by approved signs or lights at all
mes when the building is occupied.
(b) All exits shall be marked with illuminating signs bearing
re word "Exit" in letters at least 6 inches high. No battery op~er-
ted electric light or any type of portable lantern shall be usedl for
primary exit illumination. No luminescent or fluorescent, or reflec-
ve materials may be used as a substitute for any of the required
lumination for exit signs. All required illumination shall be so ar-
mnged that the failure of any single light unit, such as the burning
It of an electric bulb, will not leave any area in darkness. All exit
gns shall be illuminatedl at all times when the building is occupied
y a reliable light source of not less than 25j watts or equivalent
notometric rating that will be readable easily at a dlistan~ce of 100
let. Where a main entrance serves as ant exit andi is visible to the
:cupants, no exit sign is required ov~er the main entrance door.
(c) Where exit lights or signs or the exits themselves are not
sible from the exit approach, dlirectional signs indicating the way
Segress shall be provided. The level at which there is dlirect exit
the exterior shall also be clearly indicated.

(d) Lighting of exit signs shall be from a source independent
the general building lighting in buildings of Group E, Assembly
:cupancy or department stores having over five thousand (,5000)
1. ft. of area on any one sales floor, in hotels with sleeping accom-
odations for more than one hundred (100) persons and in Group
,Institutional occupancies.


(a) Exits shall be illuminated at all times when the building
occupied with light of not less than one foot candle intensity at
ie floor level.

(b) Artificial lighting when necessary to meet the requirements
This Section, shall be from a source independent of the general
gilding lighting in buildings of Group E, Assembly occupancy, of
roup D, Institutional occupancy, in hotels with sleeping accommno-
Itions for more than one hundred (100) persons and in department
ores of over five thousand (5,000) sqi. ft. of area onl anly one6 sales

1 18


(a) No obstruction shall be placed in any aisle, exit, foyer, pas-
sageway or corridor.
(b) Where the floor space of a Group E, Assembly occupancy,
is occupied by tables, chairs or other movable furniture, aisles at
least 36 inches in clear width shall be maintained to provide ready
access to exit dloorways.


(a) A mallnul fire alarm system in accordance with provisions
of "Local Protective Signaling Systems, NF"PA 72-A, 1972," shall be
installedl in all the following buildings unless the building is equipped
with all automatic fire alarm system or an automatic sprinkler sys-
Group A: Hlotels having accommodations for more than 15 guests,
apartment houses four stories or more in height, dormitories, lodging
or rooming houses having more than 20 sleeping accommodations.
Group B: Business buildings having a total occupancy of 500 or
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the street
Group C: Schools.
Group D2: Hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes, homes for the
aged and orphanages.
Group E: Assembly hlaving a capacity of 1,000 persons.
Group G: Industrial occupancies of buildings over two stories or
more in height, and having a total capacity of 500 oir more above or
below the street floor level.
Group H: Hazardous occupancies.

11 -19


9- Dormitory and Classrooms. Any building used for both class-
room and dormitory purposes shall comply with the applicable provisions
of Chapter 11 in addition to complying with Chapter 9. Where classroom
and dormitory sections are not subject to simultaneous occupancy, the
same exit capacity may serve both sections.

9- Other Combined Occupancies.
9- Any other combinations of occupancy not covered in 9-
and 9- shall~comply with all applicable chapters of this Code, with
means of egress adequate to serve all occupancies simultaneously.
9- Each room having an occupant load of more than 100 shall
be located at the floor of exit discharge.
Exception: Buildings offire-resistive construction.

9-1.2 Special Definitions.
Common Atmosphere. A common atmosphere exits between rooms,
spaces or areas within a building, which are not separated by an approved
smoke partition.
Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational Buildings. Include every
building or portion of a building not having corridors which comply
with 9-3.6.1 and are designed for multiple teaching stations.
(a) Flexible plan buildings have movable corridor walls and movable
partitions of full height construction with doors leading from rooms to
(b) Open plan buildings have rooms and corridors delineated by use of
tables, chairs, desks, bookcases, counters, low height (5 feet) partitions, or
similar furnishings.
Flexible plan buildings without exit access doors between rooms and
corridors shall be classified as open plan buildings.
Interior Room. A room whose only means of egress is through an
adjoining or intervening room which is not an exit.
Room. For the purposes of this section, a room is a space or area
bounded by any obstructions to egress which at any time enclose more
than 8(> percent of the perimeter of the space or area. Openings of less than
3 feet clear width and less than 6 feet 8 inches high shall not be considered
in computing the unobstructed perimeter.
Separate Atmosphere. A separate atmosphere exists between rooms,
spaces or areas that are separated by an approved smoke partition.
Separate Means of Egress. A means of egress separated in such a
manner from other required means of egress as to provide an atmospheric
separation which precludes contamination of both means of egress by the
same f ire. (See Section 6-6.)
Smoke Partition. (See Section 6-6.) For purposes of this section, smoke
partitions shall also include floors and openings therein.




(See also Chapter 17.)


9-1.1 Application.
9-1.1.1* The requirements of this chapter apply to both new and existing
Exception No.1I: Where otherwise stated.
Exception No. 2: An existing building housing educational occupancies
established prior to the elective date of this Code may have its use con-
tinued if it conforms or is made to conform to the provisions of` this Code
to the extent that, mn the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, reason-
able life safety against the hazards of fre, explosion, and panic is provided
and maintained.

9-1.1.2 Rooms used for kindergarten or first grade pupils shall not be lo-
cated above or below the floor of exit discharge. Rooms used for second
grade pupils shall not be located more than 1 story above the floor of exit

9 c-1.13 duational occupancies shall make provisions for the physically

9-1.1.4 Mixed Occupancies. (See also I~.3.)
9- General. In case two or more classes of occupancy occur
in the same building or structure so mntermingled that separate safeguards
are impracticable, the means of egress shall be sufficient to meet the re-
quirements for each individual room or section and for the maximum
occupant load of entire building. Construction, protection, and other
safeguards shall meet requirements of the most hazardous occupancy.
Exception: As otherwise specified in this chapter.
9- Assembly and Educational. Any auditorium, assembly room,
cafeteria, gymnasium used for assembly purposes such as athletic events
with provisions for seating of spectators, or other spaces subject to as-
sembly occupancy shall comply with Chapter 8, including Special Pro-
visions for Places of Assembly in Buildings of Other Occupancy, which
provides that where auditorium and gymnasium exits lead through
corridors or stairways also serving as exits for other parts of the building,
the exit capacity shall be sufficient to permit simultaneous exit from
auditorium and classroom sections-
Exception: In the case of an auditorium and gymnasium of a type suit-
able only for use of the school occupant load (and therefore not subject to
simultaneous occupancy), the same exit capacity may serve both sections-

~13 Classification of Occupancy. (See 4-1.3.)

9-1.31 Educational occupancies shall include all buildings used for the
gathering of groups of 6 or more persons for purposes of instruction, such
as schools, universities, colleges, and academies.

9-1.3.2 Educational occupancy includes part-day, nursery schools,
kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is primarily educational
even though the children are of preschool age.

9-133 Other occupancies associated with educational institutions shall
be in accordance with the appropriate parts of this Code. (See Chapters
10, 11, 14, IS, and 16, andlI-4~J.S)
9-13.4* In cases where instruction is incidental to some other occupancy.
the section of this Code governing such other occupancy shall apply.

9-1.4 Clssification of Hazard of Contents. Contents of educational oc-
cupancies shall be classified in accordance with the provisions of Section

9-1. Occupant Load.

9-1.5.1 The occupant load of educational buildings or any individual
story or section thereof for the purpose of determining exits shall be as
determined by the authority having jurisdiction but not less than one
person for each 20 square feet of net classroom area or 50 square feet of net
area of shops, laboratories, and similar vocational rooms. In day nurseries
where sleeping facilities are provided, the occupant load shall be not less
than one person for each 35 square feet of net area.

1.51 The occupant load of an area having fixed seats shall be deter-
mined by the number of fixed seats installed. Required aisle space serving
the fixed seats shall not be used to increase the occupant load. When
more than 60 seats, every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet wide when
serving seats on one side only and not less than 3 feet 6 inches when
serving seats on both sides. When serving 60 seats or less, aisles shall not
be less than 30 inches wide. Withmn a classroom where there are rows of
seats with room access to the seats between individual rows, this space
does not constitue an aisle. No more than 6 seats shall intervene between
any seat and an aisle.
9-1.5.3 The capacity of an educational occupancy or a portion thereof
may be modified from that specified above if the necessary aisles and exits
are provided. An approved aisle or seating diagram shall be required by
the authority having jurisdiction to substantiate such a modification.

9-15.4 The occupant load for determining exit requirements of individual
lecture rooms, gymnasiums, or cafeterias used for assembly purposes of
more than 50 persons shall be determined mn accordance with 8-1.5.1 of
this Code.




9-2.1 General.
9-2.1.1 Every aisle, corridor, balcony, other means of access to exits,
and discharge from exits shall be in accordance with Chapter 5.
9-2.1.2 Means of Egress Deficiencies in Existing Buildings.
9- Deficiencies may be corrected by adding additional means of
egress, preferably those which will provide direct exit discharge to the
outside from classroom or student-occupied areas.
9- In lieu of direct exit discharge to the outside from classrooms,
the requirements of this Code may be met by providing communicating
doors between classrooms or student-occupied areas that provide access
to at least one exit or exit stair without passing through interior corridors.
9-2.2 Types of Exits. Exits of the specified number and width shall be
one or more of the following types, in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter 5 of this Code.
(a) Doors. (See 5-2.1.)
(b) Interior Stairs Class A or Class B. (See 5-2.2.)

NOTE: Class B stairs Rshll not be used for studentt areasw.

(c) Smokeproof Towers. (See 5-2.3.)
(d) Outside Stairs Class A. (See 5-2.5).
(e) Horizontal Exits. (See 5-2.4.)
(f) Ramps Class A or Class B. (See 5-2.6.)

9-2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress.
9-2.3.1* Every educational building, and every floor, section or room
thereof considered separately shall have exits sufficient to provide for the
capacity thereof, comprised of one or more types of exits, as follows:
(a) Any door, in accordance with Section 5-2.1, leading directly out-
side building at ground level, or not to exceed 3 risers above or below the
ground 100 persons per unit of exit width.
(b) Any door leading outside building but requiring steps of over
3 risers to reach the ground 100 persons per unit of exit width; steps
must have 4S more units of width than doors to allow for slower travel
(c) Stairs, smokeproof towers or outside stairs, in accordance with
Sections 5-2.2, 5-2.3 and 5-2.5 60 persons per unit of exit width.
(d) Ramps. in accordance with 5-2.6.
(1) Class A 100 persons per unit of exit width.
(2) Class 8 60 persons per unit of exit width.


9-2.5.2* Exits shall be so arranged that at least 2 separate exits will be
available from every floor area. Exits shall be as remote from each other
as practicable, so arranged that there will be no pockets or dead ends of
appreciable size in which occupants may be trapped, and in no case shall
any dead-end corridor extend more than 20 feet beyond the stairway or
other means of exit therefrom.

9-2.5.3 Every classroom or room used for educational purposes or
student occupancy below the floor of exit discharge shall have access to at
least 1 exit which leads directly to the exterior at level of discharge with-
out entering the floor above.

9-2.6 Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. Travel distance to an
exit shall not exceed 150 feet from any point in a building.

Exce25io~n No. 1: For travel distance in open plan buildings, see Section

Exception No. 2: The travel distance may be increased to 200 feet in edu-
cational occupancies completely protected by a complete automatic ex-
tinguishing system.

9-2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be arranged in ac-
cordance with the provisions of Section 5-7.

9-2.8 Doors and Hardware.

9-2.8.1 Door Closure. All exit doors designed to be kept normally closed
shall conform with 5-

9-2.8.2 Door Swing. If a room or space is subject to occupancy by more
than 50 persons, exit doors shall swing out. Only 1 locking or latching
device shall be permitted on a door or a leaf of a pair of doors. (See also
9-2.8.3 Panic Hardware. Any required exit door subject to use by 100
or more persons shall be operated by a panic hardware device, in ac-
cordance with 5-

9-2.9 Blumination of Mesas of Egress. All educational buildings shall
haye adequate exit illumination mn accordance with 5-8.

gs~1 Em rgec Lght sup Fle ible lnp aond open plan buildings
in nrorman windo 1ss s ch as rr s, s tars, aeas, or corridors, shall

9-2.11 Marking of Mieans of Egess. All educational buildings shall have
signs designating the location of exits or the path of travel to reach them.
in accordance with 5-10.

01 1--84

IUzra sBrarr CODE

(e) Horizontal exits, in accordance with 5-2.4 100 persons per unit
of exit width.

9-2.3.2* The same exit units or fraction thereof required for any indi.
vidual floor may be counted as simultaneously serving all floors above the
first story or floor of exit discharge.

P-2.3.3 Minimum Corridor Width,
9- Any corridor shall be not less than 6 feet wide in the clear.
9- Drinking fountains or other equipment, fixed or movable,
shall not be so placed as to obstruct the required minimum 6-foot corridor
9- Doors which swing into an exit access corridor shall be re-
cessed to prevent interference with corridor traffic; any doors not so re-
cessed shall open 180 degrees to stop against wall. Doors in any position
shall not reduce the required corridor width by more than one half.

9-2.4 Number of Exits.
9-2.4.1 There shall be at least 2 exits available from every floor area-
9-2.4.2 Every room or space with a capacity of over 50 persons or over
1,000 square feet in area shall have at least 2 doorways as remote from
each other as practicable. Such doorways shall provide access to separate
exits, but, where egress is through corridors, may open upon a common
corridor leading to separate exits in opposite directions.

9-2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress.
9-2.5.1 Exterior Corridors or Balconies.
9-* Where exterior corridors or balconies are provided as medns
of exit, they shall open to the outside air except for railings or balustra es
with stairs or level exits to grade not over 250 feet apart, so located that
an exit will be available in either direction from the door to any individual
room or space, with dead ends not to exceed 20 feet. If balconies are en-
closed by glass or in any other manner, they shall be treated as interior

roiwthou pnns dn rshl eo l rth rqiee nt d ouo r
gealbtar o reuie to helped fro fir withi the building b

the side of the balcony or corridor away from the building and are separ-
ated from the building by the full required width of the balcony or corridor-
Regardless of other provisions, exterior balconies and stairs may be
of the same type of construction as the building which they serve.

Exception: Signs are not required in situations where location of exits is
otherwise obvious and familiar to all occupants, such as in small elementary
school buildings.

9-2.12* Windows for Rescue and Ventilation. Every room or space used for
classroom or other educational purposes or normally subject to student
occupancy shall have at least one outside window used for emergency
rescue or ventilation. Such window shall be openable from the inside with-
out the use of tools, and providing a clear opening of not less than 20
inches in width, 24 inches in height and 5.7 square feet in area. The bottom
of the opening shall be not more than 44 inches above the floor.
Exception No.1:. In buildings with a complete approved extinguishing system
in accordance with Section 6-4.
Exception No. 2: Where the room or space has a door leading directly to the
outside of the building.


9-3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings.
9-3.1.1 Any interior stairway and other vertical opening in educational
buildings shall be enclosed and protected in accordance with Section 6-1.
9-3.1.2 Stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 6-1.
Exception: Stairrway enclosure will not be required for a starirway, seryng
only one adjacent ~floor except a basement and nor connected with corn drs
or stairways serymig other floors.

wa3 an ohr mea of erss an a eCas B rCeswhe, i
accordance with the provisions of Section 6-2.

dxepin In eistin e ucatwoa buikling wri hv u winter /ii ths

9-3.3 Detection, Alarm, and Communication Systems.
9-3.3.1 Approved manually operated fire alarm facilities in accordance
with Section 6-3 shall be provided in every educational building.
9-3.3. In buildings provided with automatic sprinkler protection, the
operation of the sprinkler system shall automatically actuate electrical
school fire alarm systems.
9-3.3.3 Existing Buildings. Required nts ftor fireoalaer sys ems f ei
ing educational buildings shall co frm t hs o e dicat oa
buildings subject to the approval of the authority having juris icion-

9-3.4 Extinguishmnent Requlirements. Every portion of educational build-
mngs below the floor of exit discharge shall be protected with complete
automatic sprinkler protection in accordance with Section 6-4.

-3.5 Protection from Hazards.
9-3.5.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processmsg, or use of combustible
supplies, flammable liquids or hazardous materials in quantities deemed
hazardous by recognized standards; boiler or furnace rooms, fuel storage
rooms, maintenance shops, including wood-working and painting areas;
kitchens and laundries shall be separated from other parts of the building

O enig sh al b tecen lbyse fa-sn g oatomati crc n fre door
assembhies. (See NFPA 80.)
Exception: Food preparation facilities protected in accordance with NFPA
96, Vapor Removal Cooking Equipment (see Appendix B), are not required
to hae openings between food preparation areas and the dining areas pro-

9-3.5.2 Janitor closets shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler
system, which may be supplied by the domestic water supply system serv-
ing no more than six (6) sprinklers and has a water supply sufficient to
provide 0.15 GPM per square foot of floor area.

9-3.6 Minimum Construction Requirements.
9-3.6.1 Interior Corridors.
9- Every interior corridor shall be of construction having not less
than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, and all openings protected with doors,
frames and hardware, including losers, that shall all have a fire protection
rating of at least 20 minutes.

b cepio No I Roo do es iniex sting buildings may be 1%/-inch solid

casot m s orve ac ch2 tordrsh ats1 at bon do etl teon th

9- Any interior corridor more than 300 feet in length shall be di-
vided into reasonably equal sections not exceeding 300 feet in length by
smoke partitions installed mn accordance with Section 6-6.

9-3.7 Smoke Control. (See 9-2.12 and 9-

9-.1 Electrical Wiring and Equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment
and all cooking, heating, mncmerating and other building service equip-
ment shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 7.

9-4.2 Air Conditioning. Every air-conditioning, beating, and ventilating
installation shall comply with 7--2 of this Code.
94.3 Elevators. (See 7-3.)

9-5.1 Windowless and SubterraneanBuildings. In addition to the require-
ments of this section for underground and windowless educational build-
mngs, the provisions of 16-4 of this Code shall apply and such buildings
shall be provided with complete automatic sprinkler protection.

9-5.2 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings.
9-5.2.1 General Requirements. Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall not exceed 30,000
square feet mn undivided area. A solid wall or smoke partition (Section
6-6) shall be provided at maximum intervals of 300 feet and openings in
such walls or partitions shall comply with 6-6.2.

9-5.2.2. Means of Egress Requirements.
9- Arrangement of Means of Egress.
9- Each room occupied by more than 300 persons shall have two
(2) or more means of egress entering into separate atmospheres. Where
three (3) or more means of egress are required, not more than two (2) of
them shall enter into the same atmosphere.
19- Exit access from interior rooms may pass through an adjoin.
mng or an mntervemang room, provided that the travel distances do not ex-
ceed those set forth in 9-
Foyers and lobbies constructed as required for corridors shall not be
construed as mntervenng rooms.
Where the only means of egress from a room is through an adjouning
or intervening room, smoke detectors shall be installed mn the area of the
common atmosphere through which the means of egress must pass. The
detectors shall actuate alarms audible mn the interior room and shall be
connected to the school fire alarm system.
Exception No. 1: Where the aggregate occupant load of the interior room
or rooms is less than 10.
Exception No. 2: Where enclosures forming interior rooms are less than
%5 of the foor to ceiling height and do not exceed 8 feet.
Exception No. 3: Interior rooms used exclusively for mechanical and public
utility service to the buikrbng -
9-5.2.213 Flexible plan schools may have walls and partitions re.
arranged periodically, only after revised plans or diagrams have been ap.
proved by the authority having jurisdiction.





9- Open plan schools shall have furniture, fixtures, or low
height partitions so arranged that exits will be clearly visible and un-
obstructed, and exit paths are direct, not circuitous. If paths or corridors
are established, they shall be at least as wide as required by 9-2.3.3.
9- Travel Distance to Exits. No point in a building shall be more
than 150 feet from an exit, measured in accordance with 5-6.
~Exception: An increase in the above travel distance to 200 feet shall be
permitted in a building fully protected by an automatic fire extinguishing
system in accordance with Section 6-4 and NFPA 1,Sadr o h
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (See Appendix B.) 13 ~no~lr Ih

9-5.23 Protection.
9- Vertical Openings.
9- All exit stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with 6-1.
9- Vertical openings other than exits shall be enclosed as re-
quired by 6-1. (See 9-3.1.2 for enclosure ofexits.)
9-* Interior Finish. Interior finish in flexible plan and open plan
buildings shall be as follows:
(a) Corridors in flexible plan buildings Class A, on rigid material
will not deform at temperature below 450. F. Smoke emissions shall be
as required in 6-2.
(b) Other than corridor walls Class A or Class B. (See 6-2.)

Exeption No. 1: Fixtues and low hieight parrtiions not over 5 feet high

Exception No. 2: In one-story buildings the exposed portions of structural
members complying with the requirements for heavy timber construction may
be permitted.
9- Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems.
9- Any flexible plan building or open plan building in which
the travel distance to exits exceeds 150 feet shall have complete automatic
fire extinguishing systems in accordance with Section 6-4. Extinguishing
systems shall be electrically interconnected with the school fire alarm sys-
9- Automatic fire extinguishing systems shall be modified to
conform with partition changes. Modification plans shall have prior
approval of the authority havmig jurisdiction.
9- Protection from Hazards.
9- Stages in places of assembly shall be separated from school
areas by construction having at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating and
shall comply with 8-3.5.1. Openings shall be protected by self-closing or
automatic closing fire door assembhies having a fire protection rating of
%/ hours.

9- Shops, laboratories, and similar vocational rooms, as well
as storage rooms, shall be separated from school areas by construction
having at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating. They shall have exits mn-
dependent from other areas.
9-5.2.35 Smoke Control.
9- The specific requirements of this section are not intended
to prevent the design or use of other systems, equipment or techniques
which will effectively prevent the products of combustion from breaching
the atmospheric separation.

(a) Walls, partitions and floors forming, all of or part of an atmos-
phre eseparo nshl ct o bmat r als cons sento ssA th reguierem nt
smoke partition. Glass lights of approved wired glass set in steel frames
may be installed in such walls or partitions.
(b) Every door opening therein shall be protected with a fire assembly
as required elsewhere in the Code, but not less than a self-closing or auto-
matic-closing, tight-fitting smoke assembly having a fire protection rating
of not less than 20 minutes-
(c) Ducts penetrating atmospheric separation walls, partitions or
doors shall be equipped with an approved automatic-closing smoke
damper when having openings mnto more than one atmosphere, or the
atmospheric separation shall be mamntamned by an approved method of
smoke control.
(d) All automatic-closing fire assemblies installed in the atmospheric
separation shall be activated by approved smoke detectors.
(e) Janitor closets and storage rooms shall be enclosed by materials
having one-hour fire resistance. Stages and enclosed platforms shall be
constructed in accordance with Chapter 8.
Exception: Doors to jianitor closets mayt harve ventilatling lowers.

95.3 Child Day Care Centers. (See also 9-5.4 and 9-5.5.)
9-5.3.1 General Requirements.
9-* General.
9- This section establishes life safety requirements for child
day care centers, in which more than 12 children receive care, mamn-
tenance and supervision for 24 hours or less per day.
9- The text principally applies to centers for children under
3 years of age. Variations for centers housinge children 3 years of age and
older are indicated.
9- Centers housing children 6 years of age and older shall con-
form to the requirements for educational ccupancies. except as noted

01 1--9()



9- Where a facility houses more than one age group, the re-
quirements for the younger children shall apply, unless the area housing
the younger children is maintained as a separate fire area.
9- Mixed Occupancies.
(a) Where centers are located in a building containing mixed oc-
cupancies, the separation requirements of the locally applicable building
code or, if none exits, a nationally recognized model code, shall be satis-
(b) Centers in Apartment Buildings.

rating. The smoke partition shall be so located that there is an exit on each
side of it.
(ii) The door in the smoke partition shall be not less than 36 inches wide.
Exception: Existing doors not less thaiz 32 inches wide may be accepted.
(iii) The door and frame assembly in the smoke partition shall have a
fire protection rating of at least 20 minutes and shall be equipped with a
self closing device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device activated
by a smoke detector. (See also 5-
9- Location. The story below the floor of exit discharge may be
used in buildings of fire-resistive construction, protected noncombustible
construction, protected wood frame construction and protected ordinary
construction. (See 9-
9- Special Definitions (none).

9- Classification of Occupancy. For the purposes of this section,
children are classified mn age groups, as follows: Children under 3 years of
ae, chlh ren from 3 through 5 years of age, and children 6 years of age

9- Classif ication of Hazard of Contents. (Not specifically classified.) i

113 5pr.5Occdpn r flo To soccupanthload fo which means of egress
intended to occupy that floor but not less than one person for each 35
square feet of net floor area used by the children.

9-5.3.2 Means of Egress Requirements.
9-- General (none).
9- Types of Exits. (See 9-2.2.
9- Stairs.
(a) Exit stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with 9-3.12.
(b) There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairs in an exit
enclosure nor shall the open space within the enclosure either under or
adjacent to the stairs be used for any purpose.

9- Areas of Refuge. In buildings over 5 stories above ground
level, areas of refuge shall be provided for occupants of child day care
centers, either by smokeproof towers or horizontal exits.

9- Capacity ofMeans of Egress (See 9-2.3.)
9- Number of Exits.
9- Each floor occupied by children shall have not less than
two remote exits.
9- When the story below the exit discharge is used (see 9, the following conditions shall be met:
(a) For up to 30 children there shall be two remote exits. One exit
shall discharge directly outside and the vertical travel to ground level shall
not exceed 8 feet. There shall be no unprotected opening into the enclosure
of the second exit.
(b) For over 30 children a minimum of two exits shall be provided
directly outside with one of the two exiting at ground level.
Exception No. 1: The exit directly to ground level is not required if the exits
are protected in accordance with 5-13 except that there shall be no openings
into the exit other than for ingress and egress. Smoke detectors shall be
provided in that story and the story of discharge.
Exception No. 2: The exit directly to ground level is not required if one exit
complies with Exception No. 1 and sprinklers are used in that story and the
story of exit discharge.

S9-- Arrangement of Means of Egress. (When the storyr below the
exit discharge is used, see also 9-

9- Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits.
9- Travel distance shall be measured in accordance with 5-6.
9- Travel distance (a) between any room door intended as
exit access and an exit shall not exceed 100 feet; (b) between any point mna
room and an exit shall not exceed 150 feet; (c) between any pomnt mna
sleeping room or suite and an exit access door of that room or suite shall
not exceed 50 feet
Exception: The travel distance in (a) and (b) above may be increased by SO
feet in buildings completely equipped with an automatic jire extinguishing
system in accordance with 6-4.
9- The travel distance to exits in open plan centers for children
3 years of age and older shall be in accordance with 9- for open
pan schools.

is used, see also 9- All such exits shall discharge directly to the
S5.. Dshr fo outside. (h t so bl h ei scag

9- Doors, Locks.
9- Doors in means of egress shall swing in the direction of exit
travel and shall meet the requirements of 9--2.8.2 or 9-2.8.3.

bExi ntion: Doors from an existing center to an exit access in apartment

9- Every closet door latch shall be such that children can open
the door from inside the closet.

9- Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit open-
ing of the locked door from the outside in an emergency, and the opening
device shall be readily accessible to the staff.
9- Illumination of Means of Egress. If the facility is used after
daylight hours, it shall comply with 5-8.
9-53.2.10 Emergency Lighting. Means of egress in each day care center
shall be provided with emergency lighting, in accordance with 5-9.
9- Marking of Means of Egr~ess. (No addritionl special require- I
ments.) (See 5--10.)

9-5.33 Protection.
9- Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening in centers
shalll be enclosed and protected mn accordance with Section 6-1.

9- Interior Finish.
9- In centers for children 5 years old or less, interior finish for
all walls and ceilings shall be Class A or Class B in accordance with
Section 6-2 and floors shall be Class A, B or C. In new construction, in-
terior finish in means of egress shall be Class A and floors in means of
egress shall be Class A or Class B.

Exception: Tongue and groove wood mooring over V2-inch thick may be

9- In centers for children d years of age or older, interior finish
for means of egress shall be Class A or Class B and for individual rooms
Class A, B or C. Floors shall be Class A, B or C.
9- Decorations and furnishings shall be in accordance with
Chapter 17.

9-5.33.3 Detection/Alarm Systems.
9- There shall be a manually operated fire alarm system on
each floor of the center. In centers with more than 100 children, the
fire alarm system shall be installed to transmit an alarm by the most direct
and reliable method approved by local regulations to the fire department
that is legally committed to serve the area in which the center is lorntedl





9- Smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceiling of each
story in front of the doors to the stairways and at no greater than 30 feet
spacing in the corridors of all floors containing the center. Detectors shall
also be installed in lounges and recreation areas in centers. The detectors
may be single station units with an integral alarm having a decibel rating
of at least 85.
Exception No. 1: Detectors are not required in fully automatic sprinklered
Exception No. 2: Detectors are not required in centers housing children
6 years of age and older, if no sleeping facilities are provided.

9- Extinguishment Requirements.
9- Portable fire extinguishers suitable for Class B fires shall
be installed in kitchens and cooking areas, and extinguishers suitable
for Class A fires shall be installed throughout the remainder of the center.
(See 6-4.)
9- Standpipes for fire department use shall be installed in all
buildings of 6 stories or more housing child day care centers.
9- Protection from Hazards. An area used for general storage,
boiler or furnace rooms, fuel storage, janitor's closets, maintenance shops
including woodworking and painting areas, laundries and kitchens, shall
be separated from other parts of the building with construction having
not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating and all openings shall be
protected with self-closing fire doors, or such area shall be provided with
automatic sprinkler protection. Where the hazard is severe, both the
fire-resistive separation and automatic sprinklers shall be provided.

9- Minimum Construction Standards.
9- Centers shall not be located above the heights indicated for
the types of construction given in the following table-

9- Subdivision into Compartments.
(a) Sleeping areas in centers housing children under 3 years of age
shall be compartmented with partitions having a %/-hour fire resistance
rating so there are not more than 6 children in each compartment.
(b) Compartment doors shall be not less than 3 feet wide in new con-
struction and not less than 32 inches wide in existing buildings. Doors and
frames shall have a 20-minute fire protection rating and shall be equipped
with a self-closing device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device as
specified in 10-

9-5.3.4 Building Services.
'Hi3.4.1 Electrical Services-
9- Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in ac-
cordance with Chapter 7.



Number ofStories
(Stories are counted sartring at
floor of exit discharge)
Type of
Construction Age Group 1 2 3 4 and over

Fire Resistive 0 to 3 X X X X
and Protected 3 thru 5 X X X X
Noncombustible 6 and older X X X X

Protected Wood 0 to 3 X See Note 1 Permitted
Frame and Pro- 3 thru 5 X X See Note 1
tected Ordinary 6 and older X X See Note I

0 to 3 X See Note 1
Heavy Timber 3 thru 5 X See Note 1
6 and older X See Note 1

O to 3 X See Note I
Unprotected 3 thru 5 X See Note I
Noncombustible 6 and older X See Note I

NOTE 1: Permitted if entire building is equipped with an automatic fie
extinguishing system.
NOTE 2: May be permitted for children 3 years of age and older if the
children are limited to the first floor and number of children is limited to
50 and there are two remote exits; or if they are limited to the first floor
and the number of children is limited to 100 and each room has an exit
directly to the outside.

9-* In existing buildings, the electrical wiring shall be sized to
provide for the load. Receptacles and outlets serviced by extension cord
type wiring are prohibited. Electrical appliances shall be grounded in
acordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70. (See Appendix

9- Special protective receptacle covers shall be installed in all
areas occupied by children in centers for children under 5 years of age.
9- Air Conditioning, Ventilating, Heating, Cooking, and Other
Service Equipment. Air conditioning, ventilating, heating, cooking, and
Other service equipment shall be in accordance with Chapter 7.



Wood Frame
and Unprotected

See Note 2
See Note 2

0 to 3
3 thru 5
6 and older

9 5.4 Group Day Care Homes.
95.4.1. General Requirements.
9-* General.
9- This section establishes life safety requirements for group day
care homes, in which at least 7 but not more than 12 children receive care,
maintenance and supervision by other than their parents) or legal guard-
ian(s) for 24 hours per day or less (generally within a dwelling unit).
9- The text prmncipally applies to centers for children under
3 years of age. Variations for centers housing children 3 years of age and
older are indicated.
9- Where a facility houses more than one age group, the re-
quirements for the younger age group shall apply, unless the area housing
the younger children is mamntamned as a separate fire area.
9- Mixed Occupancies*
(a) When a group home is located in a building containing mixed
occupancies, the separation requirements of the locally applicable building
code or, if none exists, a nationally recognized model code, shall be satis-
(b) Homes in Apartment Buildings.
(i) If the two exit accesses from the home enter the same corridor, as in
an apartment building, the exit accesses shall be separated in the corridor
by a smoke partition having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating.
The smoke partition shall be so located that there is an exit on each side of

it(ii) The door in the smoke partition shall be not less than 36 inches wide.
I Exception: Existing doors not less than 32 inches wide may be accepted.
S(iii) The doors and frames in the smoke partition shall have a fire
protection rating of at least 20 minutes and shall be equipped with a
self-closing device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device as specified
in 5-
9- Special Definitions (none).
9- Classification of Occupancy. For purposes of this section,
children are classified in age groups as follows: children under 3 years of
age, children from 3 through 5 years of age, and children 6 years of age and
9- Cllassilication of Hazard of Contents. (Not specifically classified.)
9-5.4.15 Occupant Load. (No special requirements.)
~5.4.2 Means of Egress Requirementsr.
9-5.4121 General (none)
9-5.4.23 Types of Exits. (See 9-
9-5.4.123 Capacity of Means of Egress. (See 9-2.3.)

01 1-96


01 1-97


9- Number of Exits.
9- Each floor occupied by children shall have not less than two
remote means of egress.
9- Where spaces on the floor above the floor of exit discharge are
used for sleeping purposes by children, at least one exit shall lead directly,
or through an enclosed stairway, to the outside.
9- Where children are located on a story below the level of
exit discharge (basement) at least one exit directly to the outside at ground
level shall be provided. No facility shall be located more than one story
below the ground. Any stairway to the story above shall be cut off by a
fire barrier containing a door of at least a 20-mmnute fire protection rating,
equipped with a self-closing device and a latch.
9- Arrangement of Means of Egress. (When a story above or
below the exit discharge is used, see 9-
9- Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. (See 9-2.6.)
9- Discharge from Exits. (When the story above or below the exit
discharge is used, see 9-

9- Doors, Locks.
9- Every closet door latch shall be such that children can open
the door from inside the closet.
9- Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit open-
of the locked door from outside in an emergency, and the opening device
shall be readily accessible to the staff.
9- Illumination and Marking of Means of Egress. (See 9-
and 9-

9-5.4.3 Protection.
9- Protection of Vertical Openings. The doorway between the
floor of exit discharge and any floor below shall be equipped with a self-
closmng door plus frame and hardware all of at least a 20-minute fire pro- (
tection rating. Where the floor above the floor of exit discharge is used for
sleeping purposes, there shall be a self-closing door plus frame and hard-
ware all of at least 20-minute fire protection rating at the top or bottom
of each stairway.
Exception: Existing self-closing 1%4-inch solid bonded wood core doors
without rated frames may be accepted by the authority having jurisdiction.

9- Interior Finish.
9- Interior finish in occupied spaces in the home shall be Class A,
B or C, in accordance with Section 6-2.
9- The interior finish in means of egress shall be Class A or B.

9- Mixed Occupancies. Where family child day care homes are
located mna building contalming mixed occupancies, the separation require-
ments of the locally applicable building code or, if none exists, a nationally
recognized model code, shall be satisfied.
9- Special Definitions (none).
9- Classification of Occupancies. For the purposes of this section,
children are classified in age groups, as follows: children under 3 years of
age, children from 3 through 5 years of age, and children 6 years of age
and odr.
9- Classification of Hazard of Contents. (Not specifcally classifed.)
9- Occupant Load. (No special requirements.)

9-5.5.2 Means of Egress Requirements.
9- General (none).
9- Types of Exits. (See 9-
9- Capacity of Means of Egress. (See 9-2.3.)
9- Number of Exits.
9- In a one- or two-family dwelling or building of unprotected
wood frame construction used for child care purposes, every room used
for sleeping, living, or dining purposes shall have at least two means of
egress, at least one of which shall be a door or stairway providing a means
of unobstructed travel to the outside of the building at street or ground
level. No room or space shall be occupied for living or sleeping purposes
which is accessible only by a ladder, folding stairs r through a trap door.
9- Where childreir are located on a floor (basement) below
the floor of exit discharge, at least one exit shall be provided directly to
the outside at ground level. No facility shall be located more than one
story below the ground.
9- Stairs. Every stairway shall comply at least with the minimum
requirements for Class B stairs, as described in 5-2.2, in respect to width,
risers, and treads and shall be maintained free of items of storage.
9- Arrangement of Means of Egress. (See 9-
9- Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. (See 9-2.6.)
9- Discharge from Exits. (See 9-

9- Doors, Locks.
9 Each door in a means of egress shall be not less than 24 inches

ro..282Ev ry cotshe oertlatch shall be such that children can open
the oor rominsie te clse-



01 1--98


9-5.433 Detection Systems. Where the floor above the floor of exit
discharge is used for sleeping purposes there shall be a smoke detector at
the top of the stairs in a building 3 stories or less in height or inside the
dwelling unit used as a day care facility in a multiple-dwelling building.
9-5.43. Extianuishers. A portable fire extinguisher suitable for Class B
firs shall be provided for the kitchen and cooking areas.
9-5.3.5 Minimum Construction Standards. Each building used as a
group day care home shall meet the local minimum housing code and fire
prevention code for the applicable class of residential construction, or if
none exists, a nationally recognized model code.

~5.44 Buiding Services.
9-5.4.41 Electrical Services.
9- Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in ac-
cordance with Chapter 7.
9-* In existing buildings the electrical wiring shall be sized to
provide for the load. Electrical appliances shall be grounded in ac-
cordance with National Flectrical Code, NFPA 70. (See Appendix B.)
Receptacles and outlets serviced by extension cord-type wiring are pro-
9- Special protective receptacle covers shall be installed in all
areas occupied by children in homes for children under 5 years of age.
9-5.4.43 Heating Equipment- Any heaters in spaces occupied by children shall be separated
from the space by partitions, screens or other means.
9- If solid partions are used to provide the separation required
in 9-, provision shall be made to assure adequate air for com-
bustion and ventilation for the heating equipment.

9-5.5* Family (184d Day Care Homes.
9-5s.5. General Requirements.
9-55.1.1 General.
9.-5.5~.1.. This section establishes life safety requirements for licensed
family child day care homes, in which fewer than seven children receive
care, maintenance and supervision by other than their parents) or legal
guardian(s) for less than 24 liours per day (usually a dwelling umit).
9- The text principally applies to centers for children under
m easof eg aitosfor centers housing children 3 years of age and

1et 3o ah one ohlrn sall aply mapssthe arahosn a
younger children is maintained as a separate fire area.



(Formerly known as Institutional Occupancies)

10-1.1 General.
10-1.1.1 Application.
10-- Health care facilities are those used for purposes such as
medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or
mental illness, disease or infirrmty; for the care of infants, convalescents or
aged persons.
1E.1.1.12 Penal facilities are those used for penal or corrective purposes
where occupants are housed under some degree of restraint or security.
10- Health care and penal facilities provide sleeping facilities for
the occupants and are occupied by persons who are mostly incapable of
self-preservation because of age, physical or mental disability, or because of
security measures not under the occupants' control.
10- Buildings or sections of buildings which house, or in which
care is rendered to mental patients, including the mentally retarded, who
are capable of judgment in taking action for self-preservation under
emergency conditions, in the opinion of the governing body of the facility
and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, may come under other
chapters of this Code instead of Chapter 10.
10- Health care and penal occupancies shall include all buildings
or parts thereof with occupancy as described in this chapter.
10- It shall be recognized that in buildings housing various types
of psychiatric patients, or used as penal facilities, it may be necessary
to lock doors and bar windows to confmne and protect building inhabitants. I
In such instances, the authority having jurisdiction shall make appropriate
modifications to those sections of this Code which would otherwise require
the keeping of exits unlocked.

1n.. 7 le fshl Hki asaotre onzed ta some psychiatric patients are

10- In buildings in w~inch doors are locked or windows are barred,
provisions shall be made for the rapid removal of occupants by such
reliable means as the remote control of locks or by keymng all locks to keys
readily available to guards or attendants.
10-1.1.2 Total Concept. All health care and penal facilities shall be so
designed, constructed, maintained, and operated as to minimize the possi-
bility of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of occupants. Because

9- Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit the
opening of the locked door from the outside in an emergency and the
opening device shall be readily accessible to the staff.
9-55.2.9 Illumination and Marking of Means of Egress. (See 9-
and 9-5.3.2Jl.)

9-5.53 Protection.
I 9553.1 Protection of Vertical Openings.sonr. (No additional special pro-

9-5.53.2 Interior Finish.
9- Interior finish in occupied spaces in the home shall be Class
A, B or C, in accordance with Section 6-2.
9-59.3.23 The interior finish in means of egress and in rooms into which
exits discharge shall be Class A or B.
95.53.3 Detection Systems. Where the floor above the floor of exit
discharge is used for sleeping purposes there shall be a smoke detector at
the top of the stairs in a building 3 stories or less with open stairways; or in-
side the dwelling unit used as a day care facility in a multiple dwelling.
9- Extinguishers. A portable fire extinguisher suitable for Class B
fires shall be provided for the kitchen and cooking areas.
9- Minimum Construction Standards. Each building used as a
family child day care home shall meet the local minimum housing code
and fire prevention code for the applicable class of residential construction
or, if none exists, a nationally recognized model code.

9-55.4 Building Services.
9- Electrical Services.
9- Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in
accordance with Chapter 7.
9-* In existing buildings, the electrical wiring shall be sized
to provide for the load. Electrical appliances shall be grounded mn ac-
cordance with The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70. (See Appendix B.)
Receptacles and outlets serviced by extension cord-type wiring are

9-541 peia dprot h~ receptal cvers shall 5be i saled mn al

~55.43 Heating Equipment.
- Unvented room heaters shall not be permitted. Oil and
gas fired room heaters shall be installed in accordance with the applicable
standards listed in Appendix IL A guard shall be provided to protect the
children from hot surfaces and open flames.
9-55.4.2. No stove or combustion heater shall be so located as to
block escape in case of malfunctioning of the stove or heater.


PART 111



Briel Rhame Poynter & Houser

Architects- Engineers

Cocoa Beach Orlando,Florida




A fire safety inspection of the facilities at the
University of Florida campus in Gainesville was conducted
by the Office of the State Fire Marshal during the last
half of 1969. A report of this inspection was issued by
the Deputy State Fire Marshal on 6 October 1969. As a
consequence of this inspection and report, the Architect-
ural/Engineering firm, Briel Rhame Poynter & Houser of Cocoa
Beach-Orlando, was commissioned on 19 August 1970 by the
Florida Board of Regents to investigate and prepare
recommendations and cost estimates relating to corrections
to University facilities to comply with the aforementioned
Fire M;arshal's Inspection Report. The Architect/Engineer's
recommendations and estimates are presented in two volumes
entitled Report of Fire Safety Study. Volume I encompasses
all deficiencies, listed by the Fire Marshal's report,
except those relating to fire alarm systems, exit signs
and-exit illumination. Volume II is devoted exclusively
to the fire alarm, exit sign and exit illumination systems
ior essentially all facilities on the Gainesville campus.
It should be noted that the cost estimates as presented in both
'.1m..e I and Volumie II cover only thie minimal efforts required
Lu aLCComiplish compliance with the applicable codes and do not
include any provision for architectural up-grading or enlarging
o~f spaces.


The National Fire Protection Associa-tion (NFPA)
Ilo. 101-1967, "Life Safety Code" and the current issue of
the "State Fire Marshal Rules and Regulations" were
utilized by the Architect/Engineer to establish Code
conformance. Methods employed in recommended corrective

96 9,4,4,

actions comply with applicable provisions of the Southern
Standard Building Code. Please note that the 1967 Issule o
the Life Safety Code (NFPA-101) has been superceded by the
1970 version. However, the State of Florida
statutes concerned with life safety provide for the
:inclusion of the 1967 issue rather than the 1970
version. Therefore, -the 1967 C~ode has been used as
criteria in this study.

It should be noted that strict adherence to
the "Life Safety Code" in some cases results in
substantial work and extremely high costs with the
resulting corrected facility offering only a marginal
improvement to life safety. In these cases, strict
compliance with the "Life Safety Code" has been
tempered to some degree to obtain a practical and
reasonable solution. This tempering of strict code
adherence where solutions are impractical or very costly
is allowed under Section I-6 of both the 1967 and 1970
versions of the code when approved by the authority
having jurisdiction (i.e. State Fire .Marshial). The
Deputy State Fire Marshal and the Architect/Engineer
jointly reviewed the buildings falling in this
category and concurred in the methods to be used in
bringing these buildings up to practical standards that
ensure reasonable safety to life and property.


The Architect/Engineer has prepared Volume I of
this report following criteria provided by University
of Florida management. This criteria consists essent-
ially of the following:




Ir _


3. CRITERIA (continued)

a. Facilities to be investigated by the Architect/
Engineer are limited to those cited in the Fire Marshal's
Report dated 6 October 1970 (together with all addenda
thereto received to date) and with any other
facilities specifically requested either by the Florida
Board of Regents or University management.

b.. Recommended solutions include only those modifi-
cations required to meet applicable Code requirements.
Austerity in the design of recommended solutions is
mandatory in view of the present economic conditions.
In~ summary, the solutions contained herein are dedicated

-Basic Compliance with Codes
-Practical Economy of Construction
-Continuation of Established Aesthetic Lines,
where possible

c. The Flavet III family housing area is not included
in the investigation since this facility is programmed for

d. Corrective work generally done under basic
facility maintenance will be performed by University
Physical Plant personnel and therefore is not included
in the Architect/Engineer investigation.

e. All deficiencies i~n exit sign and exit illumin-
ation systems and fire alarm systems will be investigated
under the criteria of Volume II. These deficiencies
include those listed in the Fire Marshal's Report as well
as those determined through the investigative efforts of
the Architect/Engineer.





f. Construction cost estimates cover actual
construction costs only and will not contain an allow-
ance for design costs nor include internal costs to the
University divisions to maintain satisfactory operations
while construction is in progress.


The format for Volume I is based upon the usage
of the four major functional divisions designated by
the University as practical groupings plus the inclu-
sion of an introductory or general division. The
sub-division of each of the four major groups is pre-
sented through a building-by-building approach. .The
individual building data is organized and presented
in numerical sequence, using designators established
through t'he University building-numbering system as
control. Based on this system, the page numbering
scheme for Volume I is as follows:
Functional Group Identifier:
I = Introductory Division;
E = Educational and General
H = Housing Division;
M = Health Center Division; and
A = IFAS Division

Building Identification Number:
17 = Thomas Hall

Section Identifier:
1 = Deficiency;
2 = Solutions; and
3 = Construction Cost Estimates

I-- Page Sequence Number

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