• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Statement of purpose
 Location maps
 Functional description - exist...
 Building plans - existing
 Client interview
 Preliminary program data
 Proposal outline
 Proposal drawings
 Fire code study
 Code
 Miscellaneous






A Proposal for the adaptive use of Rolf's Hall
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102908/00001
Finding Guide: Historic Preservation Documents
 Material Information
Title: A Proposal for the adaptive use of Rolf's Hall
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Myers, John
Publisher: John Myers
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Historic preservation
Coordinates: 29.649239 x -82.344518
 Notes
General Note: UF AFA Historic Preservation document 181
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
Classification:
System ID: UF00102908:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Statement of purpose
        Page ii
    Location maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Functional description - existing
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Building plans - existing
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Client interview
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Preliminary program data
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Proposal outline
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Proposal drawings
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Fire code study
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Code
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Miscellaneous
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 106
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
Full Text


















A PROPOSAL FOR THE ADAPTIVE USE OF

ROLF"S HALL
























PREPARED FOR: AE 685

PROFESSOR F.B. REEVES

BY: JOHN MYERS














TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. Title

II. Statement of purpose

III. Location maps

IV. Functional description existing

V. Building plans existing

VI. Client interview

VII. Preliminary program data

A. proposal outline

B. program requirements

C. proposed HVAC

VIII. Proposal drawings

IX. Outline of work to be done

A. existing to be removed

B. description of exterior work

C. new materials

X. Fire code study

XI. Codes

XII. Miscellaneous

A. description of style

B.bio-sketch of the architect

C. two early campus plans

D. square foot costs of Rolf's Hall

E. cost data



















STATEMENT OF PURPOSE


The purpose of this project is the preparation of

a program for the adaptive use of Rolf's Hall, on the

campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville.

Information regarding fire codes and applicable building

codes is included in an attempt to increase the usefulness

of this document as a project manual.

An additional dimension to the project is the design

phase which includes design drawings of the proposed

adaptive use. These drawings have been reduced and in-

cluded as a part of this document.

All.phases of the project are conducted within

realistic limits, and when possible with input from

potential clients.

The goal of the program and design is the creation

of useful productive space which is the equivalent of new

construction, but which offers the alternatives of preserving

the campus fabricri .and-inreased economy.






































LOCATION MAPS





















ROLFS HALL


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FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION EXISTING









FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION


Rolf's Hall was constructed in 1926 and was originally

known as the IFAS Experiment Station or the Horticulture

Building. It served primarily as a horticultural research

center and has contained laboratories, offices, class

rooms and library spaces.

At the present time, Rolf's Hall serves a limited

research function, but it is primarily serving administra-

tive functions with some class rooms. The research

functions are almost exclusively located on the second

floor of the building. The first floor consists exclu-

sively of office space. The second floor houses research

and class room functions. The third floor is mixed with

class room and faculty and department offices. The fourth

floor is almost exclusively office space with one class

room in the northwest corner of the building.

The third and fourth floors have been remodeled

in recent years and used to house departments which need

space not otherwise available. An example is the Forestry

Department which occupied third floor space while waiting

for completion of the new forestry building. Following

the move, the space was given to another department.

The rotating allotment of space in portions of the

building has contributed to poor maintenance, as occupants









who are waiting to get new quarters are not likely to

report as many problems or to follow through ;Lon!:mainiten--

ance requests.

In general, as the physical condition of the building

has deteriorated, the occupants of all levels lower their

standards of acceptance and maintenance suffers further.

The attic floor is presently abandoned.









STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION


Rolf's Hall is a four story, L-shaped building of

reinforced concrete. Structurally is consists of exterior

concrete bearing walls, with interior concrete columns

and a one way floor slab in the direction of a short

span. The fourth and-fifth floors are framed in wood,

and the wood framed roof is covered with clay tile.

Exterior wall finish is brick veneer with trim around

the openings and at the corners of cast stone. A descrip-

tion of the style is included under miscellaneous data

at the end of the document. The maintenance report

may be consulted for evaluation of the condition of all

materials.

Analysis reveals that all interior walls are non-

bearing and may be removed as required. Many of these

walls are concrete block, though some are wood partitions

or stud walls. Additions and remodeling have occurred at

numerous times.

A central service chase runs vertically through the

building and extends through the roof as a large orna-

mental chimney.

Original plans -calld for:Rol-f'sn:Hal to:be rthenorth-

west corner of a quadrangle, and the doors are located

in both ends of the "L." The existing building was the












only one constructed and as a result the entries of the

building are understated. (See early plans at the rear

of this document which show the building as a part of the

proposed quadrangle.) Both entries and exits have been

brought up to code by the addition of fireproof stair

towers.

Windows are double hung wood frame with single glazing,

and most of the interior doors are the original oak ones

with modifications. Windows have been poorly maintained;

paint is peeling and putty around the panes is often

missing. (See maintenance report for conditions on all

materials and appointments, and for recommendations.)

The slab is penetrated at several locations adjacent

to the interior columns so that risers may service the

floors. Access to all points of supply is provided by

a tunnel system which is diagrammed on the following

page. Entry to the system is on the exterior, at a point

near the north corner of the west wall.

Heating 19 provided by radiators and the building is

on the central steam loop. Central air conditioning

is provided on the lower floor, but large and noisy air

handling unitss partially block the hallways. Individual










window air conditioning units are used in some rooms on

the upper floors.

Floor plans on the following pages reflect the arrange-

ment of the spaces at the time of the maintenance survey

in the Spring of 1977.























BUILDING PLANS EXISTING










office


conference


1 ST F LOO R









2 ND F LOO R
















office officee





department 5R OO
office
.rest room




F- II r m Y graduate studentM. offices
ot O






cls omclass room cls ro




office
office















office I office






l~aboratory Y. t rest room




'D~~ office I 'office r reception



office (P g







class room
office office" office office office






















CLIENT INTERVIEW









CLIENT INTERVIEW


A meeting was held with the two past presidents of

the Retired Faculty Association of the University of

Florida. The discussion centered on the association and its

activities and needs as they might relate to the programming

for the adaptive use of Rolf's Hall.

The Retired Faculty Association is organized with a

constitution, and currently has about two hundred members.

The membership consists not only of retired faculty, but

also of widows of retired faculty, and former administra-

tors, such as past university presidents. The organiza-

tion has general meetings about once every two months,

and board meetings more frequently. It organizes travel for

its members, and has been to Mexico, though most trips

are shorter duration trips to area locations. Many of

its functions are of a social nature, and some of the

general meetings are dinner meetings. Presently meetings

are held on a space available basis, either on campus

or at local restaurants. The Association publishes a

newsletter for its members, though not on a regular

schedule.

With regard to the provision of office space for

retired faculty, the present situation seems to be that

individual departments deal with the question. If a










retired faculty member needs or desires office space,

the department considers the need on an individual

basis. Available space is always a problem with many

departments and spaces are needed for active program areas.

Often the pressing demands of a department prohibit the

allotment of space for a retiree. Although it was suggested

that a faculty person would prefer a location in or near his

old department, a suite of offices for the retired

faculty would be preferable to the present inadequacy.

Another consideration is that some retired faculty

members may not wish to be located in their old departments

and may be engaged in personal of University related

projects which require office space. The clients also

stated that their membership figure would be very misleading

in planning office requirements, as a large number of the

membership had no need or desire for such space. It was

also pointed out that those faculty persons having need of

office space would rarely need permanent space. The need

is generally for a place to work or confer over a short

term, as members get involved in temporary University

programs, private consulting, and short term grant work.

Space requirements may range from one desk for a conference,

to a suite for several people working on a grant.










Although the Association has no space or secretary now,

it was agreed that a pool secretary would be a highly

desirable asset to the program.

Another key need of the Association iS for a place

where the members 'can get together and visit one another.

Although a dining facility is not feasible in the programming

for Rolf's Hall, a lounge associated with the group's

office suite would be a highly desirable part of the program.

Acquisition of a permanent Retired Faculty Association

space with a pool secretary would be a sound basis for

expansion of the group's program and services, and a

forward step in meeting the University's commitment

to this group.




















PRELIMINARY PROGRAM DATA

A. proposal outline

B. program requirements

C. proposed HYAC









PROPOSAL


The present function of Rolf's Hall was described

previously in this document as -research, teaching and office

related, under IFAS. Although there are no immediate

plans for IFAS to relocate these functions, it is consis-

tent with their long term objectives to concentrate

administrative functions in McCarty Hall, and locate

research functions on their properties on the perimeter

of the campus. The research functions will then be

located in closer proximity to the field activities

related to them. It should be emphasized that this goal

of relocating functions in Rolf's Hall is a long term,

philosophical objective, and will depend in large measure

on construction of suitable space at the desired locations.

The space in Rolf's will be relinquished to the University

only when suitable "ttade off"' of spaces is arranged.

In simultaneously examining the long term needs of

the University, it has been learned that a need for

additional classroom space is projected for the early

1980's, and, in fact, Rolf's Hall is considered a likely

prospect for conversion to classroom space to meet these

needs. Present classroom needs have been met by the

completion and opening of General Purpose Building A, which










has a very close physical relationship to Rolf's Hall. Note

the location map on page 4 for exact relationship

of the buildings.

A synthesis of factors, such as the central location

of Rolf's, the long term projected need for classroom

space and the IFAS objective of relocating, strongly

support consideration of a classroom function for a

part of Rolf's Hall.

Spatially, Rolf's may accommodate the design of

classroom spaces on the first three floors, as all existing

partitions may be removed and replaced due to their

non-structural nature. The remaining interior structural

columns tend to support retention of the central corridor

arrangement presently used. The fourth and fifth floors

are under the roof and the resulting restricted spatial

character is not as formable to general classroom use.

The upper floors are presently used for offices ,(fourth) and

abandoned office and storage space (fifth). The Quality

of the office space on the fourth floor is quite good,

as the large dormers and sloping ceilings contribute to

interesting spaces. This would suggest retention of the

space for offices if a suitable client can be found.

Research of University departments and organizations

revealed that the University has a commitment to provide










office space for retired faculty members, when possible.

There is a Retired Faculty Association which exists to

serve these faculty members, but it has no space of its

own. Contact was made with representatives of the

Retired Faculty group to discuss their needs and goals

in relation to the potential programming of the upper

floors of Rolf's Hall, and a synopsis of the meeting

with these representatives follows.









PROPOSAL OUTLINE


The general proposal for the adaptive use of Rolf's.Hall

assumes that the University of Florida will be the eventual

client for general classroom and seminar space. This

assumption is strongly rooted in the existing master plan

of the University and expressions of interest in Rolf's Hall

for this purpose. The spatial character of the first,

second, and third floors is quite suitable for this proposed

use.

The Retired Faculty Association would be the client

for an administrative office suite, a faculty lounge,

and individual offices to be located on the fourth

floor. The present program of the Retired Faculty Association

has been outlined in the client interview in this report.

It seems clear that the functioning of this group is not

helped in any way by the current absence of facilities.

I believe that the provision of a permanent aulte of

offices and the addition of a pool secretary would greatly

enhance the efforts of the association. The associated

faculty lounge will provide a social gathering place for

retired faculty members while on campus and will increase

the interaction between members as they meet in the lounge.

Attention to comfort, privacy, and a club-11ke atmosphere










should make the lounge an indispensable asset to the asso-

ciation.

The retired faculty offices will be administered

by the association. The secretary will schedule both the

amount of space and the time period, so that the use of the

offices will remain flexible enough to meet the needs of the

members as they change. On a space available basis, some

of the offices could be used for visiting faculty or

consultants.

The joint use of Rolf's Hall described above represents

an efficient and positive use of the space available

in this existing and structurally sound building. For a

reasonable cost, the University can have top quality

facilities in a building which will preserve the harmony

of the campus' architectural heritage. The juxtaposition

of Rolf's with General Purpose Building A has created an

intimate inner court which should become a popular place

for students to gather, sit, study, and talk, before and

after classes.









ROLF'S HALL PROGRAM


square feet
GENERAL UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM
10896
SEMINAR / CONFERENCE 28

GENERAL OFFICE

SERVICE
5739
corridors 2792

restrooms 812

storage 155

HYAC 860

lobby 1120


RETIRED FACULTY ASSOCIATION

ASSOCIATION OFFICE SUITE 900

FACULTY LOUNGE 4~25
GENERAL OFFICES 2,0

CLASSROOM / MEETING 594
SERVICE 1559

corridors 920

restrooms 364

storage 75

HYAC -200


(figures exlcude areas in firestairs)

east stairs -

south stairs -









ROLF'S HALL FIRST FLOOR


GENERAL CLASSROOM 3246

( 5 rooms)

(estimated capacity 200)



SEMINAR / CONFERENCE 660~

( 2 rooms)


OFFICE



SER VICE 24C37

corridors ~712

restrooms 280

n.;d .s~torage 35

HYAC 290

lobby 1120





(figures exclude areas in firestairs)

east stairs h/a

south stairs n/a








ROLF 'S HALL SECOND FLOOR


square feet
GENERAL CLASSROOM
3825
(6 rooms)

(estimated capacity -240)


SEMINAR / CONFERENCE 860

( 3 rooms)


OFFICE



SERVICE 16 4

corridors 1040

restrooms 266

storage 60

I:!I HYAC 250

lobby n/a




(figures exclude areas in firestairs)

east stairs -/

.:l south stairs *









ROLF 'S HALL THIRD FLOOR


squaYtje feet

GENERAL CLASSROOM 3825

( 6 rooms)

(estimated capacity -240)



SEMINAR / CONFERENCE 860

( 3 rooms)


OFFICE



SERVICE 1686

corridors 1040

restrooms 266

storage 60

H VAC 320




(figures exclude areas in firestairs )

east stairs n/a

south stairs na









ROLF'S HALL FOURTH FLOOR


square fee-t


900


RETIRED FACULTY ASSOCIATION SUITE



FACULTY IDUNGE



GENERAL OFFICES



CONFERENCE / MEETIING


425


21, 200


594~


SeR VICE

corridors -

restrooms -

storage -

HVAC -


920

364

75

200


(figures exclude areas

east stairs -

south stairs -


in firestairs)

n/a

n/a









PROPOSED HVAC


The University of Florida has a central steam

plant which produces steam for the heating of campus

buildings. In addition, chilled water is now available

for many buildings, including Rolf's Hall.

Rolf's Hall is currently heated by hot water radiators

from a heat exchange connected to the steam loop. Air

conditioning is provided by some exterior central units

with large and noisy air handling units in the first floor

and by individual window units on upper floors.

Under the adaptive use proposal, all present HYAC

equipment will be removed. Steam and chilled water

will be provided to the building and mixing and air handling

units will be provided on each floor in a centrally located

mechanical room. Supply piping for these units will

run vertically through the existing vertical chase which

is adjacent to the mechanical space. Rooms will be

heated by' forced air with duct work for supply and return

running above suspended ceilings. Use of this system

will allow each space to be separately conditioned as

controls in each room will adjust the mixture of warm

and cool air supplied to the space. Air intake for the

units will be provided through the existing window of











the mechanical room and the window will be louvered.

This system will allow maximum flexibility in conditioning

the building, as the requirements of individual spaces

may vary considerably due to their positions in the building.






















PROPOSAL DRAWINGS






















OUTLINE

A.

B.

C.


OF WORK TO BE DONE

existing to be removed

description of exterior work

new materials












EXISTING TO BE REMOVED



1. all doors, frames, related hardware

2. all interior block walls all floors,

3. all plumbing, plumbing fixtures, partitions all floors

4. all interior frame partitions all floors

5., all electrical wiring, controls and fixtures

6. existing plaster and acoustical ceilings

7. all HVAC units, duct work, supply piping, radiators
and related wiring and controls

8. all existing floor coverings floors one through four

9. interior wood stair to attic from fourth floor











DESCRIPTION OF EXTERIOR WORK


1. inspect and repair roof as required

2. clean roof tiles

3, repair or replace cast stone trim as required

4C. remove all windows and replace with aluminum frames
amd double glazing

5. repoint morter joints as required

6. repair existing downspouts, clear all pipes

7. replace damaged or missing drain pipes, fittings,
and scuppers as required

8. remove all exterior air conditioning units along
perimeter of east wall

9.remove masonry wall screening air conditioning units
along east wall

10. remove all vegetation from walls

11. clean all brick and cast stone

12. remove existing metal fire escapes and related hardware;
repair all points of attachment after removal












NEW MATERIALS TO ADD


1. all new plumbing and fixtures

2. complete electrical re-wiring, controls and fixtures

3. HVAC mixing and air handling units, one per floor,
all related controls, duct work and related hardware

4. all doors

5. aluminum windows and double glazing

6. interior metal stud partitions, with sound insulation
and drywall

7. exposed track suspended acoustical ceiling with recessed
lighting fixtures, diffusers

8. tile floors as specified, floors one through three;
carpet as specified, fourth floor

insulation blown in between ceiling of fourth floor and
attic floor

10. sprinkler system in attic

11. hydraulic elevator to serve four floors


















FIRE CODE STUDY


Rolf related information from a 1971 campus study

to determine the actions and costs required to

bring buildings up to code.














1971 FIRE CODE STUDY EXTRACTS FOR ROLF'S HALL












































BUILDING NAME


PAENME


1~11101INTRODUCTIOi

I ARCH/MECH/ELEC


nr~c-
-`--------


INTRODUCTION


1. FOREWORD


A fire safety inspection of the facilities at the
University of Florida campus in Gainesville was conducted
by the Office of the State Fire Marshal during the last
half of 1969. A report of this inspection was issued by
the Deputy State Fire Marshal on 6 October 1969. As a
consequence of this inspection and report, the Architect-
ural/Engineering firm, Briel Rhame Poynter & Houser of Cocoa
Beach-Orlando, was commissioned on 19 August 1970 by the
Florida Board of Regents to investigate and prepare
recommendations and cost estimates relating to corrections
to University facilities to comply with the aforementioned
Fire Iarshal's Inspection Report. The Architect/Engineer' s
recomme!Pndations and estimates are presented in two volumes
entitled Report of Fire Safety Study. Volume I encompasses
all deficiencies, listed by the Fire Marshal's report,
except those relating to fire alarm systems, exit signs
and exit illumination. Volume II is devoted exclusively
to the fire alarm, exit sign and exit illumination systems
for essentially all facilities on the Gainesville campus.
It should be noted that the cost estimates as presented in both
\'Lluue!t I and Volumie II cover only the mninimal efforts required
to accomplish compliance with the applicable codes and do not
include any provision for architectural up-grading or enlarging
of spaces.

2. CODE REFERENCES AND APPLICATIONS

The National Fire Protection As'sociation (NFPA)
INo. 101-1967, "Life Safety Code" and the current issue of
thle "State Fire Marshal Rules and Regulations" were
utilized by the Architect/Engineer to establish Code
conformance. Methods employed in recommended corrective


actions comply with applicable provisions of the Southern
Standard Building Code. Please note that the 1967 issue of
the Life Safety Code (-NFPA-101) has been superceded by the
1970 version. However, the State of Florida
statutes concerned with life safety provide for the
inclusion of the 1967 issue rather than the 1970
version. Therefore, the 1967 Code has been used as
criteria in this study.

It should be noted that strict adherence to
the "Life Safety Code" in some cases results in
substantial work and extremely high costs with the
resulting corrected facility offering only a marginal
improvement to life safety. In these cases, strict
compliance with the "Life Safety Code" has been
tempered to some degree to obtain a practical and
reasonable solution. This tempering of strict code
adherence where solutions are impractical or very costly
is allowed under Section I-6 of both the 1967 and 1970
versions of the code when approved by the authority
having jurisdiction (i.e. State Fire Marshal). The
Deputy State Fire Marshal and the Architect/Engineer
jointly reviewed the buildings falling in this
category and concurred in the methods to be used in
bringing these buildings up to practical standards that
ensure reasonable safety to life and property.

3. CRITERIA

The Architect/Engineer has prepared Volume I of
this report following criteria provided by University
of Florida management. This criteria consists essent-
ially of the following:


Unci ;~ SAFETY STUDY
U jZlTy OF FLORIDA
s 'OlfSiLE, FLORIDA


PERFORMED BY
BRIEL RHAM~E P0YNTER & HOUSER
ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS
COCOA BEACH-CRLANDO, FLORIDA -















































N/A


SECTION NRDUTO BUILDING N9 AL BUILDING NAME

SYSTEMS) DIVISION I
ARCH/MECH/ELEC


PAE UME


YOF LIESFoET STUDY
EIt~ll, FLORIDA


-- ---I


~


3. CRITERIA (continued)


f. Construction cost estimates cover actual
construction cost-s only and will not contain an allow-
ance for design costs nor include internal costs to the
University divisions to maintain satisfactory operations
while construction is in progress.

4. VOLUME I FORMAT

The format for Volume I is based upon the usage
of the four major functional divisions designated by
the University as practical groupings plus the inclu-
sion of an introductory or general division. The
sub-division of each of the four major groups is pre-
sented through a building-by-building approach. .The
individual building data is organized and presented
in numerical sequence, using designators established
through the University building-numbering system as
control. Based on this system, the page numbering
scheme for Volume I is as follows:
Functional Group Identifier:
I = Introductory Division;
E = Educational and General
Division;
H = Housing Division;
M = Health Center Division; and
A = IFAS Division

Building Identification Number:
17 = Thomas Hall

Section Identifier:
1 = Deficiency;
2 = Solutions; and
3 = Construction Cost Estimates

Page Sequence Number


a. Facilities to be investigated by the Architect/
Engineer are limited to those cited in the Fi're Marshal's
Report dated 6 October 1970 (together with all addenda
thereto received to date) and with any other
facilities specifically requested either by the Florida
Board of Regents or University management.

b. Recommended solutions include only those modifi-
cations required to meet applicable Code requirements.
Austerity in the design of recommended solutions is
mandatory in view of the present economic conditions.
In summary, the solutions contained herein are dedicated
to:

-Basic Compliance -with Codes
-Practical Economy of Construction
-Continuation of Established Aesthetic Lines,
where possible

c. The Flavet III family housing area is not included
in the investigation since this facility is programmed for
replacement. *

d. Corrective work generally done under basic
facility maintenance will be performed by University
Physical Plant personnel and therefore is not included
in the Architect/Engineer investigation.

e. All deficiencies in exit sign and exit illumin-
ation systems and fire alarm systems will be investigated
under the criteria of Volume II. These deficiencies
include those listed in the Fire Marshal's Report as well
as those determined through the investigative efforts of
the Architect/Engineer.


BRIEL RHA AER POTER & HOUSER
ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS
CDCOA BEACH-0RLANDO. FLORIDA












































BUILDING NAME PACE NUMBER "
ALL N/A 11I-3


RT F FIRE SAFETY STUDY
DIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
CAHSILE, TLORIDA


VOLUME I FORMAT (CONTINUED)


INTRODUCTION (CONTINUED)


:or ease in locating data within the various groups,
!ach page in Volume I. will comply with the following
:olor scheme:

a. Introductory Group (I)


It should be noted here that the "D" list referred to
above is a part of the 4 lists (i.e. A, B, C, D) into which
the University divided the deficiencies enumerated in the
Fire Marshal's Report. Lists A, B and C covered work that
was to be handled by university forces, with list "D"
constituting.the original scope of work for the Architect/
Engineer.

a. Interim Investigation and Reporting. The first
-investigative effort by the Architect/Engineer was
dedicated to establishing concurrence or nonconcurrence
on the "0 List" extract of the State Fire Marshal's
Report. This involved not only the field work of actually
inspecting the building areas in question but participating-
in conferences with representatives from the State Fire
Marshal's office and from the University. The conclusions
from this initial work resulted in an Interim Report being
written by the Architect/Engineer and presented to the
University on the meeting of September 2, 1970. From
the review of the Interim Report at this meeting came the
specific direction to the Architect/Engineer to perform
the work contained` in Volume I and Volume II of this
Fire Safety Study.

b. Final Investigation. The final stages of the
investigative effort consisted of concentrated field
inspections of the buildings involved, studies of the
record drawings contained in the University Physical
Plant files and conferences with various members of
the University staff to determine exact existing
conditions so that optimum methods of remedial action
could be employed in the recommended solutions.
Execution of this work was performed by architects,
engineers and technicians possessing expertise in their
field.


General Information
Cost Data


- White
-Pink


b. Functional Groups (E, H, M and A)
Designated by Building Number.


Section I Deficiencies
Section II Solutions
Section III- Construction
Cost Estimates


-Yellow
-Green

-Pink


METHODS OF INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND COST
DETERMINATION

The initial scope of the investigative phase of the
work included in Volume I consisted of the actual field
inspection by Architect/Engineer personnel of all buildings
listed in the State Fire Marshal's Report that were "con-
sidered by the University to require a major outlay of
funds for major modifications and additions requiring
engineering study". This listing identified throughout
the historical file of events as the "D List" became
the Architect/Engineers principal guideline in deter-
imining exactly what buildings to in-vestigate. Subsequent
:direction from the University to the Architect/Engineer
added to this list of buildings from time to time until
the complete listing of facilities as included herein
was obtained.


PERFORMED BY
BRIEL RHAMIE POYNTER & HOUSER
ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS
COCOA BEACH-ORLANDO, FLORIDA


SSECTION .
I INTRODUCTION

i YStMS)ARCH/MECH/ELEC














































-~~ ~ ~ I 'I ui.r


_


II


INTRODUCTION (CONTINUED)


c. Analysis of Data. The field notes .and data
gained during the investigation stage were subjected to
technical analysis with the resulting solutions as
depicted hereinafter being obtained. Following the adage
that "a picture is worth a thousand words", graphic
representations of the solutions have been used exten-
sively with minimum emphasis on the narration of the
remedial action. Exis ting building outline. plans have
have been used as background with new work being
shown in essentially schematic form. The existing
building plans were obtained in great part from
drawings available from t~he files of the University
Physical Plant Division. Where these plans did not
exist, plans were made in the field for use as
background data.

6. COST ESTIMATION

The cost estimation of each solution was made
after quantitative analyses were performed for the
various labor and material units required in pro-
viding the solution. These units have been grouped
into various categories for each building and
summarized for each functional division. This
data represents construction costs to the University
at the beginning of 1971. An escalation factor
has been applied to each division for increase in
construction costs anticipated between early 1971
and thq actual time of construction. . The actual
time of construction is estimated to be approxi-
mately one year from now. Unit cost data was
obtained from F.W.Dodge Corporation pricing data,
standard commercial catalog price lists, quotations
from su ppliers an'd -experience-factors from the files
of the Architect/Engi'neer. The actual estimating


was performed by technical personnel with consider-
able experience in the building construction
estimating field.


7. COST SUMMARY

The complete summary of costs are presented
in matrix form hereinafter for each building by
functional division. The total costs for all
work in Volume I is summarized as follows:


$ 1,663,705.

574,065.
572,692.
95,550.

$ 2,906,012.


Educational and General
Division
Housing Division
Health Center Division
IFAS Division


TOTAL


E CAP NUMBER


BRIEL RHAbERPON TER & HOUSER
ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS
COCOA BEACH-ORLAND0, FLORIDA


POTOF FIRE SAFETY STUDY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
CAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


STIO INTRODUCTION

I YSERS)ARCH/MECH/ELEC


























Estimated Escalation

T 0TAL


RTO IR ()ET TU PERFORMED BY
V!ERT OFET STURD Y BRIEL RHAM5E POYNTER & HOUSE
TAHEY OFI FLORIDA ARCHITECTS-ENGINEERS
FLORIDACOCOA BEACH-ORLAnDO, FLORA


SCIO scir
I INTRODUCTION
SSYSTEM(S)
I ARCH/MECH/ELEC


ALL

A


BUILDING nAMlE PACE NUMBER :/

N/A Ij I-9 1


IDIVISIO:i LIDNC 8


-I


U~ ___ __


IFAS DIVISION CCKSTRUCTION COST MATRIX


Mods to
Correct Open
Stairwell
Deficiencies


Mods to Pro-
vide Smoke
Partitions
and Doors


Mods to
Provide
Secondary
Exits


Mods to Pro- Mods to Pro-
vi~de Protection vide Fire and
to Corridor -Smoke Detec-
Areas ~~'" tion Devices


Contingency to
Provide for
Work-Around in
Occupied Areas


Building
0. Name


Tdtals


$ 20,620.
4,24b.
S0.
0.
5,727.
0.
0.
0.

$ 30,592.


0.
U.
$ 1,203.
0.
0.
3,003.
0.
0.

$ 4,206.


12
13
72
74
95/498
59
85
16


Rolfs Hall
NFew ell Ha 11
Spectrographic Laboratory
Rogers Hall .
McCarty Hall
Mehroff Building
Pesticide Residue
Pesticide Research Laboratory

TOTALS


0.
U.
0.
0.
$ 1,058.
0.
0.
0.

$ 1,058.


0.
p L Ur .09
0.
0.
700.
0.
0.
0.

$ 20,793.


S0.
o.
0.
$ 1,360.
6,620.
730.
1,460.
1.420.

$ 11,590.


$ 5,130.
6,U4b.
300.
340.
3,526.
933.
360.
350.

$ 16,984.


S25,750.

1,503.
1,700.
17,631.
4,666.
1,820.
1,770.

$ 85,223.


10,227.

$ 95,450.














































]F pIIIE SAFETY STUDY~SL FLRD
~ESITY OF FLORIDA


PERFORMED BY
BRIEL RHAf3E P0YIITER & HOUSER
AIRCH1ITECTS- ENGINEERS
COC Al BEACH-ORLANDO, FLORIDA


SECTION BUILDINGS NO BUILDING NAME PACE 10JMBER
DEFICIENCIES 12
SYSEMS) IVSIO AROLFS HALL /A-12-1.1
j jurrhlr ARC H lSO


Item No. 4, Encl 45


_ __ __ ___I I_


__I ___ __ L_____ __I_


IDE CLASSIFICATION:

em No. 3, Encl. 45

Location:

Deficiency:





.Action to
Correct:

.Code
Reference:


EDUCATIONAL


3. Action to .
Correct:

4. Code
Reference: .


5. Concurrence:

C. Item No. 7, Encl.


"Provide fire doors."


NFPA No. 101-1967, "Life
Safety Code", paragraphs
6-6133 and 5-1141.

Concur.

45


South End of Rolfs Ha~ll.

"Fire tower, South end of
building, is of wooden construc-
tion. Exterior of stairwell should
be made of at least 2-hour fire
resistive rated material."

"Should be made Class A interior
finish."

NFPA No. 101-1967, "Life Safety
Code", paragraphs 5-9161 and
5-1141; Rule SA-3.05, State Fire
Marshal, Rules and Regulations.

Concur. Section 9-6, "Existing
Educational Buildings" of NFPA
recommends conformity to the extent
that "on the opinion of the authority
having jurisdiction reasonable life
safety against the hazards of fire,
explosion and panic is provided
and maintained."


1.Location:


2. Deficiency:



3. Action to
Correct:




4. Code .
Reference:

5. Concurrence:


Ground Floor, South Stair
Tower.

"Fire tower on South end of
building is exposed to one-
story frame addition."

"Provide wire glass at exposed
windows, and protect wooden
frame fire tower with a fire
resistive coating of 1-hour
duration."

NFPA No. 101-1967, "Life
Safety Code"-, paragraph 5-9141.


.Concurrence:


Concur.


1. Location :

. De fi c ie ncy :


At stairs, all floors.

"No fire doors leading into fire
tower. (include all fire doors
in building)"













Item No. 3,:and Item No. 7,~ Encl. 45

Provi de New Concrete and Steel Stai r Tower.
Demolish Ex~isting Wood Tower.
Subtotal


Item No. 4, Encl. 45


_


A1C2E NUMBER


ESTIMATES


. I


DESTRUCTION COST ESTIMATES (BASED ON DECEMBER 1970 PRICING)


Extension
Cost



$ 18,450.
300.


No. of
Description Units


Unit
Meas.


Cost per
Unit


Totals


L. S.
L.S.


$ 18,750


$ 490.


1,870.


3'0" x 7'O" Interior Fire Doors w/Panic Hardware and Closer
Subtotal


Pr. .


1,870.

20,620.

5,130.


cupied Building "Work-Around" Contingency


$ 25,750.


Iv0{ FRs Y OF ET STUDY i


BRELf RHAMERPONTTER & HOUSER
MrsII nFCrHTjI-nxn nNr~nana


B to cRNAMFS HALL


SSECTION COST

SYSTrEFA(S) ARCH


8tIDIltom sI1IN N9















































_ I~~ I ~I~I~


_ L __ ___ _~~ __ ~


S OLtUT ON S -I
ARCH


New Steel & Con~crete Statt~


1~3


IEE HlOPJ4

H.1 MI ~AutE
Enr r S16iM


'fiRE L~dZIY1
Mdhl~ S~cTlOh~


ECotak- asnMATED
cosr: -. 4z c .. :- ~ : '


FlpsT FLOOR


PERfFORMED BT
BRIEL RHAMPE POYNTER & HOUSER
AR~,~ CHITECTSESINWIEERSL ~
I nrna -Rann- 21arazcn.~~n MORIDA


ESSENTIAL
Po^F.E R4NEL e

FRIE. ALAnRM
CaRrimL C~ABINEIT


I F FIRfE SAFETY STUDY
NIfSITY OF FteRIAl
V~HSILLE F 'LOR iDA II;.I


SYSTEEKS)






















































Replace Existing Doors with Fire-rated
Doo rs Pan ic H ardwa re a nd Cl os ers


f----~---rr


I_-
--



New Steel & Concrete Stairs


;lr
r
:


NewJ Stru ct ure ( See A -1~2- 2 .1)


1


AdLdAM SYtSrt- 142(Y Oh) IfflcDR)


UN O IVE~a y oFoT .STUDY
~CAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


SOLUTIONS

A RC


BRIEL RlAfEP YNTE8R & HOUSER
ARGHllTECTS-ENGINEERS
j/ COCOA BEACH-ORLANDO, FtL4RIDA :


SECTION

1SYSTEM(lS)





_ _~~ _1 rr 1~- m
--------


R l~ace ~Existing Doors with Fire~-rated'
Doors:, Pinic Hardware and Closers


Steel & Concrete Stairs



.. New Structure (SteeA-12-2.1!)I :


FLOOW


oN IsrFc~R)


(dib~l IC~


TH IR D


































FOURTHH' FLOOR


~---- --,HOUSER-


Replace Existing Doors with Fi-re-rated
Doors Pani~cHardware and Closers



j New Steel & Concrete Stairs


A-12-2.1)


'Structure (See










































FIFTH


~WII~--II I ~- ---------9"1~~~-~Y~ "-
~~r


~~__1_ ~~~~~ ___ r :i_1


n


F LOO~R


(laL~en ir


ON 'I F-Loon.


BT OF FiRE SAFETY STUDY
RIMMITY OF FLORIDA
Mukor Ismiann


PERFeaM'ED av
BRIEL RHAIE POYNfTER & HOUSER
Atti-fECTTS- Fi:n!EERS





















CODES













PREFACE


TIhe p~urp'ose of this C.odle is to p~rovidle minimum reqluiremnents
to safeguard life, healthi anid public welfare andi the protection of
pr'operty as it relaites to these safeguardl s by3 regulating and control-
ling the decsigni, construction, alteratioln, repairr, equipment, use and
occup~ancy, location, maintenance, remov'al and demolition of all build-
inigs or structures and appurtenances thereto.

Tlhe St~lcandard I:ildling Code1( is dedictejl~d to the decvelopmnent
of bc~tter b~uildling consI;l~cticruci andc greater s~fetty to the public
anid uniiformnity inl buildling laws; to the granting of full justice to all
building materials on a fair b~asisi of the truer merits of each material;
andi to develop~ment~ on a soundt cconlomic bansis for the future growth
ofE our INation thlrouLgh unhJiuSed anld equlitable dealing with building
construction.

This 1973! Ed:itioni represenc~rts thle many revisions and changes
of fic~iallyr appr,1oved~ at Annua~Ll C:onlferen~cces forr the years 1 94:5-1972i,
alnd is aL compre~lhcnsive documenll'lt prlov.idingb for1 thle uSe of all safe
mauterials s or mecthiods of cons~tructiion.








SECTION 406 GROUP "C" SCHOOLS
4106.1 SCOPE
Buildings in which people come together for education or in-
structional purposes shall be classified in Group "C" School Oc-
cupancy.
Group C School Occupancy shall include, among others, the
followm~g:
Schools Universities
Colleges Academies
406.2 EXCEPTION
(a) Parts of buildings usedl for the congregating or gathering of
70 or more persons in onle rooom shall be classified as in Group, E
Assemblyp Occup~ancy-(See Section 408), regardless of whether such
gathering is of anl educational or instructional nature or not.
(b) Schools for business or vocational trainingg shall he classifiedl
in the same occupanlcies s andl conform to the samne requirements as
the tradle, v-ocationi or business taught.

106.3 -PROTECTrIVES R(EUIREMIENTS, GROUP "C"
OCCUPANCY
SECTION
1. Allowable Height anul Area ............. ..............................0.5
HeIights andi Areas are basedl up~on typ~e of construction usedl.
2. Types of Const ruction~ ........... ... ....... .................Chlapter VI
3. Exit Rlequire ments ........................ .... ....................Chapterl XI
4i. Protection of Verticall Op~enings~~....._............. .... '701
5. Prlotectionl of Wall Opencllings......... .. .... .. ..... 700...
r;. Sprinkl ors andi Standlpi pecs .......... .......... ..........901 to 9102, inlclusii ve
7. Mixedl Occupancylc andr Separatioi n Requcui relments... .......... .1
8. Light, Ventilatiot andl Saniitationi ................20O01 to 2002, inclusive
Y. Heatninig Requ~irem~ent s ...._ .............. ... .......Cha~tor V'Ill

1016. i- SPIC'IAL, REQUliliSI REMNTS, GROUP11 "C" O)CCUPANI~CY
SECTION
1. Spartio ofBuier nd urnee oom .. ......... X11
2. Non-combu), stible~ Stairwa\-ysj Rqcuiredl .......... ...............ChapI~ter XI;
:I. Corr~idii o rs . ... ........ ..... ......... ... ......Chapter X I
41. U~nilateral Ligiht ..... .... ........ ... ....... ........ .. ... ... ....... .... .. "i00 1. I
5. No classrooml n shall occupy a b~ase~ment arean which is fifty (50I)



7. Storage andi handllinig of flammall:lc e liqluids shaull bef prohlibitedl.


(3. Rooms usedl for' day ca~rt nurI1S(:ries, kindergarjilPtenl or 'ir.St grade1~
lplpils shall niot hc Ilocatc ed abiove or be~low~ thc floor of exsit dlis-
chlarge.l Rioomsl ulsted for seccondl gradei. puplils shalll nlot bec locaitedl
more than onec story above t he floor of exit dlischargec.








406.5 GROUP "C" SCHOOL OCCUPANCY HEIGHT AND AREA RESTRICTIONS


ALLOWABLE HEIGHTS -'
Type Construc~tion Used** .
Story
Height


ALZILOWABLE AREAS
Squlare Feet per Flosor


F I.rLt
Flolr'"


Second
Floor


Third Flolor
arnd Above


.Ty pcl I No Limit No Limit No Limit No Limit
Type II SQ Ft. No LiFtnit No,Limit :~.~'~ : No limit
. -T.eII w ;,0 ,0 Not Permitted
Type, IV-' 11 '-11.. Two ::: 12,000 -~ 12,000 .:,. Not Permitted

TpeVPTwo 8,000) 8,0010 N'ot Permnitted

'Flo~r-s located immiediately above usable space in basements or cellars shall have a fire-resistan:e rating of
not less than one-holur esceFpt w~hplEr art a~Pproved alto~matic sprinkler system isprvedpoidd oee,
that where base-mr-nts or cellar are uaed as classrooms or~ assembly ]~rooms~ they shall :be counted -as' a story.
*t*At lest~ one-hour irit~erior: fIlrre-reastive construction shall be used throughout in all Group "C"' (schciolsi,
two or more stories in height.
The Ar a of g one~-story Type III, IV. ir N' building maJ; be increased one` hutinred percent (100%/) iaf
,~~~.; ~le building is surrounded o~n all sidr-S by a pernitnernt opcln space of not less than sixty ~(60) "eet, and.
:- ~ Ilthere are not less thann twro exits provided from each classroom, one ofl which opeixs directly to the exterior
o:I(If 1th building. For other arllowasble area inc~rea'se~s, ee Sec~tion 41.r3. ~ .~~.: ;::'.
:In all Group~ "C" occurpanies of Ty~pe--1-Construction, thle partitions, columns, trusses, girders beams
1; -:I;I ;and floors may -be.;ieduced by one hour if the building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler sys-
~~ 'tem t~hroizghout but nqo coponrent or assemblyl may be less than one hour fire-resistance.


...
'-l-j 1


if








SECTION 606 TYPE V


606.1- GENERAL
Type V Construction--is that construction not meeting the re-
quirements of Type III, b~ut inl which the exterior walls are of
masonry or reinforced concrete or of approved materials or assembly
of materials that provide fire-resistance as recquir~ed in this Section,
and in which the interior framing is panrtially or wholly of unpro-
Lected woodl, or of unprotected iron or steel, except that fire pr~otec-
tion shall bJe p1ovidedl, as lrequiredl by this Section.

606.2 FIILE DISTRICT SECTIONS 301
606.3 -ALLOWABLI E HEIGHTIS SECTIONS 4041 to 411, inclusive
606.4--A LLOWABLE AREA3 SECT~IONS 404 to 411, inclusive
606.5 F:IRES-PROTECTIVE REQ'CUIREMIENTS TYPE V


TABLE 606.5 FIRE PROTECTIVE R~EQUIR1EMENTS -
TYPE V


Required
STRUCTURAL Fire
MEM~B~ERS Resistance
(H~ours)
WALLS
Party Walls 4 -
Fire Walls 4


Party, and fire walls shall ex-
tend not less than three (3)
feet above the roof, except that
fire walls need not extend above
the roof where t-he roof is of
non-comb~ustib~le conlstructionl for
th~e ar~ea within forty (40) feet:
of each sidle of thle w~all.



For. walls facing on a street
or public place thirtly (30) feet
or mor~e inl w\itth.***~


Exterior B~ear~ing
Walls



Exterior Non-Blear~ing
Walls
(See Sectionl (08.3)


For buildltings loca~ted
F~ile Distlrit*'"',

F~or bu~ilinlg s localted
the F;ire Distric~t."*


in the


ou~tside


N.C'.*








TABLE 606.5 FIRE PROTECTIVE REQUUIREMENTS TYPE V
(Continued)


*


The use 'of combustible con-
struction for interior bearing
partitions shall be limited to the
support of not more than two
(2) floors and a roof.
Enclosure for vertical open-
ings-Sect. 701. Buildings with
mixed occupancies--Sect. 412.
All other partitions--Sect. 702.



Shall be same rating as re-
qluired for the wall it supports.


FLOORS
Deck Construction
ROOFS
Deck Constr~uction


I~I~_____


PARTITIONS
Interior Bearing



Interior Non-Bearing




COLUMNS
Supporting M~asonr~y
o `Bearinlg Walls
Supporting Roof
only
Other Columns
TRlUSSES
GIRLDERS
BEAMS
Supporting Masonry
or Bearing Walls,
Columns, Girders,
Trusses
Supporting Roof
only
Other Trusses
Other G~irders

Other Beams


Sec. 702.2


See Footnote for
lrequiremlents.
See Footnote for
requirements.


fire-resistance

fire-resistance


See Footnote for fire-resistance
requirements.


*


ABBREVIATIONS: "N.C." means Nonl-Combustible.
NOTE (1) B~uildings of Type V Construction two or more stories
in height, except one and two family dwellings, floors
located immediately above usable spaces in basements or
cellars and above furnaces shall have onle hour fire pro-
tection except where basement or cellar is eqluipped with
anl approved automlatic sprinkler system.
;'In buildings three or more stories in height, (unless

S- 10








TABLE 606.5 F:IRE PR~OTECTIVE: REIQUIREMENETS TYPE V
(Continued)

sprinklered) all walls, partitions, floors and their support-
ing structural members shall provide not less than one (1)
hour fire-resistance within thle building and the ceilings
underneath the roof shall be the same as required for the
floors.

In all Group D (Institutional) occupancies; and in Group
C (Schools) two or more stories in height; at least one
(1) hour interior fire-resistance shall be used throughout.

**This requirement applies only to structural members
supporting masonry walls except that this does not apply
in one story buildings or where the only masonry sup-
ported is a masonry veneer.

***Exterior walls shall extend not less than eighteen (18)
inches above the roof, except that parapet walls needl not
be constructed on buildings where the roof slopes more
than four (4) inches vertical to twelve (12) inches hori-
zontal from the back of the exterior wall of such buildings
or where the exterior wall of such building is locatedl
fifteen (15) feet or more distance from the property line
or is located on one alley or public way of fifteen feet or
more in width.

PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS ................................Section 703

FIRE STOPPING ................... ...................S ctio 70 5

STAIRWAY CONSTRUCTION .................... .....................eto 1115

ROOF COVERING ...................... ....................Scin 301 and 706



REGULATIONS GOVERNING EXTERIOR USE OF COMBUSTIBLE
MATERIALS :


a. Gutters and Leaders ..............................Sect~ion 712

b. Dormer Windows ....................................Sectio 709

c. Towers, Spires and Cupolas ..................Section 713

d. Cooling Towers ........................................Seto 715
e. Tanks ...................... .......................Seto 714

f. Skylights .................... .. ....................e to 707








CHAPTER XI

MEANS OF EGRESS REQUIREMENTS
(Exits and Exit Access)

SECTION 1101 GENERAL PROVISIONS
(a) In ev-ery buildling- her~eafter erectedl mleanls of egrless sha;ll
comply with the minimum requiremnents of thlis Chap~ter..
(b) M~eans of egress shall consist of continuous and uniobistiructd
paths of travel to the exterior of a buildlilg~ at all times. Mean~ls of
egress through anly room or space usedl as a kitchen or prleparlationl
of food shall nlot he p~ermittedl.
(c) Where unusually hazardous conditions exist, additional means
of egress facilities shall b~e provided as required b~y thle nuildinlg
Official, whenl necessary to assure the safety of the occupants.
(d) No building shall hereafter he altered so as to reduce thec
capacity of the means of egress to less than reqluired by this ChapTter'
nor shall any change of occupancy b~e made in any building unless
such building conformls with the requirements of this Chapter.
(e) Stairways, rampnls and p~assagewHays usel for requir~edl exit
shall be of non-combustible construction except where otherw\ise
specifically p~ermitted b~y Sections 1115--Stairways; 1112-ExSit O)ut-
lets; andi 1118-RIamp~s.

SECTION 1102 DEFINITION
(a) A MIEANS OF EGRESS is a continuous p~ath of travel
from any point inl a building or str~ucturle to the op~en air outsidec at.
ground level andt consists of two sep~arate andi distinct parts: (1) the
exit access, and (2) the exit. A means of egress compriises thle
vertical anid horizontal mleanls of travel andi may include the rooml
space, doorway~J, c~rridor, hallway, p~assag~eway, stairs, 'amp,, lobb,l,:
fire escape, escalaitor, andl other p~aths of travel.
(1) EXIT is that p~ortion of a mea~nsl of egress which is separnatedll
fr~om the area ofr the b~uildling fromn whichl ecapel~c is to, be(
malde, b~y wa:lls, floors, doors or other means whic~h prov0\idel
the prlotected pa;th necressary f'or the occupantt s to, proceed~1'
with safety to the exterior of thle building.
(2) EXITr ACCE~SS is that p~ortio~n of a means of egrless wh'icih
leads to an enltrance to an exit.
NOTE~: An interior aiisle, Cor~ridor, hallway, or o~thecr mounsl11
of travel usedl to r~each an exit stair or doorway is niot a~n
exit, except where the mlaximumm allowable distance of trave\l
to an exit is exceeded--at which point it; shall Ihe trearttd ars
p~art of the exit or is so located, arrangedl, andt onelosctd us
to constitute anl integral p~ar't of anl exit facility.
11- 1








SECTION 1103 ARRANGEMENTS
1103.1 AIRRANGIJEMENT
(a) Exsits shall b~e so located that the distance from the most re-
mote point in the floor area, room or space served by them to the
nearest exit shall be not more than 150 feet (in office buildings,
hotels and apartments where floor areas are subdivided into rooms,
thle distance of travel to an exit shall b~e measured from the corridor
entrance to such rooms, however the travel distance to the corridor
entrance within any room shall not exceed thle maximum distance of
travel to an exit mneasuredl along the line of travel). InI buildings pro-
vided with a complete automatic fire sprinkler system the distance
mnay b~e increased to 200 feet. In Group H, Hazardous occupancies thle
distance shall not exceed 75 feet. In Group, G, Inldustrial occupancies
and in public parking decks having at least 50%i of its perimeter open
to the air at each story, the distance may b~e increased to 200 feet in
unsprinkilered buildings and 300 feet in sprinklered buildings.
(I,) Where miore thani one exit is requilred, they shall be locatedl
als rem~ote from~ each other as is prlacticable..

1103.2 MIINIMIUM NUMBER~ OF EXITS
(a) E~very room or floor space of a buildling, occupiedl by seventy-
five (75) persons or more, or occupied by a Group H, Hazardous
occupancy, shalll have not less than two (2) independent exits.
(b) In Group E-2, Small Assemlbly Places, there shall be at least;
two exit ways, and in Group E-1, Large Assembly Places, there shall
be not less than~ three (3) exitways, except that where more than
1,000 persons are accommodated there shall be at least four (4)
exitw~ays.
(c) There shall be not less than two (2) exits serving every
floor area, except that in the following cases there may b~e access
to one (1) exit provided such exit is enclosed by construction as
specified in Section 1106, but affording in no case less thani onec-
hlour fire-resistanlce:

Where one exit is permitted:
1. InI Group A, Residential Buildings having no floor over three
thousand five hundreds (3,500) sqi. ft. in airea, of T'ype I,
or of Type 11 Construction, or of other types of construction
provided not over two stories in height. Maximum distance of
travel to reach an exit from the en~tralnce door' to any living
unit shall niot exceed 30 feet.








2. In Group B-1, Office Buildings having no floor over three
thousand five hunldred (3,500) sq. It. inl ar~ea andi not over two~
stories in height provided the occupant content shall not ex-
ceed 40 persons abover the street floor. Ma~ximuml distance of
travel to an exit shall not exceed 75 feet.
3. Inl Group B-2 Occupancies at street floor level having a floor
area less than 2250 sq. ft. andi a distance of trav-el to an exit
not exceedling fifty (50) feet.
4. In Group F storage occupancies, one story only, and having a
floor area less than 2,500 sql. ft., w~ith a distance of travlc
50 ft. or less.
(d) Sufficient exit facilities shall .be provided so that the ag-
gregate capacity of all such exits, dleterminedl inl accordlance with
this Chapter, shall not be less than the occupantt contenlt as dleter-
mined from Section 1105.1.
(e) It shall be ~unlawful to occupy any part of a building by
a greater number of per~sonls than that for which~ exit capacity,
as prescribed in this Chapter, has been pr1ovidied.

SECTION 1104 SPECIAL EXIT REQUIREMENTS

11041.1 INSTITUTIONAL, OCCUPANCIES
(a) Group, D-2, Inistitutional occupancies, all dloorways to areas
housing b~edridden patients, andi toorways between p~atienlt occupied
spaces andi the requiredl exit, andt all exit dloorwa~ys pleading to the
exterior shall be not less than~ 44 inches in~ clear widlth except that exit-
doors so located as not to be subject to use by patients, miay be not
less than 36 inches in clear width. Requiredl coriditors, camps, or
p~assageways shall be not less thani 8 feet in clear w~idth in all areas
occupied by patients or serving as p~art of the means of egress from~
patient areas.
(b) Corridors in all Group D, Institutional occupancies shall b~e
subdivided by smoke-tight partitions at intervals nlot to exceed 150
feet. Doors in such partitions shall be tight fitting. Such dloors may
have wire glass panels of niot mor~e than 720 square inches. Smokte
stop doors shall open in the dlirection of exit travel only andi shall be
provided with approvedl door holding devices of the fail safe type
which will release the dloor(s) causing it to close up~on the dletection
of products of combustion other than heat b~y a device complying
with the requirrements of "Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signal-
Ing Systems, U.L. Standlardl 168." (See Section 1117.1)

1104.2 BOILERI ROOMSY, ETC'.
1In rooms in which are located steam boiler~s, oil fir~ed incinlerator~s,
or apparatus using or producing. gas or vapor., the maxuimum distance
of travel to anl exit shall not exceedl 50 feet.
11- 3








11041.3 -DEAD END POCKETS ORL HALLWAYS
Exits andi exit access shall be so arrannged that no deadl end
pockets or hallways shall occur in excess of 20 feet inl depth.

Il041. COVERED MIALLS
(a) One half of the requiredl unit of exit width for buildings
connected by a covered nall shall leadl to the outside by means other
than through the mall. T'he covecired mall connecting buildings shall
have not less than two (2) indecpendlent exits located as remotely
as practical from each other and shall have a total number of units
of exit width equal to that requiredl for the exits from the buildlings
which are within a 100 foot travel distance to the exits from the miall
plus that lrequired for~ 1 person p~er foot of mall widlth. Thle maxtimum~
distance of travel to an exit mleasu~edd within the mall shall not
exceed 200 feet. In ordter to provide free andi unencumbeered travel
in the mall to the outside, each sidle of the mall floor area shall be
providled with an unobstructedl space, not less than 10 feet in width,
parallel to the building lines and extending to the exit fromn the mall.
(b) Enclosedl andt tunneledl walkways shall not be accep~tedl as al
requiredl means of egress unless they comply with the provisionss
of thijs chapter. When the length of enclosedl or tunneled walkways
not meeting the provisions of this chapter for required exits, is more
than one and one-half (1%) times the maximum allowable dlistance
of travel of the most restr~ictive occupancy being connectedl, one or
more exits from the enclosedl or tunlneledl walkway shall be provided.
Such exits shall be locatedl as remlotely from the p~oinlts of connection
between the enclosed or tunneled walkw~ay andi the buildings as is
practicable.

1104.5 EXIT ACCESS CORRIDORS
(a) It shall be prohibited to use public corridors, separated from
building use areas by fire rat-ed partitions and providing access to
exit, for return and/or exhaust from adjoining air conditioned spaces
through louvers or other devices mounted inl corridor doors or par-
titions.

(b) Except in institutional or presidential occupancies, Paragraph
1104.5 (a) may be waived by the authority having jurisdiction provid-
ing corridors are equipped with approved fire detectors sensing
products of combustion other than heat arranged to automatically
stop) supply, return and exhaust fans and close louvers or other de-
vices mounted within the corridor doors or partitions.

11- 4








SECTION 1105 MEANS OF EC~kESS CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS

1105.1- OCCUPANT CONTENT
For determining the exits required, the minimum number of
persons or the occupant content of any floor area shall in no case
be taken less than specified below:
Minimum Occupant
Content Floor Area
Occupancy per Person*

Group A--Residential 125 Sq. Ft.
Group B~-Stores--street floor
and sales basements 30 Sq. Ft.
-upper sales floors .60 Sq. Ft.
Office Buildings and other
Group B occupancies 100 Sq. Ft.
Group C--School s-classr~ooms
and recreation 20 Sq. Ft.
--laboratories, museums,
libraries, and similar rooms 30 Sq. Ft.
-shops, vocational, administrative rooms 100 Sq. Ft.
-gyymnasiums 15 Sq. Ft.
Group, D--Institutional-sleeping departments 125 Sq. Ft.
--treatment departments 250 Sq. Ft.
Group E--Assembly--with fixed seats 6 Sq. Ft.
--Assembly--without fixed seats 15 Sq. Ft.
Group F-Storage 300 Sq. Ft.
Group, G-Industrial 100 Sq. Ft.
Group H--Hazardous 100 Sq. Ft.

*The occupant content of floor areas of the building shall be com-
putedl on the basis of the specific occupancy classification of the
building. Where mnixed occup~aciesi occur, the occupant content
of each occupancy aiea shall be computed on the basis of that
specific occupancy.
NOTE: The above Minimum Occupant Content Floor Area per
person applies to NET area of the listed rooms, or similar rooms
of prlime occupacyt content for Gr'ou, C--Schlools and NET prea
for the assembly rooms or areas of Group E--Assembly occu-
puancies. GROSS floor nara shall apply to all other above listed
occup~ancies. In computing net areas, it is not intended to include
areas such as corritlors, stairs, toilet rooms and other similar
rooms or~ areas. Where fixedl seats are installedl or are to be in-
stalled, the occupant content may be established as determined by
the actual number of fixedl seats installed or to be installed to a
seating plan accepted and approved by the Building Official.
11 -5








1105.1.1- SEATING CAPACITY POSTED
Signs stating the maximum seating capacity shall be conspicuous-
ly posted by the owner of the building in each assembly room, audi-
torium or r~oom used for a similar purpose where fixed seats are not
installed. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notice or to
permit more than this legal number of persons within such space.

1105.2 -MEASUREM~ENT OF M~EAN'S OF EGRESS WIDTH
(a) The width of the means of egress shall be measured in
units of 22 inches. Fractions of a unit shall not be counted except
that 12 inches added to one or more full units shall be counted as
one-half a unit.
(b) The width shall be measured in the clear at its narrowest
point. Handrails may project 3%~ inches and door jambs 1 inch on
each side of the measured width.

1105.3- PCAPAITY OF MEANS OF EGRESS
(a) The capacity or number of persons per unit (22 inches) of
means of egress through doors, corridors, stairs andi other paths of
exit travel shall be in accordance with the following Table:

Person Per Unit (22 inches) of
Exit Width
OCCUPANCY
Level Travel (Corridors,
doors, r~amps, etc.) Sar
Group A--Residential 60 45
B--Business 100 60
C--Schools 100 60
D--Institutional 30 22
E--Assembly 100 7,5
F-Storage 60 45,
G-Industrial 100 GO
H-Hazardous 60 45


(b) The minimum aggregate width of main entrannce dloorways
for Group E Assembly occupancies shall be sufficient to accommodate
50 percent of the occupant content but in no case less than 36 inches.
Main entrance doorways shall be considered as ~ar~t of thle require-
ments for the means of egress.
(c) The capacity of exit stairways constructed in accordance
with Section 1115 shall not exceed the limits specified herein and
may be used as a required exit from all floors which they serve.
If, for example, three (3) stairways are required to serve? the thirdl
floor of a building and a like number ar~e required for the second
11- 6








floor, the total number of stair-ways required shall be three, not
six, and the capacity of the stairway shall be determinedl by the floor
having the highest occupant content and not the total occupant con-
tent of the building.
(d) The aggregate width of passageways, aisles or corridors
serving as access to exits shall be at least equal to the required width
of the exit. Where all travel to any exit is along the same access to
the exit, the width of the access shall be at least equal to the exit;
where there are several accesses to an exit each shall have a width
suitable for the tr~avel which it mnay be called on to accommodate.
(e) The minimum width of any means of egress shall be 30
~Yinches in the clear.
(f) Where exits serve more than one floor, onlly the occupant
content of each floor, considered individually, need be used in com-
p~uting the requliredl capacity of the exits at; that floor; provided that
such capacity shall nlot b~e dlecreasedl at any point along the exit fa-
cility in the direction of exit tr~avel. When exits from floors above
anld below\ con~er~ge at an intermlediate floor, the capacity of the exit
from such intermedliate floor shall not be less than the sum of the
wvidths of the exits converging onl such intermediate floor. There shall
be no reduction in the c~apacity of the exits along the means of egress
from the building.

1105.4 CAPAICITY OF ESCALATORS `OR MOVING STAIRS
The width and exit capacity of escalators complying with the
requirements of Section 1122 shall be as specified for stairways exr-
cept that the maximum wvidth of escalators shall nlot exceed 48 inches.


SECTION 1106 EXIT ENCLOSURES

(a) In all buildings, four (4) stories or more in height, except
DH8 RDBt tWO family dwellings, and except in those occupied by forty
(40) people or less above or below the story at street level, all in~-
terior stairways including p~latfor~ms, landings and hallways connect-
ing them to thle doorway leading to the outside, shall be completely
enclosed withl p~artitions of nlot less than 2-hour fire-recsistance.
Structural members supporting all such enclosing walls and parti-
tions, and floors or roofs that form a par~t of thle enlclosure shall
have at least 2-hour fire resistance also.
(b) In all buildings not over three (3) stories in height, except
in onle and two family dwellings, all required interior stairways shall
be enclosed inl partitions of at least one-hour fire resistance.
1. Private interior stairw\ays located within a dwelling unit need
not be enclosed.
(c) In Grroup E, Assemlbly occupanlcies, all exit enclosures shall
be nlot less thlan 2-hour fir~e-resistanlce.

11- 7








(d) Stairways in buildings of Group G, Industrial occupancies
that are not required for exits and that serve only one floor above
the first floor may not be r~eq/uredl to be enclosed, provided the occu-
pancy of the building is of low fire hazards and provided the omission
of such stair enclosure is appr~loved by the Building Official.
(e) Basement or cellar stairs: E~xcept in one and two family
dwellings, basement or cellar stairways located under stairways from
upper stories shall be completely enclosed by construction providing
fire resistance not less thanl required for the stair enclosure above
the basement but in no case less than 1-hour fire resistance.
(f) In stair enclosure w\alls or partitions protecting the stair
from the interior of the buildling, nlo openings extcep~t the necessary
doorways shall be permittedl. (This shall not, however, prohibit thle
use of fire windows of approved type, in stair enclosures provided
they open to the exterior of the building and ar~e located at least
ten (10) feet froml anly other wall opening.) Such doorways shall
be equip~ped with approvedl self-closing fire doors, except that when
enclosing partitions ar~e not lrequired to provide over 1-hour fire-
resistance, approved self-closing metal or metal-covered doors or solid
core wooden doors of the flush typ~e of nominal thickness of at least
one andi three quarters (1%) inch in all parts, may be used.

SECTION 1107 MONUMENTAL STAIRS
No enclosure shall b~e required for a flight of "monumental"
stairs (as used in public buildings, stores, hotels, office buildings, etc.)
from the mainl street entrance floor to the floor next above or floor
next below or for stairs leading to a mezzanine or balcony from the
main floor when:
(a) Such stairs are not a required part of the building exit facili-
ties, and
(b) Such stairs are not connected with corridors providing access
to exits.

SECTION 1108 EXTERIOR BALCONIES

(a) Any exterior balcony, porch, or graller~y may serve as a mea~ns
of egress if it complies with all the requirements as to widlth, ar-
rangement and mnater~ials of construction thlat are specified in this
Chapter for means of egr~ess andt provided they comply with the
requirements of the following paragrap~hs of this section~.
(b) All balconies andi other openl spaces w~hether serving as a
mleanss of egress or not, shall have solidly floors substantially level, andi
when located mlor~e than 3~ feect above gradle, shall b~e providedl with
guardl rails supportedl for niot less than 36 inches, nor more thanl
42 inches above the floor.. The space betweenl guardt rails and floors
shall for~m anl enclosure of solidly, slattedl, grill or screen construction,
in which the openings, if any, have a dlimension, in not less thian one
11 -8








diirection, of not more than 8 inches, except that a bottom rail or curb
shall be employed no more than 2 inches above the floor. Construction
of guar~d rails shall be adlequate in~ strength, dlurability, andi attach-
melnt for its pulrp~ose as prescribed in Section 1204.2.
(c) Balconies, porches or galleries serving as means of egress
inl climnates subject to snow or ice shall have a roof to protect against
the accumulation of snow and ice.
(dl) Blalconlies or other op~en spaces serving as a means of egress
shall be maintained as a lrequired path of travel without ob~structionl
so as to maintain the required minimum w\idth of exit travel.
(e) Halconies, p~orches or galleries having structural concrete
floors: shall have all supplortinlg framing lemnbers of nron-combustible
materials.

SECTION 1109 MEANS OF EGRESS FOR INTERIOR
BALCONY AND GALLERY

(a) For h~alconies or galleries of Group, E, Assembly occupancies
having a seating cap~acity of over 50, at least two means of egress
shall be priovidedt, one fromn each side of every balcony or gallery,
pleading dlirectly to a street or exit court.
(b) All interior stairw~ays and other vertical openings shall be
enclosed andi pr1otectedl as prlovided inl this Chapter, except that stairs
may be op~en between balcony and main assembly floor in occupancies
such as theaters, churchess andi audlitoriums. The means of egress
capacity requiredl for balconiies or galleries shall be dletermiinedl onl
the same basis as those requir~ed for the occupancy use.
(c) The maximumn distance of travel for balcony or gallery from
any seat to an exit shall be determinedl on the same basis as the
buildling occupanncy.

SECTION 1110 MEANS OF EGRESS FOR STAGE AND DRESSING
ROOM AREAS OF GROUP E-1 LARGE ASSEMBLY
Not less than one exit to a street, exit court, or passageway to
a strecet, 3 feet or more inl w~idth, shall b~e provided from each sidle of
the stage of every Grioup, E-1, Large Assemlblyy Place, and fromn each
sidle of the sub,-stage or basement or cellar under the stage, andi an
exit not less than 30 inches wide shall be provided from each fly-
gallery andi fromn the gridiron. An iron ladder shall be provided leadl-
ing froml the gr'idiron to a scuttle in the stage roof; such scuttle
shall be not less thanl 2 feet x 3 feet in size and shall be provided
writh a metal-coveredl or nonl-combustible trap door. Each tier of
dr~essingi rooms shall be priovidedl w\ith at least two means of egress,
each not less thain 2 feet-C inches widle, onie of which shall lead di-
rectly inito an exit courtl or street. All exit stairs shall be constructed
of nlon-combustib~le maiterial as: prescribed inl Section 1115, Stair
Construction. Stair exits from stage andl dressing rooms need not be
cenclosedl.
11 9







SECTION 1111 AISLES AND SEATING
For the r~equirements in Group E, Assembly occupancies, seel
Section 512, and for Church occupancies see Section 514.

SECTION 1112 EXIT OUTLETS
(a) Every required exit shall provide continuous anid p~rotectedl
egress discharging finally into a street, anl op~en space leading to a1
street, or into an exit court or passageway leading to a street or
into an approved open space having access to a street.
(b) Such exit courts or passageways shall be enclosed with conl-
struction providing not less than 2-hours fire resistance.
(c) The width of such courts or passageways shall be nlot less
than the width of the exits tributary ther~eto. There shall be no re-
duction of width in the direction of exit travel. Such courts or pass-
ageways shall be nlot less than 8 feet in height.
(d) Slope of floors inl exits shall not exceed one foot inl ten fecet.

SECTION 1113 FOYER REQUIRED
(a) In every Group E-1, Large Assembly Places, a foyer con-
sisting of a space at the main entrance of the auditorium or place
of assembly shall be provided. Such foyer, if not directly connected
to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a
straight and unobstructed corridor or passage to every such main
entrance and exit.
(b) The width of foyer at any point shall not be less thanl the
combined width of aisles, stairways, and passageways tributary
thereto. The foyer shall be at the same level as the back of thle
auditorium, and exits leading therefrom shall nlot have a steeper
gradient than one foot in ten feet.

SECTION 1114 WAITING SPACES REQUIRED
In theaters and similar Group E, Assembly occupancies, where
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are nlot
available and are allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, such
use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the required
clear width of exits. Such waiting areas shall be separated from the
required exitways by substantial permanent partitions or by fixed
rigid r~ailinlgs not less than 412 inches high.

SECTION 1115 STAIRWAY CONSTRUCTION

1115.1 GENERAL
(a) Exter~ior andi interior exit stairways shall be conlstructted
of non-combustible materials throughout in the following b~uildlings.
(1) All buildings of Type I and of Type 11 Conlstruction.
11 -10








(2) All buildings of Group C--Schools three (3) stories or more;
of Group D--Institutions; Group E-1 Assembly Occupancy,
and Group E-2 three (3) stories or more.
(3) All other buildings three (3) stories or more in height or
occupied by more than forty (40) persons above or below
the first story at street or grade level, except 1 and 2 family
dwellings and buildings of Type VI Construction.
(b) Except when locatedl within a dwelling unit, all interior stair-
w\ays shall have solid risers. Exterior stairs may have open risers.
(c) Interior stairs constructed* of wood, except those with open
risers, shall be firestopped as specified inl Section 705.
(d) E~xcept in 1- andi 2-family dwellings which ar~e less than
three (3) stories in height, no closet shall be located beneath stairs
that ar~e in whole or parlt of combustible construction; such space
shall be left enltir~ely open and free fr~om encumbrance.
(e) Except inl 1- andi 2-family dwellings the undlerside of interior
stairways, if of combustible construction, shall be protected to pro-
vide nlot less than 1-hour fir~e-resistance.
(f) In buildings two or three stories in height with balconies,
porches or galleries where ea~ch room opens dfirectly into such areas,
exit stairways may extend fr~om floor to floor on the outside pro-
vided such stairways are protected by a one-hour fir~e-resistive sep-
aration from the building. In buildings four (4) or more stories inl
height, two (2) hour protection shall be provided.

1115.2 BASEMENT STAIRS
(a) In Group E, Theater~s andi Assembly occupancies, no exit
stair from a lower story shall lead to an exit doorway serving an
exit stair from an upper story.
(b) In no case shall a stair fr~om a lower story lead to an exit
dioorway serving an exit stair from an upper story, unless such
stair from below is separated at its upper end from the stair above
by partitions equal to the fire rating of the stair enclosure.

111.5.3 -TREADS AND RIISERS
(a) Treads andi risers of required stairs shall be so proportioned
that the sum of two (2) r~iser~s and a tread, exclusive of projection
of nosing, is not less than twenlty-four (24) inches nor mor~e than
twenty-five (25) inches. The height of riser shall not exceed seven
and three-quarter (7%h) inches, and treads, exclusive of nosing, shall
be not less than nine (9) inches wide. Every tread less than ten
(10) inches wide shall have a nosing, or effective projection, of ap-
proximately one (1) inch over the level immediately below that tread.
(b) Treads shall be of uniform width and risers of uniform
height in any one flight of stairs.
11 -11








(c) The use of winders and/or spiral stairways, is prohibited inl
stairways serving as I~reuired exits.

1115.4 LANDINGS
(a) No flight of stairs shall have a vertical rise of more than
twelve (12) feet between floor~s or landings; provided that in stair-
ways serving as exits in buildings of Group E Theater and Assembly
occupancies, such vertical rise shall not exceed eight (8) feet between
landings.
(b) The length and width of landings shall be nlot less than thle
width of stairways in which they occur.
(c) In buildings of Gr~oup E Assembly occupancies, flights of
less than three risers shall not be used in stairways, interior or
exterior, passag-eways, at entrance or elsewhere in connection with
required exits. To overcome lesser differences in level, gradlients not
exceeding one foot in ten feet may be used.

1115.5 HANDRAILS
(a) All stairs shall have walls with handrails, or well securedl
handrails or guards on both sides of stairs of not less than thirty (30)
nor more than thirty-four (34) inches high.
Stairs of less than forty-four (44) inches in width may have
hallirails on one side only. Horizontal runs of rails around openl
wells shall be not less than 36 inches high.
(b) When the required width of a flight of stairs exceeds eighty-
eight (88) inches, one or mor~e intermedliate handrails, continuous
between landings, substantially supported and terminating at the
upper end in newels or standards shall be provided and there shall
be not more than sixty-six (66) inches between~ such adjacent han~d-
rails.

1115.6 WIDTH
(a) Stairs serving as required means of egr~ess shall be clear
of all obstructions except that handrails attached to walls may pro-
ject not more than 3% inches at each side within the required wilthl.
(b) Width of stairs shall not decrease inl thle direction of exit
travel.
(c) The minimum widlth of anly stair serving as a means of
egress shall not be less than 36 inches, except thalt stairs in Group D),
Institutional Occupancies, shall be a minimum of 44 inches.

1115.7 HEADROOM
(a) Stairs serving as required means of egress shall have a mini-
mum headroom clearance of six feet eight inches (6' 8"), measured
vertically from the nearest nosing to the nearest soffit. This minimum
shall be maintained for the full required width of stairs and landings.

11 -12







SECTION 1116 FIRE ESCAPES

(a) Fire escapes, or outside stairs not meeting the requirements
of this chapter, shall not be permitted except as approved by the
Building Official for existing buildings not over four (4) stories inl
height, where additional exits are necessary and conditions do not
permit the use of more adequate exit facilities.
(b) Exter~ior fir~e escapes constructed with the approval of the
B~uildling Official on buildings heretofore erected, shall conform so
far as possible with the requirements of this chapter. Fire escapes
shall be constructed of non-combustible material and shall be ar-
r~angedl and located so that they can readily be reached by occupants
of the building andt so that safe egress is provided at the foot of
the fire escape.
(c) All openings localted withinl tenl (10) feet of exterior stair-
wa~ys or fire escapes shall b~e protected with approved self-closing fire
doors or approved fire wrindlows.
(dl) Exter~iorl stairwrays, unless otherwise enclosed by non-com-
bustib~le materials, shall h~e priovidedt throughout with metal mesh or
other rigidl guardts at least three (3) feet high on each unenclosed
sidle of such stairway. All glass used in the construction of such en-
closures shall be wired glassi.


SECTION 1117 DOORWAYS

1117.1 -DOOR1WAYS, GENER~IAL,
(a) E~very exit dloorway shall open into an enclosed stairway, a
horizonltal exit, a fire protectedl corridor or passageway, meeting the
r~equiremlents of this chap~te andt providing continuous protected
egress to a street, or to an exterior open space leading to a street;.
T'he clear height; of exit doorways shall b~e not less than six feet
andi six inches (6' 6").
(b) No exit; doorw~ay shall bie less thani thirty-six (36) inches
inl w\idthl except that in Grioup, D, Institutional occupancies,, doorways
serving as exits for areas housing bedridldenl patients shall be not
less thanl forty-four1 (44i) inches in width.
(c) ExSit doorwa\'iys shl;tl swinlg inl the direction of exit and shall
niot obstruct the ti'avel along any required exit, except that doors
swung' flat against the walls may project not more than six (6)
inlches. No dloor shall at any3 point in its swing reduce the required
width of anl exit stairwvay or' landing to less than thirty (30) inches
nlor interfere with full use of thle stairs. Doors from individual rooms
occupied b~y less thanl 50 people may open into such room or space.
(6l) No exit dloorwa~y shall1 openl immlledialtely upon a flight of
stairs. A- landling of at least the width of dloor shall be provided.
11 -13







(e) All doors designed to be ktept normally closedl inl connection
with exits, such as doors on stair enclosures and smoke stop doors,
shall be provided with reliable self-closing mechanism and shall not
at any time be secured in the open position, except stair doors in
schools and smoke stop doors in hospitals may be kept normally open
for operating convenience provided that qualified personnel is con-
tmnually available to assure prompt closing of doors in case of fire or
other emergency.

(f) Smoke barriers, horizontal exits, stairway enclosures andi
other fire doors opening on exitways shall be self-closing and so
maintained or shall be provided with approved door holding devices
of the fail safe type which will release the door(s) causing it to
close upon the detection of products of combustion other than heat;
by a device complying with the requirements of "Smoke Detectors
for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, U.L. Standardl 168."
(g) Required exit doors shall b~e openable from the inside without
the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or effort. When exit doors
are in pairs, manually operated edge or surface. mounted flush bolts
and surface bolts are prohlibited. If approved automatic flush bolts
are used, that door leaf shall have no dloor knob or surface mounltedl
hardware. The unlatching of any leaf shall not require more thanl
one (1) operation.
(h) For required width of doorways, serving exit stairways and
the exit capacity of doorways, see Sections 1105.2 and 1105.3.

(i) Locks, if provided, shall not require any key to operate from
the inside, except as may be required for mental and penal institu-
tions, except this requirement shall not apply to exterior exit dloors
in a Group B, E-2, F or G Occupancy if there is a readily visible
durable signI on or adjacent to the door stating "THIS EX[IT TO
REMAIN UNLOCKED DURING BUSINESS HOURS." The. sign
shall be in letters no less than 1" high on a contrasting background.
The locking device must be of a type that will be readily dlistinguish-
able as locked. The use of this exceptionl may be r~evokedl by the
Building Official for due cause.

1117.2 PANIC HARDWARE
(a) Thle exit doors of schools (except doors of individual school
rooms), motion picture theaters, and theaters of any capacity shall
be equipped with latches (fire exit bolts) which release when pres-
sure of not to exceed 15 pounds is applied to the releasing devices
in the direction of the exit travel. Such releasing devices may be
bars or panels extending not less thanl two-thirds of the width of
the door and placed at heights suitable for the service required, but
not less than 30 nor more than 44 inches above the floor.
(b) The exit doors of all other places of public assembly having
capacity in excess of 800 persons shall be equipped with latches (fire
exit bolts) as provided in the proceeding par'agrap~h.
11 -141







1117.3 POWER OPERATED DOORS
Where required doors are operated by power which is activated
by a photo-electric device, floor mat, wall switches or other approved
device or as well as doors with power assisted manual operation, the
design, installation and maintenance shall be such that, in the event
of power failure, the door may be manually opened to permit exit
travel. These doors shall be openable as is required for other non-
power operable doors.

1117.4 REVOLVING DOORS
(a) Approved revolving doors may be used between street floor
and street as required exits except as notedt in paragraph (e) below,
but not within five (5) feet of the swing of the wings at foot of stairs
from upper floors nor within 3 feet of the swing of the wings at
head of basement stairs. Where used -there shall be at least one
swing dloor exit within 20 feet of each revolving door, with there
being no fewer swing doors than revolving doors as individual exits,
except as provided in paragraphl (c) below.
(b) Each revolving door shall receive egress credit equal to the
dimension of the clear opening between the extreme ends of the
enclosure walls, less that space occupied by all of the wings when
collapsed in a "book-fold" manner anld moved to the extreme egress
position.
(c) Revolving doors may serve as exits, without swinging doors,
for street floor elevator lobbies if no stairways or doors from other
parts of the building discharge through the lobby, and the lobby has
no occupancy other than as a means of travel between elevator and
street.
(d) All approved revolving doors shall be:
1. Equipped with means to prevent their rotation at too
rapidly a rate to permit orderly egress. (A rate of 12 revolutions
p~er minute is recomnmendedl), andi
2. Equipped with emergency collapsing devices such that
each of the wings will collapse in either direction when a force
of not more thanl 180 pounds is applied onl the outer stile of the
wings at push bar level, and all of the wings must collapse to-
gether into a "book-foldl" position.
(e) Revolving doors mlay b~e used inl the following occupancy
classifications in accordance with this section:
Group A--Residlential
Group B~-Business
Group, F--Storage
Group, G--Indtustrialn
Grloupl C--Schools--Only at mainl entr~ances of adlmin~istrative
bu~ildlingrs where nlot subject to emnergenlcy use.
11 -15








Group, D--linst~itutional-O nIly at mnaini ent~anlces of admlinis-
trative buildings w~here not subject to emergncyg

Group, E-Not perlmittedl as requir~ed exits.

1117.5 SPECIAL DOORWAY REQUIISREENTS
(a) No door, wheni opening or w~hen fully op~en shall prlojcct hec-
yond the building line. (See Chapter XXT'I, Use of P'ublic Proper~ty).
(b) Every dloor used as a means of egress or ingresss in eafcs,
restaurants, or in any building of Group E, Assembly Occupancy,
shall be considcered as an exit dloorway andi shall meet all the !require-
ments as set fourth in this chap~ter.


SECTION 1118 RAMPS

(a) The width and enclosure of exit ramps shall be as 1reuir~ed
in Section 1112--Exit Outlets.
(b) The slope of ramps shall not exceed one foot in ten~ Feet.
(c) Surface of ramps shall be of non-slip material.
(d) Exit ramps shall be of non-combustible construction except
as otherwise permitted for stairs.
(e) Ramps shall comply with all requireements for stairways so
far as those requirements ar~e applicable.

(f) In all public buildings such as, but not limited to, public
libraries, city halls, court houses and public schools that have their
main floor level above or below ground level shall have at least one~
ramp at a public entrance to the building accessible and available for
use by the Physically Handicapped using wheel chairs, bracess or
crutches. Ramps for Physically Handticappedl shall not have a slop~e
greater than one foot rise in twelve feet, or 8.33 percent, or 4 dlegrees
50 minutes. Ramps shall have handlrails on at least one side, 32 inches
in height, measured from the suirace of the ramp, that are smooth
and extend one foot beyond the to, andt bottom of thle raLmp,. R~mp~s
shall have a level platform at the top at least three (3) feet wide and
shall extend at least one foot beyond each side of the dloorw\ay. It shall
have at least six (6;) feet of straight clearance at the bottom.


SECTION 1119 HORIZONTAL EXITS

(a) A horizontal exit is a horizontal passageway through a fire
wall or through a two-hour fir~e-resistive p~artition inlto anlother
building or into another section of the same building, provided how~-
ever, that horizontal exits may comprise not mor~e thanl fifty per-
cent (50%/) of the required exits fr~om any building or floor areai
except for exits in mechanical or equipment rooms.
11 -16








(b) The widfth of horizontal exits shall not be less thanl requiredl
for exit doorways. The exit capacity of horizontal exits shall be as
specified in Section 1105.3.
(c:) Horizontal exits shall b~e equipped with at least onle (1)
approvedd fire door of a self-closing type. No automatic slidling fire
dloor shall be usedl on horizontal exits. Door openings shall b~e pro-
tectedl as specified in Sectionl 703.
(dl) Floor ar~ea on either sidle of a hlorizontal exit shall b~e suf-
ficient to hold the oi~cupants of both floor areas served, allow~ing
niot less than three (3() square feet net clear area p~er person.

(e) The area into which a hiorizonital exit leads shall be p~ro-
vidledl ith exits adequate to meet thle requirements of this Chap~ter,
but not including thle adlded capacity imposedl by yprsons e~nteringlb it
through horizontal exits fr~om another' area. At least one of its exits
sha~ll leadc dlirectly to the exterior..
(1) Where there is a dliffe~enice of level between connlectedl areas,
r~amps, not steps, shall be usedl, meetingg the requirements of Section
1118--Ramps.
(g) Doors in horizontal exits shall b~e kept unllockedi andi uni-
obstructed.


SECTION 1120 EXIT TO ROOF

(a) In all buildings four (4) stories or more in height, of other
than Type I or Tylie II Construction, one enclosed exit stairway shall
be continued from street grade level to or through the roof level ex-
cept where roofs have a slope greater than one in four. Such stairway
shall be marked at street ald. floor levels with a signl indicating that
it continues to the roof.

(b) Wher~e roofs ar~e usedl for roof gardlens or for other purposes,
stairways shall be prlovidedl as reqcuiredl for suchl use or occupancy.
(c) Where no stairway extends to the roof, scu~ttles~ shall b~e
p~rovided of size niot less than two (2) feet by three (3) feet, giviing
access to the roof.


SECTION 1121 ELEVATORS

(a) Elevators shall coniform w\ith the requirements of the "Safety
Code for Elevatorsi, D~umblwaiters and Escalators, ANSI Al7.1-19171,"
as applicable unless otherwise sp~ecifiedl.
(b) Elevator shafts shall be enclosedl andi protectedl from the rest
of the buildling as sp~ecified by Sectioni 701.3.
(c) Elevators shall noct b~e located in a common enlclosinlg shuft'
wvith anl exit stairw\\ay. Sco Sectioni 701.31.

1 17








SECTION 1122 ESCALATORS

(a) Unless otherwise specified, escalators shall comply with the
requirements for escalators in the "Safety Codec for Eleva;tors, Dumb-
waiters and Escalators, ANSI A17.1-1971."


SECTION 1123 EXIT SIGNS

(a) Exits shall be indicated by approved signs or lights at all
times when the building is occupied.
(b) All exits shall be marked with illuminating signs bearing
the word "Exit" in letters at least 6 inches high. No battery oper-
ated electric light or any type of portable lantern shall be used for
primary exit illumination. No luminescent or fluorescent, or reflec-
tive materials may be used as a substitute for anly of the required
illumination for exit signs. All required illumination shall be so ar-
ranged that thle failure of any single light unit, suchl as thle burning
out of an electric bulb, will not leave any area inl darkness. All exit
signs shall be illuminlated at all times when the building is occupiedl
by a reliable light source of not less thanl 25 watts or equivalent
photometric rating that will be readlable easily at a distance of 100
feet. Where a main entrance serves as anl exit andl is visible to the
occupants, no exit sign is required over the main entrance door.
(c) Where exit lights or signs or the exits themselves are not
visible from the exit approach, dlirectional signs indicating the way
of egress shall be provided. The level at which there is direct exit
to the exterior shall also be clearly indicated.
(d) Lighting of exit signs shall be from a source independent
of the general building lighting in buildings of Group E, Assembly
occupancy or department stores having over five thousand (5000)
sq. ft. of area on any one sales floor, in hotels with sleeping accom-
modations for more than one hundred (100) persons andi in Group,
D, Institutional occupancies.


SECTION 1124 ILLUMINATION OF EXITS

(a) Exits shall be illuminated at all times when the building
is occupied with light of not less than one foot candlle intensity at
the floor level.

(b) Artificial lighting when nlecessary to meet the requirements
of this Section, shall be from a source independent of the general
building lighting in buildings of Grloup E, Assembly occupancy, of
Group D, Institutional occupancy, inl hotels with sleeping accommo-
dlations for more thanl one hundred (100) pecrsons andi inl department
stores of over five thousand (6,000) sq. ft. of area onl anly onle sales
floor.
11 -18








SECTION 1125 EXIT OBSTRUCTIONS

(a) No obstruction shall be placed in any aisle, exit, foyer, pas-
siageway or coriridor.
(b) Where the floor space of a Group E, Assembly occupancy,
is occupiedl by tables, chairs or other movable furniture, aisles at
least 36 inches in clear width shall be maintained to provide ready
access to exit doorways.

SECTION 1126 FIRE ALARM

(a) A manunal fire alarm system in accordance with provisions
of "Local Protective Signaling Systems, NFPA 72-A, 1972," shall be
installedl in all the following buildings unless the building is equipped
with al alutomlatic fire alarm system or an automatic sprinkler sys-
tem :
Group A: Hotels having accommodations for more than 15 guests,
apartment houses four stories or more in height, dormitories, lodging
or rooming houses having more than 20 sleeping accommodations.
Group Ii: Blusiness buildings having a total occupancy of 500 or
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the street
floor.
Group C: Schools.
Group D)2: Hosljitals, sanitariums, nursing homes, homes for thle
aged and orphanages.
Group E: Assembly having a capacity of 1,000 persons.
Group G: Industrial occupanlcies of buildings over two stories or
more in height, and having a total capacity of 500 or more above or
below the street floor level.
Group H: Hazardous occupancies.


















11 -103








101--80


CHPER 9 EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIES
(See abso Chapter17.)-

SEC~ION 9-1 GENERAL REQUIREMEN'IS .


9-1.1 Application.
9-1.1.1*; The requirements of this chapter apply to both new and existing
buildings.,- ~ ~ -
Exception No. 1: Where otherwise stated. - -
Exception No. 2: An existing building housing educational occupancies
established prior to the efective date of this Code may have its use con-
tinued if it conforms or i made to conform to the provisions of this Code
to the extent that, in the opinion of the authority havingjurisdiction, reason-
able life safety against the hazadrd of fire, explosion, and panic is provided
and maintained.


c e..2p Rooms used for kmnd rgart n okr first grd uis shall nt be 1 -



I ~~9-113 dcational occupancies shall make provisions for the physically

9-1.1.4 Mixed Occupancies. (See arols9-.3.)
9-1.1.4.1. General. In case two or more classes of occupancy occur
in the same building or structure so intermingled that separate safeguards
are impracticable, the means of egress shall be sufficient to meet the re-
quirements for each individual room or- section and for the maximum
occupant load of entire building. Construction, protection, and other
safeguards shall meet requirements of the most hazardous occupancy.
Exception:-As otherwise speerlFed iifthis chapter.
9-1.1.4.2 Assembly and Educational. Any auditorium, assembly room,
cafeteria, gymnasium used for assembly purposes such as athletic events
with provisions for seating of spectators, or other spaces subject to as-
sembly occupancy shall comply with Chapter 8, including Special Pro'
visions for Places of Assembly an Buildings of Other Occupancy, which
provides that where auditorium and gymnasium exits lead through
corridors or stairways also serving as exits for other parts of the building,
the exit capacity shall be sufficient to permit simultaneous exit from
auditorium and classroom sections.
Exception: In the case of an auditorium and gymnasium of a type sutit-
able only for ue of the school ocucpant load (and therefore not subject to
simultaneous occupancy), thresame xit capacity may serve both sections.


EDUCATIONALL OCCUPAN~CIEs 101-81

9-1.1.4.3 Dormitory and Classrooms. Any building used for both class-
Sroom and dormitory purposes shall comply with the applicable provisions
of Chapter 11 in addition to complying with Chapter 9. Where classroom
and dormitory sections are not subject to simultaneous occupancy, the
same exit capacity may serve both sections.

9-1.1.4.4 Other Combined Occupancies.
9-1.1.4.4.1 Anly other combinations of occupancy not covered in 9-1.1.3.2
and 9-1.1.3.3 shall comply with all applicable chapters of this Code, with
means of egress adequate to serve all occupancies simultaneously..
9-1.1.4.4.2 .Each room havinIg an occupant load of more than` 100 s~hall
be located at the floor of exit discharge. ~
Exception: Buildings ofjire-resistive construction.

9-1.2 Special Def initions.
Common Atmosphere. A common atmosphere exits between rooms,
spaces or areas within a building, which are not separated by an approved
smoke partition.
F ei le Pla ad gpe pla Edctoa Buigsn Incld ov


(a) Flexible plan buildings have movable corridor walls and movable
partitions of full height construction with doors leading from rooms to
corridors.
(b) Open plan buildings have rooms and corridors delineated by use of
tables, chairs, desks, bookcases, counters, low height (5 feet) partitions, or
similar furnishings.
Flexible plan buildings without exit access doors between rooms and
*corridors shaHl be classified as open plan buildings.
Interior Room. A room whose only means of egress is through an
adjoining or intervening room which is not an exit.
Room. For the purposes of this section, a room is a space or area
bounded by any obstructions to egress which at any time enclose more
than 80 percent of the perimeter of the space or area. Openings of less than
3 feet clear width and less than 6 feet 8 inches high shall not be considered
in computing the unobstructed perimeter.
Separate Atmosphere. A separate atmosphere exists between rooms,
spaces or areas that are separated by an approved smoke partition.
Separate Means of Egress. A means of egress separated in such a
manner from other required means of egress as to provide an atmospheric
separation which precludes contamination of both means of egress by the
same f ire. (See Section 6-6.)
Smoke Partition. (See Section S-.) For purposes of this section, smoke
partitions shall also include floors and openings therein.








EDUCATIONAL OFCCUPANCIES 101-83

SECTION 9-2 MEANS OF EGRESS REQUIREMENTS
9-2.1 General.
9-11.1 Every aisle, corridor, balcony, other means of access to exits.
and discharge from exits shall be mn accordance with Chapter 5.
9-2.1.2 Means of Egress Deficiencies in Existing Buildings.
9-2.1.2.1 Deficiencies may be corrected by adding additional means of
egress, preferably those which will provide direct exit discharge to the
outside from classroom or student-occupied areas.
9-2.1.2.2 In lieu of direct exit discharge to the outside from classrooms,
the requirements of this Code may be met by providing communicating
doors between classrooms or student-occupied areas that provide access
to at least one exit or exit stair without passing through interior corridors.
9-2.2 Types of Exits. Exits of the specified number and width shall be
one or more of the following types, in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter 5 of this Code.
(a) Doors. (See 5-2.1.)
(b) Interior Stairs Class A or Class B. (See 5-2.2.)

NOTE: Clasis B stairs shall not be used for Rtudelnt acce~sF.

(c) Smokeproof Towers. (See 5-2.3.)
(d) Outside Stairs Class A. (See 5-2.5).
(e) Horizontal Exits. (See 5-2.4.)
(f) Ramps Class A or Class B. (See 5-2.6i.)

9-2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress.
9-2.3.1* Every educational building, and every floor, section or room
thereof considered separately shall have exits sufficient to provide for the
capacity thereof, comprised of one or more types of exits, as follows:
(a) Any door, in accordance with Section 5-2.1, leading directly out-
side building at ground level, or not to exceed 3 risers above or below the
ground 100 persons per unit of exit width.
(b) Any door leading outside building but requiring steps of over
3 risers to reach the ground 100 persons per unit of exit width; steps
rnust have Va: more units of width than doors to allow for slower travel
rate.
(c) Stairs, smokeproof towers or outside stairs, in accordance with
Sections 5-2.2, 5-2.3 and 5-2.5 60 persons per unit of exit width.
(d) Ra mps. in accordance with 5-2.6.
(1) Class A 100 persons per unit of exit width.
(2) Class B 60 persons per unit of exit width.


101--82 L ~yIFE8PT CODE

9-13 Classification of Occupancy. (See &13. -
9-13.1 Educational occupancies shaB include all buildings used for the
gathering of groups of 6 or more persons for purposes of instruction, such
as schools, universities, colleges, and academies.
-13.2 Educational occupancy includes part-day, nursery schools'
kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is pnimanily educational
even though the children are of preschool age.

9-133 Other occupancies associated with educational institutions shall
be in accordance with the appropriate parts of this Code. (See Chapters
10, 11, I4, IS, andl16, andl 1.5.)
9-13.4* In cases where instruction is incidental to some other occupancy.
the section of this Code governing such other occupancy shall apply.



cupancies shall be classified in accordance with the provisions of Section


9-15 Occupant Load.

9-1.5.1 The occupant load coeducational buildings or any individual
story or section thereof for the purrpose of determining exits shall be as
determined by the authority having jurisdiction but not less than one
person for each 20 square feet of net classroom area or 50 square feet of net
area of shops, laboratories, and similar vocational rooms. In day nurseries
where sleeping facilities are provided, the occupant load shall be not less
than one person for each 35 square feet of net area.
1.51 The occupant load of an area having fixed seats shall be deter-
mined by the number of fixed seats installed. Required aisle space serving
the fixed seats shall not be used to increase the occupant load. When
more than 60 seats, every aisle shall be not less than 3 feet wide when
serymng seats on one side only and not less than 3 feet 6 inches when
serving seats on both sides. When serving 60 seats or less, aisles shall not
be less than 30 inches wide. Within a classroom where there are rows of
seats with room access to the seats between individual rows, this space
does not constitute an aisle. No more than 6 seats shall intervene between
any seat and an aisle.
9-1.53 ITe capacity of an educational occupancy or a portion thereof
may be modified from that specified above if the necessary aisles and exits
are provided. An approved aisle or seating diagram shall be required by
the authority having jurisdiction to substantiate such a modification.
~15.4 The occupant load for determining exit requirements of individual
lecture rooms, gymnasiums, or cafeterias used for assembly purposes of
more than 50 persons shall be determined in accordance with 8-1.5.1 of
this Code.





EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIES 101-85

9-2.5.2* Exits shall be so arranged that at least 2 separate exits will be
available from every floor area. Exits shall be as remote from each other
as practicable, so arranged that there will be no pockets or dead ends of
appreciable size in which occupants may be trapped, and in no case shall
any dead-end corridor extend more than 20 feet beyond the stairway or
other means of exit therefrom.

9-2.5.3 Every classroom or room used for educational purposes or
student occupancy below the floor of exit discharge shall have access to at
least 1 exit which leads directly to the exterior at level of discharge with-
out entering the floor above.

9--2.6 Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. Travel distance to an
exit shall not exceed 150 feet from any point in a building.

Exetio~n No. 1: For travel distance in open plan buildings,. see Section
9-3.1
Exception No. 2:- The travel distance may be increased to 200 feet in edu-
cational occupancies completely protected by a complete automatic ex-
tinguishing system.

9-2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be arranged in ac-
cordance with the provisions of Section 5-7.

9-2.8 Doors and Hardware.

9-2.8.1 Door Closure. AHl exit doors designed to be kept normally closed
shall conform with 5-2.1.2.3.

9-2.8.2 Door Swing. If a room or space is subject to occupancy by more
than 50 persons, exit doors shall swing out. Only 1 locking or latching
device shall be permitted on a door or a leaf of a pair of doors. (See also
9-2.3.3.3.)
9-2.8.3 Panic Hardware. Any required exit door subject to use by 100
or more persons shall be operated by a panic hardware device, in ac-
cordance with 5-2.1.2.2.

9-2.9 IIlnmination of Means of Egress. All educational buildings shall
have adequate exit illumination mn accordance with 5-8.


92.d0 Emergency Lighting. Flexible plan and open plan buildings,
mte dings ae for might occupancy, all portions of buildings that are
havrio mn ewin less, s ch as rr s, s airs, aeas, or corridors, shall

9-2.11 Marking of Means of Egress. All educational buildings shall have
signs designating the location of exits or the path of travel to reach them.
mn accordance with 5-10.


101-84


iIFE SAETY CODE


(e) Horizontal exits, in accordance with 5-14 100 persons per unit
of exit width,

9-23.2* The same exit units or fraction thereof required for any indi-
vidual floor may be counted as simultaneously serving all floors above the
first story or floor of exit discharge.

9-233 Minimum Corridor Width,
9-2.3.3.1 Any corridor shall be not less than 6 feet wide in the clear.
9-2333 Drinking fountains or other equipment, fixed or movable,
shall not be so placed as to obstruct the required minimum 6-foot corridor
width.
9-2.3.3.3 Doors which swing into an exit access corridor shall be re-
cessed to prevent interference with corridor traffic; any doors not so re-
cessed shall open 180 degrees to stop against wall Doors in any position
shall not reduce the required corridor width by more than one half.

9-2.4 Nurmber of Exits.
9-2.4.1 There shall be at least 2 exits available from every floor area-
9-2.4.2 Every room or space with a capacity of over 50 persons or over
1,000 square feet in area shall have at least 2 doorways as remote from
each other as practicable. Such doorways shall provide access to separate
exits, but, where egress is through corridors, may open upon a common
corridor leading to separate exits in opposite directions.

9-2.5 Arrangement of Mesas of Egress.
9- 25.1 Exterior Corridors or Balconies.
9-2.5.1.1* Where exterior corridors or balconies are provided as medns
of exit, they shall open to the outside air except for railings or balu trahes
with stairs or level exits to grade not over 250 feet apart, so locate ta
an exit will be available in either direction from the door to any individual
room or space, with dead ends not to exceed 20 feet. If balconies are en-
closed by glass or in any other manner, they shall be treated as interior
corridors.
9-2.5.1. The fl orsm ,fbalco iesd (etro cordr s p nd s ars ihl b

stairs as regards balustrades or railings, width and pitch of stairs, and other
details, u arek nt rqired be sin dedefrom fre wii the bulu g b
the side of the balcony or corridor away from the building and are separ-
ated from the building by the fidlrequired width of the balcony or corridor.
Regardless of other provisions, exterior balconies and stairs may be
of the same type of construction as the building which they serve.








-V


101-86 LIFE SAFETY CODE

Exception:. Signs are not required in situations where location of exits is
otherwise obvious and familiar to all occupants, such as in small elementwy
school buildings.

9-2.12* Windows for Rescue and Ventilation. Every room or space used for
classroom or other educational purposes or normally subject to student
occupancy shall have at least one outside window used -for emergency
rescue or ventilation. Such window shall be openable from the inside with-
out the use of tools, and providing a clear opening of not less than 20
inches in width, 24 inches in height and 5.7 square feet in area. The bottom
of the opening shall be not more than 44 inches above the floor.
Exception No. 1:- In buildings with a complete approved extinguishing system
in accordance with Section 6-4.
Exception No. 2: Where the room or space has a door leading directly to the
outside of the building. .


SECITiON 9-3 PROTECTION

9--3.1 Protection of V'ertical Openings.
9-3.1.1 Any interior stairway and other vertical opening in educational
buildings shall be enclosed and protected in accordance with Section 6-1.
9-3.1.2 Stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 6-1-
Exception: Starirwuay enclosreP will not be required for a stairw'ay serving
only one adjacent floor except a balsement and not connected w'ith corridors
or starirw~ays serving other foors.

93 a Ineirn e nsh inero fnish shaHl be Cls A in corr deors,estai -
accordance with the provisions of Section 6-2.
Exception: In existing educational buildings whichbhv ing i rish ta
does not comtply with the requirement for n bidgs h rsos
of62.2 and 6-23 shall be acceptable as alternate requirements.

9-3.3 Detection, Alarm, and Communication Systems.
9-3.3.1 Approved manually operated fire alarm facilities in accordance
with Section 6-3 shall be provided in every educational building.
9-3.3.2 In buildings provided with automatic sprinkler protection, the
operation of the sprinkler system shall automatically actuate electrical
school fire alarm systems.
9-3.3.3 Existing Buildings. Requirements for fire alarm systems for exists
ing educational buildings shall conform to those for new education
buildings subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction-


EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIES


01 1-87


9-3.4 Extinguishment Requirements. Every portion of educational build-
ings below the floor of exit discharge shall be protected with complete
automatic sprinkler protection in accordance with Section 6-4.

9-3.5 Protection from Hazards.
9-35.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use of combustible
supplies, flammable liquids or hazardous materials in quantities deemed
hazardous by recognized standards; boiler or furnace rooms, fuel storage
rooms, maintenance shops, including wood-working and pamntmg areas;
kitchens and laundries shall be separated from other parts of the building
with enclosures having not less than one-(1) hour fire resistance rating
Openings shall be protected by self-closing or automatic closing fire d or
assembhies. (See NFPA 80.)
Exception: Food preparation facilities protected in accordance with NFPA
96, Vapor Removal Cooking Equipment (see Appendix B), are not required
to have openings between food preparation areas and the dining areas pro-
tected.
9-35.2 Janitor closets shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler
system, which may be supplied by the domestic water supply system serv-
ing no more than six (6) sprinklers and has a water supply sufficient to
provide 0.15 GPM per square foot of floor area.

9-3.6 Minimum Construction Requirements.
9-3.6.1 Interior Corridors.
9-3.6.1.1 Every interior corridor shall be of construction having not less
than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, and all openings protected with doors,
frames and hardware, including losers, that shall all have a fire protection
rating of at least 20 minutes.

b nc pio No I Roo smor sn existing buildings may be 1%4-inch solid

msepin o shucch cordoprrsmtio ashel ntn eb req ied when all
outside or to an exterior balcony or corridor as in 9-2.5.1
9-3.6.1.2 Any interior corridor more than 300 feet in length shall be di-
vided into reasonably equal sections not exceeding 300 feet in length by
smoke partitions installed in accordance with Section 6-6.

9-3.7 Smoke Control. (See 9-2t.12 and 9-3.6.1.2.)


SECTION 9- BUILDING SERVICES

9-4.1 Electrical Wiring and Equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment
and all cooking, heating, incinerating and other building service equip-
ment shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 7.









9-5.2.2.1.4 Open plan schools shall have furniture, fixtures, or low
height partitions so arranged that exits will be clearly visible and un-
obstructed, and exit paths are direct, not circuitous. If paths or corridors
are established, they shall be at least as wide as required by 9-2.3.3.
9-5.2.2.2 Travel Distance to Exits. No point in a building shall be more
than 150 feet from an exit, measured in accordance with 5-6.
Exception: An increase in the above travel distance to 200 feet shall be
permitted in a building fully protected by an automatic fire extinguishing
system in accordance witlh Section 6-4 and NFPA 13, Standard ~for the |
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. (See Appendix B.) I

9-5.23 Protection.
9-5.2.3.1 Vertical Openings.
9-5.2.3.1.1 All exit stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with 6-1.
9-5.2.3.1.2 Vertical openings other than exits shall be enclosed as re-
quired by 6-1. (See 9-3.1.2for enclosure of exits.)
9-5.2.3.2* Interior Finish. Interior finish in flexible plan and open plan
buildings shall be as follows:
(a) Corridors in flexible plan buildings Class A, on rigid material
will not deform at temperature below 4500 F. Smoke emissions shall be
as required in 6-2.
(b) Other than corridor walls Class A or Class B. (See 6-2.)

Excebt1~io: ao1:Fixtures and low height partitions not over 5 feet high
Exception No. 2: In one-story buildings the exposed portions of structural
meber complying with the requirements for heavy timber construction may

9-j.2.3.3 Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems.
9-5.2.3.3.1 Any flexible plan building or open plan building in which
the travel distance to exits exceeds 150 feet shall have complete automatic
fire extinguishing systems in accordance with Section 6--4. Extinguishing
systems shall be electrically interconnected with the school fire alarm sys-
tem.
9-5.2.3.3.2 Automatic fire extinguishing systems shall be modified to
conform with partition changes. Modification plans shall have prior
approval of the authority having jurisdiction.
9-5.2.3.4 Protection from Hazards.
9-5.2.3.4.1 Stages in places of assembly shall be separated from school
areas by construction having at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating and
shall comply with 8-3.5.1. Openings shall be protected by self-closing or
automatic closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of
3/ ours.


EDUCAT10NAL OCCUPALNCIEs


101-89


01 1-88


~IFE SAFETY CODE


9-4. Air Conditionring. Every air-conditioning, beating, and ventilating
installation shall comply with 7-2 of this Code.
9-43 Elevators. (See 7-3.)


SECITON 9-5 SPECIAL PROVISIONS

9-5.1 Windowless and SubterraneanBuildings. In addition to the require-
ments of this section for underground and windowless educational build-
ings, the provisions of 16-4 of this Code shall apply and such buildings
shall be provided with complete automatic sprinkler protection.-

9-5.2 Flexible Plan rad Open Plan Buildings.
9-5.21 General Requirements.
9-5.21.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall not exceed 30,000
square feet in undivided area. A solid wall or smoke partition (Section
6-6) shall be provided at maximum intervals of 300 feet and openings in
such walls or partitions shall comply with ~6-62

9-5.2.2. Means of Egress Requirements.
9-5.2.2.1 Arrangement of Mleans of Egress.
~5.2.2.1.1 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons shall have two
(2 or more rneans of egros entrin i o sparate atmospt res o'Ne
them shall enter into the same atmosphere.
19-5.2.2.1.2 Exit access from interior rooms may pass through an adjoin-
ing or an intervening room, provided that the travel distances do not ex-
ceed those set forth mn 9-5.22.2.
Foyers and lobbies constructed as required for corridors shall not be
construed as intervening rooms.
Where the only means of egress from a room is through an adjoining
or mnterveming room, smoke detectors shall be installed mn the area of the
common atmosphere through which the means of egress must pass. The
detectors shall actuate alarms audible in the interior room and shall be
connected to the school fie alarm system
Exception No. 1: Where die aggregate occupant load of the interior room
or rooms is less than 10.
Exception No. 2:- Where eniclosures forming interior rooms are lss I an
%~ of the foor to ceiling height and do not exceed 8 feet.
Exception No. 3: Interior rooms ursed exclusively for mechanical and public
Ptility service to thre buidfhngs-
9--5.2.2.13 Flexible plan schools may have walls and partitions re-
arranged periodically, only after revised plans or diagrams have been ap-
proved by the authority having jurisdiction.








101--90 LIFE SAFETY CODE

9-5.2.43.2 Shops, laboratories, and similar vocational rooms, as well
as storage-rooms, shall be separated from school areas by construction
having at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating. They shall have exits in-
dependent from other areas.-:
9-5.2.35 Smoke Control.
9-5.2.3.5.1 The specific requirements of this section are not intended
to prevent the design or use of other systems, equipment or techniques
which will effectively prevent the products of combustion from breaching
the- amtmopheric separation.

.2.3m5 rhe prvsosof thi subsection shall ap ye onl to ith red
requirements shall comply with other provisions of the Code.
(a) Walls, partitions and floors forming all of or part of an atmos'
phric spr tn cullbe of mterials consit ent wit sh re eireent.
smoke partition. Glass lights of approved wired glass set in steel frames
may be installed in such walls or partitions.
(b) Every door opening therein shall be protected with a fire assembly
as required elsewhere in the Code, but not less than a self-closing or auto.
matic-closing, tight-fitting smoke assembly having a fire protection rating
of not less than 20 minutes-
(c) Ducts penetrating atmospheric separation walls, partitions or
doors shall be equipped with an approved automatic-closing smoke
damper when having openings mnto more than one atmosphere, or the
atmospheric separation shall be maintained by an approved method of
smoke control.
(d) All automatic-closing fire assemblies installed in the atmospheric
separation shall be activated by approved smoke detectors.
(e) Janitor closets and storage rooms shall be enclosed by materials
having one-hour fire resistance. Stages and enclosed platforms shall be
constructed in accordance with Chapter 8.
Exception: Doors to Jaonitor closes may havue ventilating louvers.
9- 5.3 Child Day Care Centers. (See also 9-5.4 and 9-SA.)
9-53.1 General Requirements.
9-5.3.1.1* General.
9-5.3.1.1.1 This section establishes life safety requirements for child
day care centers, in which'more than 12 children receive care, mamn-
tenance and supervision for 24 hours or less per day.
~5.3.1.1.1 The text principally applies to centers for children under
3 years of age. Variationrs for centers housing children 3 years of age and
older are indicated.
9-53.1.13 Centers hosing children 6 years of age and older shall con-
form to the requirements for educational occupancies. except as noted
herein.


EDUCATIONAL OCOUPANCIEs 101-91

9-5.3.1.1.4 Where a facility houses more than one age group, the re-
quirements for the younger children shall apply, unless the area housing
the younger children is maintained as a separate fire area.
-9-53.1.13 Mixed Occupancies.
:(a) Where centers are located in a building containing mixed oc-
cupancies, the separation requirements of the locally applicable building
code or, if none exits, a nationally recognized model code, shall be satis-
fled.
(b) Centers in Aipartment Buildings.
(i) ~ ~ I h w x acse r te ceter enter h sant c~orri or, as

tonr. bThe ssm e ppa t tn Ivmlbe so laet dtht there an ext oech
side of it.
(ii) The door in the smoke partition shall be not less than 36 inches wide.
Exception: Existing doors not less thah 32 inches wide may be accepted.
(iii) The door and frame assembly in the smoke partition shall have a
fire protection rating of at least 20 minutes and shall be equipped with a
self-closmng device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device activated
by a smoke detector. (See also 5i-2.1.2.3.)
9-5.3.1.1.6 Location. The story below the floor of exit discharge may be
used in buildings of fire-resistive construction, protected noncombustible
construction, protected wood frame construction and protected ordinary
construction. (See 9-5.3.2.4.2.)
9-5.3.1.2 Special Definitions (none).
9-5.3.1.3 Classification of Occupancy. For the purposes of this section,
children are classified in age groups, as follows: Children under 3 years of
age, chlh ren from 3 through 5 years of age, and children 6 years of age

9-5.3.1.4 Classif ication of Hazard of Contents. (Not specifeally classifed.) I

9l3.15prOccduepdan r f To soccunpanthload Io which marns of egress
intended to occupy that floor but not less than one person for each 35
square feet of net floor area used by the children.

9-5.3.2 Means of Egress Requirements.
9-5.3.2.1 General (none).
9-5.3.2.2 Types of Exits. (See 9-2.2.)
9-5.3.2.2.1 Stairs.
(a) Exit stairs shall be enclosed in accordance with 9-3.1.2.
(b) There shall be no enclosed usable space under stairs in an exit
enclosure nor shall the open space within the enclosure either under or
adjacent to the stairs be used for any purpose.











9-5.3.2.8 Doors, Locks.
9-5.3.2.8.1 Doors in means of egress shall swing in the direction of exit
travel and shall meet the requirements of 9-2.8.2 or 9-2.8.3.
Exception: Doors from an existing center to an exit access in apartment
buildings.
9-5.3.2.8.2 Every closet door latch shall be such that children can open
the door from inside the closet.

9-53.2.8.3 Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit open-
ing of the locked door from the outside in an emergency, and the opening
device shall be readily accessible to the staff.
9-5..2.9 Illumination of Mesas of Egores. If the facility is used after I
daylight hours, it shall comply with M8.
9-5.3.2.10 Emergency Lighting. Means of egress in each day care center
shall be provided with emergency lighting, in accordance with 5-9.
9-5.3.2.11 Marking of Means of Egress. (No additional special require-
ments.) (See 5-10.)

9-5.33 Protection.
9-5.3.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening in centers
shall be enclosed and protected in accordance with Section 6-1.

9-5.3.3.2 Interior Finish.
9-5.3.3.2.1 In centers for children 5 years old or less, interior finish for
all walls and ceilings shall be Class A or Class B in accordance with
Section 6-2 and floors shall be Class A, B or C. In new construction, in-
terior minsh mn means of eC ess sall be Class A and floors in means of

Exception: Tongue and groove wood flooring over V2-inch thick may be
permitted.
9-5.3.3.2.2 In centers for children o years of age or older, interior finish
for means of egress shall be Class A or Class B and for individual rooms
Class A, B or C. Floors shall be Class A, B or C.
9-53.3.2.3 Decorations and furnishings shall be in accordance with
Chapter 17.

9-5.3.3.3 Detection/Alarm Systems.
9-5.3.3.3.1 There shall be a manually operated fire alarm system on
each floor of the center. In centers with more than 100 children, the
fire alarm system shall be installed to transmit an alarm by the most direct
and reliable method approved by local regulations to the fire department
that is legally committed to serve the area in which the center is located.


101-93


EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIEs


101-92 MtPE SAFETY CODE

9-5.3.2.22 Areas of Refuge. In buildings over 5 stories above ground
level, areas of refuge shall be provided for occupants of child day can
cetes either by smokeproof towers or horizontal exits.

9-532.3 Capacity of Ma~ns of~Egrss (See 9-23. =
9-5.3.2.4 Number of Exis.
9-53.2.4.1 Each floor occupied by children shall have not less than
two remote exits.
9-5.3.2.4.2 When the story below the exit discharge is usd(see 9
53.1.1.6), the following conditions shall be met:
(a) For up to 30 children there shall be two remote exits. One exit
shall discharge directly outside and the vertical travel to ground level shall
not exceed 8 feet. There shallbe no unprotected opening into the enclosure
of the second exit
(b) For over 30 children a minimum of two exits shall be provided
directly outside with one of the two exiting at ground leveL
Exception No. 1:- The exit dliirecly to ground level is not required if the exits
are protected in accordance with 5-13 except that there shall be no openings
into the exit other than for ingress and egress. Smoke detectors shall be
provided in that story and the story of discharge.
Exception No. 2: The exit directly to ground level is not required if one exit
complies with Exception No. I and sprinklers are used in that story and the
story of exit discharge.

1 9-5.3.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (When the story below the
exit discharge is used, see also 9-5.3.2.4.2.)

9-5.3.2.6 Measuremaent of Travel Distance to Exit
9-53.2.6.1 Travel ditc shah be measured in accordance with 5-6.
9-53.2.6.2 Travel distance (a) between any room door intended as
exit access and an exit shall not exceed 100 feet; (b) between any pomnt mna
rom and an exit shall nore~xceed 150 feet; (c) between any pomnt mna
seepin room or suite and an exit access door of that room or suite shall
not exed 50 feet.
Exception: The trael distance in (a and (b) above may be increased by 50
feet in buildings completely equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing
system in accordance with 64.
9-5.3.2.6.3 The travel distance to exits in open plan centers for children
3 years of age and older shall be in accordance with 9-5.2.22 for open
plan schools.

is used, see also 9-5.32.4.2. All such exits shall discharge directly to the
outside.












9-5333.2 Smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceiling of each
story in front of the doors to the stairways and at no greater than 30 feet
spacing in the corridors of all floors containing the center. Detectors shall
also be installed in lounges and recreation areas in centers. The detectors
may be single station units with~ an itegral alarm having a decibel rating
of at least 85.
Exception No. 1: Detectors are not required in fully automatic sprinklered
buildings.
Exception No. 2:. Derectors are not required in centers housing children
6 years ofage and older, if as seeping facilities are provided.

9-53.3.4 Extinguishment Requirements.
9-5.3.3.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers suitable for Class B fires shall
be installed in kitchens and cooking areas, and extinguishers suitable
for Class A fires shall be installed throughout the remainder of the center.
(See 6-4.)
9-5.3.3.4.2 Standpipes for fire department use shall be installed in aU
buildings of 6 stories or more housing child day care centers.
9-5.3~35 Protection from Hazards. An area used for general storage,
boiler or furnace rooms, fuel storage, janitor's closets, maintenance shops
including woodworking and painting areas, laundries and kitchens, shall
be separated from other parts of the building with construction having
not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating and all openings shall be
protected with self-closing fire doors, or such area shall be provided with
automatic sprinkler protection. Where the hazard is severe, both the
fire-resistive separation and automatic sprinklers shall be provided.

9-5.3.3.6 MinimumConstructionStandards.
9-53.3.61 Centers shall ot be located above the heights indicated for
the types of construction ~given in the following table-

-5.33.6.2 SubdivisionintoCompartments.
(a) Sleeping areas in centers housing children under 3 years of age
shall be compartmented with partitions having a %/-hour fire resistance
rating so there are not more than 6children in each compartment.
(b) Compartment doors shall be not less than 3 feet wide in new con-
struction and not less than 32 inches wide in existing buildings. Doors and
frames shall have a 20-minute fire protection rating and shall be equipped
with a self-closing device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device as
specified in 10-2.2.8.4.

9-5.34 Building Services.
9-53.4.1 Electical Services.
9-53.4.1.1 Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in ac-
cordance with Chapter 7.


TABLE 9-5.3.3.6 HEIGHT AND CONSTRUCTION LIMITS

Number ofStories
(Stories are counted starting at
.floor of exit discharge)
Type of
Construction Age Grourp 1 2 3 4 and over

Fire Resistive O to 3 X X.. X X
and Protected 3 thruS 5 X X X X
Noncombustible 6 and older X: X X X

Not
Poroected Wood 0 to 3 X See Note 1 Permitted
Frame and Pro- 3 thru 5 X X See Note I
tected Ordinary 6 and older X X See Note I

0 to 3 X See Note 1
Heavy Timber 3 thru 5 X See Note 1
6 and older X See Note 1

O to 3 X `See Note I
Unprotected 3 thru 5 X See Note 1
Noncombustible 6 and older X See Note 1

Unprotected Not
Wood Frame 0 to 3 Permitted
and Unprotected 3 thru 5 See Note 2
Ordinary 6 and older See Note 2

NOTE 1: Permitted if entire building is equipped with an automatic fire
extinguishing system.
N TrE 2: May bedpter itted for cidrnednn3umbears oocahdaendisolder ifdthe
50 and there are two remote exits; or if they are limited to the first floor
and the number of children is limited to 100 and each room has an exit
directly to the outside.


9-5.3.4.1.2* In existing buildings, the electrical wiring shall be sized to
provide for the load. Receptacles and outlets serviced by extension cord
type wiring are prohibited. Electrical appliances shall be grounded in
acordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70. (See Appendix

9-5.3.4.1.3 Special protective receptacle covers shall be installed in all
areas occupied by children in centers for children under 5 years of age.
9-5.3.4.2 Air Conditioning, Ventilating, Heating, Cooking, and Other
Service Equipment. Air conditioning, ventilating, heating, cooking, and
Other service equipment shall be in accordance with Chapter 7.


101-94


LIFE BAPETY CODE


EDUCATIONAL, OCCUPANCIEs


101-95











9-5.4.2.4 Number of Exits.
9-5.4.2.4.1 Each floor occupied by children shall have not less than two
remote means of egress.
9-5.4.2.4.2 Where spaces on the floor above the floor of exit discharge are
used for sleeping purposes by children, at least one exit shall lead directly,
or through an enclosed stairway, to the outside.
9-5.4.2.43 Where children are located on a story below the level of I
exit discharge (basement) at least one exit directly to the outside at ground
level shall be provided. No facility shall be located more than one story
below the ground. Any stairway to the story above shall be cut off by a
fire barrier containing a door of at least a 20-minute fire protection rating,
equipped with a self-closing device and a latch.
9-5.4.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (When a story above or
below the exit discharge is used, see 9-5i.4.2.4.)
9-5.4.2.6 Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. (See 9-2.6.)
9 5.4.2.7 iDis hrg from Exis (When the story above or below the exit


9-5.4.2.8 Doors, Locks.
9-5.4.2.8.1 Every closet door latch shall be such that children can open
the door from inside the closet.
9-5.4.2.8.2 Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit open-
of the locked door from outside mn an emergency, and the opening device
shall be readily accessible to the staff.
9-5.4.2.9 Illumination and Marking of Means of Egress. (See 9-5.3.2.9
and 9-5.3.2.11.)

9-5.4.3 Protection.
9-5.4.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. The doorway between the
floor of exit discharge and any floor below shall be equipped with a self-
closing door plus frame and hardware all of at least a 20-minute fire pro- i
tection rating. Where the floor above the floor of exit discharge is used for
sleeping purposes, there shall be a self-closing door plus frame and hard-
ware all of at least 20-minute fire protection rating at the top or bottom
of each stairway.
Exception: Existing self-closing 1%4-inch solid bonded wood core doors
without rated frames may be accepted by the authority having jurisdiction.

9-5.4.3.2 Interior Finish.
9-5.4.3.2.1 Interior finish in occupied spaces in the home shall be Class A,
B or C, in accordance with Section 6-2.
9-5.4.3.2.2 The interior finish in means of egress shall be Class A or B.


101-9'7


EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIEs


101--96 LIFE SAFETY CODE

>5.4 Group Day Care IA .
9-5.4.1. General Requirements.r
9-5.4.1.1* General.
9--5.4.1.1.1 This section establishes life safety requirements for group day
care homes, in which at least 7 but not more than 12 children receive care,
maintenance and supervision by other than their parents) or legal guard-
ian(s) for 24 hours per day or less (generally within a dwelling unit).
9-5.4.1.1.2 The text principally applies to centers for children under
3 years of age. Variations for centers housing children 3 years of age and
older are indicated.
9-5.4.1.13 Where a facility houses more than one age group, the re-
quirements for the younger age group shall apply, unless the area housing
the younger children is maintained as a separate fire area.
9-5.4.1.1.4 Mixed Occupancies.
(a hna go hDm i oaed enabmuiln gcaon acain mi

Sled.
(b) Homes in Apartment Buildings.
(i) If the two exit accesses from the home enter the same corridor, as in
an apartment building, the exit accesses shall be separated in the corridor
b a smoke partition having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating.
The smoke partition shall be so located that there is an exit on each side of

it(ii) The door in the smoke partition shall be not less than 36 inches wide.
I Exception: Existing doors not less than 32 inches wide may be accepted.
S(iii) The doors and frames in the smoke partition shall have a fire
protection rating of at least 20 minutes and shall be equipped with a
self-closing device, a latch and an automatic hold-open device as specified
in 5-2.1.2.3.
9-5.4.1.2 Special Definitions (none).
9-5.4.1.3 Classification of Occupancy. For puri re der 3hi searson
children are classified in age groups as follo .c childreT6 ud yars of aead
age, children from 3 through 5 years of age' an hlrn6yaso g n
older-
9-5.4.1.4 ClassiliationofHazard~of Contents.(Notspecifically classified.)
9-5.4.1.5 Occupant Load. (No special requirements.)
9-5.4.2 Means of Egress Requrirements*
9-5,4.2. General (none)-
9-5.4.2.2 Types of Exits. (See -5.4.2.4.)
9-5.4.2.3 Capacity of Means of E~gress. (See 9-2.3.)










9-5.433 Defection Systems. Where the floor above the floor of exit
discharge is used for sleengr purposes there shall be a smoke detector at
the top of the stairs in a building 3 stories or less in height or inside the
dwelling unit used as a day care facility in a multiple-dwelling building.
9-5.4.34 Estinguihrs. A portable fire extinguisher suitable for Class B
fires shall be provided for the kitchen and cooking areas. -
9-5.435 Minimum Construction Standards. Each building used as a
group day care home shall meet the local minimum housing code and fire
prevention code for the applicable class of residential construction, or if
none exists, a nationally recognized model code.

9-5.4.4 Building Services.
9-5.4.1 Electrical Servies .. .
%i..4.4.1. Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in ac-
cordance with Chapter 7.
9-5.4.4.1.2* In existing buildings the electrical wiring shall be sized to
provide for the load. Electrical appliances shall be grounded in ac-
cordance with Nationaal Electrical Code, NFlPA 70. (See Appendix B.)
Receptacles and outlets serviced by extension cord-type wiring are pro-
hibited.
9--5.4.4.1.3 Special protective receptacle covers shall be installed in all
areas occupied by children in homes for children under 5 years of age.
9-5A.4.4. Heating Enpot
~5.4.4.21 Any heaters in spaces occupied by children shall be separated
from the space by partitions, screens or other means.
9-5.4.4..2 If solid partions are used to provide the separation required
in 9-5.4.41.1, provision shall be made to assure adequate air for com.
bustion and ventilation for the heating equipment.

9-5.5 Family Chgd Day Care Homes.
9-53.1 General Requieseests.
9-5.5.1.1 General.
9-5.5.1.1. This section establishes life safety requirements for licensed
family child day care homes, in which fewer than seven children receive
care, maintenance and supervision by other than their parents) or legal
guardian(s) for less than 24 hours per day (usually a dwelling umit).
-5.5.1.11 The text principally applies to centers for children under
3 years of age. Variations for centers housing children 3 years of age and
older are indicated.
9-55.1.13 Where a facility houses more than one age group, the require-
ments for the younger children shall apply, unless the area housing the
younger children is maintained as a separate fire area.


EDUCATIONAL OCCUPANCIEs 101-99


101--98


stra shPrar cODE


9-5.5.1.1.4 Mixed Occupancies. Where family child day care homes are
located mna building containing mixed occupancies, the separation require-
ments of the locally applicable building code or, if none exists, a nationally
recognized model code, shall be satisfied.
9-5.5.1.2 Special Definitions (none).
9-5.5.1.3 Classification of Occupancies. For the purposes of this section,
children are classified in age groups, as follows: children under 3 years of
age, r ildren from 3 through 5 years of age, and children 6 years of age
and odr.
9-55.1.4 Classification of Hazard of Contents. (Not specifcally classifed.)
9-5.5.1.5 Occupant Load.~ (No special requirements.)

9-5.5.2 Means of Egress Requirements.
9-5.5.2.1 General (none).
9-5.5.2.2 Types of Exits. (See 9-5.5.2.4.)
9-5.5.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. (See 9-2.3.)
9-5.5.2.4 Number of Exits.
9-5.5.2.4.1 In a one- or two-family dwelling or building of unprotected
wood frame construction used for child care purposes, every room used
for sleeping, living, or dining -purposes shall have at least two means of
egress, at least one of which shall be a door or stairway providing a means
of unobstructed travel to the outside of the building at street or ground
level. No room or space shall be occupied for living or sleeping purposes
which is accessible only by a ladder, folding stairs or through a trap door.
9-5.5.2.4.2 Where children are located on a floor (basement) below
the floor of exit discharge, at least one exit shall be provided directly to
the outside at ground level. No facility shall be located more than one
story below the ground.
9-5.5.2.4.3 Stairs. Every stairway shall comply at least with the minimum
requirements for Class B stairs, as described in 5-2.2, in respect to width,
risers, and treads and shall be maintained free of items of storage.
9-5.5.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (See 9-5.5.2.4.)
9-5.5.2.6 Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. (See 9-2.6.)
9-5.5.2.7 Discharge from Exits. (See 9-5.5.2.4.)

9-5.5.2.8 Doors, Locks.
9 5.5.2.8.1 Each door in a means of egress shall be not less than 24 inches


ro..282 vr cost co latch shall be such that children can open
the oor rominsie te clse*










.TAFE BAPETY CODE


9-5.5.2.3 Every bathroom door lock shall be designed to permit the
opening of the locked door from the outside in an emergency and the
opening device shall be readily accessible to the staff. :
9-5.5.9 Illumination and Marking of Means of Egress. (See 9-53.2.9
and 9--53J.211. ..:.

9-553 Protection.

1 9-553.1 Protection of Vertical Openings.sons (No additional special pro-
9-5.53.2 Interior Frinish.
9-5.3.1.1 Interior finish in occupied spaces in the home shall be Class
A, B or C, in accordance with Section 6-2. .
9-5.53.2.2 The interior finish in means of egress and in rooms into which
exits discharge shall be Class A or B.
9-5.533 Detection Systems. Where the floor above the floor of exit
discharge is used for sleeping purposes there shall be a smoke detector at
the top of the stairs in a building 3 stories or less with open stairways; or n-
side the dwelling unit used asa day care facility in a multiple dwelling.
9-5.5.3.4 Exrtinguishers. A portable fire extinguisher suitable for Class B
fires shall be provided for the kitchen and cooking areas.
9-55.3.5 Minimum Construction Standards. Each building used as a
family child day care home shall meet the local minimum housing code
and fire prevention code for the applicable class of residential construction
or, if none exists, a nationally recognized model code.

9-55.4 Building Services.
9-5.5.4.1 Electrical Services.
9-5.5.4.1.1 Electrical wiring in new construction shall be installed in
accordance with Chapter '7.
9-5.5.4.1.7 In existing buildings, the electrical wiring shall be sized
to provide fr th oad E e Idcaapp iances shl be grounded mn ac

Receptacles and outlets si~riced by extension cord-type wiring are
prohibited.
9-55.4.1.3 Special protective receptacle covers shall be installed in all
areas occupied by children in homes for children under 5 years of age.
9-5.5.4.2 Heating Equeiment.
9-5.5.4.2.1 Unvented room heaters shall not be permitted. Oil and
gas fired room heaters shall be installed in accordance with the applicable
standards listed in Appendlix RA guard shall be provided to protect the
children from hot surfaces and open flames.
9-55.4.22 No stove or combustion beater shall be so located as to
block escape in case of malfunctioning of the stove or heater-


101-101



CHAPTER 10 HEALTH CARE AND PENAL
OCCUPANCIES
(Formerly known as Institutional Occupancies)


SECTION 10-1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
10-1.1 General.
1E1.1.1 Application.~ -. :
10-1.1.1.1 Health care facilities are those used for purposes such as
medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or
mental illness, disease or infirmity; for the care of infants, convalescents or
aged persons.
10-1.1.1.2 Penal facilities are those used for penal or corrective purposes
where occupants are housed under some degree of restraint or security.
10-1.1.1.3 Health care and penal facilities provide sleeping facilities for
the occupants and are occupied by persons who are mostly incapable of
self-preservation because of age, physical or mental disability, or because of
security measures not under the occupants' control.
10-1.1.1.4 Buildings or sections of buildings which house, or in which
care is rendered to mental patients, including the mentally retarded, who
are capable of judgment in taking action for self-preservation under
emergency conditions, in the opinion of the governing body of the facility
and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, may come under other
chapters of this Code instead of Chapter 10.
10-1.1.1.5 Health care and penal occupancies shall include all buildings
or parts thereof with occupancy as described in this chapter,

o011.. c t tshl ie tr soied dhat lbuilig housing various ye
to lock doors and bar windows to confine and protect building inhabitants. I
nsd ch stances, heeauth rits ohaty ng jrisdi tion sh Id mak apropr ate
the keeping of exits unlocked.

n011. le fshl Uki also t Agniz ta some psychiatric patients are

10-1.1.1.8 In buildings in wluch doors are locked or windows are barred,
provisions shall be made for the rapid removal of occupants by such
reliable means as the remote control of locks or by keying all locks to keys
readily available to guards or attendants.
10-1.1.2 Total Concept. All health care and penal facilities shall be so
designed, constructed, maintained, and operated as to minimize the possi-
bility of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of occupants. Because


101-100



















MISCELLANEOUS

A. description of style

B. bio-sketch of the architect

C. two early campus plans

D. square foot costs of Rolf's Hall

E. cost data
























Gfothic Architecture

The architectural term nGothilc" was employed by

Sir Christopher Wren in thle seventeen~th century as a term of re-

proach for this architectural. style wnich had departed from those

classic lines that he was instrumental in re-establishing in this

country. (20t500.) This term is now, by common consent, givrd

to architecture similar to that of the medieval E~urope of the

thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

The outstanding characteristics of Gothic have

been selected from a comparative analysis of Gothic and Renais-

sance architecture as given by Sir Bannister Fletcher in his

utiatso~ry of Alrchitec~ture," (20r547.) These characteristics are

listed here eas a hias~ty survey of the style.

A.. Pggs,-- plans are la~rgel thle fortuitous result of the vari-
ousI nece~ssaryr parts arranged for convenience rather than
for symmetry. They are usually oblong in shapge.
Towers, often crowned wi~th spires, are frequently used and are
predominant features which accentuate the verticality of
thle design.

B. Walls.-- Walls are often constructed of rubble masonry not laid
in horizaon-tal lines, or of brick, and rough flint in patterns.!















Gables are steep,' piercedj wiith windows and finished either
withl stone parapo-ts or ornamented ve!rge boarrds.
Sky3lines are characterized by rising towers.

C. Q)Bg"a:g.-- Arcades of pointed3 arches are characteristic and
in cloisters are frequently filled withr tracery.
Door and oi~ndow openings have their sides or jombs in recessed
planes, richly moulded. Openings are placed with regard
to convenience rather thlan to symnetry of position one
over another.

D. Roofs.-- The external treatment ofl roofs is characterized in
general by towers and spires, high gables, and elaborate
chimneys.

E. Coglumns.-- Columns are used structurally, and the: classic pro-
por-tions between heigh~t and diamneter are not observed.
The column is chiefly used as a pier.

F'. Ornamen~t.-- Carving, oftenl boldlly execu~;ute and grotesque,
possessesa a decorative character in harmony wi~th the arch~i--
tecture, and enriches doorways, windows, but-tresses and
garg~oyles. The sturdy craftsmanship employed is determined
by s'tructural form. Exlternal color schemes are usually the
result of the combination of thle materials used.

From the above outline, it is seen that the style is

most fleui'ble, both in plan and elevation. Because of the absence

of s~ymmeotry, it is very picturesque when used for academic purpoaca.

The modern university requires buildings of a public

nature, buildings of a residential character, and also structures

utilitarian in value, such as shops, heating plant, etc. Since

needs vary, it is practically required that; the style adopted be

as fE~lexble as possible.

Of the Gothico there are several styles, each of

which has a precedent of its own. These styles include Jacobean,










89



Tudlor, and Ecclesiastical Gothric. The modern Collegiate Gothic

is exemp~flified in the une dining halls atL Princeton Univrersityg

(see page 51), the Chapel at; ~the University of' Chzicago (see page

45), and thle L~awt Courts B3uildin: atl the University of M~ichigain,

as well as the new Haerkness tMemorial Quatdrangle at Yale. Still

anaothier s~tritking example of -ihe modern conception of ~the Collegi-

atie Gothic is the "Cathedral of L~earn~ing" (see frontispiece) by

Ch!arles 3. Klauder. This shows further the elasticityr of Gothic

arcite!'~ cture. It is to be n~o-ted, however, thatL building costs of

structures of the- Gothlic styles are somewhat higher thanm those

of the Georgian or Italian Renaissance styles.





1 D I~;;rlbS2SL' 1B 1 l^`-711 u


1L~r U~C~-~~- .IL~_

































WEAVrER, RUDOLPH. (1880--11/10/1944) Gainesville, Fla. (F.A.I.~A.)
Widely known in the field of architectural education, Mr. Weaver was born
in the borough of Roxbury (nowr Johnstown), Pa., and attended schools in his
native town. During 1907 he received a preparatory training in architecture
at Philadelphia's Institute of Technology, attended Atlier Hornbostle of the
Beaux Arts Society of Architecture in Pittsburgh for a year, and after a
summer course of study at Harvard in 1909, the young man concluded his
preparation for a career in architecture during six months study in Europe.
In the fall of 1909 Mr. Weaver accepted an invitation to teach architecture
at the University of Illinois, and two years later left to fill the post of College
Architect at the University of Washington. During the twelve years he
remained there he planned a, number of buildings for the campus, including
the Mechanical Arts and Agriculture buildings, the President's house and a
number of dormitories. He also organized and subsequently became head of
the Department of Design at the University.
In ~1923 Mr. Weaver moved to Moscow, Idaho, where he prepared a
campus plan for the State University, established a School of Architecture
and Allied Arts. Two years later he was app~ointed Arcfhiecto h Florida~_
State Board of Control, and opening an office in Gainesville he continued in
practice there the rest of his life, engaged in designing many buildings for
colleges of higher education in the state. He also served as architect of other
public buildings in Tallahassee, among them the State Office Building, and
the Martin Building, the latter erected originally for the Department of Roads.
An architect of prominence in Florida, Mr. Weaver was a past-president and
one of the Directors of the State Association of Architects, and a member of
the Florida North Chapter, A.I.A., raised to Institute Fellowship in 1935. ..In
~addition he served on the Gainesville Planning Association after 1919 -and
was active in many civic organizations. .rs
--Refereniesz: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 34; Who
Was Who irk America, 1943-50.





























































































94


PXISTING BVILDING>.
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND ALLIED ARTS
PEABODY HALL. CAINESVILLE
SeaDtemrber 28
1 9 38


RUDOLPH WEAVER, Director
Arc~hitect to the Board of Control


Dr. Joh~n J. Tigert, President
University of Florida -Y t
Camp~us C

Dear Dr. Tligert:

WBe .are sending you for your information the cabic foot prices
on several of the haildings, which are comparable as to type of~ con-.
struction.;:, differencess in arrangement calling for more partitions,
doors, toilets,. etc. etc.,-as well as differences in the amount of
plumbing, lighting, etc. accountS for much of the variation of cost.
For instance, thie Infirmarys has an elevator anld a large amount of
plumbing and1 fixtures of various kinds. The Chemistry-Pharmacy has a
great amount of plumbing and electrical installation. The N:orth Dorm-
.itory ha~s cross walls, each section a fire-proof stairway, each suite
of rooms a. lavatory with plumbing leading to it, etc.

COMPeABLE~~ CLASS 2002 BUILINIGS:


Nuame


Year Buiilt

1926-27
1927
th fl. 1937


1926-27
1927
1932-33


Cu.ft. cost

35.6

35.75


45.21
37.866
19.2~


Notes

Temporafy 8rood trin

Lihtt fixtures andh
fin. floors 2nd, 3rd
& 4th 1s. not included


Engineering Lab., U~. of F.
Horticultural Eldg., U. of F.



Chemistry-Pharmlacy, U. of C.
History E164..1st Unit.F.S.C.W.
P. 1. Toinge La~b. School


..




North Dormitory, U. of F.
P7A. #1092-1-F
Gilchrist Ball, F.S.C.Y.


IN~FIPALLEiY:

1930-31

DORM!IITORIES:

1938

1927-28


S41.23i


36.6


Very trulyr years,












'" ~'"~. -I.
I I _


i


: .':5Pf


CO MMERCIA.L
~ALUMVINUMV
StINGLE-HUNG
WNIN DIOWNS


IN TER-LA KE W IN D OW IN D USTR IES, I NCL.
NOVI..MICHIGAIN 48050 II (313) 349-8100




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