Group Title: effect of self-modeling of positive affective behaviors on students' attitudes toward school
Title: The effect of self-modeling of positive affective behaviors on students' attitudes toward school
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102739/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of self-modeling of positive affective behaviors on students' attitudes toward school
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Conlon, Patricia Marie, 1950-
Copyright Date: 1990
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102739
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AHN0423
oclc - 23296005

Full Text














THE EFFECT OF SELF-MODELING OF POSITIVE AFFECTIVE
BEHAVIORS ON STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SCHOOL











BY


PATRICIA MARIE CONLON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1990


AUNIVErjIly OF FLORIBA LIBRARIJ4.






























Copyright 1990

by

Patricia Marie Conlon

























This work is
dedicated to my parents,
John V. and Kathryn E. O'Hara Conlon,
my best educators.











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I wish to thank Dr. Lee Mullally, chairman of my

committee, for his faith in my ability and his

assistance throughout my doctoral study. I would also

like to thank other committee members: Dr. Robert

Wright, for his editorial assistance and advice since

undergraduate school; Dr. David Miller, for his

statistical guidance and the loan of his calculator;

and Dr. Forrest Parkay, for his insightful questions.

Another invaluable source of support was the

university's inter-library loan department; I convey

to them my gratitude for their personal attention and

efficiency.

The studies presented in this dissertation could not

have been performed without the permission of the Marion

County School District and the cooperation of the

teachers and administration at North Marion High School,

Sparr, Florida. English teachers Linda Johns and Susan

Wilkinson were especially patient in allowing my cameras

into their classrooms, and their students were truly

generous in allowing me to tamper with their lives. I am

also greatly indebted to my colleagues in the media

center, Yvonne J. Williams and Mae Vaughns, for their

understanding and extra work.








I also wish to express my appreciation to my

friends, who regretted my lack of participation in their

lives, yet they were constantly supportive of my goals.

My parents, my sister and brothers, and their families,

were all the greatest of cheerleaders. My husband,

Jorge C. Milanes, served as editor, critic, cook, and

morale builder for the duration of this dissertation

process. I cannot thank him enough nor repay him for my

neglect. Finally, without the persistent warmth and

attention of my cat, Chaucer, the long hours of study

and word processing would have been impossible.












TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................... iv

ABSTRACT........................................... viii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION................................ 1

Self-Modeling Attitudes..................... 1
Importance of Attitudes in Education......... 3
Influencing Educational Attitudes............ 4
Social Cognitive Learning Theory............ 6
Problem Statement........................... 11
Questions to be Considered.................. 12
Definition of Terms......................... 12
Limitations................................. 13

2 LITERATURE REVIEW........................... 15

Introduction................................. 15
Modeling As a Means of Affective Change...... 15
Students' Attitudes Toward School........... 17
Video Feedback .............................. 21
Self-Modeling............................... 22

3 METHODOLOGY AND PILOT STUDY................. 34

Subjects................................... 34
Materials.................................. 34
Design...................................... 35
Procedures.................................. 36
Variables................................... 40
Statistical Analysis........................ 40
Hypotheses.................................. 41
Pilot Study.................................. 42

4 RESULTS..................................... 47

Hypotheses.................................. 48
Cronbach's Alpha............................. 51
Summary.... ................................. 52

5 CONCLUSIONS................................. 53

Research Implications....................... 56
Recommendations... ......................... 62
Summary..................................... 65









APPENDIX........................................... 66

REFERENCES......................................... 72

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............. ................... 81


vii












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate School of the University of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECT OF SELF-MODELING OF POSITIVE AFFECTIVE
BEHAVIORS ON STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD SCHOOL

By

Patricia Marie Conlon

August 1990


Chairperson: Lee J. Mullally
Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum

The purpose of this experimental study was to learn

whether self-modeling would be effective in altering

attitudes. Results from such a study would also

contribute to knowledge of the effectiveness of Albert

Bandura's social cognitive learning theory as applied to

the modeling of attitudes.

This study was conducted in a high school setting

with 34 10th-grade students randomly selected from nine

English classes. The treatment and control groups were

each composed of 17 students, all of whom were

administered the Study Attitudes survey, a subscale of

Brown and Holtzman's Survey of Study Habits and

Attitudes, and observed using a behavior checklist of

17 behaviors taken from the attitude survey. All the

subjects were then exposed to a videotaping process

in several of their classes. The videotapes of the


viii








treatment group were edited to produce two, 2-2.5

minute videotapes of the student performing positive,

in-school behaviors which were noted with a dubbed

voice interjected six times on each tape. The treatment

group viewed their tapes 10 times over a four-week

period. After the treatment period, all subjects were

again observed for the checklist behaviors and

readministered the attitude survey.

An analysis of variance was performed on each of

the dependent variables: Study Attitude scores and

behavior checklist scores. No significant differences

were found between pre- and posttests or between the

treatment group and the control group on either of

the dependent variables. The results of the data

analysis were not sufficient to confirm or refute the

effectiveness of the self-modeling technique or social

cognitive learning theory in the changing of attitudes.

Recommendations based on this study include the

conducting of additional research on the modeling of

attitudes to increase positive affect, the self-modeling

of a range of attitudes with subjects of varying ages

and numbers, and, most emphatically, the conducting of

experimental research that will further define and

evaluate students' attitudes toward school.


















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

effects of a novel instructional strategy, videotaped

self-modeling, within a public school setting. Unlike

previous videotaped self-modeling research that has been

confined to the psychomotor and cognitive domains of

learning, this experiment was concerned with learning in

the affective domain. Albert Bandura's social cognitive

learning theory serves as the theoretical foundation for

this research. Conclusions from this study of

videotaped self-modeling provide information

pertinent to the use of Bandura's modeling theory as a

means of attaining affective outcomes in public

education.


Self-Modeling Attitudes

Videotaped self-modeling has been applied

successfully as an instructional technique for improving

communication skills, physical and vocational skills,

and personal and social adjustment (Dowrick, 1983a).

This existing research focuses on learning in the

psychomotor and cognitive domains and has not been







2

conducted in the affective domain. The affective domain

includes any feelings or emotions experienced by the

learner, consequently, the learner's feelings toward an

object, or the learner's attitude, is considered part of

the affective domain. Influencing learner attitudes,

more specifically, influencing student attitudes toward

school, was the goal of the videotaped self-modeling

treatment described by this study.

The use of self-modeling is uniquely adapted for

affecting attitude because it allows the learner to

actually see a visual image of him/herself demonstrating

an attitude that he/she did not realize existed

(Halloran, 1976). Videotape, as a "motion media," has

been shown to be the most effective medium for changing

attitudes (Simonson, Aergerter, Berry, Kloock, & Stone,

1987); it provides a format in which a persuasive

message can be structured through editing to include a

believable demonstration of what the learner is capable

of performing, thereby enabling the viewing of that

successful performance to be a positive experience.

This study involving high school students fills the

need for a self-modeling study that treats a group of

subjects rather than individual cases; a study that is

set in the school rather than a clinical setting; a

study that provides information on an untested age

group, high school students. More importantly, the

direct approach of working with the students and making









use of their existing affective behavior is an original

and untested attempt to change student attitudes toward

school. The goal of the instruction, increasing

students' positive attitudes toward school, provides a

unique test for self-modeling and encourages further use

of this technique at the secondary level.


Importance of Attitudes in Education

The importance of student attitudes and their role

in the learning process is detailed throughout

educational research. As early as 1966 the Coleman

report emphasized the importance of attitudinal

variables in promoting student achievement. In late

1970 Simonson (1979b) stated that "the development of a

more favorable attitude toward instruction or subject

area is a desirable end in itself" (p. 15), while in

1980 Hurst defined goals for education and training that

included "Goals related to positive attitude toward

subject areas or disciplines" (p. 150). Although both

teacher and student attitudes were emphasized during the

1960s era of humanistic education and open schooling, by

the mid-seventies many school curricula were entirely

devoid of this type of objective (Ringness, 1975).

Today's public schools must deal with students whose

social problems such as alcoholism, drug abuse, sexual

abuse, teen suicide, pregnancy, eating disorders, and

depression (Farrar & Hampel, 1987) handicap the efforts

of the educational institution, causing high dropout









rates and community dissatisfaction with academic

standards (Hahn, 1987). Hahn (1987) lists "dislike of

school" as one of ten indicators that a student may

leave school, while students' lack of interest was

ranked as the third most important problem in the Gallup

Phi Delta Kappa Poll of Teachers' Attitudes Toward the

Public Schools which was conducted in 1984 and 1989

(Elam, 1989). Many educators believe that a renewed

emphasis on affective objectives within the curriculum

(Hughes & Frommer, 1982; Martin & Briggs, 1986) is

needed and can result in a more effective school (Fenn,

1983).


Influencing Educational Attitudes

Educational attempts to influence students'

attitudes consist of a variety of approaches that

reflect a definition for affective learning that

encompasses many different elements: the affective

atmosphere in the school as influenced by the teaching

styles of the faculty (Hart & Goud, 1978), the

administrative style of the staff (Ringness, 1975), the

curriculum offered (Beane, 1986), and the physical

plant. An analysis of whether or not affective learning

has taken place is based on the attainmnent of affective

objectives (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1964), subsequent

changes in behavior, e. g. less tardies, vandalism (Hart

& Goud, 1978; Martin & Briggs, 1986), in-house

evaluation techniques (Hughes & Frommer, 1982; Millard &








Everage, 1980), and standardized psychological

instruments (Hoepfner et al., 1972). Research studies

specific to the affective learning elements mentioned

above have been criticized for their inability to define

and adequately measure the affective construct (Beane,

1986; Bills, 1976; Hart & Goud, 1978).

These two issues, definition and measurement of the

affective construct, are carefully addressed in this

research study. The broad field of affective learning

is limited specifically to an investigation of student's

attitude toward school, which is defined by Bloom (1976)

as "a general disposition to regard the school and

school learning in a positive or negative way" (p. 150).

Creating a method that will develop in the learner a

positive attitude toward school will therefore enable

that learner to better select a life style, adapt to

problems, and cope with social change (Bloom, 1976).

Research on students' attitudes toward school consists

primarily of studies correlating affective measures of

student attitudes with achievement, school size, and

school effectiveness (Edington & Gardener, 1984; Fenn,

1983; Gable, Roberts, & Owen, 1977; Malpass, 1953;

Rautenberg, 1978). A successful experimental study of

student's attitude toward an instructional activity was

conducted by Simonson in his work with college students

in 1977.








The present self-modeling study is an experimental

study focusing on the student as the impetus for

attitudinal change. In this study the affective

construct is restricted to the behaviors currently

demonstrated by the student; behaviors which are

indicative of a positive attitude toward school. These

behaviors are observable on videotape and therefore

"defineable". This visual definition overcomes the

previously mentioned problem of inadequate definition.

These same affective behaviors also correspond to

descriptions of behaviors found on the commercially

available Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (Brown &

Holtzman, 1967); therefore, it is possible to obtain

reliable pre- and post-measures of the construct as

defined.


Social Cognitive Learning Theory

The predicted effectiveness of videotaped self-

modeling is based on observational learning research

which uses modeling as its means of implementation.

Videotaped self-modeling is a specific use of modeling,

in that videotaped self-modeling makes use of a specific

model, the learner or self-as-model, and is implemented

through a specific medium, videotape. In social

cognitive learning theory Albert Bandura has defined

modeling according to the psychological effects modeling

produces: inhibitory and disinhibitory, response

facilitation, environmental enhancement, arousal, and








observational learning (Bandura, 1986). These effects

described by Bandura are produced by videotaped self-

modeling. The inhibitory and disinhibitory effect

strenghthens or weakens a behavior which has already

been learned. In the self-modeling videotape the

observer sees him/herself behaving successfully, with a

positive affective attitude; therefore, the desired

behavior is strengthened. Response facilitation is

brought about by the introduction of a socially

acceptable response cue which evokes a previously

learned behavior. In videotaped self-modeling, the

observer-model sees him/herself as a socially acceptable

motivator promoting an affective behavior, thus

encouraging additional use of that behavior.

Environmental enhancement effects result from drawing

the observer's attention to particular objects or

environmental settings. In the self-modeling videotape

the observer is shown only his/her own affective

behavior within the school setting; therefore, that is

only what he/she can attend to on the tape. Arousal as

an effect of modeling results when the observation of a

model elicits emotion. The self-modeling videotape of

affective behaviors includes positive emotional

responses made by the model which are likely to

similarly arouse the observer, who is, in fact, seeing

him/herself react emotionally. The aroused emotional








state contributes to the altering of behavior (Bandura,

1986, p.49).

The final modeling effect described by Bandura is

observational learning. Bandura's definition of

observational learning assumes that for learning to take

place what is being learned must be a "novel" behavior.

In the case of self-modeling some of the appropriate

affective behaviors already exist or the making of the

videotape would be impossible. Whether or not the

learner who participates in self-modeling as a learning

strategy learns a novel behavior, or in this specific

case a new attitude, or simply adds to his/her

repertoire of appropriate behaviors is a theoretical

learning question yet to be answered. An improvement in

attitude could, nevertheless, be deduced from the

learner's more frequent or appropriate demonstration of

the desired behavior. Although self-modeling does not

meet Bandura's "novel behavior" requirement, it is

exceptionally well-suited to fulfilling the four sub-

processes that he has deemed necessary for observational

learning: attention, retention, production, and

motivation.

Attentional processes compose the first requirement

for observational learning. This part of the process

focuses on the conditions which promote attentive

observation of the model: the type of behavior being

modeled and characteristics of the observer. Studies in









attention reveal that the most effective model is

similar in age and social status to the observer

(Burnstein, Stotland, & Zanker, 1961; Rosekrans, 1967).

Thus the observer in a self-modeling study is always

perfectly matched to the model because the two are the

same person.

The second requirement for observational learning is

retention. Retention processes in the form of images

and verbal symbols provide the response patterns for

memory. In self-modeling the images and verbal symbols

become concrete presence on the videotape, a medium

that allows both the learner and teacher to confirm

that the instructional communication is accurate. This

method also has the additional advantage of providing

cues which elicit only correct behaviors because the

videotape provides only correct behaviors.

Motor reproduction makes up the third requirement

for observational learning. This process includes

physical ability, cognitive organization of a response,

and action and self-correction through feedback.

Creating a self-modeling intervention necessitates an

evaluation of the learner's abilities and a

determination of whether sufficient skill exists to use

a recording of existing behavior or whether guided role

playing must be implemented. The uniqueness of self-

modeling is that it requires the instructor to work with

the learner/observer to produce a self-modeling








videotape thereby verifying that the learner possesses

the necessary physical and cognitive pre-learning

skills.

The fourth subprocess necessary for observational

learning is motivation. Motivational processes involve

the observer's evaluation of the modeled behavior and

whether he/she will imitate that behavior (Bandura,

1977). Research in the area of motivation has found

that subjects experience greater arousal viewing

videotapes of themselves rather than the videotapes of

others (Fuller & Manning, 1973). In addition, the

televised medium is itself a motivation: "Models

presented in televised form are so effective in

capturing attention that viewers learn much of what they

see without requiring any special incentives to do so"

(Bandura, Grusec, & Menlove, cited in Bandura, 1977, p.

25).

Having so successfully met all Bandura's conditions

for observational learning, except possibly the

previously discussed "novel behavior", videotaped self-

modeling also incorporates Bandura's pre-requisite for

learning: perceived self-efficacy, a judgment of one's

capability to organize, execute and perform cognitive,

social, and behavioral subskills on a certain level

(Bandura, 1986). Self-efficacy enhances motivation

(Schunk, 1985) and is itself then enhanced by subsequent

success (Bandura, 1986). "Successes raise efficacy







11

appraisals; repeated failures lower them, especially if

the failures occur early in the course of events and do

not reflect lack of effort or adverse external

circumstances" (Bandura, 1986, p. 399). The use of self

as a model demonstrating positive affective behaviors is

ideally suited for learning because the learner sees

him/herself performing successfully; therefore, the

learner's motivation is increased, and the learner's

evaluation of his/her capabilities is also positively

enhanced, both of which contribute to successful

learning.

Because this experiment in videotaped self-modeling

fulfilled the necessary conditions for learning as

described by Bandura in social cognitive learning

theory, it tested the application of Bandura's theory

to learning in the affective domain. More specifically,

this study tested the effectiveness of self-modeling

as a method of attitudinal change within a non-clinical

setting.


Problem Statement

This study was an analysis of the effect of video-

taped self-modeling of positive affective behaviors on

students' attitudes toward school. Attitude toward

school was measured by a subscale of the Survey of Study

Habits and Attitudes (SSHA, Brown & Holtzman, 1967), and

by a checklist of behaviors. The behavior checklist is

composed of 17 in-school, positive, affective behaviors








consistent with the behaviors described in the SSHA.

These are the same behaviors that serve as a source of

appropriate behaviors to be demonstrated on the self-

modeling videotapes.


Questions to be Considered

1. Will self-modeling be effective in altering the

students' attitudes?

2. Will self-modeling be effective in altering the

students' behavior?

3. Does the self-modeling process adhere to the

tenets of social cognitive learning theory?

4. If the self-modeling process does adhere to the

tenets of social learning theory and is effective in

changing either attitudes or behaviors, can it be

concluded that social cognitive learning theory provides

an appropriate basis for attitude change?


Definition of Terms

1. Affective behavior is any behavior reflecting

feelings or emotions; pleasant or pleasing emotions

would be indicative of positive affective behavior;

unpleasant or sad emotions would be indicative of

negative affective behavior.

Operationally, positive affective behavior is

demonstrated when the model is exhibiting appropriate

school behaviors with evidence of enjoyment such as

smiling, head nodding, focused attention, etc.









2. Attitude toward school is a predisposition

toward school; it can vary from positive to negative, or

like to dislike.

Operationally, attitude toward school is defined as

the score achieved in Student Attitudes, a subscale of

the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.

3. Modeling is the providing of sample behavior by a

model to promote learning by an observer.

4. Self-modeling is the providing of sample behavior

by a model-who-is-also-the observer to promote learning

by the observer-model.

5. Videotaped self-modeling is the implementation of

self-modeling through the medium of videotape.


Limitations

This study pertained only to high school students

and their attitudes toward school as measured by the

Student Attitudes subscale of the Survey of Study

Habits and Attitudes (Brown and Holtzman, 1965).

Student school related affective behaviors were limited

to and defined as those behaviors described in the

Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes.

The random sampling of the population may have been

jeopardized by the use of established high school

English classes, but some control for this possibility

was provided by using classes that include all levels of

students: high, average, and low. Also, the pretest

helped to control for initial differences.







14

Affective measures are susceptible to faking or

otherwise unreliable responses by the subjects, however,

the attitude measure selected for this study, the SSHA,

ranks well among its peers for design and reliability

(Roark & Harrington, 1969; Shay, 1972).












CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW


Introduction

This study involved changing attitudes through self-

modeling of affective behaviors. Theoretical support for

self-modeling is found in Bandura's modeling research;

therefore, this research review contains a summary of

modeling research in affective learning and particularly

in modeling to influence attitudes. The attitude

studied, attitude toward school, has been the subject of

varied descriptive studies which are presented, along

with one example of experimental research. Finally, a

summary of the negative effects of video feedback

research leads to an extensive review of the literature

on self-modeling.


Modeling as a Means of Affective Change

Modeling studies in affective learning have provided

information as to what conditions best promote this type

of learning in general. More specific affective studies

using modeling as a means of changing attitudes show the

effectiveness of this technique. Both these areas of

research have problems of generalization because many

have been conducted in artificial situations, made use

of animals for subjects, or considered only negative

affect.









The basic elements of videotaped self-modeling are

evidenced in these affective studies. When a model's

experiences are similar to that of the observer, the

observer's empathetic reaction is heightened even when

viewing simply an emotional expression of the model

(Lanzetta & Orr, 1980; Stotland, 1969). Likewise,

model-observer physical and social similarity increases

vicarious arousal (Rosenkrans, 1967; Stotland, 1969) and

promotes more imitation of the model by the observer

(Rosenkrans, 1967). Increased affective learning is

also reported through use of pictures (Geer, 1968).

Studies dealing directly with modeling as a means of

affective change use both physical and symbolic

demonstrations for modeling behavior. In a summary of

symbolic modeling research from 1968 to 1977, Thelen,

Fry, Fehrenbach, and Frautschi (1979) identified 13

research studies in which modeling was used to

successfully treat phobias. Researchers in these

studies treated children, adolescents, and adults for

their fear of dogs, spiders, snakes, and water. Thelen

and others also list modeling successes in four studies

of test anxiety among adults, nine studies of medical

and dental stress among pre-schoolers, children, and

adults, three studies of dating anxiety among college

students, and one study of sex anxiety among adult

females. Although these experiments relate to fear of

an object or activity rather than an evaluative response








toward or against an object or activity (e.g. an

attitude), they demonstrate the effectiveness of

symbolic modeling for affective change. Symbolic

modeling is the medium for affective change selected in

the present videotaped self-modeling study.

In contrast to the affective studies cited above,

there has been little research which focused on the use

of modeling as a method of changing an attitude. Two

studies where researchers used modeling to influence

attitudes have been conducted in non-clinical settings.

In a U.S. Naval study film modeling was used

successfully to improve confidence expectancies in a

chemical, biological, and radiological defense recruit

training program (Moskal, 1988). An even more

appropriate setting is that of Hoskisson (1975) in which

children's attitude toward reading was improved as

reflected in their voluntarily increased use of the

school library. Hoskisson initiated the use of

imitative reading methods via physical demonstrations

among the children's parents.


Students' Attitudes Toward School

Reviewing research concerning students' attitudes

toward school reveals a group of descriptive studies

that explore possible correlations between attitude

measures and achievement, school size, and school

effectiveness. The nonexperimental nature of these

studies prevents direct application to the experimental









study at hand, but since they represent the only

literature available on attitudes toward school, they

are presented as illustrations of the variety of

attitude measures and how those measures correlate with

a variety of variables. The results of these

correlational studies verify the importance of the

proposed study in providing experimental data on

attitude change which can then be used as a means of

testing the validity of the studies correlating

attitudes and behaviors.

The studies relating attitudes toward school with

achievement vary in their findings. Attitude scores

appear to correlate better with GPA (Farquhar, 1963;

Malpass, 1953) than with standardized tests (Khan, 1969;

Khan & Roberts, 1969; Malpass, 1953), or other cognitive

measures (Holmes, 1978). But such comparisons among the

attitude-achievement studies are difficult because each

study does not use the same attitude instrument or

achievement measure. A single research study

correlating attitudes and achievement can even produce

conflicting results if two different affective measures

are administered (Gable, Roberts, & Owen, 1977).

The attitude-achievement studies which do use a

common measure, the SSHA, the attitude survey

administered in this self-modeling study, also report

varied results. In 1964, Knight and Chansky found

correlations varying from .33 to .72 between the SSHA







19

attitude scale and the reading, language, and arithmetic

achievement of 66 seventh graders. In 1970, S. B. Khan

administered a modified SSHA and found correlations with

achievement as measured by the Florida Statewide Testing

Program. These correlations, ranging from .48 to .69,

remained stable over three years for the 1,038 students

studied in the ninth and twelfth grades. Other studies

have found the SSHA or its subscales to be moderately to

poorly correlated to the Metropolitan Achievement Tests

(Khan, 1969), the Dominion Group ACT (Khan & Roberts,

1969), and student's GPA (Capella, Wagner, & Kusmierz,

1982).

Additional correlational studies enlist a variety of

variables for comparison with attitude measures. In

1978, Rautenberg studied the relationship between a

specific attitude scale, the Nebraska High School

Attitude Questionnaire, and multiple variables. Those

factors that were found to be moderately to highly

correlated to the attitude measure were extra-curricular

activities, disciplinary action, and attitudes toward

specific subjects. Factors indicating low correlation

were tardinesss, absenteeism, GPA, teacher ratings of

student attitudes, parental involvement, and socio-

economic status.

Edington and Gardener studied school size and scores

on affective measures during 1981-1982 and found no

significant correlation. They did note that the five








affective measures developed by the Montana Office of

Public Instruction indicate a trend toward higher

affective scores in the smaller schools. In 1983,

Lawrence Fenn investigated the relationship between

student affective characteristics and achievement within

varyingly effective elementary school settings. Among

the 1,353 students attending seven Chapter One schools,

a significantly greater positive affect, as measured by

four affective scales, was found in the more effective

schools.

The majority of researchers in the previously

mentioned correlational studies were seeking to prove

that attitude change can influence behavior change, a

concept that is generally believed to be true, but which

has proven resistant to consistent verification (Bloom,

1976; Izard, Nagler, Randall, & Fox, 1965; Simonson,

1979b). The intent of this research was not to add to

these efforts, but to provide a sound experimental

condition which established that attitude change can and

does occur. A subsequent self-modeling treatment for

attitude change could then be implemented with

additional data collected for correlational studies.

This second study would have the advantage over previous

correlational studies in that the investigator would

already possess evidence of an attitudinal change.

The single case of experimental research concerning

students' attitudes focused on attitude toward a









specific course activity. M. R. Simonson (1977)

produced a significant attitude change among 204 college

students. The students were asked to express positive

comments about the course in which they were enrolled

while being videotaped for later use. The attitude

measure, the Media Education Attitude Scale (MEAS), was

developed by instructors in the program and administered

prior to and after treatment.


Video Feedback

Video feedback is the viewing by a subject of a

videotape of his/her correct and incorrect behaviors.

Research in this area supports the preferred use of

self-modeling because video feedback often causes

anxiety among subjects and may adversely affect the

learning process. Fuller and Manning (1973) found self-

observational learning beneficial to those who were

already confident teachers but detrimental to those who

were not. Counseling researchers have shown that this

technique can be an aversive experience for clients

(Bailey & Sowder, 1970) and counselor trainees (Walz &

Johnston, 1963). Video feedback has been found to be

anxiety provoking (Schumacher, Wright, & Wiesen, 1968)

and emotionally threatening (Nielson, 1964; Wolff,

1943). Most importantly to this study of attitudes,

researchers using video feedback have reported that it

lowers clients' self-efficacy expectations (Bandura,









1977) and diminishes self-esteem (Fuller & Manning,

1973; Paredes et al., 1969).

Studies in which comparisons were made between self-

modeling and video feedback showed self-modeling to be

more effective in improving counseling techniques

(Hosford & Johnson, 1983; Vance, 1978; Wilson, 1975).

In a similar comparison study self-modeling was found

more effective than self-observation in reducing

counselor anxiety (Johnson, 1985).


Self-Modeling

Although self-modeling, as defined by Dowrick

(1983a), "the behavioral change that results from the

observation of oneself on videotapes that show only

desired target behaviours" (p. 105), is the standard for

this study, this review of the literature includes any

study that labels itself as self-modeling. Because one

definition for self-modeling does not prevail among the

research reviewed, the specific procedures that compose

the self-modeling process may include the use of drugs,

audio tape, role playing, prepared scripts, inclusion of

only positive or both positive and negative behaviors,

and covert self-modeling in which the subject reviews

the correct behavior mentally. The following review of

almost twenty years of self-modeling research addresses

the effects of self-modeling in modifying social, motor,

and cognitive skills. In these studies researchers

introduced self-modeling as the single independent







23

variable or compared several treatments using a group of

subjects or a single case.

The bulk of self-modeling research has been focused

on the reduction of undesirable social behaviors. About

one-half of that research is composed of studies of

self-modeling as the only treatment variable. These

behavior studies are relevant to the present attitude

study in that they have shown the effectiveness of

self-modeling for implementing behavior change. Because

self-modeling has been effective in behavioral change,

an investigation of its effectiveness for attitudinal

change seems appropriate. The majority of previous

behavioral studies were conducted in a clinical setting

with groups or single subjects. The group studies were

usually composed of adults and the single case studies

usually involved children.

The first development of a self-modeling procedure

occurred when Creer and Miklich (1970) modified the

behavior of a 10-year-old asthmatic child who indulged

in tantrums, was rejected by his peers, and incessantly

giggled and tickled adults when confronted by them. His

inappropriate behavior was halted during the period when

he was shown videotapes of himself performing only

appropriate behaviors, restarted when he was shown

videotapes of inappropriate behaviors, and again halted

when he was shown a videotape of appropriate behaviors.

Miklich and Creer (1974) had similar success with two









other children from the Children's Asthma Research

Center. One child was a 12-year-old boy whose poor

eating behaviors were significantly reduced. The second

child, also 12 years of age, decreased his thumb sucking

and increased desirable physical and verbal inter-

actions.

Work productivity was the basis for a successful

study in which Miklich and others (1977) modified the

bed-making behavior of 12 7- to 12-year-old asthmatic

children through self-modeling. This experiment was

important because it was conducted without the subjects'

awareness. Greelis and Kazaoka (1979) reduced tantrum

behaviors in a 7-year-old schizophrenic girl by

using self-modeling videotapes with cartoon reinforce-

ments. In that same year Davis worked with 3 children

in an elementary school setting to alter their

inappropriate classroom behavior. His analysis of one

subject demonstrated the effectiveness of self-modeling

in changing two behaviors: fighting and inappropriate

responses to the teacher. Davis explains that the

importance of his study, besides the behavior

modification, lies in the fact that it was conducted in

the natural school environment. Working with 15

retarded adults, Lange (1980) found self-modeling an

effective method for teaching tooth brushing.

Murray (1982) treated 9 elementary school boys

for inattentive behavior and found that the







25

self-modeling group benefited immediately and also later

at follow-up when measured by a visual target behavior

analysis, but that statistical analysis showed no

significant improvement. Gonzales (1988), however, did

find significant improvement when using self-modeling to

increase appropriate conduct behaviors with 4 children

in a hospital setting, and Pigott and Gonzales (1987)

demonstrated the effectiveness of self-modeling of

question answering with a third-grade boy who had been

selectively mute in his school setting for four years.

Additionally, the effectiveness of self-modeling as

a change agent has been demonstrated by its widespread

use in the counseling field to treat clients' problems

of sexual arousal, excessive anxiety, poor teaching

behavior, and inadequate interpersonal relationship

skills (Hosford, 1980b; Hosford, Moss, & Morrell, 1976).

Drugs have also been incorporated into the self-modeling

process to produce successful behavior change in a

clinical situation (Dowrick, 1979; Dowrick & Raeburn,

1977).

The above researchers were successful when using

self-modeling as a unique means of improving behavior,

but other researchers have compared the effectiveness of

self-modeling with alternative or supplementary

strategies. These comparison studies have revealed that

self-modeling is an effective treatment even when

matched against self-observation, behavioral rehearsal,







26
training and practice, peer modeling, or other modeling.

In 1975, Wilson compared edited self-modeling,

non-edited, and practice groups in learning counseling

behaviors. Her data on 15 practicum students from the

Educational Psychology and Guidance Department revealed

a trend favoring the self-modeling treatment. In his

1979 study, Hosford (cited in Hosford, 1980b) also

focused on counseling behaviors in his study of the

interviewing skills of 10 students. He compared self-

modeling with self-observation and written feedback and

found that self-modeling was more effective than either

of the other two techniques. Warner completed similar

work in 1980.

In 1978, Batts used self-modeling as one of several

successful methods of developing job interview skills

with former prisoners; and in 1983, Hosford and Johnson,

studying the improvement of interviewing skills of

counselors, compared self-observation, self-modeling,

and normal training practice and found that all three

reduced inappropriate behaviors, but that only self-

modeling eliminated all inappropriate behaviors. Barmann

(1982) found that self-modeling was more effective than

peer modeling in teaching parents nonpunitive child

management skills while Rosenberg and Robinson's (1983)

research indicated a trend favoring self-modeling over

standard training in teaching mothers educational and

therapeutic activities for their handicapped children.







27
Petroski, Craighead, and Horan (1983) compared self-

modeling and other-modeling with the addition of

behavior rehearsal and found no advantage in adding the

behavioral rehearsal and no difference between the two

types of modeling in improving the grooming skills of

48, 19- to 60-year-old mentally retarded women.

However, in Stearns' (1983) research comparing self-

modeling, modeling, and behavior rehearsal as a means of

assertiveness training, he found that the self-modeling

group scored significantly higher on overall

assertiveness than the modeling and control groups but

not the behavior rehearsal group. In his study the

author interprets the data he collected from 150

community college students as implying that self-

modeling's effectiveness is attributable to anxiety

reduction, while its ineffectiveness is due to the

novelty of the behavior to be learned.

Stanton (1985), working with 28 mentally

handicapped adults, used edited and non-edited

videotapes to improve handicraft production. Due to

individual differences within treatment groups her

results were inconclusive. In a comparison of self-

modeling versus self-observation, Johnson (1985) found

self-modeling significantly better in reducing

physiological and experiential anxiety among counselor

trainees.







28

Besides being used to change social behaviors, self-

modeling has also been found effective in improving

motor skills and increasing cognitive learning.

Increased swimming performance in spina bifida children

was implemented by Dowrick and Dove in 1980. Although

actual gains made by the 3 children in the study were

moderate, the authors note that the actual treatment

intervention varied from only 18 to 30 minutes for the

length of the eight-week study, a mere 6 minutes per

week per child. Follow-up studies conducted 10 weeks

after the treatment revealed a maintenance of water

skills. In 1985, Drazin compared modeling, self-

modeling, and a control group in golf putting

performance by 47 adult males and, although he found no

significant difference between the two treatment groups,

subjects in self-modeling scored significantly higher

peak scores than those in the control group and won

significantly more cash prizes than either of the other

two groups. In a later study, Maile (1985) used self-

modeling as a means of improving competitive

powerlifting performance.

Research in cognitive learning by Haarmann and

Greelis (1982) made use of self-modeling and other

treatments to improve the context and grammar of a

15-year-old schizophrenic girl's language. Schunk

and Hanson (1987) used coping and mastery forms of self-

modeling of addition and subtraction of fractions with








60 third and fourth graders. Both self-modeling groups

demonstrated higher levels of performance than the

videotape-only and training-only groups.

These studies show that self-modeling is an

effective strategy for improving social behavior, motor

skills, and cognitive skills. Self-modeling has

withstood comparison to other treatments and has been

used successfully with subjects whose learning ability

is normal or handicapped by mental retardation, cerebral

palsy, or anxiety. Although the subjects in these

studies range from children to adults, there has been no

research on adolescent subjects aged 13 to 16. Only two

studies, Davis (1979) and Murray (1982), were conducted

in the natural environment. There is also no existing

research on the effects of self-modeling on affective

learning. This study of the effect of videotaped self-

modeling of positive affective behaviors on students'

attitudes toward school fulfills the need for an

affective study of self-modeling. The use of high

school subjects within the high school setting fills the

gap in the self-modeling research for subjects of this

age and for a natural research setting.

In reviewing the research literature, many of the

self-modeling procedures implemented do not follow the

precedents set by the major researchers in this field.

Miklich and Creer (1974), originators of the self-

modeling concept, describe general procedures as they








outline several case studies. They advocate first

obtaining reliable behavior observations, then deciding

which behaviors should be modified. Next, the subject

models the desired behaviors in an appropriate setting,

keeping the scenes short. An observer must be present

during the viewing of the videotape, and additional

reinforcements are provided if necessary. If conditions

permit, Miklich and Creer (1974) advocate subsequent

self-modeling strategies to reverse the behavior and

then rereverse it to validate the effectiveness of the

self-modeling technique. However, the authors do note

that this behavior reversal is distressful to relatives

of the subject. Hosford (1980a), a counseling

psychologist, has developed a self-as-a-model strategy.

Hosford's self-modeling strategy is composed of five

operations: teach the client self-monitoring and self-

observation skills; decide which behaviors to change;

specify skills or knowledge required; create the model

video or audio tape; and work with the client in

attending to the videotape and practicing self-imagery.

Dowrick (1983a) focuses on the use and characteristics

of the video medium in his study of self-modeling.

Dowrick's procedure consists of taping the subject's

best possible performance, including enough scenes to

create the model videotape, editing the videotape to

create the best depiction of the desired behavior while

limiting the tape length to five minutes, allowing the









subject to view the tape at regular intervals, and

monitoring the subject's progress.

The self-modeling process in the present study is

designed according to the guidelines of these leading

researchers and their reported use in the previously

described research. The four-week treatment period in

the present study was the same treatment length used by

Creer and Miklich (1970), Miklich and Creer (1974),

Murray (1982), Drazin (1985), and Gonzales (1988). The

maximum length of the self-modeling videotape in the

present study was 2.5 minutes, based on a range of 2

to 5 five minutes used by Miklich, Chida, and Danker-

Brown (1977), Dowrick and Dove (1980), Dowrick (1983),

and Stanton (1985). Frequency of viewings in the

present study totalled 10 times in four weeks. Similar

frequencies of 3 to 5 times weekly were evidenced

in Creer and Miklich (1970), Miklich and Creer (1974),

Miklich, Chida, and Danker-Brown (1977), Davis (1979),

Dowrick and Dove (1980), Hosford (1980), Dowrick and

Hood (1981), Murray (1982), Dowrick (1983a), and Stanton

(1985). The present self-modeling study made use of a

dubbed voice to reinforce and draw attention to the

subject's correct behavior, an addition also made by

Davis (1979), Welton (cited in Hosford, 1980a), and

Stanton (1985). An observer was present during the

subject's viewing of the videotapes in the present study

and was also present in the studies by Creer and Miklich









(1970), Miklich and Creer (1974), Davis (1979), and

Stanton (1985).

The present self-modeling study differs from the

previously mentioned guidelines in that the subject did

not role-play or act out the desired behavior. Instead,

the subject was videotaped during normal activities and

all incorrect behaviors were edited out. Miklich and

Creer (1974) dismiss this method as being difficult,

time consuming, and undesirable because it omits the

behavioral rehearsal part of the self-modeling process.

Hosford (1980a) also favors behavioral rehearsal as a

means of involving the subject in the self-as-a model

process. Dowrick has successfully used both methods,

the omission and inclusion of behavioral rehearsal

(Dowrick & Raeburn, 1977; Dowrick & Dove, 1980; and

Dowrick, 1983a). Behavioral rehearsal was not a part of

the present study because, unlike previous self-modeling

studies, this research focused on affective behaviors

and attitudinal change. The nature of the affective

measure and behavioral checklist was such that role-

playing of the desired behavior could have influenced

the subject's self-report responses or affective

behaviors, both dependant variable measures. Unlike

measures of social behavior change or skill acquisition,

affective measures are susceptible to faking by the

subjects, therefore the subjects had no knowledge as to

which behaviors were desirable until they saw the







33

self-modeling videotape. The details of the procedures

followed in the present self-modeling study are included

in the following chapter along with a description of the

pilot study conducted prior to the present study.












CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY AND PILOT STUDY


Subjects

Subjects for this study were drawn from North

Marion High School, Sparr, Florida. This rural public

school is located north of Ocala in Marion County and

has an enrollment of 1,215 pupils. Thirty-four 10th-

grade students were randomly selected from 116 students

who were members of nine English 2 classes. Five of

these classes were taught by one teacher and four by

another. The classes were categorized academically as

low level (1), honors (3), and average (5).


Materials

A parental consent form was given prior to admin-

istration of the pretest survey. A prepared script

explaining the true nature of the experiment was read to

each subject from the treatment group upon completion of

the experiment. The parental consent form and the

prepared script are included in the Appendix.

Two instruments were administered prior to and after

the treatment: the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes,

Form H, (SSHA, Brown & Holtzman, The Psychological

Corporation, 1967), and an observational checklist. The

SSHA, a self-report inventory of student attitudes

toward school, contains 100 statements with a 5-point








Likert response for each. Four subscales of 25

statements each make up the total: Teacher Approval

(TA), Education Acceptance (EA), Delay Avoidance (DA),

and Work Methods (WM). These subscales combine to

produce Study Attitudes (SA=TA+EA); Study Habits

(SH=DA+WM); and, Study Orientation (SO=SA+SH). For this

study the score for Study Attitudes alone was

calculated. The subscales, Teacher Approval and

Education Acceptance, have a test/retest reliability of

.93 and .94 respectively (Holtzman & Brown, 1968).

The behavioral checklist was composed of 17

affective behaviors derived from the Study Attitudes

Survey and listed in the Appendix. The score for the

behavior observation reflected the total number of times

the subject performed each of the 17 behaviors as

depicted on a videotape made of the subject's entire

class. Additional materials used for the study included

an 8mm portable video camera with appropriate editing

facilities, videotapes, and videocassette recorders, as

well as monitors and suitable viewing locations for the

subjects.


Design

The design for this experiment was a Randomized

Groups, Pretest-Posttest Design (Campbell & Stanley,

cited in Ary, et al., 1979) with two pre- and post-

measures taken. The SSHA subscale, Study Attitudes,

served as one pre- and post-measure, and the








observational checklist served as the second. Two

groups of 17 subjects each were measured at the same

time prior to treatment; the treatment group under-

went treatment for four weeks while the control group

did not; both groups were measured at the same time

after the treatment period.


Procedures

Nine 10th-grade classes numbering 116 students and

taught by two teachers were administered the Survey of

Study Habits and Attitudes. The pretest was admini-

stered by the experimenter without any teachers present

and all written response sheets were coded to insure

confidentiality. The students were told that at the

completion of the experiment all written materials would

be destroyed.

Pretested students whose attendance records showed

excessive absences to the extent that the treatment

could not be carried out were eliminated from the

experiment. The remaining students were randomly

selected to form a sample of 34 subjects. The 34

subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups.

Subjects from group 1, the treatment group, were

videotaped as part of an entire class so that behavioral

observations of several subjects could be made. These

subjects were then videotaped on an individual basis,

that tape was edited, and the subjects viewed that

edited tape depicting positive affective behaviors only.








Upon completion of the treatment, these subjects were

again videotaped as part of a class to provide a source

for the final behavioral observation measure. Lastly,

the treated subjects completed the Survey of Study

Habits and Attitudes posttest and were debriefed by the

investigator.

Subjects from Group 2, the control group, took the

pre- and post-attitude survey and were videotaped for

both pre- and post-observational measures during the

same time period as the treatment group. This control

group was informed that they would be videotaped on an

individual basis, in the same manner as Group 1,

however, the investigator did not press the camera

record button when it was directed at control subjects.

All subjects from both the control and treatment groups

experienced the same videotaping processes in an attempt

to minimize any Hawthorne effect.

The videotaping for behavioral observation was done

with a fixed camera focused to include the entire class.

The pre-treatment videotaping and the post-treatment

videotaping were scheduled so as to record the same

class on the same day of the week when similar

instruction was occurring. These observations were

recorded by means of a checklist of 17 positive

affective behaviors derived from the statements

composing the Study Attitudes subscale (See the

Appendix). The frequency of occurrence of any of these






38

behaviors during the 50-minute class period, excluding

the first and last five minutes of the period, was

noted, thus providing a total of 40 minutes of observed

behavior for each subject.

The videotaping of individuals took place in the

subjects' classrooms and was edited at a later time.

Prior to taping, the investigator asked for and received

permission from the teacher and the class to videotape

normal student behaviors. The investigator panned the

camera around the class, directing the camera at

treatment, control, and other students. Although it

appeared as if all students were being taped, the

investigator only taped those subjects to be treated.

The intent was to maintain a normal atmosphere and to

avoid attracting attention to the subjects. The taping

included only the student's positive affective behaviors

and only a specific student unless an interaction

behavior was being recorded. The teachers were given a

list of the 17 positive affective behaviors (see

Appendix) which were representive of the Study Attitudes

statements. They were asked to provide opportunities

for the students to exhibit as many of the desired

behaviors as possible within the normal framework of

their classes. Taping was conducted in the subject's

English 2 class as well as two to three other classes

until a minimum of twelve appropriate behaviors had been

recorded for each subject. Because these same grade








level students had many classes in common, videotaping

of a class always involved both treatment and control

subjects, and equal videotaping exposure for all

subjects was maintained.

The original videotapes included a minimum of 12

positive affective behaviors indicative of the 50 Study

Attitudes statements. A minimum of 12 of the specific

behaviors described in the Appendix was selected based

on a pilot study which indicated that the candid

videotaping of subjects prior to treatment provided the

demonstration of at least 12 separate, positive,

affective behaviors. The original videotapes were

edited to create two final tapes, each with a maximum

length of 2.5 minutes and each containing a minimum of

six of the positive affective behaviors. The visual

display of the appropriate behaviors was supplemented by

a dubbed voice noting the appropriate behavior on the

tape e.g. "Here you are listening to Mr. Smith." The

voice dub was interjected six times on each of the two

tapes.

The investigator arranged with each treatment

subject for a convenient viewing time that did not

interfere with the subject's academic schedule. These

subjects viewed their videotapes with an observer

present to assure attention to the self-modeling video-

tape. These viewing sessions took place three times

weekly for the first two weeks and twice weekly for the








third and fourth weeks. The two tapes were shown 10

times in this order: 1-1-2, 2-1-2, 1-2, 1-2. All

videotape labels were coded to protect anonymity.

Upon completion of the treatment period all subjects

were again videotaped to provide material for the

behavior observation and also administered the Survey of

Study Habits and Attitudes. Each subject in the treat-

ment group was interviewed by the investigator who read

to them the explanatory script and informed them that

all written materials would be destroyed and videotapes

erased.


Variables

Two dependent variables were measured in this

experiment. One dependent variable was a score for

Study Attitudes, a subscale of the SSHA, a self-report

attitude instrument. The second dependent variable was

the score obtained from the observational checklist.

The independent variable was the videotaped self-

modeling treatment.


Statistical Analysis

The collected data was analyzed by conducting an

analysis of variance for each dependent variable. The

analysis of variance was a split plot design with one

between subjects factor, the treatment-control grouping,

and one within subjects factor, the pre- and post-score.

Cronbach's alpha was calculated as an estimate of







41

internal consistency for both the Study Attitudes scale

and the behavior observation checklist.


Hypotheses

1. There will be no significant difference on the

Study Attitudes scores between students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment and students who did

not receive the treatment.

2. There will be no significant difference between

the pretest Study Attitudes scores and the posttest

Study Attitudes scores.

3. There will be no significant difference in the

change from pretest to posttest on the Study Attitudes

scores between students who received the videotaped

self-modeling treatment and students who did not receive

the treatment.

4. There will be no significant difference on the

observation scores between students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment and students who did

not receive the treatment.

5. There will be no significant difference between

the pretest behavior observation scores and the posttest

behavior observation scores.

6. There will be no significant difference in the

change from pretest to posttest on the behavior obser-

vation scores between students who received the video-

taped self-modeling treatment and students who did not

receive the treatment.








Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted to explore the feasi-

bility of the proposed experimental study in terms of

student-teacher cooperation, survey administration,

video capabilities, and time budgeting. It also served

as a preliminary testing of the proposal's hypothesis:

students who received the videotaped self-modeling

treatment would report a more positive attitude toward

school than they reported prior to the treatment.

Materials

The Study Attitudes subscale of the Survey of Study

Habits and Attitudes, Form H (SSHA, Brown and Holtzman,

1967) served as pre- and posttest. A 6-item,

experimenter-created questionnaire was also administered

with the survey to eliminate the possibility of any

recent event affecting the students' responses.

The students were videotaped with an 8mm video

camera. Each student's videotape was edited to create

two separate videotapes of approximately 2.5 minutes

each. Behaviors selected for the videotapes were

divided into 12 categories corresponding with the SSHA.

Each tape depicted a minimum of 6 separate categories

with all 12 being represented on both tapes. To draw

attention to the appropriate behavior a short, dubbed

narration stated the behavior being performed e.g. "Here

you are taking notes."







43

To allow flexible use of VCR's of different formats,

the edited tapes were either 8mm, Beta, or VHS. The

students were shown the videotapes a total of 10 times

over four weeks. The first two showings were of tape #1

and the 3rd and 4th showings were of tape #2. The 5th

showing was of tape #1, and all subsequent showings were

alternated between the two tapes.

Subjects

Tenth grade students from a high school summer

session, 7 from a mathematics class and 16 from an

English class, were given the SSHA. These 23 students

were selected because they had previously attended the

high school for one year. Four students from the English

class were chosen, 2 whose survey scores were in the

medium range, and 2 whose scores were in the low range.

Of these 4, 2 were randomly selected to receive treat-

ment while the other 2 were to be controls. Four

mathematics students were chosen in the same manner; 2

to receive treatment, 2 to act as controls. All 4 of

the treated subjects and 2 of the controls were female,

the remaining 2 controls were male.

Procedure

First week: Two classes of students were adminis-

tered the SSHA and 8 students were selected, all of

whom agreed to participate in the experiment. The 4

students to receive treatment were then videotaped for

2- to 3 days. Because each student only takes one








course in summer school, the videotaping took place in

the same two classes with the same two teachers for

approximately five hours for one teacher and seven hours

for the other. Both students in each class were taped

during this time period but only positive affective

behaviors were recorded.

Second week: The experimenter had consulted with

the students and teachers and had agreed on suitable

viewing times. Three students watched their videos

three times throughout the week. One student watched

her video only twice during the week because of

scheduling problems. The students watched their videos

either in the media specialist's office, an audio-visual

listening room, or a classroom. They watched their

videos alone, with no interference from the

experimenter.

Third week: Three students watched their videos

three times throughout the week. The same student as in

the previous week watched her video only twice because

of an absence.

Fourth week: Three students watched their videos

two times throughout the week. The same student as in

the previous week watched her video three times during

the week to make up missed viewings.

Fifth week: Three students watched their videos two

times throughout the week. The same student as in the








previous week watched her video three times during the

week to make up missed viewings.

Sixth week: All students were again administered

the Study Attitudes survey.

Results

Posttest scores for the 4 treated students showed

an increase for 1, a decrease for 2, and 1 with no

change. Posttest scores for the 4 control group

students revealed the same results: 1 with an increase,

2 with a decrease, and 1 with no change. Statistical

analysis reveals that on the average all scores went

down, from a pretest mean of 35.00 to a posttest mean of

33.87. However, the average change for the treated

students was an increase of .75 pretestt mean of 32.5,

posttest mean of 33.25), while the average change for

the control group was a decrease of 3.0 pretestt mean of

37.5, posttest mean of 34.5).

Conclusions

The enactment of this pilot study verified that the

practical aspects of the proposed experiment, the

selecting of students, survey administration, video-

taping, editing, and scheduled viewing of tapes, was

indeed an attainable task. One unforeseen factor that

affected the pilot study was the administration of the

pretest during the first week of summer school, a time

in which classwork is relatively light due to the

finalizing of class rosters. Subsequent weeks became








more difficult for the students and this increased

demand for work was reflected in the overall decline in

attitudes. The use of the pretest clarified that an

increased positive attitude was produced in the treat-

ment group, but in the proposed study the pretest will

not be administered until regular class activity has

begun in an attempt to lessen the effect of the timing

of the experiment.

The hypothesis that the students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment would report a more

positive attitude toward school than they reported prior

to the treatment was found to be true: the treatment

group underwent a mean increase in attitude score of

.75. Because of the small number of subjects, this

increase is not considered statistically significant;

however, when compared to the control group's mean

decrease of 3.0, this finding does indicate a treatment

effect worthy of further study.

As a result of this pilot study, the researcher

conducted a larger scale videotaped self-modeling

experiment, the procedures of which were described at

the beginning of this chapter. The following two

chapters contain the results and conclusions of that

larger study.











CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


Upon completion of the pilot study, the videotaped

self-modeling treatment was carried out as described in

Chapter III. Thirty-four subjects were randomly chosen

from 116 members of nine English 2 classes. All subjects

were administered the Study Attitudes survey and

videotaped for the behavior observation. Each subject

was exposed to a minimum of four video recording

sessions. The 17 treatment group members then viewed

their edited tapes for the required 10 times in four

weeks. Upon completion of the treatment period all

subjects were again administered the Study Attitudes

survey and videotaped for the behavior observations.

All 34 of the subjects were retained throughout the

experiment. The subjects' scores on the two dependent

variables, Study Attitudes and behavior checklist, were

analyzed by conducting a separate analysis of variance

for each variable. The analysis of variance was a split

plot design with one between subjects factor, the treat-

ment-control grouping, and one within subjects factor,

the pre- and post-score. An estimate for the internal

consistency reliabilities of both protests, the Study

Attitudes survey and the behavior observation checklist,

was determined by using Cronbach's alpha formula.









Hypotheses

The data analysis failed to reject the six null

hypotheses that no significant differences would be

found.

1. No significant difference was found on the Study

Attitudes scores between students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment and students who did

not receive the treatment. On the Study Attitudes

scores the mean of the treatment group averaged across

occasions was 50.73, while that of the control group

was 50.21. The mean of the treatment group was slightly

greater than that of the control group, but this between

subjects treatment effect was non-significant, or chance

fluctuation, as indicated by the F value of .01

(df=l,32) shown on Table 1.

Table 1. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Tests
of Hypotheses On the Dependent Variable Study
Attitudes

Source DF Sums of Mean Square F Pr>F
Squares


Between Ss 33

Treatment 1 4.76 4.7647 .01 .92

Error 32 16202.18 506.32


Within Ss 34

Time 1 113.89 113.89 1.65 .21

Time*
Treatment 1 1.47 1.47 .02 .88

Error 32 2204.65 68.89








2. No significant difference was found between the

pretest Study Attitudes scores and the posttest Study

Attitudes scores. On Study Attitudes all subjects

revealed a mean increase of 2.59 from pretest to

posttest, but this within subjects effect was

non-significant as indicated by the F value of 1.65

(df=1,32) shown on Table 1.

3. No significant interaction was found in the

change from pretest to posttest on the Study Attitudes

scores between students who received the videotaped

self-modeling treatment and students who did not receive

the treatment. On the Study Attitudes scale the

treatment group had a mean increase of 2.89 while the

control group had a mean increase of 2.29. The treat-

ment group achieved a slightly greater mean increase

than the control group, but this within subjects

interaction effect was non-significant as indicated by

the F value of .02 (df=l,32) shown on Table 1.

4. No significant difference was found on the

observation scores between students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment and students who did

not receive the treatment. On the behavior checklist

scores the mean of the treatment group averaged across

occasions was 17.00, while that of the control group was

19.67. The mean of the control group was slightly

greater than that of the treatment group, but this

between subjects treatment effect was non-significant,








or chance fluctuation, as indicated by the F value of

.50 (df=l,32) shown on Table 2.


Table 2.


Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Tests
of Hypotheses on the Dependent Variable
Behavior Checklist


Source DF Sums of Mean Square F Pr>F
Squares


Between Ss 33

Treatment 1 101.31 101.31 .50 .48

Error 32 6441.41 201.29


Within Ss 34

Time 1 87.72 87.72 .59 .45

Time*
Treatment 1 5.31 5.31 .04 .85

Error 32 4460.47 139.39




5. No significant difference was found between the

pretest behavior observation scores and the posttest

behavior observation scores. On the behavior checklist

all subjects revealed a mean decrease of 2.21 from

pretest to posttest, but this within subjects effect was

non-significant as indicated by the F value of .59

(df=1,32) shown on Table 2.

6. No significant interaction was found in the

change from pretest to posttest on the behavior

observation scores between students who received the

videotaped self-modeling treatment and students who did








not receive the treatment. On the behavior checklist

the treatment group had a mean decrease of 1.65, while

the control group had a mean decrease of 2.76. The

treatment group showed slightly less of a decrease in

positive behaviors, than the control group, but this

within subjects interaction effect was non-significant

as indicated by the F value of .04 (df=l,32) shown on

Table 2.


Cronbach's Alpha

All of the 34 subjects' pretest Study Attitudes

and behavior checklist scores were analyzed using

Cronbach's alpha formula to reveal the reliability of

each instrument. Data from the attitude survey scores

necessary for the calculation included the number of

items on the instrument, 50, the standard deviation,

16.73, and the summation of all the squared item

variances, 29.67. The resulting alpha of .91 shows that

the Study Attitudes instrument reflects a high internal

consistency. Data from the behavior checklist scores

necessary for the calculation of Cronbach's alpha

included the number of items on the instrument, 17, the

standard deviation, 15.02, and the summation of all the

squared item variances, 136.55. The resulting alpha of

.41 shows that the behavior checklist instrument

reflects a low internal consistency.









Summary

When averaging the pretest and posttest scores, all

subjects reported having the same attitudes toward

school and were observed exhibiting the same amount of

positive affective behaviors regardless of whether they

were part of the treatment group or the control group.

Likewise, all subjects reported having the same attitude

toward school during the posttest as they had during the

pretest eight weeks earlier, and were observed

demonstrating the same amount of positive affective

behaviors during the final observation as they had

during the first observation. The trend of student

reported attitudes across the two measurement periods

was the same for both the treatment and the control

groups. The trend of demonstrated behaviors across the

two observation periods was also the same for both the

treatment and the control groups. Conclusions based on

this data analysis and the reliabilities of the Study

Attitudes and behavior checklist instruments are

included in the following chapter.













CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect

of videotaped self-modeling of positive affective

behaviors on students' attitudes toward school. Using a

Randomized Groups, Pretest-Posttest Design (Campbell &

Stanley, cited in Ary, et al., 1979), 34 10th-grade

students were measured on two dependent variables prior

to and upon completion of the treatment. The two pre-

and post-measures consisted of the Study Attitudes

survey, a subscale of the Survey of Study Habits and

Attitudes (Brown & Holtzman, 1967) and a behavior check-

list; the self-modeling treatment consisted of ten self-

modeling videotape viewings by the subject over a four

week period.

The first major question posed in this study

concerned the effect of the self-modeling treatment on

students' attitudes. Data analysis revealed that the

treatment group had a slightly greater increase in Study

Attitudes scores than that of the control group, but

statistically there was no significant change in either

group and no significant difference between the two

groups. A second major question of this study concerned

the effect of the self-modeling treatment on students'

behaviors. Data analysis revealed that the treatment

group had slightly less of a decrease in behavior

53








checklist scores than the control group, but this

difference was also statistically non-significant.

The last two questions posed in this study

concerned the justification of the self-modeling

treatment as an example of social cognitive learning

theory, and that theory's effectiveness as a basis for

altering attitudes. All five of the modeling effects

described by Bandura in his social cognitive learning

theory were included in the self-modeling videotape used

in the treatment. The first effect, inhibitory and

disinhibitory, was achieved when the subject saw

him/herself exhibiting positive affective behaviors

within the classroom setting. The second effect,

response facilitation, was achieved when the subject saw

him/herself performing an appropriate classroom behavior

with a positive affective response. Environmental

enhancement was the third effect produced when the

subject watched a videotape which included only his/her

own behaviors on the videotape, thereby focusing the

subject's attention on the appropriate behaviors.

Arousal, the use of the model to elicit emotion and the

fourth effect, was achieved when the subject saw

him/herself laughing or smiling on the videotape.

The final effect, observational learning, includes

four subprocesses: attention, retention, production, and

motivation. The self-modeling videotape included all of

these processes. Attention was promoted by the use of






55

the self as model (Burnstein, Stotland, & Zanker, 1961;

Rosenkrans, 1967) and by the use of an observer to

insure that the subjects watched their videotapes. In

addition, the brief verbal description of the behavior

included on the self-modeling videotape directed the

subject's attention to the modeled behavior (Sheffield &

Maccoby, 1961, cited in Bandura, 1986). Retention of

memory response patterns was also promoted by these same

verbal cues which serve as mediators for response

retrieval and are acquired through a contiguity learning

process (Bandura, 1969; Sheffield, 1961, cited in

Bandura, 1969). Further retention of memory response was

supported by the visual reproduction of the appro-

priate behaviors on the self-modeling videotape. The

prerequisite motor reproduction, which includes the

physical and cognitive aspects of the subject's

responses, were in evidence on the videotape because the

videotape of the subject's behaviors had been edited to

include only the performance of the appropriate

behaviors. Motivation, whether or not the subject

chooses to be influenced by the modeled behavior, was

provided by the televised medium of the treatment and

the use of self as model. Televised models have been

shown to be successful instructors (Bandura, Grusec, &

Menlove, cited in Bandura, 1977), and observing oneself

provokes greater arousal than watching others (Fuller &

Manning, 1973).






56

Because this research study fulfills the conditions

for social cognitive learning theory and because the

data analysis for this study revealed no significance in

the self-modeling treatment effect, it is to be

concluded that social cognitive learning theory, as

applied in videotaped self-modeling under the conditions

of this experimental research, is not an effective

basis for the changing of attitudes. Previous research

studies that tested the relationship of modeling to

behavioral change focused on the use of affective

behaviors in the modeling sequence (Geer, 1968; Lanzetta

& Orr, 1980; Stotland, 1969), or modeling to reduce

affective reactions as in stress, anxiety, and phobias

(Thelen, Fry, Fehrenbach, and Frautschi, 1979), but no

studies have been conducted on modeling as a means of

attitude change. The importance of this study lies in

the introduction of an experimental design to test the

effectiveness of modeling in changing attitudes.

Adaptations of this study are necessary to clarify the

role of self-modeling and the effectiveness of social

cognitive learning theory.


Research Implications

Modeling

Because this experiment is a novel combination of

theory, treatment, and purpose, it evokes many

possibilities for further research. The research

literature on modeling, the central element of Bandura's








social cognitve learning theory, consists of two

approaches to the role of affect. In the majority of

studies the purpose is to reduce negative affect in a

clinical setting with a single client (Thelen, Fry,

Fehrenbach, and Frautschi, 1979). The second approach

is to use positive affect as an additional variable in

testing the effectiveness of modeling as a method of

behavioral change (Geer, 1968; Lanzetta & Orr, 1980;

Stotland, 1969). The present study extends the existing

research by combining the two research goals just

described, changing affect and using affect as a change

agent. This study however, attempted to increase affect

(positive attitude toward school), and was carried out

in a natural setting with a group of adolescent

subjects. Subsequent research should consider if

differences exist in the effectiveness of modeling

treatments for decreasing affect as compared to

increasing affect, and whether affective change is

influenced by the age of the subject or the treatment

setting.

Self-Modeling

The implementation of this self-modeling study was

consistent with previous self-modeling studies that

proved effective in changing behaviors. This study was

comparable to those studies in its length of treatment,

(Creer & Miklich, 1970; Drazin, 1985; Gonzales, 1988;

Miklich & Creer, 1974; Murray, 1982), length of the








videotape, (Dowrick, 1983; Dowrick & Dove, 1980;

Miklich, Chida, & Danker-Brown, 1977; Stanton, 1985),

and frequency of videotape viewings (Creer & Miklich,

1970; Davis, 1979; Dowrick, 1983a; Dowrick & Dove, 1980;

Dowrick & Hood, 1981; Hosford, 1980; Miklich & Creer,

1974; Miklich, Chida, & Danker-Brown; Murray, 1982;

Stanton, 1985). This study differed from other self-

modeling studies in the use of an affective instrument

in addition to a behavior checklist as the dependent

measures. Study Attitudes, a subscale of the Survey of

Study Habits and Attitudes (Brown & Holtzman, 1967), was

selected for its reliability (Holtzman & Brown, 1968),

and when the pretest Study Attitudes scores were

analyzed using Cronbach's alpha formula, they revealed a

highly reliable .91 measure of internal consistency. To

avoid validity problems with the affective instrument

used in this study, the treatment behaviors were taken

from the behaviors described on the Study Attitudes

survey. To insure construct validity, further research

on attitudes might consider using an instructor designed

attitude measure as did Simonson (1977).

The second evaluation measure, the behavior

checklist, was a pre- and post-measure of the subject's

behavior in English class. Despite the researcher's

attempt to match overall classroom behaviors by length

of discussion, reading, and writing periods, the

uniqueness of almost every instructional period made






59

it difficult to replicate for the final behavior measure

the conditions that existed during the first behavior

measure. In addition, the calculation for the internal

consistency of the pretest revealed a rather low .41.

Further research in the school setting requiring a

measure of behavioral change should specify the amount

of time and the type of instructional activity made

available for the enactment of required behaviors during

the observation period, e.g. 22 minutes of class

discussion, 14 minutes of reading, 15 minutes copying

notes from the board, 12 minutes group work, 5 minutes

free time. This behavior observation should be made on

several different days and then either an average score

compiled or base line data collected. It would also be

advisable to allow for a measurement of the duration or

quality of the 17 checklist behaviors rather than simply

counting the occurrences of each behavior.

Video Feedback

Subsequent research should also give full consider-

ation to the literature on video feedback which notes a

negative impact from watching oneself perform

incorrectly or appear in an unacceptable manner

(Bandura, 1977; Fuller and Manning, 1973; Paredes et

al., 1969). The researcher edited the self-modeling

videotapes to show the students performing in-school

behaviors with a positive attitude, however, some

subjects' comments to the researcher concerning their








negative personal appearance on the videotape provokes

the question of whether the self-modeling videotape was

interpreted by the subjects as depicting them in a

negative rather than a positive light. The literature

in child development introduces the concept of the

"imaginary audience", the adolescent belief that others

are preoccupied with the physical appearance of the

adolescent as much as they are themselves (Elkind,

1980). Thus, the adolescent preoccupation with

appearance may have distracted the subject so that

he/she attended only to what he/she saw as a physical

defect rather than the performance of the appropriate

behavior which was orally identified on the tape.

Students' Attitudes Toward School

This study demonstrated the design and imple-

mentation of an experimental study of students'

attitudes toward school. By using affective behaviors

taken from the affective measure for the self-modeling

videotape and for the behavior checklist, this study

overcomes the problems for which affective research is

frequently criticized: defining and measuring the

affective construct (Beane, 1986; Bills, 1976; Hart &

Goud, 1978). Past research in students' attitudes

toward school consists of descriptive studies of the

correlation between attitudes and GPA (Farquhar, 1963;

Malpass, 1953), standardized tests (Khan 1969, 1970)

extra-curricular activities, absenteeism, tardiness,








socioeconomic status, parental involvement, and

disciplinary action (Rautenberg, 1978), and school size

(Edington & Gardener, 1984). Because Simonson's 1977

study of college students and their attitudes towards a

specific course is the only experimental research on a

subject related to that of students' attitudes toward

school, more experimental research must be conducted in

this area.

The researcher was concerned with analyzing any

change in attitude that would be caused by the self-

modeling treatment and therefore did not categorize

the Study Attitudes scores. Upon consulting the norms

tables provided in the Survey of Study Habits and

Attitudes booklet (Brown & Holtzman, 1967), it was

determined that the average pretest scores of all 34

subjects in the present study were in the 35% range,

and the average posttest scores were in the 40% range.

These low scores could be the result of the students

forming negative attitudes toward school at an early

age. In examining the relationship between affect,

grade in school, and achievement, Bloom (1976), using

reading achievement as an approximation of general

school achievement, comments on the stabilization of

attitude toward school and reading among students who

are either highly successful or unsuccessful achievers:

students in the top and bottom fifths of the
achievement distribution are already quite different
in their affect toward the school by the end of the
3rd year of school. While there is further








differentiation in affect up to the 9th year of
school, the changes after the primary school period
are relatively small. (p.150)

Since the present study indicates that a random sampling

of 34 10th-grade students all report relatively poor

attitudes toward school, the results of a subsequent

study which differentiates high achievers from low

achievers would provide information as to whether or not

most students, regardless of achievement level, report

poor attitudes toward school.

Although Bloom reports the stability of school

related affect throughout the school years, the

susceptibility of that affective condition to change had

not been studied until the completion of the present

research. Attitude researchers have successfully

changed the attitudes of all age levels from elementary

school students to adults (Remmers, 1954), but none of

these studies were related to attitude toward school.

Considering the relatively low percentiles for students'

attitudes toward school recorded in this study, future

researchers should survey larger populations and

different age groups to determine if similar scores are

prevalent in other schools. Subsequent experimental

research on student attitudes could then be conducted.


Recommendations

This researcher's attempt to analyze the effective-

ness of social cognitive learning theory as a basis for

changing attitudes was complicated by the use of the








self as a model in the modeling display. To eliminate

the possibility that the self-modeling treatment was not

a true fulfillment of Bandura's modeling requirements, a

study should be conducted to evaluate the effect of

modeling of positive affective behaviors on students'

attitudes toward school. Such a study would resemble

the present study in its randomized groups, pretest-

posttest design with two pre- and post-measures, but

would differ in the creation of the videotapes viewed by

the subjects. Instead of videotaping the subjects and

using their own edited behaviors for the treatment

videotape, a model from among the subjects' classmates

would be selected and videotaped demonstrating the

appropriate affective behaviors. This videotape of a

peer model would then be shown to the subjects

throughout the treatment period. Additional modeling

studies should also be conducted in which the goal is to

increase positive affect rather than decrease negative

affect as has been done in previous studies.

This self-modeling study focused on 34 students'

attitudes as measured by an attitude survey and a

behavior checklist. Since previous self-modeling

studies in behavioral change have been proven effective

with a single client (Creer & Miklich, 1970; Greelis &

Kazaoka, 1979; Haarmann & Greelis, 1982) and since no

self-modeling studies have been conducted on attitudinal

change, it is recommended that the same study be








conducted using a single subject research design. The

lack of affective self-modeling studies also bespeaks a

need for a repetition of this study with a different age

group to assess how attitude change varies with age.

Additionally, the placing of this study in a different

environment with a different attitude to be measured

would provide data for comparison with the students in a

high school setting.

A major recommendation of this researcher is the

conducting of more experimental research concerning

students' attitudes. The data collected in this study

reveals that the randomized group of 10th-graders

tested indicated that they had poor attitudes toward

school. Because these students profess such a low

opinion of school, they can be placed in a category of

students who, according to the research, are likely to

perform less well in school (Khan, 1970), and are at

high risk of dropping out of school (Barber & McClellan,

1987; Hahn, 1987). When these possible problems are

added to the ones already existing in our schools, drug

abuse, pregnancy, and suicide (Farrar & Hampel, 1987),

it is evident that since our students are being exposed

to serious issues requiring affective decisions, those

affective behaviors should be the focus of additional

research. The researcher also strongly recommends that

the attitude research that is to be conducted must

insure against the possibility that the treatment could








produce a negative attitude change that would be

detrimental to the subject. The present self-modeling

study made use of only positive affective behaviors as a

safeguard against such an occurrence.


Summary

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect

of videotaped self-modeling of positive affective

behaviors on students' attitudes toward school. Data

analysis revealed that no significant change in

attitudes or behaviors took place, therefore no evidence

of the effectiveness of social cognitive learning theory

as an attitude change agent was provided. Conclusions

from this study indicate that additional research should

be conducted in the modeling and self-modeling of

attitudes with attention to the negative aspects of

videofeedback and adolescents' preoccupation with

appearance. Since this research study succeeds in

defining an affective construct, implementing an

experimental design with a treatment to influence that

construct, and measuring the result of that treatment,

it is hoped that this study will serve to generate the

much needed experimental research in the area of

students' attitudes.

















APPENDIX








PARENTAL INFORMED CONSENT FORM


Dear Parent,
This research project is an attempt to learn more
about students' attitudes toward school. The success of
this project depends upon the collection of student
opinions about school: their teachers, classwork,
homework, etc. These attitudes are also reflected in
student behaviors therefore students will be videotaped
during regular class activities to enable the researcher
to compile a visual record of behavior representing
the student's attitude.
As a participant in the project, your child will
complete a multiple choice attitude survey at the
beginning of the project and again at its finish. This
written instrument will be administered to a group in a
classroom with only the project director and other
participants present.
Next, your child will be videotaped in 4-5 classes
and, if randomly selected for further participation,
he/she will view his/her own videotapes 10 times during
the next 4 weeks. Each viewing will take place
privately in the media center with only the investigator
present and will last about 5 minutes. The time the
student chooses to view the tapes is flexible and can be
arranged weekly so that he/she does not miss any
important class time.
Your child's written responses and videotapes will
be seen by no one except the project director and her
supervisor, and all written and videotaped materials
will be coded to preserve confidentiality. At the
completion of the project the project director will
provide summary information and respond to any
questions. All written materials will be destroyed and
the videotapes erased.
There are no potential risks involved in this
project.
You or your child may ask questions about procedures
at any time. You may contact the project director, Pat
Conlon, through North Marion High, 622-3177.
Either the student or parent is free to withdraw
consent and discontinue participation in the project at
any time without prejudice. Participation or non-
participation in this project will in no way affect
the student's grades.
There will be no monetary compensation for
participation in this project.







68

Attitude Survey/Videotape Parental Consent Form

I have read and I understand the procedure described
above. I agree to allow my child to participate in the
procedure and I have received a copy of this
description.

Signatures


Parent or Guardian



2nd Parent/Witness


I/


Subject


Date



Date



Date


/


Principal Investigator's Name Date


]








Script for the subject's de-briefing interview


At the beginning of this project I (the

investigator) told you that it was a study of student

attitudes. This is true, but it was also a study of

whether or not watching the videotapes would affect your

attitudes toward school as measured by the survey which

you were given prior to and after the viewing of the

tapes. I did not tell you this before the experiment

because if you knew that I was trying to change your

attitude it might affect your attitude and the change

would then have been caused by me instead of the

videotapes.

This research study will be helpful to educators who

are trying to learn about student attitudes and how they

are influenced. Your coded survey scores are part of

this research and therefore provide invaluable, honest

student opinions about school. If, however, because of

the information just given to you, you no longer wish

your scores to be used for this research, the data you

provided will be eliminated from the study.

At this time I can answer any questions you have

about the experiment with the understanding that you

will please keep the details of this study confidential.









Behavior Checklist

NOTE: "Responds with interest" or "displays
interest" is evidenced by non-verbal behavior such as
body posture, hand gestures, facial expression, or eye
contact.

1. Responds with positive emotion when receiving a
written assignment marked with a good grade.

2. Expresses satisfaction when turning in an assignment.

3. Displays interest when asking a question.

4. Responds willingly to a teacher's question.

5. Shows satisfaction when receiving praise from the
teacher or other student.

6. Responds with interest when being assisted with
classwork by the teacher.

7. Cooperates willingly with others to complete an
assignment.

8. Shows enthusiasm when changing from one activity to
another by demonstrating busy directed movement
rather than sluggish, bored behavior.

9. Reads a text or other written course material in a
focused manner as opposed to a distracted manner in
which attention wanders to something else beside the
reading material.

10. Uses gestures to express interest in class
discussion; e.g., head nodding.

11. Listens with pleasure to the teacher or other
student.

12. Reacts with interest to a teacher's course-related
comment.

13. Reacts with interest when the teacher discusses non-
class material.

14. Expresses interest when taking notes from the board
or teacher's lecture.

15. Expresses interest when writing as part of an
assignment.







71

16. Expresses interest when working on homework during
class.

17. Willingly participates in class discussion.
















REFERENCES


Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (1979).
Introduction to research in education. New York:
Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification.
New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and
action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. (1966).
Observational learning as a function of symbolization
and incentive set. Child Development, 37, 499-506.

Barber, L. W. & McClellan, M. C. (1987). Looking at
America's dropouts: Who are they? Phi Delta Kappan,
69(4), 264-267.

Barmann, B. C. (1982). The relative efficacy of peer
versus self-modeling procedures for teaching abusive
parents non-punitive child management skills
(Doctoral dissertation, University of California,
1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43,
4135B.

Batts, C. L. (1978). The effects of modeling with
contingent reinforcement, self-modeling, and role-
playing on developing interviewee skills in ex-
offenders within the employment interview (Doctoral
dissertation, American University, 1978).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 2487-2488B.

Beane, J. A. (1986). The continuing controversy over
affective education. Educational Leadership, 43, 26-
31.

Bills, R. E. (1976). Affect and its measurement.
Proceedings of the National Symposium for Professors
of Educational Research (NSPER). Memphis, Tennessee.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 157 911)








Bloom, B. S. (1976). Human characteristics and school
learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Brown, W. F., & Holtzman, W. H. (1967). Survey of Study
Habits and Attitudes, Form H. New York: The
Psychological Corporation.

Burnstein, E., Stotland, E., & Zander, A. (1961).
Similarity to a model and self-evaluation. Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 257-264.

Capella, B. J., Wagner, M., & Kusmierz, J. A. (1982).
Relation of study habits and attitudes to academic
performance. Psychological Reports, 50, 593-594.

Creer, T. L., & Miklich, D. R. (1970). The application
of a self-modeling procedure to modify inappropriate
behavior: A preliminary report. Behavior Research and
Therapy, 8, 91-92.

Davis, R. (1979). The impact of self-modeling on problem
behaviors in school-age children. School Psychology
Digest, 8, 128-131.

Dowrick, P. W. (1979). Single dose medication to create
a self model film. Child Behavior Therapy, 1, (2),
193-198. (From Psychological Abstracts, 1981, 65,
Abstract No. 5818).

Dowrick, P. W. (1983a). Self-modelling. In P. W.
Dowrick & S. J. Biggs (Eds.), Using video:
Psychological and social applications (pp. 105-124).
New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Dowrick, P. W. (1983b). Video training of alternatives
to cross gender identity behaviors in a 4-year-old
boy. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 5(2), 59-65.

Dowrick, P. W., & Biggs, S.J. (Eds.). (1983). Using
video: Psychological and social applications. New
York: John Wiley and Sons.

Dowrick, P. W., & Dove, C. (1980). The use of self-
modeling to improve the swimming performance of spina
bifida children. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 13, 51-56.

Dowrick, P. W., & Hood, M. (1981). Comparison of self-
modeling and small cash incentives in a sheltered
workshop. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(3), 394-
397.








Dowrick, P. W., & Raeburn, J. M. (1977). Video editing
and medication to produce a thereutic self-model.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45(6),
1156-1158.

Drazin, D. M. (1985). The use of self-modeling to
improve motor performance (Doctoral dissertation,
California School of Professional Psychology, 1985).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 946B.

Edington, E. D., & Gardener, C. E. (1984). The
relationship of school size to scores in the
affective domain from the Montana testing service
examination. Education, 105(1), 40-45.

Elam, S. M. (1989). The second Gallup Phi Delta Kappa
poll of teachers' attitudes toward the public
schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(10), 785-798.

Elkind, D. (1980). Child development and
counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 58(5),
353-355.

Farquhar, W. W. (1963). Motivational factors related to
academic achievement. Cooperative Research Project
No. 846. East Lansing, MI: Office of Research and
Publications, College of Education, Michigan State
University.

Farrar, E., & Hampel, R. L. (1987). Social services in
American high schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 69(4), 297-
303.

Fenn, L. M. (1983). An investigation of the relation-
ship between student affective characteristics and
student achievement within more and less effective
school settings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

Fuller, F.F., & Manning, B. A. (1973). Self-
confrontation reviewed: A conceptualization for video
playback in teacher education. Review of Educational
Research, 43(4), 469-528.

Gable, R. K., Roberts, A. D., & Owen, S. V. (1977).
Affective and cognitive correlates of classroom
achievement. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 37(4), 977-986.

Geer, J. H. (1968). A test of the classical conditioning
model of emotion: The use of nonpainful aversive
stimuli as unconditioned stimuli in a conditioning
procedure. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 10(2), 148-156.








Gonzales, F. P. (1988). The behavioral treatment of
hospitalized, conduct disorder children using video
self-modeling (Doctoral dissertation, Fuller
Theological Seminary, School of Psychology, 1988).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 2854B.

Greelis, M., & Kazaoka, K. (1979). The therapeutic use
of edited videotapes with an exceptional child.
Academic Therapy, 15(1), 37-44.

Haarmann, B. S., & Greelis, M. (1982). Video therapy
case study: The therapeutic use of edited videotapes
as a primary means of behavioral intervention in the
shaping of appropriate grammatical and contextual use
of language. Journal of Special Education Technology,
5(1), 52-56.

Hahn, A. (1987). Reaching out to America's dropouts:
What to do? Phi Delta Kappan, 69(4), 256-263.

Halloran, J. D. (1976). Attitude formation and change.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Publishers.

Hart, S. N., & Goud, N. H. (1978). Basic questions on
affective education: Preparation and application.
School Psychology Digest, 7(2), 35-46.

Hoepfner, R., Hemenway, J., Demuth, J., Tenopyr, M.,
Granville, A., Petrosko, J., Krakower, J.,
Silberstein, R., & Nadeau, M. (Eds.). (1972). CSE-
RBS test evaluations: Tests of higher-order
cognitive, affective, and interpersonal skills. Los
Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Evaluation,
University of California.

Holmes, M. (1978). Evaluating students in the affective
domain. School Guidance Worker, 33(4), 50-58.

Holtzman, W. H., & Brown, W. F. (1968). Evaluating the
study habits and attitudes of high school students.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 59(6), 404-409.

Hosford, R. E. (1980a). The cubberley conference and the
evolution of observational learning strategies.
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 58(7), 467-472.

Hosford, R. E. (1980b). Self-as-a-model: A cognitive
social learning technique. The Counseling
Psychologist, 9, 45-62.








Hosford, R. E., & Johnson, M. E. (1983). A comparison of
self-observation, self-modeling, and practice without
video feedback for improving counselor interviewing
behaviors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 23
(1), 62-70.

Hosford, R. E., Moss, S., & Morrell, G. (1976). The
self-as-a-model technique: Helping prison inmates
change. In J. D. Krumboltz & C. E. Thoresen
(Eds.), Counseling methods (pp. 487-495). New York:
Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Hoskisson, K. (1975). Imitative reading. Elementary
English, 52, 312-315.

Hughes, A. L., & Frommer, K. (1982). A system for
monitoring affective objectives. Educational
Leadership, 39(7), 521-523.

Hurst, B. M. (1980). Developing hierarchical structures
integrating cognition and affect. Paper presented at
the meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, Boston. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. Ed 193 316.)

Izard, C. E., Nagler, S., Randall, D., & Fox, J. (1965).
The effects of affective picture stimuli on learning,
perception and the affective values of previously
neutral symbols. In S. S. Tomkins and C. E.
Izard, (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and personality
(pp. 42-70). New York: Springer Publishing Company,
Inc.

Johnson, M. E. (1985). The relative effects of self-
observation versus self-modeling on counselor
trainees' anxiety, recall, self-evaluations, self-
efficacy expectations and counseling performance
(Doctoral dissertation, University of California,
1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47,
423A.

Kazdin, A. E. (1974). The effect of model identity and
fear-relevant similarity on covert modeling. Behavior
Therapy, 5(5), 624-635.

Khan, S. B. (1969). Affective correlates of academic
achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology,
60(3), 216-221.

Khan, S. B. (1970). Affective correlates of academic
achievement: A longitudinal study. Measurement and
Evaluation in Guidance, 3(2), 76-80.








Khan, S. B., & Roberts, D. M. (1969). Relationships
among study habits and attitudes, aptitudes, and
eighth grade achievement. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 29(4), 951-955.

Knight, J., & Chansky, N. M. (1964). Anxiety, study
problems, and achievement. Personnel and Guidance
Journal, 43, 45-46.

Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B.
(1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The
classification of educational goals. Handbook II:
Affective domain. New York: David McKay Company,
Inc.

Lange, B. M. (1980). Effects of modeling on the oral
health care of mentally retarded (Doctoral
dissertation, The University of Nebraska, Lincoln,
1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41,
4654A.

Lanzetta, J. T., & Orr, S. P. (1980). Influence of
facial expressions on the classical conditioning of
fear. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
39(6), 1081-1087.

Maile, L. (1985) Self-modeling and power lifting: A new
look at peak performance (Master's thesis, University
of Alaska, Anchorage). Masters Abstracts
International, 24(2), 161.

Malpass, L. F. (1953). Some relationships between
students' perceptions of school and their
achievement. The Journal Of Educational Psychology,
44, 475-482.

Martin, B. L., & Briggs, L. J. (1986). The affective and
cognitive domains. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational
Technology Publications.

Miklich, D. R., Chida, T. L., & Danker-Brown, P.
(1977). Behavior modification by self-modeling
without subject awareness. Journal of Behavior
Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 8, 125-130.

Miklich, D. R., & Creer, T. L. (1974). Self-modeling as
a behavior modification technique. In J. G. Cull & R.
E. Hardy Behavior modification in rehabilitation
settings: Applied principles (pp. 224-245).
Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

Millard, J. E., & Everage, W. (1980). Evaluating
attitudes: A procedure that works. Clearing House,
53, 244-247.








Moskal, P. J. (1988). Improving navy recruit confidence
expectancies and knowledge in a simulated chemical
warfare environment. Psychological Abstracts, 76(7),
1991.

Murray, A. F. (1982). Impact of self-modeling or peer
modeling on classroom behavior of inattentive
elementary school boys (Doctoral dissertation,
Fordham University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 43, 1598B.

Nielsen, G. (1964). Studies in self-confrontation.
Cleveland: Howard Allen, Inc.

Paredes, A., Gottheil, E., Tavsig, T. N., & Cornalison,
F. S. (1969). Behavioral changes as a function of
repeated self-observation. Journal of Nervous and
Mental Disease, 148, 287-299.

Petroski, R. A., Craighead, L. W., & Horan, J. J.
(1983). Separate and combined effects of behavior
rehearsal and self-other modeling variations on the
grooming skill acquisition of mentally retarded
women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30(2), 279-
282.

Pigott, H. E., & Gonzales, F. P. (1987). Efficacy of
videotape self-modeling in treating an electively
mute child. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,
16(2), 106-110.

Pryde, N., & Woods, B. (1980). A case of absolute
ejaculatory incompetence treated without extra-
vaginal ejaculation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and
Experimental Psychiatry, 11(3), 219-222.

Rautenberg, L. L. (1978). Development of a school
attitude scale and its relationship to student
response variables (Doctoral dissertation, The
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1978). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 39, 4150-4151.

Remmers, H. (1954). Introduction to opinion and attitude
measurement. Westport, CT:Greenwood Press.

Ringness, T. A. (1975). The affective domain in
education. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Roark, A. E., & Harrington, S. A. (1969). Survey of
study habits and attitudes. Educational Measurement,
6(2), 120-122.








Rosenberg, S. A., & Robinson, C. (1983). Competency
based parent training project. Final report. Working
papers in developmental disabilities. Nebraska
University Medical Center, Omaha. Meyer Children's
Rehabilitation Institute. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. Ed 235 671.)

Rosenkrans, M. A. (1967). Imitation in children as a
function of perceived similarity to a social model
and vicarious reinforcement. Journal of Personal and
Social Psychology, 7, 307-315.

Schumacher, A. S., Wright, J. M., & Wiesen, A. E. The
self as a source of anxiety. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 32(1), 30-34.

Schunk, D. H. (1985). Self-efficacy and classroom
learning. Psychology in the Schools, 22(2), 208-223.

Schunk, D. H. (1987). Peer models and children's
behavioral change. Review of Educational Research,
57, 149-174.

Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1987). Self-modeling and
cognitive skill learning. Paper presented at the
annual meeting of the American Psychological
Association (New York, NY). (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. Ed 292 847.)

Shay, C. B. (1972). Survey of study habits and
attitudes. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The seventh mental
measurements yearbook (pp. 1210-1211). Highland Park,
New Jersey: Gryphon Press.

Simonson, M. R. (1977). Attitude change and achievement:
Dissonance theory in education. The Journal of
Educational Research, 70, 163-169.

Simonson, M. R. (1979a). Attitude measurement: Why and
how. Educational Technology, 19, 34-38.

Simonson, M. R. (1979b). Designing instruction for
attitudinal outcomes. Journal of Instructional
Development, 2(3), 15-19.

Simonson, M. R. (1979c). Media and attitudes: A
bibliography part 1-articles published in av
communication review (1953-1977). Educational
Communication and Technology Journal, 27, 217-236.








Simonson, M. R., Aergerter, R., Berry, T., Kloock, T., &
Stone, R. (1987). Four studies dealing with mediated
persuasive messages, attitudes, and learning styles.
Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35,
31-41.

Stanton, M. M. (1985). The impact of edited and
nonedited self-modeling on productivity rates of
mentally retarded adults (Doctoral dissertation,
University of South Dakota, 1985). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 47, 150A.

Stearns, C. E. (1983). The effects of self-modeling,
behavior rehearsal and traditional modeling upon
assertive behavior performance (Doctoral
dissertation, New York University, 1983).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 3946B.

Stotland, E. (1969). Exploratory investigations of
empathy. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in
experimental social psychology (Vol. 4., pp. 271-
314). New York: Academic Press

Thelen, M. H., Fry, R. A., Fehrenbach, P. A., &
Frautschi, N. M. (1979). Therapeutic videotape and
film modeling: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86
(4), 701-720.

Vance, P. A. (1978). A study of the effects of self-
modeling techniques by videotape feedback upon the
acquisition of counseling skills by counselor
trainees (Doctoral Dissertation, University of
Tennessee, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 39, 3385A-3386A.

Walz, G. R., & Johnston, J. A. (1963). Counselors look
at themselves on videotape. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 10(3), 232-236.

Warner, R. W. Jr. (1980). An investigation of two
approaches to pre-practicum training for counselors.
Journal of Counseling Services, 3(3), 31-36.

Wilson, S. H. (1975). Determining the effects of two
differential self-modeling techniques on the
acquisition of appropriate counseling behaviors of
counselor trainees (Doctoral dissertation, University
of Tennessee, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 36, 5066A-5067A.

Wolff, W. (1943). The expression of personality. New
York: Harper.











BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Patricia Marie Conlon was born on November 11, 1950,

in Riverside, California. She completed her B.A. in

English and the teacher certification program at the

University of Florida in 1972, and immediately took a

position as a secondary language arts instructor in

Marion County. While teaching literature, composition,

and humanities courses at the high school, Patricia

earned her M.A. in English in 1976. In 1980, she

assumed the position of media specialist at her school

and began working toward her Ph.D. Patricia is an

active member of Phi Delta Kappa, Marion County Council

of Media Specialists, and the Florida Association for

Media in Education.











I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.


Lee J. Mullally, Chai
Associate Professor of
Instruction and Curriculum


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.


ichael D. MaiZ er
Assistant Professor of
Foundations of Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.


Forrest W. Parkay
Professor of Educational
Leadership


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, P scope a
quality, as a dissertation for th degree tor f
Philosophy./


Robert G. Wright
Associate Professor of
Instruction and Curriculum















This disseration was submitted to the Graduate
Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate
School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


August 1990


Dean, College of Education


Dean, Graduate School




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - Version 2.9.7 - mvs