• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 Philosophy and ethics
 Description of vocational-industrial...
 Evolution of vocational educat...
 Benefits to Florida teachers
 Florida school system and laws
 Course of study
 Teaching cosmetology
 General content of units
 Unit 1 - Orientation
 Unit II - Shampooing
 Unit III - Hair shaping
 Unit IV - Finger waving and...
 Unit V - Wigs and hair pieces
 Unit VI - Scalp treatment
 Unit VII - Permanent waving
 Unit VIII - Tinting and bleach...
 Unit IX - Manicuring and pedic...
 Unit X - Facials, massage, and...
 Unit XI - Beauty salon managem...
 Bibliography
 Glossary
 Appendix
 Back Cover














Title: manual for cosmetology instructors
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102632/00001
 Material Information
Title: manual for cosmetology instructors
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102632
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 8258694

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Philosophy and ethics
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Description of vocational-industrial education
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Evolution of vocational education
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Benefits to Florida teachers
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Florida school system and laws
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Course of study
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Teaching cosmetology
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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    General content of units
        Page 95
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    Unit 1 - Orientation
        Page 129
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    Unit II - Shampooing
        Page 213
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    Unit III - Hair shaping
        Page 269
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    Unit IV - Finger waving and styling
        Page 307
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    Unit V - Wigs and hair pieces
        Page 381
        Page 382
    Unit VI - Scalp treatment
        Page 383
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    Unit VII - Permanent waving
        Page 399
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    Unit VIII - Tinting and bleaching
        Page 431
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    Unit IX - Manicuring and pedicuring
        Page 489
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    Unit X - Facials, massage, and make-up
        Page 525
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    Unit XI - Beauty salon management
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    Bibliography
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    Glossary
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Full Text






















educedion


A MANUAL FOR
COSMETOLOGY INSTRUCTORS



De prtment of Education, Floyd T. Christion, Commissioner, Tallahassee, Florida
sud6C09m59
Fd% b p


78F-52 -- 19n









Bulletin 78F-52


Prepared by
Christine W. Sharron
Coordinator of Cosmetology Education








DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
Carl W. Proehl, Director

Industrial Education Section
Thurman J. Bailey, Administrator


A MANUA L

FOR

COSMETOLOGY INSTRUCTORS






























FORE WORD


It is the belief of the Department of Education that, to be functional, a course in
cosmetology must relate to the problems the teacher faces when undertaking the task of
promoting the growth of pupils toward desirable goals.

It is hoped that the material is presented in such a manner that the beginning
cosmetology instructor will understand her relationship to the educational system in
Florida, the role of the cosmetology instructor, and the performance objective course of
study.

Suggestions and reactions which will aid in the improvement of the manual are invited.
Please address all communications to the Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult
Education, Tallahassee, Florida. Meanwhile, it is anticipated that the manual will contribute
to the improvement of instruction in the cosmetology program and to the development of
well prepared cosmetologists to serve the people of Florida.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The publication of this manual in printed form follows its successful use in rough draft
and the repeated request for such an instructional aid.

The manual was developed in the Department of Education through the efforts of Dr.
Carl W. Proehl, Director of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education; Mr. Thurman J.
Bailey, Administrator of Industrial Education; Mrs. Christine W. Sharron, Coordinator of
Cosmetology Education; and Mr. Larry Todd, Educational Materials Assistant.

Mrs. Marian Bashinski, Assistant Professor of English, Florida State University, Writing
Consultant, was engaged by the Department of Education to compile and edit the manual.

Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Industrial Education Department at Florida
State University; the Vocational Instructional Materials laboratory of Lindsey Hopkins
Education Center, Miami; Vocational Administrators of public vocational training programs
of Florida; to cosmetology instructors who provided material and helpful suggestions
concerning its content and organization; and to our students, past and present, who have
been a constant source of inspiration.













INTRODUCTION


The purpose of this Manual is to assist the cosmetology instructor in the public schools
of Florida to develop a clear understanding of all aspects of this work and their relationship
to local and state administrators.






ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL


Section One


Section Two


Section Three

Section Four


of the Manual concerns the ethics and philosophy of Vocational education in
Florida. Such information is important because a knowledge of the teaching
and learning process enables an instructor to teach more effectively.
defines the relationship of the instructor to the local and state advisory
committees, the Department of Education and the State Board of
Cosmetology .
concerns the education, qualifications and certification of Cosmetology
Instructors.
is directed to the cosmetology course of study. Included are the recom-
mended sample lesson plans, job sheets and tests; class schedules;
information concerning grading policies, permanent record files, service
charts and filing methods; and policies concerning dress and responsibilities.


The manual has been prepared in loose-leaf form so that changes and additions can be
made easily. Binders (metal-hinges, three-ring, letter-size) are to be provided at the local
level, with each instructor being responsible for keeping one manual up-to-date. New or
revised material from the state office will be clearly labeled for inclusion under appropriate
sections of the manual and should be placed in the binder promptly; outdated material
should be removed and destroyed.










TABLE OF CONTENTS




Philosophy and Ethics ..................

Evolution of Vocational Education .. . ... .. ..

Description of Vocational-Industrial Education .....

Florida School System and Laws .. .. .. .. ..

Benefits Available to Florida Teachers ..........

Teaching Cosmetology ..................

Course of Study ...........

General Content of Units .................

Unit I "Orientation" ..................

Unit II "Shampooing" .................

Unit III "Hair Shaping" ................

Unit IV "Finger Waving and Styling" .........

Unit V "Wigs and Hair Pieces" .. ... ... .

Unit VI "Scalp Treatment" ..............

Unit VII "Permanent Waving" .............

Unit VIII "Tinting and Bleaching" .. .. . .. .

Unit IX "Manicuring and Pedicuring" .........

Unit X "Facials, Massage, and Make-up" .. .. .. .

Unit XI "Beauty Salon Management" .........

Bibliography . .

Glossary . .

Appendix . .


Page

1

7

13

21

37

41

87

95

129

213

269

307

367

383

399

431

489

525

631

655

657

665







A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION


A philosophy of education is a summation of the principles, or fundamental truths,
underlying the field of general learning. The Florida Department of Education has adopted
the following philosophy:

Recognizing that education contributes to the identification of personal,
social, civic and occupational roles of the individual and to the development
of competencies necessary in their fulfillment, the Department of Education
shall provide the leadership to stimulate and coordinate the efforts of
individuals, agencies, communities and governments, to achieve quality
educational programs.

Every human being has inherent worth and dignity, and is entitled to
fulfillment of his potentialities. Every human being is entitled also to the
opportunity to pursue life, liberty, economic security and social well-being
to the extent of his physical, emotional and mental capacities.

The maintenance of a free society is dependent upon an educated
people. The strength of such a society lies in the contribution of each
individual to its social and economic structure. The worth and dignity of
man makes him an important participant in and contributor to our free
society .

Education is a most important responsibility of State Government. The
education of individuals is a responsibility reserved to the states. Every
citizen in the state of Florida must be provided with opportunities in the
free public education system to satisfy his educational needs. Such
opportunities must be available to all without regard to religion, race, sex,
creed, color, or ethnic grouping, or to any physical, mental, emotional,
cultural or social disability. Maximum state effort to supply these oppor-
tunities must be afforded, but maximum local responsibility must be
retained in order to insure that these opportunities are appropriate.

Learning is a complex and highly individual process. To provide the
greatest opportunity for each individual, the learning environment must be
broad and diverse, yet able to provide experiences in depth which will satisfy
the educational needs of all.

Educational excellence is contingent upon improvement through pur-
poseful change. Newer methods, materials and technical support require
research, evaluation and, where improvement will result, implementation.
While ideas endure, applications change. A changing world demands change
in education.


A PHILOSOPHY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION


Vocational education, a component of the total program of public education,
supplements the instruction of other areas by developing knowledge and skills necessary for
a chosen occupation. Vocational education is based on the supposition that three major
teaching goals are essential:

1. acquiring related knowledge;
2. mastering skills and procedures;
3. developing desirable attitudes and social traits.








These goals can be achieved through effective vocational guidance, qualified and
dedicated administrators and instructors, the intelligent use of effective representative
advisory committees, and well-equipped schools.
A workable philosophy of vocational education is specific as to acceptable standards of
instruction, yet is broad enough to accommodate changing conditions. Everything which will
contribute to the development of the vocational efficiency and competency of the
individual, thereby increasing his earning power, becomes a part of a vocational course, a
course which must serve the needs of adult workers and out-of-school youth, as well as the
needs of selected students. Although specific in terms of each occupation, vocational
education also stresses the development of the individual's ability to think through new
problems which might confront him in his occupation. These fundamental concepts,
presented on the next two pages, are idealistic but obtainable goals toward which vocational
education instructors should strive.


SIXTEEN THEORIES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

1. Vocational education will be efficient in proportion as the environment in which the
learner is trained is a replica of the environment in which he must subsequently work.

2. Effective vocational training can only be given where the training jobs are carried on in
the same way with the same operations, the same tools, and the machines as in the
occupation itself.

3. Vocational education will be effective in proportion as it trains the individual directly
and specifically in the thinking habits and the manipulative habits required in the
occupation itself.

4. Vocational education will be effective in proportion as it enables each individual to
capitalize his interest, aptitudes and intrinsic intelligence to the highest possible degree.

5. Effective vocational education for any profession, calling, trade, occupation, or job can
only be given to the selective group of individuals who need it, want it, and are able to
profit by it.

6. Vocational training will be effective in proportion as the specific training experiences for
forming right habits or doing and thinking are repeated to the point that these habits
become fixed to the degree necessary for gainful employment.

7. Vocational education will be effective in proportion as the instructor has had successful
experience in the application of skills and knowledge in the operations and processes he
undertakes to teach.

8. For every occupation there is a minimum of productive ability which an individual must
possess in order to secure or retain employment in that occupation. If vocational
education is not carried to that point with that individual, it is neither personally nor
socially effective.

9. Vocational education must recognize conditions as they are and must train individuals
to meet the demands of the market even though it may be true that more efficient ways
of conducting the occupation may be known, and that better working conditions are
highly desirable.

10. The effective establishment of processed habits in any learner will be secured in
proportion as the training is given on actual jobs and not on exercises or pseudo jobs.

11. The only .reliable source of content for specific training in an occupation is in the
experiences of masters of that occupation.







12. For every occupation there is a body of content which is peculiar to that occupation,
and which practically has no functioning value in any other occupation.

13. Vocational education will render efficient social service in proportion as it meets the
specific training needs of any group at the time that they need it, and in such a way that
they can most effectively profit by the instruction.

14. Vocational education will be socially efficient in proportion as in its methods of
instruction and its personal relations with learners it takes into consideration the
particular characteristics of any particular group which it serves.

15. The administration of vocational education will be efficient in proportion as it is elastic
and fluid rather than rigid and standardized.

16. While every reasonable effort should be made to reduce per capital cost, there is a
minimum of per capital cost at which vocational education cannot be attempted.

CODE OF ETHICS
OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION IN FLORIDA

Members of the teaching profession in Florida have accepted a moral responsibility for
the quality of education throughout the state. Following a careful analysis of its own special
needs and problems, Florida now has:
1. A Professional Teaching Practices Act, legislation identifying the responsibility
for the establishment and application of standards of practice for all members of
the teaching profession who hold authorization to teach by state license.
2. A Professional Practices Commission, a legal agency of the state composed of
individual representatives of the education profession who are authorized to
adopt generally accepted standards of professional and ethical practice, hold
hearings, and following such hearings make recommendations to the State Board
of Education and any county board of public instruction.
Rules of the Professional Practices Commission, or a Code of Ethics for the teaching
profession, are delineated in Chapter 287-1 of the Florida Administrative Code. The code
was amended in January, 1969, and adopted by the State Board of Education on May 27,
1969. Its provisions are as follows:
287-1.01 Preamble to the Code
(1) The educator believes in the worth and dignity of man. He recognizes the
supreme importance of the pursuit of truth, devotion to excellence, and the nurture of
democratic citizenship. He regards as essential to these goals the protection of freedom to
learn and to teach and the guarantee of equal educational opportunity for all. The educator
accepts his responsibility to practice his profession according to the highest ethical
standards.
(2) The educator recognizes the magnitude of the responsibility he has accepted in
choosing a career in education, and engages himself individually and collectively with other
educators, to judge his colleagues, and to be judged by them, in accordance with the
provisions of this code.
General Authority 231.57 (6) (a) (1), F.S.; Law Implemented 231.57 F.S. History:
New 3/24/65, Amended
287-1.02 Commitment to the Student, Principle I
(1) The educator measures his success by the progress of each student toward
realization of his potential as a worthy and effective citizen. The educator therefore works
to stimulate the spirit of inquiry, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and the
thoughtful formulation of worthy goals.
(2) In fulfilling his obligations to the student, the educator
(a) Shall not without just cause restrain the student from independent action in
his pursuit of learning, and shall not without just cause deny the student
access to varying points of view.







(b) Shall not deliberately suppress or distort subject matter for which he bears
responsibility and shall not deliberately impose his own views on the
student.
(c) Shall make reasonable effort to protect the student from conditions harmful
to learning or to health and safety.
(d) Shall conduct professional business in such a way that he does not expose
the student to unnecessary embarrassment or disparagement.
(e) Shall not on the ground of race, color, creed, or national origin exclude any
student from participation in or deny him benefits under any program, nor
grant any discriminatory consideration or advantages.
(f) Shall not use professional relations with students for private advantages.
(g) Shall keep in confidence information that has been obtained in the course of
professional service, unless disclosure serves professional purposes or is
required by law.
General Authority 231.57 (6) (a) (1), F.S.; Law implemented 231.57, F.S. History:
New 3/24/65, Amended
287-1.03 Commitment to the Public, Principle II
(1) The educator believes that patriotism in its highest form requires dedication to
the principles of our democratic heritage. He shares with all other citizens the responsibility
for the development of sound public policy and assumes full political and citizenship
responsibilities. The educator bears particular responsibility for the development of policy
relating to the extension of educational opportunities for all and for interpreting
educational programs and policies to the public.
(2) In fulfilling his obligation to the public, the educator
(a) Shall not misrepresent an institution or organization with which he is
affiliated, and shall take adequate precautions to distinguish between his
personal and institutional or organizational views.
(b) Shall not knowingly distort or misrepresent the facts concerning educational
matters in direct and indirect public expressions.
(c) Shall not interfere with a colleague's exercise of political and citizenship
rights and responsibilities.
(d) Shall not use institutional privileges for private gain or to promote political
candidates for partisan political activities.
(e) Shall accept no gratuities, gifts, or favors that might impair or appear to
impair professional judgment, nor offer any favor, service, or thing of value
to obtain special advantage.
General Authority 231.57 (6) (a) (1), F.S.; Law Implemented 231.57 F.S. History:
New 3/24/65, Amended
287.04 Commitment to the Profession, Principle III
(1) The educator believes that the quality of the services of the education profession
directly influences the nation and its citizens. He therefore exerts every effort to raise
professional standards, to improve his service, to promote a climate in which the exercise of
professional judgment is encouraged, and to achieve conditions which attract persons
worthy of the trust to careers in education. Aware of the value of improved professional
service, he contributes actively to the support, planning, and programs of professional
organizations.
(2) In fulfilling his obligation to the profession, the educator
(a) Shall not discriminate on the ground of race, color, creed, or national origin
for membership in professional organizations, nor interfere with the free
participation of colleagues in the affairs of their association.
(b) Shall accord just and equitable treatment to all members of the profession in
the exercise of their professional rights and responsibilities.
(c) Shall not use coercive means or promise special treatment in order to
influence professional decisions of colleagues.
(d) Shall withhold and safeguard information acquired about colleagues in the
course of employment, unless disclosure serves professional purposes.
(e) Shall not without just cause refuse to participate in a professional inquiry
when requested by an appropriate professional association.





















(f) Shall provide upon the request of the aggrieved party a written statement of
specific reason for recommendations that lead to the denial of increments,
significant changes in employment, or termination of employment.
(g) Shall not misrepresent his professional qualifications.
(h) Shall not knowingly distort evaluations of colleagues.
General Authority 231.57 (6) (a) (1), F.S.; Law Implemented 231.57, F.S. History:
New 3/24/65, Amended
287-1.05 Commitment to Professional Employment Practices, Principle IV
(1) The educator regards the employment agreement as a pledge to be executed
both in spirit and in fact in a manner consistent with the highest ideals of professional
service. He believes that sound professional personnel relationships with governing boards
are built upon personal integrity, dignity, and mutual respect. The educator discourages the
practice of his profession by unqualified persons.
(2) In fulfilling his obligation to professional employment practices, the educator
(a) Shall apply for, accept, offer, or assign a position or responsibility on the
basis of professional preparation and legal qualifications.
(b) Shall apply for a specific position only when it is known to be vacant, and
shall refrain from underbidding or commenting adversely about other
candidates.
(c) Shall now knowingly withhold information regarding a position from an
applicant or misrepresent an assignment or conditions of employment.
(d) Shall give prompt notice to the employment agency of any change in
availability of service, and the employing agent shall give prompt notice of
change in availability or nature of a position.
(e) Shall adhere to the terms of a contract or appointment, represented, or
substantially altered by unilateral action of the employing agency.
(f) Shall conduct professional business through channels, when available, that
have been jointly approved by the professional organization and the
employing agency.
(g) Shall not delegate assigned tasks to unqualified personnel.
(h) Shall permit no commercial exploitation of his professional position.
(i) Shall use time granted for the purpose for which it is intended.
General Authority 231.57(6)(a)(1), F.S.; Law Implemented 231.57, F.S. History:
New 3/24/65. Amended 1969.







VOCATIONAL EDUCATION -AN INTER-RELATED
FEDERAL-STATE-LOCAL PROGRAM

Vocational Education is any form of education, training or retraining which is designed
to prepare persons to enter or continue in gainful employment in any recognized
occupation. The only occupations which are excepted are those which are designated as
professional or which require a baccalaureate or higher degree.
Traditionally, in the United States, Vocational Education has been the responsibility
primarily of the states and local communities. Florida has accepted this responsibility.
Under the Minimum Foundation Program the State assumes the same financial respon-
sibility for the operation of Vocational Education programs and classes as it does for
General Education.
The Federal Government has given encouragement and support to Vocational Education
since the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. The need for the Federal Government
to lend support to Vocational Education stems from the general welfare provisions of the
Constitution. The economic well-being of the Nation is an important concern of all citizens
and an effective program of vocational education contributes to the nation's economic
well-being. Trained and effective workers are essential to economic and social programs.
The role of the Federal Government has been that of stimulation, encouragement, and
the maintenance of quality standards, working with State Boards for Vocational Education.
State Boards for Vocational Education have assumed leadership within the states for
program development and direction, in cooperation with local -school systems, which
generally initiate and operate the actual programs of instruction.
Federal funding is not to supplant State and local funds, but through increased financial
effort places emphases upon various phases of program development and operation.
In Florida, state statutes prescribe that members of the State Board of Education shall
constitute the State Board for Vocational Education. The responsibilities of the State Board
for Vocational Education are set forth in State statutes as:
"It shall be the responsibility of the State Board to constitute the State Board for
Vocational Education required by the acts of Congress; to cooperate with the Office of
Education, U.S. Department of Interior (subsequently renamed the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare) in the administration of all acts of Congress relating to vocational
education and vocational rehabilitation; to have all necessary authority to cooperate with
the Office of Education in the administration of these acts; to administer any legislation
pursuant thereto enacted by the state, and to administer the funds provided by the federal
government and the state for the promotion of vocational education in agricultural subjects,
trade and industrial subjects, distributive education, business education subjects, home
economics subjects, and in vocational rehabilitation; to approve plans for the promotion of
vocational education in such subjects as an essential and integral part of the public school
system of the state and to provide for the preparation of teachers in such subjects; to fix the
compensation of such officials and assistants as may be necessary to administer the
provisions of any federal acts relating to these subjects in the state, and to pay such
compensation and other necessary expenses of the administration from funds appropriated
for these purposes; to provide for the making of studies and investigations relating to
vocational education in such subjects; to promote and aid in the establishment by local
communities of schools, departments, or classes; to prescribe qualifications for the teachers
and supervisors; of such subjects, and to have full authority to provide for the certification
of such teachers and supervisors; to cooperate with local communities in the maintenance of
schools, departments, or classes, or to establish such schools, departments, or classes under
its own direction and control; to establish and determine by general regulations the
qualifications to be possessed by persons engaged in the training of vocational teachers; and
to provide otherwise for the proper conduct of the vocational education and vocation
rehabilitation program and for the articulation of this work with other phases of the state
program. (Section 229.08 (9) F.S.)"
The Florida Commissioner of Education is the Executive Officer and Secretary of the
State Board For Vocational Education.







Within the State Department of Education, the Division of Vocational, Technical, and
Adult Education assists the Commissioner and the State Board in the discharge of their
responsibilities for Vocational Education within the State.
Vocational Education is an inter-related Federal-State-Local operation. To assure quality
and effectiveness of programs, the concept of a State Plan for Vocational Education has
been a significant feature of most Federal Vocational Education Legislation. Such legislation
provides that the State Board for Vocational Education of each State desiring to share in
Federal funds shall submit to the U.S. Office of Education a plan describing the details of
the Vocational Education programs to be conducted by the State Board for Vocational
Education within the State. The plan must meet the minimum standards established by U.S.
Office of Education guidelines which conform to the provisions of the Federal Legislation.
When the plan has been accepted at the Federal level the State Board for Vocational
Education may provide for the development and conduct of programs of vocational
education by local school systems under the terms of the plan. Federal fund support for
such programs may be involved.
Section I Part A of the Vocational Education Act of 1963, U.S. Congress, contains the
following declaration of purpose:
". .to authorize Federal grants to states to assist them to maintain, extend and
improve existing programs of vocational education, to develop new programs of vocational
education and to provide part-time employment for youths who need the earnings from
such employment to continue their vocational training on a full-time basis, so that persons
of all ages in all communities of the State--those in high schools, those who have completed
their formal education and are preparing to enter the labor market, those who have already
entered the labor market but need to upgrade their skills or learn new ones, and those with
special educational handicaps -ill have ready access to vocational training or retraining
which is of high quality, which is realistic in the light of actual or anticipated opportunities
for gainful employment, and which is suited to their needs, interests and ability to benefit
from such training."

This act places national (and state)emphasis upon:
1. Vocational Education for persons attending high school.
2. Vocational education for persons who have completed or left high school and who
are available for full-time study in preparation for entering the labor market.
3. Vocational education for persons (other than persons who are receiving training
allowances under the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 (Public Law
87-415), the Area Redevelopment Act (Public Law 87-27), or the Trade Expansion
Act of 1962 (Public Law 87-794), who have already entered the labor market and
who need training or retraining to achieve stability or advancement in employment.
4. Vocational education for persons who have academic, socio-economic, or other
handicaps which prevent them from succeeding in the regular vocational education
program.
5. Construction of area vocational education school facilities.
6. Ancillary services and activities to assure quality in all vocational education
programs, such as teacher training and supervision, program evaluation, special
demonstration and experimental programs, development of instructional materials,
and State administration and leadership, including periodic evaluation of State and
local vocational education programs and services in light of information regarding
current and projected manpower needs and job opportunities.
The Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 continue emphasis upon some of these
phases of program development and operation but identify others as well.
They provide for new thrusts in the development of programs to help the disadvantaged
and physically handicapped.
Another emphasis is post-secondary education for persons who have completed or who
have left high school.
The third major thrust is in consumer and homemaking education to help improve home







environments and the quality of family life in economically depressed or high unemploy-
ment areas.
In addition, provisions are made for demonstration programs and the development of
new careers. Special authorizations are made for: exemplary programs aimed at creating a
bridge between learning and earning, construction and operation of residential vocational
education schools, cooperative education, development of new curriculum materials and
training and development programs for Vocational Education personnel.
The State Advisory Council for Vocational Education was appointed February 25,
1969, by the State Board for Vocational Education and certified by the U.S. Commissioner
of Education on March 18, 1969, in accordance with the provisions of the Vocational
Education Amendments of 1968. The responsibilities of the Council as enumerated in this
Federal Legislation are:
1. Advise the State Board for Vocational Education on the development of the State
Plan for Vocational Education and policy matters arising in its administration as well
as the preparation of long range and annual program plans.
2. Evaluate vocational education programs, services and activities assisted by Federal
funds and publish and distribute the results thereof.
3. Prepare and submit through the State Board for Vocational Education to the U.S.
Commissioner of Education and to the National Advisory Council on Vocational
Education an annual evaluation report. Such report shall be accompanied by such
additional comments of the State Board as the State Board deems appropriate which
evaluates the effectiveness of vocational education programs, services, and activities
carried out in the year under review in meeting the program objectives set forth in
the long range program plan and annual program plan and recommends such changes
in such programs, services and activities as may be warranted by the evaluations.
Staff Services will be provided to assist the Council in the discharge of its
responsibilities.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of vocational-technical education is to prepare people for employment or
to upgrade them in their jobs and help them to achieve employment stability. This
encompasses the 80 percent of the employed labor force which does not require a
baccalaureate degree to secure, maintain, or advance in employment. The program is
directed by the State Board for Vocational Education and is administered and supervised by
the Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education of the State Department of
Education as prescribed in Florida Statutes and State Board regulations.
Vocational-technical education programs are offered in a variety of kinds and levels of
institutions including regular, comprehensive, and specialized high schools; area vocational-
technical centers; vocational schools and adult vocational facilities; designated area
vocational-technical departments of junior colleges; and regular vocational-technical
departments of junior colleges. Area vocational-technical centers and area departments of
junior colleges are those specifically designated by the State Board for Vocational Education
to provide vocational-technical education in at least five major occupational fields so that
youth and adults in the county or counties which they serve have access to broadened and
expanded vocational education opportunities. They are eligible for construction funding
assistance from a combination of State Constitutional Bond Amendment money made
available by the 1965 State Legislature and federal funds allocated for construction under
provisions of the Vocational Education Act of 1963.
Although all counties have vocational education programs, only 13 to 14 percent of the
students per year, in grades 9-12, are enrolled in programs leading to gainful employment.
However, when students taking home economics for useful employment in the home are
included in the total, the proportion enrolled in vocational education programs at some time
while they are in grades 9-12 climbs to 37 percent. The Division anticipates reaching 50-55
percent of high school youth by 1975 with programs which prepare for wage earning or
better homemaking.








Approximately 4.5 percent of the labor force demand is currently being met by
programs of varying length for post-secondary youth and adults who are preparing for a
diversity of kinds and levels of gainful employment. Job upgrading training, leading to
advancement or greater job stability, is being provided for another 3.1 percent of the
employed labor force. However, the proportion of the labor served annually is rising, the
Division is striving to achieve the 10 percent goal by 1975. This represents a projected
enrollment of 300,000, based upon the present annual rate of labor force increase, and will
require additional expenditures for facilities and equipment.
In addition to regular vocational-technical programs for high school students, post-high
school youth, and adults, special programs are also provided for school dropouts and adults
who are laboring under socio-economic and educational disadvantages or physical handicaps
which prevent them from succeeding in regular programs. Lower-level training, commen-
surate with their needs, motivation, and abilities, is provided, which will make them self
supporting and enhance their self concepts.
An added arm of the Division is the Industry Services Unit authorized by the 1967 State
Legislature, but only recently funded. It is designed to provide "immediate" training
programs tailored to the special employment needs of new and expanding Florida industries.
The paragraphs which follow identify the vocational-technical education program
services, the occupational fields for which they prepare, and some of the principal vocations
for which they provide training. Additional information is included on area vocational-
technical education facilities and the Industry Services Unit, and State and local structures
for coordinating training and employment are described. Enrollment information by
vocational services, and fiscal data by purposes of the Vocational Education Act of 1963
and funding sources are also attached.


Description of Vocational Services

Vocational Agriculture: Vocational agriculture is intended for students who wish to
learn basic and specialized farming skills so that they may become producers of food and
fiber and earn a living in agriculture. In addition, it prepares them for jobs closely related to
farming such as selling tractors, farm machinery, seeds, feeds, fertilizers and pesticides. Work
such as this is known as "agri-business." Experienced farmers may also profit from
vocational agriculture. Courses such as farm welding and marketing are offered in which
they may learn new skills or study ways of improving their farming practices. Examples of
occupations for which this service offers training are farmer or rancher, agriculture supplies
salesman, agricultural equipment mechanic, landscape gardener, and forestry worker.
Business, Distributive, and Cooperative Education: Typewriting, shorthand and speed
writing, office machines practice, advertising, and retail sales are among the types of courses
which are taught in business, distributive and cooperative education. Business education
prepares people for clerical and other office jobs, while distributive education readies them
for selling or other kinds of work related to merchandising and distribution. Cooperative
education is in reality a method or technique by which the high school phase of the program
is conducted. Its name describes the relationship between local employers and the school
which cooperates in providing the training and job supervision needed by the students.
Examples of occupations for which this service offers training are salesman, sales clerk,
routeman, cashier, and credit manager. Others are manager (hotel or motel), purchasing
agent, display man, appraiser (real estate), waiter and waitress. There are also secretary,
stenographer, bookkeeper, bookkeeping machine operator, general office clerk, office
manager, and clerk typist.
Vocational Home Economics: Vocational home economics is directly concerned with
preparing people to meet the responsibilities of home and family life. Girls are required to
take one year of vocational home economics education before graduation from high school.
Specialized courses for adults are also provided in areas such as clothing and textiles, food
and nutrition, and housing. In addition, training leading to gainful employment in
occupations requiring homemaking skills is a vital part of this program. Examples of
occupations for which this service offers training are child care worker, companion to an
elderly person, visiting homemaker, dressmaker, and food service worker.







Vocational Industrial Education: Vocational industrial education prepares people to
work in trades, industries, and certain service occupations. The training may be for any
industrial occupation such as a skilled or semi-skilled trade or craft which is used in
designing, producing, or repairing a product or commodity. Personnel from this specialty are
most often engaged in manufacturing, construction, or service industries. Examples of
occupations for which this service offers training are automotive mechanic, commercial
artist, electronics assembler and repairman, draftsman, radio and T.V. repairman, machinist,
and welder. Others are policeman, cosmetologist, small engine repairman, brick and block
mason, air conditioning mechanic, commercial cook and baker.
Technical Education: In some respects technical education is closely related to
vocational industrial education. But there are also real differences. Usually a technician
helps an engineer, working under his supervision. Consequently, he must be very familiar
with the application of mathematics and science to his job. In brief, he is usually more
concerned with theory and the use of instruments than is the trades man or industrial
worker. It is not quite so necessary for him to be as highly skilled in the use of tools and
machines as the craftsman. Work with certain specialized tools is almost always a part of his
job, however. Examples of occupations for which this service offers training are drafting and
design technician, electronics technician, data processing technician, detective, police
administrator, and civil technician.
Health-Related Education: Health-related occupations education prepares people to
work in occupations that provide supportive services to the health professions. This includes
assisting qualified personnel in providing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive, restorative and
rehabilitative services to people. Examples of occupations for which this service offers
training are dental hygienist, dental lab technician, registered nurse, practical nurse, nurse
aide, and medical assistant.
Manpower Development and Training: The Manpower Development and Training
(MDT) Program trains unemployed and underemployed individuals selected by the Florida
State Employment Services of which 65 percent must be disadvantaged. Training has been
conducted in approximately 70 different occupations in class-size groups and as individual
referrals on a state-wide basis. Public and private training institutions are used. Trainees are
paid training allowances during the training period with the average being $45.00 per week.
MDT training centers are located at Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Orlando, Tampa, St.
Petersburg, Gainesville, Jacksonville and Pensacola.

Area Vocational-Technical Facilities in Florida

Thirty-five area vocational-technical education facilities have been designated in Florida
to offer preparatory and supplemental training for youth and adults. Twenty-two of the
facilities, of which 18 are open in their permanent locations, are area vocational-technical
centers operated by county boards of public instruction, and 13 are departments of junior
colleges. The schools are strategically located throughout the state to serve approximately
98 percent of the population. They offer training in at least five major occupational fields,
including agricultural occupations, distributive and marketing occupations, health occupa-
tions, home economics occupations, industrial occupations, business and office occupations,
and technical occupations. Area vocational-technical facilities help students to develop good
work habits, wholesome attitudes toward employment, effective interpersonal work
relationships, and skills and knowledge needed for employment or advancement in the
occupational field of their choice.


The Industry Services Program

The 1967 State Legislature established an Industry Services Unit to provide training to
meet the employment needs of new and expanding industries in Florida. The Unit, under
the supervision of the Commissioner of Education is a cooperative undertaking of the State
Department of Education, the Development Commission, and the Industrial Commission
designed to assist in bringing new industry to the state and meeting the specialized training







needs of new and expanding industries. Training programs will be financed by the state, and,
wherever possible, conducted in facilities belonging to county school boards.
Training will be provided for skilled and semi-skilled occupations requiring one year of
preparation or less. These programs are intended to help make Florida more competitive
with other southern states in attracting new industries and facilitating industrial expansions.
The activities of the Unit will add considerable flexibility to existing programs of
vocational-technical education which are supported primarily by the State Minimum
Foundation Program. Funding support to meet unanticipated training requests of new
industries will now be available through out the year as the Unit initiates and finances
programs designed to meet the immediate expansion needs for trained personnel of
companies already located in the state or contemplating location in Florida. The Unit is
another step in making Florida and her citizens more competitive in economic and social
development.

Coordination With Industry

Representatives of business and industry play an active and continuing role on both the
state and local levels in helping to keep programs realistic in terms of employment
requirements and opportunities. For example, the national vocational education acts
establish a State Advisory Council which is responsible for advising the State Board for
Vocational Education on policies for making the state-wide program of vocational-technical
education more responsive to labor market needs. Among its members are persons "familiar
with the vocational needs and the problems of management and labor in the state, and a
person or persons representing state industrial and economic development agencies." Among
its duties is that of annually evaluating vocational education programs, services, and
activities and recommending to the State Board and the U.S. Commissioner of Education
such changes as may be warranted by the evaluations.
Each vocational service (e.g., vocational agriculture, business and distributive education,
industrial education) has a state advisory committee consisting of representatives of the
occupations for which that service provides training. These committees advise in the
establishment of program policies and in program development and modification.
In addition, it is frequently necessary to establish ad hoc committees to study and advise
on policies and procedures for resolving special training problems as these arise. In such
circumstances, representation from the industries, services, and occupations involved are
included on the committees.
Comparable advisory committees are also utilized on the local level. A general
county-wide advisory committee, including employers and employees representative of the
vocational programs offered, assists local vocational educators in formulating policies which
give direction to the total county-wide program. In addition, local occupational committees
consisting of employers or employer representatives and employees in specific crafts, trades,
or other occupations, provide necessary counsel for teachers in developing and improving
local full-time programs which prepare for employment in such vocations.
In addition to the products of full-time training programs, industry and business often
have need for short-term programs to assist in upgrading and improving employed personnel.
Local vocational educators visit business and industry on a continuing basis as a means of
improving the services of the school by making it more responsive to immediate and
specialized local training needs.
Activities of the Industry Services Unit are also guided by the counsel of an advisory
board. The Industry Services Advisory Board consists of representatives of state agencies
concerned with training, employment, and industrial development; employers and manage-
ment directors; and employees.

Adult G~eneral Education

An extremely important educational function supportive to vocational education is the
provision of general education courses for adults leading to a high school equivalency
diploma. Educational requirements for employment are constantly rising. Without some







provision for youthful dropouts and adults to improve their general educational compe-
tencies, many would forfeit the opportunity for initial employment or later job
advancement. Adult general education, directed by the Division of Vocational, Technical,
and Adult Education, furnishes these additional opportunities.





THE EVOLUTION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION


RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION


DATE ORIGIN


DEVELOPMENTS


49000 Stone Stone Age men developed fist hatchets with
B. C. Age edges sharp enough to shape wooden tools
and weapons. Later in the Stone Age, men
constructed wooden boats, domesticated ani-
mals, manufactured pottery, produced grain,
and lived in communities.

5000 Egypt Egyptians learned to irrigate their fields; to
B. C. construct buildings of brick and stone; to
grow barley, wheat and flax; and to use
domesticated animals for food and for work.

4200 Egypt The Egyptians learned to reduce copper ore
B. C. to copper metal.



3200 Egypt About this time the Egyptians developed an
B. C. alphabet of 24 characters, each representing a
letter. They devised a pointed reed for a pen,
compounded a writing fluid, and learned to
split papyrus into thin layers for use as
writing paper.



3200 Babylon The Babylonians during these years construct-
to ed houses of sun-baked brick and fashioned
2100 arts and crafts works from stone and metal.
B. C. Vocations became specialized, and apprentice-
ship training programs were organized and
legalized .
The Babylonians also carried on commerce
with the inhabitants of the Nile Valley and
recorded business transactions on clay tablets,
producing a need for trained clerks to record
these agreements. These workers were trained
in schools, many of which were under the
direction of religious leaders.

2000 Egypt During this period the Egyptians established
to schools for scribes. The first stage of the
1200 training consisted of learning to read and
B. C. write ancient literature. The second stage was
an apprenticeship stage, during which the
learner was placed under an experienced
scribe .


Man's early recogni-
tion of his need to
work and exchange
services by living and
working together.


Progress through the
development of new
materials and methods
of working.

Use of metal enabled
men to construct buil-
dings and monuments
of enduring quality.

These developments
led to the establish-
ment of the first or-
ganized schools some
years later. Also, man
could now begin to re-
cord information and
events.

The first recorded evi-
dence of man's recog-
nition of the value of
apprenticeship
training.

This development
might be called the
earliest-known trade
school.




Further recognition of
apprenticeship as a val-
uable aid to teaching
and learning.


1500 Sparta
B. C. and
Athens


The purpose of education at this time was the
training of strong and courageous soldiers and
loyal citizens. The chief objectives in Sparta


Training in discipline
necessary for success
in learning and perfor-





RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION


DATE ORIGIN


DEVELOPMENTS


were strength, courage, endurance, patriotism,
and obedience. The mother had responsibility
for the children from birth to age seven, when
they were placed in public barracks for
professional training and conditioning of the
body for war. Dancing and music provided for
moral and mental training.

In Athens formal education began at age
seven, when boys were sent to school and girls
were trained in the home. The boys attended
letter school for writing, reading and arithme-
tic; the music school; and the gymnastic
school.

479 Athens Education in Athens changed during the
to Golden Age. Less strenuous training, new
431 musical instruments, geometry, drawing,
B. C. grammar, and rhetoric appeared, and a higher
education was developed. T'he university was
organized, where the study of medicine,
architecture, engineering and other profes-
sions was conducted.

27 Rome Early Roman education was carried on in the
B. C. family. The fathers took their sons to the
forums and to the fields where they learned
by observation and participation.

64 Pales- The Hebretws instituted compulsory education
A. D. tine for children. A youth attended the church
school in the morning and learned a trade
from his father in the afternoon.

75 Rome The University of Rome was established, with
A. D. the development of faculties of law, architec-
ture, mathematics, mechanics, grammar and
rhetoric.




850 Europe During the Middle ages in Europe, merchants
to and craftsmen formed guilds for the mutual
1050 protection of the group. These guilds carried
on a system of vocational education which
provided the only educational opportunity
for the working people of the Middle Ages.

10821 England Merchant guilds, which regulated the buying
and selling of goods, developed in England. A
short time later, craft guilds, concerned with
the quantity and quality of goods produced,
developed. The greater the commercial and


mance in any voca-
tional field.
Development of char-
acteristics necessary
for contributing mem-
bers of society.


Training in basic aca-
demic subjects needed
for success in any vo-
cation ,



Introduction of practi-
cal subjects and of
education beyond that
required for the satis-
faction of basic needs.




The practice of one of
the basic tenets of vo-
cational education:
learning by doing.

The first real progress
toward making educa-
tion available to all
youth.

The development of
higher education was a
response to man's need
for training beyond
those skills which he
could learn by observa-
tion .

The first effort to pro-
vide practical educa-
tion for people to
whom other education
was denied.


The increase in the
power and influence of
the craft guilds marked
the beginning of a per-
iod of industrial ex-







RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION


DATE ORIGIN


DEVELOPMENTS


industrial prosperity of a town, the more craft
guilds there were.

England As industrial expansion produced a need for
more trained workers, the craft guilds recog-
nized the importance of taking apprentices
and requiring them to go through a course of
training before being admitted to the trade as
a journeyman or master craftsman. The guilds
also maintained schools: Latin secondary
schools for boys who desired to enter a
university and prepare for a profession and
apprentice schools. In addition, the guilds
established continuation apprenticeship
schools, and eventually the apprenticeship
program in the workshop was supplemented
and sometimes replaced by trade school
classes.


pension.


1200
to
1300


Further advance
refinement of
apprenticeship
gram.


and
the
pro-


Establishment of trade
schools.





Government standards
were set to insure the
quality of apprentice
training.

Apprenticeship pro-
vided a form of voca-
tional education to a
middle-class people at
a time when all types
of education were at a
low ebb.



Long before formal
education could be
established in America,
the apprenticeship
system flourished and
proved its value.

This seems to be the
origin of the concept
of well-rounded devel-
opment embodied in
modern vocational
education in America.


1562 England The Statute of Artificers, passed at this time,
established apprenticeship as a national sys-
tem. This Act provided for re-adjustment of
wage standards and codified the various local
laws and regulations relative to employment
of servants and apprentices. The length of
apprenticeship in various occupations was also
fixed. The high standards of the guilds
brought about a new point of view toward
learning through the apprenticeship program
which offered an opportunity for learning all
branches of a trade, favored the development
of artistic ability, and provided a general
education for many apprentices.


1600
to
1645


America Early colonists brought apprenticeship to the
New World, where it developed directly under
the laws of the towns and counties, rather
than through guilds. Apprenticeship became
the most important educational agency of the
period of colonization and settlement.


1642 America The Massachusetts Bay Colony enacted an
apprenticeship law requiring parents and mas-
ters of apprentices to teach each child a trade
or calling and instruct him how to read and
understand the principles of religion and the
laws of the colony. Labor was emphasized
because the Puritans believed in the virtue of
industry .


1650
to
1700


America Other colonies followed suit, enacting laws
similar to that passed by the Massachusetts
Bay Colony. As a rule, girls were not taught a
definite trade under these laws, but they were








RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION


DATE ORIGIN


DEVELOPMENTS


trained to do housework, including cooking,
sewing, spinning and weaving, in the home.
When the apprenticeship was completed in
the early colonies, this fact was acknowledged
by the master at a town meeting and duly
entered in the minutes of the meeting. If the
apprentice had given satisfaction, he was
permitted to practice his trade. If the master
was not satisfied with the progress made, the
apprentice was forbidden to practice the trade
and could, if all parties agreed, continue his
apprenticeship program.

1700 America Compulsory school laws of the colonies made
to it necessary for masters and parents who were
1800 unable to read and write to send apprentices
and children to schools established for this
purpose. In New York, the masters sent their
apprentices to night schools.




Early apprentices were taught such trades as
those of barber and wig-maker, blacksmith,
boatman, carpenter, farmer, glasier, gold-
smith, gunsmith, innholder, joiner, leather-
dresser, mason, merchant, sailmaker, tailor,
weaver, and wheelwright.



1800 America The Industrial Revolution, begun in England
to about 1760, reached the United States. The
1865 invention of new machines and the improve-
ment of others brought increasing demands
for and readjustments of labor. Apprentice-
ship could no longer supply the needs of
industry for trained workers. Many young
children who were not apprenticed were
placed in the factories by their parents or
guardians to work long hours for low wages.
The states began to enact more and more
legislation designed to correct the evils of
child labor, leading to the organization of new
types of schools for workers.

1905 United The governor of Massachusetts appointed the
States Douglas Commission to investigate the need
for vocational education.' The commission
reported that there was too much cultural
emphasis in manual training and suggested
that more practical courses in vocational
education were needed.


This system probably
led to the modern pro-
ficiency examination
which learners must
pass before being per-
mitted to practice a
vocation.





These early night class-
es were probably the
forerunners of today's
program which enables
a worker to advance in
training by attending
night classes while
working during the
day.

Early training was
based on industrial
needs of the time, just
as modern vocational
education programs
try to supply present-
day needs.

Recognition of need to
train more workers to
meet new demands of
expanding industry,
yet protect the welfare
of children and insure
for them a well-
rounded general educa-
tion.







This report led many
educators to revise in-
struction to provide a
better understanding
of industrial methods
and practices.





RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION


DATE ORIGIN


DEVELOPMENTS


1917 United The Congress of the United States passed the
States Smith-Hughes law, providing Federal aid for
vocational education, leading to the organiza-
tion of special schools and classes and remov-
ing vocational education completely from the
industrial arts program of general education.
Subsequently Congress passed twelve supple-
mentary and related acts relative to some
aspect of vocational education.

1937 United The President appointed an advisory commit-
States tee on vocational education. The committee's
report emphasized a need for more state and
local control over vocational education pro-
grams and specified that adequate safeguards
should be provided to prevent the exploita-
tion of youth by business and industry.

1946 United Congress passed the George-Barden Act, auth-
States orizing increased appropriations for the pro-
grams of vocational education previously
authorized by legislation and provided for
more flexibility in the use of these funds.
Specific authorization was given by this Act
for funds to pay the salary and expenses of
state directors of vocational education, for
salaries and travel expenses of vocational
counselors, for training and work experience
training programs for out-of-school youth, for
supervision of Future Farmer and New Farm-
er activities and for the purchase or rent of
equipment and supplies for vocational instruc-
tion.

1963 United To maintain, extend, and improve existing
States programs of vocational education, to develop
new programs, and to provide part-time em-
ployment for youths who need earnings to
continue their vocational education ona
full-time basis. For persons of all ages in all
communities: those preparing to enter the
labor market, those in the labor market who
need to upgrade their skills or to learn new
ones, and those with special educational
handicaps. For construction of area voca-
tional school facilities. For ancillary services
and activities to assure quality in all voca-
tional education programs.

Makes permanent the provisions of the Voca-
tional Education Act of 1946 for practical
nurse training and area vocational education
programs. Provides work-study programs for


Federal recognition of
the importance of vo-
cational education and
the importance of the
government's role in
promoting it.





Federal recognition of
the importance of de-
veloping local pro-
grams of vocational
education suited to
local needs.


Federal recognition of
the need for financial
assistance to the states
in areas of planning,
supervision, and coun-
seling in vocational
education programs.























RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL
DATE ORIGIN DEVELOPMENTS EDUCATION

vocational education students and residential
vocational education schools.

1968 United "Sec. 101. It is the purpose of this title to
States authorize Federal grants to States to assist
them to maintain, extend, and improve exist-
ing programs of vocational education, to
develop new programs of vocational educa-
tion, and to provide part-time employment
for youths who need the earnings from such
employment to continue their vocational
training on a full-time basis, so that persons of
all ages in all communities of the State--those
in high school, those who have completed or
discontinued their formal education and are
preparing to enter the labor market, those
who have already entered the labor market
but need to upgrade their skills or learn new
ones, those with special educational handi-
caps, and those in postsecondary schools--wil
have ready access to vocational training or
retraining which is of high quality, which is
realistic in the light of actual or anticipated
opportunities for gainful employment, and
which is suited to their needs, interest, and
ability to benefit from such training."







BENEFITS AVAILABLE TO FLORIDA TEACHERS


Salaries. As recognition of the importance of adequately trained teachers, the Minimum
Foundation Program formula for allocation of funds to counties for instructional salaries is
commensurate with the educational training and experience of the teacher. Under a system
of ranks, the greater the training of the teacher, the higher the amount of money allocated
to the county by the state.
All teachers with regular teaching certificates must receive a minimum salary of $5,300.
Most counties provide starting salaries well above this minimum. The Minimum Foundation
Program allocation for 1969-1970 is $5,300 for a Rank III certificate; $6,300 for a Rank II;
$7,000 for a Rank IA; and $7,700 for a Rank I. These figures are for personnel on an annual
appointment basis.
An additional $400 is allocated for teachers in Rank III (or above) under continuing
contract (attained after three years of satisfactory service in a county and upon
recommendation of the school superintendent for reappointment for the fourth year);
another $400 for teachers under continuing contract with seven years of efficient teaching
service in Florida public schools; and additional $400 for continuing contract teachers with
ten years of efficient teaching service in Florida public schools; and another $600 for
continuing contract teachers with 15 years of efficient teaching service in Florida public
schools.
Continuing Contracts. Florida law provides that teachers may be issued continuing
contracts after 3 years of satisfactory service in a county school system. A teacher on
continuing contract is assured of continued employment in the same, or an equal, position
until he resigns or retires, provided he continues to meet the school system's standards of
competence and morality, and provided he maintains a valid teaching certificate. In most
counties, a major salary increase accompanies the advance from annual to continuing
contract status.

Holidays and Vacations. Florida has a 10-month school term. Each county board
adopts its own specific calendar annually. State law requires that teachers work at least 196
days within a 10-month contract period, and some counties require more. Students must
attend 180 days in each school year.
Most counties offer additional employment to some of their teachers for a 6- to 8-week
summer program. Summer-school teaching is not covered by the annual or continuing
contract.
Florida law requires that schools be dismissed on or before December 24 for a period
extending through January 1. Other school holidays are established by county school
boards. All counties declare Thanksgiving a holiday, and most of them dismiss schools 1 or 2
days at Easter. In addition, most county boards provide teacher-planning days and
parent-teacher conference days, when students are dismissed, and some make provision for
teachers to be absent in observance of appropriate religious holidays.

Personal Leave. Leaves of absence, without pay, for personal reasons, including
maternity, are regulated by each county board. Each board may also grant 1 or 2 days of
emergency leave, with pay, deducting these days from sick leave.

Sick Leave. Florida teachers are entitled by law to 10 days of sick leave with pay at any
time during any school year and may accumulate up to 120 days of sick leave, claiming up
to 80 of them in a single school year.

Professional Leave. A county board may grant a teacher extended leave of 1 year or
more for professional development and may authorize partial compensation during such
professional leave if the teacher has been with the county system for at least 7 years. Some
counties grant sabbatical leaves to a specified percentage of their instructional personnel
each year. Shorter professional leaves may also be granted, subject to recommendation by
the county superintendent and approval of the county board.







Insurance. Many county boards offer group health and life insurance policies to their
instructional personnel, and some boards contribute a part of the premium payments. All
county boards carry Workmen's Compensation insurance to cover their employees for
school functions.
Federal law permits teachers to purchase annuities with a portion of their salaries which
is then deducted from taxable income. Some county boards provide payroll deduction
service for the purchase of these annuities.

Retirement. Florida has had a retirement system for public school teachers since July 1,
1939. Although not a part of the State Department of Education, the Teachers' Retirement
Office works closely with the Department. Improvements have been made so that the
retirement system is now one of the most liberal in the nation.
Teachers who join the system make regular contributions of 6.25 percent through
payroll deduction, and the Florida Legislature is required by law to appropriate matching
funds.
Normal retirement age for new teachers is 62, but teachers with 10 or more years of
service within the state may retire with partial benefits at age 55. Retirement is mandatory
at age 70.
A retired teacher may receive benefits equal to 2 percent of his "average final salary for
each year of service. The "average final salary is the teacher's average annual salary for the
10 years of highest pay during the last 15 years of service.
In figuring the total years of service, a teacher is entitled to credit for up to 10 years of
teaching outside the state, after making contributions equal to the total cost of the benefit
produced by the years of out-of-state credit. Thus, if a teacher retires at age 63 with a
record of 21 years of service in Florida and 9 years of service elsewhere, he could receive 2
percent of his final average salary for each of 30 years or a total of 60 percent of his final
average salary.
All regular contributions and earned interest are refunded to the member upon
resignation, or to his beneficiary at death. Interest is computed on June 30 of each year and
is not paid for parts of a year. Survivor benefit contributions are not refunded, and there are
no loan provisions in the law.

Disability Benefits. Under Florida's retirement system, a teacher is eligible for disability
benefits after 10 years of Florida service. The benefits are figured on the same formula as
teacher retirement with a guaranteed minimum equal to 25 percent of the average final
salary. Survivor benefit provisions continue in effect for persons forced to retire on
disability .

Survivor Benefits. After 1 day of paid service as a full-time teacher in Florida, a teacher
is covered by survivor benefits approximately equal to those of Social Security. (Florida's
Teacher Retirement System does not include participation in Social Security.)
At time of death, the teacher's beneficiary will receive a $500 lump sum payment.
Additionally, a widow or widower will receive support payments of $190 a month for 1
child under 18 or $250 a month for 2 or more children under 18. If the teacher's spouse is
not living, monthly support payments of $165 for 1 child or $250 for 2 or more children,
will be made to the legal guardian. A teacher's surviving dependent parent 65 or older wil
receive $100 a month.
A teacher's spouse may receive added benefits at age 50. If death of the teacher
occurred after one day of paid service, the surviving widow or widower, if dependent,
becomes eligible for $100 a month at age 50 and $125 a month at age 65. If death occurred
after 10 or more years of service, the surviving widow or widower, at age 65, receives $125 a
month for life without regard to dependency.
For additional technical data or information, instructors should contact Teachers'
Retirement System, Knott Building, Tallahassee, Florida 32301.







STATE OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA RETIREMENT SYSTEM
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
32304

March 15, 1971

FEATURES OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO BEGINNING TEACHERS IN FLORIDA

EFFECTIVE DATE AND PARTICIPATION:
December 1, 1970. On and after this date, all teachers (and other state and county
employees except members of the Judicial System) must participate in the Florida
Retirement System as a condition of employment.
SOCIAL SECURITY COVERAGE:
Required of every member of the Florida Retirement System. It is a part of the retirement
"package".
RATE OF CONTRIBUTION OR COST TO EMPLOYEE:
4.00% of total salary for state retirement and the regular social security contribution (5.2%
of $7,800 in 1971).
NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE OR DATE:
Age 62 and credit for 10 or more years of service OR any age and 35 continuous years of
creditable service. (This is the age or date at which a member may be retired without an
actuarial reduction.)
EARLY RETIREMENT AGE:
Any age after credit for 10 years of service. The normal retirement benefit is reduced 5% for
each year under age 62.
AVERAGE FINAL SALARY OR COMPENSATION (AFC):
Annual average of 5 years of highest salary paid during last 10 years of service prior to
retirement.
NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE BENEFIT FORMULA:
At age 62, 1.60% of AFC for each year of service credit.
63, 1.63%
64, 1.65%
65, 1.68%
At any age after 35 continuous years of service credit, 1.60% of AFC for each year of
creditable service.
Example 1: Age 62; 30 years of service; AFC, $10,000
30 X 1.60% = 48%
48% of $10,000 = $4,800 per year, Option 1
Example 2: Age 56 and 35 continuous years of creditable service;
35 X 1.60% = 56% AFC, $10,000
56% of $10,000 = $5,600 per year Option 1 benefit
When eligible, social security benefits will be paid in addition to the regular state retirement
benefits .
REGULAR DISABILITY BENEFIT:
Available after 5 years of service credit. Minimum benefit, 25% of AFC. No actuarial
reduction based upon age under normal retirement age of 62. Only Option 1 benefits
provided under disability.
IN LINE OF DUTY DISABILITY BENEFIT:
No required length of service. The minimum in line of duty disability benefit is 42.0% of
AFC. If actual service is less than 5 years, the average salary of the years of service shall be
used as AFC.







DEATH BENEFIT FOR WIDOW OR MEMBER KiILLED IN LINE OF DUTY:
If a male member is killed in the line of duty, his surviving widow is paid one-half the
member's monthly salary for life or until remarriage, OR
The surviving widow may elect a lifetime income from the member's retirement account if
he was eligible to retire. If the widow dies, the benefit continues for surviving children under
age 18.
OTHER DEATH BENEFITS:
Refund of contributions without interest or possible lifetime monthly benefit for surviving
spouse if member eligible to retire. If eligible, certain survivor benefits payable by social
security. (Consult Social Security Office.)
MILITARY SERVICE CREDIT:
Credits for up to 4 years of military duty served prior to Florida employment may be
obtained after 10 years of service in Florida. The required contribution is 4% of first salary
paid in Florida after July 1, 1945, plus 4% interest compounded annually. Military service
credit not allowed for retirement if member is or will be eligible for a service benefit in any
federal or state system as a result of military duty.
LEAVE OF ABSENCE CREDIT:
Up to a maximum of 24 months of leaves of absence per career may be used for retirement
credit after 10 years in Florida. No single leave of absence may exceed 12 consecutive
months in duration.
OUT-OF-STATE SERVICE CREDIT:
There is no provision for out-of-state credit for teachers who become members in Florida
after December 1, 1970.
OPTIONS AVAILABLE UPON REGULAR RETIREMENT:
Under all options, the member or the beneficiary will receive a return of not less than the
total amount contributed by the member.

OPTION 1: Maximum benefit payable during the lifetime of the member.

OPTION 2: Lifetime benefit payable to the member, but income guaranteed
for 120 months.

OPTION 3: Lifetime benefit payable to member and continued to the
surviving spouse or other dependent.

OPTION 4: The benefit payable to the member is reduced to 66-2/3 of the
original amount upon the death of the member of joint annuitant.

The option is selected at retirement date.

COST OF LIVING INCREASE:
Upon reaching age 65, the retired member's benefit is adjusted according to the cost of
living increase but not over 3% per year. The consumer price index as issued by the United
States Government is the basis upon which the cost of living increases are computed.

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AFTER RETIREMENT:
A retired member may continue to receive benefit checks while employed up to a maximum
of 500 hours per calendar year. Employment in private industry, employment in the Private
School System of Florida, or employment in the Public School System of other states does
not affect the retired member's status.

REFUND UPON TERMINATION:
Total contributions without interest are refunded upon application after termination. There
are no loan provisions in the law.







FLORIDA'S EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


Every instructor should understand the structure of the educational system in Florida
and should know the administrative personnel who are responsible for coordinating,
administering, and supervising both state-wide and local programs.
In the state government, reorganized by the 1969 Florida Legislature, the Department
of Education is headed by the Governor and the Cabinet collectively, with the Governor as
chairman and the Commissioner of Education as Secretary. The Commissioner of Education
is the chief educational officer of the state. The Department of Education has Divisions of
Elementary and Secondary Education, Vocational Education, Community Colleges, and
Universities.
The Directors of the Divisions of Elementary and Secondary Education, Vocational
Education, and Community Colleges are appointed by the Cabinet Board of Education,
upon recommendation of the Commissioner of Education.
The Board of Regents is director of the Division of Universities. Members of the board
are appointed by the Governor, approved by the Cabinet and confirmed by the Senate.
The administrator in charge of each local school and each junior college is responsible
for the operation of his school. His primary function is to give leadership in the
development of the best possible program of education for his school and to select
competent teachers to implement that program. An additional responsibility is that of
maintaining school property and administering supplies and equipment.
Financial support for Florida's elementary and secondary schools comes from the
Minimum Foundation Program, jointly financed by state and county. The program provides
basic financial support for all schools in all counties. Each county, through the levy of real
and personal property taxes, supplements the basic minimum. In addition, all county school
systems may participate in federal aid programs.
The financing of the cosmetology program varies in minor ways from school to school.
School boards absorb the major costs of equipping and maintaining the cosmetology
laboratory, with students purchasing the major portion of the materials they use.
Many different methods are employed to maintain a small, current supply fund for
incidental purchases. Sometimes the principal allocates a petty cash fund from the internal
accounts of the school. Other policies may include an advance deposit or the purchase of a
materials ticket. Whatever the method employed, providing for adequate supplies and
materials with which to maintain an effective cosmetology program should be a part of the
regular budgeting procedure, with the local school or junior college administrator and the
cosmetology instructor planning together.
The sections, agencies, and individuals which directly affect the cosmetology program
are:


(1) Teacher Education, Accreditation and Certification
(2) Industrial Education Section of the Division of Vocational, Technical and Adult
Education
(3) State Coordinator of Cosmetology Programs
(4) State Board of Cosmetology
(5) State Advisory Committee for Cosmetology
(6) Local Advisory Committee for Cosmetology
(7) Area Supervisors for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education



The functions of each of these components of the total educational program are described
in detail in this section of the manual.
The Division of Community Junior Colleges has its own Minimum Foundation program
supported by legislative appropriation.







TYPES OF SCHOOLS AND VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS


The types of schools which offer vocational education programs and the classifications
of students which they serve are as follows:


(1) Regular or Comprehensive Secondary School-- This type includes grades 7-12 or any
combination thereof in which regular high school programs and vocational programs
are offered. The vocational programs in these schools are for regular high school
students in a secondary school approved by the State Department of Education.
These facilities may also be used for vocational courses for adults after the regular
school day.
(2) Specialized High School-- A vocational and/or technical high school which grants
diplomas and offers only vocational-technical programs for high school students.
(3) Post-Secondary Vocational and/or Technical School-- Adult vocational education
center, including a technical institute, which offers vocational-technical programs
only for persons who have left high school and who are available for full-time
vocational-technical study. This type of school is not a designated area center, a
junior college department, nor a junior college.
(4) Community Junior College-- A post-high school institution which offers at least
two, but less than four, years of work, which has not been designated by the State
Board for Vocational Education as an area vocational education school.
(5) Combination Secondary and Post-Secondary School-- A school offering secondary
and post-secondary vocational-technical preparatory programs at the same time for
high school students and adults, but which is not a designated area center or junior
college department or junior college. If a school meets the criteria under the
definitions for (2) and (3) above, it is classified in this category.
(6) Private School-- The State Board may contract for the provision of vocational
education programs and services meeting the minimum standards established by the
State Board when the need for these programs and services is demonstrated and the
local educational agency determines that it is unable to provide them. All such
arrangements and contracts shall be negotiated by the local educational agency (if
applicable) or the State Board; shall be renewed annually; shall be in writing; and
shall contain a precise description of the program to be offered or the service to be
performed, the standards to be met, and budgetary and any other considerations
relating to the program or service.
(7) Area Vocational-Technical Center- Designated by the State Board for Vocational
Education.
(8) Department of Junior College-- Designated by the State Board for Vocational
Education as an area vocational education school.



Programs are classified as either full-time or part-time. Full-time programs are
vocational-technical education programs for persons who are available for full-time
vocational-technical study. Part-time programs are ungraded vocational-technical prepara-
tory and supplemental programs of varying duration for persons who have completed or left
high school. These programs require less than 900 clock hours for completion individually
or in a combination of related short programs.

The types of programs are as follows:
(1) Secondary- Vocational or technical education programs for students in grades 7-12
in a secondary school approved by the State Department of Education. These
vocational-technical programs are a part of the general education curriculum in these
schools.








(2) Post-Secondary (Full-time Only)-- Vocational or technical education programs for
persons who have completed or left high school and who are available for full-time
vocational-technical study.
(3) Adult (Part-time Only)-- Ungraded vocational or technical preparatory programs on
a part-time basis for persons who have completed or left high school. These
programs require less than 900 clock hours for completion, either individually or in
a combination of related short programs.
(4) Adult (Part-time Only)-- Ungraded vocational or technical education programs on a
part-time basis for persons who have already entered the labor market and who need
training or retraining to achieve job stability or advancement in the occupation in
which they are employed. These programs are classified as supplementary rather
than preparatory and include extension programs in industrial and technical
education.
Specifically, cosmetology education is a part of all these programs, and graduates of all
types of cosmetology programs are ready to take the State Board of Cosmetology's licensing
examination upon completion of the prescribed course of study.

THE STATE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SECTION

The Industrial Education Section of the State Division of Vocational, Technical, and
Adult Education is responsible for the state-wide administration of all vocational industrial
programs in Florida schools. The specific responsibilities of the section are as follows:
I. To work cooperatively with schools, industry, state and community organizations and
the Florida State Employment Service in determining needs for vocational industrial
training.
A. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in planning, preparing, and
conducting surveys to determine vocational industrial training needs of both
established and new industries.
B. To aid local school districts and junior colleges in planning surveys to determine
prospective student interest in vocational training.
C. To aid local school districts and junior colleges in planning overall vocational
industrial programs to meet current and projected needs.
D. To assist in the preparation of County and Junior College Plans for Vocational
Education.
E. To work with local school districts and junior colleges in determining financial needs
and allocations for vocational industrial education units.
F. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in budget preparation for
vocational industrial education.

II. To assist local schools and junior colleges in initiating, establishing and supporting
vocational industrial education programs.
A. To assist schools and junior colleges in establishing and utilizing advisory committees
and state and local organizations in the promotion and support of vocational
industrial programs.
B. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in facility planning.
C. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in the selection of equipment.
D. To advise local school districts and junior colleges about requirements and
procedures for obtaining state and federal aid for vocational industrial education.

III. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in evaluating on-going programs.
A. To provide assistance in the evaluation of curriculum, course, and instructional
materials and their use.




























B. To aid local and junior college personnel in the evaluation of procedures for student
counseling, selection, placement, and follow up.
C. To aid local and junior college personnel in evaluating the effectiveness of the
assistance given by advisory committees and other advisory groups.

IV. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in the improvement of instruction.
A. To provide adequate institutional education courses.
B. To provide short courses through an itinerant-teacher training program for both
beginning and experienced teachers.
C. To establish and maintain an instructional materials center for dissemination of
information and materials to local schools.

V. To advise local school districts and junior colleges about national, state, and area
developments and trends which affect vocational education.
A. To collect and disseminate information about occupational changes, trends, and
training needs.
B. To conduct surveys and research projects needed to provide this information.

VI. To assist local school districts and junior colleges in establishing a system for keeping
records and making reports as required by the State Division of Vocational, Technical,
and Adult Education.








FIVE AREAS


AREA OFFICES
Area I Office Area III Office
Mailing Address: 6880 Lake Ellenor Drive
480 Tallahassee Bank and Orlando Central Park
Trust Building Orlando 32809
Tallahassee 32304 (Telephone 851-6270)
(Telephone 599-5848)
Area IV Office
Area II Office 715 East Bird Street
1219 West University Ave. Capital National Bank Bldg.
Gainesville 32601 Tampa 33604
(Telephone 378-1147) (Telephone 933-2802)
Area V Office
3520 West Broward Blvd.
Suite 219
Kingston Building
Fort Lauderdale 33310
(Telephone 581-8627)






DIVISION OF

VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL

AND ADULT EDUCATION
Carl W. Proehi, Director


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3& AREA CENTERS
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THE AREA SUPERVISOR


The Area Supervisor of Vocational Industrial Education is the direct working
representative of the State Director of Industrial Education.
He has, as his primary function, supervision of local vocational administration within his
assigned geographic area of responsibility. He is responsible for supervising, coordinating,
and assisting in the development of all Vocational Industrial Education programs in all
public educational institutions and agencies within his assigned area. He regularly visits local
administrators and classes to insure their compliance with existing laws, State Board
regulations and policies in all phases of the Vocational Industrial Education Program. He
also frequently serves on state school survey teams to evaluate local programs and
recommend improvements, including course offerings, types of schools, facilities and
locations. Presently, Foundation Program Special Instruction Units are allocated by the
Program Administrator of Industrial Education based upon local program needs. However,
recent legislation may change this procedure, whereby units will be automatically earned by
the full-time equivalency enrollment and the operational cost of a program.


THE STATE COORDINATOR FOR COSMETOLOGY PROGRAMS

In addition to coordinating the program of cosmetology in the public schools
throughout the state, the coordinator offers field services to teachers, principals, and
superintendents in establishing and improving this phase of general education.
Some of the responsibilities of the coordinator are:
1. to assist local school systems in planning surveys to determine prospective student
interest in cosmetology training.
2. to advise in the planning of laboratories and buildings;
3. to assist local schools in initiating, establishing and supporting cosmetology
programs.
4. to assist in selecting equipment and supplies.
5. to advise local systems as to developments and trends affecting cosmetology
programs.
6. to assist local systems in the improvement of instruction by providing short courses
for both beginning and experienced instructors and by providing informational and
instructional materials to local schools.
7. to act as a liaison official between the training departments and the State
Department of Education.
8. to assist local schools in establishing a system for keeping records and making
reports as required by the State Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult
Education.
9. to assist local systems in evaluating instruction and materials.
10. to initiate and assist in the organization of regional and state professional
conferences and meetings.
11. to inform teacher-training institutions of trends and policies and of teacher supply
and demand, and to assist such institutions in securing proper physical facilities for
the training of cosmetology instructors.


THE STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR COSMETOLOGY EDUCATION

The State Advisory Committee for Cosmetology Education serves in an advisory
capacity only, making suggestions and recommendations for the guidance of the state and
local boards of education in relation to the cosmetology occupation, so that the needs of
the state may be met in preparing workers in the cosmetology field.








Members of the committee are appointed by the Commissioner of Education upon the
recommendation of the Director of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education and the
Administrator of Industrial Education from names submitted by the local Cosmetology
Advisory Committees. The membership includes three master cosmetologists, three salon
owners, three cosmetology instructors, one representative from the Cosmetology Associa-
tion of Florida, and one member of the Florida State Board of Cosmetology. The
Administrator of Industrial Education or his designated representative is an ex officio
member of the committee. The term of office is for one year.
Committee members are responsible for reporting to their respective groups pertinent
information provided at the meetings. In addition, the members consult with appropriate
professional organizations or agencies in planning for new cosmetology education programs
before final action is taken by the advisory committee on the establishment of new types of
programs.
A copy of the State Cosmetology Advisory Committee's Statement of Policies may be
requested from the office of the Administrator of Industrial Education, Department of
Education.


THE LOCAL COSMETOLOGY ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Each local cosmetology advisory committee, appointed by the~ county school boards and
the administrators of the local schools for a recommended term of one year, consists of
potential employers and other individuals having knowledge of cosmetology as well as skills
and experience in that occupation. Such a committee can assist the school administrator in
maintaining a sound and realistic program by helping to correlate the work of the school
with the actual practice of cosmetology. The committees are not administrative in their
function, but are organized for the purpose of advising and counseling with the school
authorities on matters concerning the program and of making suggestions and recommenda-
tions for program operation. When the public knows that respected laymen are helping to
operate the vocational program, confidence in the school's training program will be assured.
In both occupational competence and personal qualities, instructors should be
acceptable both to the management and to occupational representatives on advisory
committees.


FLORIDA REQUIREMENTS FOR TEACHER CERTIFICATION

In order to teach in the public schools of Florida, an instructor must hold a valid Florida
teacher's certificate. Certain basic requirements are common to all types of Florida
certificates :
1. The applicant must subscribe to a statement under oath that he will subscribe to and
uphold the principles incorporated in the Constitution of the United States of
America. This statement has been incorporated in the application blank (Section
231.17, Florida Statutes, 1967).
2. The applicant must be a citizen of the United States or a citizen of a nation
controlled by forces which are not antagonistic to democratic forms of government;
however, a certificate may be issued to an individual classified as a refugee from
another country or as a resident alien from Cuba who has been legally admitted to
the United States through the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service
(Section 231.17, Florida Statutes, 1963).
3. A citizen of a nation controlled by forces which are not antagonistic to democratic
forms of government may be issued a temporary or provisional certificate on the
same basis as a citizen of the United States provided:
a. the applicant presents evidence that he holds a bachelor's or higher degree
equivalent to the degree granted by a standard institution of higher learning as
defined by State Board of Education regulations.







b. the certificate is requested by the superintendent of public instruction of the
county in which the non-citizen is to be employed as a teacher and the applicant
files with his application a copy of his Declaration of Intention, Form N-315, of
the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service.
In order for a non-citizen (other than the exchange teacher) to be granted a re-issued
temporary certificate, he must earn six (6) semester hours in residence or through
extension classes from a standard 4-year institution of higher learning (or in courses
approved for Florida teacher certification from a Florida junior college) after the
date of receipt in this office of his previous application for a temporary certificate.
4. The applicant shall be at least twenty (20) years of age or shall have received a
4-year degree from an accredited institution of higher learning and shall not have
attained the age of seventy (70) years (Section 231.17, Florida Statutes, 1967).
5. Each applicant must file a health statement from a physician licensed by a state
board of medical examiners or a state board of osteopathic examiners based on an
examination made within the 6-month period immediately preceding the date of
application (Section 213.17, Florida Statutes, 1967).
6. Each applicant for a certificate other than for part-time or substitute teaching must
pay a fee of $10.00 at the time of application. A money order or personal check
made payable to the Department of Education should be attached to the
application. The $10.00 fee is not required when applying for a re-issued temporary
certificate unless the new certificate is to show a change in rank or unless there has
been a lapse of one year or more since the previous temporary certificate. A fee of
$1.00 is charged for duplicate certificates (Section 231.30, Florida Statutes).
Note: No fee is charged for a part-time or substitute teaching certificate, extension
of a certificate, the addition of a subject, change in name, or correction to a valid
certificate.
7. If a certificate holder marries or changes his name, he must send the certificate at
once to the Certification Office, State Department of Education, to have a new
certificate issued and other records corrected to reflect the change in name.
8. Each properly certificated instructor is entitled to and shall receive a written
contract (Section 231.36, Florida Statutes, 1967).
9. Any person who violates the terms of his contract or agreement by leaving his
position without first being released from his contract or agreement by the county
board of the county in which he is employed shall be ineligible for employment in
the school system of the state or of any county therein for the period of one year
from the date of violation (Section 231.36, Florida Statutes, 1967).
Each district school board may state additional requirements for the employment of
teachers besides that of holding a valid Florida teacher's certificate.
Every cosmetology instructor must meet all requirements common to all certificates,
except as specified, and must hold a high school diploma or a state certificate of equivalency
based on the General Education Development Test or other standardized achievement tests
approved by the Department of Education. In addition, the Department requires that a
cosmetology instructor be a licensed cosmetologist, but there is no requirement that an
instructor must obtain a Florida State Board of Cosmetology instructor's license.
All certificates covering industrial education currently valid under regulations existing
prior to February, 1962, will not be affected by these regulations during the period of
current validity.

I. Full-Time Teacher of Industrial Education. This certification covers full-time cosme-
tology instructors.
A. Experience Requirements. Each applicant must be a master or senior employee of
the cosmetology occupation. He must have worked in the occupation for an
employer as a wage earner for at least two (2) years of full-time employment (or the
equivalent in part-time employment) as a master cosmetologist. The applicant must







have been employed a minimum of six (6) weeks in the occupation within the five-
(5-) year period preceding the date of application, except where the applicant has
been teaching the occupation in an approved industrial education program for one
(1) year of the five- (5-) year period.
B. Competency Requirements. One of the following means of determining occupa-
tional competency may be accepted in lieu of the qualifying work experience
requirements.
1. Graduation from a standard 4-year institution of higher learning with specializa-
tion in the occupational field for which certification is requested, plus two (2)
years of work experience at the journeyman level. Non-graduate occupational
training in an institution may be accepted year for year for the learning period,
provided at least nine (9) semester hours of skill or theory course work in the
occupation are completed for each year accredited.
2. Successful completion of a program of training in a vocational or technical
institution approved by the state board for vocational education in the state
where the institution is located. Included in this program shall be specialization
in the occupational field for which certification is requested, plus two (2) years
of work experience at the journeyman level.
3. Licensing by a recognized licensing agency, plus two (2) years of work
experience at the journeyman level in the occupational field for which
certification is requested. A recognized licensing agency is a legally constituted
body authorized and empowered by law to grant licenses. Where occupational
licensing is legally required of teachers, such applicants shall hold a valid license
in that occupation.
4. A certificate of completion of an apprenticeship as established by the United
States Department of Labor, the Florida Industrial Commission, or any state
apprenticeship department, plus two (2) years of work experience at the
journeyman level.
5. Thirty (30) semester hours of college credit earned by occupational competency
tests from a standard institution of higher learning approved by the state board
for vocational education in the state where the institution is located, plus two (2)
years of work experience at the journeyman level. Fewer than thirty (30)
semester hours credit shall be prorated at the rate of 7V/2 credits per year of
experience.
C. Other Requirements. Applicants for certificates shall furnish the following documen-
tary evidence, when required, to verify employment offered in satisfaction of
certification requirements. (For the purpose of verifying self-employment, or if a
former employer is no longer in business, verification of qualifying occupational
experience may be submitted by a notarized affidavit from another individual or
firm who was familiar with the applicant and his work and could certify as to the
length and type of work experience.)
1. Signed statements from former employers on business stationery.
2. Valid license in cosmetology.

D. Types of Certificates. In addition to the above general requirements, the applicant
for a full-time teaching certificate in industrial education must also meet the specific
requirements listed below; according to the type of certificate for which he applies:
1. Temporary Certificate. The Temporary Certificate in Rank III will be issued to
non-degree individuals who have met the work experience requirement. This
certificate is valid for one (1) year and may be re-issued 4 times, provided at
least three (3) semester hours of the professional industrial education courses
required for the Standard Certificate are completed prior to each re-issuance.
2. Provisional Standard Certificate. The Provisional Standard Certificate in Rank TIII
will be issued to non-degree individuals who lack six (6) or fewer semester hours







of meeting the requirements of the Standard Certificate and/or recency-of-work
experience. This certificate is valid for three (3) years and may not be extended
or re-issued.
3. Standard Certificate. The Standard Certificate in Rank III, valid for five (5)
years, will be issued to non-degree individuals having three (3) years of teaching
experience in industrial education subjects and at least twenty (20) semester
hours of professional training, including a minimum of three (3) semester hours
in general professional education and fourteen (14) semester hours in industrial
education teacher-training courses. The industrial education courses shall include
three (3) semester hours in each of the following areas:
a. Foundations of vocational education
b. Teaching techniques in vocational education
c. Special methods in industrial education.
4. Provisional Graduate Certificate. The Provisional Graduate Certificate in Rank
III will be issued to individuals who meet all requirements for the Graduate
Certificate, Rank III, except for the required professional courses and/or
recency-of-work experience. This certificate is valid for three (3) years and will
not be re-issued or extended.
5. Graduate Certificate. The Graduate Certificate in Rank III, valid for five (5)
years, will be issued to individuals who have graduated with a 4-year degree with
an appropriate major from an accredited institution of higher learning and have
met the same requirements set set forth for the Standard Certificate, Rank III,
except that six (6) semester hours of observation and practice teaching may be
substituted for teaching experience. Industrial education subjects will be added
to a Graduate Certificate, Rank III, on the basis of the same requirements as set
forth for the Standard Certificate, Rank III.
6. Post-Standard Certificate. The Post-Standard Certificate in Rank II, valid for ten
(10) years, may be issued to a non-degree individual who has held a Standard
Certificate, Rank III, for a minimum of five (5) years and who has been
employed as a teacher in public or non-public schools in Florida for three of the
five years. The three (3) years of teaching experience must have been in the field
or fields listed on the certificate. In addition, thirty-six (36) semester hours of
college credit must be earned subsequent to securing the Standard Certificate,
Rank III. A minimum of twelve (12) and a maximum of eighteen (18) semester
hours must be earned in general education or non-industrial professional courses.
Holders of this certificate shall not be precluded from subsequently earning a
degree.
7. Provisional Post-Graduate Certificate. The Provisional Post-Graduate Certificate
in Rank II will be issued to individuals who meet all requirements for the
Post-Graduate Certificate, Rank II, except for the required professional courses
or recency-of-work experience. This certificate is valid for three (3) years and
will not be re-issued or extended.
8. Post-Graduate Certificate. The Post-Graduate Certificate in Rank II, valid for ten
(10) years, will be issued to individuals who have received a Master's degree from
an accredited institution of higher learning or a degree based on two (2) or more
years of work at the post-baccalaureate level in the occupational area for which
certification is requested, and have met the same requirements set forth for the
Standard Certificate, Rank III, and who have earned an additional six (6)
semester hours in industrial education or appropriate technical courses.
Industrial education subjects will be listed on Post-Graduate Certificates, Rank
II, on the basis of the same requirements set forth for the Standard Certificate,
Rank III, plus six (6) additional semester hours in industrial education or
appropriate technical cours~es.
9. Special Post-Graduate Certificate. The Special Post-Graduate Certificate will be
issued to individuals who meet the qualifications for the Rank IA Certificate as







specified in Section 4 (1)(b), Florida Requirements for Teacher Certification,
and who meet the same requirements set forth for the Post-Graduate Certificate,
Rank II, plus six (6) additional semester hours in industrial education or
appropriate technical courses.
10. Advanced Post-Graduate Certificate. The Advanced Post-Graduate Certificate in
Rank I, valid for ten (10) years, will be issued to individuals who have received a
Doctor of Education or a Doctor of Philosophy degree and have met the same
requirements set forth for the Post-Graduate Certificate, Rank II, plus six (6)
additional semester hours of graduate credit in industrial education or
appropriate technical courses.

II. Part-Time Certificate. This certification covers part-time and substitute teachers of
industrial-technical subjects who are paid an hourly wage and teach courses for adults
which are classified as part-time classes. Holders of full-time certificates covering the
subject to be taught may teach in the part-time program. The Part-Time Certificate in
Rank III will be issued to applicants who certify by means of a notarized affidavit six
(6) years of employment, of which a minimum of two (2) years must be at the level of
journeyman in the occupation for which certification is requested. The same
occupational competency may also be verified by a written attest from the chairman of
the local occupational advisory committee that the applicant has received a majority
endorsement of the representatives on the committee. Such verification will be accepted
only if the chairman of the committee is an industrial representative and not a public
school employee. The Part-Time Certificate will be valid for ten (10) years.










INTRODUCTION TO THE COSMETOLOGY COURSE OF STUDY


A well-constructed cosmetology course of study observes the following important
factors :
1. It must cover the cosmetology field adequately.
2. It must be based on an accepted educational philosophy, with supporting goals and
objectives.
3. It must have learning units based on reliable sources of instructional materials.
4. It must clearly establish a definite period of instruction for the entire course.
5. Planned instruction must take into account the average grade level of the students,
their backgrounds, their abilities, and their achievements.
6. Lesson plans must be designed to make use of the natural learning processes.
7. Appropriate methods and techniques of teaching must be designated for each part of
the course.





The objectives of a course are its main foundation, and any material not supported by
objectives should be omitted. An objective is a statement describing an intended outcome of
instruction in terms of the terminal behavior of the learner (what the learner can reasonably
be expected to do following instruction). A description of terminal behavior identifies the
overall behavior act, states the important conditions under which the behavior is to occur,
and defines the criterion of acceptable performance.
The objectives for the cosmetology course of study are on three levels. First, the entire
training program has three general goals concerned with the student's acquisition of
knowledge of cosmetology theory, achievement of manipulative skills, and development of
attitudes toward the practice of cosmetology. Next, each of the twelve units of instruction
has unit objectives, stating in general terms what a student is expected to accomplish in that
one unit of the program. And finally, each lesson plan has instructional objectives, stating
the specific levels of accomplishment which a student is expected to achieve in acquiring the
information and developing the skills of that particular lesson.
As given in this Instructor's Manual, these objectives are simply examples to serve as
guidelines for instructors to follow in writing their own objectives. A separate statement
should be written for each objective, and a copy of the objectives should be given to each
student so that expected achievement may be clearly understood. The objectives establish a
common ground between the instructor and the student--the instructor sees what is to be
taught; the student sees what is to be learned. Regardless of the instructor's background of
training and experience, the conscientious instructor adds new objectives covering the latest
developments in the field of cosmetology as they occur and hunts for effective instructional
methods for attaining those.







Florida School System Program Goals
Division of Vocational, Technical COSMETOLOGY
and Adult Education All Units
217 Knott Building Page 1 of 1
Tallahassee, Florida 32301 DVTAE Cy PG 0-0-1


GOALS FOR THE COSMETOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAM


Through participation in the cosmetology training program, the student
1. acquires knowledge of cosmetology and its related chemistry, bacteriology,
anatomy, and physiology;
2. develops skill in performing the manipulative techniques required in the practice of
cosmetology ;
3. demonstrates enthusiasm, pride, and self-assurance in all phases of the program,
maintaining an eager interest in new developments in the field of cosmetology.


COSMETOLOGY COURSE OUTLINE

Recommended Sequence of Instruction


UNIT I ORIENTATION
School Policies and Rules
Organization and Goals of Cosmetology Program
Role of Student as Learner
Laboratory Equipment and Materials
Work and Safety Precautions
Sterilization and Sanitation
Care of Mannequin
Charm and Poise (follow through in more detail in succeeding units)
Florida Cosmetology Law

UNIT II SHAMPOOING
Plain Shampoo
Oil Shampoo
Special Shampoos
Liquid Dry Shampoo
Related Anatomy and Physiology

UNIT III HAIR SHAPING
Basic Shaping
Style Cutting

UNIT IV HAIR STYLING
Finger Waving
Pin Curling
Hair Styling
Straightening Normal Hair
Straightening Tinted, Bleached, or Damaged Hair
Pressing Hair
Iron Curling
Related Anatomy and Physiology







UNIT V WIGS AND HAIRPIECES
Types
Measuring and Fitting
Shaping
Styling
Cleaning
Hair Pieces
UNIT VI SCALP TREATMENTS
Dry Treatment
Dandruff Treatment
High-frequency Current Treatment
Related Anatomy and Physiology
UNIT VII PERMANENT WAVING
Cold Waving Normal Hair
Cold Waving Tinted or Bleached Hair
Heat Waving
Heat-Curling Pressed Hair
Related Anatomy and Physiology
Related Trade Information
Chemistry
UNIT VIII HAIR TINTING AND BLEACHING
Temporary Coloring
Semi-permanent Coloring
Permanent Coloring
Bleaching and Toning
Touching Up
Related Chemistry and Physiology
Related Trade Information
UNIT IX MANICURING AND PEDICURING
Regular Manicuring
Oil Manicuring
Electric Manicuring
Massage of Hands and Feet
Pedicuring
Related Anatomy and Physiology
Related Trade Information

UNIT X FACIALS, MASSAGE, AND MAKE-UP
Facial Treatments
Massage of Face and Neck
Light Ray Therapy
Facial Make-up
Related Chemistry and Anatomy
Related Trade Information

UNIT XI BEAUTY SALON MANAGEMENT
Selection of Location
Basic Requirements for Physical Layout
Advertising the Services of the Beauty Salon
Salesmanship
Record Keeping

Note to Instructor: Although this is the recommended sequence of instruction, the State
Board of Cosmetology requires that all student hour and service
reports follow the curriculum form in Rules and Regulations of
Florida State Board of Cosmetology.










Required Curriculum to be Used for Reporting Student Hours and Services
As Presented in Rules and Regulations of The Florida
State Board of Cosmetology


1200 HR. COURSE IN COSMETO LOGY

MINIMUM SERVICE
HOLRS SERVICE HOURS F EOUIRED

CURRICULUM min
bkdown I minutes number
per subj. min. manikin live mdl.l per ser. ser.hrs

IFLORIDA LAW ........... .... 80
Orientation-Rules & Regulations of
School & Equip. .. .. .. . . 5
Personality & Hygiene .. .. .. ... 5
Sanitation & Sterilization . ... .. . 20
Florida Law .............. 50


II PERMANENT WAVING . .. .. .. 200 30 30 120 120
Procedure--Normal Hair .. .. ... ... 75
Procedure-Tinted, Bleached or
Problem Hair .. . . ... 75
Cold Wave Chemistry . . .. .. .. 25
Knowledge & Analysis of Hair .. ... .. 15
Permanent Waving for Pressed Hair .. .. 10

III HAIR CUTTING (Scissors & Razor) .. .. 120 120 30 60
Handling of Implements . .. .. .. .. 10
Basic Shaping . .. .. ..... . 75
Style Cutting .. .. . .... . 35

IV HAIR & SCALP TREATMENTS . ... .. 20 5
Scalp Treatments-manipulations .. .. .. 5 15 30 10
Hair Treatments .. .. .. ... 10 30 6 3
Instant Treatments .. .. .. ..... 5

V HAIR COLORING .. .. . .... 200
Temporary Color . . . . . 10 50 12 10
Semi-Permanent Color . .. .. ... . 5 20 30 10
Permanent Color .. .. . ..... 65 10 60 10
Bleaching, Frosting, Streaking
& Toners . .. .. ....... 75 20 60 20
Correction Work .. .. ... . .. 15
Chemistry of Color . .. .. .. .. . 15
Related Knowledge & Analysis
of Hair ............... ... 15


VI SHAMPOO .. .. .. ........ 30 200 15 50
Shampoo .............. ... 10
Special Shampoo .. .. .. .... 10
Chemistry of Shampoo .. . .. .. 10

VII HAIRDRESSING & MOLDING . .. .. 350 50 350 45 300
Molding (fingerwaving) . .. .. . .. 50
Pin Curls (stems & bases) ... .. .. .. .. 100
Roller Curis (stems & bases) .. .. .. ... 50
Style Patterns . .. .. . ... 50
Artistry in Hairstyling . .. .. .. .. 50
Comb Out Techniques .. ... ... .. 50

VIII FACIALS ... . .. ....... 20
Facials . .. .. . ...... 5 6 90 9
Related Anatomy . ... .. . ... 5
Make-up ............. ...... 5 6 30 3
Lash & Brow dyes & Arches . ... . .. 5 10 30 5









1200 HR. COURSE (Cont'd)
MINIMUM SERVICE
HOURS SERVICE HOURS REQUIRED

CURRICULUM min
bkdown minutes number
per subj. min. manikin live mdl. per ser. ser. hrs

IX MANICURING & PEDICURING .. .... 30
Manicuring . . ... .. .. .. 15 25 60 25
Pedicuring . .. .. ..... . .. 10 5 60 6
Related Anatomy . .. .. .. .... 5

X HAIR STRAIGHTENING . .. ... . 50 3 120 6
Normal Hair .. . . .... . 10
Tinted & Bleached Hair .. .. .. . .. 10
Methods-(Thermal-Chem ical) .. .. .. .. 30

XI WIGS & HAIRPIECES . .. . .. . 100 50 60 50
Types of Wigs & Hairpieces .. .. .. .. 10
Fitting & Selling .. . .. .. ... 20
Shaping ............... .... 30
Cleaning & Conditioning .. .. ... . 20
Styling ......... .... .... ..... 20
One hour of theory and one hour demon-
stration class must be taught each day to
every student in school.


COSMETOLOGY
High School
COURSE OUTLINE (TWO YEARS)*

subject Ist year summer 2nd year
hours hours hours

Florida Law 40 40
Orientation
School & Equip 5
Personality & Hyg. 5 5
Sanitation & Ster. 10 10
Florida Law 20 25
Permanent Wave 92 15 93
Procedure Normal 35 5 35
Procedure Tinted Bleach Prob. 35 5 35
Cold W. Chem. 7 5 13
PW for Pressed Hair 5 5
Knowledge analysis of hair 10 5
Hair Cutting Scissors, Razor 70 20 30
Handling of Imp. 10
Basic Shaping 55 20
Style Cutting 5 30
Hair and Scalp Treatment 7 5 8
Manipulations 2 3
Hair Treatment 5 5 5
Hair Coloring 100 25 75
Temporary Color 5 1 4
Semi-per. Color 2 1 2
Permanent Color 41 10 14
Bleach, Frost, Streak 32 8 35
Corrective Work 5 10
Chemistry of Color 10 5
Related Knowledge Analysis
of Hair 10 5
Shampoo 10 10 10
Shampoo 5 5
Spec. Shampoo 3 2 5
Chemistry of Hair 2 3 5
-Cont'd-








subject 1st year summer 2nd year
hours hours hours

Hair Dressing and Molding 182 25 143
Molding Finger W. 30 20
Pin Curi (stem & base) 70 30
Roller Curl (stem & base) 30 20
Style Patterns 20 10 20
Artistry in Hair Sty. 15 10 25
Comb-out Technique 17 5 28
Facials 7 5 8
Facials 4 3 3
Related Anatomy 1 4
Make-up 2 2 1
Manicuring & Pedicuring 10 10 10
Manicuring 5 7 3
Pedicuring 2 3 5
Related Anatomy 3 2
Hair Straightening 22 5 23
Normal Hair 6 2 2
Tinted or Bleached 4 1 5
Methods Chemical Thermal 12 2 16
Wigs and Hair Pieces 100
Types 10
Fitting and Selling 20
Shaping 30
Cleaning and Cond. 20
Styling 20

TOTAL 540 120 540

*Based on a 3-4 hour period of instruction per day.

NOTE: Subject hour breakdown is listed for reporting to the State Board of
Cosmetology.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Textbooks and Bulletins



Art of Hiairstyling, The. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City: American Beauty Career Service, 1966.

Beauticians Guide to Beauty, Charm and Poise. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1964.

Beauty Book of Knowledge. New York: American Hairdresser Publishing Company, Inc.,
1958.

Churchill, Reba, and Bonnie. Guide to Glamour and Personality. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961.

Colletti, Anthony. The Art of Modern Hairstyling. Milady Publishing Corporation, 1964.

Colletti, Dorothy B., Cosmetology the Keystone Guide to Beauty Culture. New York:
Keystone Publications, Inc., 1970.

Educational Bulletin #1 Hair Straightening. Sacramento, California: California State
Board of Cosmetology, 1966.

Educational Specifications and Equipment for Cosmetology Facilities, Bulletin 78H-5,
1970. Tallahassee: Industrial Education Section, Division of Vocational, Technical and
Adult Education, The State Department of Education.








Fairley, James L. Essentials of Biological Chemistry. New York: Keystone Publications,
Inc., 1961.

Farrell, Virginia. Precision Hairstyling. Detroit: Virginia Farrell, 1961.

Fleck, Margaret. Mathematics for Cosmetology. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1955.

Fleischer, Joseph. Couturier Fashion Hairpieces. 2nd ed. New York: Joseph Fleischer
Company, 1966.

Florida Cosmetology Law. Chapter 477, Florida Statutes, 1969. Tallahassee: State Board
of Cosmetology.

Garland, Madge. The Changing Face of Beauty. New York: M. Borrows and Company,
Inc., 1957.

Gilb, Richard L. Your Future in Beauty Culture. New York: Richards Rosen Press, Inc.,
1964.

Goodman, Herman. Principles of Professional Beauty Culture. New York: Milady
Publishing Corporation, 1939.

.Finger and Toenails in Health and Disease. New York: Milady
Publishing Corporation, 1957.

Harral, Stewart. Profitable Public Relations. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1957.

Jolet, Jean. How to Design the French Twist. 2nd ed. New York: Beauty Circle Books,
1965.

Jones, Ruth. Practical Preparation for Beauty Culture. New York: Milady Publishing
Corporation, 1938.

Keystone Progressive Manual of Hairstyling and Haircutting. New York: Keystone
Publications, Inc., 1961.

Lectures in Chemistry for Teachers. Milady Publishing Corporation.

Lowman, E. Chemistry in Your Beauty Shop. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1955.

Millard, Nellie C., and Others. Human Anatomy and Physiology. New York: Milady
Publishing Corporation, 1947.

Modern Textbook of Cosmetology. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation, 1957.

Montagna, William, and Ellis, Richard A. The Biology of Hair Growth. New York:
Academic Press, Inc., 1958.

Murray, Anne. Theory of Cosmetology. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation, 1957.

Mystery of Make-up. Hollywood, California: Comer and Doran, 1957.

Proctor, Janis O., Techniques Notes Tips for Teachers. Delmar Publishers.

93








Ross, Charles. The Essentials of Hair Design. Beauty Career Publications, 1966. Box 2308,
Hollywood, California 90028.

Rules of State Board of Cosmetology, Chapter 60A-1 Schools of Cosmetology. 1971.
Tallahassee: State Board of Cosmetology.

Sammons, Romeyn. Cosmetology Jurisprudence. Los Angeles: Parker and Braid Company,
1938.

Sharpley, Jessie. Stylists Are Made Not Born. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1957.

Spencer, Gerald. Cosmetology in the Negro. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation,
1944.

Standard Texetbook of Cosmetology. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation, 1967.

Stingley, Glendora. Electricity Manual for Beauty Culture. 29th ed. Maywood, California:
Glendora Stingley, 1948.

.Progressive Manual of Cosmetology. 3rd ed. Maywood, California:
Glendora Stingley, 1959.

Thorpe, S. C. Selling Made Easy for the Beautician. New York: Milady Publishing
Corporation, 1940.

Titus, T. Paul. Guidance in Buying a Beauty Shop. New York: Milady Publishing
Corporation, 1953.

Van Dean Manual. 6th ed. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation, 1964.

Vern, Doris. How To Do Better Haircoloring. 5th ed. Stamford, Connecticut: Clairol, Inc.,
1963.

Viennese American Hair Fashions. Chicago: F&L Publishing Corporation, 1966.

Wall, Florence E. Principles and Practice of Beauty Culture. New York: Milady Publishing
Corporation, 1953.

Workbook for Beauty Culture Theory and Practice. New York: Milady Publishing
Corporation, 1967.


Periodicals

American Hairdresser. Chicago: American Hairdresser Company, Inc., Monthly.

Beauty School Management. Los Angeles: School-Industrial Press, Inc.

Beauty Trade. New York: Calvin News Service. Monthly.

Dez. Teaneck, New Jersey: Murray Murdock. Monthly.

Modern Beauty Shop. Chicago: Modern Beauty Shop, Inc. Monthly.

National Beauty School Journal. New York: Milady Publishing Corporation. Monthly.

Salon Owner. New York: Professionelle, Inc. Monthly.

94







INSERVICE TRAINING


In addition to granting professional leaves of absence, Florida's county school systems
provide institutes, workshops, and courses for teachers, some operating at the individual
school level, some county-wide, and some in conjunction with the Department of Education
and nearby colleges and universities. Inservice opportunities serve two basic purposes:

1. to keep teachers up-to-date in subject matter and teaching techniques and technical
skills.
2. to provide credits toward professional advancement and certification.

Several counties use pay increases as incentives for continuing professional improvement.



THE COSMETOLOGY INSTRUCTOR


A teaching career in cosmetology has definite advantages. The experienced instructor
can always find employment and is independent, even though working for someone else.
Salaries are higher for beauty instructors than for employees in many other fields, and there
is opportunity for advancement. Then, too, there is the stimulating satisfaction of molding
professional cosmetologists from untrained students.
The teaching of cosmetology is both a science and an art-a science because the teacher
should know fundamentals of cosmetology, personal hygiene, bacteriology, sanitation and
sterilization, anatomy and physiology, cosmetic chemistry and electricity, shop manage-
ment, psychology, curriculum planning, teaching methods, and vocational education; an art
because the teaching of cosmetology taxes the ingenuity of the instructor in adapting
methods to the individual differences within each new class.
A successful cosmetology instructor must have a background of both occupational
training and work experience. In this field, work experience, technical knowledge, and skills
are as important as college credit. Instructors must remain competent by keeping up with
improvements and new techniques in the cosmetology field.
In addition, a conscientious instructor will continually strive to develop the mature
judgement and qualities of leadership which command the respect of the students.
In furnishing public information, the instructor must cooperate with the school
administration in making the community aware of needs for improving school facilities, as
well as in giving a complete report of activities through such media as the local paper,
student publications, annual reports, and various other school records. To help promote
public awareness, of both the school and the cosmetology program, the instructor should:

1. post and explain the aims and objectives of cosmetology education for the students,
their parents, the faculty, and the community;
2. assist every student to have a happy, successful experience in cosmetology training;
3. hold open house, conduct field trips to local beauty salons and style shows, and
cooperate with youth activity groups in the community.

The instructor must meet state and local certification requirements. In addition, the
cosmetology instructor must feel pride in being a vital part of one of the personal service
occupations and must develop an understanding of the fundamental principles and laws
which distinguish the practice of cosmetology from those trades guided merely by rules and
directions. The cosmetologist is continually called upon to produce something new, based
upon a broad knowledge of scientific principles and techniques.
Every instructor who has this understanding of the cosmetology occupation and who
has pride in being a part of it certainly wants to attract students with outstanding
qualifications to the program. One means of attracting such students is that of preparing and
distributing a brochure giving detailed job information.








OUTLINE OF INFORMATION FOR COSMETOLOGY BROCHURE


I. Importance of Cosmetology and Its Relation to Society


II. Description of the Occupation
A. History and Trends
B. Number of Workers
1. Total number in labor force
2. Proportion of men and women in field
3. Ages of those actively employed in the field
C. Need for Workers
1. Trends: stablized-declining-expanding
2. Location of demands by major geographical regions
D. Duties
1. Specific tasks performed (what job involves from 8 to 5)
2. Working conditions
a. Physical--hours, location, seasonal
b. Social relations with co-workers, supervisors, and clientele
E. Qualifications
1. Age: minimum-maximum-preferred
2. Sex: restrictions, e.g., for women, marriage
3. Race or nationality
4. Special qualifications, those pertinent to the specific job.
F. Required Preparation
1. General education
2. Special Training or education
a. Location of training center or school
b. Length of required training
c. Expense of training
3. Experience required
4. Certification, licensing, internship or apprenticeship
G. Earnings
1. Beginning--most common--maximum
2. Regulation by outside agency, i.e., Civil Service, labor unions
3. Indirect earnings or "fringe benefits"
H. Advancement
1. Opportunities and qualifications needed
2. Lines of advancement
I. Related Fields Which Can Be Entered
1. Without additional training or preparation
2. With additional training or experience
3. With ease or difficulty involved


III. Bibliography-Sources of Information

A. Books, Pamphlets, Journals, Etc.

B. Personal Interview

C. Observation of Operation

D. Sample brochures may be obtained by contacting on-going cosmetology programs
listed in the Personnel Directory of Industrial Education. Local Vocational County
Directors have copies of this directory.







GENERAL OBJECTIVES IN TEACHING COSMETOLOGY


Cosmetology instructors are fortunate in having as students those who have professed an
interest in the learning of beauty culture and who have the desire to learn the skills.
However, learning must be motivated. To produce a state of readiness and receptiveness is a
challenge to an instructor. An interested student wants to learn, but the instructor must find
the suitable learning technique for each individual. Some persons learn best by reading,
some by seeing pictures or demonstrations, and others by listening.
Instructors cannot increase the native ability of a student, but they can provide an
environment which is conducive to learning and achieving. Instructors can also motivate
each student to the limit of ability by developing and using effective instructional methods
and materials, and by having an understanding of the learning process.
The instructor's teaching should be guided by general objectives of cosmetology
education:
1. To develop a knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of the theory of
cosmetology, and skill in its practice.
2. To develop habits of good workmanship and the orderly performance of the various
tasks in a beauty salon.
3. To learn to select wisely, care for and use properly, the commercial products that
are related to the application of beauty treatments.
4. To encourage growth and the desire to keep abreast of new developments in the
practice of beauty culture.
5. To impart ideals and an attitude of willingness to cooperate with employer and
employees.
6. To foster an appreciation of scientific contributions to the progress of cosmetology.
7. To help the student to prepare for State Board examinations in order to obtain a
license to practice cosmetology.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF DESIRABLE PERSONAL TRAITS

In addition to the knowledge of cosmetology theory and the manipulative skills required
for putting the theory into practice, the development of desirable personal traits is an
important part of every cosmetology course. Qualities of responsibility, courtesy and
emotional control are essential characteristics since the ability to please patrons and make
friends is a valuable asset in the practice of cosmetology. The instructor should both
demonstrate and teach these qualities.
The following suggestions present opportunities for the cultivation of desirable personal
traits :
1. Appoint monitors to serve alternately in established routine duties such as the
following :
a. serving as receptionist and dispensary worker;
b. distributing, collecting and disposing of materials;
c. maintaining the safety, hygiene and appearance of the classroom.
2. Train students to give respectful attention when addressed by the instructor or a
fellow student.
3. Encourage honest effort and desire for improvement by keeping students informed
of the progress they are making in the course.
4. Recognize superior achievement by commending it in class. Such recognition
encourages responsibility and self-assurance.
5. Try to develop self-reliance and initiative by insisting that students solve their
problems independently, exhausting all means at their command before asking for
assistance.







6. Require students to be clean and orderly, in their work and to practice economy in
conserving materials and in caring for expensive equipment.

7. Help students to develop the habit of punctuality by insisting that they report to
class on time and by requiring prompt compliance with instructions.

8. Emphasize the importance of personal neatness as being necessary for successful
participation in school, business and social life.




SPECIFIC SUGGESTIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL COSMETOLOGY INSTRUCTION


The suggestions listed below will prove helpful in planning for and achieving effective
teaching toward the development of correct work habits and skills:

1. Develop a clear mental picture of what is to be accomplished in the course.
2. Follow a standardized curriculum in cosmetology.
3. Develop a long-term teaching plan, but keep it flexible.
4. Have a daily lesson plan, prepared at least one day ahead, and give a copy to the
principal so that he will have it for a substitute teacher when one is needed.
5. Adjust each day's plan of operation to the varying abilities of the students, but keep
the direction and pace geared to final objectives.
6. Identify each lesson with the experience and previous knowledge of students.
7. Use visual aids (charts, pictures, slides, and other visual materials) to illustrate and
clarify instructions.
8. Have all necessary supplies and equipment ready and in good condition.
9. At the beginning of each class period, inspect the condition of the work stations and
the uniforms and personal cleanliness of the students.
10. Stimulate student interest in each day's lesson. Encourage students to ask questions,
but discourage factitious, insignificant, or irrelevant ones.
11. Maintain order and discipline in the class and avoid distracting influences, such as
noise and interruptions, during instruction.
12. Insist that students listen attentively during lectures and demonstrations.
13. Plan and direct study assignments and encourage students to keep a neat notebook
of classroom notes and lessons for use in reviewing and preparing for examinations.
14. Demonstrate correct performance and provide time for students to practice under
supervision .
15. Periodically examine instruction and progress in relation to planned objectives.
16. Measure individual progress by giving regular reviews and tests.
17. Commend students for good work, and correct faulty skills tactfully.
18. Keep accurate records of attendance and grades.
19. Make frequent inventories of supplies on hand and supplies to be ordered.
20. Safeguard equipment and insure the safety of the students.
21. Enforce both State Board of Cosmetology and local school rules and regulations.
22. Instill ethical practices.
23. Create student interest in long-term objectives, such as the development of
cosmetology skills required for passing an examination conducted by the State
Board of Cosmetology.








INSTRUCTOR'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE GUIDANCE DEPARTMENT


The cosmetology instructor should work closely with the guidance department in an
effort to recognize students with interest in or aptitude for the practice of cosmetology and
should provide accurate and complete information regarding the cosmetology program so
that the guidance counselor can answer the questions of interested students, many of whom
have not had previous opportunity for professional counseling.
Through information obtained from the local advisory committee and from representa-
tives of the Florida State Employment Service, student personnel services can assist the
instructor in establishing admission standards for enrollment in the cosmetology program,
such as certain characteristics, traits, aptitudes and abilities.
Through its testing program, the guidance department can then identify those students
who satisfy the admission standards, offering them subsequent counseling in choosing other
suitable courses.
The counselors can also provide the instructor with relevant information about students
to promote better understanding of each individual, enabling the instructor to plan
appropriate and effective class instruction.
In addition, student personnel services can report to local and/or state agencies and to
other interested persons attendance and achievement information about students in the
program, as well as follow-up information on former students for a specific time period after
graduation.
Counseling and guidance, however, are not exclusively the business of the school
guidance personnel. All classroom teachers play an important role, and vocational education
teachers, particularly, can make a significant contribution by encouraging all students to
make the most of their abilities, both vocational and academic. Electing vocational courses,
such as cosmetology, should not automatically exclude students from college preparatory
academic courses. Expected academic or vocational accomplishment should be consistent
with the ability of each individual student. Through the cosmetology instructor's own
attitude in carefully planned public contacts, the cosmetology program will achieve status as
an important contributing part of the entire school program. Such a program is necessary
because the continued interest and assistance of community business and industrial leaders
is vital to the success of all the vocational and technical courses. It must be remembered that
the attitude of the school administration and student body, of business, industry,
employment service, parents, service organization, public agencies and the entire community
all have a bearing upon the decision students make concerning a vocational or technical
course.
Specifically, the role of the guidance counselor in a vocational program should include
the following responsibilities:

1. Providing occupational outlook to students and teachers through the cooperation
with teachers, industry and agencies.
2. Collecting information on policies, requirements, etc., and disseminating it to
teachers, administrators, feeder schools, students, and industry where needed.
3. Interpreting goals to industry and the trades, facilitating communication.
4. Interpreting goals to the administration.
5. Providing for follow-up and placement.
6. Providing for counseling.
7. Testing for occupational aptitude, furnishing pertinent information in follow-up
sessions.

With the role of the guidance counselor in mind, the instructor should confer with the
guidance department as often as necessary for the exchange of useful information.
Both the guidance counselor and the cosmetology instructor should be able to furnish
information about high school equivalency tests to prospective cosmetology students who
dropped out of school before graduation. In the State of Florida there are 39 official testing







centers, where examinations for the Florida High School Equivalency Diploma are given at
periodic intervals. The tests are also given at 9 correctional institutions and 4 road prisons.
The test covers 5 areas:
Correctness and effectiveness of Expression (English)
Interpretation of Reading Materials in the Social Studies
Interpretation of Reading Materials in the Natural Sciences
General Mathematical Ability.
Each of the 5 tests is comprehensive, and each requires approximately 2 hours. Usually 2
days are required for completion of all 5 tests.
In addition, both guidance counselor and cosmetology instructor should have ready
information for cosmetology students concerning licensing examinations. Graduates of all
types of cosmetology programs are ready to take the State Board of Cosmetology's licensing
examination upon completion of the prescribed course of study.
Regarding the administration of examinations, the Florida State Cosmetology Law
(Florida Statutes 477.10) states:
(1) The board shall conduct examination of applicants for certificates of registration to
practice as registered instructors of cosmetology, registered master cosmetologists,
registered cosmetologists, and registered specialists not less than twelve (12) times
each year at such time and place as the board may determine. The examination of
applicants for a certificate of registration as registered instructors of cosmetology,
registered master cosmetologists, registered cosmetologists, and registered specialists
shall include both practical demonstrations and written and oral tests and shall
embrace the subjects required in Section 477.08 to be taught in schools of
cosmetology approved by the board. An applicant for a cosmetologist's examination
shall have completed the number of hours of continuous study and practice of
cosmetology as required by Section 477.08 (1).
(2) Any blind person, as defined in Section 413.021, making application for a
certificate of registration, pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, shall be
allowed to have the written portion of the examination read to him or her and
his or her answers recorded with recording equipment transcribed by a person or
persons approved by the board.
The instructor must understand, however, that taking the licensing examination is not a
requirement for graduation. Refusing to grant a diploma until the examination has been
taken is absolutely contrary to published policies of the Department of Education and to
Florida Law.
According to Accreditation Standards for Florida Schools, Section 5.622 (6)(c),
published by the Department of Education in 1963,
Promotional policies.- .. Pupils shall be promoted and credits shall be
granted on the basis of policies developed by the school and approved by the
county board. .. .
Also, according to the Supplement to Florida Statutes, Section 230.23, published by the
Florida Legislative Council in 1967,
Powoers and Duties of County Board.-- The county board acting as a board
shall exercise all powers and perform all duties listed below:
(a) Admission, classification, promotion and graduation of pupils.-
Adopt rules and regulations for admitting, classifying, promoting,
and graduating pupils to or from the various schools of the
county, .
Clearly, the responsibility for deciding requirements for graduation rests with the county
school board and not with the instructor.

INVENTORIES

Inventories are important to the cosmetology instructor. At the beginning of the course,
the instructor should check supplies and equipment to make certain that everything listed in
the inventory is present and operable. At the end of each month, the instructor should take







inventory of all supplies and equipment on hand. Supplies and equipment should be listed
separately, with a different form for each classification.
If the inventory is to be of real value, each equipment inventory should include the
following information:
1) location and number of each item;
2) condition of each item;
3) parts needed for repairs;
4) replacement costs and repairs.
The supplies inventory should include:
1) amount purchased during the month;
2) amount used by students;
3) amount remaining.
For both equipment and supplies, the inventory should be the basis of requesting
additions for fulfillment of future needs. (See sample inventory sheets in Appendix.)


HANDLING CASH IN THE LABORATORY

Because of the extra bookkeeping and responsibility involved, it is better for someone in
the school administrative office to collect and handle all money from laboratory accounts.
However, a certain amount of money must unavoidably be handled in the laboratory. The
instructor should be careful to keep adequate and complete records to account for all such
school or student funds.
A common practice is for the principal to issue a small petty cash fund from internal
accounts. The instructor is responsible for giving to the principal at the end of the month
the balance remaining in the petty cash fund, together with receipts for student services as
listed and the total cash receipts for that day.
The method of purchasing supplies varies with school and county policy and with
certain other legal requirements. (Section 237.01 (1,2), Florida Statutes, and Department of
Education manual Financial Accoun ting of Florida Schools.


CLEANING, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE OF THE LABORATORY

The instructor should make routine cleaning of the laboratory a part of the regular class
instruction. Many laboratories are cleaned completely by the students, except for heavy
cleaning and waxing, which are the responsibility of the regular school maintenance staff.
Specific clean-up duties should be assigned, posted, and rotated each week. Students should
start carrying out these assigned duties fifteen minutes before class dismissal, and the
instructor should check the completed work.
Along with the actual mechanics of cleaning, the students should learn the importance
of clean, attractive surroundings, and they should take pride in keeping the laboratory in
acceptable condition.
The instructor should bring maintenance problems and needed repairs to the attention
of the school administration. Under no circumstances should the instructor be responsible
for maintenance procedures which would seriously interfere with the planned instructional
program .


CLASS SIZE AND WORK LOAD

The size of cosmetology classes is usually determined by available space, equipment,
supplies, and work stations. However, a class can accommodate 20 students if there are only
18 work stations, because one student will serve as receptionist and one will serve in the
dispensary for the laboratory. In the academic classroom, seating should be provided for 20.
Never should there be more students than the instructor can teach efficiently.








Grouping of students on the basis of general intelligence is not a requirement for
maximum learning in the cosmetology classes, which are organized and taught to provide for
individual differences and abilities as few other subject areas can be.
Since cosmetology involves a study of many supplies and procedures, the instructor
needs time to plan for the effective presentation of ideas and materials. The teaching load,
in terms of hours spent in the classroom, should not be greater than that of other
instructors. The number of hours of actual teaching per day varies from 3, 4, 5, or 6 hours
per class in high school cosmetology programs to 6 hours per class in adult cosmetology
programs. An additional hour should be spent in planning and preparation.


TEXTBOOKS

One state-adopted textbook for cosmetology is available through the office of each
county superintendent. Students in the public high schools have free use of the books
during the school term, but students in other cosmetology programs are required to
purchase their own texts. Each instructor should secure a copy of the textbook for each
student and should also ask the school librarian to provide several copies for use in the
library .
The current textbook adoption in cosmetology is:
Standard Textbook of Cosmetology, Milady Publishing Corp., 1967, $4.65.
Related materials include a des k copy, furnished free with 25 copies purchased.
Consultant service may be requested, free, from the publisher. Available for
purchase are slides and filmstrips, student workbook, free examination review
book, personal improvement program. Suitable for average students in grades
11-12. Reading level is grade 11. The approach is topical.
Textbooks are not intended to set rigid limitations on courses of study or course
content but will provide a common frame of reference for student, teacher, and
administrative and supervisory personnel. Other references, current magazines and other
publications, visual aids, and other instructional materials should be used to supplement the
regular textbooks.



USE OF THE LABORATORY

The cosmetology instructors, being responsible for all supplies and equipment listed on
the inventory, are logically the only ones who should have keys to the laboratory. Every
instructor should be provided with one laboratory key and a stockroom key; when the class
is not in session, the laboratory should be locked. Since the condition of supplies and
equipment is important to the safety of students, no one should be permitted to use the
laboratory for non-instructional purposes.



THE COSMETOLOGY LIBRARY

A cosmetology library is essential for supplementing laboratory instruction and for
providing additional related information. The students should have ready access to manuals,
reference books, magazines, and printed occupational information.
The manuals furnish definite and specific information about basic procedures. The
reference books should contain information about supplies and equipment and some of the
problems involved in using them. Current magazines contain features concerning the latest
styles and techniques, and occupational information which is valuable for guidance
purposes.
A check-out system should enable a student to check out a book for a week at a time.
The dispensary worker could be responsible for checking out and receiving books and for
reporting to the instructor in writing any lost or unreturned books.







THE IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING ACCURATE ATTENDANCE RECORDS


All instructors are required by law to keep accurate attendance records and to submit
whatever reports may be required by the local administrative officer, the District School
Board, and the Department of Education.
Instructors serving under annual contract may be paid for the last month of the term
only after making all required reports. For instructors in continuing-contract status, failure
to make required reports not only would result in withholding of the last month's check,
but would also be grounds for terminating the continuing contract.
The register of attendance, which the instructor must keep from day to day, must be
open to inspection by school administrators at any time. In addition, each register is usually
examined two or three times during the first month of school and at unspecified intervals
thereafter to determine that the attendance record is being kept accurately.
Directions for recording required information are given in detail in the register. Any
items marked "optional" are to be completed only if required by local or county
regulations. To prevent unauthorized changes, all information should be recorded in ink or
indelible pencil. The register eventually becomes a permanent school record.
Attendance must be checked and recorded every morning and afternoon. A student is
counted present only when physically in attendance or when on a field trip or other
school-sponsored and supervised activity.
Only full days or half-days are recorded. Any absence for less than a whole day is
recorded as a half-day. Under the provisions of Section 130-1.952 of Department of
Education Regulations, the minimum school day for grades four through twelve is 270
minutes of actual class time. In elementary and secondary schools, then, the accuracy of the
attendance record is very important in administering the Compulsory Attendance Law and
the state's program of education.
The Compulsory Attendance Law (Section 232.01, Florida Statutes) states that all
students between the ages of 7 and 16 are required to attend school regularly during the
entire school term. This provision, however, does not apply to a married student, to a
student who marries during the school term, to a pregnant unmarried student, or to an
unmarried student who has had a child. In addition, exemption certificates may be issued by
the county superintendent under other conditions specified by law.
Since the county superintendent is legally responsible for enforcing the Compulsory
Attendance Law, he must be able to depend upon the attendance registers for accurate
information.
Even more important is the role of attendance reports in the allocation of state funds
for education, in which one of the major factors is average daily attendance (usually referred
to as A.D.A.). The number of basic instruction units for any county is determined from the
average daily attendance of pupils in the public schools of the county for the preceding
school year. Likewise, average daily attendance is an important factor in determining the
amount of the legislative appropriation for the Junior College Minimum Foundation
Program .
Vocational education units of instruction are supported by average daily attendance of
pupils in an approved vocational education program, and in some instances, such attendance
must be a certain percentage of the average daily attendance of the school.
The amount allocated to a county for instructional salaries is determined by the number
of instruction units earned and by the rank of certificate, years of experience in public
schools of Florida and contract status of the person sustaining the instruction unit.
Also indirectly dependent upon average daily attendance for allocation of funds are
current expense funds and education improvement expense. For each instructional unit, a
sum of money is allocated for current expenses other than transportation and instructional
salaries, and a larger sum for education improvement expense, to be used by the school
administrators in the most effective manner possible to improve the educational program.
Further evidence of the importance of accurate attendance records is the fact that the
Department of Education may increase the amount of state funds allocated if the average
daily attendance at the close of the second month of school of the current school year has
increased over that of the preceding year.








Other benefits based either directly or indirectly on average daily attendance are those
of allocation of funds for building programs, for the employer's share of payments to the
Teachers' Retirement System and County Officers and Employees Retirement System, and
for textbooks.
Obviously, then, every instructor should exercise great care in recording accurate
information. Failure to report a pupil in attendance when he is present results in a loss of
state funds to the county. On the other hand, "padding" the attendance reports results in
the county's receiving state funds to which it is not entitled. The law states that
"presentation of reasonable and satisfactory proof that a teacher, principal or other
personnel or school officer has falsified, or caused to be falsified, attendance records for
which he is responsible shall be sufficient grounds for the revocation of his teaching
certificate by the Department of Education or for dismissal or removal from office provided
that such individual shall be entitled to a hearing as provided by law and by Department of
Education Regulations."
Since each instructor would be individually liable for keeping false or inaccurate
attendance records, the importance of keeping accurate records from the very first day of
the school term cannot be overemphasized. If directions printed in the attendance register
are not clear to the instructor, a school official should be asked for assistance.



THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND THEIR APPLICATION

The course of study must employ a realistic conception of time, and must be neither too
short nor too long to be covered in the allotted period. The course outline should be used
daily in making lesson plans, and it should be checked frequently to make certain of keeping
on schedule. Allowance must be made for possible interruptions, but as nearly as possible,
the time schedule should be followed.
The basic principles of learning which the instructor must consider in planning
instruction are summarized here.
1. The best learning results from combined theory and practical application. If reading
assignments are made, they should be accompanied by practical application.
2. The practical application of learning should be immediate and should make use of
the technical and related information being taught.
3. Longer retention of learning results from frequent use of the learned material or
skill. Instructional material should be organized to provide repeated practical
applications.
4. Students learn more readily when they have a strong purpose or desire for learning,
but some students may need individual help in establishing that purpose. It is true,
however, that all students have certain needs, around which purposes can be
established. The instructor must discover these needs and make them known to the
student.
5. Learning is simplified by relating each new lesson to previously learned knowledge
and experience. Association of ideas is a valuable memory aid.
6. Learning, to be effective, must proceed in a logical order, usually from the more
basic to the more specialized.
7. Learning is problem-solving, and problems must be challenging enough to stimulate
learning within the ability of the student. The solution must provide progress toward
the pre-determined terminal behavioral objective.
8. The most effective learning takes place when impressions come through more than
one of the senses. Seeing and hearing must be accompanied by touch and smell, and
the kinesthetic sense should be employed constantly in the performance of related
skills.
9. The first learning impressions are usually the most lasting; therefore, it is important
not to convey wrong impressions which must be corrected later. The student should








be able to see the connection between the introductions and the main learning units
which follow.
10. Learning is more likely to take place if students have a reasonable chance of
achieving early success. Short assignments and smaller projects are best for
beginners.
11. Emotions are strong incentives for learning. The instructor should talk frequently
with each student, because only through constant contact can the instructor
determine what a student feels and what problems may be hindering progress.
Although knowing these principles of learning is important, simply knowing them is not
enough. The successful instructor must know how to apply these principles by providing
meaningful experiences which result in purposeful activity, and by planning definite
teaching techniques to accomplish the objectives of the course. Successful teaching requires
an understanding of five basic elements:
1. Methods to be used, such as demonstration, lecture or discussion.
2. Selection and organization of suitable instructional material, including operations
and related information.
3. Establishment of practical activities, such as projects, investigations, reports, and
experiments, as media of instruction.
4. Method of evaluating pupil achievement and progress, such as the use of oral and
written tests.
5. Use of suitable teaching aids, such as charts, films, projectors, and flannel boards.
By selecting different methods, the instructor can make the course much more
interesting and meaningful. Several possible techniques, with suggested applications, are
given here.
1. The project method
a. individual project
b. small-group project
c. class project
d. inter-class or correlated subject-matter project
2. The demonstration method
a. presentation by instructor
b. presentation by student
c. presentation by an experienced cosmetologist
d. presentation by film
3. The testing method
a. oral question and answer
b. written question and answer
c. performance
4. The assignment method
a. book assignment with oral reporting
b. outside collection of data
c. preparation of exhibits and specimens
5. The lecture or laboratory talk method
a. presentation by instructor
b. presentation by student


THE ROLE OF THE SENSES IN THE LEARNING OF COSMETOLOGY

The learning of cosmetology is accomplished by utilizing four of the five senses. The
sense of sight is probably the most useful sense and the one which gives the most vivid and
lasting impressions. The students should be encouraged to observe carefully the manipula-
tive operations as they are being demonstrated, noting the proper use of equipment and








supplies. The use of appropriate movies, pictures, charts, and diagrams, together with
written directions and explanations, contributes greatly to learning.
The sense of hearing rates next to sight in the learning process. Lectures and spoken
instructions should be perfected so that the learner clearly understands the intended
meaning. Unless there is intelligent communication between instructor and student, false
impressions and ideas are transmitted.
A third sense, touch, is important to every cosmetologist. The operator cannot depend
on sight alone to judge hair or skin texture, or to judge wetness or dryness, two very
important judgments in the practice of beauty culture.
The sense of smell, also, is used extensively in cosmetology. A cosmetologist learns to
identify many solutions such as permanent-wave solutions, lotions, creams and cosmetics,
by their distinctive odors.
All of these senses are used in any learning process, and a good instructor appeals to as
many senses as possible in every teaching situation. Deeper and more lasting impressions are
obtained when more than one sense organ conveys the message.


STUDY GUIDES FOR STUDENTS

The purpose of study guides is to assist students in reading about or investigating various
categories of information or manipulative activities. Thus, the study guides can be divided
into three classifications: informational, investigative, and manipulative. The informational
type helps a student to locate certain kinds of information essential to the basic
comprehension of the course. The investigative type assists a student in performing an
experiment or solving a research problem. The manipulative study guide is used (1) to help a
student study the necessary operations for a manipulation and (2) to provide essential
instructions for performing the manipulation. Frequently, informative and manipulative
information can be included in the same study guide.
A study guide should have four parts:
1. Purpose
2. Study questions
3. References
4. Practical application
Purpose: The purpose should state the specific objective of the assignment in terms of
what the student is expected to learn.
Study Questions: This section should contain questions designed specifically to guide
the student's reading. These questions could be either objective or subjective, and they
could be used later for class discussion.
References: This section should list all the available sources of information needed to
answer the questions. The title of each book or periodical should be accurately stated, and
the exact pages where the information can be found should be given.
Practical Application: This section should include one or more specific tasks involving
an application of the material read, with complete instructions for performing the tasks.
See Appendix for sample study guides.


AIDS FOR PLANNING AND INSTRUCTION

The development and use of certain planning and teaching aids will promote and
accelerate learning. Some aids which can be helpful in cosmetology instruction are listed
below and explained more fully in succeeding sections of the manual.
1. Instructor's Plan Book
2. Textbooks and workbooks
3. Specialized books on one or more phase of cosmetology
4. Blackboards and flannel boards







5. Bulletin Boards
6. Movies, film strips, slides, transparencies
7. Opaque projectors and overhead projectors
8. Charts, posters
9. Mock-up models, mannequins
10. Booklets and pamphlets (free or inexpensive)
11. Magazines, news articles, and publications
12. Socio-drama
13. Field trips
14. School projects
15. Mimeograph
16. Microscope




THE INSTRUCTOR'S PLAN BOOK


The instructor's plan book is as necessary to teaching as the blueprint is to building a
house. Although there are few commercial aids of this type in the field of cosmetology, one
prepared by the instructor is even better because it is planned with a specific school
situation in mind.
Any one of several methods may be followed in preparing the plan book. One method is
to use a large loose-leaf notebook with indexed divider sheets. Next to each divider sheet, a
large envelope the same size as the books should be inserted. Holes punched in the envelope
will fit over the rings of the notebook, holding the envelope in place. The indexed divider
sheets should be labeled with the name of each unit.
After the book is prepared, the instructor should read the text carefully and outline
each unit. If the textbook is not as complete as the instructor would like it to be, some
provision must be made for supplementary information. The units should then be arranged
in the plan book in the order in which they are to be taught. The first unit should consist of
introduction and orientation. Included in this unit would be the rules and regulations under
which the school operates; an overview of the course, emphasizing the importance of the
training; the opportunities in the field of cosmetology; and the responsibilities involved.
At the beginning of each unit, goals and aims to be accomplished should be listed,
together with methods of presentation to be used in accomplishing them. Additional aids,
such as current clippings, pictures, and samples, should be filed in the large envelope
inserted at this section. Suggestions for research or experiments should be catalogued;
appropriate field trips and available speakers should be listed. If any lesson includes a
demonstration, all necessary materials and equipment should be listed with that particular
lesson. When film strips or movies are to be incorporated, they should be noted at the
beginning of the unit so that arrangements for obtaining them can be made in advance.
Each lesson in the plan book should end with prepared questions which will review the
main points of the lesson just taught and lead into the next lesson. A vocabulary list should
also be made, reviewing words in the lesson and introducing words which the student will
find in the assignment. Such an arrangement of questions and vocabulary words facilitates
the preparation of a weekly test.
On the final page of each unit, the instructor should write an evaluation, including a
review of the aims and goals, compared to actual accomplishment, and a critical
self-appraisal of instruction, with suggestions for improvement.
Some instructors prefer a file box and either 5-inch or 8-inch cards for lesson plans.
Either method is satisfactory since both loose-leaf notebook and the card-file system are
expandable and revisable. Both can be kept up to date.







THE PREPARATION OF LESSON PLANS


After establishing objectives and planning the course outline, the instructor should make
lesson plans so that the practical work can be taught with the theory. Lesson plans are
essential as guidelines, but should be flexible enough to permit adaptation to unexpected
situations and to individual differences within and between classes.
The preparation for making lesson plans should begin with a careful analysis of the
course, separating the skills from the theory. The skills should then be arranged in a
sequential order from the simplest to the most difficult. The instructor then must decide
how much time is to be allotted to each skill.
In the actual formulation of plans, one method is to make two columns on each page,
listing the skills in one column and the theory in the other. Under skills, all manipulations
are listed. The theory should include the terms, the equipment and supplies, the principles
of operating the equipment, and other pertinent information. In addition, the safety
practices, the sanitary rules, the place of the operation in the business, the emphasis the
state board places on it, the anatomical connection, some historical data, and any other
interesting facts should be listed here. At the conclusion of each lesson plan should be a
"connector," a brief introduction into the subject which follows.
Each lesson plan has four parts: Introduction, Instruction, Application, and Evaluation.
The chart on the following page summarizes the features of the four-part lesson plan, and
each of its parts is explained in detail on succeeding pages.





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STEP ONE: INTRODUCTION


This first step includes the preparation of the lesson plan, the aids, charts and other
supplementary material, and the introduction of the students to preliminary related or
foundational material. The instructor should consider the group's ability in deciding how
much material to cover and which methods to use. There should be suitable seating, good
lighting and ventilation, available blackboards, and preferably a raised platform so that the
work can be visible to all the students. Mirrors, if available, are also useful.
If some students have seen the demonstration previously, different visual aids can make
it as interesting to those students as it is to those who are seeing it for the first time. Each
time the learner sees a skill demonstrated, something new is learned; everything cannot be
grasped in a single lesson. If many students do not understand, even after more than one
demonstration, it may be that the instructor has been trying to cover too much in one
lesson or that certain points have not been adequately demonstrated.
Planning a lesson around a student's question or request is taking advantage of a
readiness which the instructor did not have to stimulate. Repeating a demonstration to
settle a difference of opinion is another opportunity which should never be ignored. While
the preparations for the demonstration are being made, the foundational or introductory
material may be discussed so that the student will know the objectives of the
demonstration.
A very important part of the preparation is motivating the student. If a progressive
curriculum is followed, the students who have had satisfying, successful experiences in the
previous work are ready and eager to progress. Several methods are useful in promoting and
stimulating interest, each intended to arouse the students' natural curiosity. Sometimes,
displaying equipment or supplies which will be used and which are new to the students will
prompt them to ask questions and be ready for the demonstration.


STEP TWO: INSTRUCTION

The instructor performs in the center of the group, turning so that her back is not to
anyone for any length of time. Small groups are better than large ones for demonstration
purposes, but if a large group is necessary, the instructor should give the initial performance
and then sub-divide the group and repeat it for each sub-group.
Everything should be done slowly, carefully and exactly, and a brief explanation of the
movements should accompany the lesson. The instructor should explain and give directions
with positive statements, telling what to do and what not to do. Students should be
encouraged to ask questions.
Aids, charts, and pictures pertinent to the demonstration should be prepared in advance
and shown at the most appropriate time. Interruptions during the demonstration should be
avoided. Instruction sheets describing the lesson and pointing out the important steps or
facts are helpful and are valuable for future reference, also.

In general, some of the advantages of instruction sheets are:

1. They provide for individualized instruction.
2. They help students recall demonstrations.
3. They supplement inadequate textbook material.
4. They make it possible for the instructor to spend more time in supervision.

Other valuable teaching aids are the flannel board, mock-up models, and mannequins,
the overhead projector, the opaque projector, charts and posters, bulletin boards,
blackboards, a microscope, duplicated materials, sociodrama, magazines and other publica-
tions, school projects, movies and filmstrips, and field trips. All these aids are explained and
described on the following pages.







STEP THREE: APPLICATION


The practice step should follow immediately after the demonstration while the
impression is clear in the students' mind, and the instructor should make certain that each
student clearly understands the details of the expected performance. The practice should be
supervised, and assistance should be given to those who need it. By observing the
performance, the instructor can evaluate the demonstration by the comprehension exhibited
by the students.
Some students will not only be more observing of details, but also will have more ability
to perform. The instructor should keep a close watch during the practice session to make
certain that no student begins by performing the skills incorrectly. It is imperative to
observe those who are having difficulty and to help them individually. However, care should
be taken to avoid embarrassing or ridiculing a student. Having a student repeat the
performance as often as is necessary for perfection is desirable, but insisting that the student
continue practice when tired or discouraged builds up resentment. It is wise to accept a
student's efforts even though short of perfection, pointing out the areas which need
improvement for correction during the next practice session. Eventual completion and
appraisal of a project is important for building confidence; however, the instructor must be
aware of individual differences. Patience and understanding are essential with slow students;
firmness and compulsory practice are necessary for the lazy ones.


STEP FOUR: EVALUATION

Evaluation determines whether the objectives of the lesson plan have been accomplish-
ed. If they have not been accomplished, the instructor must examine the presentation for
possible ineffective teaching.
Testing should take place when the student has had a sufficient practice period and an
opportunity to ask questions or to receive more help if needed. Before the testing, the
instructor should always inquire whether anyone does need more help. If the students
indicate uncertainty, another demonstration and practice period should be provided. If the
students indicate adequate comprehension, the testing should proceed. During the testing,
the student works entirely alone. The instructor should observe any weakness or incorrect
actions, evaluating the degree of efficiency exhibited by the student. If the required
standard is not achieved, the student is not passed until there is sufficient improvement.
Related information, trade terms, background information and pertinent data is best
tested by written or by oral examination, as skill performance alone is not enough. Each
phase of the work should be examined and appraised.
The theory test should include:
1. Historical data in connection with cosmetology;
2. Anatomical information;
3. Theories and principles involved in the work;
4. Names of tools, materials, and equipment;
5. Definitions and formulas;
6. Directions for certain procedures.




THE FLANNEL BOARD

A flannel board, similar to the bulletin board, is an inexpensive but dynamic teaching
device. It is a piece of masonite, or similar material, over which flannel or felt is stretched
very tightly and secured. Paper or cardboard figures backed with flannel, felt, or sandpaper
adhere to the flannel board so that they can be used to illustrate points of a lecture or
lesson.








For instance, an outline of a skull can be placed on the board, and cutouts representing
each bone can be placed in order within the outline. Seeing the bones placed one at a time is
much more impressive than looking at a flat picture. Also, the arrangement of laboratory
equipment can be realistically demonstrated by this method.


MOCK-UP MODELS AND MANNEQUINS

Commercially manufactured torso models are useful in teaching anatomy units because
they show the muscles, arteries and veins very clearly. There are also cut-away sections of
the heart, the eye, and the vertebrae.
Some schools use a large papier-mache head for the demonstration of curl placement
and direction. Placing felt curls on the model head is an excellent way to clarify explanation
in hair styling.
The mannequin, too, can be a helpful aid after the student has had basic practice and
realizes the need of repetition to perfect skills. Students learn more effectively by working
on each other so that they learn the sensation of receiving as well as the skill of giving.


THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR

The overhead projector, one of the newer developments in projection devices, can
project transparent materials of 10 by 10 inches or larger. Although rather expensive, some
commercially-prepared transparencies are available, but it is possible for the instructor to
make original transparencies of drawings or written material on plastic, usually called
acetate, sheets with special ceramic pencils. Directions for making these transparencies come
with a prepared kit of the necessary materials, which can be obtained by contacting a
manufacturer's representative.
One advantage of the overhead projector is that the instructor can face the class while
presenting the visual lesson. Another advantage is that the room need not be darkened.


THE OPAQUE PROJECTOR

One use of the opaque projector is explained in the section describing the making of
charts and posters: projecting an illustration or diagram onto a sheet of paper or tag board,
then outlining the image with chalk or ink, so that exact proportions can be shown. In
addition, a collection of photographs, a series of sketches, pictures, charts, or a printed page
of any current material can be shown with little or no preparation. The instructor can talk
or explain, using a pointer, from the projector. Some instructors have made opaque strip
rolls by mounting related pictures and charts on a roll of paper and running it through the
projector.
Because it is so versatile, the opaque projector can be used in some way almost every
day.

CHARTS AND POSTERS

Because the ideal learning situation is one in which the written word, the word picture,
and the demonstration are inter-dependent, charts and posters are helpful devices in
teaching cosmetology. Permanent charts, carefully made, can be used repeatedly to illustrate
lectures, and instructor-made charts, pictures, and other visual aids can be kept up to date so
that they will give variety and interest to many lessons.
Manilla tag paper for permanent charts, or inexpensive newsprint paper for expendable
ones, can be purchased at most school supply stores in sheets, 24 by 36 inches, and can be
used on a tripod made for that purpose. Printing sets are available at a small cost, or hand
lettering might be used for the descriptions. Felt-tip pens of various colors are useful for
sketching and lettering.







Students, too, should be urged to create posters illustrating safety, cleanliness, or good
grooming. Contests which give recognition to the students whose posters merit it have a
stimulating effect on a class.
In addition to instructor-made or student-made charts, some commercial charts and
pictures are available. One manufacturer offers a training aid in the form of "flip charts,"
which are well prepared and which may be obtained free of charge if the company's
products are used in the laboratory.

BULLETIN BOARDS

The bulletin board should be used in many ways, not just for clippings and pictures.
Everything placed on it should fit into a central theme, and the background color should be
changed regularly.
Two or more small boards are more effective than one large one. One board could be
used just for presenting new hairstyles, appropriate for the season, and could be changed
monthly, or actual photographs of hairstyles created in the school could be displayed.
Another board might contain current news or magazine articles pertaining to cosmetology.
Sometimes a more permanent display board can be helpful if it contains State Board rules
and regulations, reciprocity charts, book lists, legislative changes, teaching certificate and
licensure, enrollment forms for students, and State Board inspection sheets.
Students should be encouraged to take interest in the arrangements on the bulletin
boards and to present their own ideas. Creative talents may be discovered among the
students. However, students should have help and instruction in mounting materials on the
boards.
Group mounting of small pictures arranged in a curved formation attracts attention.
Silhouettes are effective when mounted with a pin or a cork so that they stand out from the
board. Paper sculpture, such as coils, twists, bands or folds is eye catching. Wire screen, wire
coils, steel wool, yarn, ribbon, rick-rack, thumb tacks, pins with colored heads, cotton,
foliage and other unexpected items can be used for distinctive displays.

CHALKBOARDS

Next to the textbook, the chalkboard is the most usable visual aid. It may be either
permanent or portable if it can be seen by everyone in the class. A good quality of chalk
should be used, and lines four to five inches apart might be drawn with a scriber to make
writing on the blackboard easier. Either manuscript or cursive writing may be used.
At first, class assignments might be written on the board. Next, important points of the
lessons might be listed, together with new vocabulary words. Simple drawings on the board
are effective to illustrate lectures. Outline drawings showing different views of the head can
be used frequently to illustrate curl techniques, cold wave blocking, partings, and wave
formations, and can be made semi-permanent by retracing the outlines with a small brush
dipped in white shoe polish. Semi-permanent outlines cannot be erased with an ordinary
blackboard eraser; the fill-in sketching could be erased and replaced time after time.
It is also possible to make such outline drawings by tracing around an image projected
on the blackboard. This, too, can be made semi-permanent and used repeatedly.
Announcements written on the blackboard receive more attention than when given
orally. Then, when the intended message has been seen, it should be erased. New
announcements should be placed on the board at intervals so that students learn to expect
them there.
In addition, assignments written on the blackboard cannot be misunderstood or
forgotten, and examinations written on the blackboard save time and confusion.

THE MICROSCOPE

If a school is interested in on-the-spot analysis of hair and the effects of certain
chemicals on it, a microscope is a valuable investment. Also, slides showing blood cells,







various forms of bacteria and other anatomical forms can be obtained from supply houses.
However, if there is no money for a microscope, projected slides can teach the same
information .


DUPLICATED MATERIALS

Every instructor should make use of available duplicating machines to personalize,
unify, and broaden classroom instruction. Duplicated instructional sheets given to students
following a demonstration become referral sheets for proper procedures later. The
duplicated sheets also have value as review information for students who may be developing
bad habits or techniques.
Other duplicated material might include new ideas, tests, charts, and state board
announcements, all of which could become a part of the students' notebooks.
Spirit duplicators are the least expensive type of copy machine, and the least expensive
to operate. However, mimeograph machines make more lasting copies. The more recent
dry-copy machines are not practicable for mass production of material because they require
special paper which is much more expensive than duplicator or mimeograph paper. The
dry-copy machine, though, is very valuable for the reproduction of one or two pictures or
articles at a time, and it would be a good investment for that purpose if there is money for
the purchase of one.


MAGAZINES AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Subscribing to and reading trade magazines is an excellent means of keeping up with the
new trends and ideas pertaining to the teaching of cosmetology. New products should be
discussed and informational material should be used in class instruction. Students who read
the trade magazines become aware of style changes before the patrons ask about them.
Many popular magazines carry articles about beauty hints and suggestions, which can be
discussed in class so that students can be prepared to talk about the articles with patrons
who have read them.
In addition, there are instructor-training periodicals, which give valuable suggestions to
be used in classroom instruction.


SOCIODRAMA

Sociodrama, the dramatization of situations encountered in everyday life, is a valuable
learning and adjusting device. This role-playing is especially helpful in preparing students for
situations which they are anticipating with worry and anxiety, such as the initial meeting
with patrons or future employers, participating in contests, or speaking before groups.
Knowing how to act in these situations helps to overcome the fear of them.
Reversing the roles of the students is helpful, also. One student might play the part of a
customer who is resisting the suggestion of an operator, thus learning how to deal with a
difficult patron.


SCHOOL PROJECTS

School projects can add a new dimension to the study of cosmetology, giving the
students a well-rounded background. For instance, a theory notebook will be a useful source
of information after graduation. Scrapbooks, in which students paste pictures of hair styles
found in magazines and newspapers, are valuable aids in teaching students to recognize hair
styles which complement facial features.
Another project, which proved successful when sponsored by a hair tint company, was
that of having students prepare charts on which they mounted samples of hair before and







after tinting. Through this project, students learned to talk about hair tinting to the
customers, acquiring practice in salesmanship, verbal expression and the actual experience of
giving the tint.
A project of locating all the beauty shops in the city on an outline map of the area gives
students an opportunity to recognize areas which need new shops, as well as those which
might have more than needed. A follow-up activity might involve sending the students to
visit shops, obtaining prices of the services, the number of operators employed in each, and
other information of interest. Contacts made through the follow-up activity might lead to
future employment opportunities.


VISUAL MATERIALS AND FILMSTRIPS

Teaching with the aid of visual materials and filmstrips can be very effective if properly
done, but such aids are supplementary and are not intended to replace the instructor. They
simply make the instruction more interesting and more comprehensible.
Instructors should choose only those visual materials and filmstrips which have been
carefully and professionally prepared. Many have been poorly constructed, with little
thought for the audience for which they were intended. Also, the information presented
should be basic until the students are ready for more advanced work.
In addition to commercially-prepared visual materials, colored slides can be made from
pictures taken within the classroom, at a convention, at a style show, or at any other
appropriate event. The new, fast, color film permits the taking of otherwise impossible
pictures, such as the bleaching of hair from very dark to very light. The procedure can then
be viewed many times.
Supplementary slides might be prepared from pictures taken at school contests, perhaps
recognizing the winning students, and could then be used to provide incentive when the
class is preparing for another event. Copies of the slides could be given to the participating
students.

FIELD TRIPS

Field trips are interesting and educational supplements to the regular cosmetology
curriculum. One unexpected source of interesting information for cosmetology students is a
museum, where cosmetic preparations, indicative of the degree of civilization and culture at
various periods in history, are displayed.
Another interesting field trip might be to a school or a newspaper file room, where
yearbooks and old newspaper pictures present interesting comparison and contrast of hair
styles through the years. By examining the pictures in chronological order, the students
should be able to recognize definite cycles of hair styles.
Beauty supply houses usually welcome visits from cosmetology classes. Here, students
can see a wide variety of products displayed in a setting like that of an actual beauty shop.
They learn much about the equipment and supplies needed for setting up a shop, thus
acquiring a realistic lesson in shop planning and management.
Style shows, beauty conventions and manufacturers' demonstrations are educational
experiences, too. Announcements of such events should be made to the classes and then
posted on the bulletin board. Students should be encouraged to attend, together with the
instructor.
Another idea is to permit the class of students to visit beauty salons which have given
permission for this privilege. The students would spend a designated period of time in the
salon, observing procedures, which would then be discussed in the theory class the following
day. Observation of actual practices makes the laboratory work more meaningful. In
addition, salon owners who are favorably impressed with a visiting student might select
students to work in the salon following completion of the cosmetology course.
If it can be arranged, a visit to the legislature when it is in session would be interesting
and informative, also. Since all lawS pertaining to cosmetology must be passed by the
legislature, the students should become acquainted with the legislative process.








Observation of the city or community in which the school is located should produce
other interesting possibilities for field trips, but it must be remembered that all field trips
should have definite objectives, should be well planned, and should have a relationship to
the study of cosmetology.
County policies may require written releases of responsibility for students participating
in any type of field trip or other activity away from the school.


MEASURABLE SKILLS INVOLVED IN ALL WORK

Tool Skills
1. Visual acuity (near and far point vision)
2. Motor coordination
3. Memory (in field of special interest)
4. Manual dexterity
5. Object assembly
6. Mechanical reasoning
7. Basic arithmetic

Social Skills (Emotional condition)
1. Sociable unsociable traits (hostility)
2. Security insecurity
3. Frustration tolerance (perseverance)
4. Self-understanding
5. Value judgment
6. Masculine feminine traits
7. Dominant submissive traits
8. Optimistic pessimistic
9. Discrimination between essential and non-essential detail. Major and minor issues.
10. Appearance

Language Skills
1. Reading comprehension
2. Ability to write a sentence and paragraph
3. Ability to speak effectively
4. Creative, magnetic quality and imagination
5. Memory
6. Abstract verbal reasoning


Numerical Skills
1. Basic arithmetic
2. Memory
3. Symbolic abstract reasoning
4. Mathematical creativity and imagination
5. Verbal math reasoning ability


TESTING AND EVALUATION OF COSMETOLOGY STUDENTS

The philosophy behind the need for evaluation is based on the fact that individuals need
success experiences in order to live effective lives. Without success experiences in the
classroom, there is little motivation. On the other hand, if, by means of evaluation, an
individual sees that he is improving, he will be motivated to keep on with his practice.
M. E. Troyer, of the Psychological Association, summarizes evaluation activities as
follows :








1. The chief purpose of evaluation is the improvement of learning.
2. Evaluation should be done with rather than to an individual. The instructor should
help the student become adept in identifying his own strengths and weaknesses.
3. Progress should be assessed on the basis of a person's ability to learn. Those of
limited ability should be rewarded for doing well whatever they are capable of
doing. Those of outstanding ability should be constantly stimulated to perform at
higher levels.
Evaluation activities will be most effective, if they consist of the best possible
techniques which should be used in accordance with the most effective psychological)
principles. Some of the principles basic to effective evaluation methods are as follows:
1. Readiness is a very important prerequisite for learning. A student is ready when he
understands and accepts the values and objectives involved, and that basically all
evaluation is for the the purpose of helping him.
2. People tend to carry on those activities which have brought successful results--in this
case, high marks on a test. If an instructor uses tests which demand rote memory,
the students will become memorizers. If a test requires students to apply principles,
interpret data, or solve problems the students will study for these types of test
items. Thus it follows, then, that the type of evaluation device used determines, to a
great extent, the type of learning activity in which students will engage in the
classroom.
3. Individuals learn better when they are constantly appraised in a meaningful manner
as to how well they are doing. The longer the papers or test results are kept by the
instructor, the less interest the students have in them and the less use the papers are
as learning devices.
A point value might be given to each factor being considered. For example, hour-long
tests might have a 40-point value; the final examination, 10 points; short quizzes, 10 points;
and manipulative tests, 40 points. Then the average point value earned by the student in all
these factors would give a numerical grade which could be converted to a letter grade if
necessary.
The instructor should take into account only those factors which indicate attainment of
the objectives of the course. A grade in cosmetology should reflect a student's level of
achieved skill and knowledge in relation to the stated objectives of the course. Other factors,
such as absenteeism, should be rated separately and should not influence the cosmetology
grade.
An extremely helpful chart for computing grade averages, designed by Robert R.
Blackwelder, Decatur, Georgia, may be ordered from Elementary Teaching Aids, Minta,
Alabama. If used correctly, it can save the instructor many hours of work.
Example: If a student has grades of 94, 88, 75, 83, 90, 70, and 89, the instructor
would first add the grades:
94
88
75
83
90
70
89

Total of 7 grades: 589
Next, the instructor would look under column 7 for the sum nearest
589. Following this line across the page, the average is shown to be 84.














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66







In a large class of many different levels of ability, it is possible to grade on a curve. The
curve is established by finding the mean and the measured standard deviation units from it.
By adding V2 & Standard deviation to the mean and by subtracting V2 a standard deviation
from the mean, a band of raw scores is established for a grade of "C". Adding 1 standard
deviation to the upper "C" limit establishes the "B" range, and all scores above that point
receive "A". Similarly, subtracting 1 standard deviation from the lower limit of the "C"
band establishes the range for "D" grades. Scores falling below this range receive "F". Most
cosmetology classes are too small for this type of grade distribution.
An easier method which accomplishes similar results is that of using a group of
percentages such as this:
A B CD F
7 24 38 24 7
5 20 50 20 5
10 20 40 20 10
Grading on the curve always produces both "A's" and "F's". However, particularly in a
small class, such as a cosmetology class, the instructor may believe that no one has earned
either an "A" or an "F" grade. In such a case, the curve method of distribution is not
possible.
Computing final grades is a more complicated process than computing scores of single
tests. Factors to be considered in computing final grades should have been made clear to the
students at the very beginning of the course. Usually these factors will include several tests
on theory and related information, special projects, and tests of manipulative skills.
Throughout the entire course, the instructor has had many opportunities to observe and
collect data for every student. The average of all these samples of behavior should provide a
reliable final grade, with little weight being given to a final examination.
A helpful grade computation chart can be ordered from Elementary Teaching Aids,
Minta, Alabama.
A similar type of distribution might be done in a different form such as the one shown
here, in which X = Raw Score and x = Deviation from Mean.


SCORES ON EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT TEST

Individual X x

1 98 18
2 96 16
3 96 16
4 94 14
5 94 14
6 93 13 A
7 91 11
8 89 9
9 88 8
10 86 6
11 85 5
12 85 5 B
13 83 3 C+
14 82 2
15 82 2
16 81 1
17 81 1 C
18 78 -2
19 77 -3


Continued Nexut Page







Individual Xx

20 77 -3
21 75 -5 C-
22 72 -8
23 71 -9
24 70 -10
25 67 -13
26 65 -15
27 65 -15
28 64 -16 D
29 62 -18
30 62 -18 F

Total: 2409

N (Mean) = 30


GRADES AND GRADING

The giving of fair, reliable grades is one of the most difficult aspects of teaching. The
most widely-used method is that of basing a test on a score of 100, which represents a
supposedly perfect score, with a grade of 65 or 70 usually representing the lowest passing
score. This arbitrary percentage method is not necessarily the best method although
probably the most widely used.
Another possible method is one in which the class mean or average score is based only
upon those taking the test. The mean gets a grade of "C". Then the instructor arbitrarily
draws lines breaking up the distribution into letter grades. This method works as well as any
other; examples are the charts given below and on the following page.
The procedure for making a distribution of scores is as follows:
1. Add the number of correct responses on each paper to obtain a "raw score" for each
student.
2. Subtract the lowest score from the highest and add 1 point, thus establishing the
"range"'.
3. Plot the scores on a sheet of paper as illustrated below, making the units on the
baseline equal.

Ran ge=13

xx x x
xx xx xxxxxxx
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22


4. A person's performance on a test is directly related to his motivation. Even fatigue,
minor illnesses, and nervousness have no effect on a student's performance when he
is strongly motivated to do well.
5. Learning is most efficient when there is activity on the part of the learner. When the
student grades his own paper, he becomes involved and learning takes place.
The type of testing or evaluating device to be used depends upon the type of knowledge
or ability being tested or evaluated. Individual tests can be administered to only one person
at a time; therefore, most instructors use group tests. Group tests are frequently divided into
two types, verbal and non-verbal. Non-verbal tests use figures, forms, and pictures instead of
words.








Performance tests measure an individual's ability to perform some task, usually with his
hands. In contrast to the performance test would be the paper-and-pencil test.
Tests may be either objective or subjective. An objective test is one on which errors
result from carelessness and inaccuracy on the part of the individual being tested. On the
other hand, the results of subjective tests may reflect the attitudes of the person who grades
the test. The essay examination is an example of a subjective test.
Sometimes tests are labeled as either speed tests or power tests. The items on a speed
test are very easy since its purpose is to see how fast an individual can perform. A power test
is used to test ability and achievement, not speed. Most tests would more accurately be
termed time-limit tests, which measure ability and achievement demonstrated within a
limited time.
Many tests are labeled standardized because they have been given to appropriate groups
in order to establish norms. The opposite of the standardized test is the teacher-made test,
which is most useful in measuring the success of the instructor in achieving the objectives of
the course. Teacher-made tests are the best kind, too, for evaluating student achievement in
a given classroom.
Probably most testing and evaluation in a cosmetology course is for the purpose of
determining degree of achievement; however, it is also necessary to have some measurement
of intelligence, or general mental ability, so that instruction can be planned to meet all
individual differences. Closely associated with this general ability is the special ability test,
which measures the individual's ability in skills required for the practice of cosmetology.
Finally, although such information is not essential, the results of personality or
adjustment tests and in terests-andl-attitudles surveys would be helpful if they are available.



THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TESTS

The reliability of a test is the consistency with which it measures the same thing on
repeated trials. If the test questions themselves are not ambiguous and if they are
appropriate to the experience level of the students, the length of the test, within reason,
determines the reliability. For example, in a classification test, 100 questions would insure
far greater reliability than would 50 questions. High reliability in short quizzes cannot be
expected, but such tests should not be used for pass-fail (classification) purposes. The
instructor should be able to determine how many questions per hour the students can read
with comprehension and how long they can concentrate without showing definite
symptoms of boredom and fatigue.
The validity of a test is its ability to measure what it is intended to measure. Taking
questions directly from material the students have studied insures at least one type of
validity, called "internal validity," provided the questions have been carefully composed to
avoid ambiguity. Other standards of validity can be determined only by statistics.
When a test has been administered to twenty or more students, an item analysis should
be performed to evaluate each question's ability to differentiate high and low achievers.
Questions that are never answered correctly, or that are answered correctly by the low
achievers as often as they are by the high achievers do not distinguish individual differences
in ability.
In making an item analysis, divide the score distribution in half so that there are two
groups of scores, those made by the high achievers and those made by the low achievers. On
an unused copy of the test, record the number of times each question was missed by each
group, and then convert these tallies into percentages.
A test question is of no value in differentiating between high and low achievers if all the
students missed it, if all the high achievers and none of the low achievers missed it, if half of
each group missed it, or if no one missed it. The ideal question would be one missed by all
the students in the low-achiever group but answered correctly by all those in the
high-achiever group. This ideal is never attained, but somewhere between it and the
conditions summarized above there is a point at which the instructor should begin to doubt
the efficiency of the question. At this point, the question should be revised or eliminated in
favor of a better one.








ORAL EXAMINATIONS

Sometimes an oral examination alone is preferable for determining the effectiveness of a
lesson and the degree of comprehension. Questions, however, should be carefully planned to
produce good verbal expression. Some suggestions for oral examinations are given here:
1. Write out the questions in good grammatical form and read them to the student.
2. Ask each student an equal number of questions, not necessarily the same ones.
3. Prepare several sets of questions and use them in rotation. (Students become
test-wise and tell other students what to expect.)
4. Word the questions so that they cannot possibly mean anything other than their
intended meanings.
5. Ask only questions that have been covered in the assignments or lectures.
6. Never ask trick questions.
7. When the question has been asked, accept the answer given. Do not attempt to
correct or teach at this time; remember that you are testing.
8. Do not show by facial expression or by any other means, that there is agreement or
disagreement with the answer given.
9. Remember that there may be more than one correct answer. If the student's answer
does not agree with the expected answer, ask for the source of information or the
reason for the answer.
10. Do not ask for insignificant details or for outdated information, except to make a
point of historical fact or interest.
11. Give undivided attention while the student is answering.
12. Oral examinations should be given separately and not combined with performance
evaluation .
Another very practical aid is the evaluation display board, such as the one illustrated
here, which actually illustrates standards of performance. The student then compares the
work to be judged with the same work on the evaluation display board, making an objective
appraisal.

Point Value

90 -100 80 -90 0 -80


1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3.


Activity ~Description


60 -70 50 -60 40 -50


1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3.




Evaluation Display Board








All student work should be evaluated. Although most evaluation is done by the
instructor, some evaluation by the students themselves is advisable. To help students in
making such appraisals, the instructor must establish certain criteria, such as the point
evaluation procedure described on the preceding page. With these specifications in mind, a
student should be able to make a fair evaluation. The grade itself is not significant, but the
students gain experience in recognizing acceptable work.
Various devised are helpful in teaching students to evaluate their work. A descriptive
rating chart such as the one shown here is one such device. On this chart, the instructor lists
certain marking standards, with a description of the value selected. The student can use the
chart as a guide in analyzing the work in terms of accepted standards.


Grading MARKING STANDARDS
Factors 35 40 25 -34 5 -24


I I


Descriptive Rating Chart

PERFORMANCE TESTS

A performance test is intended to evaluate certain areas of the work, such as the ones
listed here:
1. The actual performance of the student compared to the behavioral objectives
established by the instructor.
2. The ability to make use of the theories and principles of cosmetology, following
accepted standards of conduct and performance practices.
3. The proper choice of tools and the ease exhibited in handling them.
4. The time element involved.
5. Comprehension of the written or oral directions.
6. The ability to use intelligent judgment in hypothetical situations.





Note: 1=lowest; 5=highest A5 B4 C3 D2 F1 Total


In scoring a performance test, it is best to use a point system rather than a "pass-fail"
evaluation. There are many elements in a performance test, and if the instructor makes these
divisions apparent, students will become aware of all the phases being examined. For an
example, scalp treatment might be given a total score of 8 points, to be divided as follows:
1 point for properly dressing the patron;
1 point for sanitary and safety practices;
1 point for brushing the hair;
2 points for the scalp manipulations;
1 point for following directions;
2 points for answering oral questions.
This method of evaluating is as objective as possible, and it seems fairer than any other
method. In scalp treatments, the time element is omitted, but in most phases of the work,
the time required for the procedure is taken into consideration.
Regular and thorough testing will contribute toward building self-assurance in the
students.

SAMPLE


669 COSMETOLOGY 63
SDE-VEn-IE


Name
Date
Period


STUDENT PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE


SUBJECT


PRINCIPLES OR TECHNIQUES


POINTS


1. Shampooing (25)


1. Draping of patron
2. Application of shampoo
3. Manipulations
4. Rinsing
5. Cleanliness
1. Uniformity of rods
2. Placement
3. Partings
4. Smoothness of wrapping
5. Ends of curl
1. Holding of implements
2. Evenness of cut
3. Bulkiness
4. Movements of shears
5. Movements of razor
1. Wetness of hair
2. Manipulations of comb
3. Manipulations of fingers
4. Smoothness of wave
5. Matching of waves


2. Cold Waving


3. Haircutting


4. Fingerwaving








SUBJECT PRIN CIPLES OR TECHNIQUES POINTS
Note: 1=lowest; 5=highest A5 B4 C3 D2 F1 Total

5. Styling 1. Smoothness of curls
2. Uniformity of clips
3. Style pattern
4. Partings of hair
5. Explanation
6. Comb-outs 1. Lines
2. Smoothness
3. Brushing technique
4. Suitability to patron
5. Nape area
7. Facials 1. Application of creams
2. Manipulations
3. Rhythm
4. Removal of cream
5. Makeup
8. Hair Coloring 1. Predisposition test
2. Shade selection
3. Shade analysis
4. Application of color
5. Reasons for tinting hair
9. Manicuring 1. Method of filing
2. Cuticle removal
3. Application of polish
4. Proper contour of nails
5. Cleanliness of finished
mamicure
10. 1.








CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF ESSAY TESTS

Essay tests measure the ability of students to select appropriate knowledge and organize
it effectively in discussing a given topic or problem. The essay test should be used sparingly
for several reasons: the content which can be discussed in a limited time cannot begin to
cover the material which should be tested; it is possible for a student to write pages of
sentences which actually do not answer the question, and the instructor must be able to
evaluate this type of writing fairly; a decision must be made to ignore spelling and grammar
errors or else to give two grades for each question, one for content and the other for spelling
and grammar.
Questions on essay tests should be neither too general nor too specific, and beside each
question should be noted the point value or the time allotted for that question.








In grading essay tests, the instructor must do everything possible to be as objective as
possible. The following procedures are suggested by Downie:
1. Make all papers anonymous. Assign numbers so that no name appears on the test.
2. Make an outline of all the points to be covered for each question, giving a value to
each part.
3. Grade one question at a time, reading the answer to that question on every paper
and comparing it to the outline of points to be covered.
An optional method of grading is a sorting method: (1) Read rapidly through all the
answers to the first item on the test and on the basis of your opinion of the answers,
sort the papers into five piles: (a) very superior, (b) superior, (c) average, (d)
inferior, (e) very inferior. (2) Reread the items in each group and pull out and
reassign any which are felt to be in the incorrect pile. (3) Assign values to the item
depending on the pile into which the paper has fallen. For example, a 20-point
question could be assigned 20 points for "very superior," 16 points for "superior,"
12 for "average," 8 for "inferior," and 4 for "very inferior." (4) Continue this
process until all items on the test have been graded.
This same type of point evaluation can be used to evaluate laboratory performance.
Each step of a procedure can be given a point value. The sum of the points earned on all
steps would give a total evaluation of performance.
A sixth type of recall question asks the student to label parts of a diagram, to identify a
group of names, or to locate certain bones or nerves. These questions are called
identification items.
Example: Identify the following names of bones as to their location in the human
body.
Downie gives the following directions for writing recall and completion questions:
1. Omit only key words and only one or two of these. The student must be able to
understand the thought even without the key words.
2. Repeat blank or blanks at the end of the statement. It is easy, then, for the student
to complete the statement on finishing the reading.
3. Provide answer sheets or spaces in the margins of the test for the written answers.
They will be much easier to grade than they would be with answers written into the
context of the questions.
4. Try to have items that have only one correct response. This is difficult because of
synonyms and ambiguities possible with the English language. Also, the instructor
must decide how to grade misspelled answers and let the students know how they
will be graded.
5. Do not use direct quotations from the textbook.
6. Be brief and clear, and use quantitative terms whenever possible.

MATCHING ITEMS
The matching question usually contains a series of statements in one column to be
matched with another series in a second column.
Example: For each item in the left-hand column locate in the second column the
individual identified with it and place the appropriate letter in front of
each term in the first column.

1. Discovered the cell (A) Brown (K) Leeuwenhoek
2. Discovered the cell (L) Muller
nucleus. (B) Schwann (M) T. Huxley
3. Fertilization (C) Hertwig (N) Galton
4. Laws of heredity (D) Hooke
5. Acquired characteristics (E) Cuvier
6. Cell theory (F) C. Darwin







7. Final regression (G) Haeckel
8. Spermatozoa (H) Mendel
9. Recapitulation (I) Lamarck
10. Mutations (J) Harvey

DIRECTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTING MATCHING ITEMS
1. Place the larger parts of the lists in the left-hand column. Reduce the responses in
the right-hand column to one or two words.
2. Limit the number of entries to about 10. If more entries are needed, construct 2 or
3 sets.
3. Do not divide questions so that part is at the bottom of one page and the other part
at the top of the next page.
4. Have a longer list in the right-hand column than in the left-hand column. Or put
fewer entries in the right-hand column and state in the directions that some of them
should be used more than once.
5. Choose terms or names that can be classified in the same group. In the example on
the preceding page, all the right-hand parts were names of biologists who worked in
the area of cellular theory and development.
6. If it is possible, have 2 or 3 responses that are similar in certain ways to every correct
response .

ARRANGEMENT ITEMS
To test the students' knowledge of some operation or manipulation, a list of facts or
steps may be given for the students to arrange in either logical or chronological order.
Example: Answer the following question by placing a (1) in front of the name
which came first or appeared earliest; (2) for the second; and (3) for the
third.
Vesalius
Galen
Harvey


TYPES OF OBJECTIVE-TEST ITEMS

MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS
Probably the most popular type of objective-test item is the multiple-choice question,
which is adaptable to many different situations. Also, the multiple-choice question reduces
guessing to a minimum.
The typical multiple-choice item consists of an introductory statement or question and
several statements listed beneath it. One of these statements is the best or the correct answer
to complete the introductory statement.
Examples: 1. The value obtained by adding all the scores in a distribution and dividing by
the number of scores is called the
a) median b) mode c) mean d) sigma
2. Which of the following is obtained by adding all the scores in a distribution
and dividing by the number of cases?
a) median b) mode c) mean d) sigma
According to Mosier and others who construct tests for the Houghton Mifflin Co., the
following kinds of questions can be adapted to the multiple-choice form:
1. Definition
2. Purpose
3. Cause








4. Effect
5. Association
6. Recognition of Error
7. Identification of Error
8. Evaluation
9. Differences
10. Similarity
11. Rearrangement
12. Incomplete Arrangement
13. Common Principles
14. Controversial subjects
Multiple-choice items are not easy to write; both time and skill are required. Downie, in
his book, however, offers the following helpful suggestions:
1. Use plausible or logical distractors (incorrect completions). Each should appear to
have some relation to the question. A good way to find plausible distractors is to
study the errors that students make and use these as distractors.
2. Make certain that the stem consists of a statement or an idea, not just a single word.
3. Place all common elements in the stem of the item. This adds simplicity and
compactness to the item.
4. When dealing with items that have numerical answers, arrange the answers in order
from large to small or vice versa.
5. Avoid the use of cues that reveal the correct answers. For instance, the appearance of
the word an in the stem could rule out any possible answers that would have to be
preceded by a. Also, there is a tendency to make the correct response much longer
than the others. Many students are aware of this tendency and when in doubt, will
choose the longest completion. Then, too, the instructor must be careful that one
item does not contain the answer to another. Even grammatical construction can be
a cue to the correct response; therefore, the instructor must be careful to write every
completion, even the incorrect ones, so that it will be a grammatically correct
sentence.
6. Make each item completely independent of every other item.
7. Eliminate all unrelated details from a question.
8. Be sure that the distractors and the correct response are similar in content or
location .
9. Use "none of the above" as a distractor or as a correct answer. When it is used, it
should appear as the correct answer every fourth or fifth time.
10. If it is impossible to obtain more than 3 plausible responses, do not waste time
trying to invent some others.
11. In general, avoid negative statements, but if the word not does appear in the stem or
question, underline it to draw the student's attention to it.
12. If the student is to write the letter corresponding to his choice of the correct answer
on an answer sheet or in the test booklet, instruct him in the directions to use
capital letters, which do not look alike as frequently as do lower case letters.
13. Rotate the position of the correct answer. This can be done easily by using a tally
sheet to keep track of the position of the correct response as items are written.
14. Avoid items in which the distractors overlap.
Adkins, of Acorn Publishing Company, suggests that the instructor examine each item
on a multiple-choice test in the light of the following questions:
1. Is the item as a whole realistic and practical?
2. Is each item independent of every other item?
3. Is the item as a whole specific?
4. Is the central problem clear?








5. Is the problem stated accurately?
6. Is the problem stated briefly but completely?
7. Is each distractor important and plausible rather than obvious?
8. Are all irrelevant and extraneous cues eliminated?
9. Are the distractors and correct response homogeneous?
Specific types of multiple-choice items might include the following:
1. Best-answer type. This type of response requires the student to do some thinking.
Each response has to be evaluated carefully, for the well-written best-answer item
has shades of truth in all its responses, although one is more truthful than the others.
Best-answer items are difficult to make, but they are excellent testing devices.
2. Worst-answer type. This type, of course, is the reverse of the best-answer type. Here,
3 or 4 of the responses are good and the other has little or nothing to do with the
item. When items of this type are used, they should be separated from the others
and prefaced with very specific directions. This type of item is easy to write, and it,
too, requires the student to think and evaluate carefully.
3. Analogies. Relationships, such as those of similarities of structures or functions, can
be evaluated by the use of analogy items. Usually these items are set up in groups
with no directions other than a statement to the student to select that which best
completes the analogy.
Example: tibia-fibula-radius- (A) femur, (B) humerus, (C) clavicle, (D) ulna
4. Selecting the most inclusive term. With this type of item, the directions tell the
student to examine each of the following series of terms, names, concepts, etc., and
to select the one which includes all the others.
Example: (A) iron, (B) copper, (C) element, (D) gold, (E) silver
5. Selecting the most dissimilar term. This type is very similar to the previous type
except that this time the student is told to examine each of the following series and
to underline the one he feels is different from all the others.
All of these types are fairly easy to construct; however, their use is limited to the recall of
factual information.

TRUE-FALSE ITEMS
A very common type of test item is the true-false question. It is easy to construct and
covers a great deal of material in a limited time. It is difficult, however, to avoid ambiguity
in writing true-false questions. Also, true-false questions encourage guessing, and of course
they measure only knowledge of facts.
There are three types of true-false items:
1. Simple twoe-response items. Each item is to be marked either T or F, Yes or No, or +
or -, either in the left or right margin.
2. Three-response items. The form of these items is similar to the two-response item,
but the student responds on a three-point scale. Many items, items are neither true
or false. On these items the student is given a chance to note that sufficient evidence
or data have not been presented to make it possible to mark the item either True or
False. The third response for an item like this is given as CT (Can't Tell).
3. Five-response items. This type is an expansion of the three-response type. The
choices would be as follows:

A) Always true--true without exception
B) Probably true
C) Insufficient evidence or data to draw any conclusion.
D) Probably false.
E) Always false--false without exception.

4. Correction-type items. In this type, the directions read as follows: "Directions: If
the item is true, mark it true. If it is false, correct it by writing in the space provided








the word or words you would substitute for the underlined word or words to make
the statement true." It is necessary to underline words or phrases in order to prevent
individuals from inserting or removing nots, which is the easiest way of correcting a
false statement. This type of true-false item'controls guessing and is desirable for
that reason.
5. Cluster-type items. In this type, the directions tell the student to select and mark all
statements that are true. This type is similar to a multiplechoice question.
Downie makes the following suggestions for writing true-false items:
1. Write each item so that it contains only one idea.
2. Do not lift items directly from the text. Always change the wording.
3. Avoid the use of certain words that make it possible for the student to respond
correctly even when he knows nothing about the material. Such words are always,
sometimes, usually, and never.
4. Be certain that the language is exact and expressed in numerical terms when
necessary .
5. Do not emphasize the trivial. Make the information important.
6. Avoid parenthetical phrases or clauses that have little to do with the central idea of
the item.
7. Avoid negative statements.
8. Attribute to someone statements that reflect attitudes, basic philosophies, schools of
thought, etc.; otherwise there is no scorable answer.
9. Have an equal number of true and false statements, arranged in no particular
pattern.
10. Use more than 2 responses or have the students correct items they consider to be
false.

RECALL OR COMPLETION ITEMS
Another type of objective test makes use of recall or completion items, for which the
student supplies information asked for by the question or needed by the statement.
The simplest recall item is the question or statement that demands a short answer to be
written in given spaces:
Example: What season of the year begins on the twenty-first of June in
Australia?
A second type of recall or completion asks for a list of items:
Example: List in order the types of neurons over which a nerve impulse travels in a
simple reflex arc.







A third type is similar to short-answer items except that the student has to write the
word or words which have been omitted from statements.

Example: The capital of Australia is
Analogy items can be constructed similarly to those explained in the multiple-choice
type of tests:
Example: Radius:ulna :: tibia:
In a fifth type of recall question, data are presented and the student manipulates these
to obtain an answer. Questions such as this are called problems.








Example: A child of 7 years, 7 months has a Stanford-Binet mental age of 8 years
and 2 months. Calculate his IQ.


CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF ACHIEVEMENT TESTS

Construction of an effective achievement test requires that the instructor proceed
through the following steps:
1. State the objectives of the course as specifically as possible.
2. Define each objective in terms of student behavior, or in other words, what the
student must do to typify the objective to be tested.
3. Look for situations in which the student will have a chance to show whether or not
he has attained the objective in question.
4. Construct a test around these situations.
In composing the questions, the instructor should strive for a wide range of difficulty in
order to distinguish good students from poor ones, and in order to produce a wide range of
scores.
The test should be short enough that most of the students can finish in the allotted
time. There is always the chance that the students who did not finish would have known the
information asked for in the unfinished items.
All test items should be written in clear, concise, and grammatical English, and they
should be checked carefully for ambiguity. Much ambiguity can be avoided by omitting
such qualitative terms as some, always, large, short, etc.
The instructor should write test items as soon as possible after teaching the material to
be tested. Sometimes students might write test questions as part of a learning situation.


FIRST AID PROCEDURES

If, in spite of all precautions, an accident does occur, the instructor must know what to
do. Sometimes teachers have been charged with negligence for their action, or lack of
action, following an accident. Since the instructor is responsible for all that happens in the
classroom or laboratory, as well as on field trips, it is well to be trained in at least basic first
aid techniques.
First aid means the immediate, temporary care given the victim of an accident until the
services of a physician can be obtained. Under no circumstances should the instructor
attempt treatment beyond first aid.
If the injury is not disabling, the student should be sent to the school nurse or physician.
If the student cannot be moved, the nurse or physician should be sent for immediately. If
the aid of a school nurse or physician is not available, the student's parents should be called
for instructions. When parents cannot be reached, the family physician should be called. If
an extreme emergency exists, first aid treatment would undoubtedly be upheld in court
even though the results of the treatment might be unknowingly harmful.
Instructors should administer only sufficient first aid to prevent serious aggravation of
the injury. The acts must be for the benefit of the injured person and must demonstrate the
use of common sense.
Even though each accident is a special case in itself, the instructor should plan and
follow certain standardized procedures, both primary and secondary. Primary considerations
are those things which must be done immediately following any injury. Secondary
considerations would include all other actions to be taken as soon as possible.
Under primary considerations, certain basic steps are recommended in caring for an
injured student:
1. Attempt to ascertain how seriously the student is injured. If in doubt, get assistance
as quickly as possible.
2. If medical assistance is needed, send for aid immediately.








3. Apply only that first aid which is essential.
4. Notify immediate supervisor or principal.
5. If student is seriously injured, request administrative office to notify the parents or
next of kin and family physician.
6. If student has a minor injury but needs the assistance of the school nurse, send
injured student to nurse's office, accompanied by another student. Never send an
injured student alone.
7. If the injury involves something in the eye, cover the eye with a sterile compress and
obtain medical assistance immediately. Under no circumstances should a teacher
attempt to remove a foreign body from the eye.
8. If an eye has been injured by an acid or an alkali, irrigate it immediately with large
amounts of water and obtain medical assistance.
9. Report all injuries, both major and minor, to the school nurse.

If the local school system has established procedures which differ from these, the instructor
should learn and follow them exactly.
After the immediate needs of the injured student are cared for, the instructor has
secondary responsibilities which include the following steps:
1. Restore classroom or laboratory order and reasure the other members of the class.
2. Fill out an accident report in triplicate, complete with statements from witnesses
(one copy for the school nurse, one for the principal, or immediate supervisor, and
one to be retained for the teacher's own file).
3. Analyze accident in view of known facts.
4. Ascertain cause of accident.
5. Make definite plans to eliminate possibility of similar accidents in future.
6. Review safety practices and procedures.
7. Check progress of injured student.
Samples of accident report forms may be found in the Appendix.


SAFETY

Because of the equipment with which pupils work in cosmetology, a safety program,
including the teaching of safe work habits and attitudes, is a necessary part of the
instruction .
In the cosmetology laboratory, safety is dependent upon general classroom atmosphere
and attitude, condition of equipment, light, heat, ventilation, and space conditions. The
school administration can assist the total school safety program as well as that in the
cosmetology laboratory, by having unsafe conditions corrected, by controlling the pupil
class load so that it does not exceed the work station capacity, by insisting that the
laboratory never be left unattended when open, and by requiring that an accident report be
filed for every accident which occurs.
Teaching the necessary rules of safety is the responsibility of the instructor. A positive
approach, with the instructor constantly maintaining the practice of safety as an example
for the students, is best. Precautionary safety practices, such as the ones listed here, will
help prevent injuries to students.
1. Be present in the laboratory at all times when equipment is being used by the
students. The power supply should be turned off when the instructor is not in the
laboratory .
2. Instruct students carefully and fully in the proper use of all equipment and in safety
practices to be followed. Possible dangers should be carefully explained and
emphasized.







3. Inspect all equipment in the laboratory at frequent intervals and instruct students in
the proper inspection of the equipment. If any piece of equipment is found
defective or unsafe in any way, take proper steps immediately to have it repaired
and do not permit students to use it until it is repaired.
4. Maintain order in the laboratory at all times and insist that all students follow
prescribed safety practices.
5. Review safety procedures periodically with the entire class to prevent carelessness
resulting from overconfidence or forgetfulness.
6. File an accident report, complete with statements from all witnesses, with the school
principal, if an accident should occur in spite of precaution. (See sample forms of
accident reports in Appendix.)


LIABILITY FOR ACCIDENTS

Practically all legal actions against school districts or individual teachers resulting from
injuries to pupils are based on negligence, the failure to exercise the due care. Therefore,
both the instructor and the student in a cosmetology laboratory must accept the
responsibility for mutual safety. Students should be encouraged to point out malfunctioning
equipment to the instructor and to refrain from using it until it is repaired. It is also
important to stress the proper care of minor injuries and to recognize the rights and
materials of others.
In deciding whether or not the instructor was guilty of negligence in any given case, the
courts must consider several factors. The factual cause of an injury is usually obvious, but
the legal cause is more complex and involves many subordinate elements. An act is
considered the legal cause of an injury when the foreseeable consequences have been ignored
by an individual. The measure of foreseeability is used as the first test in determining
liability.
If the conduct of the instructor cannot be considered at fault, comparative negligence
sometimes allows the payment of damages in proportion to the extent to which the injury
was caused by the student's own negligence, but only if the defendant's negligence was
greater than that of the student.
In general, claims against public-school teachers will not be upheld in court unless it can
be shown that the injury was the result of the instructor's exceeding authority, using poor
judgment, or failing to take reasonable precautions.
Teachers in some states, through their organizations, have requested legislation to relieve
the pressure of personal liability, and group liability insurance has now been instituted in
approximately 25 states. However, if the school board does not provide such protection for
employees, the instructor, as an individual should carry liability insurance of at least
$25,000.


COSMETOLOGY PROGRAM OPERATION

Each cosmetology instructor should know the structure of the total cosmetology
program. Because the program trains for the licensing of cosmetologists certain policies
should be required for each type of program as stated in the memorandums appearing on
the following pages, more information may be found in the Cosmetology bulletin 78H, and
the State Board of Cosmetology law book Florida Statutes Chapter 477.











STATE OF FLORIDA

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN T A LLA H A SSEE 3 2 3 0 4 cARL W. PROEHL
COMMISSIONER DIRECTOR
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECH
AND ADULT EDUCATION
September 11, 1970


TO: District Superintendents
Community Junior College Presidents

FROM: Thurman J. Bailey
Administrator of Industrial Education

SUBJECT: Vocational Cosmetology Education Policy Statement


To assure consistent and quality training in the 1200 hour minimum course of the
Vocational Cosmetology Program and to conform with the legal requirements, the following
policies have been adopted.
Class Scheduling and Enrollment of Students:
1. High School Cosmetology Program (11th and 12th grades, 3-4 hour block
instruction) Establish Cosmetology program and enroll students in the beginning
of the 11th grade, progress and graduate as a class at the completion of the 12th
grade .
2. High School Cosmetology Program (12th grade, 6 hour block instruction) A 12th
grade Cosmetology program may be set up only if all students have finished their
required high school subjects upon completion of the 11th grade and will be able to
enroll in a six hour block of instruction, progress, and graduate at the completion of
the 12th grade.
3. Adult Cosmetology Program Classes may be scheduled at any time during the
year, but students should enroll at the beginning of each class and progress as a
group until the course is completed. Adult classes should be scheduled for a
minimum of six hours per day.
Because of the legal requirements covering the training, examining and licensing of
cosmetologists, cosmetology classes are not expected to enroll students at any time they
desire to enter training. All classes should adhere to the policies outlined in (1), (2), and (3)
above when enrolling students.



cc: Directors of Vocational Education
Deans of Occupational Education
Cosmetology Instructors











STATE OF FLORIDA


"s~ DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
)YD T. CHRISTIAN TA L LAH A 5 5 EE 3 2 3 0 4 CARL W. PROEHL
COMMISSIONER DIRECTOR
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL.
Septmber11, 970AND ADULT EDUCATION


TO: District Superintendents
Community Junior College Presidents

FROM: Thurman J. Bailey
Administrator of Industrial Education

SUBJECT: Vocational Cosmetology Specialist (500 hours) Education Policy State-
ment

To assure consistent and quality training in the 500 hour minimum course of the Vocational
Cosmetology Specialists' Program and to conform with the legal requirements, the following
policies have been adopted:
Class scheduling and Enrollment of Students:
1. High School Cosmetology Specialist Program (12th grade, 3 hour block instruction).
Establish Cosmetology Specialist Program and enroll students in the beginning of the
12th grade, progress and graduate as a class at the completion of the 12th grade.
2. Adult Cosmetology Specialist Program classes can be scheduled at any time during
) the year, but students should enroll at the beginning of each class and progress as a
group until the course is completed. Students are not to be admitted after the class
has started. Adult classes may be scheduled for a minimum of six hours per day.
Because of the legal requirements covering the training, examining, and licensing of
Cosmetology Specialists', the counseling and testing of students before entrance into the
program will be necessary. The instruction is limited to shampooing, manicuring, pedicuring,
and facials and should not progress further than these four basic units.
The instruction of the Cosemtology Specialist Program should be taught by an individual
teacher in a separate portion of the facility, and not as a part of the on-going 1200 hour
Cosmetology program.



cc: Cosmetology Instructors











STATE OF FLORIDA

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
ou s TdAN ~~TALLAHASSEE 32304 CRWPOH
DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHN
AND ADULT EDUCATION

September 11, 1970


TO: Local Directors of Vocational Education
Area Vocational School Directors
Deans of Community Junior College Vocational Programs

FROM: Thurman J. Bailey
Administrator of Industrial Education

SUBJECT: Cosmetology Courses Legal Requirements for Operation

The Florida Cosmetology Law is very specific in its requirements for operation of training
programs in private and public schools. Visitation and observation by members of the
Industrial Education Section staff reveal several programs are not being conducted according
to the law.
"Cosmetology schools) shall require as a prerequisite to graduation a course of
instruction of not less than twelve hundred hours of continuous study . .. .. within
a maximum period of eighteen months."
The above quotation from the law has been legally interpreted to mean 1200 clock hours
(not periods of class hours). To meet this requirement adult programs should be scheduled
for not less than 30 or more than 40 clock hours per week. High school programs should be
scheduled for not less than three clock hours per day for two consecutive school years (11th
and 12th grades) and at least six hours per day during the intervening summer to round out
the 1200 hour requirement.
Programs not operated in accordance with this requirement of law will be considered in
non-compliance with the State Board of Cosmetology and graduates not eligible for the
licensing examination.
Schools and courses currently operating according to the law should disregard this
memorandum.



cc: Cosmetology Teachers




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