Agriculture 2000 and Beyond:
No Farming, No Food
29TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
February 19-21, 2000
WE SALUTE FARMERS WHO CULTIVATE OUR LANDS.
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THE COMPLETE CHOICE.
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29th Annual Agriclture and Food Fair
of the U.S. Virgin Islands
"Agicultu 2U00 and beyond: No Fanring, No Food"
Layout & Design
Clarice C. Clarke
Public Information Specialist
University of the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service
Marvin E. Williams, Clarice C. Clarke,
Dr. Manuel Palada, Ruby R. Mason
Bronze Level Sponsors
Banco Popular Virgin Islands
The West Indian Company LTD.
LtJSRA ~ """"v"^ fl fi
OF THE ViRGIN ;,LANL)
Property Casualty Auto
Marine Marine Cargo Bonds
Marshall & Sterling St. Croix, Inc.
5021 Anchor Way, Gallows Bay
Christiansted, St. Croix 00820
Ph: 340.773.2170 Fax: 340.773.9550
Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin is credited; mention of product names in this book
in no way implies endorsement by the authors or the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors.
The Agriculture & Food Fair Bulletin is desktop published by the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
The Board of Directors
29th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
U.S. Virgin Islands
Former Commissioner of Agriculture
His devotion to the Virgin Islands' rich
agricultural heritage will be truly missed.
"the strength of the tree
is determined by the roots"
At Vitelco, we believe that by giving our children a strong
foundation, we help ensure their future. That's why we
awarded over a quarter million dollars in scholarship
money to hard working Virgin Islands students to
taught over ISoo young people how to play tennis in the
Vitelco Junior Tennis Program
adopted more than iooo young people each year at our
adopted schools on St. Thomas, St. Croixand St. John
taught dozens of young people how to sail in the
% Vitelco Governors Cup Youth Regatta
awarded more than $35,000 in cash to talented classical
musicians who have competed in the Vitelco Classical
k Music Competition
made a commitment of $00oo,ooo to the Boys and Girls
Club that will ensure the Club will be there for the
|VITE LO more than 600 young people who depend on it each
WVN STANDS TELEPHONE COORATN year ... and much, much more
A PUBLICATION OF THE 29TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE
AND FOOD FAIR OF THE U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
BULLETIN NUMBER 14
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2000 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR BOARD OF DIRECTORS..............................................................7
MESSAGE FROM GOVERNOR CHARLES W. TURNBULL....................................... .................... 8
MESSAGE FROM Dr. ORVILLE KEAN............................. ............. ........... .............................9
M ESSAGE FROM COMMISSIONER HENRY P. SCHUSTER............................................. ....................... 10
FRITS E. LAWAETz: AN OUTSTANDING CATTLEMAN WORTH REMEMBERING ..........................................11
FRANCISCO "SICO"SANTOS: APRECIOAGRICULTURALRESOURCE.............................. ..................... 13
A C RUCIAN P OSTCARD.................................... ........................................................................... 15
Clarice C. Clarke
DESIGNER FOODS: THE "IN" THING FOR YOURBODY....................................................................... 17
Alice V. Henry
HURRICANEPREPAREDNESSANDAFTERCARE OFBANANA ANDPLANTAI TREES.......................................... 21
B ENEFITS OF TREES. ........................................... .......... ............ ...... ... ..................... .. 22
Errol A. Chichester
A BREED APART........... .......................... ............ .................... .. ..............32
HISTORICAL BUILDINGS.......................................................................... ...... ... .. .... .................. 35
WEATHER DATA AVAILABLE THROUGH WRRI .......................................................38
Hernry H. Smith, Ronald Olivacc6 and Deron Parott
ORGANIC MULCH IMPROVES YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM CHIVE PRODUCTION ..................................41
Manuel Palada, Stafford Crossman and Allison Davis
HOMESTEAD: A MEETING WITH MY GRANDMOTHER...................................................................48
CES AGRICULTURE & NATURAL RESOURCES PROGRAM.............................. ................................58
Chive field at UVI Agricultural Experiment Station. See page 41 for details.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Henry P. Schuster
Executive Vice President
Lawrence Lewis, Ph.D
Vice President of Operations
Clarice C. Clarke Pholconah Edwards
Executive Secretary/Director Treasurer
of Publicity & Publications
Pamela Richards Willard John
Director of Off-Island Director of Special Activities
Sarah Dalh-Smith Demaurice Mann
Director of Youth Activities Director of Food Exhibits
Director of Livestock Exhibits
Director of Fair Decorations
Director of Crop Exhibits
Director of Judging & Awards
Dale Mason Clinton George
Director of Exhibits Director of UVI Exhibits
MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR
I am indeed pleased to extend greetings and sincere congratulations to the Board of
Directors and the Department of Agriculture for hosting the 29th Annual Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair, February 19 -21, 2000. I also want to welcome participants
and visitors to this landmark event.
The late Governor Melvin H. Evans, M.D. once said, "the soil of our native land is still a
precious possession and the farmers, who have remained close to the earth, must be
admired for their appreciation and understanding of the more basic values of life."
As we begin the 21st century, this year's theme "Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No
Farming, No Food" is most appropriate. It signifies the hard work that has been done
thus far in agriculture and what can be done towards its enhancement and development
here in the Virgin Islands and the Caribbean. We have to learn and develop from our past
experiences. Let us continue to place greater emphasis on agriculture as we endeavor to
revitalize our economy.
As I emphasized at the 28th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair, there must be
improvements and an increase in our local food production so that we can reduce our
dependency on imported food. We must continue to market our local farmers, utilize the
abundance of local fruits that can be processed into drinks, pastries, specialty fruits and
wines, and educate the community on the different uses of local fruits.
The Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair, rich in history with its cultural
significance, enables us to enjoy a tradition that has united us as a people. Come out and
partake of the culinary arts, camaraderie and experience the tradition that will guide us
into the 21st century.
I wish you continued success!
harles W. Turnbull
Message from Dr. Orville Kean
President, University of the Virgin Islands
A Heartfelt welcome to the 29thAnnual Virgin Islands Agricul-
ture and Food Fair. This event is a traditional one where
residents of the Virgin Islands and visitors can come together to
share the enjoyment ofthe agricultural produce of our islands, the
culinary and handicraft skills of the local artisans and each
other's company. The University of the Virgin Islands takes
great pride in being a co-sponsor of this event that is a showcase ofthe tenacity, ingenuity, talents
and resourcefulness of the people of the Virgin Islands.
As we approach the new millennium, the theme of this year's Agriculture and Food Fair is
"Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No Farming, No Food." This theme is especially appropriate
for it reminds us to not lose sight of the role that agriculture plays in our daily lives. While our
advancements in technology may at times obscure the importance ofthe role ofthose who work
our soil and produce food, we should remain cognizant of the fact that we all owe a great dealt
to these workers, regardless of the level of technology they use. At the University we are
expanding our utilization ofthe best available technology to assist us in thinking globally but at the
same time our commitment to acting with impact locally has not diminished. This global-local
approach is consistent with our obligation as a land-grant institution to invest through research,
instruction and public service in development ofthe Virgin Islands greatest resource-its people.
The staffofUVI Land Grant programs, the Department of Agriculture and the Agriculture and
Food Fair Board have once again done outstanding work in making this unique annual event a
success. The spirit of cooperation and collaboration that exists between these groups is worthy
of note and this fair is just one ofthe products. I extend my congratulations and commendations
to them. Also, without the many other persons who have contributed in many special ways, this
fair could not happen and they too are to be commended. Lastly, I extend the hope that this
historical Agriculture and Food fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands will be a pleasurable and
memorable event for all visitors and participants.
Orville Kean, Ph.D.
Message from Henry P. Schuster
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture
On behalf ofthe Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food
Fair ofthe U.S. Virgin Islands, it gives me great pleasure to welcome
you to Agrifest 2000!
As we prepared for this year's Agrifest, the coming of the new
millennium filledus-- as it did everyone else-- withmuch excitement and trepidation. From our thoughts
about the new millennium, this year's theme "Agriculture 2000 & Beyond: No Farming, No Food" was
The theme truly embodies the true spirit ofthe Agriculture and Food Fair oftheU.S. Virgin Islands.
In many ways, the fair showcases agriculture in the Virgin Islands-from basic food products (fruits,
vegetables, or livestock) to the processed food (fruit preserves for cakes, stew goat, kallaloo, etc.).
Traditionally and culturally forus in the Virgin Islands, where there is food, there is music, fun and
festivities. Thus, the Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands provides the perfect venue
for such revelry. To celebrateAgrifest in the new millennium, we, the Board of Directors, have put
together a showcase ofmusical, cultural, and culinary arts foryour enjoyment. We have included new
games and activities for the little ones, a fruit preserves section and recognition of farmers who have
been apart of agriculture for many years.
I also take this opportunity to thank our corporate sponsors for their generous support ofAgrifest
2000, without their support we would have been unable to incorporate many ofthe activities that we
have packed into this weekend.
On behalf of the Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, Charles W. Turnbull, Lieutenant
Governor Gerard Luz James, II, and the Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food Fair of the
U.S. Virgin Islands, I would like to welcome each of you to Agrifest 2000!
Henry P. Schuster
Commissioner ofAgriculture &
President, Board of Directors, Agrifest 2000
FRITS E. LAWAETZ:
AN OUTSTANDING CATTLEMAN WORTH REMEMBERING
The Honorable Senator Frits Eduard Lawaetz, affectionately known
as "The Bull from Annaly," was born at Little La Grange, St. Croix,
Danish West Indies, on October 5,1907. He is the son ofCarl and Marie
Lawaetz, owners of Estates Little La Grange and Jolly Hill, a dairy farm
that provided fresh milk to the town ofFrederiksted.
Frits was educated in St. Croix and Denmark and received a diploma
from Stenhus Kostskole in Holbaek, Denmark in 1925. He speaks
English, Danish, Spanish and Crucian fluently. Frits studied Agriculture in
Denmark, working as an apprentice on Danish farms for $9.00 permonth -f
plus board from 1925 to 1927; he worked at La Grange Sugar Factory,
St. Croix in 1928. From 1929 to 1933, Frits worked first as a cowboy,
then as a time-keeper and manager of sugar and livestock plantations for
the United Puerto Rico Sugar Company at Pasto Viejo, Culebra and
Vieques; and he served as general manager at River Complex, which
consisted of 10 estates with sugar and livestock plantations in St. Croix
from 1934 to 1940.
Frits came to Estate Annaly as general manager for the owner, Mr. Ward M. Canaday, on April 1, 1940 and
developed the largest combined private sugar cane (400 acres) and ranch (1500 head of cattle) operation in the,
Virgin Islands. In 1947 Santa Gertrudis cattle from the King Ranch in Texas were imported by Mr. Canaday to
improve the cattle industry on St. Croix. In 1949, Frits convinced Mr. Canaday that a better solution would be the
"Nelthropp Breed" already on St. Croix, developed by Mr. Bromley Nelthropp in 1917. The nucleus of Mr.
Nelthropp's herd (150 head) was bought later that year. Frits began keeping very detailed records of these cattle
and in 1954 trademarked the name "Senepol" for this, now recognized, new breed of cattle. In the 50s and 60s he
exported Senepol bulls to many Caribbean islands to help improve their cattle industry.
In 1954, Frits was elected to the 1st Virgin Islands Legislature underthe new Organic Act. He served from 1954
to 1970 and then again from 1974 to 1979 when he retired at the age of 71. He served a total of 20 years in the
Virgin Islands Senate. While in the Legislature, he sponsored many farm related bills.
In 1964, Mr. Canaday, Frits and his eldest son, Hans, formed the partnership Annaly Farms. In 1974, his
youngest son Frits T., joined the partnership which has continued to maintain the largest herd of Senepol cattle in
the world for 50 years.
In 1977, The Virgin Islands Senepol Association was formed and Frits served on the five member Board of
Directors until he became an Honorary Member in 1992. Headquarters for the Senepol Breed Assoc. moved to
the U.S. in 1991 and is now called The Senepol Cattle Breeders Association (SCBA) with over 500 breeders
worldwide. Senepol breeders are now shipping Senepol Cattle to South America, Africa and the Far East. The
highest award ofthe SCBA is called the Frits E. Lawaetz Lifetime Achievement Award.
In the 1950s, he founded the Annaly Athletics, which sent seven athletes to play professional baseball, three to
the major leagues, including Joe Christopher (Mets), Julio Navarro (Tigers) and Elmo Plaskett (Pirates). He was
married in 1935 to Bodil, his childhood sweetheart, daughter of the banker Jacob Tomoe and Filen Hoim Tomoe.
Frits and Bodil celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary on December 18, 1995.
Frits and Bodil have three sons: Hans, President of Annaly Farms, Inc, Partner of Annaly Farms, President of
the Virgin Islands Olympic Committee, Chairman ofthe V.I. Conservation District and board member ofthe Senepol
Cattle Breeders Association. Hans and his wife Judy have two daughters, Amy and Jodie, and three grandsons,
Tyler, Bryson and Matthew. Bent, Former President of the V.I. Legislature, served as a V.I. Senator for 10 years.
He was a former Director of the Soil & Water Conservation and the V.I. Department of Agriculture. Bent and his
wife Sally have three children, Simone, Alice and Frans. Frits T, Partner and Manager ofAnnaly Farms and Annaly
Farms, Inc., Chairman ofthe Virgin Islands Board ofParole and member ofthe Democratic Territorial Committee.
His son Jens is the youngest ofFrits, Sr.'s six grandchildren.
SPECIAL HONORS: Frits's achievements and accomplishments were recognized by "Personalities Caribbean,"
The International Guide to Who's Who in the West Indies, Who's Who in American Politics, Who's Who in the
South and South West, and the Notable American Award. His biography was included in the book of"Profiles of
Outstanding Virgin Islanders." He served as Captain of the Homeguard in the early 1940s and also as Chairman
ofthe Virgin Islands Conservation District Board of Supervisors from 1945 to 1954 when he entered the Legislature.
During this time, the District began the work ofbuilding "Farm Ponds" in the Virgin Islands.
In May 1976, the Queen of Denmark bestowed the order of Commander ofDanneborg on Frits. In 1980, he
served as a delegate to the Democratic Presidential Convention. In 1982, the Lagoon Street Homes located in
Frederiksted were named the "Frits Eduard Lawaetz Homes" in recognition of his efforts in their establishment and
for his many years of dedication to the people of the Virgin Islands. In 1984, he received a statue of "an ideal
boyscout,""The Distinguished Service Award" from the Virgin Islands Boy Scouts ofAmerica and the Silver Beaver
Award. He was recognized in 1990 by the Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Frederiksted for his outstanding service
to the church and the community. Frits was the American speaker at the Rebild Society 4th of July Celebration before
10,000 people in Aalborg, Denmark in 1992. And in 1996 he was appointed by Danish Council Blak of the Virgin
Islands as Honorable Trustee of Danish Cemeteries on St. Croix.
AFFILIATIONS: St. Croix Friends ofDenmark; Chamber of Commerce; honorary member of Senepol Cattle
Breeders Association; President Emeritus Boys' and Girls' Club, St. Croix; Boy Scouts Board member; honorary
member Camp Arawak, member ofDanish/American RebuildNational Park Societ, and a member of the St. Croix
League of Women Voters.
WATCHWORD: No gain without sacrifice; No substitute for hard work; Trust in God; If you want to live happy
and have Peace of Mind, you must be Honest.
ADVICE TO YOUTH: Hard work can overcome a humble beginning.
FRANCISCO "Sico" SANTOS: A PRECIOUS AGRICULTURAL RESOURCE
M r. Francisco "Sico" Santos was born in Culebra on March 10, 1913. In 1929, at the age of sixteen (16), he
came to St. Croix. This was during the period when there was a large migration ofpeople from Vieques
following the passage ofthe San Felipe Hurricane in 1928. He is married to the formerJanet Felecita Garcia, and
this union produced four children Victor, Francisco, Jr., Francisca andNereida. He is the proud grandfather of
twelve and great grandfather offifteen.
On Saturday, June 19,1999, "Sico," as he affectionately known, chronicledhis times with the United States and
local Departments ofAgriculture. Upon his arrival to St. Croix, Mr. Santos was employed at LongfordFarms. There
he worked in the field and performed a variety ofmiscellaneous tasks, all for 37 cents per day. In 1932, he began
working with the Armstrong Brothers, who raised (Brahma) cattle. The Armstrong brothers had a large farming
operation, with approximately 25,000 head of cattle. He was in charge ofWindsor, Glynn and Clairmont farms,
and worked there for approximately five years. One other large farming operation was the Nelthropp farm, which
was located in the areas now known as Tide Village and Estate Boetzberg. The Nelthropps raised what would
become the Senepol cattle.
Beefforboth local consumption and exportwas inhigh demand. Up to 60 animalsper daywere being slaughtered
and exported to Puerto Rico to accommodate the Naval base situated on that island. Bulls were also trained for
hard work and shipped to Puerto Rico as "working bulls." The others were slaughtered at one ofthe two abattoirs.
The local one, located in Gallows Bay and managed by Mr. Whitehead, was used to slaughter meat for local
consumption. TheFederal abattoirlocatedin Estate St. John andmanagedby Charles Schusterwas usedto slaughter
meat for export.
From 1937 to 1938, Mr. Santos worked with the United States Department ofAgriculture on the TB eradication
program. After the completion of the TB program he was transferred from the USDA to the US Department of
Interior andworked with Dr. JohnL. Cherry (Veterinarian in Charge forthe V.I. Government). During this time there
were a lot of diseases in the cattle, and he, along with Dr. Cherry, traveled throughout the territory to check the
animals. They worked togetheruntil Dr. Cherry's retirement in 1938. In 1952, the Agriculture Station in Anna's
Hope was closed and the animals andpersonnel were transferred to VICORP in Estate Lower Love. OnDecember
31, 1963, he began working for the local government. Dr. Crago was the veterinarian-in-charge at the time. He
credits his skill level to the teaching he received from Drs. Cherry, William and Kendall. These gentlemen, "Sico"
claims, "were skilled and extremely knowledgeable and took the time to share theirknowledge with others." Upon
his retirement in June of 1978, Francisco returned to Vieques where he lives with his family.
During his many years in the field ofagriculture, particularly livestock farming, Mr. Santos can truly paint a
historical picture of agriculture in the Virgin Islands from 1929 to 1978.
DEALS ON WHEELS
SON THE BACK!
A CRUCIAN POSTCARD
Clarice C. Clarke
Public Information Specialist
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
-R recently I was driving on the eastern side of St. Croix
and I saw this beautiful flamboyant tree, perfectly
shaped and in full bloom. Instinctively, I pulled off the
road, grabbed my camera and snapped a picture. In that
quick instance, vivid images ofmy childhood Sunday
drives along the north shore rushedthrough my mind. There was time when the roads ofthe north shore of St. Croix
were lined with red and yellow flamboyant trees-and OH what a sight to see.
As a child, Sunday afternoon drives were eventful and
exciting. We would take long drives along the north side
of the island--through La Valley, Cane Bay, and of
courseMahoganyRoad. I remembernot only the myriad
of flamboyant and other native trees, but the abundance
offruit trees. Trees such as hog plum, tamarind, mango,
mamey apple, mesple, locust, sugar apple, custard
apple, soursop, guava, coco plum and guavaberry were
commonly seen growing along the roadsides and in the
fields. I recall picking and eating those wonderful fruits.
Sadly, most of these trees, just like the flamboyant,
have disappeared or are disappearing from the
It seems to me that we do not appreciate our natural
surroundings as we used to. Local fruit and ornamental
trees are indiscriminately removed to make way for
homes, roads and shopping centers. We ignore our
local fruits while the mainland United States and Europe
are producing and selling the same fruits as "exotic or
speciality fruits." We watch as the plants used years ago
as medicinal herbs are cut down, uprooted and cast
aside, and, idlely standby and watch as other countries'
economies boom from an herbal medicinal market.
The question I would asked is how do the Virgin
Islands, particularly St. Croix, find a niche that will distinguished it economically, environmentally and culturally from
We are blessed with a beautiful island that can produce bountiful crops of ornamental and medicinal plants,
vegetables and fruits. Moreover, we have natural areas that can be used and developed to expand our island's
economic base. Where do we start?
Well, over the years I have developed a love for photography
and have started a collection ofrare Crucian snapshots, which I call
"Culturally Creative Photos." It is with these photos that I would
like to take you on a postcard tour of a hidden treasure.
Unlike the other U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Croix is unique in
several ways. Its topography includes flat lands with rolling hills,
historicalplantation ruins which are an indication ofa once thriving
agricultural community, a moist and dry forest, tradition, food and
culture. With these differences, St. Croix is poised to be marketed
as an "eco-agricultural-tourism" destination.
As an eco-agricultural-tourism destination, St. Croix is perfect.
Throughout the islandremnants of sugar mills andplantations dot the valleys and hillsides. Many ofthese ruins could
be rehabilitated and turned into museums where the
culture and traditions would be exhibited.
Areas such as the rainforest, Caledonia where fresh-
water fish, lobster (cribbishee) can be found in the
running guts ofCaledonia. During the rainy season a hike
through the Caledonia valley is a must. With its lush
vegetation and waterfall, the valley is one of St. Croix's
The other treasures are Anally and Will Bays. These
areas are a herbalist's and a historian's delight. The dirt
roads of Annaly and Will Bays were once traveled by
slaves and the caves served as hiding places for
Jack and Isaac Bays, simply put, are breath taking.
The bays are located on the east side of the island with
white sandy beaches and a backdrop of rolling hills
dotted with cactus and Ginger Thomas. With all of this
St. Croix is truly a hidden treasure-a hiker's dream, a
cyclist's challenge, a naturalist's paradise, a botanist's
laboratory and a photographer's playground.
DESIGNER FOODS: THE "IN" THING FOR YOUR BODY
Extension Specialist Foods and Nutrition
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
As we are all hopefully aware, the foods that we eat can positively or negatively affect our long-term health.
Certain foods are showing promise in reducing the risk of certain types ofcancers, reducing the risk ofheart
disease, preventing the "aging" of our cells, and a host of other positive health outcomes.
The new nutrition buzz word for the year 2000 very well may be "functional foods" (also known as
"nutraceuticals" or "designer foods"). One of the simplest definitions of a functional food, provided by the
International Food Information Council (IFIC), is: "foods thatprovide healthbenefits beyondbasic nutrition." By
this definition, food that are unmodified (e.g. broccoli, garlic, ginger) representthe simplest example ofa functional
food. Modified foods thathave been fortifiedwithnutrients (e.g. orangejuice with calcium added) orhavebotanicals
orphytochemicals added (e.g. teas with medicinal herbs added, snackbars with chromium) represent processed
With the latter group, there is little government regulation of what is marketed to the public. For this reason,
populariced teas that have herbs added to them are not required to indicate how much ofthe herb is present in the
tea. They are also not requiredto list the possible side effects that have been noted with use ofthese herbs. As you
can imagine, this group also represents the one with most potential for misuse and abuse since companies are so
cleverinmarketingtheirproductsto ahealth-hungrypublic. For example, chromiumhas been shownto help regulate
insulin levels in people with diabetes. However, if someone is taking oral supplements of chromium as well as
consuming snack bars that contain chromium, negative health effects may result. People must be careful not to
overdose on what theyperceive to be a "good thing." Let the buyer beware!
Since there are so many products outthere that fall into the latter category (that is, foods that have nutrients added
to them)itwouldbe impossible to provide a comprehensive analysis. Forthis reason, all that I canprovide youwith
in this forum are these words of caution regarding the more complex functional foods:
Be an informed consumer and be knowledgeable about what you are putting in your body. Obtain
information from reputablejoumals, studies and/orhealth professionals/organizations.
Be cautious about fancy claims andhealth benefits on packaging
provide balance in your daily intake offood. Do not fall into the trap of regarding one ood item as a"super
The following list provides an analysis of the simple functional foods (nothing added)
and their reputed positive health effects:
Green or Black Tea
Level of Intake
4-6 cups /day
Reduced stomach and
Esophageal cancer risk
Vegetables & Fruit (particularly
cruciferous vegs., tomatoes, grapes,
apples, strawberries, citrus fruits, and onions
Fish rich in omega -3 fatty acids
Grapejuice or red wine
(1 fresh clove/day)
180 g (6 oz)/week
Reduced low-density lipoprotein
Reduced menopausal symptoms
Reduced blood pressure
Reduced serum cholesterol
Reduced risk of cancer (colon,
gastric, and prostate)
Improved gastrointestinal health
Serum cholesterol reduction
Reduced risk ofheart disease
As we become more and more aware of the preventive and healing power of foods, this list will undoubtedly
change and/or expand. The bottom line is for all ofus to realize that our body truly is a temple. What we put into
it will most definitely affect how well it functions throughout our lifetime.
Here's to your health!
American Dietetic Association: 216 W. Jackson Blvd, Chicago, IL 60606-6995 312-899-0040
International Food Information Council: 1100 Connecticut Ave. N.W. Suite 430 Washington, D.C. 20036
Center for Science in the Public Interest (Publishes Nutrition Action Healthletter):
Suite 300 1875 Connecticut Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009-5728
The Tool Box
-- Hardware Store
The Island's Best Selection
Nuts, Bolts, Screws and Tools
Located on North Shore Road
ANNALY FARMS INC.
"Get your beeffrom the source"
(Local andU.S. Choice)
Pork r Chicken a Fish a Vegetables
Quality at low prices
Estate Upper Love RT#72
Monday- Friday 8:00 5:30, Saturday 8:00 3:00
HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS AND AFTERCARE
OF BANANA AND PLANTAIN TREES
Research Associate Professor
Fruit & Ornamental Program
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station
O ver the last ten years, there have been four major hurricanes that hit the USVI with varying damages to
residential, commercial and agricultural areas. At the University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural
Experiment Station (AES), the most severe impact has naturally been on the fruit trees with non-woody species
such as banana, plantain and papaya receiving the worst damages.
Inthe case ofbananaandplantainhowever, because oftheirvegetativenature orreproductionby means of side
shoots or suckers, these crops can usually regenerate themselves within 5-6 months aftertoppling and/oruprooting
by strong winds. Removal of all leaves except for those that are unfolded within the pseudostem is a pre-storm
precautionthat can save the plants. The presence ofwind breaks in the form of wind tolerant species such as TanTan,
Gliricidia, Moringa, Genep, Manj ack or Casuarina can also limit wind damage to banana and plantains.
In the aftermath of severe storms at AES, the banana cultivars (variety) that have noticeablyreceived the least
damage were Saba, Bluggoe (Moko), with the most susceptible being Plantain, Bacuba (Silk/Apple banana) and
Lady Finger which are tall plants. The DwarfFrench and Maricongo plantains are less severely affected than their
tall counterparts. The newly introduced FHIA tetraploid cultivars such as Goldfinger have very large and sturdy
pseudostems and have withstood the strong winds with relatively less toppling than the traditional Cavendish
bananas. Because ofthe massive amount ofbiomass material generated after a storm, it is highly advisable to remove
and store away all irrigation lines and timers before an impending storm. These may become buriedwithtrash, thus
severely restricting theirrecovery for future use. Pre-stormpreparedness should also include good staking wherever
possible and the complete removal ofall fruit bunches. The incidence ofbanana cormborers has been observed to
markedly increase after a storm. The excess amount of stem and plant material on the orchard floor after a storm
presents added incentive and attraction for this pest. It is, therefore, advisable to pretreat the banana field with an
appropriate insecticide before, or as close as possible to, the storm's arrival.
Post-storm operations should include quickremoval fall broken anduprootedpseudostems with leafmaterial
cut and spread out as mulch. This is also a good time to remove all unwanted or excess suckers and water sprouts
andreplantwith sturdy sword suckermaterial(seeFarmers'Bulletin-Growing BananaandPlantaininthe VI). Extra
suckers can also be dug up and sold for quickincome generation. The sudden removal ofoverl d canopy by storm
damage can cause sunburn damage to the overexposedyoung plants, but these recover and acclimatize to the new
conditions. The exposed orchard floor also triggers quickregrowth ofweeds so it is critical to mulch heavily with
all the a'a ilablelea material. Ifirrigation lines canbe reconnected or ifthere are persistentpost-stormrains then an
application of fertilizeratthe recommendedrate (see Farmers' Bulletin- Growing Banana andPlantaininthe VI)
should be made prior to leafmulching.
BENEFITS OF TREES
Errol A. Chichester
V.I. Department of Agriculture
It always amazes me how we only seem to realize the importance of trees just after a hurricane. We speak
of loss of shade, erosion, how badly the trees are damaged, etc.
However, as soon as the trees begin to recover and provide us with shade, beauty, and other amenities, we
quickly forget about all these important things and go back to the same neglectful, don't- care attitude. I hope that
because of the importance of trees and the integral role they play in our existence that we would take them more
seriously and give them the needed attention. Maybe what is needed is continuous public education about trees and
their benefits. I hope that this article will serve as part ofthis education process.
Trees are important to us in many ways: they are valued aesthetically, socially, historically, monetarily, and environmentally.
This article will focus on the environmental importance oftrees. Trees provide environmental benefits in many ways: they
modify local climate, reduce noise and airpollution, and protect soil and water.
Climate modification is one ofthe important benefits that trees provide in our environment, especially in urban
areas. In urban areas, streets, parking lots, buildings, and sidewalks contribute to increased temperature due to
absorption ofsolarradiation creatingwhat is referredto as "heat islands." It is estimated thattemperatures in urban
areas are 5-9 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than in surrounding rural areas where trees are more abundant in the
Urban trees help moderate the temperature and the "heat island" effect. They also help to increase human
comfort indoors and outdoors. Most ofus, at some time or another, have had the experience, especially on a very
hot day, oflooking for a shady tree to stand under. We enjoy the comfort oftrees in parks, on beaches, along parade
routes, on school campuses, in yards, and in many other settings. Additionally, those ofus who live in homes shaded
bytrees have observed the lower temperature inside as compared to the homes that are not shadedby trees. Trees
also have the ability, on hot days, to release hundreds ofgallons ofwater through their leaves through process called
transpiration. This water evaporates, thus keeping the tree and its immediate surroundings cool.
While large stands of trees moderate air temperature, single trees help moderate temperature by shading soil,
pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that would absorb solar energy and bounce it back to the surrounding.
Without trees to perform these tasks, residents would be exposed to increasingly higher temperatures and
discomfort. Consequently, electric bills would increase with the use of fans and air conditioners as we try to find
ways to ease our discomfort.
Air pollution control is another benefit that trees provide in our environment. Trees remove both solid and
gaseous particles from the air. Thatbenefit is familiar to those ofus who have experienced the reduction of dust in
ourhomes because of trees planted around them. One study noted a of 27 to 42 percent less particles of dust
reaches the ground under a stand of trees as compared to an open area. Some of the gaseous pollutants that are
absorbed by trees and thus removed from the atmosphere include ozone, chlorine, fluorine, and sulphur dioxide.
Again, we are very familiar with some of the consequences of the presence of these gaseous pollutants in the
atmosphere. They are contributing factors to smog, acid rain, and respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Another gas, carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a "greenhouse gas"pollutant withpotentially
farreaching consequences. These include global warming, dramatic changes in rainfall pattern, andrising sea levels
that threaten flooding in coastal areas. Presently, many countries in the UnitedNations including Guyana and Trinidad
are very concerned about this situation because of increasing tidal levels and flooding oftheir relatively flat coastal
Since green plants consume carbon dioxide in the photosynthesis process, they help provide a benefit to the
environment by reducing this gas in the atmosphere while producing valuable oxygen for us to breathe. Reduction
ofnoise pollution from highways and roads is yet anotherway trees can benefit us. Planting trees, shrubs, andgrasses
in conjunction with walls and earthenberms (mounds) can significantly reduce traffic noise and provide comfort for
residents in affected areas.
Trees provide other benefits such as protection of soil and water quality. While we are grateful for the
precipitation that occurs in the Virgin Islands, heavy rainfall sometimes contributes negatively to the environment.
It causes erosion. This is more evident on steep slopes, and areas with poor land-managementpractices. We are
very aware of this condition as we observe the chocolate-brown colored water along our shorelines after heavy
rainfall. The consequences of these are many: sedimentation, which results in loss of sea grass beds, coral reefs,
and other aquatic species; loss of aquatic hatcheries, recreation areas, fertile topsoil, etc.
Additionally, in settings where large areas are covered with concrete, asphalt, and other impervious surfaces,
instead ofpercolating into the soil, rainwater concentrates and accumulates resulting in erosion and silt accumulation
in ponds, guts, and bays.
Tree foliage absorbs some ofthe force ofthe falling rain, and lessens the dislodging of soil particles- erosion.
The leaf litter that accumulates under trees also reduces the dislodging of soil particles, and creates an environment
for earthworms and other organisms that help to maintain soil porosity, allowing water to percolate and not runoff.
In addition, tree roots hold soil inplace thus preventing minimizing soil loss.
There are a number ofbasic ways in which trees significantly benefit our environment--man, water, air, climate,
and soil. Through natural processes andphysical characteristics, they positively affect temperature, air and noise
pollution, and water and soil quality. We all can contribute by planting, maintaining, and protecting trees. Please
consider the important benefits of trees at all times and not only after hurricanes.
RECIPES FOR A NON-TOXic
S any common household products used in the .
Virgin Islands can trigger allergies, cause nausea or other
adverse health effects, harm septic systems, and/or pollute our
coastal or ground water.
There are alternatives totheseproducts available locally, includingrecipes using commonhousehold items that
are relatively inexpensive and easy to obtain. Not only can changing our habits improve our health and the health
of our environment,we can also save money.
When buying household products, we need to ask ourselves:
Is toxic exposure possible when using the product?
(What are the effects on humans?)
What happens to the product once we finish using it?
(What are the effects on the environment?)
The best cleaning products are those that you can make at home. They are simple, inexpensive, effective, and
non-toxic. Natural substances that can be used for many cleaning purposes that you may want to keep at hand
Borax-a natural-occurring mineral that has no toxic fumes and is safe for the environment,
but can be harmful if swallowed and irritates eyes.
For more information on Recipes for a Non-Toxic Household, contact the UVI Cooperative Extension
Service, Agriculture and Natural Resources program for the Water Quality Bulletin#2.
Mr. Oscar E. Henry receiving the 1999 prestigious Farmer of the Year
Awardfrom Governor Charles W. TurnbullandMr. KofiBoateng, Agrifest
Mrs. Jewel Ross-Brathwaite, Assistant Principal, Eulalie
Rivera Elementary School, receiving the firstplace trophy
for the poster/essay completion from UVI President, Dr.
Orville E. Kean.
Mrs. Ruby Fleming, owner of Flemings' Transport Company, Inc.,
receiving the 1999 Recognition Award from Ms. llene Heyward,
General Manager of AT&T, for her outstanding contribution to the
Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Mr. Charles Anthony, President of Anthony Plumbing
Inc., receiving the 1999 Recognition Award from Ms.
Ilene Heyward, General Manager of AT&T, for his
outstanding contribution to the Agriculture and Food
Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
A TEA OFEPRS
A LICENSED PLUMBER &
CALL US AT: (340) 778-7073
FAX TO US AT : (340) 773-0991
WE WILL GET THE JOB DONE RIGHT
THE FIRST TIME AROUND
formerly National Bakery
21 KING STREET, FREDERIKSTEI
P.O. BOX 3117
ST. CROIX, USVI 00841-3117
VISIT US, YOU'LL BE GLAD YOU DID.
Ms. Eleanor Sealey accepting the 1999 Recognition
Award from Ms. Ilene Heyward,General Manager of
AT&T, for her outstanding contribution to the success of
the Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Douglas & Joan Miner
109-113 Castle Coakley
St. Croix, VI 00820
Vinyl Letters "To Go"
Carved & Sandcarved Signs
The best in local cuisine
82C Estate Whim
F'sted, St. Croix VI
Personalized Gifts For That Spceial One
Gift Baskets, Gift Sets & Gift Boxes
PO. Box 3814
Kingshill, St. Croix 00851 7 Days A Week
(340) 778-0701 Order Today
SprCAJJLNG CvLTrvN t sALL r~A ParTOS
C0SoWWTE ST.e CTX
Your Friendly Neighborhood Grocer
21-E La Grande Princesse
Christiansted, St. Croix
U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
Your Answer to Keeping in Touch!
St.Thoas:777889 eSt.Crox: 73999 19-99
ISLAND DAIRIES 42ND ANNIVERSARY 1958 2000
For 42 years, Island Dairies has supplied Virgin Islanders and the Caribbean with the best dairy products available.
Island Dairies products are the best because they are the freshest.
ISLAND DAIRIES milk is produced by Holstein cows on four (4) state of the art dairy farms here on St. Croix.
The milk is trucked from the farms, processed at Island Dairies state of the art plant in Sion Farm and delivered to
the grocery stores in as little as six (6) hours. The milk is packaged inpaper cartons with apull date of 10 days from
packaging. This is required by the Virgin Islands Consumer Law. We are happy to have a 10 day pull date even
though Island Dairies milk can last up to 21 days under proper refrigeration. A 10 day pull date guarantees the
consumer a fresh product with full nutritional value.
Imported milk is usually 10 days old by the time it arri es in the Virgin Islands: is usually packaged in clearplastic
containers and usually has a pull date of 18 days from packaging.
1Milk is not wine, it does not impro\ e with age. The palatability and nutritional value ofmilk deteriorates overtime.
Clear plastic containers allow light to penetrate to the milk and deteriorate the vitaminss in the milk.
Becauseof its age and packaging, imported milk cannot compare to Island Dairies products.
ISLAND DAIRIES ICE CREAM is the best ice cream in Virgin Islands grocery stores.
Island Dairies ice cream is a few da ys to se evral weeks fresh when placed in grocery stores. Imported ice cream
is a few months to a year or more old by the time it is placed in '.I. grocery stores.
Island Dairies ice cream is produced from formulas developed over 40 years ago. Island Dairies tni r has that
old fashioned ice cream quality.
Island Dairies is so confident in its ice cream that we say: "Try it, you 'lllike it. Afteryou 're triedit, compare
our prices, then, you 'l really like it."
Island Dairies ice cream comes in 13 delicious flavors.
ISLAND DAIRIES produces a full line of juice drinks.
Island Dairies Orange Juices is 100 %ju ice.
Island Dairies Passion Fruit and Guava Pineapple drinks have become the standard tropical drinks for
Crucians. Island Dairies also produces Fruit Punch, Grape Punch and Ice Tea drinks.
Island Dairies imports and distributes LurpakDanish Butter, Kerrygold Irish Butter, Dove Bars, Milkyway
Bars, Snicker Bars and a host of other ice cream popsicles.
CELEBRATE OUR 42ND ANNIVERSARY WITH US! TRY OUR PRODUCTS AND YOU WON'T
HAVE TO WORRY. YOU'LL JUST BE HAPPY.
CORN HILL FARM ~ ---
MON BIJOU FARM ~
Estelle & Linda Skov
MOUNTAIN MINT FARM -
SIGHT FARM ~
WINDSOR FARM ~
St. Croix Dairy Products, Inc.
HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCING ISLAND DIARIES FRSH MILK
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.
"The Best is Fresh
"From the farm to the store in hours"
"Milk is not wine; it does not improve with
age. Imported milk can be weeks old when
it reaches the Virgin Islands."
A BREED APART
Extension Agent Livestock
UVI Cooperative Extension
W en talking about what's special about St. Croix, everyone always thinks ofthe white sand beaches, the blue,
clear waters and the glorious sunshine. The people of the island take pride in the fact that they are Virgin
Islanders, and, in specific, "Crucians." Tourists, if asked whatthey remember about visit to St. Croix, will invariably
list all ofthe above. One other thing that they frequently remember are the "big, brown cows" that they see alongside
the roadways as they take their island tours. What they usually don't realize is just how special these animals are.
They are truly native Virgin Islanders and, distinctively, a breed apart from your ordinary cow.
The Senepol cattle were developed right here on
St. Croix. They came about initially through the mixing or
cross-breeding of the N'Dama or Senegalese cattle and
the Red Poll cattle.
The N'Dama cattle are small, hardy cattle that hail
from the Senegal region of West Africa. They are very
strong for their size and were used to pull cane carts from
the fields to the mills. They are extremely fertile and very
disease and heat resistant.
SThe Red Poll cattle are a British breed that
S-- -. naturally have no horns, are a glowing red color and are
larger in size. They give a good deal ofmilk and provide
good quality beef.
Through the mixing of these two breeds and selection through the generations, the modem Senepol was born.
In the early 1900s, BromleyNelthropp, ofEstate-
Boetzberg, wanted to develop a breed of cattle that -
would combine all ofthe best characteristics ofboth
of the breeds. He knew what was important and
needed for good production in a tropical
environment such as the Virgin Islands. He desired
larger "beefy" animals that could survive under
rough, hot conditions. He liked the red color and
disliked horns. He wanted definite heat tolerance,
good fertility, disease resistance, and, above all, he
wanted the cattle to be gentle and easy to work with.
He was very strict in his selection process, and only
the best animals were allowed to remain in the
breeding herd. The rest went "down the road."
Bromley soon began exchanging breeding stock .-
with other cattle breeders and the growth of the Senepol cattle had begun. By 1949, the cattle that he developed
had been dispersed to local breeders and Senepol could be found throughout St. Croix.
Selection and breeding of Senepol cattle continued over the years, with breeders exchanging breeding stock and
fine-tuning the work that Bromley had begun. In 1954, the name Senepol was trademarked and in 1976 the Virgin
Islands Senepol Association was chartered. The
University ofthe Virgin Islands began classifying the .
cattle with the assistance ofthe founding Association
members. From there, a breed registry was set up,
accepting cattle that met the classifying criteria as pure
Senepol. The registry books were closed in 1989.
The breed registry continues today with more than
30,000 Senepol purebred and percentage cattle
registered since it's inception. The four founding
members ofthe Senepol Association are still active in
the cattle industry of St. Croix. You may recognize
their brands as you see cattle throughout the island.
They are the Gasperi Family-Castle Nugent Farms-
CN brand, the Lawaetz Family-Annaly Farms-WC ..~ .-
brand, Mr. Oscar E. Henry-OH brand, and ofcourse,
the Nelthropp Family-Granard Estates-N brand. Their hard work over the years paid off In 1977, the first shipment
ofpurebred Senepol cattle was sent to the United States mainland. Since that time, the Senepol breed has grown
by leaps and bounds. Senepol cattle have been shipped throughout the United States, Central and South America,
and the Caribbean. Senepol semen and embryos have been shipped to Africa, Australia and Eastern Asia as well.
The breed has been very well accepted into the highly competitive cattle markets due to the strength of its
characteristics. Producers look for animals that can perform well under hot conditions and still develop an end-
product that is acceptable in the consumer markets. A bonus is an animal that is easy to work with. The Senepol cattle
fit right into this mold. Through the hard work and foresight ofthe Crucian cattle breeders overthe years, the St. Croix
Senepol cattle have been, and still are, avery special part of St. Croix. They are truly "A BREED APART."
Trucking Local Delivery
Moving Services Freight Forwarding
Customs Brokerage "First In Freight" Forklift Rental
Tel: (340) 778-9160 Fax: (340) 778-9003
The Management and Staff of Flemings' Transport Co., Inc. express profound thanks to its
customers and congratulates the Agriculture and Food Fair on its 29th Anniversary.
P.O. Box 4310
Kingshill, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00851-4310
I' I 42AB COMPANY ST.
TELEPHONE: CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX
(340) 773-2517 U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00822
qe Jrane qip
R2 Vifage Mal #16
Custom Framing Craft Supplies Artist Materials
Located i Baren Spot opposite Strawberry
UNITED SHOPPING PLAZA
Over 22 Stores to serve yON
Plaza Extra is the major supermarket onthe Island,with 1500-2000 customers shopping every day. There
is ample parking for both their customers and those of the other stores. But it's not only a supermarket,
United Shopping Plaza's twenty-two stores offer the following great variety of shopping for your
* Furniture and Applicances
* Finance Company
* Cafeteria and Restaurant
* Second Hand Small Appliances
electronic items, etc. (Buy/Sell)
* Men's Women's & Children's Wear
* Records and Sundries
* Custom Silk Screening
* Natural Food Supplements
* Video Games Arcade
* Women's Wear
* Photo Processing and Studio
* Electronic Repairs
* Physicians Offices (upstairs)
* Hair Stylist
* Shoe Store
* Travel Agent
* Seamstress and
Take a tour of the stores. Please stop in and say hello to everyone. Feel free to ask questions about specials.
Located on Queen Mary Highway, east of Sion Farm intersection-Phone 778-6240, Fax 778-1200
* LADIES & MEN'S TAILOR
CUTTING FITTING & ALTERATION
SUITS MADE IN 3 DAYS
Extension Specialist -Natural Resources
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
In 1732, the negotiation between Frederik Holmsted and Count Plelo, a French representative, that took place
in Copenhagen, Denmark ended in a treaty to purchase the island of St. Croix. On September 15, 1733,
Denmark paid France 750,00 livers tournis for the island. In the summer of 1734, the first Danes arrived on St.
Croix under the leadership of Governor Moth from the island of St. Thomas. Their first order was to immediately
survey the island in order to subdivide the land into several hundred plantation lots.
secon These lots were made available first to Danish investors, and
second to experienced planters from other Caribbean islands at attractive
prices. The plantations on St. Croix were divided into nine quarters,
namely Westend, Northside A, Northside B, Eastend A, Eastend B,
Company, Queen's, King's and Prince proceeding from west to the east
end of the island. Two towns were established, Christiansted known as
Bassin and Frederiksted known as Westend.
In the early 1730s, the island had about 380 plantations most of
whose dimensions were approximately 2000 by 3000 Danish feet. By
1755, two decades after its purchase, St. Croix had 375 plantations under
cultivation with a population ofabout ten thousand people. Ninety percent
of the population were African slaves. During the agricultural era of St.
SCroix, plantation buildings, from sugar mills and great houses to slave
quarters, played a significant role in the development of the island
agriculture. Today, these buildings are considered historical in the Virgin
One such plantation is Estate Great Pond located in the East End Quarter on the south coast of St. Croix. In
1754, this estate was established as a cotton plantation until it became a sugar plantation in the latterpart ofthe 1700s.
Estate Great Pond has an exceptionally well-preserved great house and a number of other historical buildings
associated with the agricultural and commercial history of St. Croix. In all, the estate consists of eightbuildings and
other historic ruins. They are (1) an usually intact 18th century masonry great house, (2) the remains ofan early 18h
century sugar factory, (3) a stable or storage building, (4-6) three slave row house, dating to the 18th century;(7) an
18h century raised well, and (8) a long rubble 18th century wall, possibly once an animal pen.
The Great Pond Estate also has a Pre-Columbian site suggesting a long period of occupation. The Indians that
occupied the area also cultivated the surrounding land and used the bay side for fishing. The inventory of 1807 at
Estate Great Pond listed how many acres were fit for cane, the buildings on the property, the number of slaves, animals
and types of animals, molasses produced, etc. By 1863, the estate was owned by Abraham Meyer. By 1900, the
estate belonged to Thomas Kirk, an Irishman living at Estate Blessing who also used the estate for grazing animals.
In 1903, Estate Great Pond was purchased by the Danish West Indies Plantation Company for $47,000. The estate
was also used as an agricultural experiment station for a short period of time.
Estate Castle Nugent is another area ofhistorical significance. Castle Nugent Farms is located on the south shore
of St. Croix. There are many historical structures on the farm. The 18t century great house on the farm is now listed
in the National Register of Historic Places. Other historical structures such as slave quarters, a sugar mill, an old
chapel, and a storage house are also part of this eco-farm operation. The estate was one of264 cotton and sugar
plantations on the island of St. Croix after 1773, when the Danish West Indies Company first purchased the island
from the French. This 2,000 acre farm is one of the major farms on the island that exports the Senepol cattle to other
parts of the world.
In 1767, Nicholas Tuite, one of the principal developers of St. Croix as a sugar producer, purchased Estate
Annaly on the northwest side of the island. His initial development at Annaly was a modest sugar plantation relying
on a relatively simple and inefficient animal mill to crush sugar cane. He also erected a residence with a private chapel
on the estate. Estate Annaly was one ofthe largest and most productive sugar plantations on St. Croix. Historically,
Annaly is most significant for its sweeping two story stone sugar factory with its intact 19th century steam powered
cane crushing machinery.
In 1816,200 acres ofAnnaly were planted in cane. The remaining 318 acres were devoted to pastureland for
livestock grazing. With 194 slaves, Annaly was one ofthe island's foremost plantations. In the 1830s, 1840s, and
1850s, Estate Annaly demonstrated that it was one ofthe very few plantation on the island capable of producing
250,000 net pounds of sugar even in bad years ofsugar production. During the last part ofthe 19th century, a number
of sugar plantations on St. Croix declined due to the continued low world market price of sugar. Many estates on
St. Croix consolidated into large plantations in order to stay alive economically.
One ofthese estates was Annaly which consolidated with estates Rosehill, Spring Garden, Caledonia, Nicholas,
and Mt. Victory into a superplantation of over 1,100 acres. This led to the construction in the early 1860s ofAnnaly' s
present two factory with steam powered cane crushing machinery. The 1863 J. Holm's painting ofAnnaly depicts
the factory and indicates that the windmill was retained in an auxilliary role in case of mechanical failure or a bumper
crop. It also depicts an extensive village of stone cottages for the black agricultural laborers. The new factory and
expanded cane fields enabled Estate Annaly to produce over 300,000 net pounds of sugar in good years.
During the 1878 "Firebum," Annaly's plantation great house and factory were burned. William Moore, owner
of the estate at that time, was chased from his Frederiksted town house by the agricultural laborers and forced to
hide through the night in waist deep water among the pilings ofthe town wharf. The next morning Moore safely gained
refuge in the Frederiksted fort, but he died a month later of pneumonia contracted during his waterlogged ordeal.
In 1879, G. Hallensen bought Estate Annaly. He repaired the factory and probably erected the present residence
to replace the one destroyed in the "Fireburn."
The Salt River Bay area also played an important role in the development of agriculture in pre-Columbus time
up to the 20th century. Before the first man inhabited St. Croix, the island had extensive and luxuriant tropical forests,
flowing streams, springs, rivers, and wetlands. In 50 A.D. when the Arawak Indians arrived on St. Croix, Salt River
Bay was a major river flowing from north to southeast. Historically speaking, towns or cities were usually built around
waterways primarily for the purpose of transporting goods. It was no accident that the Arawak Indians established
their villages around Salt River basin.
These settlements occurred throughout the lowlands, extending to present day Triton Bay, Cabo Las Flechas,
Sugar Bay, Judith Fancy, and the Columbus landing site. A few forests were cleared by the Arawak Indians around
Salt River Bay, not only to establish villages but also to practice agriculture. This system of agriculture featured
channels that were made to irrigate crops. The estuary of Salt River Bay was also used for hunting and gathering food.
Later on, the Caribs arrived on St. Croix displacing and dominating the Arawak civilization, including the people living
at Salt River Bay.
In 1493, Christopher Columbus anchored at Salt River Bay and sent a boat of about 25 men to investigate the
shores for fresh water. While there, the men encountered Caribs, resulting in the injury or death of several Caribs
and Spaniards. From 1500 to the 1550s, the Spanish conquered and enslaved the Caribs to work primarily in
agriculture. Eventually, the Caribs left St. Croix because of the dominating force the Spanish had on their lives. In
the 1600s, other colonial powers inhabitated St. Croix leaving their mark on the island's landscape. Such colonists
as the English built forts and developed the agriculture system. By 1663, the Salt River settlement had enlarged to
include gardens, parks, a stone governor's house, governmental buildings, walkways, a sugar factory, two
plantations, stables, and other buildings farther inland.
On the western side of the bay, development occurred in the form of a fort, plantations, a sugar factory, a church,
and other buildings. Salt River Bay, thus became the major center of agriculture and economic development during
this period. Epidemics eventually led to the decline of this area's importance. The area was abandoned in the 1660s
in favor of Port St. Jean (Christiansted) which became the major settlement on the island. Within a few decades,
this area too was abandoned and white colonists and African slaves left St. Croix for Saint Domingo (Haiti).
When Denmark purchased St. Croix, Christiansted and Frederiksted then became the economic hubs of St.
Croix. Between the 1760s and 1800s, St Croix became one of the richest sugarcane islands in the Caribbean. The
plantation on St. Croix flourished, and produce was exported to Europe and North America. At this time, St. Croix
was called the "Garden Spot ofthe West Indies or the Bread Basket of the Caribbean." However, prosperity during
the Danish rule lasted for a short period. In 1803, the slave trade was abolished. Problems also arose when natural
disasters such as earthquakes, tidal waves, hurricane, droughts, political upheavals, and wars in Europe worsened
the Crucian economy.
In 1848, the slaves received their physical emancipation. A few years later, in 1917, the United States purchased
the Virgin Islands from Denmark. Over the next 32 years, the agriculture industry in the Virgin Islands change
drastically. In 1966, sugarcane production was phased out in the Virgin Islands and agriculture shifted to livestock
production. Today, the only agriculture activities around Salt River Bay are one large dairy farm and other small farms
in the Estate Windsor and Glynn areas.
The historical structures throughout the landscape of St. Croix are the remainders of the agricultural history of
the island. The theme forthis year's agriculture and food fair "Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No FarmingNo Food"
fits into the historical structures that were once used for food production on the island. The sugar mills, great houses,
slave quarters, water mills and all the other structures or ruins that made up the plantation society contributed to the
economy and the development of agriculture on St. Croix.
WEATHER DATA AVAILABLE THROUGH WRRI
Henry H. Smith, Ronald Olivacc6 and Deron Parrott
Water Resources Research Institute
University of the Virgin Islands, St.Thomas
Have you ever wondered how much rain has fallen, what direction the wind is blowing from or what the
present outside temperature is? Those of you with access to the Internet can get this information
easily by visiting a real-time weather-monitoring site maintained by the Water Resources Research Institute
at the University of the Virgin
Islands (WRRI). The WRRI's
meteorological station, shown
in Figure 1, monitors several
weather parameters on a
continuous basis. Among these _
parameters are rainfall,
barometric pressure, air
temperature, humidity, wind
speed and direction, and solar
radiation. The observations are
transmitted by radio telemetry to
a computer at the WRRI where
the data is stored for use by
researchers at the WRRI and is
also put into a form that makes it
easy to read by everyone. The
formatted data is displayed on
the WRRI's web page (http://
which is accessible 24 hours a
The meteorological station at WRRI is supplemented with automatic rain gages located throughout the
Virgin Islands. These gages instantly detect rainfall amounts greater than 1/100 of an inch and stores records
of these events along with the precise time of their occurrence on computer chips until downloaded by
WRRI personal on to beeper sized electronic devices called data shuttles. The data is transferred from the
data shuttles to computers at the WRRI office for formatting, analysis, storage and display.
The rain gage network and the meteorological station provide a continuous record of changes in the weather of
the Virgin Islands. During the passage ofHurricane Lenny inNovember 1999, when only the rainfall-monitoring
network in St. Thomas was in place, a very detailed set of data showing the influence of the hurricane on the St.
Thomas weather was obtained. An examination of some ofthe data obtained during the 24-hour period beginning
at 5:00 am on Wednesday November 17, 1999 provides an interesting hydrological profile of the passage of the
Hurricane Lenny by St. Thomas. The locations ofthe rainfall collection stations used for this illustration are shown
in Figure 2. The course the hurricane took as it passed through the Virgin Islands is shown in Figure 3. Figure 4
Table 1 lists the average wind speed for the
immediate past hour in miles per hour recorded at '
the WRRI meteorological station at each hour
during the 24-hourperiod ofthis illustration. The Magev ~I
average wind speed is very different from the .
familiar maximum sustained wind speeds and
strength of gusts normally referred to in hurricane
\w-ather advisories. Table 1 also contains a record Fr 'ok
of the hourly average wind direction during the
hu ricane. The data is presented in degrees where 0 Figure2.
degrees would indicate wind blowing principally
from the north during the previous hour. A reading of 0 degrees would indicate wind blowing from the east; 135
degrees would correspond to wind blowing from the south-south-east and so on.
The WRRI is currently programming its equipment to collect, display and store the most significant data in the
most useful form possible. Comments and suggestions fromthe public are welcomed. Formore information contact
the WRRI at 693-1063 or 693-1076.
The authors acknowledge the contribution of Mr. S. Henry of UVI's Eastern Caribbean Center's
Cbnserhation Data Center for his contribution in preparing Figure 2for this article.
Table 1: Hourly Averages of Wind Speed and Direction During Hurricane Lenny
U. ~ m d d
tMdt r Ioileaso Lammiy
a a m Hi imn.-
U U U U
Date Time Average Wind Speed (mph) Average Wind Direction
Nov. 17, 1999
Nov. 17, 1999
5:00 15.77 64.94
6:00 11.55 90
7:00 12.93 85.3
8:00 17.03 90.2
9:00 20.58 90
10:00 25.36 95
11:00 25.1 91.6
12:00 25.06 90.4
13:00 29.6 96.6
14:00 26.13 85
15:00 17.22 62.08
16:00 15.59 44.62
17:00 20.43 53.35
18:00 20.43 63.88
19:00 17.74 68.46
20:00 16.62 100.4
21:00 15.92 106.2
22:00 12.17 140.2
23:00 14.45 133.1
0:00 18.9 90.9
Radntall Varidions on SI. Ihomas During Hurricane Lenny
ilillillliiiill r: ----------Tt :- 3T:! T-- v-' --r- i''
------ -- --- -- -
Jormthea -I -ortuna LL
- -- -- -- -
ORGANIC MULCH IMPROVES YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURNS
FROM CHIVE PRODUCTION
Manuel C. Palada', Stafford M.A. Crossman2 and Allison M. Davis1
'Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands
2Cooperative Extension Service, University of the Virgin Islands
C hive (Allium schoenoprasum) is one of the most popular culinary herbs in the Virgin Islands. It is sold
in farmers' markets, roadside stands, supermarkets and other local food stores. In farmers' markets and
roadside stands, chive is usually displayed and sold in bunches alone ormixedwith other herbs such as parsley and
thyme. Inthe Virgin Islands, chive is used in salads, soups and otherrelishes. It can be chopped andmixed together
with chervil, parsley, and tarragon to make a savory yet mild blend ofherbs to flavor cooked chicken and fish, salads,
steamed vegetables, soups and omelettes. A good source of calcium, chives are believed to strengthen nails and
teeth when consumed. The Caribbean natives prefer the more pungent (strong) varieties over the mild ones.
The Virgin Islands has an ideal climate for growing chives, yet production level is not sufficient to meet local
demands. Chives command premium market price and a grower can make a significant income by growing chives
even a smallpiece ofland allyear-round. Major constraints to increased production ofchives in the Virgin Islands
are limited water resources, weeds, insect pests particularly leafminers, andhigh labor costs. These production
constraints can reduce yield by as much as 20 to 50 percent.
The UVI Agricultural Experiment Station has been conducting research addressing the constraints in the
production of chives. One ofthe studies involves the use ofmulch to conserve irrigation water and control weeds.
Miching plays an important role inthe production ofchives. Mulches suppress weeds, reduce soil erosion, conserve
soi moisture and modify soil temperature, structure and aeration. Mulches can be synthetic such as plastic films or
organic such as grass clippings, grass straw and wood chips. The use of synthetic plastic mulches is popular in most
vegetable crops and the benefits are many. However, plastic mulches have some drawbacks including high cost and
disposal problems. An alternative to synthetic mulch is organic mulch. Organic mulches such as grass straw, dry
leaves, and wood chips are less expensive and locally available. Organic mulches provide additional benefits
cor pard to synthetic mulches by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil as they break down. Following
the harvest o fthe crop they can be incorporated into the soil enhancing soil fertility and aeration.
Methods and Materials
A study was conducted in the spring season at UVI/AES to compare the influence of organic and synthetic
mulches on yield and economic returns from chiveproduction. Chives were plantedinplots consisting ofthree rows
3.6 m long. Plants were spaced 20 cm within rows 41 cm apart. The plots were mulched with grass straw, wood
chips, shredded paper and white plastic. A control plot (without mulch) was also planted for comparison. All
mulche except the white plastic were placed on the soil surface after planting of chives. Plots were fertilized with
dehydrated cow manure at the rate of 8 kilos per plot. All plots were drip irrigated and soil moisture maintained at
30 kPa. Data were collected on the number ofweeds, soil temperature, plant height, number of slips (tillers) and
fresh weight at harvest. Data were also collected on labor (man hours) for all operations and costs of inputs (cow
manure, mulch, irrigation water). Using freshyield and cost data, an economic analysis was performed to compare
the cost and returns from each mulchingmaterial.
Results and Discussion
The results of the trial are presented in Table 1. Chives grown with grass straw mulch produced the tallest (35.0
cm) plants. Plots with shredded paper mulch and the control (no mulch) produced plants with almost similar height.
Plots with white plastic mulch produced the shortest chive plants (27.5 cm). The number of slips (tillers) per plant
was highest (4.8) in plots with grass straw mulch, while plots with white plastic mulch and the control (no mulch)
producedplants with only 3.3 tillers. Wood chips and shredded paper mulch produced similar number of slips (4.0)
Table 1. Plant height, number of slips and fresh yield of chive grown with various mulches.
Mulch Plantheight Slips Fresh yield
(cm) no./ plant (g m2)
Grass straw 35.0 4.8 1203
Shredded paper 32.3 4.0 953
Wood chips 29.8 4.0 677
White plastic 27.5 3.3 705
Control (no mulch) 33.5 3.3 695
Differences in fresh yield were apparent among the various mulching materials. Grass straw mulch was superior
to all other mulches including the control (no mulch). On the average, plots with grass straw mulch produced the
highest yield (1203 g m-2) of fresh chives. This was followed by plots with shredded paper (953 g m-2) and white
plastic (705 gm-2). Plots with wood chip mulch and the control produced the lowestyield offresh chives. The results
of this trial suggest that using organic mulches for chive production is as good or better than synthetic plastic mulch.
The use of grass straw mulch demonstrated outstanding results as shown in tallerplants, more slips (tillers) and higher
yield than all other mulching materials.
All mulches resulted in reduced weed population (data not shown) compared to the control plot (no mulch). Due
to high rainfall during the growing season, differences in irrigation water use among mulch treatments and the control
were not significant (data not shown).
Growing organic chives offers good economic opportunity for herb farmers in the Virgin Islands. Although the
cost of production is high due to high labor and input costs, a grower can make a decent profit from one-sixteenth
acre (1/16 acre) of chive. Table 2 illustrates the estimated costs and returns for producing a 1/16 acre chive in St.
Croix. The figures in the table are based on chive grown in conventional plot (separate trial) with no mulch. A yield
of 480 lbs at $ 10/lb would gross $4,800. Considering all the operating and fixed costs including quantity retained
for slips (planting materials), a grower can make a net income of $3,632. This income reflects pre-tax returns to land
and operator's management. The break-even price at current production level (total revenue minus total operating
cost minus total fixed cost) is $ 1.46/lb. This would indicate that the farmer can still make a profit if he sells at $2.00/
lb, the lowest price in St. Croix at certain season.
The economic returns are even higher when the farmer uses mulch for producing chive. Table 3 shows the
economic comparison ofusing organic and synthetic mulches on chive production. The yield data from the mulch
trial were used in the economic analysis. Shredded paper was not included in the analysis due to lack of labor and
material costs. Economic comparison indicates that the net return above mulch costs was highest with grass straw
mulch ($6,662). The plastic mulch, wood chips and the control (mulch) gave almost similar returns above mulch
costs (Table 3). The use of grass straw mulch resulted in almost 50% more returns than other mulches.
Grass straw is locally available and biodegradable and when fully decomposed will contribute organic matter to
the soil. Another benefit of using grass straw mulch is that it provides soil cover reducing soil erosion during heavy
rainfall. Therefore, it does not only improved yield and economic returns, but also conserve and protect soil
resources and the environment. While grass straw provides these benefits, it has also some limitations for herb
farmers to consider. One of these limitations is that when grass straw contains weed seeds it promotes the growth
of weeds during the season and may add labor cost due to weeding. Therefore, farmers are advised to use only clean
grass straw free of weed seeds.
Organic mulches such as grass straw offer good alternative to synthetic (plastic) mulches. Chives grown in plots
with grass straw produced taller plants, more slips, and higher fresh yield than other types ofmulch. Economic return
from chives grown with grass straw mulch was 50% higher than either white plastic or wood chip. To improve
production and income, herb farmers should consider using grass straw mulch and realize other benefits including
weed control and improved soil fertility and tilth.
This project was made possible through a grant provided by USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and
Education Program (SARE), Southern Region. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Gerard D'Souza,
Visiting Agricultural Economist, West Virginia University, for performing the economic analysis of the data.
Asworth, S. and H. Harrison. 1983. Evaluation of mulches for use in the home garden. HortScience 18:180-182.
Crossman, S.M.A., M.C. Palada, J.A. Kowalski and E. Chichester. 1997. Comparison of mulch type effect on
yield ofparsley in the Virgin Islands. Proc. Caribbean Food Crops Soc. 33:(in press).
Crossman, S.M.A. and M.C. Palada. 1998. The influence of mulch type on yield ofparsley and chive production
in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proc. Caribbean Food Crops Soc. 34:(in press).
Palada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and C.D. Collingwood. 1993. Improving culinary herb production with drip
irrigation in the Virgin Islands. UVI Research 5:9-12.
Palada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and J.A. Kowalski. 1995. Organic and synthetic mulches affect yield of basil
under drip irrigation. Proc. Caribbean Food Crops Soc. 31:133-141.
Palada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and J.A. Kowalski. 1999. Evaluation of improved crop management practices
for culinary herb production in the Virgin Islands. AES Technical Bull. #6.(in press).
Table 2. Estimated Costs and Returns for Chives in St. Croix, USVI, 1999
(Adapted from G. D'Souza, 1999 unpublished)
1/16 acre unit
Item Unit Qty. Price ($/unit) Amt
Sale of chives from 1/16 acre lbs. 480 $10 $4,800
Less quantity retained for slips lbs. 48 $10 -$480
Other sales 0
Total Revenue $4,320
Holes # 422 $0.05 $21
Fertilizer (cow manure) 50 lb. bag 10 $4.85 $49
Organic chemicals (dipel) lb. 1 $15.30 $15
Water gal. 652 $0.01 $7
Labor: (a) planting hrs. 3 $6 $18
(b) weeding hrs. 60 $6 $360
(c) manuring hrs. 1 $6 $6
(d) irrigation hrs. 6 $6 $36
(set-up & repair)
(e) harvesting hrs. 6 $6 $36
(incl. weighing or
Machinery: (a) plowing acres 0.06 $60 $4
(b) harrowing acres 0.06 $15 $1
(c) tilling acres 0.06 $15 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 554 1%/mo. $11
Total Operating Cost $565
Property tax acre 0.06 $225 $14
Interest on avg. investment (excl. land) $ 1,000 10%/yr. $100
Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipment 0.06 acre $100 $6
(b) other equipment 0.06 acre $5 $1
(c) well 0.06 acre $28 $1
(d) other 0.06 acre $2 $1
Total Fixed Cost $123
PRE-TAX RETURNS TO LAND & OPERATOR'S MANAGEMENT $3,632
(total revenue total operating cost total fixed cost)
BREAK-EVEN PRICE (at current production level) = [total fixed cost + lbs. sold] + operating cost per pound= $1.46/1b.
1. The entire crop is harvested once, approximately two months after the slips are planted.
2. 100 sq. ft. of additional land is set aside for slip production.
3. A plant spacing of 12"x 8" is assumed, resulting in planting density of 6,748 per acre.
4. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.
5. Property tax is computed assuming an assessed land value of $ 10,000/acre, and a 75% farmland
exemption on real property taxes consistent with VI code.
1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 1997.
2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.
3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and UVI SBDC.
4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket.
Table 3. Economic Comparison ofAlternative Mulch Treatments for Chive Production, St. Croix, USVI, 1999
(Adapted from G. D'Souza, 1999 unpublished).
1/16 acre unit
Type of Mulch Annualized Labor Total Yield NetReturn Profit
Mulch Cost Cost Cost (lbs. per above mulch costs Ranking
Plastic $2 $24 $26 392 $3894 2
Straw $50 $18 $68 669 $6622 1
Wood $25 $18 $43 377 $3727 4
Control (no mulch) 0 0 0 387 $3870 3
1. Annualized mulch costs are computed assuming that straw lasts for one year, plastic for two
years, and wood for 3 years.
2. Net returns are computed assuming a sales price of$10 per pound.
3. All costs and returns are rounded off to the nearest $.
4. Production data are for one year only, 1999.
5. Time spent weeding (and therefore weeding costs) is assumed to be constant across treatments. Thus, although
the control plot is likely to have more weeds, this is offset by the fact that the weeds are easier to spot and
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"Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No Farming, No Food"
HOMESTEAD: A MEETING WITH MY GRANDMOTHER
Marvin E. Williams
The Agrifesthomestead cabin, agriot, tells
a tale about the dawn ofhope, when simple folk
buoyed by an ache tosweeten their toil' s weat,
turned over tough earth tofind theirreflection
long blurredby an implosive sun. So theyreturned
to their fathers' gardens of eating one's labor
to build one's worth, reaping one's honor
from the inner love one cultured; so they fled
the sacred villages thatprofaned then bled
from them (an abortion that still disfigures)
thejoy and awe tilling land inspires.
Theywouldrekindle elation in Homestead.
On this ground veneratedby desire,
they would find seeds within the slaver's caliche;
from their souls hearth which guards the fire
ofwill, they would extract another ember,
as they fingered cutlass and hoe to plow
soils strickenby multiple strains ofcane,
wondering whose bull would service the cow
and what less painful crop the land could hold,
surely their quiet conspiracy had to know
thatthose tired fields didn't find engine
in the New Deal's largesse, nor bold
support inthe paternal halls ofCongress.
But they planted seeds, knowing some things grow.
Those fields foundprovenance inthe panic
to cut the pauperism shadow-
ing King sugar and its central grinder that ground
land and lover into Hoover's poorhouse.
Hemesteading would restore planter and louse
to an oligarchy routing in the compost ofcane.
But homesteaders touted cutlass and hoe to sow
life crops that countered stubborn rows ofpain
fallowing in the wake of sugar's gain until
Pearson slashed their holdings to parcels,
a prop to steady the staggering King.
Yet they shouldered billhook and hoe to sow
their seeds, knowing some things grow.
The Agrifesthomestead cabin walls seal
in time homesteaders caught with their labor
undressed: cane farmers weeding their fields,
plowingtheirparcels, gathering forpalaver,
fertilizing their dreams that they might sprout
above Pearson's nightmare. An ethos of doubt
darkens their flourescent eyes that light upon a river
flowing downstreampastbrightpolicy that yields
nothing beyoundthat which wins sugar's favor.
The north bedroom wall compels with a portrait
I label Crucian Gothic: A peasant tall and stout
as a mahogany, stands to his height, and his gait
is a warrior's without awar or a fisherman's without
the promise ofhis pot. His woman gives anchor
to his side and hugs a young boy close to her.
I gaze into their strong faces and find a mirror
whose photo reveals me, my aunt, and my father.
I gaze past early death that denied me Grandma's audience
into the multi-forded riverher eyes shelter
from the years' deforestation, and I claim the ambience
of our tree's trunk and branches, and burrow closer
to its roots. I gaze her, for I had grown to love
Granpa shriveled, folded, tucked into earth by age;
I heard his shor-winded wisdom take carriage
in my father's wisdom, saw his pruned body move
to sprout in the loamy soil ofmy little brother.
But Grandma caught the boat before I was born
and my father deeded me no picture of her beyond
an ache nestled in the camera of desire.
So I muddle through the ash to find the fire
in her soul and body that shaped the ore
thatbecame her life: daughter, sister, mother, wife,
that dizzying lump worth more than its sum.
So I muddle through the ash to the fire ofhome.
And I hasten there through the corridor ofyears
to find in Grandma the lost me rediscovered with age
and outward explorations. And I welcome the tears
that chaperone me through the bliss and past the rage
against sugar to walk the rows of cane with her,
while the sun conspires with soil to blunt her dreams
of escape to loamier fields where labor promises
more than honor and food offers more than fodder
forthe cannon ofbitterness daily blasting hope.
I hasten to Grandma's cottage pregnant with tomorrows
the chalky soil loathes to deliver, and with her grope
within the thicket of chronic pains and sorrows
for a life as tender and seminal as Grandpa's love
that caresses into compliance and then removes
the callous skin of doubt that burdens the soul.
I hastenpast fractions to find total Grandma, full
of complex sap aged to vintage her in an archival frame.
I hasten past life's fractious ash to death's constitutive flame.
ACCELYN T. MORTON
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CES AGRICULTURE & NATURAL RESOURCES PROGRAM
RESPONDING TO THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY
Acting AssistantDirector ANR
T he Cooperative Extension Service's ANR Program, in keeping with its mission, continuously strives to meet
the changing needs of the Virgin Islands community. The staffunderstands that we must continue to take the
lead in disseminating research-based information and technical advice to the people of the Virgin Islands.
As we continue to develop innovative activities other than the traditional styles ofoutreach, the ANR Program
is increasingly faced with many challenges as we work to improve the quality of life in our community. Three
challenges, dealt with on a daily basis, include increasing agricultural productivity andprofitability, preserving the
islands' unique natural resources, reducing the threat ofenvironmental degradation, offsetting the continual rising cost
ofimported food, reducing the severity of damage to oururban trees, and reducing the amount ofyard waste entering
the VI Landfills.
To effectively address these challenges, we have formed vital partnerships with number of local and federal
govermentagencies, farmerorganizations, busi-
nesses, schools, and other institutions. Using two
of the five national goals as our focus and a
preliminary need assessment, the ANR Program
developednine strategicprograms thatwillhave
positive impacts on the lives of people and the
environment ofthe V.I. We took into consider-
ation the fact that the Virgin Islands are still
recovering fromthreemajorhurricanes during the
last decade which have negatively affected the
ecology and overall economy.
strategic programs, which includes primary goals
and targeted audiences. Implementation ofthese
strategic programs fall under the auspices ofthree components ofthe ANRprogram: Environmental Horticulture,
Animal Science, andNatural Resources.
The Environmental Horticulture component ofthe ANR Program has responsibility for six of nine strategic
programs: Sustainable Agriculture, Urban Gardening, Urban Forestry, Backyard Composting, Integrated Pest
Management, and Pesticide Applicator Training.
The Sustainable Agriculture Program targets small-scale, limitedresourceproducers, andprofessional staff
of agriculture support agencies. The emphasis is to increase awareness, understanding, and information regarding
appropriate sustainable agriculture practices. The goal is to increase the number ofproducers adopting sustainable
agricultural production systems that are economically viable and ecologically sound.
The Urban Gardening Program targets low/marginal-income residents, senior citizens, school-aged youth,
andyouth groups. The emphasis is to increase theirknowledge and awareness about gardening, using low-input, low-
cost appropriate technologies. These technologies include box and other containerized gardening, drip irrigation
systems, organic fertilizers, organic mulches, organic soil amendments, andpest integratedpest management. The
goal is to increase the number ofurban residents involved in gardening.
The Urban Forestry Program targets local government agencies, community leaders, public utility agencies,
neighborhood groups, school-aged youth, and youth groups. The emphasis is to increase their knowledge and
awareness about the benefits and importance ofplanting and preserving plant species native to the Virgin Islands.
Residents will then have greater appreciation ofthe intrinsic beauty ofthese native plants. The goal is to improve
the urban environment ofthe Virgin Islands, by including urban trees. This will result in a reduction of air, soil, and
The Backyard Composting Program targets the community's neighborhood groups, civic organizations,
home-owners associations, school teachers, and youth groups to increase their knowledge and awareness of the
importance ofcomposting. The goal is to
increase the number ofresidents involved
inbackyardcomposting, resulting in a sub-
stantial reduction of the amount of yard
The Integrated Pest Management
Program (IPM) targets small-scale pro-
ducers, home gardeners, andyouth groups.
The emphasis is to increase their aware-
ness, understanding, and information re-
garding IPM practices. The goal is to
increase the number ofproducers adopt-
ing the territory's minimum set of IPM
The Pesticide Applicator Training (PAT) offers training and certification for safe and correct application of
pesticides, as well as provides advice to commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and homeowners on the selection
anduse ofnatural and synthetic pesticides, and application equipment. The goal is to increase the number oftrainees
who adopt one or more recommended PAT practices after completing training, and certification/recertification
The Animal Science component of the ANR program has responsibilities for the Beef, Dairy, and Small
Livestock Program. This strategic program targets beef and dairy cattle, goat, sheep, hogs, and chicken producers,
along with the Virgin Islands' consumers. The goal is to increase adoption ofrecommendedproduction and breeding
practices in the livestock industry, and to increase consumer demand for these locally produced animal products.
The Natural Resources component of the ANRprogram has the gigantic responsibility of implementing the
Natural Resources and Environmental management (NREM), and Water Quality programs.
The Natural Resources and Environmental Man-
agement Program targets policy-makers and regulatory
personnel, community groups, teachers and students, the
business community, non-governmental organizations, and
the general public. The emphasis ofthe NREM Program is to
increase awareness and understanding ofhuman effects on
native habitats and natural resources (soil, water resources,
and native plants). The primary goal is to promote the
development ofaholistic environmental management ethic in
the VirginIslands. This ethic incorporates the use ofbeneficial
land-use and conservationpractices.
The Water Quality Program provides public information and outreach as well as Technical assistance to the
public onways to minimize orpreventNonpoint Source Pollution. Nonpoint Source Pollution is caused brain water
flowing over and through the ground, picking up pollutants such as sediments, nutrient, bacteria, oils, heavy metals
and other toxic chemicals, and carrying them into ground water or into guts, ponds, and other coastal waters. The
primary goal ofthe Water Quality Programs is to
improve the quality ofVirgin Islands' coastal and
ground waters. We will be focusing on represen-
tatives ofthe VirginIslands government agencies
responsible for regulating and protecting water
quality as well as Virgin Islands government
agencies, businesses, community groups, and
individuals who are either responsible for or
impactedby impairedwater quality.
The ANR Program staff are a small but -
resilient group who are committed to excellence,
and a vision of the future. We look forward to
facing themany challenges thatwill confronts as
we continue to respond to the difficult issues of
our community. With the cooperation and collaboration ofthe many government agencies, and other groups and
organizations, we will be successful in "Finding the Answers and the sharing ofknowledge."
Proudly salutes the 29th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
of the Virgin Islands.
AARPis the leading organization forpersons 50 years and over, with more than 12,500 members
in the Virgin Islands. AARP Virgin Islands provides education and information program so consumer issues,
retirement, financial planning, health, social security and Medicare. It provides the direct service programs
ofTax-Aid, 55 Alive/Mature Driving, and Connections for Independent Living. Legislative advocacy on
issues of importance and concern to mature Islanders is also a major focus of our program efforts.
StateDirector: DenyceE. Singleton
Lawrence A. Bastian, President
(Vacant), Coordinator for Community Operations
Olrie Carrington, Communications Coordinator
Ellen Murraine, Training Coordinator
Samuel Morch, Health Advocacy Services Coordinator
Jerome Ferdinand, Tax-Aide Coordinator
Joyce Christian, St. Croix District Coordinator
Gwendolyn Blake, St. Thomas/St. John District
Edward Phillips, Legislative Committee Chair
Helen Vessup, Economic Security Coordinator
Marcia DeGraff, Consumer Issues Coordinator
(Vacant), 55 Alive Coordinator
(Vacant), Women Issues Specialist
Norrine Abramson, Recruiter
St. Croix, Ada Acoy, President
St. John, Madaline Sewer, President
St. Thomas, Bernice P. Jackson
To volunteer your time and talents, or to obtain information about AARP
programs, please call:
AARP VIRGIN ISLANDS INFORMATION LINE: (340) -778-2570
AARP excels as a dynamic presence in every community,
shaping and enriching the experience of aging
for each member and society.
FROM THE MANAGEMENT & ITAFF
IINNY IILE SHOPPING CENTER, INC.
HOME GROWN, HOME OWNED & PROUD!
778-5830 (PH) 778-1454 (FAX) JUNNYILE@VITELCOM.NET (E-MAIL)
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"For The Very Best Prices In Lumber
251 Est. Glynn
P. O. Box 6697, Sunny Isle
St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands 00823
Tele: (340) 778-2331
Fax: (340) 778-1218
y L Y mARO 2'0
OF THE V, 5 LAiDS
.. ...... '" ....'....... -STUFED BREADFRUIT
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS
3 3138 00175 8175
full breadfruit (not too soft)
small onion, minced
large, very ripe tomato, minced
tablespoons tomato sauce
clove garlic, crushed
tablespoon cooking oil
salt and pepper to taste
Gently brown beef in 1 tablespoon cooking oil and 1 tablespoon margarine. Add prepared vegetables, stir and
cook for 3 minutes longer. Add salt to taste. Remove from heat.
To Prepare Breadfruit
Peel andparboilbreadfruit whole in salt water. From the stem end ofthe fruit, cut out the core and remove some
pulp to form a cup to hold prepared beef. Fill cavity with cooked meat mixture. Set in greased baking dish and bake
at 4000 F. for 30 to 45 minutes or until fruit is delicately brown. Serve hot.
Makes 4 breadfruit quarters.
Each quarter provides:
Calories Fat Protein
"A Breed Apart"
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