Revitalizing Small Farms Through Sustainable Agriculture
Artist: Maud Pierre-Charles
28TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
February 13-15, 1999
JOINTLY SPONSORED BY THE V.I. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, AND THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
CORPORATE SPONSOR: A&T
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28 ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
OF THE U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
"REVITALIZING SMALL FARMS
THROUGHSUSTAINABLEA GRICUL TURE "
Layout & Design
Clarice C. Clarke
Public Information Specialist
University of the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service
Marvin E. Williams, Clarice C. Clarke
Raquel Santiago Silver, Dr. Manuel Palada
UNIVERSITY OVi C 7 !GIN ISLANDSWJ
Property Casualty Auto
Marine Marine Cargo Bonds
Marshall & Sterling St. Croix, Inc.
5021 Anchor Way, Gallows Bay
Christiansted, St. Croix 00820
Ph: 340.773.2170 Fax: 340.773.9550
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Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin is credited; mention of product
names in this book in no way implies endorsement by the authors or the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors.
The Agriculture & Food Fair Bulletin is desktop published by the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
The Board of Directors
Agriculture and Food
Fair of the
U.S. Virgin Islands
Her support and devotion to the
preservation of the Virgin Islands' rich
agricultural heritage will be truly
S"the strength of the tree
is determined by the roots"
At Vitelco, we believe that by giving our children a strong
foundation, we help ensure their future. That's why we
awarded over a quarter million dollars in scholarship
money to hard working Virgin Islands students to
caught over xIoo young people how to play tennis in the
Vitelco Junior Tennis Program
adopted more than xooo young people each year at our
adopted schools on St. Thomas, St. Croixand St. John
taught dozens of young people how to sail in the
o Vitelco Governors Cup Youth Regatta
S* awarded more than $35,000 in cash to talented classical
Musicians who have competed in the Vitelco Classical
made a commitment of 5200,000 to the Boys and Girls
Club that will ensure the Club will be there for the
V IT ELCO more than 600 young people who depend on it each
VN ISLANDS TELEPHONE COPORATION year ... and much, much more
A PUBLICATION OF THE 28TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE
AND FOOD FAIR OF THE U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
BULLETIN NUMBER 13
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1999 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR BOARD OF DIRECTORS.......................... ..........................7
M ESSAGE FROM GOVERNOR CHARLES W. TURNBULL.................................................... ...................... 8
M ESSAGE FROM Dr. ORVILLE KEAN ........................ ..................................................... 9
MESSAGE FROM ACTING COMMISSIONER Dr. LAWRENCE LEWIS................................... ..........................10
O NE CAN B E A G REAT M ANY............................................... ................................... .................... 11
Deniz Ergun Seker
INCORPORATING COMPOSTING INTO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE........................................................... 13
HERBS: A DELIGHT TO YOUR HEALTH AND SENSES .................................................... .....................16
Alice V. Henry
SANITATION, DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN SHEEP AND GOATS...........................................20
ASSESSING YOUR HOME & FARM PRACTICES TO PROTECT YOUR HEALTH AND PROPERTY.......................23
SLAVES ATE STARVATION APPLE FOR ITS MEDICINAL USES AND TO RESTORE THEIR BODIES.....................26
ST. GEORGE VILLAGE BOTANICAL GARDEN COMPLETES "HERITAGE GARDENS"........................................28
Christie W. Bartle
"KEEP IT CLEAN, "COOK IT WELL," "COOL IT SOON!".............................................................................. 31
CASES OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY...MEDICINAL PLANTS CAN BE CONFUSED ..................... .............................35
INSULAR L ANDSCAPE................................................................................................... .........................40
BITTERMELON: A MINOR PLANT WITH NTRICEUTICAL VALUE AND POTENTIAL SPECIALITY CROP FOR SMALL FARMS
IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS........................................ ........... .......... .... ...... ......................47
Dr. Manuel Palada
PRUNING TREES.............................. ................... ..... ............................ .. ..... .... ....................... 55
PUBLIC POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE............................................................... .......................58
John M. Green
RESOURCE CONSERVATION ON FARMLAND............................................................................... ................... 61
Rudy G. O'Reilly, Jr.
THE M EAT W E E AT.............................................................. ................................................... 64
1999 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Lawrence Lewis, Ph.D
Executive Vice President
Vice President of Operations
Clarice C. Clarke
of Publicity & Publications
Director of Youth Activities
Director of Food Exhibits
Louis Petersen, Ph.D.
Director of Off-Island
Director of Livestock Exhibits
Director of Special Activities
Director of Fair Decorations
Director of Crop Exhibits
Director of Judging & Awards
Director of UVI Exhibits
'S~~ -. 1
THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS
OFFICE OF THE G,'0.'ERNOR
Charlotte Amalie, 1.1. 00802
MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR
This year's Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands is indeed an
important event. It celebrates the last time for this century that we would have
an opportunity to plant the seeds to revitalize small farms through sustainable
As we move towards the next century, the Territory will face many
challenges. Agriculture and its spin-off business activities offer some of the best
opportunities to help confront these challenges. This year's theme, "Revitalizing
Small Farms through Sustainable Agriculture," is quite fitting. We must return
to the earth. We must improve and increase our local food production so that we
can reduce our dependency on imported food.
We are all aware that the financial state of the territory is not as grand as
we would like, but we can make it grander. We can do this in agriculture by
building on the good things of the past. I have asked the Agriculture
Commissioner to put into place a marketing unit that would assist the farmers in
finding retail outlets, as well as gathering information from farmers that will
enable retailers to buy local.
The Agriculture Commissioner has already shared with me some ideas
about getting water to the community gardens on St. Croix and to other
government-leased property. We shall work to make this possible soon. We
shall further move to improve the conditions of the farmers market in La Reine,
St. Croix, while we coordinate with all relevant agencies to find a proper vending
place for our residents who fish to market their catch.
I encourage all Virgin Islanders to unite and spend a day at the 1999
Agriculture and Food Fair. Besides the mouth-watering foods and local drinks,
the Fair presents yet another opportunity for us, as Virgin Islanders, to meet, to
enjoy and to share our culture. I extend my best wishes to the staff and
management of the Department of Agriculture for their efforts in putting
together a successful fair.
Charles W. Turnbull
Message from Dr. Orville Kean
President, University of the Virgin Islands
It is with great pleasure that I bid a warm welcome to the
participants and visitors of the 28t Annual Virgin Islands Agri-
culture and Food Fair. The VI Agriculture and Food Fair
continues to be one of the best examples ofa community activity 1
that consistently demonstrates the considerable skills, produc-
tivity and creativity of Virgin Islanders. The theme ofthis year's
fair, "Revitalizing Smalls Farms Through Sustainable Agriculture,"provides a great opportunity
for the VI community to learn more about the challenges that fact small farms and the benefits they
can bring to small island communities like ours.
Sustainable Agriculture--agriculture that continues to provide crops and livestock over a long
period because of good management of soil, the environment and economic conditions is a goal
that requires farmers, scientists and extension agents to work together. UVI's Land Grant
Programs are involved with a number ofproj ects that focus on issues important to small farms,
including selection and the economic challenges. In orderto ensure that the research conducted
is relevant to local conditions and needs, a number ofUVI research projects involve farmers as
partners in the studies. These types of activities help to realize the mission ofUVI to provide
leadership in research, instruction and community service.
I extend commendations to the UVI Land Grant Staff, the Department of Agriculture and the
Agriculture and Food Fair Board for their leadership and demonstration of the benefits of
collaboration. The people of the Virgin Islands benefit from your ability to work together to
produce an experience that is enlightening and enjoyable. Congratulations are also extended
to all contributors to the 28"tAgriculture and Food Fair. The Virgin Islands is always a better
place when we can show the positive results of our collective efforts. Best wishes to all visitors
and participants for a memorable experience at the 1999 Agriculture and Food Fair.
Orville Kean, Ph.D.
M sage from Dr. Lawrence Lewis
Ac ng Commissioner, Department of Agriculture
n behalf of the Board of Directors and the men and women of
the irgin Islands Department of Agriculture, I extend a warm and
sin re welcome to all the people of the Virgin Islands and visitors
ali It is indeed a pleasure to have you attend the 28th Annual
Ag culture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
e theme of the fair is "Revitalizing Small Farms Through
Su ainable Agriculture." Recently, I was asked the meaning of"sustainability," and I immediately
us references that implied care, acute attention, longevity, trust for future generations, and social
jus ce for an answer. I did this intuitively. Upon checking, I found that all of these concepts were
em died in the dictionary definition of sustainable. Sustainable agriculture is, therefore, a just
ag culture, the practice of which will ensure the production of our food, fiber and nourishment.
Su unable agriculture will endure and withstand the test of time, so that our children will have equal
or tter access to their human needs. It implies the will to minimize the use of destructive inputs while
ca g for all of God's creatures in the process.
the United States, the demise of the family (small) farm is well documented. The effect has been
the devastation ofboth families and small farms. Increased productivity has often been realized with
sig ificant damage to the environment. The January issue of the Cent for Rural Affairs newsletter
in ated that small and medium sized hog producers continue to suffer, and it asserts that "it is time
(fo USDA) to act or accept responsibility for the destruction of what remains of family farm hog
pr auction Our department has been told similar words.
Sthe Virgin Islands, our largest farms are dwarfed in size when compared to mainland family
fa s. However, in an economy of scales we have to be careful to do all we can to sustain and keep
fa ing alive. We are challenged to do so by identifying as many sources of assistance as we can
wh e utilizing the little that we have to achieve maximum benefit. We are indeed pleased that the
sta d overall goal of Governor Charles W. Turnbull and Lieutenant Governor Gerard L. James, II
is e ofsustainability through responsibility and growth. I trust that with the assistance of the farmers
of e V.I., we at the V.I. Department of Agriculture can help to realize this grander vision.
air visitors, do help ensure the sustainability of small farmers by purchasing all of the produce
ex ibited at the 1999 Agriculture and Food Fair and "buy local!" May God bless us all.
Lawrence W. Lewis, Ph.D.
Acting Commissioner ofAgriculture
ONE CAN BE A GREAT MANY
Antilitter andBeautification Commission-St.Croix
Wy do we call them small farmers? These are the people who feed the world. Here in the Virgin
Islands, small farmers already provide the greatest portion of local produce. They are the ones
who can help usbecome self-sufficient; we would no longerbe dependent on imported food; no
more millions ofdollars would leave the territory. No one but the small farmer can help us realize these dreams.
The Agricultural Census of 1992 indicated that there are a total of 202 farms in the Virgin Islands. One
hundred and fifty-nine of these farms are smaller than 9 acres each, and nearly one halfofthese are smaller
than 3 acres. Clearly, the small farmer is still alive in the Virgin Islands, but is he/she well?
Let's take a closer look at St. Croix, the once breadbasket of the Caribbean. In 1987, there were a total
of 267 farms for a total of 16,132 acres. By 1992, this figure had decreased by 50 % to 132 farms with a
total of 12,371 acres. Also, total cropland in 1992 had sharply decreased by 54 % to 741 acres when
compared with 1987's 1,619 acres.
In addition, the average age ofthe operators of Virgin Islands farms was 57 years, according to 1992 figures.
And 25 percent of these farmers was 65 years and older. Where is the younger generation? Do members of
this group prefer professions other than farming? Do these statistics show that the future of agriculture is not
so bright? One need not to be this pessimistic. Now is the time to develop new marketing strategies and set
new goals to improve our policy notjust for agriculture, but for sustainable agriculture which can be defined
as self-reliant, resource conserving, and productive in both the short and long term.
Sustainable agriculture is agriculture that is custom designed to last and to be passed on to future generations.
As consumers and as responsible residents, we have to be aware that we're living on a small island. We must
take care of our land and respect our heritage. Virgin Islanders have very strong cultural roots that bind us
to agriculture much in the same way that a plant is bound to the soil. We need to continually emphasize the
education ofouryouth on the importance ofagriculture. We need to learn to appreciate andnurture our small farmers.
All ofus have the responsibility to keep our small farmers alive for a healthier economy. They struggle for all of
us, despite the problems ofmarketing and financing, low income, water shortages and lease problems. Ifthey are
struggling for their livelihood how could it be possible that they are the ones who will help us to become self-reliant?
At this point, cooperation comes to mind. That is working together to achieve that which we cannot accomplish
as individuals. A French economist, Charles Gide, developed the definition ofa cooperative many years ago: "A
Cooperative is a group ofpersons pursuing common economic, social and educational aims bymeans ofabusiness."
Today, agricultural cooperatives play a vital role in our economic life all around the world. Small farmers are
unable to compete in a homogenous, concentrated national and international market. Consistent supply, higherprices
because ofhigh cost ofproduction, problems ofminimum grading and sizing ofproduce, packaging and marketing
techniques are the problems that could be overcome through cooperatives. Group purchasing would lower cost and
group marketing would bring higherprices. On the otherhand, itwouldbepossible to develop marketing strategies
to establishreliablemarketniches andnewlyidentifiedmarkets couldbe quickly developedthrough cooperatives.
Cooperatives have as their core set ofvalues, self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and
solidarity. They are voluntary organizations, open to all farmers. And their members believe in ethical values of
honesty, openness, social responsibility, and caring for others.
The century needs the contributions of cooperative organizations for economizing the usage ofnatural resources
ofthe world and for protecting the rights ofcoming generations. These are the inevitable elements of sustainable
At this point, I would like to tell a story that reminds me ofthe power ofbeing together under one umbrella. The
story is told about Aristotle who at the age of21 was approached by King Phillip ofMacedonia and asked
to teach his son Alexander, age 11. Alexander, who was destined to become Alexander The Great, was a
very bright young man. One day in the middle ofa mathematics lesson, as the story goes, he stopped Aristotle
and asked: "How many is 1? Aristotle could have answered that I was unity, it was one-half of two, it
was two halves, or something else, but instead he asked for twenty-four hours to think about it. When he
returned he told his young student, "One can be a very great many. Think about it; as individuals we are a
great many people and we have relatively little power alone. However, through a cooperative, we act as one and
one can be a very great many.
Sustainable farming also requires a strong relationship between farmers and the community. We want to know
and talk to the person who grows our food. I can imagine how wonderful it would be to have the opportunity to
talk with the farmer directly; to buy fresh, tasty and inexpensive localproduce and to learn about the many varieties,
growing methods, recipes, and nutritional value while shopping in abig localmarket. Yes, there shouldbe abig,
regular market here; two days a week, one in Christiansted, one in Frederiksted. This market would be very
convenient for residents, very attractive for tourists, and very beneficial for a lively economy. Furthermore, the
market days shouldbe intentionally selected to coincide with cruise ship days for maximum benefit.
All parents want the best for their children's future. Let's work hand in hand together for abetter future by
improving the relationship among consumers, farmers, markets, and the government. Our children's inheritance is
Groves, F. 1985. The Philosophy of Cooperation and Its Relationship to Cooperative Structure. Wisconsin. A
paper presented at the Graduate Institute of Cooperatives.
INCORPORATING COMPOSTING INTO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
AntiLitter and Beautification Commission
We have not inherited the Earth
from our fathers, we are
borrowing it from our children.
Sustainable agriculture is somewhat difficult to define or explain exactly. However, it is a concept and practice
that we need to acquire for the benefit of future generations. To put it simply, sustainable agriculture means
an integration ofpractices that will enhance the environment and the quality oflife as a whole. Two important
practices ofsustainable agriculture are protecting and enhancing soil resources. "Healthy" soil is a key component
ofsustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigor and are less susceptible
to pests. What better way to practice these principles than through composting.
If you can do only one thing to improve your
garden this year, build acompostpile. No matter The Benefits of Compost in the Soil
your soil type, your climate, or your choice of Improvessoilstructure
crops, composting will enhance your garden soil, Aids in water retention
resulting in increased yield, strongerplants, and Improves aeration and drainage
saferproduce. Aids in nutrient retention
Contains a low level ofnutrients slowly released to
Why compost? Organic gardeners have long plants
regarded compost as the cornerstone of garden p Increasesthenumberofmicroorgansms inthesoil
soil fertility. Compost produces healthy, strong
plants that are more resistant to pests and diseases.
Poor soils especially will benefit from consistent
applications of compost. Building soil is essential for good organic gardening. By adding compost to the soil, you
are replenishing the organic matter and nutrients that are taken out with the harvested crops.
Composting is really quite simple, inexpensive, ecologically sound, and literally fail proof-- no matterwhat you
do, your pile will eventually rot into compost. With a basic understanding you can make apile that produces arich,
soil building compost.
Compost is best defined as a pile of organic materials deliberately Do not compost
assembled for fast decomposition. If you have a garden, a yard, and a Meatbones, da ucts and
Meat, bones, dairyproducts and
kitchen, you are generating great materials for your compost pile. The greasy foods
leaves you rake from underyour trees, the grass clippings from your lawn, Cat, dog, and human feces
the weeds from your garden, yesterday's oatmeal, and even yesterday's Diseasedplants
newspaper can all be composted easily. But there is a system to good
A compost pile needs a good balance of
"greens"(nitrogen),"browns"(carbon), moisture, andair. The Note: For gardeners, young green plants are
"greens" arefresh plant materials, grass clippings, fruit and very high in nitrogen. To capture the most
vegetable scraps, and manure. "Browns" are dried leaves, nitrogen foryourcompostpile, pull out finished
plants, branches, wood chips, hay and saw dust. In order cropplants andweedswhiletheyarestill green.
for a compost pile to work quickly and properly, an ideal Straw, leaves, anddrygrass aretypical examples
carbon/nitrogen ratio ofaround 30:1 is needed. Please don't ofbrown materials.
waste anytime tryingto mathematicallycalculatethe 30:1 ideal
ratio. It is easier to experiment with different combinations of
materials and then see what happens. Beginners can use this rule of thumb: For every 1 to 3 inches of green
or moist material you layer on your pile, you add 3 to 9 inches of brown material.
A large pile with a good balance of green and brown materials should decompose quickly, generate heat, and give
offa very slight smell of ammonia (a form ofnitrogen gas). Ifthepile doesn't have enough nitrogen, it won't get very
hot and won't decompose quickly. To speed it up, turn the pile and layer in high nitrogen materials.
Other factors to consider:
Moisture: A compost pile should ideally be 40-60% moisture or as "moist as awrung-out-sponge." The easiest
way to ensure consistent moisture throughout the pile is to water each brown
layer as you go.
Uses of Finished
Size: The size oforganic materials affects how fast they compost. Materialswith Compost
smaller particle sizes have more overall surface area exposed forbacteria and Mix it in with the soil in
other decomposers to munch on. your garden or potted
Turning: Turning or mixing the pile speeds up the composting process and Rake it into your lawn
produces a better end product. Spread it around your
trees and plants.
Bins: A compost bin is not necessary but it does make it easier and more 9 Sharewithaneighbor.
attractive. There are many designs available that are inexpensive and produce
good quality compost.
Sustainable agriculture acknowledges that the gifts ofnature upon which it depends- soil, water, plants, and
animals- need to be treated with loving care and modesty. The greatest calling of the farmer is to leave those gifts
in better condition than when they were received. Sustainable agriculture is important to all ofus regardless o whether
or not we are farmers or gardeners. We all must eat, drink water, and breathe. The benefits ofcomposting can only
enhance sustainable agriculture by contributing to the preservation ofthe Earth's natural resources and the reduction
ofpollution and waste.
For more information on composting contact AntiLitter and Beautification at 773-4489, VI Department of
Agriculture 778-0997 (ext.238), orUVI Cooperative Extension Service at 692-4080.
HERBS: A DELIGHT TO YOUR HEALTH AND SENSES!
Alice V. Henry, MPH, RD
Extension Specialist-Foods and Nutrition
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
M o 'dern science has finally caught on .-
to what many knowledgeable ... -
weed women and herbalists have
known for centuries: herbs can be successfully
used to treat myriad ofdiseases. In the last few
years manypeople (health-care professionals
included) have beenpraising the value ofawide
variety ofherbs. Althoughherbs have been used
throughoutmanycultures, the differencetodayis
that there is now scientific proof of the health
claims. There is alsobeneficial informationonthe
toxicity and recommended dosages of these
herbs for varied conditions. The majority ofthe
research has been conducted in Europe. You will
be hard-pressedto findmentionofthis extensive
research documented in American scientific
journals. However, the German E Commission
has just published its long-awaited series of
monographs detailing scientifically studied
information of 190 herbs. Information on dosing,
health benefits, contraindications, side effects,
and toxicities is provided. Many oftheherbs thatwe utilize in the Caribbean are listed, however, many that are native
to our region are not.
For information on the use of our native herbs, please take the time to seek out a reputable herbalist. Do
not rely on word of mouth, or the "It worked for me, it will work for you" school of thought. Do not forget
that herbs are medicine and must be respected as such. A knowledgeable herbalist will take into consideration
factors specific to your body to make the most accurate recommendations.
Herbs not only have medicinal values, but culinary values, as we are all aware. However, one thing that I
find absolutely amazing is that people buy driedherbs from the grocery stores for such outlandish prices (for
the amount they get), especially in the Virgin Islands where, weather-wise, we have optimal growing
conditions. For minimal start-up and maintenance cost, you can either grow your own herbs in pots or start
your own garden. Let me tell you, there is nothing like picking fresh herbs for a dish minutes before you need
them. Once you've done this, as opposed to shaking freeze-dried flakes or powder out of a canister, you will
never turn back!
As mentioned above, hundreds ofherbs also have documented medicinal purposes. Most ofyou who take
herbs for medicinal purposes purchase them in the form of capsules, tinctures, or teas. Wouldn't it be better
to be able to grow these herbs yourself? Besides being more cost-effective, you will see what you are getting.
A study done on ginseng showed that many oftheproducts claiming to contain ginseng had little to NO ginseng
in them (Note: The ginseng root is very expensive...ifyou are buying teas or capsules for $19.99 chances are
that you are getting little to no ginseng in that product). Unlike vitamins or traditional medicine prescribed by
your physician, there is no agency that regulates the manufacturers of herbal supplements, resulting in
adulterated products (supplements containing little to none of the specified herb). To guard against this look
for products that give you "standardized" amounts listed on the label. There is a greater chance of getting what
you have paid for.
Where can I get seeds/seedlings?
There are many local distributors of both seeds and seedlings. The Department of Agriculture carries
supplies ofbasil, celery, chive, parsley, bell peppers, sweet marjoram, and rosemary in its nursery for only ten
cents per seedling. While the Department does not provide pots, you can get those at any hardware store
or use tin cans as planters. Seeds of various herbs can be found in the major department stores and plant
nurseries throughout the island. The cost of seeds is minimal. About a dollar and change for common varieties
such as mints, basil and thyme. More exotic herbs will, of course, cost abit more. In apack, you will get enough
seeds for a good 40 seedlings. A word ofcaution, however. Because
of handling and transport issues, it is not guaranteed that the seeds
found in packs will germinate. However, I have had much luck with
growing my herbs from seeds. Ifyou are interested in obtaining a wider Sr.,-i_ Z1~
variety of herbs (both medicinal and culinary) than what can be : -
obtained locally, you can write to the companies listed at the end ofthis .-. .---
article for information. -.
How can I grow my herbs at home?
One option is to grow them in pots either in your house or outside, '.
depending on the light requirements ofthe particular herb. Mostherbs I.
require full sun, however, a select few like cardamom (a very expensive we-
herb to purchase in the store), ginger and lemon balm require shade. No ,.
Ifyouprefer to grow your herbs in containers, you have many choices. a e
Everything from old tin/aluminum cans to plastic planters to decorative
store-bought planters can be used to grow your herbs. The main factors are the type of soil that you use and, as
mentioned before, the light requirements. If you do not have the correct type of soil that your herbs grow best in,
then your herbs will not thrive. Some herbs prefer dry soil (e.g., saffron), and some prefer arich, moist soil (e.g.,
sorrel and mints). Some prefer more acidic soil (e.g. yellow dock), some neutral (e.g., aloe), and some prefer a
more alkaline soil (e.g., eyebright). Some also require different amounts ofdrainage. Make sure that you check to
see the conditions under which your herbs will prosper. There are components that you can add to the soil, for
example, lime, compost material, and manure, to change the pH and the richness of your soil. These conditions are
especially important to note ifyou plan to grow variety ofplants in the same soil. Iftwo herbs require different soil
conditions, then both cannot thrive in the same soil.
An excellent alternative, if you plan to grow herbs requiring like conditions and if you have yard space, is
a box garden. A box garden requires no digging into the ground. A precut piece oftarp or other acceptable
material is laid on top of the ground and cement blocks are laid on top of it to form the "box." The soil mixture
is then added within the area of the blocks. One benefit of growing your garden in such a manner is that it is
not permanent. I fyou choose to relocate or disassemble the garden for whatever reason, you simply move the
blocks, soil and tarp. The UVI Cooperative Extension Service has all the information that you need to start a
successful box garden. I have had my garden for approximately year and I am extremely pleased!
What about Pests and Diseases?
Some herbs are more vulnerable to pests and diseases than others. Again, both the V.I. Department of
Agriculture and the UVI Cooperative Extension Service can provide you with information on not only how to
deal with infestations that you can identify, but also with identifying pests with which you are unfamiliar.
There are alternatives to the harsh chemicals that are traditionally used to kill pests. Such alternatives include
using other insects (e.g. ladybugs to kill aphids), crop rotation, hand picking, soap sprays, physical barriers,
use ofnon-toxic materials (flour for spider mites) and even beer traps (slugs love beer!). Don't automatically
rush out and get a pesticide when you see vermin on your plants. Safer organic and environment-friendly
methods may be employed that will yield healthier harvest of herbs.
There are many books available that you can read to determine if you have the growing conditions for the
types ofherbs that you want to grow. One that I like, that also provides you with accurate information on the
uses and history of each herb, is Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs, Carr, A., Cassidy, C., et.al.,
Rodal Press, 1987. This is a non-threatening book that is very readable and also provides pictures of the herbs.
So many times we buy what we think is a particular herb, only to find out otherwise. I strongly suggest knowing
what a particular herb looks like before purchase. I was misled twice (at the cost of seven dollars per plant)
before I learnedmy lesson. The problem is that different cultures have different names for herbs. The St. Johns'
Wort that someone is selling you may not be the same that has been clinically proved to aid cases of mild
depression. Remember... "it ain't always what they say it is!"
I'll let you in on a little secret.... ahiddenbenefit to herbs, ifyou will. You don't have to use them for cooking
or for their medicinal properties. Most ofthem are so pleasing to the eye and have such a pleasant aroma, that
you will enjoy them just for their beauty. Whatever the reason, grow some herbs! Economically, physically
and spiritually, the benefits are worth your time and effort. Here's to your health!
UVI Cooperative Extension Service: 692-4080
VI Department ofAgriculture: 778-0997
The American Herb Association Quarterly Newsletter. The American Herb Association, P.O. Box 353,
Rescue, Ca. 95672
For the German E Commission Book and other herb information: The American Botanical Council P.O.
Box 144345 Austin Texas, 78714-4345 (www.herbalgram.org) Note: Their website has links to many
other herb-related sites.
Richter's Herbs Goodwood, Ontario, LOC 1AO Canada. Sells hundreds ofculinary and medicinal herbs
by seeds or seedlings via mail. (www.richters.com)
' 4 "i *
ANNALY FARMS INC.
"Get your beeffrom the source"
(Local and U.S. Choice)
Pork 3 Chicken c Fish a Vegetables
Quality at low prices
Estate Upper Love RT#72
Monday Friday 8:00- 5:30, Saturday 8:00 3:00
'" "SANITATION, DISEASE PREVENTION AND
:, < CONTROL In SHEEP AND GOATS
,-., \ Program Supervisor-Livestock & Assistant Director
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
In all phases of sheep and goat production the main-
tenanceof sanitation is very important. The old
adage says "prevention is better than cure;" therefore,
regardless of the quantity of sophisticated medications on
AI the market, the prevention ofany parasitic infestation is still
T- o v e. the best cure. Where only one or two sheep or goat are kept,
sanitation is not a serious problem, but where a herd is
maintained, closer contact, greater waste elimination and accumulation, and easier management breakdowns will
increase the possibility of disease outbreaks.
Sanitation should involve the environment including thepens and houses with all the facilities inside as well as the
immediate surroundings like yards, corrals, orpasture. In areas where animals congregate, manure collection should
be regularly done. Thereafter, the area should be cleaned and kept dry to prevent disease organisms and carriers
from multiplying. Manure maybe dumped into a pit, burned, or made into a compost for later use as fertilizer.
I recommend the following practices which, if followed carefully, will help in disease prevention and control.
1. Buy only healthy and vigorous stocks. Quarantine or isolate for at least 30 days before allowing
purchased stocks to mix with resident herds.
2. During isolation, check for signs of illness, parasitisms, and 6ther abnormalities. It is during this time
when work-ups like drenching for internal parasites, dipping or spraying for external parasites,
castration, dehorning, etc., may be done. Consult your local veterinarian at the Department of
Agriculture for the treatments needed at this time.
3. Minimize the entry ofpeople, vehicles, other animals, etc. into production areas especially in times
of high disease risk, i.e., epidemics or frank disease cases in the area.
4. Keep production records. These are vital indicators ofproductivity ofthe herd. Poor production may
indicate some disease-related problems.
5. Since internal and external parasites are common problems in goats, have a regular deworming and
parasites control program. Consult your local veterinarian at the Department ofAgriculture for schedules,
drug to use, and dosage.
6. Have a continuing health surveillance ofthe herd. Early recognition of illness with prompt isolation and
treatment prevent further spread and easier response to medication of sick animals.
7. Rotate your pastures if feasible and supplement your pastures with mineral salt mix.
8. Provide your herd with plenty ofclean water at all times. Early signs ofillness are: isolation from the herd,
loss of appetite, depression, fever and general malaise. Call your local veterinarian at the Department of
Agriculture as soon as possible for further action and treatment.
For further information on the production of sheep and goats, please feel free to contact me at 692-4066.
ASSESSING YOUR HOME & FARM PRACTICES
TO PROTECT YOUR HEALTH AND PROPERTY
Extension Specialist Natural Resources
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
Are you concerned about the quality ofyour drinking water?
Are strange odors coming from your septic system?
Do you have problems with flooding or erosion (soil loss) on your property?
Would you like a lusher, healthier yard and garden?
Are you concerned about the effects of chemicals contained in common household products? -
Do you wish you could do something to help with the solid waste crisis in the Virgin Islands?
f you answered YES to any ofthese questions, you can use the Virgin Islands Home & Farm Water Quality
Assessment- an Environmental Risk Assessment Guide for the Home & Farm to evaluate your home
and property for pollution and health risks. TheAssessmentis an easy-to-use checklist and guide that will
help you to identify potential problem areas and to take steps around your home or farm to reduce pollution risks.
To begin with, review the Ten Simple Things You Can Do to Protect Water Quality below to quickly
check if you are doing all that you can to protect your health and prevent pollution problems around your home
or property. To receive a complete Assessment package or assistance in evaluating your practices on your
property, contact the UVI Cooperative Extension Service (CES) at 693-1080 in St. Thomas or the V.I.
Resource Conservation & Development Council, Inc. (RC&D) at 692-9632 in St. Croix.
Ten Simple Things You Can Do to Protect Water Quality
1. Keep your cistern and collection system clean. Your cistern water quality is directly dependent upon
how you manage your collection system. You should empty and clean your cistern every three to five years
to remove sludge deposits. Roofs, gutters and screens need to be inspected and cleaned regularly, either
monthly or after heavy rainstorms. Regular maintenance will minimize water contamination from bacteria and
2. Make sure all cistern openings are screened. All openings to your cistern (including the overflow)
should be screened to prevent animals and debris from entering. Check all screens after major storms to
remove any debris that may have collected. It's also a good idea to fence any portion ofyour collection system
that is accessible to animals or children.
3. Chlorinate your cistern water regularly. Chlorine should be added to your cistern water on a regular
basis in order to disinfect your water supply. Add five (5) fluid ounces of chlorine per 1000 gallons of water
in your cistern on a monthly or bi-monthly basis.
4. Conserve your soil. Water moving over the soil surface picks up and removes soil particles and washes
this soil, or sediment, into the sea. Sediment is the most prevalent pollutant impairing water quality
in the Virgin Islands. Erosion of productive topsoil damages lawns, gardens, and crops by removing the
nutrient-rich upper layer of soil that plants need to thrive. Soil eroded from farms, yards and construction sites
can damage downhill properties and block roadways. Eroded soil silts in harbors and channels, leading to more
frequent dredging. Finally, eroded soil smothers coral reefs and seagrass beds, clouds water and reduces
visibility for sight-feeding fish, impairs recreational use ofcoastal waters, and harms fisheries. Conserving soil
on your property can help you to maintain the long-term productivity of your land and protect water quality.
For more information on how to conserve soil on your property, contact the UVI Cooperative Extension
Service or the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.
5. Have your septic tank pumped. Check the yellow pages under "Septic Tanks and Systems- Cleaning"
for pumping services. Frequency ofpumping depends on your household and septic tank size. Typically, a
four-person household needs to pump every 3 years. The UVI Cooperative Extension Service, Department
ofPlanning and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection (DPNR-DEP), or your pumping
company canprovide additional guidelines. Regardless ofmanufacturer' s claims, septic system additives have
NOT been proven to eliminate the need for regular pumping, and some can contaminate ground or surface
waters. Neglecting septic system maintenance can result in backed-up sewage, expensive repairs, and surface
seepage of sewage that can pollute cistern, well and surface water, and harm human health.
6. Do not throw oil, grease or left-over household chemicals down the drain (or toilet). Grease and
oil can plug the pipes in your home and buildup in the septic tank, causingback-up problems and requiring more
frequent septic tank pumping. Used grease and oil should be collected in a container and discarded with other
household garbage. Also, many common household chemicals can damage your septic system by killing the
beneficial bacteria naturally present in the septic system that break down sewage. In particular, daily use of
chlorine bleach in toilet bowls and other areas can kill the bacteria in your septic system and cause the system
to fail. There are many cleaning products available that are not toxic to your septic system. Look for those
labeled "septic system safe" or "biodegradable."
7. Use least toxic household products. Many common household products used in the Virgin Islands can
trigger allergies, cause nausea, or other adverse health effects, harm septic systems, and/or pollute our coastal
or ground waters. There are alternatives to these products available locally, including recipes using common
household items that are relatively inexpensive and easy to obtain (for example, most surfaces can be cleaned
with a mixture of baking soda, vinegar, water and rubbing alcohol). Read product labels carefully. Look for
products with natural or non-toxic ingredients. For more details on Recipes for a Non- Toxic Househ old.
contact the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
8. Protect your soil from contamination by oil, gasoline or other petroleum products. Oil, gasoline and
other petroleum products in small quantities can contaminate soil and water and are hazardous to human health.
Just one quart of motor oil can pollute 250,000 gallons ofwater! Refuel equipment over hard surfaces so
spills won't soak into the soil, and collect used products for proper disposal. NEVER dump these products
on the ground or in guts or storm sewers, and NEVER flush them down the drain or toilet. Used oil can be
recycled at Department of Public Works collection sites on all three islands. For information on the locations
and hours of these sites, contact DPW Division ofEnvironmental Services, DPNR Division of Environmental
Protection, or the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
9. Limit your use of lawn and garden chemicals. Excess fertilizers and pesticides can move easily over
and through the soil to contaminate surface and ground waters. These chemicals can also leak into cisterns
through cracks or improperly sealed openings, and can run into poorly protected wells. Apply lawn and garden
fertilizers sparingly, making sure to follow ALL directions on the label. Don't store or mix pesticides and
fertilizers where spills can soak into the soil or run off into surface waters.
10. Shield animal waste from rain. Animal yards and manure piles are sources of bacteria and fertilizers
that can contaminate surface and ground water. Divert stormwater away from these areas, and prevent runoff
from these areas from running into nearby guts, ponds or coastal waters. For more information on proper
animal waste storage and disposal, contact the VI Department of Agriculture, the USDANatural Resources
Conservation Service, or the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
Water Quality Phone Contacts:
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
692-9662 or 692-9632
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
St. Croix: 692-4080
V.I. Department ofPlanning and Natural Resources
St. Croix: 773-0565
V.I. Department ofPublic Works
St. Croix: 773-1290
St. John: 776-6346
V.I. Department ofAgriculture
St. Croix: 778-0997
St. John: 776-6274
ask Engine Diagnostics &
e! Air Conditioning BATTERY
SShocks & Batteries Tune-ups
Brake Repairs Oil & Lube
Queen Mary Highway Sion Farm
773-4997 Rt.75 & Cormorant Turn-off
____ ___ __ __
SLAVES ATE STARVATION APPLE
FOR ITS MEDICINAL USES AND TO RESTORE THEIR BODIES
Extension Specialist-Natural Resources
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
D during slavery in the Virgin Islands, there was oneparticular fruit the enslaved Africans on St. Croix ate
regularly because of its medicinal use and the power to restore the body. The plant is known today
aspainkiller (Morinda citrifolia L.) orstarvation apple. Some historians believe the name starvation
apple came aboutbecause during the drought in the Virgin Islands the fruit was commonly eaten.
If you understand the weather patterns of St. Croix historically, then you will understand the climatic
condition ofthe island. Reimert Haagensen gives us insight into how the weather on St. Croix in the 1730's
was like when he was a planter on the island. Haagensen states, "This heat is why the forests, the trees and
all living things remain green and pleasing throughout the year, even though the air becomes somewhat cooler
in the months of September and October, a change that often brings hurricane weather. It is at that time of
year that those winds are especially feared because they cause great damage." He continues: "Rain occurs
very seldom there, sometimes not a drop falling for two to three months at a time, a condition that is harmful
for the earth's vegetation. Though thunder and lighting are not experienced often there, they come on very
rapidly when they do occur."
At that time, drought could be a phenomenon on St. Croix. However, God in His wisdom created plants
such as the painkiller which thrives in harsh environments. One of the reasons the painkiller was also called
starvation apple or dog apple was because the plant flowers and bears fruit nearly year-round despite the
drought conditions. For this reason, the painkiller became popular with the enslaved Africans on St. Croix.
The painkiller is an evergreen tree reaching a height of about 20 feet, and the trunk stretches about 5 inches
in diameter. The bark is gray or brown in some cases or scaly and soft. The flower clusters as ahead about
one inch across on a stalk in the leaf axis. The leaves are large, dark, fleshly, and shiny green on the upper
surface, and the lower surface is light green with hairs in vein angles along the midrib. From the flower, multiple
fruit develops; each flower bears a compact, soft,j uicy mass of fruits. When the fruit ripens, the odor resembles
rotten cheese. The fruits are whitish and tinged with green, turning to a cream color when ripe. Seeds are
more than 1/8 inch long. The painkiller plant is native to India, Malaysia and tropical Australia.
It is known by a variety of names and is used for many purposes throughout the world. In the French
Polynesian islands, the plant is called Noni. In Malaysia, it is known as Mengkudu, and used to treat all kinds
of ailments: painful menstruation, hemorrhages, coughs, urinary disorders and diabetes. In Southeast Asia,
the plant is Nhau, and it is used to treat gum diseases and sore throat; and the people of the Philippines used
it as an intestinal to get rid of body parasites. In Trinidad, British Guiana, and probably elsewhere in the
Caribbean the plant is referred to as painkiller because it was used to alleviate pain from broken bones, bruises,
sprains, fever, and many more ailments. The leaves ofthe plant were used medicinally in the Virgin Islands as
well. The leaves were flattened, heated, rubbed (with lard or "sweet oil" or vaseline), and appli ed to painful
parts of the body. Today, as it was in the past, the plant is used for headaches or leaves crushed in lard or
camphor oil and put on the face for treatment of neuralgia or head colds.
Like the enslaved on St. Croix who used the fruit of the painkiller as food, for centuries the Polynesians
consumed the fruit in time of famine. The leaves were eaten raw or cooked and the immature fruits were
used in curries. The fruit was also a staple food for the people of Samoa, Raratongo, and Fiji who cooked
or ate it raw. A red dye has also been obtained from the bark of the tree; and the juice has been used for
many treatments such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, asthma, high blood pressure, kidney and bladder, arthritis,
malignancies or tumors, flu, etc. Today, this is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in New York
and across the country in the form ofpills, capsules and liquid. I was told that an ounce ofthe juice in New
York cost $45 or $48. I also discovered that someone locally makes a drink from the fruit.
The plant still grows abundantly on St. Croix especially at Annaly Bay, Wills Bay and Caledonia rain forest
area. Like our ancestors who survived off the painkiller bush before and after emancipation, so we, too, can
carry on the traditional use of the medicinal plants in these Virgin Islands.
There is a great potential for the cultivation of the painkiller plant in our territory to reduce external imports
and enhance sustainable agriculture. The plant can be cultivated for its medicinal uses, as an ornamental plant,
or for reforestation. In the Virgin Islands and the wider Caribbean islands, the painkiller plant has the potential
of"Revitalizing Small Farms Through Sustainable Agriculture." As we celebrate this year's Agrifest,
sustainable agriculture is the key in producing such marketable crops as the painkiller plant.
ACCELYN T. MORTON JULIE 1. MORTON
A step above the rest
y Village Mall 113 Barren Spot
P.O. Box 6227
Sunny Isle, St. Croix Telephone:
U.S. Virgin Islands, 00823 (340)778-2002
qiie^ ai aP
(2 iifage Maf #16
Custom Framing Craft Supplies Artist Materials
Located in Barren Spot opposite Strawberry
ST. GEORGE VILLAGE BOTANICAL GARDEN
COMPLETES "HERITAGE GARDENS"
Christie W. Bartle
President, St. George Botanical Garden
The St. George Village
Botanical Garden is
pleased to announce the
completion ofan 18 month long
project to develop our "Heritage
Gardens." This expansion four
Garden's collections emphasizes
statement relating to the
traditions in the Virgin Islands."
There are actually six separate
gardens that make up the
collective "traditional heritage
these gardens is to show the
significant interactionbetween "
man and his botanical Indian crop garden with future "Heritage Garden" museum in background.
environment; in fact, they show
the actual dependency ofman on
his botanical surrounding.
Especially in our island's early history, man depended on plants for his nourishment, his health, his clothing,
many ofhis household implements and for his construction of shelter and tools.
The Medicinal Herb Garden was the first area to be completed, with the help ofthe Virgin Islands Humanities
Council. It is clearly signed and over 50 species are represented. The garden, showing trees and palms of
traditional commercial use, contains species such as Mastic, an extremely valuable native timber tree, and the
Thatch Palm, whose leaves were once used for shelter thatching and brooms. The vegetable and crop garden
is done in three areas, the first showing crops grown by the native Indians such as peanuts, corn and squash.
The second displays a slave provision garden including cassava, yams and pumpkins. The third displays
contemporary crops such as pigeonpeas, okra and eggplant. In the fiber and dye garden you will find a number
of species used in weaving and spinning such as sea hibiscus, cotton and sisal, and plants used in dying like our
native Fustic from which the dye "khaki" is derived. Finally, our spice garden includes specimens ofcinnamon,
allspice and nutmeg, to name a few.
In the midst of these gardens of the "Heritage" area is a 19th century building once used by the sugar
plantation overseer. That building has been renovated and will serve as a museum where displays and graphics
will depict how the various plant materials ofthese "Heritage Gardens" were grown, preserved and utilized
by the peoples of the Virgin Islands throughout history.
All ofus at St. GeorgeVillage Botanical Garden are very excited about the potential value ofthese new
exhibits. Certainly one result will be increased exposure and visitation. Our mission is "conservation,
preservation and education." It would seem the creation of the "Heritage Gardens" serves this mission
Medicinal Herb Garden with sign showing a map of all the plants represented.
. s. m ...
T' ~ ~. -.-t-*C- _- .:
VISIT US, YOU'LL BE GLAD YOU DID.
ANTHONY I IN ICi
_D1 | l !
A LICENSED PLUMBER &
CALL US AT: (340) 778-7073
FAX TO US AT : (340) 773-0991
WE WILL GET THE JOB DONE RIGHT
THE FIRST TIME AROUND
formerly National Bakery
21 KING STREET, FREDERIKSTEE
P.O. BOX 3117
ST. CROIX, USVI 00841-3117
"KEEP IT CLEAN," "COOK IT WELL," "COOL IT SOON!"
Program Leader, Home Economics
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
n keeping with the theme "Revitalizing Small Farms through SustainableAgriculture, "we need to keep
Sin mind a couple ofthings. First, we need to be vigilant in finding the source of food safety problems and,
secondly, we need to learn how to manage check points en route to safe eating.
Science & Education Impact, a communication source of the United States Department ofAgriculture/
Land-Grant Partnership, writes: Food contamination can bring more than a passing stomach ache.
Escherichia coli (E.coli), for example, has been linked to severe illnesses and deaths around the world.
And, a lack ofrapid detection tests has aggravated the problem. However, USDA and Land-Grant universities
have come forward to help industry establish rapid detection methods and address emerging issues in food
For example, in trying to find food-contaminating bacteria fast, California researchers at UC-Davis
developed a sensitive, reliable test for E.coli that can be completed in 8 hours rather than the two days needed
for current procedures. According to the researchers, the test which can detect even a single E. colibacterium,
warns consumers more quickly about this deadly contaminant, writes the researchers.
Fast detection of Salmonella at the farm level will help the poultry industry prevent the disease before birds
reach processors and ultimately consumers, says researchers in Texas. They devised a new procedure that
samples air and tests for specific pathogens, which provides results less than a day rather than the three to seven
days required for standard methods.
However, simply making sure that meat is cooked properly can prevent food borne illnesses, says Michigan
State University food technologists. By using a simple test they developed, they were able to determine
whether meat and poultry have been cooked sufficiently. To conduct the test, food workers simply drop meat
juices on the test paper, which changes color like litmus paper to reveal the presence ofharmful bacteria.
While researchers continue to find the source of food safety problems, managing the checkpoints en route to
safe eating is another challenge relative to saving lives and dollars. USDA/Land-Grantpartnerships writes that an
estimated 6.5 million to 33 million illnesses and 9,000 deaths can be attributed to foodbome diseases annually.
Further, the United States spends $5 billion to $6 billion per year combating ust eight food-related diseases.
Meanwhile, the Virgin Islands Department ofHealth, Division of Environmental Health cites the following
food-borne illnesses risks: (a) the temperate climate, (b) unpredictable power outages, (c) food vendors
peddling their wares from mobile vehicles, and (d) the selling of foodstuffs from booths during annual
observances of fairs, festivals and carnivals.
Because kids and the elderly are at higherrisk when exposed to unsafe food, several state universities developed
food safety programs for daycare providers, with training on the causes offoodbourne illness, food storage, proper
temperatures, food preparation and sanitary practices.
Further, recognizing that Americans eat nearly halfoftheir meals away from home, making food handling in
restaurants, schools and special events very important, several Land Grant universities, to help assure food safety,
are providing trainingprograms forrestaurants, and for individuals involvedwithhandling foods.
Here intheterritory, theUniversity ofthe VirginIslands Cooperative Extension Service (UVI-CES) uses its food
and nutrition specialists to conduct food safety workshops for food handlers involved with World Food Day
observances, agriculture & food fairs, and special observances like VI Puerto Rico Friendship Day, Carnivals and
Festivals in cooperation with the VI Department ofHealth, Division ofEnvironmental Health.
However, recognizing that food safety practices impact all segments ofourpopulation, CES Home Economics
Program Food Safety and Quality initiative will embarkon another level ofincreasing knowledge offood safety and
proper food-handling practices. This will be done by establishing partnership with the VI Department ofHealth
to establish a food safety training program to make food handling in restaurants, schools and at special events more
effective through workshops for food handlers.
In the meantime, food handlers should 1) keep it clean; bacteria are everywhere. Wash hands; use
disposable gloves. 2) Cook it safe-use safe temperatures 3) Don't wait; refrigerate left-overs. 4) When
in doubt throw it out.
USDA/Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service "Science & Education Impact." May
1998. Flvers: Safe Food: Field to Fork and Detecting Food Safety Problems Ouickly.
UVI/CES Virgin Islands 1998 Performance Plan: Food Safety and Ouality.
St. Thomas farmer Lucien Samuel shows off a variety oflocally
bouglas & Joan Miner
109-113 Castle Coakley
St. Croix, VI 00820
Vinyl Letters "To Go"
Carved& Sandcarved Signs
Shopping Center, Inc.
Sunny Isle Shopping Center
B r of Directors, Staff, & Merchants
would like to congratulate
he Agriculture & Food Fair of the
U.S. Virgin Islands
for another successful Food Fair.
"Revitalizing Small Farms through sustainable agriculture."
American Cancer Society Alpha Broadcasting Applause Avant Garde Boutique *AVCO
Finance Co. Banco Popular de Puerto Rico Benjamin's Treasure Board of Education
'Blue Cross Insurance Carimar *China Jade Restaurant Clara's Special Occasion *
Cleopatra Gift Shop* Colombo Delights* Commoloco Inc.* Delegate to Congress Office
* Department of Labor/ Jovik I Job Service Diamond Cinemas Department of Planning
and Natural Resources* Eagle's Fashion Educational Central FootAction Footlocker
* Hughes Photo Shop' Ideal Touch Beauty Salon Island Finance Island Medical Center
* Junior's Jewelry K-mart* Kentucky Fried Chicken Le Baron Lil Shoes Marianne's
* Master's Insurance Me Salve Minni Shop & Mini World Mr. Dollar Office of the
Governor Ole's Deli & Grill One Price & More Payless Shoe Pedersen, Walter, MD
* Peoples Drug Store Perfection Gift Store Power Zone Pueblo Supermarket Radio
Shack* Rave* S & B Gift Store* Sam Goody* Social Security Speedy Secretarial* State
Job Training Council Strictly the Best Boys & Men Wear Sunny Isle Barber Shop *
Sunny sle Housing Sunny Isle Management Office Sunny Isle Post Office Sunny Isle
Theaters Terry's Children Wear Tops & Bottoms Unique Shop U.S. Army / Navy
Recruiting U.S. Immigration V.I. Dept. Of Health (WIC) V.I. Election System* V.I.
Lottery V.L Public Services Commission V.I. Telephone Corporation V.I. Water &
Power Authority Wendy's* Western Auto *Work-able
CASES OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY... MEDICINAL PLANTS CAN BE CONFUSED
ExtensionAgent Natural Resources
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
S ome Virgin Islanders maybe mistaking and substituting local medicinal plants for imported herbal
remedies that are sold at health food or drug stores. This might be because tsome local plants have
the same common names as imported plants like cat's claw, eyebright, senna and plantain or
because they have tastes, aromas or appearances that may be perceived as similar to the imported herbs.
Because of these confusions, people may be unaware that they may be using plants that have completely
different chemical compositions and different biological activities than the imported herbs that they intended
to use. Substitution ofmedicinal plants may also cause unwanted and unexpected health problems and may
even be dangerous in severe cases.
Imported plant GOLDEN SEAL has been confused or substituted with the local plant
GINGER THOMAS in herbal treatments.
Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis)
IMPORTED GOLDEN SEAL (Hydrastis candensis) is a
perennial herb native to Canada and the United States that has
become very rare in the wild because of over collecting. The flowers
(sepals no petals) are rose-colored, and the fruit is red. This herb was
originally used as a medicinal plant and yellow dye by Native
Americans. It is still highly valued, and it is one of the most
commercially popular medicinal plants. This herb (roots and rhi-
zomes) is claimed to be a cure-all used to strengthen the immune
system and as an antibiotic. It has long served as a bitter tonic to treat
inflammation ofthe mucous membranes. Excessive use overtime
can cause hypersecretion ofmucous membranes, followed by dry-
ness that can result in inflammation and ulcers. It can also disrupt
vitamin B absorption and may weaken the beneficial bacterial flora in
the colon. One plant alkaloid shows some anti-cancer activity. Not
much is known about the biology of Golden Seal; the best information
is over a hundred years old.
> LOCAL GINGER THOMAS OR YELLOW CEDAR
S(Tecoma stans) is an attractive ornamental tree with beautiful bell-
shaped flowers native to tropical and subtropical America, as well
Sas parts of the southern United States. It is the official tree of the
Virgin Islands. Ginger Thomas leaves were traditionally used as
treatment for fever, colds, diabetes, high blood pressure and as a
Stonic. Reportedly, its most important traditional use, even to this
day, has been its popularity as one ofthe main ingredients in bush
baths. Because ofits bitterness, this plant may have been confused
with the imported Golden Seal, another bitter tonic. Limited testing
has been done on Ginger Thomas to determine its chemistry and
biological activity. Plant compounds have demonstrated hypogly-
i' cemic activity (lowering blood sugar). Some people maybe very
sensitive to this plant's tendency to lower blood sugar. In one test,
a plant compound showed antifungal activity against Candida
/ 7-. albicans. Despite this testing, its safety has not yet been proven,
Especially for long term use. In the Virgin Islands, Ginger Thomas
Sr was probably used only when needed to treat specific conditions
Ginger Thomas (Tecoma stans) or for occasional bush baths, and it was not likely used in large
doses for over long periods oftime.
Imported plant ST. JOHN'S WORT has been con-
fused or substituted with local plant ST. JOHN'S
BUSH in herbal treatments.
IMPORTED ST. JOHN'S WORT (Hypericumperforatum)
is perennial herb native to Europe and naturalized as a weed inNorth
America. It grows to a foot or more and is much-branched with many
deep yellow flowers. Thewhole floweringplantorjustthe flowers have
S beenusedmedicinally since at least the first century A.D.
Historically, it was used as a diuretic and nervine, and as a
treatment for wounds. St. John's Wort is known for its bright red
pigment. This pigment's resemblance to blood and the skin-like
appearance ofthe leafpores (glands) mayhave originallycausedpeople
to believe that theycould use this plant to treat wounds, cuts, bruises and
SAntiviral, antibacterial, anti-iflammatory, wound-healing and
immunostimulatingactivities havebeen demonstratedby various plant
St. John's Worth (Hypericumperforatum) compounds isolated from St. John's Wort. Recently, St. John's Wort
is being commercially promoted as an alternative to the drug Prozac as
a treatment for mild to moderate chronic depression. It has also been
used to treat HIV infection. The toxicology of St. John's Wort has been extensively studied. In clinical trials
with over 3000 patients, very few side effects were observed.
LOCAL ST. JOHN'S BUSH (Justiciasegunda) is a shrubby
herb native to the moist woods and thickets of the Lesser Antilles,
northern South America and Panama. It was originally cultivated as
an ornamental in the Virgin Islands, but now it grows here naturally.
It is recognized by its two-lipped crimson or purple flowers.
Reportedly, the leaves, whole plant and flowers have been
traditionally used as a tonic and to treat liver trouble. According to
plant biologist Julia Morton, this plant might have been used to treat
liver ailments because its red pigment resembles blood. The plant
decoction has been used as a mouth wash for gums and teeth and
also as an additive in bush baths. St. John's Bush is related to
St. John's Bush (Jusdilasegunda) another popular local "bush" tea and medicinal plant, Rock
Balsam(Justiciapectoralis), a plant that exhibits some sedative
activity. Like St. Johns Wort, St. John's Bush also produces ared pigment. These two plants may have been
confused with each other because they both have red pigments and similar names. Unfortunately very little
published information is available about St. John's Bush, and no data on plant chemistry, biological activities
or toxicology could be found.
Henry Schuster strikes a proud pose with his Territorial
Employee of the Year award during Agrifest '98.
7Te Smt Waqy t Get 7ig ?4&94
Cut that thick island grass
and brush down to size!
of Do It
It, Build It
Tools, Lawn & Garden Equipment, Shop Vacs, Floor
& Rug Cleaners, Tables, Chairs, Party Tents...
You Name It!! ,
SA SPECIALTY DIVISION OF
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"Revitalizing Small Farms Through Sustainable Agriculture"
INSULAR LANDSCAPES potato forever in love with our
welfare, loyal when our fare fails to meet
Marvin E. Williams the slave needs ofabody's government
I wish that with me you could return to see
the canefields spreading their rough seas ofpain,
custard apples' tarpaulin skins softening
underthe sun's oiling, the untamed glee
ofthe cocoplum stretching its seeds lee-
ward to propagate the backsand of thin
coastlines, the avocado's green ripening
to make art with hybrid mangoes, their free
association ofcolors, the rich
groves ofcoconut, sugarapple droves
that leapfrog dead pond and dying ditch-- each
seeking revival in the season's breach
ofprotocol, the immigrantplums' loves
ofthis deep smorgasbord ofland that moves.
Come, return to greet the pregnant gobi
that births the calabash, baptismal bowl;
the sound silk cotton tree whose longing limbs
stretch vainly to finger yesterday, whose
muscular trunks bear our red ancestors
on their raids and retreats across waters
that name them, christen their legacy, curse
early futures oftheir late progeny;
the trumpet wood that heralds the gri-gri
whose constitutionalmajesty climbs .. -
above the whim ofwindmills and greathouse;
the old man's beard indebted to its hosts;
the manchineel whose lethal sprays delouse
verminbedding inColumbus' ghosts.
Come then, taste the versatile cassava
that gives Granny's village its dailybread;
taste pusley, popoloso, the whitehead
broom, the broadleafed tanya, bata-bata;
taste them in Granny's calaloo, savor
them as you swallow the cornmeal fungi
that forward back to fertile Ashanti
/fields, to acrop whose golden firmament
remains as essential and untarnished
in flesh as the nation's seat in varnished
minds; taste the hardy batata, our sweet
4 boxes raisins (seedless)
2 boxes currants
4 tablespoons cinnamon
1 tablespoon allspice
1 bottle cherryherring
1/2 teaspoon angusturabitters
1 pound crisco
1 pound dark brown sugar
2 teaspoons salt
2 pounds flour
2 tablespoons almond essence
1 tablespoonbaking soda
Grind fruits and soak in liquor with spices, molasses and 1/2 bottle cherry herring (save other half for treating
cake). Soak for two weeks to one month covered tightly.
When time to make cake: Cream butter and crisco. Gradually add sugar until light and creamy. Add eggs,
one at a time, beating after each addition. Add fruits and almond essence, mix well. Add baking sodato flour.
Add flour gradually, stirring well until mixture is completely blended. Bake in greased pan at 3000F. Place
a second pan filled with water on bottom rack of oven to prevent cake from burning.
Cool cake. Pour remainder of cherry herring over cake; store for a few days before using.
4-G Sion Farm
Island Dairies Milk is 100% pure milk,
directly from the cows.
(1/2 pints, quarts, 1/2 gallons, 6 gallon)
Reduced Fat (2%)
(1/2 pint, 10 oz., 1/2 gallon)
ICE CREAM (4 oz., pint, quart, 1/2 gallon, 2 1/2 gallon)
Assorted Juice Pops Ice Cream Cones
Flintstone Pushups Ice Cream Sandwich
Klondike Bars Dove Bars
Deluxe Ice Cream Bars
Lurpak Danish Butter
Kerry Gold Irish Butter
CORN HILL FARM ................................ HENRY NELTHROPP
MON BIJOU FARM ...ESTELLE & LINDA SKOV MORALES
MOUNTAIN MINT FARM.................... RICHARD RIDGWAY
SIGHT FARM........................................CHARLES SCHUSTER
WINDSOR FARM ................................... ST. CROIX DAIRY
PRODUCTS, INC. 1,
HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCING
ISLAND DAIRIES FRESH MILK
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.
"The Best is Fresh
"From the farm to the store in
"Milk is not wine; it does not
improve with age. Imported
milk can be weeks old when it
reaches the Virgin Islands."
3 green plantains
1 teaspoon of salt
lard or oil for frying
"3/4 cup home-made fried pork skin (Chicharron)
1/2 teaspoon powdered garlic
Wash, peel and cut the plantains crosswise in slices about 1/2" thibk. Fry
the plantains. Mash or grind plantains in mortar with garlic, salt and
chicharron. Shape into balls. Serve hot with main dish.
If you buy pork skin that is fried and packed in bags, cans or jars, add 3
teaspoon oil or lard when grinding, otherwise, it will be too dry.
Makes 6 balls.
Each plantain ball contains:
Calories Fat Protein Carbohydrates Sodium Cholesterol
(g) (g) (g) (mg) (mg)
273 14 8 29 762 24
Because commercial pork skin is akeady high in sodium, the added teaspoon of salt in
thisrecipe can be omittedwith little change in flavor. The sodium content willbe lowerifhome-
made fed pork skin is used.
Your Friendly Neighborhood Grocer
21 E La Grande Princesse
Christiansted, St. Croix
U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
cups peeled and grated pumpkin
teaspoons baking powder
teaspoon powdered clove
egg, slightly beaten
Cream margarine and sugar. Add egg and beat well.
Add peeled and
Sift together flour, spices, baking powder and salt. Add dry ingredients,
raisins and milk to pumpkin mixture and mix well.
Pour into well-greased and floured pudding pan. Bake at 350 F. for about
45 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean when inserted.
Cool, and serve with your favorite wine sauce.
For carrot pudding, substitute carrots for pumpkin and increase milk to 1/3 cup.
211 7 9 28 361 221
(with whole milk, no brandy)
Calories Fat Protein Carbohydrates Sodium Cholesterol
(g) (g) (g) (mg) (mg)
229 7 9 28 361 221
(with whole milk and brandy)
Pumpkin is an excellent source of vitamin A and Beta Carotene.
BITTERMELON: A MINOR PLANT WITH NUTRICEUTICAL VALUE AND
POTENTIAL SPECIALTY CROP FOR SMALL FARMS IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
Manuel C. Palada, Ph.D.
Research Associate Professor
& Assistant Director
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station
B ittermelon (Momordica "' 111P.
charantia L.) is an annual
herbaceous vine plant which
belongs to the family of cucurbits
(squash, cucumber, watermelon). It is L
native to Asia with eastern India and k "v
southern China believed to be centers -
of domestication. Bittermelon is
known by several names depending on i
the country or location. In the Virgin
Islands it is commonly called "karela"
(Danish), "maiden apple," "cerasee," ,
"jumbee pumpkin" and "lizard fruit."
The Chinese name is "ku gua" or "foo.
gwa" while the Spanish name is
balsaminaa" or calabazaa africana." In
the Philippines it is known as "ampalaya, "amargoso," "paria" or "palia." Other English names include bitter
gourd/cucumber, balsam pear, alligator pear and African cucumber. Two related members of bitter melon are
Chinese cucumber (Momordica cochinchinensis L.) and balsam pear (Momordica balsamina L.).
Although bittermelon is popular in certain non-western cultures, it is not widely known in the U.S. and
Europe. However, in recent years ithas been gaining significant attention because of its nutriceutical (nutritional
and medicinal) value. Several literatures have been emphasizing the importance and benefits of bitter melon
and many research works are now being focused to this minor crop.
The immature fruits and tender leafy shoots ofbittermelon are edible and commonly used in a variety of
culinary preparations. The immature fruits are stuffed, pickled, and sliced into various dishes while the tender
leafy shoots are used as potherbs. The spongy white interior pulp and seeds ofunpeeled immature bittermelon
are sliced for use as a vegetable in various Asian dishes. The fruits are parboiled or soaked in salted water
to remove the excessive bitter taste and flavor. Nutritional composition ofbittermelon is similar to that ofother
immature cucurbit fruits (Table 1). Relative to other cucurbits, the fruit is highly nutritious due to the iron and
ascorbic acid content.
Nutritive composition per 100 grams edible portion of bittermelon fruit (Momordica
Edible portion (%) 84
Water (%) 93.8
Energy (KJ) 20
Protein (g) 0.9
Fat (g) 0.1
Carbohydrate (g) 0.2
Dietary fiber (g) 3.3
Organic acids (g) 0.11
Ash (g) 0.6
Calcium (mg 22
Potassium (mg) 260
Magnesium (mg) 16
Iron (mg) 0.9
Sodium (mg) 3
Zinc (mg) 0.1
Vitamin A (mg) 0.04
Thiamin (mg) 0.05
Riboflavin (mg) 0.03
Niacin (mg) 0.40
Vitamin C (mg) 50
Source: Wills et al., 1984.
The leaves may be finely chopped and added to cooked meat, fish and vegetable dishes during the last few
minutes of cooking. They impart a mild curry-like taste, bitter but not unpleasant. Although the raw leaves
are said to be slightly toxic, small quantities can be dipped in honey and chewed slightly. They can also be finely
chopped and mixed with other raw greens for salad.
Caution should be taken in ingestion of raw fruit and excessive intake of leaf extract (juice). Ingestion of
raw fruit has caused illness and fatalities in animals and children. Eating the ripe fruit has caused serious purging
and vomiting, as well as death in extreme cases. Use of this plant may be associated with acute veno-occlusive
disease of the liver in Jamaican children.
Several research papers and articles have mentioned the medicinal uses ofbittermelon. For example, the
leaves may be crushed and thejuice applied to the skin for insect bites, bee stings, bums, contact rashes, and
small wounds. The leaves may be boiled to make a strong and bitter decoction.
The decoction is taken as preventative or treatment of many problems such as stomach ache, fever,
infectious diseases, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension and even cancer. The decoction may also be used as a
skin wash, or added to the bathwater. To make the taste of the decoction more tolerable, the leaves may be
boiled with mint, or the decoction may be tempered with sugar, honey, or milk.
Fresh leaves, crushed and applied to insect bites, relieve itching and lessens or sometimes prevents
formation of welts or sores. The same effect can be obtained with fresh fruits, reconstituted dried fruits or fruits
preserved in tincture. The decoction relieves skin rashes and heat rash. The crushed leaves have been used
to relieve the pain of wasp stings. A decoction of the leaves may be taken at the onset of infectious diseases
during the onset of cold and flu epidemics. The decoction, taken regularly, has been used to regulate blood
sugar and control diabetes. This is especially important in the Virgin Islands where diabetes is a common
In the Virgin Islands, leaves and stems are traditionally used for tonic; bath (with other herbs); treatment for
mange (bath); pain (poultice); blurred vision; high blood pressure; general itching; vaginal itching decoctionn);
diabetes (infusion); indigestion; bilious stomach; colds and flu; fever and intestinal worms.
Growing requirements and Cultural Practices
A field planting ofbittermelon was established at UVI Agricultural Experiment Station during the spring of
1996 to observe its growth characteristics and yield. The average number of fruits per plant was 18 during
the growing period of4 months. The average length of fruit was 18 cm (7 inches) weighing 142 gm (5 oz). Each
plant produced a total of 2.56 kg (5.6 lbs) of green immature fruit over a period of 10 weeks. The plants started
producing fruits as early as 27 days after planting.
Bittermelon is adapted to a wide variation of climates, although production is best in hot, humid areas such
as tropical Asia. It can be grown in various soil types including peat, light clay and sandy clay. It prefers a
soil pH of 5.5-6.5 (moderately acid to neutral) but can grow in alkaline soil of Virgin Islands. The best
temperature for growing bittermelon is in the range of 28-320C (82-900F). In St. Croix, the best growing
season is during spring (February to May). It can also be grown during the fall season (October to January).
Plants can be started in the greenhouse andtransplanted when 2 sets of true leaves are developed, they
can also be direct seeded in the field if labor is limited for greenhouse preparation. Rows are spaced 1.5 m
(5 ft) and spacing between plants within rows is 0.5 m (1.6 ft). Since the plants produce vines rapidly, staking
should be done two weeks after planting. Wooden, bamboo or steel posts are erected about 2 m (7 ft) high
and plastic twines are tide to make atrellis on which the vines climb. Plants are fertilized with complete fertilizer
(NPK) or a combination of manure and fertilizer. At the Experiment Station, plants were fertilized at the rate
of 100 kg ofN, 100 kg ofP and 100 kg ofK per hectare (112 lbs/ac). All ofP and K were applied at planting,
while N was applied at planting and 30 days after planting. Half of the N fertilizer was supplied by cow manure.
Because there are more male flowers than female flowers, it must be necessary to perform cross pollination.
This can be done by gently touching several male flower centers with soft paper, feather or brush and rubbing
it against female flower. However, if female flowers are numerous and bees are present, this procedure is not
There are few insect pests that plague bittermelon since the leaves are very bitter. The common pests are
leaf beetles and fruit flies. Ifpests appear, control by sprinkling plant with a mixture ofcayenne pepper, garlic
powder, or with light solution of soapy water. The common diseases that affect bitter melon are powdery and
downy mildew caused by fungus. These could be easily controlled by fungicides.
Bittermelon fruit production takes about 50 to 60 days from seed. Harvesting period lasts from 12 to 14
weeks. It is best to pick fruits in the morning or late afternoon. The fruits turn brilliant orange when
physiologically mature, but for commercial use they must be harvested when fully green or white as orange
coloration reduces market value. The fruits grow rapidly during hot weather and, like pickling cucumbers, must
be harvested daily to keep the fruits from becoming too large. The orange color can develop after harvest if
fruits are stored for long periods, particularly at high temperatures. Fruits are sensitive to chilling injury and
should not be stored below 130C (550F). Fruits will shrivel if stored under warm, dry conditions. The skin
of the fruit is tender and can be easily damaged by abrasion.
Production Costs and Potential Markets
Bittermelon is a potential specialty crop for small farmers in the Virgin Islands. Although there is no viable
local market, growers can ship produce to specialty markets in the mainland U.S. Current market price for
bittermelon in the U.S. is $1.00 a pound. The cost ofproducing bittermelon is almost similar and comparable
with production costs for a trellised cucumber. In the Virgin Islands, the estimated variable cost for producing
one fourth acre of cucumber is about $1,800.00 including harvesting, handling and packing costs. With
bittermelon, the grower should get a net return of $5,000 from one fourth acre.
C E NTR E
Charlene A. Springer
227 Golden Rock
Rueckl Building Suite 6, Christiansted
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820-4338
Tel: (340) 773-2440
For information on how to obtain bittermelon seeds, contact Dr. Manuel Palada at 692-4086.
Try these Recipes
Bittermelon Braised With Beef
1 pound green immature bitter melon fruit
/2 pound tenderloin, sliced thin
2 teaspoons fermented soybean curd
/2 teaspoon sugar
1 teaspoon cornstarch
1 clove garlic, crushed
2 teaspoons soysauce
2 tablespoons rice wine
Split bittermelon. Remove seeds and scrape white membrane. Parboil 3 minutes, then drain. Slice thinly,
and set aside. Wash soybean curd, drain, then mash together with garlic. Heat oil in pan, add mashed soybean
curd and stir for /2 minute. Drop bittermelon and saute 2 minutes. Add the beef and saute 1 minute. Season
with soy sauce, sugar and wine. Braise for 1 minute. Thicken with cornstarch. Cook and serve.
Meat Vegetable Stew with Shrimp Paste (Pinakbet)
1 pound pork cut into 1" cubes
/2 cup water
1/3 cup shrimp paste
/2 cup sliced tomatoes
2 cloves garlic crushed
1 slice ginger (1/4" thick by 1" diameter), crushed
1 package frozen okra (10 oz.)
1/4 teaspoon seasoning salt
1 big eggplant, peeled and sliced 1" thick
1 medium size bittermelon, sliced 1" thick
Combine all ingredients except eggplant, bittermelon and okra. Bring to a boil in a sauce pan. Lower heat
and simmer covered until pork is tender (about 1 hour). Add eggplant, bittermelon, okra and cook for 15
minutes. Adjust flavor by adding seasonings.
Bittermelon Soup A Traditional Vietnamese Recipe
Blanch several green melons in boiling water, cut lengthwise, and remove seeds. Stuff with meat or soy
protein, onions and seasoning. Tie the melons together with rubber bands, and return them to boiling water.
Cook for about an hour and salt to taste.
Cantwell, M., X. Nie, R.J. Zong, and M. Yamaguchi. 1996. Asian Vegetables: Selected Fruit and Leafy
Types, p. 488-495. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA.
Duke, J.A. 1985. Handbook ofMedicinal Herbs. CRC Press Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.
Martin, F.W. and R.M. Ruberte. 1979. Edible Leaves ofthe Tropics. Antillian College Press, Mayaguez, Puerto
Stephens, J.M. 1988. Manual ofMinor Vegetables. Bull. SP-40. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute
ofFood and Agricultural Sciences, University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL.
Thomas, T., R.G. O'Reilly Jr., and 0. Davis. 1997. Maiden apple, cerasse,jumbee pumpkin, lizard fruit. p. 152.
In: C Clarke (ed.). Traditional Medicinal Plants ofSt. Croix. St. Thomas and St. John: A Selection of68 Plants.
Cooperative Extension Service, University ofthe Virgin Islands.
Wills, R.B.H., A.W.K. Wong, F.M. Scriven and H. Greenfield. 1984. Nutrient Composition of Chinese
Vegetables. J. Agr. Food Chem. 32:413-416.
Tel: (340) 778-9160
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The Management and Staff of Flemings' Transport Co., Inc. express profound thanks to
customers and well wishers for your support in this our 25th year of service.
God Bless You All!!!
P.O. Box 4310
St. Croix, U.S.V.I.
Y ..-r -
Dorothy Walcott at Agrfest '98.
l,ii^|^Hr ^ikril aa~BHBHiiU
Dorothy Walcott at Agrifest '98.
Fishing for tilapia.
Suite No. 17 LaGrande Princess
St. Croix, Virgin Islands
Phone: (340) 773-4114
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V. Department of Agriculture
P running trees and shrubs is one ofthe most important tree maintenance procedures undertaken by tree
care personnel. While trees in the wild grow well without pruning, it is essential to prune trees in
landscapes -around homes, schools, churches, office buildings and in parks. Pruning trees improves
structural integrity, enhances vigor, or maintains safety.
When pruning, no branch should be removed without a reason. Reasons for pruning are to remove water
suckers, crossed and dead branches, to increase light penetration, to reduce wind resistance, to slow growth,
to reduce or eliminate hazard, to correct structural problems, to reduce weight, to increase air movement and
to redirect growth.
Removal of foliage from a tree has two distinct effects on its Branch bark ridge
growth. Pruning reduces photosynthesis and may reduce \[|| B
growth, which can cause a dwarfing effect. It may also c ,,
invigorate or cause the remaining branches to grow longer since
the growth that occurs will take place on fewer shoots. // A
While proper pruning may enhance plant growth and 0 1r "anolar
development, incorrect pruning may result in hazardous
conditions, decline and/or death of trees. Improper cuts may
encourage diseases and insect damage which could be Figure 1. Pruning principles. The first cut
detrimental to trees. Over-pruning is also extremely harmful (A) undercuts the limb to prevent "peeling".
The second cut (B) removes the limb. The
because without enough leaves, a tree cannot collect and final cut (C) should be just outside the
process enough sunlight to survive, branch collar to remove the resultant stub.
The following are some considerations to keep in mind when
Do not remove more than 1/3 ofthe foliage at any one time.
Largeheavybranches shouldbe removed using three cuts. (see figure 1)
Do not leave stubs; this encourages decay.
Maintain 50% ofthe foliage on the branches in the lower 2/3 ofthe tree.
Make clean, smooth cuts with noj agged edges at the correct
location. (see figure 1)
Never "top" trees to reduce height. Always cut limbs back to a branch that is at least
0 1/3 the size oftheparent limb.
* Utilize proper tools such as bypass pruners, pruning saws, etc., to prune trees. Do not
use machetes, axes, or hatchets for this purpose.
* Pruning cuts should be madejust outside the branch bark ridge and branch collar. (see Figure 1)
Bo DOWNTOWN To DOWNTOWN Caribbean Operations
CONVENIENCE 34 Std Street
Christiansted, U.S.V.I. 00820
Phone (340) 773-5991
SFLIGHT SCHEDULE Fcsimile (340)713.9071
CROIX DCorporate Offices: (901) 2259461 Facsimile (907) 225-8530
^^^fy ST. CROIX DEPARTURES
FLT. # MON TUES WED THU FRI SAT SUN
107 6:48 6:46 6:45 6:46 6:45 6:48 ==5=
111 7:15 7:116 7:15 7:116 7:15 7:115 ==
119 8:16 8:16 8:15 8:1 ::1 8:16 8:16
123 8:46 8:45 8:46 8:45 8:45 8:46 =====
131 9:45 8:45 9:45 9:45 9:45 9:45 9:45
159 1:16 1:15 1:16 1:15 1:15 1:16 1:16
171 2:45 2:45 2:46 2:45 2:4 2:45 2:45
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ST. THOMAS DEPARTURES
FLT. # MON TUES WED THU FRI SAT SUN
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152 12:30 12:30 12:30 12:30 12:30 12:30 12:30
164 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00
172 3:00 3:00 3:00 3:00 3:00 3:00 _==_=
176 3:30 3:30 3:30 3:30 3:30 3:30 3:30
184 4:30 4:30 4:30 4:30 4:30 4:30 -===
188 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 6:00 5:00
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PUBLIC POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
John M. Green
Antilitter and Beautification Commission (St. Croix)
In our attempts to promote Sustainable Agriculture we must not overlook the need for clear public policy.
While this may seem an abstraction to some, the development ofa clear public policy statement will ensure
that key community players will be advised and hopefully be in favor of the Sustainable Agriculture
initiatives. Sustainable Agriculture is certainly worthwhile endeavor. However, without proper planning by
our local policy makers, of the goals and objectives to achieve it the project will not have a clear focus and
will thus be less likely to succeed.
Public policy in general is created by elected and appointed officials as they respond to the issues that affect
the community. These decisions affect how the Public Sector (i.e. the government) operates. These decisions
may be as simple as establishing the cost for land leases or as complex as establishing tariffs on imported
produce to insure local competitiveness. Various forces in the community, nevertheless, affect public policy
makers, some of these include lobbyists, constituents, and advisors. For our local policy makers to support
Sustainable Agriculture, there must be a perceived need, an expression of this need to the policy makers, and
information provided that supports this need.
Key players in the development of Sustainable Agriculture must come forth and make their intentions known.
The local farmers, grocers, shippers and even financiers will have stake in the development ofa Sustainable
Agriculture program. It will be through organization that we can go to the policy makers and make a clear
statement as to what we desire and what we expect them to do. This of course means that interested parties
must come together to state what we mean by Sustainable Agriculture. It is through the process of thinking,
planning, and action that the interested parties shall be able to influence the policy makers in the direction that
we want them to move.
If indeed the key players do desire Sustainable Agriculture the policy makers must be clear on what the key
players want and also be able to make clear statements that can be translated into action (e.g., programs and
regulations) by the executive branch of government. To do this the policy makers can follow this simple formula:
1) Define the Problem, 2) Determine Evaluation Criteria, 3) Identify Alternative Policies, 4) Evaluate
Alternative Policies, 5) Select the Preferred Policy, 6) Implement the Preferred Policy. If at this stage the
Legislative and Executive branches can work together to develop programming this will ensure a much greater
The newly developed policy, laws, regulations, incentives and programs should have the affect of
encouraging or even mandating the development of sustainable agricultural practices. A well developed
Sustainable Agriculture Law will have many components that ensure that the law will be both observed and
effective. Beyond the regulating aspects of the Law, there should be incentives for small farmers, merchants,
financiers and other key players. -Additionally, there should be programs that assist the key players in
developing their capacity to produce, market, and even export their products or services. Of course all of these
programs and incentives should be based on increasing the sustainability of agriculture in the Virgin Islands as
defined by the policy makers and the key players.
Thus we see that the work of an interested group of individuals is key to the establishment of a Sustainable
Agriculture initiative. This group must be clear on what it desires and be able to articulate those ideas amongst
its members and to others. Policy makers must move the ideas into a format that the other governmental entities
can translate into viable programming. As our public and private sectors work cooperatively in this endeavor
the idea of Sustainable Agriculture can come to fruition. We need now only to begin to come together and
formulate clearly what it is that we mean by Sustainable Agriculture. Then we can bring our ideas to our elected
officials and demand that programming be established to effect the changes we desire.
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I 4 T E 4 N A T I 0 A L
PO. Box 537 "90Pnir edadmiBl Prvkwy
Mabery. Flooda 33M60 U.SA.
Tol. (941) 423-3544 PFa (941) 425-344
TO OUR FRIENDS IN THE BEAUTIFUL U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS.
THANK YOU FOR ALLOWING US TO BE YOUR PARTNER IN
PRODUCING QUALITY FOOD FOR A GROWING WORLD.
WE SHARE YOUR PROUD TRADITIONS AND
LOOK TO THE FUTURE WITH GREAT EXPECTATIONS.
PMI NUTRITION INTERNATIONAL, INC.
MULBERRY, FLORIDA, USA
MARTIN, FEDERICO, PATTI, MURRIE
RESOURCE CONSERVATION ON FARMLAND
Rudy G. O'Reilly, Jr.
Soil Conservationist, USDA/NRCS
A agriculture in the Virgin Islands is dependent on soil condition and water availability. Many of our soils
are very fertile, but they are usually heavy clays and have slow water absorption rates. The top 18
inches of soil contain the most nutrients. Plant roots need sufficient moisture and oxygen in order to
benefit from the available nutrients. Without these elements production, whether it's grass, crops, or fruits, will
not be optimum.
Some areas also have highly erodible soils, which are subject to being washed away by heavy rains. So,
although oxygen and moisture may e available, the soil's nutrient content and it's nutrient holding capacity is
reduced as topsoil is eroded. These factors all contribute to low productivity. Pastureland and cropland alike
need proper maintenance for healthy plant growth. Here are a few things that can be done to improve soil
quality, reduce erosion, and increase water retention.
For cropland, tractor tillers and roto tillers work well for large and small areas, respectively. These
machines break up soil, which allows more oxygen between the particles. Since the soil is disturbed, its
erodibility increases. Timing is very important especially on largerplots to avoid heavy soil loss from rain.
Pasture aeration usually requires heavy machinery, but generally produces less disturbance to the soil. The
blades used for this treatment create deeper cracks in dry soil, which allows for better air and water infiltration.
Dry soil is also less likely to be compacted by the weight of the machinery.
Keeping your fields vegetated is key to avoiding heavy erosion on your farm. Crop rotation is a very
important practice for maintaining nutrient levels in top soil. Different crops should be planted on each plot.
Even when not in use, crop residue can be left on site to protect the soil. It can be incorporated into the soil
or left on top as a not till mulch. As it decomposes, the residue also provides some nutrients for the next crop
to be planted.
Legumes, such as peas or beans, should be included in the rotation to help replenish nitrogen levels in the
soil. Manure or compost can be spread over the field as a fertilizer. The added organic material improves soil
condition and increases water retention. Manure should be allowed to decompose before use. Fresh manure
can burn plant roots if used immediately.
Rotation in pastures is also important. Animals should be maintained at or below the stocking rate (generally
1,000 pounds per 3 acres), which varies depending on location, soil productivity, and time of year. A
systematic rotation schedule should be developed for each field. This prevents any one field from being over
grazed and subsequently eroded. Desmanthus, blue wiss, and other legumes canbe added to pastures. They
add nitrogen to the soil and serve the additional purpose of providing extra proteins to the fodder. Manure
should be composted and added to fields if the animals are penned. Improperly managed manure can
contaminate nearby water sources with high levels of nitrogen and bacteria.
Water conservation is one of the biggest issues in the Virgin Islands. An average of42 inches of rain falls
each year in the territory. Yet most of the run offends up in the ocean, Although wells are convenient, they
can eventually cause problems ifwater is not allowed to percolate into the system faster than it is removed.
The removal of too much ground water can cause salt water infiltration. In some areas in the Virgin Islands
this is becoming a concern. Ponds are the best way to correct this problem and retain runoff. Some soils,
because of high gravel content, are not appropriate for water retention. In these areas, ponds can be used for
temporary storage and vill recharge nearby aquifers as the water seeps into the soil. For longer storage, these
ponds can be lined with clay or a synthetic liner to reduce or eliminate seepage.
Once stored in open tanks or troughs, water is also lost to evaporation. Tanks should be covered and an
irrigation system installed. Drip irrigation reduces waste since water is applied directly to the area around the
plant. Various applications may be required throughout the day, but less water is lost to evaporation during
the late afternoon, or evening waterings. Troughs can be fitted with a roof, which not only keeps water cool,
but can also collect additional drinking water.
These are a few practices that can be applied to help resource conservation on farm land. Each farm may
require different approaches and combination of practices. For further information, call USDA Natural
Resources Conservation Service at 692-9662.
Echo Valley Farm
- -'7 -
V cpi "
U.D.L. Lumber Yard
"For The Very Best Prices In Lumber
And Hardware Materials"
OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK
251 Est. Glynn
Box 6697, Sunny Isle
U. S. Virgin Islands 00823
Tele: (340) 778-2331
Fax: (340) 778-1218
THE MEAT WE EAT
Extension Agent Livestock
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
fyou have ever stood over the meat counter at the supermarket and pondered over what to buy for supper,
this article is for you. With so many different types and cuts of meat available, and the current health
issues in the forefront, it is no wonder that many consumers are confused about what to buy.
Some meats come in only one or two varieties, so the only decisions left to consumers is how large of a
package they wish to purchase and whether to buy fresh or frozen. These meats include chevon (goat), rabbit,
horse-meat, and poultry products such as chicken, turkey, goose and duck. No age distinction is made in the
naming of these meats since standard practices are that only young animals are offered for commercial sale.
Except in turkeys, distinction between the sexes is very rarely used in these products.
Goat is probably the most common and popular of the non-poultry specialty meats. It can be found in almost
every grocery store, large or small, and is an important part ofthe cultural diet ofthe West Indies. "Goat water"
is an integral part of the celebrations and carnivals throughout the Caribbean and any good cook will have
his or her own secret recipe for the ultimate goat dish. Traditionally, goat has been an inexpensive way to
provide high quality protein for families. Much of the goat consumed throughout the Caribbean is home-grown
and can be raised more economically than cattle. Older goat meat, especially that from intact males, will tend
to require longer, slower cooking times to assure tenderness and creative seasoning to cover the musky taste
characteristic of goats. Commercially raised goat comes from young does or castrated males (wethers) and
will not have the strong, musky flavor.
Rabbit has long been a part of the diet in Europe and the European Caribbean islands and is slowly gaining
popularity in the United States. Currently most of the rabbit that is found in the supermarkets here is frozen,
but many small farmers have discovered the ease of raising rabbits for meat, and it is not difficult for consumers
to find fresh rabbit if they so desire. For many years doctors have acknowledged the value of rabbit meat in
low fat, low cholesterol diets. It is easier to digest than other meats and yet provides high quality protein. Rabbit
is also a versatile meat and can be used in any way that a chicken would be used.
Horse-meat is not popular in the Virgin Islands, but is common in the Caribbean islands with European
influence, especially the French islands. Most of the horse-meat in the United States is used in the production
of pet foods. Persons moving to the U.S. have brought with them a taste for this specialty meat, however, and
demand is on the rise. Horse-meat is identifiable by a more purple color than beef. In addition, it contains less
fat. Since it primarily comes from older animals and due to the fat factor, horse-meat requires specialized
cooking techniques. It is primarily slow-roasted, stewed or ground.
Chicken is a category all to itself. Distinction is made for both sex and age of the bird at the time of butcher.
The youngest product is the Rock Cornish Game Hen. This bird is about 4 weeks old. It is obviously the smallest
chicken on the market and has the highest bone to meat ratio, which means that there's less meat than bone
in the bird. The next step up are the fryers and broilers. These are 8-10 weeks old at butcher and are great
for exactly what their names suggest, as well as about anything that you would want to use a chicken for. They
are still very young and tender and contain enough fat to make them very uicy. Following those is the roaster.
This bird is usually 10-14 weeks of age and has filled out significantly. These are still tender and have enough
fat so that they are still very juicy when you bake or roast them. They also are 6-8 pounds, so they can easily
feed a family. Capons are the castrated male chickens that are raised until they are 8-12 pounds. Because they
have been castrated, they do not develop the secondary sex characteristics that cause the meat to get tough
and unpalatable and can be kept longer before butcher. Old chickens are called stewer hens, soup hens and
stags. These are the mature birds that have passed their prime and are usually extremely tough, requiring long,
slow cooking to make them reasonably tender.
The meat of the sheep comes in two basic categories, lamb and mutton. Essentially, lamb is a young sheep,
of either sex or castrated, that has gone to butcher before it reached 1 year of age, while mutton is sheep older
than 1 year. The actual determination is made by the presence or absence of a "breakjoint" in the knee of the
animal after butcher. Lamb is more tender and has a milder flavor than mutton. In addition, it can be cooked
by almost any method with satisfactory results. Mutton, on the other hand, is primarily ground or stewed.
The meat of the pig, referred to as pork, is utilized in a variety of ways. Small, young pigs such as suckling
or feeder pigs are often roasted whole for barbecues. These are pigs that dress out anywhere from 20 70
pounds. Dressed animals are animals that have passed through the butchering process and are cleaned and
ready for use. These roast pigs are a traditional "festival" food in the Caribbean. "Lechon" is a staple for any
celebration, large or small. Distinctive seasoning and slow roasting over a charcoal pit produces an end product
unequalled in flavor and tenderness. Standard pork that you find in the supermarket is from pigs that are older
and dress out at about 150-200 pounds. It is from barrows and gilts (castrated males and young females)
exclusively, since meat from the intact males (boars) has a very strong, unpleasant odor and taste. Old pigs are
used for sausage, as tenderness is not a requirement for meat that is ground and any strong flavors that might
be present in the meat are masked by the seasonings in the sausage mix.
Meat from cattle is placed into two categories. These are veal and beef. Veal is from very young cattle that
have been raised on a special diet. Usually, this diet is a liquid formula that contains all of the nutrients that the
calf needs except iron. This formula is designed to allow the calf to grow quickly and yet maintain the very
tender, light colored meat that is recognized as veal. Beef is from cattle that are over 1 year of age. It is
characterized by the vibrant red color of the tissue and is probably the most recognizable meat product in the
supermarket today. Most of the beef today comes from heifers and steers. Intact males, as with the male pigs,
tend to develop a tougher, stringier texture to the meat, though not at such an early age as the pigs. Bulls
butchered before 18 months of age usually do not present a problem with acceptability of product. Most of
the local "Senepol" beef sold in the Virgin Islands is from young bulls butchered at about 12-16 months of age.
It is a very lean and flavorful product and is in high demand. Meat from older bulls and cows will be darker
red in color and have-a yellower fat. It is most commonly used for stew meat and ground beef since it is not
as tender as the young beef.
A terminology for the common livestock species is listed in Table I. If you would like more information on
meats and where they come from, please feel free to contact me at the Extension Service, Room 112, 692-
ANIMAL MALE FEMALE GENERIC MALE FEMALE CASTRATED MEAT
YOUNG YOUNG YOUNG* MALE
CATTLE BULL COW CALF BULL CALF/ HEIFER STEER VEAL-LESS THAN 1 YEAR. FORMULA FED
BULLOCK BEEF-CATTLE OLDER THAN 1 YEAR
PIGS/ BOAR SOW PIGLET N/A GILT BARROW PORK
SHEEP RAM EWE LAMB RAM LAMB EWE LAMB WETHER LAMB-LESS THAN 1 YEAR OF AGE
MUTTON- SHEEP OLDER THAN 1 YEAR
GOATS BUCK DOE KID BUCKLING DOELING WETHER CHEVON
CHICKENS ROOSTER/ HEN CHICK COCKEREL PULLET CAPON CHICKEN-CORNISH HEN, FRYER, BROILER
COCK ROASTER, STEWER HEN, CAPON, STAG.
TURKEYS TOM HEN POULT N/A N/A N/A TURKEY
RABBITS BUCK DOE KIT BUCKLING DOELING N/A RABBIT
GEESE GANDER GOOSE GOSLING N/A N/A N/A GOOSE
DUCK DRAKE HEN DUCKLING N/A N/A N/A DUCK
HORSES STALLION/ MARE FOAL COLT FILLY GELDING HORSE-MEAT
FEMALE YOUNG RETAIN THIS NAME UNTIL THEY HAVE THEIR FIRST OFFSPRING
Proudly salutes the 28th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands.
AARP is the leading organization in the United States for individuals age 50 and
over. It serves their needs-and those of all
older Americans-through legislative advocacy, research, informative
programs and community services, and offers a wide range of
membership benefits. The Virgin Islands are an important part of the
Southeast Region of AARP, with over 12,000 national members.
Your Virgin Islands Volunteer Leaders who proudly serve you are:
AARP Virgin Islands State President: Lawrence Bastian
State Coordinator for Community Operations: Dorothy Deluze
State Communications Coordinator: Olric Carrington
State Training Coordinator: Ellen Murraine
State Recruiter Specialist: Norrine Abramson
State Coordinator of Health Advocacy Services: Sam Morch
State Legislative Committee Chair: Edward Phillips
State Coordinator for Economic Security: Helen Vessup
Women's Issues Specialist: Priscilla Watkins
Tax-Aide State Coordinator: Jerome Ferdinand
Consumer Issues Specialist: Marcia DeGraff
VOTE State Coordinator: Mavis Brady
55-Alive/Mature Driving State Coordinator: Anna M. Sille
SAARP District Coordinators: Joyce Christian, St. Croix;
Gwendolyn Blake, St. Thomas and St. John
AARP Chapter Presidents: Ada Acoy, St. Croix;
Yvonne Wells, St. John; Ulric Benjamin, St. Thomas
AA4RP exwe& as a, dycaami& fteseee it ew eommawuo., dhaifcaC aad
ewtihuck4 f ie eee o g eeu e ea" d mwefe ac"d co a cde
To volunteer your time and talents and obtain information about
AARP Programs, please call:
AARP Virgin Islands Information Line: 340/712-2442
for Independent Living
Lemuel Smithen receiving the 1998 Farmer of the Year Award
from Governor Roy L. Schneider.
Colleen Centeno showing off her award wining exhibit.
Leona Bryant interviewing Dr. Donna Christian-
Green, V.I. Delegate to Congress during Agrifest 98.
Available in Bookstores on St. Croix and St. Thomas.
HURRICANE BLOWS ALL SKIN ONE COLOR
1878: QUEEN MARY AND DEM
PRAYERS AND POEMS
UNDER DE TAMAN TREE
By IR~ ffi cha]! d A Sllwadcl- L^cH
To OUR CRUCIAN COOKS
KEEPING THE CULTURE
H r A
FROM OUR PHOTO ALBUM
"rf Clrr ~I
St. Thomas farmer Raphael Rivera at Agrifest 98.
Aberra Bulbulla with his fruit trees.
John & Pearl Duberry receiving the 1998 Recognition Awardfrom Errol Chichester, Director of Crop
Exhibits. Mr. & Mrs. Duberry was honored during the opening ceremonies ofthe 27th annual Agriculture
and Food Fair.
Dorlis Marshall enjoying a piece of soft sweet sugar cane.
The Honorable Arthur C. Petersen, Jr., Commissioner of
Agriculture and President of the Agriculture and Food
Fair Board, promoting Agrifest '98 in Puerto Rico.
The Honorable Francisco "Paco" Lopez, Mayor of
Barranquitas, was among the official delegation
representing Puerto Rico.
The Honorable Dr. Miguel A. Munoz, Puerto Rico Secretary ofAgriculture, accepting a
framed 1998 Agrifest poster from the Virgin Islands Commissioner of Agriculture and
President of the Fair Board, the Honorable Arthur C. Petersen, Jr.
Melsader Thomas, ornamental grower, proudly displaying her Coleus
i- D DAIRIES R 4IL
I^ CIr F- EAL
.41 li <
DBA MCDONALDS RESTAURANTS
P.O. BOX 3449
C'STED, ST. CROIX USVI
SALUTES THE V.L
AGRICULTURE & FOOD FAIR
ON ITS 28TH ANNIVERSARY
- : 1
Ni NJI IN MN P I
Virgin Islands Institute of Development
B Salutes the 1999 Agriculture Food Fair &
Invites Community Leaders
to attend the first-ever
Virgin Islands Leadership Summit:
"Agendafor the Year 2000"
June 24-25, 1999
Engage in Problem-Solving Sessions on:
Education & Youth
Science & Technology (including Y2K)
For more information:
Call 202-661-4607, fax 202-661-4699,
Write 1201 Pennsylvania Ave., N. W., Suite 300
Washington, DC, 20004, or
Advocate Communicate Educate
|___,,________ |Il~!l~l~llrl~ieiPlel !lel ~ !~! !~!d!~
Serving The Islands
PICK-UP & DELIVERY
FAST, RELIABLE SERVICE
FORK LIFT RENTAL
1 is a proua sponsor or me 1
Steamship Agent e
Moving Local & Overseas &
Custom Brokerage *
Trailer Hauling *
International Forwarders e
Water Delivery *
Telex St. Croix 3471042 Agent For CAT
New Container Port -
PO Box 7550 Sunny Isle, C'sted., St. Croix 00823
E Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
'P VIATlKItULlUIKAL JAI1K.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS
3 3138 00174 0157
Papaya Nut Cake
1/2 cup shortening -I .*
1 cup granulated sugar '
1/4 cup dark brown sugar .'4
1 cup hard, yellow papaya, shredded
1/2 cup soft, ripe papaya, mashed *
1/8 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice
3 1/2 cups flour, unsifted all purpose
4 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla essence ,
1/2 teaspoon almond essence
1 1/4 cups walnuts, chopped .
2 tablespoons dark molasses
1 teaspoon baking soda -.
1 tablespoon water
2 tablespoons cooking oil
1 teaspoon cinnamon
Cream shortening and sugar until light. Add eggs, one at a time; beat well
after each addition. Add almond and vanilla essence. Add nuts. Combine
flour, baking powder and pumpkin pie spice; sift; gradually add to egg
mixture. Batter should be stiff.
Combine water, molasses, baking soda, cooking oil and cinnamon. Gently
fold into cake batter. Pour into 9" x 9" x 1 3/4" pan. Sprinkle chopped walnuts
over top. Bake at 3500 F. for 50 minutes. Serves 12.
Calories Fat Protein Carbohydrates Sodium Cholesterol
(g) (g) (g) (mg) (mg)
374 18 8 48 193 47
UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS