21" AGRIFEST '98
"Agriculture A Bridge From Servitude to Freedom"
27TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
JOINTLY SPONSORED BY THE V.I. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AND THE V.I. ENERGY OFFICE
CORPORATE SPONSOR: AT&T
"the strength of the tree
is determined by the roots"
At Vitelco, we believe that by giving our children a strong
foundation, we help ensure their future. That's why we
awarded over a quarter million dollars in scholarship
money to hard working Virgin Islands students to
taught over ISoo young people how to play tennis in the
Vitelco Junior Tennis Program
adopted more than iooo young people each year at our
** \adopted schools on St. Thomas, St. Croixand St. John
taught dozens bf young people how to sail in the
(I Vitelco Governor's Cup Youth Regatta
awarded more than $35,000 in cash to talented classical
musicians who have competed in the Vitelco Classical
A Music Competition
S* made a commitment of $200,000 to the Boys and Girls
Club that will ensure the Club will be there for the
IIEB more than 600 young people who depend on it each
VIRGIN ISLANDS TELEPHONE CORPOR year ... and much, much more
27th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
of the Virgin Islands
A Bridge From Servitude To Freedom"
Editing, Layout & Design
Clarice C. Clarke
Dr. Erika Waters, Raquel Santiago, Dr. Manuel Palada
IIL3RA!Y4Y VIRGIN SLANR ,
Jointly Sponsored by
The Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
The University of the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service
Agricultural Experiment Station
Virgin Islands Energy Office
Corporate Sponsor: AT&T
The Agriculture & Food Fair Bulletin is desktop published
by the UVI Cooperative Extension Service
0l!*!;VE--;-" T P Hi- V!RGFl ISLAND5 .
ST. CRO)iX >.
Enjoy all the varieties from
Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin is credited; mention of product
names in this book in no way implies endorsement by the authors or the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors.
Funding for this publication is made possible in part by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG44-96R410666.
FRUIT JUICES & DRINKS
3 IN MEMORIAL M
9 The Board of Directors of the
.* Agriculture and Food Fair of the L
Remembers the Following:
Juan Centeno, Jr.
0D lone Pemberton
Their support and devotion to the
preservation of the Virgin Islands' rich
agricultural heritage will be truly
A Publication of the 27th Annual Agriculture
and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Bulletin Number 12
Table of Contents
1998 Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors................................................. ......................6
Messagefrom Governor Roy L. Schneider..........................................................................................
M message from D r. O rville Kean...........................................................................................................8
Message from Commissioner Dr. Arthur C. Petersen, Jr......................................................................9
Message from Clarence A. Heyliger.................................................................. ....... 10
The Impact of Slavery on Agriculture in the Danish West Indies .........................................12
Farmers Can Help Tackle Serious Pollution.................................................................... 18
Fishing in the U SV I .............................................................. ....... ......................................... 21
Marcia G. Taylor
Never Underestimate the Value of Trees................................................................................25
Dr. Arthur C. Petersen, Jr. & Frank L. Francois
P a rtn e rs in C h an g e .....................................................................................................................2 8
Food Slavery: BreakYour Chains.......................................................................................... 31
Alice V. Henry
Milk--What a Surprise........................................................................................................................ 36
Pink Mealybug on St. Croix and its Control..................................................................................42
Dr. Jozef Keularts
E energy E m ancipation............................................................................................... ....................50
Virgin Islands Energy Office
Practical Hints on the Care and Management of Sheep and Goats for the Beginner ...........52
M ango M madness .............................................................. ......... ...... .............................................56
Cassava Women (Grenada West Indies, ca. 1700).....................................................................56
S h e llin g P e a s ........................................................................................ ... .. ................................5 7
H ibiscusandpigeonpeas............... ......... .......................................................................... .............. 58
Sugar C ane......................................................................................................................................59
Rosamond S. King
R ice is M y N am e ....................................................................................... ................................... . 59
Fry Fish and Johnnycake................. ...... ............................... ............... .......... ................... ... 61
Marvin E. Williams
Potential of Minor Tropical Fruits for Growth and Production
in the U.S. V irgin Isands..................... ........................ ............................................................ 64
Hot Pepper: ACropWtih "Hot" Potential forthe Virgin Islands.................... ............... .............68
Stafford M. A. Crossman
Sustainable Forage-Livestock Feeding Programs for the Virgin Islands'
Livestock Producers...................................................................................................................... 74
Martin B. Adjei, Kofi Boateng and Paul Flemming
rHF LINITl.) SI %T S V'IR(;IN ISLANDS
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MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR
This year's Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin
Islands is very special because the Board of Directors of
the fair has decided to pay tribute to a significant period
in Virgin Islands history. As Virgin Islanders, we will
come together within a few months to celebrate the 150th
anniversary of the emancipation of slaves in the Territory.
And today, farmers can celebrate the opportunity they now
have to market their goods for a profit.
As this year's theme suggests "Agriculture A Bridge
from Servitude to Freedom" farmers have the support from
the Department of Agriculture and this Administration to
promote and export produce grown in the Virgin Islands.
There is so much untapped potential in the market of
agriculture to grow from our backyards to the fields. It
also allows us to preserve our culture as we continue to
make maubi, local jams and candies and a host of other
"locally made" drinks and delicacies which cannot be made
unless we continue to grow our fruits and vegetables,
harvest our crops and raise our livestock. I pledge my
support to this endeavor.
Mrs. Schneider joins me in calling upon all Virgin
Islanders to participate in the 27t annual Agriculture Food
Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands to be held on St. Croix. It
is always a gratifying experience for me to visit with our
cultural standard-bearers at this annual event. It is at
events such as this one where we have the opportunity to be
reminded of our culture and traditions. Not only do we get
a chance to partake in local food and drinks, we are also
exposed to local dance and music.
I wish everyone a fun and safe week nd of fair
activities! S c _
S oy L. Sc neider, M.D.
Message from Dr. Orville Kean
President, University of the Virgin Islands
Welcome to the 27h Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S.
Virgin Islands. It is with a sense of pride and satisfaction that (
I note the continuing co-sponsorship of this important commu-
nity activity by the University of the Virgin Islands. The theme
"Agriculture A Bridge from Servitude to Freedom" highlights -,
the empowering role of agriculture in the development of
society and provides all of us with an opportunity to focus on the ideas and groups that have
made the changes over the years possible.
One of the most positive aspects of the Agriculture and Food Fair is the cooperation and
collaboration that make all the pieces successfully come together to produce an educational
and gratifying experience for the public. I am pleased to note that the Land-Grant Programs
of UVI and the Department of Agriculture continue to demonstrate the benefits of their
partnership with each successful Fair. As in the past, the University pledges to continue to
play an integral role in the continued success of the Fair.
Once again, the Agriculture and Food Fair will provide the University an opportunity to share
information on research programs that directly benefit the agricultural industry of the Virgin
Islands. As in the past, the areas of research cover a broad range, from increased proficiency
of sheep production and bioengineering Papaya Ringspot Virus resistance to micro-irrigation
of horticultural crops and evaluation of integrated production methods for tropical fruit crops.
It is noteworthy that more of the research being conducted is done in cooperation with farmers
who agree to provide demonstration sites for evaluation of new methods and crops. Demand-
driven and cost effective programs exemplified by most of the land-grant research and
extension activities are very much in keeping with the strategic goals of the University.
I extend congratulations and commendations to both the UVI Land-Grant staff and the
Agriculture and Food Fair Board for their contributions to the organization and successful
implementation of the Fair. There are few community activities that provide the enlightenment,
enjoyment and sense of pride that the Agriculture and Food Fair continues to do year after
year. It is my hope that the 27th anniversary of the Fair will be one of the best ever and that
Virgin Islands residents will find pleasure and joy in their experience at the Fair.
Orville Kean, Ph.D.
Message from Dr. Arthur C. Petersen, Jr.
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture
Welcome to the 1998 Agriculture and Food Fair of the United States Virgin Islands. This
year's theme of the Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands -- "Agriculture: A
Bridge from Servitude to Freedom" -- celebrates our heritage of freedom as we celebrate the
i50th anniversary of the emancipation of slaves here.
Agriculture means life and prosperity. History has aptly recorded that civilization can survive
without the conveniences of industry and science but without some form of agriculture, life it-
self for human beings is not possible. Agriculture provides not only the necessities to sustain
human existence but determines to a large degree the economic status of countries. Rich coun-
tries usually are efficient producers of food. Agriculture is of such great importance that many
politically opposed nations often find themselves trading in food to the exclusion of nearly all
other areas, such as technology transfer., Food-sufficient countries are often judged on their
ability to make humanitarian contributions to less fortunate countries. The present situation in
North Korea illustrates this point.
Since colonization, the production of food and fiber has contributed significantly to the eco-
nomic development of the Virgin Islands. In fact, sugar production was the primary motive for
the acquisition of St. Croix by the Danes from the French in 1733. Agriculture and agricultural
employment contributed significantly to the freedom movements that surrounded the emancipa-
tion of slaves in 1848.
Since emancipation, Virgin Islanders have carved a niche for themselves in the world's agricul-
ture. Most recently, exports of live St. Croix short-haired sheep as well as embryos of senepol
cattle have brought the U.S. Virgin Islands into the world agricultural spotlight. These two
unique breeds of animals -- true Virgin Islands natives -- are heat tolerant, which makes the two
breeds ideal for production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Hence, they are be-
ing sought by nations in those regions who are interested in expanding their livestock industry
throughout the world to take advantage of market opportunities. This shows that the territory's
agriculture is on the leading edge of global agriculture.
As we reflect on this year's theme, let us be mindful that emancipation was flawed byan un-
willingness of the former slave owners to allow economic freedom to take hold, and this re-
sulted in the "Fire Bum" some 30 years later. We must therefore rejoice that our present pro-
duction occurs in a free, democratic Virgin Islands and we are better positioned to benefit eco-
nomically from the fruits of our harvest. We do have much to give thanks for as we reflect on
"Agriculture: A Bridge From Servitude to Freedom."
Arthur C. Pete n Jr., Ph.D.
Commissioner f Agriculture
Emancipation 150TH Commemoration Commission
Message from Clarence A. Heyliger
Chairman, Emancipation 150 Commemoration Commission
On the 27th anniversary of the Agricultural and Food Fair, I would like to extend best wishes to
all of the farmers and culinary artists on St. Croix from the Emancipation 150 Commemoration
Commission. Agriculture has been the foundation of our economy longer than any other industry.
From the time of the Caribs and the Tainos, the cultivation of this island was crucial to the survival
of the inhabitants. When the Europeans came, they too saw the great potential of this land and
through the toil of our African ancestors, used virtually the entire island for agriculture. Sugar cane
eventually became the most important cash crop, but cotton, indigo, all kinds of fruits, vegetables
and ground provisions were planted for personal and commercial purposes.
1998 is the sesquicentennial of the Emancipation of the African slaves in the virgin Islands.
Governor Roy Schneider in his wisdom formed a commission which has already planned a series
of programs and activities to commemorate this great event. I therefore invite everyone to
participate in the celebration this year.
The Agricultural Fair is integrally related to emancipation because it reminds us of the important
agricultural heritage developed right here by our ancestors. They understood and used the
dependence of the Europeans on this industry to their advantage. When they could no longer bear
the terrible conditions under which they we; e forced to live, they burned or threatened to destroy
the cane fields in their struggle for liberation. For example, 120 years ago, in what has become
known as the "Fireburn of 1878,"the laborers burned down over 51 plantations to protest their
inhumane working conditions and the depravation of their civil rights by the Danish authorities and
Today when we celebrate the great deeds of these valiant warriors, the Agricultural Fair also
serves as a reminder of how far we have come. We can control our own destiny and plant the crops
we want and profit fully from their cultivation. Our ancestors could not do this. They were robbed
of the fruits of their labor and as such many of us shunned agriculture for many years because it
was a painful reminder of the suffering our ancestors encountered during and after slavery.
Today as we enjoy all of the agricultural products at the fair, let us not forget that all of this was
only made possible by those women and men who had the courage to suffer and die for their
freedom. They have provided a lasting legacy for which we can be proud today.
Clarence A. Heyliger, Chairman
Emancipation 150 Commemoration Commission
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The Impact of Slavery on Agriculture
in the Danish West Indies
Extension Specialist, Natural Resources
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
Africans were imported from Africa to the Virgin Islands and the Caribbean for one obvious economic
reason: free labor. The slaves were the driving force behind the sugar cane industry in the Virgin Islands
during the time of the Danes. Prior to that, France established tobacco and sugar plantations and slaves
worked with the French bondsmen in the fields.
This changed in 1733 when St. Croix was purchased by Denmark from France. The lands were
surveyed, plantations were sold and slaves were brought in great numbers to these islands. The forest
lands in St. Croix and the other two Virgin Islands were cleared by slaves for the cultivation of agricultural
crops. Reimert Haagensen, a Danish planter on St. Croix from 1739 to 1751 recorded that "the work
undertaken by the earliest of these slaves was certainly the most difficult that the island would ever have
to offer. The thick forests had to be cleared, large trees felled and hauled to the seashores for sale, roads
had to be cut and maintained, and the initial dwellings and estate structures, the mills and factories had to
The slaves, including women and children, worked hard in the sugar cane fields from sun up to sun down.
In addition to cultivating the fields for sugar cane and cotton, slaves had to provide for themselves.
Haagensen made it clear that "slaves were expected to construct their own housing, as well as to supply
most of their own food from their own small provision garden plots" (pxxxvi).
By the 1780's, St. Croix was recognized as one of the major sugar-producing islands in the Caribbean.
In fact, the island was known then as the "Bread Basket of the Caribbean," the "Garden of Eden," and the
"Garden Spot of the West Indies." St. Croix also produced other crops in abundance beside sugar. As early
as the late 1800's, people from other Caribbean islands came to work in the St. Croix sugar plantations.
During the prosperous years of the St. Croix sugar economy from about 1750-1820, the population had
grown to 28,802, of which about 22,000 were slaves.
In this period, there were 27,655 acres of sugar cane. This was the maximum acreage ever reached
in sugar production on St. Croix. Twenty-eight years later, just before the 1848 Emancipation, there were
23,971 acres in sugar cane.
When sugar was "king" on St. Croix, slaves suffered. Slaves were mistreated socially, economically and
politically, and forced to live under harsh labor laws which were the chief tools of oppression. In 1878, the
slaves took things into their own hands, and forced the white slave masters to abolish the laws. This was
known as the "Fireburn," where many estates, buildings, and factories were burnt to the ground on St. Croix.
As Lesmore Howard stated, "After 1878, the tensions between the plantation owners and workers
intensified. St. Croix economy was based on sugar cane cultivation. The workers were still under the
control of the landowners. They lived in villages owned by the landowners and produced food in small plots
owned by them" (p48). In the 1847 proclamation, Governor Peter Von Scholten was given an ultimatum
when General Buddhoe, also known as Adam Gottlied, demanded: "Freedom now not 12 years from now."
On July 3, 1848, the enslaved Africans of the Danish West Indies demanded their freedom. Buddhoe
stated, "If they were not liberated by four o' clock, they would leave no stick nor stone of property and would
not answer for the lives of the white people." With those words by General Buddhoe, Governor Von
Scholten announced, "All unfree in the Danish West Indies are from today free..." (p48).
The decline of agriculture on St. Croix can be attributed to the 1848 emancipation of slaves, cheap cost
of sugar production in Cuba, the southern United States and the East Indies; the 1870 severe drought, the
hurricanes of August 21, 1871, October 23, 1871, September 13, 1876 and August 8, 1899; and Fireburn
of 1878. Small family farms replaced the large commercial farms. The Virgin Islands remained an important
provisioning station for shipping throughout the Caribbean islands even though it lost its status as a major
port of agricultural trade.
Agriculture has formed the bridge from servitude to freedom. As we celebrate 150 years of Emancipation
in 1998, we should make agriculture an integral part of our islands' economy.
Blaut, James M., Francis X. Mark; Arthur E. Dammann, 1965. Report to the Governor of the United States
Virgin Islands on the Reconstruction of the Agricultural Economy of St. Croix.
Haagensen, Reimert. Description of the Island of St. Croix in America in the West Indies. Translated into
English in 1995 by Arnold Highfield and George Tyson.
Howard, Lesmore. 1991. "David Hamilton Jackson. 1884-1946." The Voice International Caribbean,
Lawaetz, Frits. 1972. A Glimpse from The Past. "The Agriculture and Food Fair of St. Croix Virgin
(for fish, meat and poultry)
3-6 Puerto Rican sweet peppers
1 small piece hot pepper
1 sprig parsley
1 sprig celery (native)
5 small pieces chibble (chives)
1 teaspoon fresh thyme leaves
6 cloves garlic, crushed OR
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon ground black pepper
1/8 teaspoon ground clove
1/4 teaspoon ground allspice .
1/8 teaspoon mace
1/8 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 cup fine salt
Grind, chop or pound sweet peppers, hot pepper, parsley, celery, chibble,
thyme and garlic in mortar until very fine. Add remaining ingredients and
mix well. Store in covered jar. Makes 1/2 cup seasoning.
Calories Fat Protein Carbohydrates Sodium Cholesterol
(g) g) (g) (mg) (mg)
3 0 0 1 534 0
(per 1 teaspoon serving)
ir *~ ia.
Fine Herbiond VgetcLIe
A wondel display of locally grown herbs and vegetables from Sunflower Gardens.
A wonderful display of locally grown herbs and vegetables from Sunflower Gardens.
Psstl let's get the flock out of here.
The Board of Directors,
Stcff, vand Merck~hants of tke
Sunny Jsle Shopping Center, Jnc.,
AEgricLlt+re and Food Fair
of tke LA. S. Virgin Jslcands
for another successful year.
"Agriculture: A Bridge from
Servitude to Freedom."
American Cancer Society Alpha Broadcasting Applause Avant Garde Boutique *AVCO Finance
Co. Banco Popular de Puerto Rico Benjamin's Treasure Board of Education* Carimar *China
Jade Restaurant Clara's Special Occasion Cleopatra Gift Shop Colombo Delights Commoloco
Inc. Delegate to Congress Office Department of Labor/ Jovik / Job Service Diamond Cinemas *
Department of Planning and Natural Resources Eagle's Fashion Educational Central FootAction
* Footlocker Hughes Photo Shop Ideal Touch Beauty Salon Island Finance Island Medical
Center Junior's Jewelry Kentucky Fried Chicken Le Baron Marianne's Master's Insurance *
Me Salve Minni Shop & Mini World Mr. Dollar Office of the Governor Ole's Deli & Grill One
Price & More Payless Shoe Pedersen, Walter, MD Peoples Drug Store Perfection Gift Store *
Power Zone Pueblo Supermarket Radio Shack Rave S & B Gift Store Sam Goody Social
Security Speedy Secretarial State Job Training Council Stride Rite Shoes Strictly the Best Boys
& Men Wear Sunny Isle Barber Shop Sunny Isle Housing Sunny Isle Management Office Sunny
Isle Post Office Sunny Isle Public Library Sunny Isle Theaters Terry's Children Wear Tops &
Bottoms Ultima Galleria Unique Shop U.S. Army & Navy Recruiting U.S. Immigration V.I. Dept.
Of Health (WIC) V.I. Election System V.I. Lottery V.I. Public Services Commission V.I. Telephone
Corporation V.I. Water & Power Authority Wendy's Western Auto
Sunny Isle Shopping Center, Inc
Post Office Box 5994, Christiansted, St.Croix U.S.V.I. 00823
Telephone (340) 778-5830 Fax (340) 778-1454
FARMER'S MARKET LARGE VEGETABLE DISPLAY
Little Buddies Pre-school pumpkin weighed in at 25 and 29 pounds.
Fairgoers were amazed at the size of Katherine Martin's cassava. The cassava weighed 65 lbs.
Farmers Can Help Tackle Serious Pollution
Robin Freeman, Executive Director
St. Croix Environmental Association
When asked what the number one pollution problem in St. Croix is, scientists and environmentalists
usually reply nonpointt source" or NPS pollution. NPS pollution is insidious because there isn't any one
distinct culprit, such as an overflowing pipe. Rather, NPS pollution is caused by faulty septic systems,
runoffs of oil and grease from streets and parking lots, runoffs of herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers, and
soil that washes out to sea as a result of poor land-clearing practices.
Antiquated land-clearing practices, where bulldozers leave the land bare, rob farmers of valuable topsoil.
Additionally, the soil, known as sediment when it reaches the sea, smothers and kills coral reefs and
seagrass beds, adversely affecting our fisheries and tourism industries.
It is said that in a heavy rain, an acre of land can lose as much as a ton of topsoil an hour from the gushing
water pouring down hillsides. This is very counterproductive for farmers who depend on nutrients in topsoil
to grow vegetables, fruit trees, and feed for livestock.
The best solution to this problem is never to bulldoze your land. Instead, hand clear or use bush hogs
or other equipmentthat do not disturb roots which hold the valuable topsoil. Also, whenever possible, leave
and plant trees. Their roots do an incredible job of holding soil. At the very least, if you plan to bulldoze your
land, do not do it before or during peak rainy seasons- September/October and April/May.
Farmers can also do their part to help control the St. Croix NPS pollution problems by not using toxic
herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers. Many alternative products and methods are now available that
farmers are using with success in the mainland. Farmers using organic methods are finding improved yields
in their crops.
If you would like more information about organic farming or nonpoint source pollution, the St. Croix
Environmental Association (SEA) has resources available in our Gallows Bay office (phone 773-1989).
RolandHorsford from the V.I. DepartmentofAgriculture operates the Soul Train. The train is an integral
part of the Fair to transport fairgoers around the grounds.
1 1/2 pound eggplant
1 onion, thinly sliced
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
1 cup coconut milk
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon curry
1/2 teaspoon black pepper
1 tablespoon lime juice
1/2 teaspoon ginger
1/2 teaspoon cumin
1/2 teaspoon tumeric
1. Peel eggplant and cut into small pieces.
2. Saute onion in oil in large skillet. Add curry and eggplant
and cook for 2 minutes stirring constantly. Add salt, lime juice.
pepper, coconut milk and seasonings.
3. Cover and simmer until soft, about 20 minutes.
Seasonings may be adjusted to taste.
Makes 6 servings, about 1/2 cup each, as a side dish.
Each 1/2 cup serving provides:
Calooes Fat Protein Carbohydrates Sodium Cholesterol
(g) () (9) (mg) (mg)
172 15 3 8 367 0
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Fishing in the USVI
Marcia G. Taylor
UVI Eastern Caribbean Center
Fishing has always been an historically
important economic activity in the Caribbean. It was
a source of extra income as well as protein for many
in the Caribbean. As slavery was abolished and the
demand for sugar production in the world market
declined, many began to fish to supplement their
incomes. The labor force alternated between fishing,
farming and agricultural work in the field in order to
achieve satisfactory levels of subsistence. Fishing
served as a bridge from servitude to freedom for
many freed slaves.
There is little written about the USVI fisheries
before 1932. In 1931, Fiedler and Jarvis (1932),
working for the US Bureau of Fisheries, conducted a
survey of USVI fisheries. They found that fishing
was largely done by using pots (40%), seines (30%)
and lines (30%). The crafts used were also "small
crudely built and unfit for rough seas or far trips of any
length." Most were rowboats or sailboats. At that
time, pots or traps were constructed using poles and
chicken wire. Fishermen baited the traps with
lobster, whelk, sea moss and conch meat, all of
which are high-priced items today. The use of nets
in turtle fishing was also prevalent. Fishing by hand
at night and using a torch was also a common way of
catching lobsters. Diving for conch and whelk in
shallow water were also done. Fishing was largely
a casual occupation for supplying food for the
immediate families, with the surplus being sold or
given to other families and friends.
Line fishing is the secondmostpopular fishing methodin the
VI afterpot fishing, representing 26% of the total landings.
The "diverse" ethnic composition of the USVI
fishery is remarkable. Pizzini (1992) described the St. Croix fisherman as appearing to be largely of Puerto
Rican origin. Puerto Ricans, especially large numbers from Vieques, migrated in the 1930's to the USVI to
work in the sugar cane industry and to engage in a diversity of economic activities associated with that crop,
including fishing. In contrast, in St. Thomas, fishing is dominated by people of French ancestry who came
from the island of St. Barth6lemy between 1865 and 1879 and established a village on the western side of
the St. Thomas Harbor known as "Frenchtown."
In the Caribbean, fisheries have changed due to shifts in regional and global economies. In the 1960's,
the tourist boom brought increased demand for local fishery products and higher prices. It also increased
the pressure for the resources, as those species
seldom used for the market (conch, lobster, whelk
and large size fish) were of high value and demand.
The tourist economy also attracted other types of
fishing operations, such as the longliners targeting
swordfish. Sport and recreational fishing increased,
some of which target the species caught by the
Today fishing is still important to many local
families. Beets (1987) described the VI fisheries:
"Primarily a small-scale, artisanal fishery. Most
commercial fishermen utilize small boats, 16-25 feet
in length to harvest reef fish species located in the
insular platform." Tobias (1987) described the St.
Croix fishing fleet as being composed of vessels
ranging from 18-22 feet, constructed of fiberglass,
and powered by outboard motors. Due to problems
of access to the shoreline, most boats are trailered
to the launching sites in St. Croix. Traps are the main
gear, followed by line fishing and diving. Proximity to
deep waters in the north and west coasts make it
feasible for the fishermen to use small boats in
catching pelagic species. Although St. Croix is
larger than St. Thomas or St. John, the shallow
island platform, which supports its commercial
fisheries, is less than 1/3 that of its sister islands.
Olsen and Richards described the model of
fishery growth as an evolution of the fishery from
subsistence to recreational as having several
stages: (a) subsistence fishing for protein, (b)
commercial fishing for profit, (c) fishing as a source
of supplemental income, and (d) recreational fishing.
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Pot fishing is the most popular fishing method employed in the
VI representing 43% of the total landings.
He explains that as a nation's economy develops, jobs
are created which allow fishermen to gain a higher standard of living with less work. In the leisure time
created in the developed society, the former fisherman may supplement his income and he may fish for
nonquantifiable returns, only selling his catch when it exceeds his personal need.
However, there are increasing problems associated with the fishing industry such as the deterioration of
the marine habitats due to industrial and tourist activities, and extensive use of coastal zones. There has
been a rise in point and nonpoint source pollution. Coral reefs, seagrass beds, and mangrove areas are
being destroyed due to a variety of factors associated with the use of the marine resources and land
developments. These resources are necessary for the health and survival of our fisheries. A majority of
commercially important species depend on seagrass beds, mangroves or coral reefs for some part of their
life cycle. It is becoming clear that the survival of our fisheries is dependent on the management of not just
the catch, but the habitats. Lack of management and overfishing have led to the decimation of several
species, including Nassau groupers, yellowfin groupers and queen conch.
Based on fishermen interviews and statistics, there is clearly a decline of local reef fish stocks. This has
had a huge impact on the primary fishery, i.e., the trap fishery. This has resulted in an increase in the number
of traps set and a decrease in the average size of fish caught. The removal of pre-spawning fish from the
population can quickly destroy a fishery. In addition the conch and lobsters population is declining,
especially inshore. Once abundant inshore, they are now pursued at depths of 40-100 feet. The net
fishermen also state that there are not as many pelagic species, those that school and migrate around the
islands. The average fish size has also declined and more importantly, most fish observed are immature
How do we address this serious problem? One measure that will help assist suffering fisheries is marine
fishery reserves. Marine fishery reserves, areas where fishing is permanently prohibited, offer potential
to reduce overfishing while promoting conservation of fish communities and their ecosystems. Their
rationale is that they will maintain or enhance fish yields in the remaining fishing grounds by protecting a
stock within the reserve. Reserves may enhance catches through adults that grow larger in the reserve
and then migrate to fishing areas or through enhanced recruitment in fishing areas due to increased
reproductive output from the reserve. Either way, reserves can protect the ecosystem within them from
damaging fishing practices and have the potential to reestablish a natural ecosystem balance.
In the Virgin Islands, the Department of Planning and Natural Resources has established such an area
in St. Thomas. The Cas Cay/Mangrove Lagoon Marine Reserve and Sanctuary was established in 1995.
No fishing is allowed in this area. On St. Croix, the Salt River Marine Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary has
been designated as a fishery reserves. DPNR officials hope to develop rules and regulations within the next
The establishment of marine reserves is necessary but more must be done if we are to save our dwindling
fisheries. Pollution, both land and sea-based, must be controlled. Vital habitats such as mangroves,
seagrass and coral reefs must be carefully monitored and protected. Additional regulations of fishing gear,
numbers of fishermen, catch size and enforcement may have to be implemented. Of course, educational
programs to increase awareness of our natural resources and their importance is essential.
Beets, J. 1987. Profile of a Collapsing Fishery: I & V. In Fisheries in Crises. St. Thomas, Conference
Proceeding, Govt. of the VI, Dept. of Planning and Natural Resources. Denton Moore, editor.
Fiedler, R.H. and N.D. Jarvis. 1932. Fisheries in the Virgin Islands of the US. Washington, D.C. US
Bureau of Fisheries, Investigational Report Number 14.
Pizzini, M. V. 1992. Social Impact Assessment on the Shallow-water Reeffish, Queen Conch and
Coral Fishery Management Plans. A report submitted to the Caribbean Fishery Management Council.
Tobias, W. 1987. Profile of a Collapsing Fishery: II. Fisheries in Crises. St. Thomas, Conference
Proceedings, Govt. of the VI, DPNR, Denton Moore, editor.
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Compliments of f I
Always ask Engine Diagnostics &
br Coope Air Conditioning BATTERY
*Shocks & Batteries Tune-ups
Brake Repairs Oil & Lube
SQueen Mary Highway Sion Farm
773-4997 Rt.75 & Cormorant Turn-off
Never Underestimate the Value of Trees
Arthur C. Petersen Jr., Ph.D.
Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
Chairman of the Board of Directors
Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands
and Frank L. Francois
Coordinator, Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Program
Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
I knowthat this is not Arbor Day, but with the frequency of hurricanes and the damage they cause to trees,
I am left to reflect on the value of trees to oursociety, our countryside and our towns. Trees growing within
towns, neighborhoods, and communities are called "urban trees" and, collectively, theyform what is known
as the "urban forest." Urban trees require special attention because they are expected to exist within the
urban environment, an environment which is often dissimilarto their natural habitats. With its infrastructure
of streets, sidewalks, curbs, buried utilities, overhead powerlines and buildings, the urban environment
places tremendous stress on trees. With proper care, trees become assets that grow in value overtime.
Without care, however, tree values decline, eventually becoming liabilities to the community and often
depreciating the value of surrounding properties.
The value of an urban tree can be measured either aesthetically, historically, socially, financially,
environmentally, or by any combination of these factors. However, people seldom perceive value as strictly
aesthetic or monetary. In a community, public spending on tree care and management reflects the value
the community places on its trees. Sadly, there is a pattern of minimal spending here that is allowed to go
unchallenged, especially among an informed public, which indicates the value our local people associate
with trees in the Virgin Islands.
Trees are arranged primarily by their measurability, and different values can be placed on them. Most
people value trees from an aesthetic point of view. The aesthetic value of trees can be very rewarding
because it can uplift the human spirit. For example, patients who have undergone surgery, tend to
recuperate much faster and require less pain-killing medicine if they can see a grove of trees than similar
patients who view only the walls of the hospital room.
The social value of trees from a school or neighborhood tree-planting program can generate community
identity, unity, and cooperation among the participants. This type of program can foster a network of
neighborhood-protective societies and community gardens.
Trees provide important symbolic links with the past. Living trees that are associated with important
events take on historical values unrelated to aesthetics or usefulness. For example, the Grove Place
community in St. Croix has the famous baobab tree that shaded the deliberations of the community's
founders and continues to shade today's community leaders. That tree or its parent seeds were probably
brought from West Africa by slaves. If historictrees are threatened by changes, such as new buildings and
street widening, the issue will usually be settled by public pressure, not by market forces. For instance,
the mahogany trees were at one time threatened by road-widening on Queen Mary Highway, but
were protected by a very active environmental group, the St. Croix Environmental Association and
the St. Croix Community at large. The placement of traffic lights and other highway fixtures had to be modified
to allow the planting of new trees before the process was allowed to continue.
Trees are also of environmental value. Trees contribute to the quality of our environment by modifying
local climates, reducing air and noise pollution, protecting the soil from erosion, and increasing the soil's
With climate control, trees help moderate the "heat island" effect and greatly increase human comfort,
indoors or out. For example, on hot days, trees pump hundreds of gallons of water through their foliage.
This evaporates and keeps the tree and its immediate surroundings cool.
Air pollution control is another way that trees improve the urban environment. Trees are fairly effective
at removing both solid and gaseous particulate matters from the air. In one study, stands of trees reduced
particulates by 9 to 13 percent, and the amount of dust reaching the ground was 27 to 42 percent less under
a stand of trees than in an open area.
In addition, noise pollution from highways and other sources can be reduced by trees. Used alone, trees
planted in belts 35 to 100 feet wide create noticeable reductions in noise pollution.
Trees further conserve our precious water resources by reducing water runoff and help to prevent soil
erosion. Along waterguts, roots and fallen leaves hold the soil together and shield it against the cutting forces
of surface water. Vegetation also absorbs some of the force of falling rain, so soil particles are not dislodged.
The leaf litter that accumulates undertrees creates an environment for other organisms that help maintain
As a financial asset, fruit trees are very well known to provide some livelihood and, in situations where
income is limited, afew mango, apple or coconuttrees make tremendous difference to senior citizens,
Trees, therefore, are very valuable and extremely important to our ecosystem and our community
because we cannot survive on this planet Earth without them. Let us all learn to protect, care and respect
a safe, happy and educational Fair
LOOK WHAT YOU MISSED
AT AGRIFEST 1997
The best of the bunch.
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Pigs playing peek-a-boo at the Fair. Exhibit courtesy of Cecil Smith's farm.
Partners In Change
Program Leader, Home Economics
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
With welfare reform now a reality in the Virgin Islands, it becomes increasingly more important
that all territorial organizations and groups form a partnership to particularly help our single parent
families and individuals affected move from dependence to self-sufficiency within the next two years.
The 1990 VI Census reflects 23.2% of the population are persons under the Federal poverty level
in the territory. There are 9,815 single-parent families of which 7,693 are headed by women. As the
Department of Human Services Commissioner stated in her presentations to the VI 21st Legislature,
the Chamber of Commerce, and other community based organizations, "welfare reform is not an easy
process; it has become a reality perhaps at the worst time when our VI economy is at its worst,
however, hopefully in 1998 and 1999 the economy will have improved."
Moving thousands of single parent families and individuals from welfare to self-sufficiency involve
the creation of and availability of jobs that can adequately support a single parent family with children.
Short courses such as the American Sign Language provide individuals with marketable skills that will help
them to be self sufficient.
the VI Housing Authority, the Department of Education, and the Department of Human Services, is
perhaps the way to go to try to close the circle of poverty in the territory.
To this end, the UVI Cooperative Extension Service Home Economics Program hope to implement
To this end, the UVI Cooperative Extension Service Home Economics Program hope to implement
several programs in collaboration with other community based groups to help prepare single parents
and others for self-sufficiency.
Some of the programs will include: sixto eight weeks Job Training & Career Development Program
with the Department of Labor (adaptation of the Women at the Crossroads Curriculum); conduct a 4
months survey in cooperation with the Virgin Islands Chronic Disease Center & the St. Croix Chapter
of the Diabetes Association (DAVI); this volunteer program will train volunteers in conducting surveys
with households randomly sampled and stipends will be provided. Conduct workshops and short
courses in parenting, money management, clothing construction, American Sign Language, marketable
skills, life skills, child development and day care center operation,check writing and food safety.
Beginners and intermediate clothing construction classes are taught by Mrs. Rosalind
Browne, UVI-CES Extension Assistant.
Keep in mind, that not only the poor and low income families are affected by welfare reform, but
noncitizens household, particularly the elderly, and disabled will also be affected. Consequently, we
ask each person in this community (churches, government agencies, civic organizations, businesses,
etc.) to lend a hand to save "our children" and the institution of the family by bridging the gap between
dependence and self-sufficiency, financially support a program, mentor parents and children, provide
in-kind service like the use of conference rooms, union halls, or business facilities to host activities,
We can do it! We must do it! for the sake of our Virgin Islands families.
Department of Human Resources Commissioner's Presentation to the 12th Pre-Legislative Conference,
December 6, 1996.
"Women Outnumber Men in VI-Census," The St. Croix Avis, Sun/Mon, November 3-4, 1991, No. 256.
Federal Poverty Level in the Territory.
DEALS ON WHEELS
N THE BACK!
Food Slavery: BreakYour Chains!
Alice V. Henry, MPH, RD
Extension Specialist-Foods and Nutrition
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
The theme for this year's Fair includes the word "servitude." Consider your eating habits; are you a slave
to them or do they serve you?
Now, what do I mean by this? To answer, first ask yourself why you eat. Your response should include
something similar to "the nourishment of the body to enable it to function on a daily basis and to prevent the
onset of disease." However, many individuals eat for unhealthy reasons and have become slaves to food.
Examples include depression, addiction and psychological disorders such as anorexia or bulimia. Other
examples of food slavery include eating the wrong types of foods: too much fat, too much alcohol, or simply
too much food, period.
It's not too late to make a 1998 resolution to "Let Food Serve You." The following article examines three
food components that have been shown to have health benefits that may prevent or delay the onset of certain
diseases. Please note that no single food component can take the place of eating a healthy balanced diet.
The key is to examine all foods and increase your consumption of the healthiest types.
The Phytochemicals ("Fight-O-What?")
Phytochemicals are compounds in plants that are believed to decrease the likelihood of cancerous tumor
formations. Their actions include inhibition of nitrosamine formation (nitrosamines promote tumorformations),
the dilution and binding of cancer causing agents in the digestive tract, and the assistance in the formation
of tumor resisting agents.
The names of these "fight-o-chemicals" are also a mouthful: dithiolthiones, flavonoids and glucosinolate,
to name a few. Don't fret. Just remember where they are found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, soy
products, and herbs (e.g., parsley, chives, garlic and ginger). Here are some tips for getting more
phytochemicals into your system:
* Look in the supermarket for jars of chopped garlic, ginger and basil. You'll be more likely to add them to
whatever you're cooking if you don't have to peel and chop.
* Start an herb garden. Add fresh herbs to everything from your salads to the main course.
* Don't toss out those lemon, lime and orange peels without grating the zest. Add it to recipes for extra
* Last, but not least, eat the recommended 5 servings per day of fruits and/or vegetables.
The Double H Connection (Herbs and Health)
Ask different dietitians what their views are of herbs in relation to nutrition and you'll either get a stimulating
discussion or a glazed -over look of exasperation. I am of the former persuasion. In fact, slowly but surely,
Western medical professionals are learning the value of "natural" healing properties in herbs.
One herb of choice now is Echinacea (especially E. pupurea). There are many studies (mostly
European, but some Western) showing the immune boosting, antibiotic and antiviral properties of this plant.
Other herbs that are gaining popularity in Western culture are the following:
* Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum). Studies have found this plant to have liver-protective properties.
It enhances metabolism of liver cells and provides protection from toxic injuries. Cancer patients
undergoing chemotherapy and patients with chronic hepatitis have had positive effects from using
this herbal remedy.
* St. John's Wort not "Wart" (Hypericum peforatum). This herb has become so popular in the States that
health food stores can't keep it on the shelves. Its anti-depressant properties have been well-documented
and it is becoming known as "Natural Prozac." Noticeable effects take approximately two months with
* Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis). This is a plant from the carrot family. It is sometimes referred to as the
"woman's herb." It is useful for women who experience irregular or difficult menstruation cycles. In
Chinese practice, it is used for both men and women to improve circulation.
* Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Authentic Ginseng products are expensive since the
roots take years to develop before they can be harvested. The active components are called
eleutherosides. Unless the product you are using specifies its eleutheroside content, be suspicious -
you are probably not getting the real thing. Both animal and human studies have documented its stress-
protective and immune-enhancing properties.
My advice on herbs is simple, but necessary. Do not listen to hearsay when using herbs; read valid books
or consult a reputable herbalist/naturopath. Two good books by Varro E. Tyler, Ph.D. are Herbs of Choice
and The Honest Herbal. Also, if you are buying herbs in supplement or tincture form, make sure that the
product is standardized (it will be labeled if it is). This means that the product has the same amount of the
essential ingredient in each capsule, pill, or measured dose.
Antioxidants ("But I need to breathe!")
No...not anti-oxygen...antioxidants. Antioxidants affect our bodies like a good rust-proof coating affects
a metal pipe. In simple terms, they prevent damage to our cells. Nothing will prevent the inevitable
breakdown of our cells from the wear and tear of life (a metal pipe will not last forever); however, antioxidants
provide added protection.
Vitamins A,C, E, beta-carotene, selenium and zinc act as antioxidants. Different antioxidants have been
found to affect different disease processes in our bodies. For example, while Vitamins C and E do not seem
to protect against breast cancer, a low intake of Vitamin A may increase the risk. On the other hand, beta-
carotene and Vitamins E and C seem to protect against gastric cancer. Of 170 studies reviewed, 132 have
found antioxidants to be protective against various cancers, 6 found them to be harmful, and 34 found no
Before increasing your intake of foods containing these components, consider your family history. If you
are at a high risk for breast cancer, perhaps you may want to consider increasing your intake of Vitamin A.
However, as with herbs, too much of a good thing may prove toxic. For instance, Vitamin C in high dosages
can disturb bowel function and also create a false-positive test for sugar. Two good books to read on this
subject are Antioxidant Revolution by Kenneth H. Cooper and Antioxidant Nutrition by Rita Green and
As you can see, there is more to good nutrition than the "Basic 4" of long ago. My challenge to you is to
examine your eating habits. Make small incremental changes to see big long-term results. Let food be your
American Institute for Cancer Research. "Feast on Phytochemicals." Newsletter 51, 1996.
Green, R., and R. Woodward. 1996. Antioxidant Nutrition. Independent Publishers Group.
Mahan, L.K., and S.E. Stump. 1996. Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy (9th ed.). W. B. Sunders Company.
Tyler, V.E. 1994. Herbs of Choice. Pharmaceutical Products Press.
H. Wagner, H. Hikino, and N.R. Farnsworth, eds., Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Volume 1. For
Siberian Ginseng: pp 155-215. For Milk Thistle: pp. 39-72.
Weil, Andrew. 1997. 8 Weeks to Optimum Health. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Yoshiro, K. 1985. "The Physiological Actions of Tang-Kuei (Dong Quai) and Cnidium," Bulletin of the
Oriental Healing Arts Institute USA, vol. 10 pp. 269-78.
Jason Budsan of Caribbean Herbals with a wonderful display of locally made herbs.
4-G ~on Farm
Island Dairies Milk is 100% pure milk,
directly from the cows.
(1/2 pints, quarts, 1/2 gallons, 6 gallon)
Reduced Fat (2%)
11/ 2 pint, 10 oz., 1/2 gallon)
aCE CREAM (4 oz., pint, quart, 1/2 gallon, 21/2 gallon)
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CORN HILL FARM ................................ HENRY NELTHROPP
MON BIJOU FARM ...ESTELLE & LINDA SKOV MORALES
MOUNTAIN MINT FARM....................RICHARD RIDGWAY
SIGHT FARM.........................................CHARLES SCHUSTER
WINDSOR FARM .......................................ST. CROIX DAIRY .
HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCING
ISLAND DAIRIES FRESH MILK
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.
"The Best is Fresh
"From the farm to the store in
"Milk is not wine; it does not
improve with age. Imported
milk can be weeks old when it
reaches the Virgin Islands."
Milk -- What A Surprise!
Agriculture & Natural Resources Program
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
Milk. From our first day on this earth,
this substance has played a part in our
lives, and those of all mankind. King
Solomon decreed, "Thou shalt have milk for
thy food, for the food of thy household, and d6
for the food of thy maidens," and in the Bible,
the promised land was referred to as "a land '
flowing with milk and honey." Throughout
time, the value of milk has been recognized
and science has now revealed exactly .
what we have known in our hearts for
Milk has been touted as the most nearly -'
perfect food. Although liquid in form, it t .. "
contains an average of 13% solids, .0 :'
comprised of protein, carbohydrates, fats,
minerals, and vitamins. "The protein in one X
quart of milk is approximately equivalent to
that in 5 oz. of meat or fish, 5 large eggs, 4
oz. of American or Cheddar cheese or 16
slices of bread." These milk proteins
contain all of the essential amino acids in
appreciable amounts. The fat in milk is an abundant source of Vitamin A, so important to good eyesight.
Originally from Europe, the dairy cow has come a long way to the New World. Columbus, realizing the
importance of the cow, brought cattle with him on his second voyage to the Americas. Since that time,
dairying has grown and become a significant part of economies in both the United States and the West
Indies, especially that of the Virgin Islands. Currently, dairy farmers in the Virgin Islands are milking an
average of 400 cows twice daily. The milk produced is then transported to and processed at our local dairy
plant. This is St. Croix Dairy Products, Inc.(commonly known as Island Dairies). The University of the
Virgin Islands Extension Service works closely with the dairy farmers through the use of the Dairy Herd
Improvement Program (DHIP). With this program, the University staff monitor the production of the cows
in the herds and assist with herd management and records. Because of this service, the St. Croix dairy
farmers have been able to increase their production and St. Croix Dairy Products, Inc., which processes
the milk, packages 45,500 quarts of fresh fluid milk per week, not to mention 7,000 quarts of ice cream.
The dairy farmers in the Virgin Islands, and most of the dairymen in the United States use the Holstein-
Friesian (or Holstein) breed of cattle. These are the big black and white cows that we see all over our islands.
One type of Holstein even comes in red and white. They originally came from Friesland in the Netherlands
and are known for producing large amounts of milk per cow. Other breeds that are used for dairy are the
Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire, and the Brown Swiss. All of these breeds originated in the British Isles except
for the Brown Swiss, which comes from Switzerland. Although all breeds of cattle produce milk, these
five breeds have been selected for years for milk production and, therefore, give more milk daily than the
other breeds. This makes them the logical choice for farmers that depend on large volumes of milk for
Good management is essential in order to assure substantial milk production in a herd. Milk production
doesn't just happen. The first step is to have a healthy animal. Dairy farmers work very hard to maintain
their animals in the peak of good health. Working closely with veterinarians, they strive to prevent health
problems before they occur. This is because sick animals require medication to regain their health and,
since these medications can be passed on into the milk, milk from medicated animals cannot and is not
sold. This affects the farmer's income. Therefore, it is to his benefit to keep the animals healthy so that
they don't need medicine. This healthy cow must then produce a calf in order to give milk. This step takes
nine months. When the cow calves, she produces a first milk called "colostrum." This milk contains all
of the antibodies (disease fighters) that her calf needs to get a good start in life. Dairymen leave the calf
with the cow for up to one week to ensure that the calf gets this valuable milk. After that time, the calf is
fed separately with a bottle until it is old enough to eat solid food and doesn't need milk anymore. The
reason that the farmer separates the calf from the cow is so that he can assure that he has milk to sell.
Romoval of the milk from the cow.
The calf is so efficient at milking out the cow, that there would be no milk left for the farmer. Also, by feeding
the calf with a bottle, the farmer can make sure that the calf is getting the right amount of food. The cow
is milked for about 9-10 months, given a two-month breather where she "dries off' (gives no milk) and
should then calve again a year after the last calving. This will start the milk flow again and the cycle
repeats. A cow can produce, on average, 40-60 pounds of milk per day.
Some dairy farmers do not raise cattle as their milk producers. These farmers raise dairy goats. Goat
milk is very easy to digest and many people that are allergic to cows' milk can drink goat milk with no
problems. Overall, the composition of goat milk as compared to cows' milk is very similar. A goat at her
peak can produce up to 20 pounds of milk per day. The goat is milked for 10 months, then given 2 months
off before she kids (has her baby) and starts the cycle again. The primary breeds of goats used to produce
milk in the United States are the Saanen and Toggenburg, from Switzerland, the French Alpine from France,
and the Anglo-Nubian from England. The most highly populated countries in Asia and Africa can account
for 70% of the world's goat population.
All mammals produce milk to provide nourishment for their young. All warm-blooded animals give milk,
from the smallest mouse to the huge whales, including humans. The act of giving milk is called lactation.
The mammary gland manufactures the milk and it is removed from the body through the teat. Animals have
from two to ten mammary glands, each with its own teat, depending on the type of animal. Goats have two
teats and cattle have four. In most animals that are used for milk production, the mammary gland is called
Milk is such an important part of the world diet that extensive research has gone into its processing and
marketing. Standard procedures have been set up for milk collection and processing to ensure that a
wholesome product reaches your refrigerator. The basic steps are: 1)Removal of the milk from the cow,
2)Handling of the milk on the farm, 3)Transportation of the milk to the dairy plant, 4)Handling and processing
of the milk at the dairy plant, 5)Packaging the final product, and 6)Transportation to point of sale and Sale.
Milk can be removed from the udder in several ways. The baby animals remove the milk by squeezing
the teat against the roof of their mouth with their tongue while they suck as if on a straw. This simultaneously
forces and pulls the milk out of the udder, into their mouth. Man has used both of the baby's techniques to
obtain the milk. With hand-milking, the teat is held between hand and fingers and squeezed over a bucket
or other receptacle. This works like the baby's tongue and forces the milk out. This is a long and tiring
process, however, so large dairymen use milking machines. These machines use the other technique and
employ a vacuum to draw the milk out of the udder. A device called a milking claw is attached to the animal's
udder with the suction of the vacuum. The milking claw consists of teat cups (2 for goats, 4 for cattle) and
a small reservoir. The teat cups have rubber liners that fit snugly to the animals teat. These liners then have
the vacuum pressure alternately applied and released which draws the milk out of the udder and into the
small reservoir. The milk then passes from the milking claw via a tube, pipeline and a filter, to remove any
impurities, to the large bulk tank in the main milk room of the dairy farm. The bulk tank cools the milk quickly
and gently stirs it to keep the cream from separating out. The milk stays in the bulk tank until the truck from
the dairy plant arrives to take it to the processing plant. The truck is refrigerated and strict sanitation is
observed so that the milk is not spoiled or contaminated during its trip to the plant. When the milk arrives
at the plant, it is unloaded into another bulk holding tank until the processing begins.
Douglas Sign Co.
CUSTOM SIGN SERVICE
Douglas & Joan Miner
109-113 Castle Coakley
St. Croix, VI 00820
Vinyl Letters "To Go"
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I I I I I.
UVI RESEARCH &
~~1 --I -I_
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS' COMMUNITY
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Pink Mealybug on St. Croix and its Control
Jozef Keularts, Ph.D.
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
The Pink Mealybug was first confirmed on St. Croix in June 1997. Since then, the pest has been
reported at numerous locations to the west of Estate Upper Love, as well as in isolated pockets in Sunny
Isle, and Estates La Reine, Sion Farm and Catherine's Rest.
The Pink Mealybug attacks a very large number of plants. The most obvious are soursop, sugar apple,
and hibiscus. Fruit trees, such as the carambola, mango, avocado, ackee, citrus and vegetables e.g., bean,
cabbage, cucumber, dasheen, okra, tannia, tomato, and many ornamentals and weeds are also hosts to
Like many other mealybugs, the Pink Mealybug has white waxy patches on the affected plant. It may be
near the growing tip of branches and also on the main stem or trunk of plants and on the fruits. Only the eggs
and very young mealybugs are pink.
The mealybug, because of its white appearance, can be mistaken for other, less damaging pests. The
Department of Agriculture and the University of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service can
provide assistance in identifying the mealybug.
There are several ways to control the infestation on the plants. Control in the early stages of infestation
is much easier than trying to save heavily infested plants. Check host plants frequently for early signs of
infestation. The most visible sign is a distortion/twisting of the new leaves.
WHAT YOU CAN DO:
Keep ALL infested plants in good health by providing them with as much water as possible, fertilizing them
on a regular basis, and pruning off the affected branch tips (usually not more than 3-4 inches). Do NOT prune
shrubs back to a few inches from the ground; if this method is used most of the leaves must be removed
to restore the infected plant.
Report all infestations to the Department of Agriculture or the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
Reporting the infestation will place your site on the list for possible release sites of parasitic wasps. these
wasps, about the size of sugar ants, do NOT sting people or animals and are very efficient in finding and
killing the Pink Mealybug. The wasps are currently reared in St. Thomas by the Department of Agriculture
with the assistance of USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and USDA Agriculture
Research Service (ARS). The time between first release and complete recovery of the affected plants may
be as long as 9 months. In the first months after wasp release, the plants will continue to get worse. Keeping
plants well-watered and fertilized during this period is essential for their survival. It is also very important
that NO other control methods are applied to these plants. This may interfere with the action of the wasp.
Once the parasitic wasp has become established, the mealybug problem will be solved permanently. The
wasps will spread and after a number of months can be found in an area within 3 miles from the site of release.
Heavily infested plants may need release of ladybugs for them to be saved. The most effective ladybug
for this purpose is the so-called "Mealybug destroyer." All shipments of ladybugs to the Virgin Islands need
to be approved by the Department of Agriculture. If you feel your plants are in bad shape, contact the
Department of Agriculture to find out whether your place would be a good candidate for ladybug release.
If the infestation is found to be bad enough, you can purchase the ladybug (you have to bear the cost:
approximately $500 for 5000 ladybugs the smallest number you may purchase) yourself or together
with others in the same situation. The insects will be shipped to the Department of Agriculture which
will make the release at the approved site (s). Once the wasps are released on a site, no ladybugs can
be released there since these ladybugs will affect the wasps. The ladybugs will reduce the mealybug
population in about six weeks and are then likely to leave your site to look for "better pastures." The
mealybug population may increase again when that happens. Wasps which are released when this
happens or which enter your area from a place near you where they were released earlier will finally
provide permanent control.
There are a number of pesticides available which may provide some control of the mealybug.
Applying pesticides for Pink Mealybug control, however, is NOT recommended. Most do not provide
control good enough for the plant to completely recover. The pesticide has to be applied on a regular
basis, most likely for a long time, which makes it a very expensive undertaking.
The ONLY long-term control of the Pink Mealybug will be through natural control by the parasitic
wasps. For more information on the Pink Mealybug, visit the Department of Agriculture and ask for a
copy of the publication "The Pink Mealybug in the Caribbean."
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Ir flaxr I
THE BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA
Serving the St. Croix community for more than
25 years with a wide range of
Personal and Commercial Services.
* Personal Loans
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* Savings and Checking Accounts
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* Safety Deposit Boxes
Our Sunshine Mall Branch is open
Monday-Wednesday: 9:00 a.m. 3:00 p.m.
Thursday- Friday: 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Saturday: 9:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m.
43 King St.
16 Strand St.
Breeders of Senepol Cattl
ANNALY FARMS INC.
(The Meat Market)
"Get your beef from the source"
(Local and U.S. Choice)
Pork a Chicken o Fish a Vegetables
Quality at low prices
.Estate Upper Love RT#72
S, Monday Friday 8:00 5:30, Saturday 8:00 3:00
President Tel. 778-9308
1998 Agriculture & Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
farmers, fishermen, cooks and craftsmen
who keep our
agricultural heritage alive!
J A IrC '
Worlds Of Service
FOR ALL YOUR TRANSPORTATION NEEDS. CALL US TODAY!
FULL CONTAINER LOADS
LESS THAN CONTAINER LOAD SPECIALISTS
St. Croix (809)778-8767
St. Thomas (809)776-8767
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DEPARTS PORT OF PALM BEACH. FLORIDA
Wednesday and Friday
CARGO ARRIVAL IN ST. CROIX
Monday and Tuesday
Miami LCL Receiving:
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Opa Locka. Fl. 33054-4543
General Manager St. Croix
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4 East Port Road
Riviera Beach. Fl. 33404-6902
FOR MORE INFORMATION. CALL YOUR LOCAL
TROPICAL SHIPPING REPRESENTATIVE OR TOLL FREE 1(800)367-6200
"AGRICULTURE: A BRIDGE FROM SERVITUDE TO FREEDOM"
*150 YEARS OF EMANCIPATION*
I LoatdonNot S hr
^ ^JfTd m
SWEET POTATO BREAD
Boil potatoes in skin; peel, mash, then cool.
cup mashed sweet potatoes
pkg. dry yeast
cups warm water
In small bowl soften yeast in 1/2 cup water and
1 teaspoon sugar; let sit for 5 minutes.
ACCELYN T. MORTON JULIE I. MORTON
A step above the rest
SVillage Mall 113 Barren Spot
P.O. Box 6227
Sunny Isle, St Croix Telephone:
U.S. Virgin Islands, 00823 (809) 778-2002
In large bowl add 2 cups warm water
to shortening, sugar, salt, 2 cups flour
and mashed sweet potatoes. Add
yeast mixture; beat for 2 minutes;
cover and set to rise.
Gradually add 5-1/2 cups of flour in 3
parts, beating well after each addition
(about 3 minutes). Add balance of
flour to form a stiff dough; knead until
Place in greased bowl, grease top of
dough; cover and let rise until double
in bulk. Punch down; set to rise for a
second time. Shape into 2 loaves
and place into a greased pan. Let rise
until double in size.
Bake at 3750 F. until done (test by
tapping lightly on the loaf; if the loaf
sounds hollow, it is done).
(2 ViaiMge Ma/ #16
Custom Frming Craft Supples Artit Material
Located in Bns Spot oppodta Stbaiy
submitted by the Virgin Islands Energy Office
The word "emancipation" invokes varied emotions and opinions and is achievable in diverse ways.
Physical emancipation is to liberate one's self from physical bondage. Mental emancipation- to liberate the
mind from oppression. There is yet another, relatively unknown form of emancipation- energy emancipation.
On the eve of the 150th anniversary of the emancipation of Africans from bondage in the former Danish West
Indies, we must examine how truly emancipated we have become.
On this journey to complete emancipation, we normally consider the reliance placed on the work and
social environment. Seldom do we ponder the reliance placed on energy and how that reliance prevents
us from achieving complete emancipation. Depending on conventional sources of energy, like fossil fuels
used in power plants, chains us to forces out of our immediate control and limits our financial freedom.
Energy emancipation provides the freedom to produce and consume electrical and mechanical energy
in a manner that preserves the natural environment and at the same time provides financial freedom. During
the past 150 years, the agricultural sector in the Virgin Islands has moved from producing its own energy
to becoming dependent on conventional sources.
In the early 1800's, sugar cane dominated the Danish West Indies economy. Cattle drove tower windmills
to extract the juice from crushed sugar cane. Until steam energy was introduced around 1950, this form of
energy production prevailed. Beginning around 1950, sugar cane farmers began burning the cane husk to
produce steam which drove the cane crusher and extracted the juice. By the end of the decade, sugar cane
was no longer a viable cash crop. Subsequently, agriculture in the Virgin Islands waned and was replaced
by tourism and heavy industry.
While agriculture may not be a major sector today, there are many people in the Virgin Islands who farm
as a means toward achieving complete emancipation. Yet many do not take advantage of the many
renewable energy and energy efficient agricultural technologies available. Drip irrigation systems, for
example, provide substantial efficiency benefits in the form of water and time. Energy efficient greenhouses
reduce water consumption. Other applications include solar crop drying which utilize the sun's energy to
dry food, hydroponics, and solar distillation.
The main goal of the Virgin Islands Energy Office (VIEO) now is to now change the perception regarding
renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Conventional technologies are polluting, wasteful, and
costly in the long-run. In order to create and maintain a healthy environment, a commitment must be made
to the proliferation of cleaner technologies that provide long-term, permanent benefits. Energy must occupy
a crucial role in our planning and progress toward the future.
The Virgin Islands Energy Office is the United States Virgin Islands' principal energy planning organization
and, as such, is responsible for the planning, administration and coordination of all applicable U.S.
Department of Energy grant programs.
Because of its geographic location, the USVI has long promoted the use of renewable energy
technologies and for the past seven years has developed a number of program initiatives to encourage and
promote renewable energy use and development. Renewable Energy Program Initiatives have included:
Ten photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping projects
PV powered community street lights
PV powered reverse osmosis water purification system
PV powered water pumping and lights system for Veterans' Park (Frederiksted)
PV powered refrigeration system for public health clinic
Wind powered water pumping system
Erection of resource assessment sites in each insular district to measure solar irradiance
and wind speed
In addition to demonstration and lighting projects, the VIEO also has financial incentives for residents
wanting to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy into their homes or businesses. Currently,
the VIEO offers money back on the purchase of photovoltaic panels and solar water heaters. Residents
can get $3/per watt on a photovoltaic panel, and up to $700 back on the purchase of a solar water heater.
Also, the VIEO, in conjunction with the Virgin Islands Community Bank, now offers, for a limited time,
subsidized energy loans. Loan amounts range from $2,500 to $25,000 to be borrowed for energy
conservation and/or renewable energy projects; the VIEO pays 50% of the interest finance charges. Drip
irrigation, photovoltaic water pumping systems, and greenhouses are some eligible farm projects.
For additional information you may contact the:
Virgin Islands Energy Office
200 Strand Street
Frederiksted, USVI 00840
(340) 772-2616, fax (340) 772-0063
Do not allow gasoline powered yard equipment to idle for long periods. Turn off the equipment when you finish
one job and restart it when you're ready to resume work.
The 55 mph limit is best for gas conservation. Every five miles per hour faster than 50 miles per hour costs
you an extra gallon.
Practical Hints on the Care and I .
Management of Sheep and A : "
Goats for the Beginner
Extension Program Supervisor-Livestock
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
If you have a few acres of land not being fully utilized or
you are engaged in small scale or part-time farming, you .,
might be able to raise sheep and goats to supplement your .I
income or provide fresh meat for your family. Unlike other . --
livestock, sheep and goats require less labor, low-cost
housing and equipment. This means you can start small and expand when you feel comfortable with what
you are doing. As the size of your flock increases, you will need to get more information on how to produce
and manage sheep and goats. Therefore, keep in touch with us at the UVI Cooperative Extension Service,
and we will provide you with all the information you need.
1. Goats can be selected for milk or meat production. This is your choice, but in the Virgin Islands most
farmers use the Nubian breed for milk production and crosses of these for meat.
2. In the tropics, hair sheep should be selected. Wool sheep do not thrive in the tropics because their hot
coat makes them uncomfortable. In the Virgin Islands, the most common sheep breeds utilized are the
Virgin Islands White Hair, the Barbados Black Belly and the native creole crosses.
1. Replacement does and ewes should be the largest and strongest offspring for the year. Size and
conformation must be maintained by using healthy and thrifty replacement females.
2. Give multiple births high priority in selection. Also select replacements from does and ewes that kid or
lamb twice a year.
3. Males selected for breeding should be large in size, vigorous, aggressive and true to type. The ability
of the ram or buck to grow rapidly from birth to weaning is essential.
4. Castrate all young males not intended for selection as breeding males. Separate potential breeding
males for final selection. This prevents the young males from harassing the females and interfering with
the breeding program.
1. Do not breed father to daughter, mother to son or brother to sister. Inbreeding of these relationships
reduces the size and quality of the offspring.
2. Trade herd sires with your neighbor every two years, if possible. This will help to prevent inbreeding.
3. Cross-breed local Creole animals with exotic breeds, such as Nubian in goats and Barbados black belly
in sheep to obtain hybrid vigor, faster growth and greater feed efficiency.
4. Another alternative is to contact the UVI Cooperative Extension Service Agriculture and Natural
Resources Program who can help you locate good breed sires in your area through the Breeders
1. The estrous cycle is the length of time between periods in which females will stand for the sire. In sheep,
the estrous cycle averages about 17 days (14-21); in goats it averages about 21 days (18-21). The periods
in which the female will stand are called the estrus (heat) periods. The estrus period for sheep is 24 to 36
hours; for goats, it is 28 (24-50) hours.
2. Gestation period is the period during which an animal carries its young. Both sheep and goats carry
their young approximately 147 days or 5 months.
1. During periods of drought, all animals need additional feed supplement. Grass pasture during this period
is very low in protein and other valuable nutrients. Therefore, feed about a 14% protein diet, 1/2 a pound per
animal per day.
2. Feed requirement increases in female carrying young, and it is particularly right in females nursing
offspring. Therefore, increase feed supplement for pregnant and lactating females.
3. Salt and mineral supplement should always be made available to the animals.
SANITATION & DISEASE CONTROL
1. Clean water should always be available to your livestock.
2. Pen manure should be removed in order to help reduce disease problems. Spread manure on your
garden to increase soil fertility.
3. Rotate your pastures for pasture improvement and for the control of internal parasites.
4. Work out a schedule with your local veterinarian to control internal parasites that affect sheep and goats.
5. Spray all animals at least twice a year to control external parasites such as lice and ticks.
6. When feeding cut grass or green chop, build the feeder two to three feet off the ground to avoid
contamination of feed.
SHELTER & PASTURE
1. Fencing should be of the regular woven type suitable for sheep and goats at least 48" high with wires
(i.e., the vertical wires) no wider than 6" apart. Posts should be 61/2 feet long and set 2 /2 feet in the ground.
2. Pens should be well-ventilated, well-drained and easy to clean. They should be strong enough to keep
animals in and keep predatory animals out. These pens should be of adequate size for the flock to bed-
down without crowding, yet, not too large to allow room for running around when it becomes necessary to
catch and otherwise handle your flock.
3. Sheep and goats need shelter from excessive sun and rain. You can provide shade for your animals
by planting a few trees in your pasture. New-born young need to be kept dry and out of the sun.
1. Animals suffer pain if they are not handled properly. When catching them, grasp around the neck with
one arm and on the rump with the other. In this position, animals can be steered or pushed easily in the
direction which you want them to go.
2. Animals should be properly transported so that they do not choke or hang and do not pile upon each
other in the truck and, thereby, suffocate.
3. When worming animals to control parasites, use care to prevent excitement.
4. Dehorn animals to prevent injuries to yourself and to others.
1. Recordkeeping is an important part of sheep and goat management. Records do not have to be elaborate
and time consuming; but purchases of feed, animal, etc., and sales receipts need to be kept. Birth dates
and number of offspring will identify superior female for selection. Health and veterinary treatment records
are also useful for the breeder.
2. Some methods of individual marking should be used. This helps for better identification and easier record
3. An inexpensive notebook, large enough to sub-divide as you desire for your convenience, is all that is
needed in order to keep accurate, complete, and useful records on your sheep and goat enterprise.
SFLEMINGS' TRANSPORT CO., INC
Freight Forwarding, Moving, Packing,
Trucking, Customs Brokerage, Forklift Rental,
Henry E. Rohlsen Airport Tel: (340) 778-9160
P.O. Box 4310, Kingshill Fax: (340) 778-9003
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00851-4310
ANTHOY PLMBING INC
A TEA OFEPRS
A LICENSED PLUMBER &
CALL US AT:
FAX TO US AT
: (340) 773-0991
William Allen "the coconutman" hard at work during
WE WILL GET THE JOB DONE RIGHT
THE FIRST TIME AROUND
formerly National Bakery
21 KING STREET, FREDERIKSTEU
P.O. BOX 3117
ST. CROIX, USVI 00841-3117
VISIT US, YOU'LL BE GLAD YOU DID.
"Rice is My Name!": Poetry about Food- Reprinted from
The Cassava Women
(Grenada West Indies, ca. 1700)
A spoon just doesn't cut it
when you eat a mango.
You have to get down and
off a cheek and
into that yellow flesh
the juice to stream down your chin
staining your shirt
the strings out of your teeth,
those sinful juices
after you finish two cheeks,
take the seed and
it till it's dry.
those who stare
They know not bliss
up passion itself,
in ecstasy until the
seed is bald with strands of
yellow hair covering the sides,
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 12)
Climbing switchback into the cloud forest,
men come with basketfuls of cassava
root, and the ancients of the island
are waiting, who have it from the gods
how to make themselves worthy:
drinking the milkbush's bitter sap
turns breath, catarrh, teeth as poisonous
as cassava itself. Essences war
then cancel each other to a purity
as these women chew their way through
the root harvest, letting fall a spume
into rainwater, a savor the men
age in a still-house to deepen
its reach. After bowing all day
to fields like sea surges over their heads,
cane harvesters drink it and witness
the gods of hurricane and starlight,
hearthfire and childbirth, as they were
before caravels changed the horizon.
Souls the color of volcanic sand are
lost forever, the friars preach, without
forgiveness that arrived with the cross
of Castile on sails in the anchorage.
But cassava women know how their souls
go on from them. Not long ago,
coming upon the still-house of slaves
down a dim unplantable gulley
on his property, the master pulled out
the rag bung of a cask then brought
his candle too close. Whereupon
the old ones' breath flew out and seized the flame
and ruffled silken arm that held it.
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 9)
With the moonlight's pale whitewash slapped fresh on the road,
the night almost noiseless but for our voices,
we perched on the stone steps just up from the pavement.
Lemon stripes of feeble light ran down the half-closed
doors behind us. Sounds inside leaked out like whispers
purring. On the slope houses had new silver roofs.
Each of us kept his own given heap of pigeon
pea pods piled like a cache close by, and with busy
fingers slitting and tearing the seams we would split
open the skins and spill the peas, yellow-green pearls,
to rise slowly in a white enamel basin.
The first ones hit the basin like a kettle drum
until the bottom was covered. Delight spluttered
from us in low giggly squeaks as the jokes began.
Perhaps owls hooted and the Orphanage bugle
across on the hill blew 'lights out'. The grown-ups talked
their new gossip inside, leaving us with the moon
to finish the task filling the basin before
bedtime. If you found a seven-pea pod you put
it aside for good luck, and you chewed now and then
a fat juicy yellow bead with its brief half-sweet
flavor. It was a chance to tell stories about
supernatural creatures in forests, and donkeys
with fiery eyes roaming the empty streets late
at night, of stones falling on roofs. You remembered
the king, Papa Bois, lagahoo, soucouyant and
duennes, who changed skins or waited to lure innocent
children. We squealed and huddled close so the grown-ups
called out to be quiet and forbade us to scare
one another spinning frightening fictions. Hushed,
we studied the drain's burning water, like a thick
shining wire; saw patches of shadow make heads
of monsters that shrank at the touch of the moon. When
only the trash remained for the bin the basin
was nearly full. We were called good little helpers
and sent into a forest of dreams. We kicked hard
under the sheets to keep off ghouls on the attack.
Soundless throats screamed for help to escape
packs of demons, while the moon just played hoop with clouds.
But we did it again the next time they set us
that chore in the moonlight. Maybe it was better,
the false terror after, than even the giggles
and laughter. We suffered the torture phantasms
wrought as we slept, but awoke from each nightmare
enthralled and shivering in warm pods of pleasure.
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 11)
I like fresh flowers around the house.
The faint cloying sweetness of their brief
colourful life. No plastic blooms
or deceitful silks. Like Ama Ata,
I say: "No fake flowers at my funeral."
Flowers in the garden have to survive me.
I'm not a gardener like my mother.
She used to potter in the earth,
digging for peace and sanity.
My husband potters the same way.
He wants to farm, but never has time.
I find pumpkins in the bougainvillaea,
pawpaw in the ginger lilies,
spinach in the bed of impatience
and hibiscus with pigeon peas.
It's a good marriage, body and soul.
I think I prefer neat pretty beds,
but rumpled pigeon peas
and rambling passion fruit
tend to engulf the heliconia.
Still the hibiscus opens to the light.
With pigeon peas we survive the night.
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 10)
Rosamond S. King
He treat me like I
sugar cane He
give me a long look
an wink an ask if
I want to walk a bit an we
walk an smile an he tickle
me lil bit and we en up
at my house. He say
he will come back de
nex day an when he
come he say he come
to stay me I say alright
to de sugar cane in he
mout an I fix up me lil
rooms to make dem
cozy for two an even
de fus night he ain
come home I ain say
nuttin I ain cry I ain
scream nuttin I jus lie
in bed and look
at de place I fix up so
it comfuhtable fuh two
an when he reach an don
answer me an try tuh
sweettalk an tickle an
tease me I jus roll over
an say is not long he could
treat me like dat I wuhk
an cook an clean for he too
an if he wan play games
he should fine somebody
else for sweettalk. He come
home every night for a week
well you know I cyan put
up wid dat I put he out wit
he ruck sack an put me place
back tuhgedda so it mine an
cozy for one he ain get over
on me atall I tell you he is treat
me like sugar cane he come to
suck out all my sweetness but
is me who spit he out first.
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 12)
Rice is My Name
I make perfect rice
Perfect, Perfect rice!
Each grain-singular, outstanding,
containing fat outpourings of a woman's culture.
Each plump orangeygrain of rice,
containing just the right salt, just enough garlic,
cooked just enough time.
Boiled and steamed just the right way.
On my Mad days, it contains madness.
On my days of feeling lost, it contains nothing.
It is my science, it is my art.
It links me to past pots of madness and nothing!
Each plump kernel of rice tells my daily story.
How I cried over it,
the day I made rice for the people coming back
from my Mom's funeral.
How I added wine to it
and spoiled it,
in a vain attempt to gourmet the product
and impress a white boyfriend.
How I made it for picnics, for lunch, the beach,
to go to Philly, to come back from Philly.
I made it in the morning for tonight.
I made it tonight for tomorrow.
Perfect rice pours out of my fingers,
it pads my hips, and makes my brown skin shine.
Keeps my brown curls soft.
It feeds my children,
who no longer know the Spanish word for it.
The recipe for it will be passed down to someone.
Rice is my name!
Sustaining your daily life is my game!
Men eat me perfect!
Women make me perfect!
Arroz is my name!
Men eat me perfect!
Women make me perfect!
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 8)
ST. CROIX TRADING COMPANY, INC.
CHRISTIANSTED PORT AUTHORITY
CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX
Fry Fish and Johnnycake
Marvin E. Williams
Tobacco pouch fingered free
of overalls' pocket, snuff set
in brown gums, spittle
spat on ground, settle
under shady tamarind tree: The
old timer's chuckles net
hearts like July's rainwater:
Funny, Lawd tis funny
and a joke
the way this own-way
life does fool round and poke
fun at old people.
One day tis this, another
day tis that, and the next
day tis the tara.
But I ain't vex.
Yes siree, man, I telling you...
tis a shame, a disgrace
the way thing what disown
does come back bold-face,
calling your name. You gotto
hide or play you always own
them. Cause they does use
brute force to get you on
their bandwagon. Chupse!
Remember when? Man,
you gotto remember
them days when these said
youth who don't play to holler
black this, black that and
black the tara, used to fight
being catch living dead
black like tar or night.
White was the mark
that mind and mirror
used to search the dark
to fight and fight for.
Kinky hair used to get conck
and had look pretty good.
Now that they does skank
and eat ital food,
conck hair getting curse
cause it mean abuse
of our African heritage.
Lately dark is the rage
and pickey head ain't pickey
enough for these pickney.
Man, tis funny,
real funny and a joke
the way this own-way
life does fool round and poke
fun at old people.
Nowadays cat and dog
leaping like bullfrog
to be Crucian, West Indian
down to their bone. To try
getting one of these children
to eat anything but fry
fish and johnnycake, is trying
to get blood out rockstone.
Don't fix them callaloo
couple time a week
and they won't speak
to you for a year. Do
give them maubi, ginger beer.
Ham and souse ain't healthy
and a body what wealthy
does eat rice and peas
like sand in the West Indies.
Tis real funny
and a joke...
Then from no place come
these Rastamen with their dread-
locks fo religion. I find some
got a lot to offer, but I dread
the vagabonds who take after
them in dress and talk. Hear me,
some Rastas don't eat pig meat
and them vagabonds does beat
people up everywhere they walk,
calling your good English Yankee.
Man, if you use a small
piece of your God-given gall
to eat ham or pork chops,
they does box your behind
naming your belly swine. Buddy,
I ain't playing serious:
these days being Yankee
or eating off his hog dangerous.
Watch me.. .the other day
at Mannings Bay
race track, this St. Thomian
man playing in Milo band
was eating stew pork with fungy,
and that bwoy Juba for Jenny
going come and knock the food
out the man hand, bawling
"Stay offa the swine." Well,
the man wasn't playing
so he rake and scrape
Juba up, pounding he good
till he broad face swell
and get purple like grape
in stateside wine.
Man, day in day out
I tired spout:
tis funny, Lawd
tis funny and a joke
the way this own-way life
does fool round and poke
fun at old people.
One day tis this, another
day tis that, and the next
day tis the tara.
these tradewind what blow
don't get no rest; something
all-time press to desk
in them. I fraid for this crop
inhaling that new crap
what cracking and unknotting
their just whole head.
But one thing I won't trade
back to life before I dead:
Seeing these children parade
what belong to them
does set fire to my old heart;
and if I see them lose hope
thru some new or old dope,
disown their color to fall apart
from Africa like we again,
I couldn't bear the pain:
Lawd knows it would kill me.
It would surely kill me.
(The Caribbean Writer, Vol. 6)
Available in Bookstores on St. Croix and St. Thomas.
MAUFE QUELBE AND t'ing
HURRICANE BLOWS ALL SKIN ONE COLOR
ST. CROIX IN ANOTHER TIME
NOTES OF A CRUCIAN SON
UNDER DE TAMAN TREE
The Caribbean Writer is an international literary magazine
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Potential of Minor Tropical Fruits for Growth and
Production in the U.S. Virgin Islands
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station
Realizing the great need for agricultural
crop diversification in the U.S.Virgin Is-
lands, a study has been initiated at the
University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural
Experiment Station to evaluate 40 tropical
fruits and nuts. The first set of 21 different
varieties of fruit trees was planted in April
1997. The second set is scheduled to be
planted in early January, 1998.
Traditionally, a great deal of research
effort has been allocated to the study of the
major topical fruit crops, such as mango,
avocado, papaya and banana. Over the
years, many important minor tropical fruits
and nuts have been also introduced to the Agustin Ruiz of AES examines the fruits on the fig (Ficus carica). The fig
U.S.Virgin Islands from other tropical coun- is one of many fruit trees recently planted in the AES orchard.
tries. However, no serious effort has been
made to document the growth and produc-
tion potential of minor tropical fruits in the Virgin Islands. Developing production and market prospects for
minor tropical fruits may contribute to the viability of the farming community and the economy of the Virgin
Islands and region as a whole.
As the U.S.Virgin Islands society shifted from an agricultural base to a tourism and industrial economy,
its population increased drastically. Agricultural lands were and continue to be subdivided into smaller plots
for housing, shopping centers and industrial complexes, reducing the number and size of farms. Some
farmers are compelled to move and farm where the soil is not optimum for plant growth and production.
Consequently, traditional majortropical fruits are becoming increasingly difficult to plant because of the high
cost of land, labor, the calcareous soil and scarce water resource. Ironically, these major fruits are being
produced in abundance outside of the territory by multinational corporations and are readily available at high
prices in the supermarketsand local small farmers with limited resources can no longer compete against
the supermarket prices.
A significant problem growers experience with growing large trees is their deep penetrating root system,
which, will exploit calcareous subsoil in search of water. This process takes place over a long period of
time. As plants get larger, their roots outgrow the thin layers of the top soil, where most nutrients uptake
activities are limited. When this occurs, plant growth and production is greatly affected. This is one of the
constraints that may cause farmers and potential future farmers to become discouraged from planting and
forces them to change to other forms of income-producing activities. All these factors are contributing to
the decline and gradual disappearance of the farming industry.
One approach to revitalize the farming community is to introduce new tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Most
of the minor fruits have much smaller canopies which occupy less space. Their smaller root system does
not have to grow deep into the calcareous subsoil to acquire its nutrient requirements. These fruit trees also
need less water than the major fruit trees. Therefore, they have the potential to be more economical
for the small farmer or the backyard grower. These tropical minor fruits can also be a major attraction for
tourists and a welcome addition for local consumers to experience a more diverse variety of tropical fruits
at roadside stands all year. Additionally, these fruits have great potential for the manufacture of jams, jellies,
and fruit drinks to satisfy both local and neighboring markets.
The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the growth and production potential of these minor tropical
fruits and nuts (as detailed below) under the climatic conditions of the U.S.Virgin Islands. The minor fruits
which show potential will be selected for further development and propagated by various methods, such
as grafting, air layering, seeds and cuttings, to facilitate distribution throughout the territory. Currently, most
of the 21 fruits and nuts such as the sapodilla, fig and governor's plum already planted are fruiting.
Minor tropical fruit orchard at the UVI Agricultural Experiment Station.
Tropical minor fruits and nuts planted at U.V.I. AES-St.Croix
Cherry of the Rio Grande
Ice Cream Bean
West Indian Cherry
took 1 0
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Hot Pepper: A Crop With 'Hot' Potential
for the Virgin Islands
Stafford M.A. Crossman
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station
Hot peppers, Capsicum chinense (Pickersgill,1989; Cooper and Gordon, 1992), are a very popular
cash crop particularly among small-scale farmers in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The crop has an excellent
market and commands a very good price on the local market. There is tremendous export potential for this
crop because of the growth in ethnic populations in the U.S. and the general trend toward the inclusion of
more herbs and spices in the American cuisine. A number of Caribbean countries are already exploiting
this market opportunity. West Indian hot peppers are considered an elite among hot peppers and fetch
premium prices in export markets (Cooper et al., 1993).
Hot peppers have many uses and their popularity is growing rapidly. Peppers are a major spice crop in
the tropics and the crop is economically important for farmers in the Virgin Islands and other Caribbean
countries. West Indian hot peppers have been identified as one of the speciality vegetables with high
production potential for Florida (Maynard, 1995). We must exploit our tropical climate in the Virgin Islands,
which is ideal for year-round production of hot peppers. The crop is well adapted to the Caribbean and can
provide growers with a regular income for several months each year (Cooper et al., 1993). Farmers with
small land holdings and limited resources can definitely improve their income by growing hot peppers. Hot
peppers also provide farmers with a flexibility in marketing, which is not available with other traditional
vegetables. Besides marketing the crop as fresh, whole peppers, hot peppers can be easily processed into
what is locally referred to as "pepper vinegar," hot sauce, dried whole fruits or pepper powder. In addition
to their use for culinary purposes, hot peppers have also found new markets for uses in medicinal cures
and pepper sprays.
There are a wide range of hot pepper types grown by Virgin Islands' farmers. However, many of these
are indigenous Caribbean types which have not been properly characterized. The most common groups
of the West Indian hot peppers are the 'Scotch Bonnet' (famous for its typical hot flavor), and both the red
and yellow West Indian lantern types. The West Indian hot pepper, "Scotch Bonnet," when imported into
the U.S. sells for an average of $0.25 per fruit (Marsh, 1988) in specialty shops. This cultivar has such a
high reputation for its flavor and pungency that many other varieties or lines that have any resemblance to
Scotch Bonnet are marketed as Scotch Bonnet.
Traditionally, farmers have produced "local" varieties which exhibit a wide degree of variation, but the
color has been predominantly yellow with some red peppersoccasionally being produced. Farmers have
tended to select their own seeds for replanting but, being open-pollinated, these do not necessarily grow
true to type. Because of cross-pollination, genes are always being transferred as different genetic materials
are planted together. It is, therefore, highly recommended that farmers use certified seed of selected
varieties for planting and refrain from getting their seeds, except under specially controlled conditions,
where varieties are not allowed to cross pollinate. In the past, hot peppers did not receive much attention
for breeding and research. It is very significant that major seed companies in the U.S. have recognized the
potential of West Indian hot pepper types as an important crop. As a result, new and improved cultivars have
been developed and are now available in some seed stores and catalogs. For example, chocolate, pink,
red and yellow 'Scotch Bonnet,' 'Red Dominica' habanero, 'Peto Orange' habanero and white and yellow
habanero. Certified seeds of the yellow and red West Indian lantern type peppers are available from Antigua.
The most important characteristics for which hot peppers are grown are pungency and color. Yellow is
the most popular color, especially for making hot sauces with the tradional yellow color. This may change
as other colors increase in popularity. Red fruits have high acceptance in the fresh fruit market. Pungency
in peppers is caused by chemical compounds known as capsaicinoids. There are seven known
capsaicinoids. The major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, occur in the highest concentrations.
These compounds impart the "heat" to hot peppers. West Indian type hot peppers are known to be among
the hottest peppers in the world.
As with other types of hot peppers, the pungency level of the West Indian hot peppers is influenced by
genetics and environment. Growers on St. Croix observed that application of high nitrogen fertilizer and
high irrigation water increased yield but reduced the pungency and quality of hot peppers. According to
Collins and Bosland (1994), the pungency level in Chile is the result of two factors: the plant's genetic
makeup and its interaction with the environment. Yet, the genetic control of pungency is not fully understood.
Even without having complete knowledge of the genetics of pungency, it is possible for plant breeders to
produce a chile plant with a certain relative pungency. However, environmental factors such as
temperature and water influence pungency. A mild chile cultivar, bred for low levels of pungency and
exposed to any type of stress in the field, will become more pungent. Alternately, a relatively hot chile
cultivar given optimal environmental conditions will become only moderately pungent.
A major constraint to hot pepper production is the mosaic virus disease. Cooper et al., (1993) stated that
viruses were the cause of the most important disease problems experienced in hot pepper production.
These viral diseases were believed to be spread by seed, insects and mechanical implements. In Antigua,
Cooper and Gordon (1992), reported that they have been successful in the production of West Indian hot
pepper seed. The seeds have been made available throughout the East Caribbean States. The seeds are
reported to be of high quality and treated for viral diseases. This is significant because farmers who have
traditionally supplied their own seeds from their previous crops can now discontinue this risky practice and
obtain seeds which have been treated to destroy these viruses.
The U.S. Virgin Islands hosts approximately two million tourists annually. This provides an excellent
opportunity for our local cooks and chefs to use West Indian hot peppers in preparing their dishes for the
hotels and restaurants. The local cuisine should include "spiced-up" options with the inclusion of peppers
and pepper products in the recipes. Hot sauces made from West Indian hot peppers should be made
available to visitors who would like to add even more spice (heat) to their dishes. Tourists who enjoy these
spicy foods would then be interested in taking some of our local iot sauces back to their home state with
them for continued use and for sharing with their friends and relatives. This in turn will create a larger market
in the U.S. for our hot sauces which can then be exploited through the export of hot sauces. An export
market will provide opportunities to benefit farmers, by boosting their production, and by increasing their
Collins, M. and P.W. Bosland. 1994. Measuring Chile Pungency. Guide H-237. New Mexico State
University, Las Cruces, NM.
Cooper, B. and M. Gordon. 1992. Production of West Indian hot pepper seed. Proc. Caribbean Food Crop
Society, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 28:222-231.
Cooper, B., Gordon, M. and I. Ameen. 1993. Hot pepper production guide for Antigua. CARDI/Ministry of
Agriculture, Antigua. 9p Marsh, D.B. 1988. Production of specialty crops for ethnic markets in the United
States. HortScience 23(3):628.
Maynard, D.N. 1995. Specialty vegetables for Florida. Vegetable Crop Proceedings, Florida Agricultural
Conference and Trade Show. p45-47.
Pickersgill, B. 1989. Genetic resources of Capsicum for tropical regions. In:Asian Vegetable
Research and Development. Tomato and Pepper Production in the Tropics. AVRDC, Shanhua,
VEGETABLE GARDEN CAKE
3 eggs, beaten until fluffy
1/2 cup oil
1 1/2 cups sugar
1 1/2 cups tightly packed shredded zucchini
1/2 cup tightly packed shredded carrots -. -'
2 cups flour
1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons baking soda.
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1/2 cup ground almonds
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
Preheat oven to 3500 F. Grease two 9-inch round cake pans; dust pans with flour.
Combine eggs, oil and sugar in large bowl; mix well. Stir in zucchini and carrots.
Add flour, salt, baking soda, baking powder, vanilla, almonds, and cinnamon to vegetable
mixture; stir until well mixed.
Pour mixture into prepared pans; bake for 25 to 30 minutes. Cool in pans on wire rack for
10 minutes; then turn out onto rack and cool completely. Freeze one cake layer or use at
TRULY A CULTURAL EXPERIENCE
Fanning the flames.
Fairgoers tasted andjudged carrot cakes prepared by Dr.
Arthur Petersen and Luz James. The competition was stiff,
however, Dr. Petersen's cake won first place. A rematch is
definitely on the schedule of activities for Agrifest 98.
Fairgoers were treated to a variety of localpastries from the
St. Joseph Church booth.
Soak fruits and nuts in brandy/rum mixture (or
desired fruit juice) for one week before cake is
Cream butter and sugar. Add eggs, beating
constantly. Sift flour, baking powder and
spices. Add alternately with molasses and
milk to cake mixture. Add soaked fruits and
nuts; stir gently.
Pour into greased pans. Bake in slow oven
(3000F.) until done. (Test with toothpick for
Brush top with brandy after cake is cool. Wrap
in waxed paper and store in tightly closed
3 1/2 pounds mixed fruit (cherries, dates
figs, prunes, currants, raisins, cit-
1/2 pound nuts
1 cup brandy or fruit juice
1 cup guavaberry rum or fruit juice
1/2 pound butter
1/2 pound brown sugar
2 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
2 teaspoons allspice
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 cup milk
1/2 cup molasses
~~c F T
Eleanor Sealey won first place in the pineapple tart &
St. Croix Heritage Dancers.
Sustainable Forage-Livestock Feeding Programs
for the Virgin Islands' Livestock Producers
*Martin B. Adjei, Kofi Boateng and Paul Flemming
UVI-Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
The livestock industry on St. Croix is alive and well. It consists of approximately 5,000 head of cattle
(beef and dairy) and 5,000 sheep and goats raised on approximately 15,000 acres or 80% of VI farmland.
Our local Senepol breed of cattle and St. Croix White hair sheep are very popular and continue to provide
foundation stock to farmers world-wide including several big ranches in the United States.
Native pastures, which are dominated by guinea grass and tan tan have provided the basic feed resource
to support our beef and dairy cattle, sheep, goats and horses for generations. Unfortunately, however,
guinea grass is neither drought tolerant nor able to withstand continuous grazing. A survey by University
of the Virgin Isiands (UVI) research scientists in 1995 indicated that about 40% of Virgin Islands pastures
have been invaded by hurricane grass and casha association. Weed encroachment has also drastically
reduced pasture production.
Fortunately for the VI livestock industry, three decades of screening and evaluation of alternative tropical
grasses and legumes by research scientists at the University of the Virgin Islands and the USDA Tropical
Agricultural Research Station (TARS) on St. Croix are beginning to yield some practical results. Three years
ago, UVI Agricultural Experiment Station in partnership with the Cooperative Extension Service embarked
on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and administered by the Caribbean Basin
Administrative Group (CBAG) to demonstrate sustainable livestock-forage feeding programs to support our
local industry. The UVI research personnel established forage demonstration ("DEMO") fields of promising
mixtures of grasses and legumes which are more drought tolerant, productive and persist better under
grazing. The legumes in the mixtures are also high in crude protein content and forage digestibility and tend
to improve overall quality of feed consumed by livestock.
The "DEMO" fields are located on various farms on St. Croix: Castle Nugent Farm on the dry east-end,
Windsor Dairy Farm in mid-Island and Arturo Christensen Farm in the humid west-end. Grazing trials on
established forages were conducted with full farmer cooperation. The spread of "DEMO" fields across all
existing rainfall gradients has enabled suitable grass-legume mixtures to be identified for different Caribbean
environments. Among the promising grasses are Bambatsi guinea grass, Pangola digitgrass, Biset
hurricane grass, Mott dwarf elephant grass, and Suerte paspalum. Among the promising legumes are
Glycine or perennial soybean, Rabbit vine, Siratro, and Desmanthus. For the past three years, paddocks
containing mixtures of these grasses and legumes have been grazed repeatedly at intervals ranging from
5 weeks to 20 weeks with no loss of stands. Since the trials were conducted on-farm, results on appropriate
forage types and grazing management strategies necessary to sustain production are directly available and
applicable to local farming situations. Presently, our efforts are directed towards seed increase and
multiplication for distribution to farmers.
The demonstration fields have been visited by farmers and agricultural extension agents from neighboring
Caribbean countries, such as St. Eustacius, St. Lucia, British Virgin Islands and Dominica. Site tours are
also given to individuals and groups of local farmers on request by UVI Research and Extension personnel.
*Former Research Assistant Professor-Agronomy, Program Supervisor-Livestock and Research Analyst -Agronomy, respectively.
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UNIVERSITY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS
I I I I I l l
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* 06 TAC.k
UNIVErSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
: i ~i"a-
THE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
THE V. I. ENERGY OFFICE