Front Cover
 Message from honorable Cyril E....
 Message from Commissioner Oscar...
 Message from Lawrence C. Wanlass,...
 Economic development planning in...
 Promoting local food production...
 CSA - a step in the right...
 Nutritional and economic advantages...
 Orientation of the home garden...
 4-H leads the way
 Sweet potato - a good food
 Lethal yellowing of coconut...
 Getting the most out of your...
 The relationship between sunshine,...
 The common flies found on cattle...
 Pesticide control in the Virgin...
 Financial assistance available...
 Additional benefits from the insecticide...
 Civil air patrol - the cadet program...
 Back Cover

Title: Annual Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102616/00007
 Material Information
Title: Annual Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Virgin Islands
Publication Date: 1977
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102616
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 8026814
lccn - 81649162


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UF00102616_00007 ( XML )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Message from honorable Cyril E. King, Governor of the Virgin Islands
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Message from Commissioner Oscar E. Henry, President of the agriculture and food fair
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Message from Lawrence C. Wanlass, President, College of the Virgin Islands
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Economic development planning in the Virgin Islands
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Promoting local food production in the US Virgin Islands
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    CSA - a step in the right direction
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Nutritional and economic advantages of using local fruits and vegetables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Orientation of the home garden with respect to nutrition
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    4-H leads the way
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Sweet potato - a good food
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Lethal yellowing of coconut palms
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Getting the most out of your fertilizer
        Page 33
        Page 34
    The relationship between sunshine, moisture and crop production in the Virgin Islands
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The common flies found on cattle in the Virgin Islands
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Pesticide control in the Virgin Islands
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Financial assistance available from farmers home administration
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Additional benefits from the insecticide treatments of cattle and horses for tick control
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Civil air patrol - the cadet program a way of life for American youth in aerospace age
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Back Cover
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text

, I
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1AI Y 78p4 1
7th ANNU t




VAD 1.3
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X./- A-/

A Message From Honorable Cyril E. King
Governor of the Virgin Islands

Once again, the people of the Virgin Islands have been
given a unique opportunity to observe, first hand, the po-
tential that exists for a vibrant, viable farming industry in
our Islands.
The wide variety of produce and livestock displayed
at this Seventh Annual Agriculture and Food Fair bears
ample testimony to what can be accomplished with a
greater measure of effort, imagination, and perseverance.
There is no question that agriculture can play a signi-
ficant role as a vital sector of our economy. The need for
diversification is not only desirable, it is essential. Tourism,
our main industry, fluctuates with changing conditions both
at home and abroad. And the harsh reality of our fiscal
dilemma is both obvious and frightening. It is therefore
necessary that every conceivable effort be intensified to
broaden the base of the insular economy.

An expanded, healthy agriculture industry not only
would provide additional employment opportunities, but
fresh, reasonably-priced food, and a greater measure of
To encourage more local food production, the De-
partment of Agriculture has distributed to St. Croix resi-
dents more than 240 community garden plots to grow
food and vegetables. A similar program is underway in
St. Thomas where 47 acres of Government-owned land is
currently being prepared for distribution.
Additionally, some of our young people have shown
a renewed interest in farming, particularly the agricultural
club at Charlotte Amalie High School and the young far-
mers' cooperative on St. Croix. This is indeed commend-
able but far from adequate. We must intensify our efforts
to stimulate greater public interest, generate wider com-
munity participation, and foster more positive attitudes
in the schools and throughout the entire community.
While we can take pride in this year's exhibition
we cannot remain complacent. Instead, we must accept
the challenge to strive for more public participation and
greater productivity next year.
I wish to commend all the participants as well as
those persons who worked diligently to insure the success
of this 1977 Agriculture and Food Fair. It is my earnest
hope that the theme of "Food First" would serve as a con-
stant reminder of the grave responsibility that is ours to
make a meaningful contribution toward the goal of making
our Islands self-sufficient in food production.

"OO~a2 ft 4-^7






Avenue Fernandez Juncas Parada 10
Box 5157 San Juan, P.R. 00906
Telephone 722-0990




^^^^I^^HGarden Green ^^^

Message from Commissioner Oscar E. Henry,
President of the Agriculture and Food Fair

The Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair is
undergoing a metamorphism a transformation from a
social affair to an agricultural and community fair. The
board of directors has worked diligently once again this
year to organize and present an exhibit and show on
achievable potential of increased food production.

About two years ago when I accepted the responsi-
bility of this position, I made a strong commitment to my-
self and to the community to swing the pendulum of em-
phasis towards agriculture. And that is exactly what I have
been doing. The various agricultural products exhibited
at the fair will demonstrate our progress in that direction.
The human food comes from plant and animal sources.
The community gardening project has provided us with
plant sources of food. The large quantities of sweet po-
tato, yam, corn, pigeon peas, and a variety of other food
crops amply exemplify that self-sufficiency in food pro-
duction is an achievable goal through proper management
of our resources.
As regards to animal source, we have in the Virgin
Islands a unique breed of cattle that was developed here
about fifty years ago. In spite of sincere efforts by our
livestock owners, the economic exploitation of this cattle
breed has never passed the talking stage. I am very pleased
to report that with the excellent cooperation of Dr. D. S.
Padda, director of V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station
and V.I. Cooperative Extension Service at the College of the
Virgin Islands, we have now a research and development
program for characterizing and performance testing of
these animals. The formation of the Virgin Islands Senepol
Association is well underway. The rules and by-laws,
trustees code of conduct, and articles of incorporation of
the association are all completed. Before long we hope this
cattle breed will become a major agricultural resource of
the islands.
The progress on St. Thomas has not been as signifi-
cant as I would like to see. But with the new agricultural
leadership organized on that island, the improvements will
be at a quicker pace. We must have enough production in
order to proudly display the exhibits at the fair.
I invite you to come and enjoy your fair. Please re-
member that farmers feed you, and "Food First" should
always be remembered as our theme.

/^ -^ /%/C




Fresh Grade "A"


For Your Table

Message From Lawrence C. Wanlass
President, College of the Virgin Islands

On this occasion of the 7th Annual Virgin Islands Ag-
riculture and Food Fair, I am pleased to have this oppor-
tunity to congratulate on behalf of the College of the
Virgin Islands as a whole and, in particular, the V.I. Coop-
erative Extension Service and the V.I. Agricultural Exper-
iment Station all Fair participants.
The message of this year's Fair, "Food First Far-
mers Feed You," is one of importance to all of us in the
Virgin Islands. Continued encouragement and development
of agriculture and related activities locally can lead to
lower food costs for the consumer and the growth of a
viable industry.
As a land-grant institution, the College of the Virgin
Islands, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Agri-
culture, works toward those goals through its Extension
Service and Experiment Station.
The Extension Service disseminates and encourages
the application of scientific information in agriculture,
home economics and related areas. Particular emphasis was
placed during the past year on increased food, feed and
livestock production. Emphasis was also given to good
nutrition habits.
The V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station conducts
research to meet the short and long range needs of the
farming community. Experiments are in progress on hor-
ticultural, agronimic, aquacultural and forestry projects.
The College looks forward to making additional pro-
gress in the support of the local farmer, the encourage-
ment of an increasing supply of locally produced foods and
building a greater appreciation of good nutrition habits.


Box 1576, Frederiskted

Tel. 772-0669

"Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Cattle"


Bulls for sale



Heifers for sale.


9- E-,.




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Officers and Directors of the 7th Annual
U.S. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair


Honorable Oscar E. Henry

Vice-President of Operations
Eric Bough

Vice-President of Public Relations
Dr. D. S.Padda

Fair Coordinator
Waldron Cluett

Lawrence Lewis

Candido Rodriquez


Rules and Awards
Farm Exhibits
Food Exhibits
School-Youth Activities
Off-Island Participation
Art and Design

Morris Henderson
Otis Hicks
Huan VanPutten
Wilfred Finch
Lauritz Schuster
Ruth Lang
Preston Sides
Cheryl Soto
Waldron Cluett
Loretta LaFranque

Editor Dr. D. S. Padda


Economic Development Planning In The Virgin Islands

By Auguste E. Rimpel, Jr., Commissioner
Virgin Islands Department of Commerce

Economic growth in the Virgin Islands since the onset
of the tourist boom of the late 1960's and early 1970's has
occurred with virtually no significant planning. This means
there has been no clear definition of goals and objectives. It
means we have responded to exogenous forces without any
precise knowledge of the costs and/or benefits such activi-
ties would have on the social or economic fabric of our so-
ciety. Rapid economic growth, if uncontrolled can result in
a declining quality of life and a decreased capacity to affect
our own destiny. It can mean a deterioration of human and
physical resources, with all that this implies, for a stable
socio-economic order.
The establishment of an economic development plan-
ning process is a necessary basic step in moving to overcome
the drift toward decreasing control over growth and devel-
opment. The purpose of planning is to improve upon the
efficiency with which public and private resources are allo-
cated. The process should permit the public and private
sectors to jointly participate in defining broad goals and ob-
jectives for the future development of the territory with
mechanisms to insure that these goals and objectives are
properly implemented. Unless there is input from both the
public and private sector into the planning process, the
implementation of our goals and objectives is doomed to
It must be understood that the role of government in
economic development planning has its own limitations.
Government can, by its decisions, create a climate that is
attractive to new desirable businesses to locate here. It can
provide areas for industrial development with proper in-
frastructure facilities. It can do many other things including
the granting of tax benefits. However, there are limitations
which must be recognized and which make it essential that
economic development planning be instituted and con-
tinued as an ongoing process.
In brief we are faced with the proposition that eco-
nomic growth does not necessarily mean we are achieving
an improved state of development. Rapid but unbalanced
growth can result in a declining quality of life, a
threatened environment and an increased dependence
on forces completely beyond our control. It can mean
destruction of physical resources and a deterioration of
our human resources with resultant social instability.
Herein the role of economic development planning
takes on greater significance than merely pointing out
the best prospects for greater numbers of people being
employed in the short run.

The establishment of an economic development
planning process is the first basic step to be taken to over-
come the drift toward decreasing control over our socio-
economic destiny. This identification of the components
of the process and the weaving of these into a meaningful
process is already well under way in our Policy, Planning
and Research office within the Department of Commerce.
In summary, this planning process consists of six steps
which may be paraphrased as follows:
1) Identification of long range problems and
assignment of a rough measure of priority to
the list.
2) Analysis of the problems so long range goals
can be established to overcome the problems.
3) Analysis of the long range goals so they can be
converted into a series of shorter range ob-
4) Identification and analysis of the resources
needed and available to accomplish these ob-
5) Programming of activities so that shorter term
targets are identified quantitatively in a specific
time frame.
6) Identification of budgetary requirements so
that our programmed activities can realistically
be integrated into the budgetary process. Imple-
mentation of the program should follow.
The process of economic development planning may
appear from the foregoing to be an orderly step by step pro-
cedure that can be followed in sequence. The realities of
life sometimes change what appears to be obvious. While we
are proceeding along the foregoing path we must of neces-
sity continue our search for a better understanding of the
economic process in the Virgin Islands. This has led us into
sectoral analysis in order to establish certain connecting
links between various activities within the total economy
and hopefully to enable us to better diagnose our
When we speak of sectors we are making a somewhat
arbitrary decision as to what is an appropriate way to segre-
gate the various parts or sectors of the economy. We have
the public sector (government) and the private sector (pri-
vate enterprise). However, when we examine the economic
activities that we are engaged in, we find that certain of
these overlap both the public and private sector, hence have
to be examined from a somewhat different perspective. The
focus of our current efforts is on three sectors that we feel
require immediate examination because of their importance
to our economy, tourism, construction and for want of a
better name, trade and industry. Tourism continues to be



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our principal activity, construction currently is our hardest
hit activity in terms of unemployment while our third
group, trade and industry, includes manufacturing, service
and commercial activities not directly related to construc-
tion and tourism per se although each of these do impact
on it.
How are we organized to do the job? Within the
government there is an Economic Policy Council made up
of key cabinet members whose role it is to deal with
development issues that cross departmental lines. There is
planned a broader Advisory Group to the Governor made
up of business and professional people as well as private
citizens whose input provides a necessary connecting link
between government and the community at large. There is
a Technical Panel composed of government personnel from
various government agencies whose expertise in various
fields contributes significantly to the planning process. Last
but not least is the Policy, Planning and Research staff in
the Department of Commerce whose function it is to
actually formulate an economic development plan for the
Territory with the assistance of inputs from the foregoing
groups plus others. It is their job to produce a document
which will serve as a basis for further planning.
What will the final document look like? It can best be
described as a temporary blueprint, a series of long range
goals, shorter range targets and the budgetary commitments
needed to implement the process. It will recognize that as
new facts develop and new patterns of development emerge
we may have to change our direction somewhat and even
redefine our goals. But this is what one should expect as
feedback mechanisms cause us to digest the changes that
continually occur and to revaluate our progress. The blue-
print is an initial set of guidelines to get us off and moving,
the planning process is the vehicle that will keep us moving
toward the elusive goal of a continuously improving quality
of life for all Virgin Islanders at some undefined date in
the future. 0

"Our Prices Can Not Be Bested"


773-0130 773-3860
La Grande Princesse
C'sted., St. Croix
Branch at
St. Thomas. .774-4520
Virgin Islands

Promoting Local Food Production In The U.S. Virgin Islands

By Darshan S. Padda, Director
Agricultural Experiment Station
and Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands

The production and, thus availability, of food to a
community is not always stable. This instability may be
charged to Acts of God and Acts of Man. The former are
variation in weather and episodes of pests. "Acts of Man"
refer to the performance of all human institutions, princi-
pally those of economic and political nature.
When we set something in motion we usually have
some idea of where we want to go. Even when we know
where we are going, conditions and events can cause delays
and sometimes prevent achieving the intended objective.
Agriculture in the U.S. Virgin Islands can be compared to
an automobile in motion, but one whose objective has not
been determined. People have talked about promoting local
food production in the U.S. Virgin Islands for a number of
years, but we still don't know its route or its goal. The pro-
fessional people have spent most of their time and energy
on factors which influence the rate of growth, but almost
no time at all identifying its direction.
The various agricultural agencies, for the most part,
deal with increasing the rate of growth through increased
output. Other factors which affect the development of agri-
culture are the availability of inputs such as land, water,
financing, laws and regulations affecting resource use and
availability, labor supply, taxation policy and market regu-
It is time, however, to look at agriculture as a total
concept start, rate of growth, direction and goal.
The first thing we need to do to ensure a continued
and successful development of agriculture industry is to
identify our goal. Virgin Islands policy makers who reflect
the will of the people must determine and articulate the
goal for agriculture. Once it is established where we stand
and where we are going, all of us involved in or contributing
to food production and marketing enterprise would have
an objective against which to measure and evaluate our
decision and effort. Until that time, the best alternative
available to us is community action. The concept of com-
munity gardening and community retail produce marketing
can significantly contribute towards meeting our goal of
promoting local food production.
The idea of community gardens is becoming very
popular with communities anxious to develop greater self-
sufficiency in food production. In the Virgin Islands, the
land being concentrated in fewer hands, community gar-

dens offer an opportunity to a majority of the population
to farm. Big cities in the United States and Canada are
making lands available for community gardening. "Gar-
dens For All" is a national non-profit organization estab-
lished in Vermont to promote Community Gardening as a
way for people and communities to cope with high food
prices. The government of the Virgin Islands has established
a community garden program at Estate Castle Burke on St.
Croix, where '/ acre plots are available to the public. Each
plot measures 90 feet by 125 feet. Plots have also been
made available to vocational agriculture students of Central
High School so that they can practice farming.
The V.I. Extension Service maintains a demonstration
plot to provide education to other plot holders on modern
crop production and management practices.


No one plan or arrangement for a plot can be sug-
gested to all plot holders. Each plot holder must plan ac-
cording to his family needs and likings. Another important
consideration is to avoid planting of one crop at the same
time by a majority of plot holders. This will result in over
production of one crop and thus cause marketing problems.
The crops that are always in demand in the family kitchen
as well as in the market are tomatoes, lettuce, pepper, okra,
eggplant, cucumber, and bunching onion. Sweet potato
and yam are also popular in Virgin Island cooking and, in
addition are easy to store. Pumpkins are easy to grow and
can be stored at room temperature for considerable time.
Perennials, like pigeon peas, should be planted on one side
of the garden. Corn, pigeon peas and papaya can be planted
on border rows to provide an additional advantage of pro-
tection from the wind. Vegetables such as beans, tomato
and pepper which are susceptible to a large number of
diseases should be rotated from one plot site to another.






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It is important to avoid succession plantings of cabbage,
chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip green and collard green.
Eggplant after tomato and pepper, and tomato after egg-
plant and pepper is not advisable. Sweet potato, yam and
cassava should be rotated with other vegetables.
Plot holders who need assistance in planning their
plot are urged to contact the V.I. Extension Service. The
soil of the community gardens, although of good texture,
is alkaline in nature (pH 7.7). This high pH results in low
availability of micronutrients such as iron. This is the rea-
son for yellowing of the leaves of peanuts, beans, peas,
and okra and other similar crops. On the basis of Soil
analysis arranged by the CVI Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, it is recommended that twenty five pounds (25) of
nitrogen and twenty pounds (20) of phosphate be applied
to each plot each year.
The use of right kinds of seeds and slips and control
of diseases and insects are very important factors which
contribute to the success of a garden. Space does not per-
mit me to discuss all the production practices in this paper.
We are working on developing a pamphlet containing a
simplified crop production manual for the use of plot hold-
ers and other small farmers and gardeners. In the meantime
1 wish to encourage all gardeners having any kind of prob-
lem to contact us at the Cooperative Extension Service
through either calling at 778-0246 or personal visit at
the College of the Virgin Islands old campus.
The question many people are raising regarding to
the community gardens is what about marketing? The
answer is developing a community retail produce market.
This community market will provide a place where plot
holders and other small farmers and gardeners can sell
fresh produce directly to consumers. This means both
growers and other people of the Virgin Islands benefit from
the stimulated sale and consumption of fresh produce. A
new Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act. (HR
10339) was signed into law recently by the President of the
United States. Purpose of this Act is to encourage the
direct marketing of agricultural commodities from farmers
to consumers.
A facility for operation of this community market is
an important aspect. The area should be large enough to set
up a number of tables. It should be considered from the
point of view of the weather elements (rain, wind, and sun).
The parking and traffic into and out of the facility also is
an important consideration. The Virgin Islands Department
of Agriculture has a nice facility at its Marketing Center.
This facility meets all the criteria necessary for a successful
retail market. The Marketing Officer of the V.I. Depart-
ment of Agriculture can be assigned the responsibility to
monitor, assign table or floor space, keep down possible
conflicts, and to insure proper clean-up of the facility.

For the success of the market, it should be stressed
that all produce should be of good quality at reasonable
prices. Some of the other details that need to be resolved
1. Determine the time of year vegetables will be
available and the approximate number of
months the market will be open.
2. A decision will be necessary as to the days of
week and the period of each day that the mar-
ket will be open.
3. A clear understanding regarding the types of
commodities that would be permissible for sale
should help. Fresh vegetables and fruits, herbs,
agricultural by-products like honey, nursery
plants, plant pots and fertilizer and even some
local handicrafts and ornamentals can be
In order to insure a proper and smooth functioning of
the community market, a committee made up of plot hold-
ers, small farmers, consumers, officials of V.I. Agriculture
Department and CVI Extension Service needs to be ap-
pointed. The V.I. Cooperative Extension Service can play
an active role in calling the meetings and organizing the
The Extension Service will also be happy to assist in
promotional work through announcements on radio, and
TV and publishing stories in newspapers concerning com-
munity market activities.
Community gardening and marketing is a realistic
alternative for us to promote local food production.

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JCSA-A Step In The Right Direction

By Dorene E. Carter, Director
Consumer Services Administration

The Virgin Islands' Consumer Services Administration
was established more than 50 years after the passage of the
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act. What makes the
FTC Act of 1914 significant is that it is one of the earliest
pieces of consumer protection legislation in the United
States. This law required substantiation of advertising
Historically, cases of consumer fraud have been
handled by State Attorney General Offices. However, con-
sumer problems were traditionally not of high priority.
Consequently, consumers did not always get the represen-
tation they needed.
As marketing patterns changed, and the public be-
came more and more subjected to abuse by merchants, the
need for more regulation by government became obvious.
Thus, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was es-
tablished in 1936 to regulate the sale of foods, drugs, and
cosmetics. The Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC) is in its infancy, having been established in 1972.
It was not until 1974 and after much consumer pressure
that the Office of Consumer Affairs (OCA) was established
within the Office of the President of the United States.
Creation of this office on the federal level signalled recogni-
tion that we were in the era of the need for representation
of consumers as a group, that consumerism was not a fad,
but a cause which is here to stay. Of what interest is the
historical development of consumer protection on the
federal level to us here in the Virgin Islands? It must be
recognized, of course, that we are subject to the Federal
Consumer Protection laws and other federal statutes by
virtue of our relationship to the U.S. As a result, those
consumer protection regulations enforced by agencies such
as the FTC, FDA, and CPSC are applicable to the territory.
We must therefore be aware of the existence of these and
other federal activities, in order to assure no less protection
for local consumers.
Act 3000 may be considered the first consumer pro-
tection act of the Virgin Islands. This Act, which was
passed in 1971, opened the eyes of Virgin Islanders to their
r rights as consumers, but it was not until the passage of Act
3431 that essential enforcement powers were created. Act
3431 removed the Consumer Protection Services from the
V.I. Department of Agriculture and placed it within the
Office of the Governor. It was at this time that the Divi-
sion of Weights and Measures was transferred from the
Department of Property and Procurement and the Division
of Licensing from the Department of Finance to the new

Consumer Services Administration. The Act further al-
lowed for expansion of complaint resolution and media-
tion, and enabled the expansion of consumer education
It might be worthwhile to reflect on what prompted
the legislature to enact Act 3000 and subsequently, Act
3431 in the first place. Increases in cost of living, the com-
plexity of the marketing system and widespread deceitful
practices by unscruplous merchants were major areas of
concern. The need for an agency to protect the public
health, safety, and general welfare was acknowledged in
Act 3000.
The challenge for the Consumer Services Adminis-
tration is welcomed. By legislative mandate the agency
must protect, represent, guide, direct, educate and inform
the public on matters affecting them as consumers. During
the past year CSA undertook a vigorous and aggressive
campaign to bring a halt to the rising cost of food commod-
ities through voluntary price restraint. The Price Alert Cam-
paign as it is called, an outgrowth of the Governor's Task
Force on Consumer Prices is the major effort in this direc-
tion. Food and gasoline prices have been continuously mon-
itored. It is, as yet, too soon to ascertain the degree of
effectiveness of this approach to the problem. Evaluation is
complicated by the fact that fluctuations in prices on the
mainland U.S., from where the greatest supply of our food
comes, may also influence changes here.
Most people reading this article can, no doubt, recall
the days of the "bartar and brahta". Those were as recent
as the days when you paid 10 cents for 3 mangoes, selected
by you, and if you didn't get one or two extra, you wanted
to know if you couldn't get a little ~epe.
Today, we're in the supermarket age. Not only are
prices shockingly different, but the entire shopping pattern
is different. Items are prepacked so you have little control
over what you get: there is wider selection which requires
skill in making choices, and the entire process is highly
automated and impersonal. These conditions are some of
the factors which have stimulated the consumer movement.
The public is now saying, let us have a fair share of the
wealth, a better way of life, and a greater role in decision
making in government and in business.
One way that local consumers can have more control
over the quality and cost of food is, of course, to grow their
own. CSA is already encouraging expansion of local com-
mercial farming and the marketing of those products in sup-
port of the philosophy of the V.I. Department of Agricul-
ture's small home gardens which provide as little as celery,
parsley, onions, tomatoes and peppers, can result in signifi-



Produced Daily On St. Croix
From Six Purebred Dairy

Grade A Fresh Milk
Non Fat Skim Milk
Fresh Whipping Cream
Chocolate Milk
Sour Cream

Cottage Cheese
24 Ice Cream and
Sherbet Flavors
made fresh daily

A sk for Island Dairies Products at your local grocery store
or stop at THE GOLDEN COW in Christiansted.




cant savings for many homemakers. The organizing of
neighborhood buying clubs is also being promoted by CSA,
but response to this suggestion has been slow. Perhaps a
massive cooperative buying and selling program should be
undertaken. This latter idea must, of necessity, be devel-
oped by private consumer groups rather than by govern-
ment. That is not to exclude such as effort from govern-
ment subsidy or other form of assistance.
While efforts to involve consumers in preventing
abuse in the marketplace are being pursued, staff of the
CSA is vigorously working to ensure compliance with
existing laws. The Weights and Measures Division rou-
tinely tests scales and prepackaged food commodities
for accuracy of weight. In doing this, consumers can be
sure that they are not shortchanged by having to pay for
more than the actual contents of the package. Consumers
are also protected by the enforcement of Act 3666 which
prohibits the sale of perishables after the "pull-date". Act
3772 which requires "unit pricing" is being enforced in
order to allow consumers to do better comparison shop-
ping. All of these efforts are intended to protect con-
sumers from abuse by merchants and save them valuable
Advertising has not been without its criticism in the
Virgin Islands. Unfair, misleading and deceptive advertising
related to food commodities can lead to serious financial
losses to consumers. The staff at CSA is constantly eval-
uating local commercials, but could be greatly aided by
more consumer involvement. Act 3666 may be a source of
relief for consumers who take advantage of the clause per-
taining to "rain-checks". Merchants are required to give the
consumer a "rain-check" if the advertised special is not
available for the period advertised. This enables the con-
sumer to obtain the item at the low price when it is
The current economic situation has forced many
consumers to modify their buying habits in order to cope
with inflation. A recent study by the U.S.D.A., Economic
Research Service, demonstrates some ways that consumers
are using. They are checking newspapers more frequently
for "specials", saving and using more coupons, buying more
in volume, making fewer trips to the food store in order to
save on gasoline, and preparing food from scratch more
Consumers can also realize savings by buying fewer
snacks and luxury items, buying store brands or less known
brands over national brands, buying cheaper cuts and less
meat, and engaging in home food preservation.
When so little money must provide for the nutritional
needs of the family, the shopper must buy for nutrition.
One way to know what is in what you get is to read the
label. Nutritional labeling is the means of knowing what is
/Continued on Page 49)

Nutritional And Economic Advantages

Of Using Local Fruits And Vegetables

By Anne J. Postell
Program Leader-Home Economics
Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands

Food is a basic need of man because it contains the
nutrients essential to life. Nutrients are chemical com-
pounds, all of which can be obtained from food. People of-
ten have the false impression that if they just eat plenty
food they are well-nourished. It is not as simple as that.
Foods are merely the conveyors of the nutrients necessary
to well-being, and the particular food eaten may not con-
tain the required nutrients. The terms well-fed and well-
nourished may not be synonymous. Well-fed connotes
quantity or economic quality of food, whereas well-
nourished implies receiving adequate food containing the
required nutrients for good health.
Food, then, whether plant or animal-or synthetic
products-must provide the daily quota of protein, calories,
minerals and vitamins. While every nutrient is uniquely
essential, each functions most efficiently in combination
and in interrelationship with other nutrients. For example,
our body tissues are chiefly protein, and protein from dif-
ferent kinds of foods furnish the amino acids that serve as
the materials of construction and maintenance of those
tissues. The amino acids also provide the building blocks
for the construction of enzymes and hormones, which are
responsible for the speed and efficiency with which energy
is generated from fats and sugars.
With rising food prices and short supplies, consumers
are looking for protein sources that are cheaper than meat.
It is important to recognize that protein can be obtained
from plant and animal foods.
Some plant protein foods contain the essential amino
acids, but not in the proper proportion for the human
body. Other plant proteins are lacking in one or more of
the essential amino acids. Soybean protein is the highest-
quality plant protein.
The mature legumes, peas, beans, and lentils contain
relatively large amounts of protein. Nuts and seeds contain
appreciable amounts.
Large servings of plant foods are required to furnish
amounts of protein equal to animal foods. For example,
it takes 112 cups of cooked dry beans or 5 cups of cooked
rice to provide the same amount of protein as 3 ounces of
cooked red meat, fish or poultry.
Combining any plant protein with an animal protein
(such as milk, cheese, or eggs) improves the quality of the

plant protein. This combination extends the protein and
usually decreases the cost.
Another kind of relationship is that which exists be-
tween the minerals calcium and phosphorus, protein, and
the vitamins A, D, and C all of which are involved in the
construction and maintenance of bones and teeth.
Vitamins are essential components of many enzyme
systems, which act like spark plugs, initiating and giving
impetus to the body's functioning. Advertising has made
vitamins a household word and synonymous with health,
"pep" and "vitality". But no matter how many vitamin
pills or capsules you might take, you will not be healthy
and well-nourished without enough proteins, minerals, fats
and carbohydrates. Moreover, vitamin pills or capsules
are more expensive sources of this nutrient than fruits and
Another important nutritional advantage to be gained
from using fruits and vegetables as a dietary source for vita-
mins rather than vitamin pills or capsules, is the addition of
fiber these foods add to the diet.
Everybody who takes on the responsibility of plan-
ning meals for others, or for themselves, should know some-
thing about the value of foods: how one food may be just
as nutritious and more economical than another, and how
to combine and/or substitute foods for the body to get full
value from its intake.
It is important to note, there are locally available
fruits and vegetables of high nutritive value and often more
economical than the fruits and vegetables shipped in from
the mainland that could provide substantial quantities of
vital nutrients.
Several articles have appeared in Agriculture and
Food Fair Booklets in past years in support of the eco-
nomic significance and feasibility of the production of
vegetable crops, the growing of fruit trees and home gar-
The nutritional contribution of vegetables and fruits
to dietary requirements is equally, if not more, important
and one should not lose sight of this fact.
The abundance of vegetables exhibited in the Far-
mer's Market, during the 1976 Agriculture and Food Fair,
by the V.I. Department of Agriculture's Community gar-
den participants and vegetable crops demonstration plots
under the supervision of Virgin Islands Cooperative Exten-
sion Service are examples of what can be produced. Also
the successful crops research projects conducted by the
V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station further justifies that


Your Family's Health

Is In Safekeeping





food crops production is not an "impossible dream".
Home gardeners, then, may wisely plant liberally of
the following, as being sure-crop vegetables of very high
food values.
Legumes. Legumes as a group contain about 20 per-
cent protein. However, the protein in legumes is some-
what deficient in one of the essential amino acids. Legumes
are also sources of the B complex vitamins and iron. Their
vitamin content, including vitamin C can be substantially
increased by allowing them to germinate and sprout before
cooking. Kidney beans, lima beans, peanuts and soybeans
are legumes of particular nutritional significance. The nu-
tritional contribution of soybeans in the diets deserve con-
siderable attention. It will be well if soybeans are brought
into larger use as a legume because they have a high protein
content (up to 40 percent), and have a better amino acid
composition than other legumes. String beans, carrots,
pumpkin, spinach, collards, mustards, peppers, red and
green, yellow sweet potatoes, parsley and okra are of
good vitamin A value.
Dark green leafy vegetables, especially young leaves.
are valuable nutritionally. They not only contain important
quantities of carotene provitaminn A), vitamin C and B
complex, calcium and iron, but also have a significant pro-
tein content. Increased attention should be given to the use
of youngbeet greens, and young pumpkin and tannia leaves.
Nutritionally, fruits are important principally as
sources of vitamin C and, in some cases, of the orange-pig-
mented vitamin A precursor, carotene. There is a wide
variety of edible fruits available locally both as cultivated
or wild products which are much more easily accessible
and more economical than fruits brought in from the main-
land. Frequently these fruits are not used nearly enough
especially in the diets of young children.
(Continued on Page 19)


... .. In dependen r dli irjt c, fI:. r
i- & the rhorne for ,ou tuld irin

S* 774-0144
C ua cajo Gae I I net to
C & I. Cjascn berl.en ljMar
I ShiStreet & Wilei Front

(Continued from Page 18)

The following may be considered guava, papaya,
seaside grapes, geneps, tamarind, limes, gooseberries, sor-
rel, West Indian cherries, oranges, tomatoes and mangoes.

Not only is it necessary to know the best sources of
vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins and carbohydrates, but it
is also important to know what amounts of these com-
ponents are present, as there are variations within foods.
Food composition tables are an important tool in realizing
this objective.

Space will not allow the printing of a Nutritive Value
Table in its entirety to accompany this article. Nutritive
value will be given for only selected fruits and vegetables.
You may contact the V.I. Cooperative Extension Service
for more information on Nutritive Value of Foods.

Nutritive Value of Selected Legumes and Seeds

Soybeans Chick Lima Sunflower
Peas Beans Peanuts Seeds
Item 1 Cup Mature Seeds
Calories 846 720 656 838 812
Protein (gm) 71.6 41 38.8 37.7 34.8
Fat (gm) 37.2 9.6 3.0 70.1 68.6
Carbohydrate (gm 70.4 122 121.6 29.7 28.9
Calcium (mg) 475 300 137 104 174
Iron (mg) 17.6 13.8 14.8 3.2 10.3
Thiamin (mg) 2.31 .62 .91 .46 2.84
Riboflavin (mg) .65 .30 .32 .19 .33
Niacin (mg) 4.6 4.0 3.6 24.8 7.8

Nutritive Value of Selected Fruits and Vegetables

Sweet Beet
Potatoes Mango Greens Parsley Papaya
Item 1 Cup
Calories 291 109 26 26 90
Vitamin A (I.U.) 20,150 7,920 7,400 5,100 4,030
Vitamin C (mg) 43 58 22 103 129
Calcium (mg) 82 17 144 122 46
Protein (gm) 4.3 1.2 2.5 2.2 1.4
Phosphorus (mg) 120 21 36 38 37

"You are what you eat". "Food becomes You".
"Eating well is important for keeping well". All true, but
only one part of the story. There is no such thing as a
"health food." Health is not only eating all the known nu-
trients in required amounts. Health is related to everything
you do and experience as well as everything your parents
and grandparents ate, did, and experienced before you.
Nutrition is one aspect of health over which you have some
control. You can make decisions concerning how and what
you eat. Make the most of your choices. M

JW5F Y: IAJff 7 Y:IA





A Virgin Islands Equal Employment Opportunity Corporation


7Orientation Of The Home Garden With Respect To Nutrition

By Franklin W. Martin
Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

As interest in producing some of the food we eat
intensifies, due in part to high prices and shortages, an
important point should never be forgotten: the food we eat
is like the gasoline for our cars: it is our fuel, and should be
high quality fuel. When the food market is oriented chiefly
to sell, new products are proliferated on the basis of their
appeal, not on the basis of their usefulness to the body.
Because a ritual is made of eating, and because eating habits
are associated with experience, personal preferences, and
prejudices, food purchased at the supermarket often does
not lead to a balanced diet.

Home gardens can be used to improve family nutri-
tion. In order to do so one must first have a clear idea of
human nutritional needs, both kind and quality. After that
it is necessary to know the nutritional value of foods,
particularly those that can be produced in the home garden.
Finally, some knowledge is necessary of the species and
varieties that can be grown locally, in this case of the Vir-
gin Islands. Production of good foods also depend on good
techniques in the garden, as well.

The human body requires something like 40 dif-
ferent substances or nutrients. These are required regularly
every day and more or less simultaneously.

Recommended Daily Dietary Allowance of Some Nutrients

Some classes of persons
Young Adult Adult
Nutrient Unit Infant Child Female Male

* Unsaturated
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Vitamin B 1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin 63
Vitamin B6
Vitamin 812

gm 8-30
cal. 450 1600


36 46 56
2400 2000 2700




.04 1.2 1.2 1.6

16 13 18

* Recommended daily allowance not established.

While all nutrients are important to the body, the
need for some is greater than others. -FutherllLmor, some
are obtained more easily than others. Some are obtained in
sufficient quantity when an effort is made to obtain the
major nutrients. Still other nutrients are often obtained in
excess quantities. Therefore, in this brief presenltilion.
only the most important nuttientts are mentioned \\titl the
belief tliat when needs for the important nllulienlIs lie
filled, the needs for minor nutrientts will noinnall, be filled
automatically. The most important nLIulrienil s and the
quantities required for representative classes of individuals
are given in the table.

The sources of the nutrients iln the table. \with spe-
cial reference to the home garden oi otliher home activities

1. Protein: Meat of all kinds, fish, eggs and milk
products. soybeans. beans of all kinds, whole
grain cereals. sunflower seeds. Most people in
the Virgin Islands plobabl, cat well and get
enough protein.
2. Energy: Sugars, stachies, falinaceous foods,
candies, baked products, and all foods. Most
Virgin Islanders probably get too much already
of this type of food and should reduce energy
3. Unsaturated fats: Vegetable oils, salad dress-
ings. Oily seeds such as peanuts. Most Virgin
Islanders get too Lmuch fat froml animals and
not enough from plants.
4. Vitamin A: Dark-green leaf\ vegetables, yellow
fruits and vegetables, live. whole milk, eggs.
Probably often short in local diets.
5. Vitamin D: Obtained only from enriched milk
and through the action of sunlight on the skin.
6. Vitamin E: Difficult to obtain. In uncooked
seeds, whole grains. wheat germi. Controversial
vitamin and experts dilftei in requirements.
Therefore. some people prefer to take a vitamin
E supplement. Easily obtained fiomt cold-
pressed vegetable oils and wheat germ, however.
7. Vitamin C: Obtained from fruits and vege-
tables, especially citrus, guava, and many kinds
of green leaves. Some Virgin Islanders gel
enough and some not enough. Intake should he
8. Vitamin B1: Liver, pork, all kinds iof beans.
whole grain cereals. Often lacking in the diet.
9. Vitamin B2: Meats, milk products, whole grain
10. Vitamin B3: Whole grain bread and cereals,
meat, all kinds of beans.




In business in St. Croix since 1934

Will Buy and Sell Land
SWill Buy and Sell Beef Cattle

Post Office Box 68
Frederiksted, St. Croix
U. S. Virgin Islands

Tel. 772-0412

11. Vitamin B6: Bananas, raw meat.
12. Vitamin B12: Foods of animal origin. Yeast
prepared as food. This is a difficult vitamin to
get if care is not taken.
13. Calcium: Milk is the best source. Dark-green
vegetables are good sources. Often lacking in
Virgin Islands diets.
14. Phosphorus: Milk, many other foods. Usually
not lacking if the diet is otherwise good.
15. Iodine: Sea water, iodized salt, sea foods.
Probably not lacking in Virgin Islands diets.
16. Iron: Lean meats, whole grain breads and
cereals, dark green leafy vegetables. Iron is
probably lacking in many Virgin Islands diets.
17. Magnesium: Whole grain bread and cereal, milk
and milk. products. Usually obtained in suffi-
cient amounts in otherwise good diets.
18. Zinc: Oysters, wheat bran, seeds of sunflower.
This mineral is difficult to obtain, and often
taken as a supplement. This might be deficient
in the diets of Virgin Islanders.
In working out a plan for the garden, the Virgin
Islander should take into account not only nutrition, but
some of the characteristics of his plants that will influence
the productivity of his garden. For example, perennial
vegetables like pigeon peas can produce something to eat
through the entire year. They do not need the intensive
care of short-lived annuals. Some foods once grown in the
garden can be stored for future use. Thus, it should not be
necessary to produce them on a year round basis.
When this kind of thinking is used as the basis for
planning the home garden, certain changes can be pre-
dicted. For example, one would grow cucumbers, if nutri-
tional value is placed first, eggplant is easy to grow but of
low food value; okra is useful nutritionally, but only when
the pods are matured an extra day or two and then seeds
alone are eaten.
Legumes deserve a prominent place in every home
garden since they are a good source of protein and vitamin
B. In most cases they can be used either immature and
green, or as dried seeds. All of the legumes are good but the
best of these is soybean, and it should be grown in every
Techniques for growing the soybean are not very
special and green seeds of all varieties can be eaten. Select
the plump pods and then boil them well, separating seeds
from the pod later. Dry seeds are cooked like conventional
beans, or the soaked beans can be ground, extracted with
3 parts water to one part beans, and filtered through a cloth
to give soy milk, a very good substitute for cow's milk. It
can be made into cheese (tofu), too. Soybeans contribute
unsaturated vegetable oil as well as proteins and vitamins
to the diet.

Another bean of much value in the Virgin Islands
are cowpeas, disease resistant climbing varieties eaten fresh
or dry. The yardlong or asparagus bean is an excellent
yielder and very tasty as a snap bean. The winged bean
(Fig. 1) produces in the fall and winter months and is best
used green. Shy away from yam beans, horsebeans, and
broad beans if you don't know how to use them.

Fig. 1. The winged bean, a high protein legume for Virgin
Islands gardens.
Corn is a good protein source. Sweet corn varieties
such as Suresweet can be grown year around. Field corn,
carefully dried and stored, can be used all through the year.
When possible, obtain the balanced protein type called
opaque-2, the protein of which is as good as that of skim
milk. Corn can be rapidly ground in the home blender and
then used in many ways, as cooked breakfast cereal, in
corn bread, scattered on fish and chicken before frying.
Sunflowers can be grown easily in the Virgin Islands
although they may not always be well pollinated. The seed
coat can be separated from the meat by grinding (in some
grinders) and placing the grounds in water. The hulls float
and are easily removed. The portion that sinks can be sieved
and then dried in trays in the sun. They make excellent
snacks, or can be cooked in other dishes. Their protein is of
the highest quality and in addition they contain valuable
oil and some vitamins.
Peanuts can be grown in the home garden. The nuts
are delightful snacks, can be cooked in stews or as beans,
or ground into peanut butter. They are excellent sources of
protein, B vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated vegetable
oils. But peanuts need to be kept dry to avoid molds. Do
not eat moldy peanuts under any circumstances.
Remember in your diet to combine beans of all kinds
with any kind of grain (wheat, corn, rice, bread) to get
maximum use of the protein.







TELEPHONE 782-1991

Compliments of JOHNIE JOHN'S


Hannah's Rest, Frederiksted
6A La Grande Princesse, Christiansted

ALIGNMENT (Electronic)

For Passenger, Trucks, Farm
and Earthmovers





Vitamin A and C are easily provided by the choice of
crops grown. Most important are the dark green leafy vege-
tables (Fig. 2). Some of the really good ones are listed
below. These supply protein as well as vitamins.

Horseradish tree
Sunset hibiscus
Mustard greens
Water spinach


Perennial, of many uses
Perennial, cook well before eating
Perennial, grow as hedge
Perennial, vigorous growth
Annual, very productive
Perennial, very productive
Perennial, needs water all the time


Fig. 2. Chaya, a high protein, high vitamin A spinach for
year round use.

You can also use the leaves of cassava (well cooked),
sweetpotato, any beans (except perhaps lima beans),
squash and pumpkin, and pigeon peas as sources of vita-
mins. For more vitamin A there is nothing like an orange
sweetpotato. If you must have starch in your diet, why not
try sweetpotatoes. They can be grown year round, stored
in the soil, if weevils are not present, or stored in a cool
place, and are excellent sources of energy as well as vita-
mins and some protein. Fruits are also good sources of
some vitamins. The lowly tamarind is a source of vitamins
(Continued on Page 49)

4-H Leads The Way

By Preston D. Sides
V.I. Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands

In recent years, we have been bombarded with
changes. Almost every facet of life which we know today
was non-existant or little known only one-hundred years
ago. The rapidly changing society in which we find our-
selves gives rise to new and more complex problems of day
to day living. A modern author refers to these changes as
"Future Shock". Coping with our modern world presents
problems among all segments of our society, but nowhere
are these problems more strongly felt than among our na-
tion's young people. Technology is changing so rapidly
that, despite a good educational background, the high
school graduate finds that he or she is not sufficiently
trained to hold many of the jobs available in the world
of work.
All this leads us to a question of primary importance.
Can we and should we try to teach young people all we
think they need to know? After all in five to ten years, a
great deal of that knowledge will be obsolete. Most educa-
tors agree that the goal of public education should no
longer be to teach children all they need to know, but
rather to teach them to become CONTINUING LEARN-
ERS. It is much more difficult but far more worthwhile
that a child learn HOW to learn than WHAT to learn. In
the coming world of Century III, in order to keep up with
the fast pace of advancing technology, a person will be
forced to "school" himself almost from the cradle to the
grave. Education is a continuing process. We must teach our
children to become continuing learners. Of equal im-
portance is the necessity to teach our children to be leaders.
Leadership skills will pay an increasingly important role in
molding the success (or failure) of individuals during the
coming years.
Of all the nations of the world, the United States was
one of the first to recognize the need for education of all
people. Today, it is common for education to be one of the
prime recipients of public funding at all levels of govern-
ment. The school systems and colleges have done an admir-
able job in fulfilling their role of providing educational
opportunities for a large segment of our population. In the
future, their task will be greatly complicated by our chang-
ing world and the knowledge needed to meet new
There is that one very important area however, where
public funded education through schools and colleges has
not provided what is so desperately needed. That area is
argue that leadership is an inborn quality which some

people possess and others do not. Such is not true. What is
true is that leadership, like other skills, is something which
some people develop to a greater or lesser extent than
others. The fact is that every person has within himself or
herself the ability to lead others. The limiting factor is the
extent to which each person develops this ability. After the
ability has been developed, another factor comes into play.
This is the extent to which an individual is willing to take
responsibility and accept the consequences of his or her
actions. With every leadership opportunity comes an equal
or greater responsibility.
What does this have to do with you? You might think
that, if you have not acquired some leadership skills by
now, perhaps you never needed them in the first place! If
this is what you are thinking, you may have missed the
point. You see, this article is not aimed so much at the ma-
ture adults of our society as it is intended for young people.
Young people, between the ages of eight and eighteen are in
their formative years. They are expected to be capable of
reading, writing, planning and evaluating. They should also
be capable of setting their own goals. These are the ages in
which we must begin to develop leadership skills.
As was mentioned earlier, the schools and colleges
have never been charged with this leadership development
responsibility, although they have recognized its value for
many years. In recognizing the value of leadership skill de-
velopment, many educational institutions offer free choice
activities which help to meet this need. Sports, drama,
music and other related activities help to develop these
skills. Here again, it is an accepted fact that not every
young person can participate in these activities. Where
then, are these young people to gain the leadership skills
training they need in order to be a success in our society?
One of the very best places for any child to develop these
skills is through a youth organization which has leadership
development as one of its primary goals. Boy Scouts, Girl
Scouts, Boy's Clubs, Camp Fire Girls, 4-H Clubs, the list
goes on and on. These organizations are dedicated to the
principle that every boy and girl should have the oppor-
tunity to develop to their fullest potential physically, emo-
tionally, socially, mentally and spiritually. This total de-
velopment also stresses leadership skills as a part of growth.
The 4-H Club Program in the Virgin Islands is a
growing and dynamic organization of young people who are
interested in learning and doing new things and in develop-
ing their leadership potential. The 4-H Program draws upon
a strong agricultural and home economics base but has
branched out to include projects of all types, from Aero-
space to Veterinary Science. 4-H is worldwide in scope hav-
ing branches in some 42 foreign countries. It is one of the
fastest growing organizations of its type in the world. There
are more than five million 4-H members in the United
States and many million former 4-H members. Among the
(Continued on Page 49)







lU Iu I


Sweet Potato A Good Food

By Lawrence Lewis, Research Assistant
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix

An orange flesh sweet potato (approximately 6 ozs.)
provides the recommended daily requirement of vitamin A,
about 1/3 of the iron and vitamin C. It is also a good source
of thiamine (vitamin B) and calcium. In spite of these facts,
recent reports show that sweet potatoes are not consumed
in sufficient quantities in the United States.
An economic survey made by Dr. Jerry M. Law of the
University of Louisiana on "Factors Affecting the Purchase
and Use of Sweet Potatoes in the United States" listed
seven reasons for reduced consumption. Among these
reasons, four might apply significantly to the Virgin Islands
1. Some people may not use sweet potatoes be-
cause it is too difficult to prepare, or too high
in calories or simply do not like its taste.
2. More information may be needed by the con-
sumer with respect to handling and avoidance
of spoilage.
3. Infrequent use and only with certain other
kinds of foods.
4. Not frequently included in the menu of public
eating places.

Nutritive Values for Household Measures
and Market Units of Some Foods
Food, approximate measures,
units and weight
(edible part unless
footnotes indicate otherwise)

\ -ri-V
Food -
7 5 '* ?"-- o 5-
Values -a -
for edible - .
part of u -
foods o a Q oo au
Food energy (cal.) 499 434 540 32.5 1,243
Protein (gm) 7.4 6.5 11.3 9.1 19.5
Carbohydrate (gm) 115.0 100.2 115.7 73.7 163.3
Calcium (mg) 142 122 54 31 68
Phosphorus (mg) 205 179 331 277 503
Iron (mg) 3.2 2.7 2.3 2.4 5.9
Vitamin A value (I.U.) 28,860 30,100 0 Trace Trace
Thiamin (mg) 0.32 0.34 0.41 0.34 0.59
Ascorbic Acid (mg) 78 65 0 69 9.5

The nutritional value of four foods regularly con-
sumed in the Virgin Islands are compared in the table. The

table was not designed to underscore the value of rice, Irish
potatoes, and French fried Irish potatoes, but merely to in-
dicate that sweet potatoes are a good food. In spite of its
sweet taste, its caloric content is not much higher than that
of an Irish potato of equal size.
Though some fresh vegetables are best stored by re-
frigeration, the sweet potato is spoiled when placed in the
home refrigerator and, consequently, loses its nutritional
value. Several other tropical vegetables and fruits are
spoiled by low temperature storage, and a list of these vege-
tables can be obtained from the Home Economics Depart-
ment of the Cooperative Extension Service, College of the
Virgin Islands.
Different ways of cooking sweet potatoes might in-
crease its frequency of use, especially in the menu of public
eating places. If this were done in school lunch programs,
convenience-foods stores and restaurants consumption
might increase. Sweet potato chips and French fried sweet
potatoes are extremely tasty. For the more experienced
cook, recipes for sweet potato biscuits, loaf cake, and
heavenly sweet potato pie are included in this article.
There are those who share an optimistic outlook for
the sweet potato, Dr. S. A. Harmon of the University of
Georgia Experiment Station recently reported that more
nutrients are available from an acre of sweet potatoes than
from any other crop. Moreover, sweet potatoes, he claimed,
will gain in importance as grain foods become more scarce.
The College of the Virgin Islands' Agricultural Experi-
ment Station is experimenting with a wide variety of sweet
potato cultivars which will soon be made available to the
Virgin Islands' farmers.
A program to establish a labeled sweet potato nursery
has already been initiated. In view of the foregoing informa-
tion relative to the nutritional value of the sweet potato, it
is hoped that consumption of sweet potatoes will increase
in the Virgin Islands. And with a better knowledge of the
benefits to be derived from greater consumption of this
crop, both the farmer and the consumer will benefit by an
increase in its production.

1/2 c. flour, sifted
3 t. baking powder
3 t. salt

1/3 c. fat
V2 c. sweet potato flour
2/3 to 3/4 c. milk

Use blender, make sweet potato flour from instant
flakes. Five ounce package of flakes yields approximately
4 cup flour.
Sift together dry ingredients.
Cut in fat. Add milk and stir quickly. Turn out onto
a lightly floured board or pastry cloth and knead dough
quickly and gently about 15 to 20 times. Roll thin (1/4 to
1/3 inch). Cut in small rounds, place on baking sheet.
Bake at 425 degrees F. 12 to 15 minutes.

Courtesy of
Hannah's Rest


'/2 c. fat
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
1 c. mashed sweet potato
2 c. all-purpose flour
1/ t. salt
/2 c. chopped nuts

2 t. baking powder
t. soda
V t. cinnamon
12 t. nutmeg
1' t. cloves
M c. milk

Cream fat. Add sugar gradually and cream well. Add
eggs, beating well after each. Add sweet potatoes. Mix
well. Sift together rest of dry ingredients; add alternately
with milk to creamed mixture, beginning and ending with
dry ingredients. Add nuts. Mix well. Bake in a greased
9x9x2-inch loaf pan at 350 degrees F. (moderate oven)
45 to 50 minutes. Top with caramel icing, if desired.

(quick and easy)
1 pkg. vanilla pudding i t. cloves-ground
and pie filling mix / t. nutmeg
1 c. brown sugar. '/ t. ginger
firmly packed 1% c. milk
4 t. salt 1 T. butter
/4 t. cinnamon I13 c. cooked mashed sweet
4 t. all-spice 9" pie shell, baked
Combine mix, sugar, spices, milk and butter in sauce-
pan. Cook and stir over medium heat until mixture comes
to boil. Remove from heal. Cool 5 minutes, stirring once
or twice. Add potatoes; mix until well blended. Pour onto
cooled pie shell. Chill until firm. Top with whipped cream.

; eamran's


P.O. BOX 474
ST. CROIX, V.I. 00820


Box 3155

St. Thomas, V. I. 00801

~ ~

Lethal Yellowing Of Coconut Palms

By William R. Phelps, Plant Pathologist
U.S. Forest Service, State and Private Forestry
Atlanta, Georgia

Lethal yellowing of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera)
is a disease caused by an infectious agent known as a my-
coplasma. This disease is causing severe losses of coconut
and ornamental palms in many Caribbean Islands, West
Africa and the United States in south Florida. In addition
to the coconut palm, sixteen species of ornamental palms
are susceptible. So far, this devastating palm tree disease
has not been found in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
However, it is only a matter of time before it will invade
these islands.
Lethal yellowing was first noticed at Montego Bay,
Jamaica in 1891. From there it spread throughout the
Caribbean Islands to the Bahamas, Dominican Republic,
Cuba and Haiti. In Jamaica, approximately 4.3 million
coconut palms have died from lethal yellowing. In Florida,
the disease has already killed a third of the coconut palms
and an undetermined number of other palm species. The
disease is continuing to spread. The "Jamaican Tall" variety
is one of the most susceptible, and is the variety found in
the islands and south Florida.
Most plant and tree diseases are caused by fungi, bac-
teria, nematodes, viruses or nutritional deficiencies. How-
ever, lethal yellowing is different. The causal agent is a
mycoplasma-like organism that resembles a bacterium
without a rigid cell wall. These are the smallest living cells
known requiring an electron microscope to observe. These
infectious bodies are found in the phloem, which is the
food conducting tissue in a plant or tree. These organisms
cause death of the phloem cells resulting in starvation and
death of the host. Spread from tree to tree is thought to be
by insect vectors, mainly phloem feeding leafhoppers.
Lethal yellowing may be easily confused with other
yellowing and defoliating diseases of palms including fungal
butt rot, nutrient deficiencies, insects, nematodes and
lightning damage.
The first symptom is the premature dropping of most
or all the coconuts regardless of size. Most of the fallen nuts
have brown or black areas at the stem end. The second
stage, which is the most distinctive symptom, is the black-
ening of new inflorescence tips (flower stalks). This may be
observed as the flower stalks break through the structure
that encloses them. It is quite distinctive because the inflor-

escence of healthy trees is a golden yellow color. In addi-
tion, almost all the male flowers will be dead and black, and
no fruit will be set on such a flower stalk. This symptom
should not be confused with old or over-mature tips on the
flower stalk, which also becomes blackened with age. The
third stage is the one from which the disease gets its name.
The fronds (leaves) turn yellow, usually beginning with the
older ones near the bottom of the crown and advancing
upwards toward the top of the tree. Fronds that have
yellowed will die, turn brown and hang down, tending to
cling to the tree instead of falling off. The fourth and final
stage occurs only after all the leaves have been killed, in-
cluding the newly emerged spear leaf. Death of the bud
occurs, followed by the falling away of the top of the tree
leaving a bare trunk or "telephone pole". Infected trees
usually die within 3 to 6 months after the appearance of
the first symptoms.

m y .7 2%an a W eu'k3
Severly infected coconut plantation showing many dead
trees in the "telephone pole" stage.

Control of lethal yellowing may be achieved through
an integrated series of measures which include: 1) cutting
and removing infected trees as soon as symptoms are de-
tected so the vector cannot spread the casual agent to near-
by healthy trees 2) quarantine of affected areas so diseased
palms are not moved into areas free from disease 3) replant-
ing or under-planting with resistant varieties such as the
"Malayan Dwarf', "Maypan", or other hybrids which are
known to be resistant to the disease 4) antibiotic treatment
either as a preventive or corrective measure for trees show-
ing initial disease symptoms.
Now is the time to start a planting program of re-
sistant "Malayan Dwarf" varieties, since most of the coco-
nut palms growing in the Virgin Islands are the susceptible
"Jamaican Tall". The "Malayan Dwarf" is not a true


G.P.O. BOX 3128


Advanced symptoms showing discolored and dead fronds
hanging from mainstem of the coconut palm.
dwarf since it may obtain heights of 60 feet. There are
three varieties available: green, yellow and golden. These
can be obtained from a local nursery. The golden and
(Continued on Page 49)

Initial symptoms showing blackening of young inflor-
escence tips (flower stalks) and immature nuts.


Hannah's Rest
Frederiksted, St. Croix, V.I.
Phone: 772-0155




Bassin Triangle
Christiansted, St. Croix, V.I.
Phone: 773-2050


By Mauricette Brin, St. Croix

Orchids to most people mean great big white or
purple flowers usually worn as a corsage at some festive
occasion, to a botanist it means a highly evolved plant with
great scientific importance and to the amateur grower bit-
ten by the orchid bug, orchids are a many wondrous plant.
They grow in an infinite variety of shapes from the most
exquisite to the grotesque. They grow in different colors.
Their flowers can be as large as 1 foot across or as small as
the head of a pin. Some grow on trees, some on rocks, some
in the soil and some even grow and bloom underground.
Some blooms last as long as 9 months, some as little as 5
minutes. Some plants are 10 feet high, some can fit in a
thimble. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 differ-
ent species of orchids and the number of man-made hybrids
probably surpasses that amount. Some call orchids the
"camel of the plant world" because of the ability of many
to survive long periods of drought by storing water in one
of their vegetative parts, the pseudobulb. Some orchids
need a long dry period in order to flower properly, some
need constant moisture. Some need nearly constant ex-
posure to the sun, some will grow and flower only in the
shade. In their vegetative parts there are not as many varia-
tions as in their floral parts. Some have large thick pseudo-
bulbs, some grow without pseudobulbs, some have thick
fleshy leaves, some have thin grasslike leaves, some have
leathery leaves and some have leaves that are pencil shaped.
Some are monopodial the stem growing in one direction
usually vertically. Some are sympodial the stem growing
horizontally developing lateral shoots and the lateral shoots
also branch the same way.
The roots of terrestrial orchids (soil growing) are
mostly very similar to the roots of other plants but the
roots of epiphytes (growing on trees or rocks) serve not
only to obtain water and food from their surroundings
but also to anchor the plant to the host may it be rock or
tree. The tip of these roots is green and is the growing root
tip. The rest of the root is surrounded by layers of a silvery
grey matter called the velamen. The velamen takes moisture
from the air and thereby insulates the root from excessive
temperature. The velamen does not carry water to the
plant, only the green root tip has this function. Orchids are
not parasites. They do not get their nourishment from their
host but obtain it from the rain and from decaying dead in-
sects and vegetative debris that are washed down and
caught around their roots and pseudobulbs.
With this infinite variety of shape, growth habit, size,
vegetative part, what is it that sets the orchid apart from
other plants? The one part that is almost hidden in the cen-
ter of the flower, the one part that to the eye of most be-

holders is the least attractive; the column. The column is
the reproductive apparatus of the orchid. In most "ordi-
nary" or "generalized" flowers their reproductive appara-
tus consist of filaments, anthers, style and stigma, as well
as the ovary, ovules and pollen grains. All these reproduc-
tive parts are usually separate entities. In the orchid, the
column is the fusion of the filaments, anthers, style and
stigma. The pollen grains are not separate and powdery
as in other flowers but form a waxy or mealy aggregate
called the pollinia. The anther (male part) is located at
the top of the column with its pollinia. Right below the
anther is the female portion of the column: the stigma
with a sticky substance on its surface.
Pollination takes place when the pollinator, usually
an insect, visits a flower for nectar. Upon leaving the flow-
er the pollinia becomes attached to the insect's back, beak,
or head. This pollinia is then brought into contact and
adheres to the stigma's sticky substance of the second
flower the insect visits.
In the orchid, the ovary is small and is part of the
pedicel (individual flower stem). It is located just below
the sepals and contains the ovules. After pollination the
ovary enlarges as the pollen tubes grow slowly down from
the stigma into the ovules and fertilization actually takes
place weeks or months after pollination. It is to be noted
that in most "ordinary" flowers the ovules are developed
before pollination. In the orchid the ovules do not develop
until sometime after pollination. Orchid seeds are the
smallest of all flowering plants, but their quantity varies
from 6,000 to 5 million depending on the variety. These
extremely small dustlike seeds take from 4 to 15 months
to reach maturity. The seed capsule changes from green
to brown and dries up, slits appear in the length of the
capsule and slowly the seeds are released. Seeds are carried
by the wind and since they do not have their own food
supply they rely on a symbiotic relationship with a my-
corrhizal fungus in the soil to germinate. In the laboratory,
germination of most orchid seeds take place within 4
months approximately, and from germination to flower
production it takes one to 7 years depending on the
variety. The great length of time between pollination and
flower production is what sometimes makes an orchid
bloom appear so costly. For years the commercial orchid
grower has to nurture his plants from seed to flowers and
spend a great deal of money during these long years of
growth without any immediate returns.
Beside the column which belongs uniquely to the
orchid, what else do orchids have in common? They all
have the same basic floral structure. Namely: they all have
3 sepals and 3 petals. One petal is usually larger and show-
ier than the other two. Or it can be smaller and almost in-
conspicuous to all but the pollinator. It is called the lip
(labellum). It is the lip that serves as a landing platform

tractor FORD 4500



AVE.* D 103
^^^^^766-3490 ^^

for the insect that will pollinate the orchid. An orchid
attracts the pollinator in a variety of ingenious ways. Nec-
tar offering is the most common. Odor is another attrac-
tor. Orchids do have fragrances, most are delightful, some
highly objectionable to all but carrion flies. Some will
emit their fragrance only during that part of the day when
their particular pollinator is around. Some orchid fra-
grances will simulate the sexual odor of a certain type of
insects and the male (or female) of that particular type will
be found fighting for a place on certain flowers even
during a rain.
Some pollinators are attracted by the color and
shape of the flower. Butterflies and birds are attracted to
red, while bees are color blind to red. Bees are attracted to
blue, purple, violet, white or yellow flowers. Moths are at-
tracted by white, cream and greenish flowers. The most in-
teresting story connected with pollination is the story of
the pollination of the orchid from Madagascar popularly
called the "Star of Bethleem" (Angraecum sesquipedale)
which has waxy flowers up to 7" across and a nectar tube
almost 1 foot long. About 100 years ago Darwin predicted
that "a moth with a 10-11 inch proboscis capable of
reaching the nectar at the bottom of the tube and fertilizing
the flower must be found in Madagascar". Many years later
such a moth was found, the night flying Xanthopam mor-
gani praedicta.
Orchids are of great economic importance to the flor-
ist. In medicine they have contributed salep. In some orchid
forests, natives use the vegetative parts as a mild diuretic.
To the culinary world orchids have contributed vanilla and
in Madagascar the leaves of an orchid make a fragrant tea.
To the hobbyist grower, the orchid provides endless joys
and rewards.
Most orchids are not difficult to grow, and in the
Virgin Islands where nature provides lots of light, cooling
breezes, and humidity from the surrounding Caribbean sea,
orchids can be grown outside without elaborate green
houses. The Virgin Islands are in the tropic belt and the
most beautiful and popular orchids do come from the
tropic belt of Asia, Africa, South and Central America,
the Caribbean and Pacific Islands.
In St. Croix the varieties found growing wild are not
many, but we are a small island and there are about 5 var-
ieties found in different parts of the island. St. Thomas
has more native varieties than St. Croix, and Puerto Rico
many more than the Virgin Islands.
If you are interested in growing orchids and if you
want to meet many of the friendliest people while doing so,
join your local orchid society and you will be provided with
lots of information, an orchid or two from time to time,
and like many others you will soon become "hooked" on
that most wondrous plant, the orchid. M

When you reach retirement age, do
you expect to be ...

If you are working for private enterprise,
chances are you do not have a retirement
plan. Will Social Security be enough for you
to live on?

THE SOLUTION! Your own Individual Tax
Sheltered Retirement Plan, as enacted into
law by the Congress of the United States.
A plan that will guarantee you a substantial
income at retirement.
Call GUS DOWARD for an indepth presen-
tation, and make sure that when retirement
is ready for you, you will be ready for
CALL 773-4190 DAYS 773-1706 NIGHTS

Getting The Most Out Of Your Fertilizer

By A. John Conje, Research Agronomist
V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix

Crop production practices that improve efficiency are
important whether fertilizer supplies are limited or not.
With the current high fertilizer prices, it is wise to review
our fertilization practices.
Such practices as planting adapted varieties and con-
trolling insects, weeds, and diseases are as important as ever.
If livestock are an integral part of your farm operation you
will have a supply of manure for use as fertilizer. When
ample supplies of commercial fertilizer are available, the
spreading of manure is considered primarily a means of
disposing of the material. But it is, of course, also a val-
uable source of plant nutrients, especially when other
sources may not be at hand. Although quite variable in
content, farm manure is frequently credited with 10
pounds of nitrogen, 5 pounds of phosphorous, and 10
pounds of potassium per ton.
There are various ways of allocating a limited amount
of fertilizer to obtain maximum crop yield. Soil testing is a
reliable means of measuring the fertility of soils and deter-
mining fertilizer requirements. It is the scientific way to
take guess work out of crop fertilization.
The results of a recent laboratory analysis of soil
samples taken at selected areas in St. Croix indicate that
nitrogen is the most deficient major chemical element fol-
lowed by phosphorous. Most soils are adequately supplied
with potassium at this time. Calcium and magnesium are
found in abundance. The availability of micro-nutrients
such as zinc, iron, manganese and copper are very low due
to high soil pH-over 7.
At the present time, the Virgin Islands does not have
an agricultural soil testing laboratory. But plans are now
underway to set up a soil testing laboratory at the College
of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station.
Several commercial soil testing laboratories in the mainland
United States have been approved by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Plant Quarentine Service to handle soil
samples from the Virgin Islands. These laboratories conduct
routine soil analysis and gives fertilizer recommendations.
The charges for these services are reasonable. Further in-
formation about commercial soil testing laboratories is
available at the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment
Station at Kingshill.
Fertilizer placement, especially for phosphorous and
potassium, is another thing that affects fertilizer efficiency.
When phosphorus is broadcast and incorporated there will
obviously be more soil contact than if it is applied in a

band. Unfortunately, this provides maximum opportunity
for phosphate fixation, which means soluble phosphates
react with soil constituents such as calcium, iron, or alu-
minum to form relatively water-insoluble compounds.
Although these compounds raise the level of soil fertility
and are slowly available to successive crops, the immediate
result is a decline in the availability of soluble phosphate
fertilizer in the plants.
Band application concentrates phosphorous in a lo-
calized zone near the seed at planting. This minimizes soil
contact and reduces the effect of fixation on phosphorous
availability. Proper band application provides a high level
of available phosphorous close to plants when the root sys-
tem is small and the requirements (in proportion to size)
are high.
Proper application of nitrogenous fertilizers should
be observed to minimize losses due to leaching beyond the
reach of plant roots and the conversion of stable forms of
nitrogen to gaseous forms which can then be lost to the
atmosphere. Potential nitrogen losses from solid sources
can be minimized by incorporation into the soil. Quite
often surface applications of nitrogen are efficient, but the
potential for loss is generally less if nitrogen fertilizers are
not left on the soil surface.
Time of application of nitrogen can also be an impor-
tant consideration. Nitrogen is more subject to loss from
the soil than is any of the other major fertilizer elements.
Consequently, the most efficient time to apply it is as near
as possible to the time of maximum plant uptake. This
means sidedressing or topdressing after the crop is planted.
However, this time is not always best from farmers' stand
point. Bad weather may delay application when nitrogen is
needed, and split application means additional labor and
time. Because of these factors many farmers prefer to pre-
plant their nitrogen.
Of course, water is needed before solid fertilizers can
be made available for plant use. Be sure that there is enough
moisture in the soil immediately after application. Other-
wise, your fertilizer will not be properly utilized.
To get the most out of your fertilizer, have your soils
tested, plant adapted varieties and use the best soils, do not
overcrowd plants, balance fertility for all crops, and con-
trol weeds, pests and disease adequately. m



* AntillesAirBoats

/The Relationship Between Sunshine, Moisture

And Crop Production In The Virgin Islands

By Frank L. Mills
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas

The two most important factors in the production of
food crops are relatively high temperatures and a sufficient
quantity of moisture during plant growth. The tropical lo-
cation of the Virgin Islands ensures a maximum growing
season of 365 days during the year. The greater portion of
the moisture requirement derives from rainfall, and most of
the rest is supplied from groundwater, streams, ponds, etc.
The quantity of rain that falls is largely a function of geo-
graphic location, topography and prevailing air masses. On
the other hand, when rainfall is deficient, water is supplied
to plants from wells, dams, or streams where these sources
exist and where relatively flat land, capital and technology
permit its provision. When rain falls or water is made avail-
able through irrigation, plants use some of it, a portion runs
off or sinks into the ground, but most is evaporated by
sunlight or restored to the air through transpiration from
plants' leaves. It seems useful to examine the source of
water in the Virgin Islands and its relation to temperature
and food crop production.
The islands are exposed to moist maritime tropical
air masses brought westward by the tropical easterlies or
trade winds from the Atlantic subtropical high pressure
cell. These air masses are abundantly supplied with mois-
ture and when they encounter hill and mountain slopes,
heavy rainfall results. Periods of rainy weather are also
associated with the westerly passage of a slowly moving
wave of low pressure. In this easterly wave, convergence
causes the moist air to be lifted and to break out into
scattered showers and thunderstorms. This rainy spell gen-
erally lasts from a few hours to two days or so. In addition,
the sun is directly overhead on or about May 12 and Au-
gust 1, and these high-sun solstices are marked by heavy
convectional showers in these months. This is what
accounts for the mini-maximum in May during an extended
period of relative dryness. The rain which falls may be
classified either as surface water-flowing exposed or
ponded on the land-or as sub-surface water, occupying
pores in the soil or in the bedrock.
Rainfall is extremely variable in its distribution on
the land surface. While all locations on the islands receive
about the same quantity of precipitation from easterly
disturbances and during high-sun periods, the amount re-
ceived from relief rain is largely dependent on whether the

area is hilly or not. Mountainous areas tend to receive more
rainfall than low-lying locations or those on the leeward
sides of hills. The reason is that hills force moist air masses
to rise, the resulting cool air induces condensation, clouds
and minute raindrops form, and the latlei coalesce to pro-
duce iain showers that fall mostly on thi windward slopes.
This explains why the northern sides of St. Thomas and St.
John and the northwest mountains of St. Croix are among
the wettest areas on the islands. The intensity and quantity
of rainfall at any particular location vary in time from
shower to shower and from year to year respectively.
Water may be classified according to whether it is
surface or subsurface water. In light showers, vegetation
may intercept the rain to hold it on leaves and stems, and
this moisture may be returned directly to the atmosphere
by evaporation so that little watei may reach the ground.
A sustained light shower of half an houi or so after a long,
dry period can be absorbed without any overland flow. Any
excessive precipitation will accumulate in small puddles,
and with continued heavy rainfall, the watei then overflows
from'puddle to puddle to form rills, guts and streams.
That part of the subsurface water which infiltrates
and completely saturates the pore spaces of the rock or its
overburden and which responds to gravitational force is
ground water, or is termed the zone of saturation. Above
this is a zone of aeration, the uppermost layer of which is
the soil moisture belt. It is from this bell that plants ex-
tract moisture. The underlying section of the zone of aera-
tion is the intermediate bell from which no moisture is
returned to the atmosphere by either direct evaporation or
transpiration from leaves because this zone is too deep.
At the base of the zone of aeration and at the upper bound-
ary of the zone of saturation is a capillary fringe, a thin
layer in which water has been drawn upward from the un-
derlying ground water by capillary action. Withdrawal of
ground water from the zone of saturation in wells by
farmers is of primary importance as a source of water for
livestock and irrigation.
Farmers irrigate their crops primarily to ensure that
there is no deficiency of moisture at any time during their
development. However, many farmers are unable to deter-
mine to what extent rainfall fails to supply the water needs
of crops because they do not know the quantity needed
by these crops for optimum growth. In certain parts of the
United States, farmers have been able to determine the rate
of evapotranspiration, or the loss of moisture from the
terrain by direct evaporation plus transpiration from vege-

400 men and women

serving you.

--a^ j^10i0

our job is to help people
talk to each other

station. This rate is determined by five factors. These are
the climate (particularly the intensity of sunlight and
length of sunlight hours, wind velocity and relative humid-
ity), the amount of soil moisture supplied by rainfall or
irrigation water, the absence or thickness of vegetation
cover, the soil type and structure, and the land manage-
ment practices. However, when there is ample water for
the plants to use, land management and soil type have
little effect on evapotranspiration. Considerable evidence
indicates that when soil moisture in the root zone is main-
tained at optimum conditions, the quantity of water used
by crops is influenced more by the amount of the sun's
energy and the resultant temperature than on the kind of
crop grown. The total water loss sustained when the water
supplied to crops equals or exceeds the amount they can
use is termed potential evapotranspiration.
When a farmer wants to supply supplementary water
to his crops, he ought to have some means of determining
how much water to apply and when the plants need it.
Common practices involve watching the crops for signs of
wilting or moisture deficiency or frequent examination of
the subsoil. Neither of these methods appears satisfactory,
and the climatological approach seems to offer a more ra-
tional procedure. The farmer can regard the amount of
water in the soil moisture belt as a balance between what
infiltrates from rainfall and what is extracted by the sun
and plants through evaporation and transpiration. Precipi-
tation is easily measured by rain gauges or obtained from
meteorological offices. Evapotranspiration rates, although
not easily obtainable, ought to be provided by an appro-
priate agricultural agency in the islands. One can then com-
pare the loss of moisture from the soil through evapotrans-
piration with the daily rainfall. Irrigation can then sensibly
restore promptly to the soil any moisture deficiency and
prevent retarded development in crop growth. i



TEL. 773-3325

The Common Flies Found On Cattle In The Virgin Islands

By Richard S. Patterson, D. F. Williams and O. Skov
USDA, ARS, Federal Experiment Station
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

There are only three species of flies which are closely
associated with cattle in the Virgin Islands. They all belong
to the family muscidae which include most of the pestifer-
ous flies of man and animals. House flies, stable flies, and
horn flies are three species which are abundant on these is-
lands. The economic impact of these flies on the cattle and
dairy industry on St. Croix and St. Thomas is unknown
since no studies have been made. However, in Florida where
careful records and research data have been compiled, it
was estimated that in 1975, house flies, horn flies and
stable flies caused a 55,000,000 dollar loss to the dairy and
cattle industry of that state. Ironically, the horn fly which
causes the most losses in Florida, 36 million, is seldom no-
ticed by the general public since it never leaves its host ex-
cept to lay its eggs or migrate to another animal. It seldom,
if ever, bites man. Whereas, everyone is familiar with the
house fly since it commonly invades one's homes, restau-
rants, etc. Most farmers do not realize that house flies as
they feed on the moisture around the eyes and nose can
spread certain diseases such as Keratoconjunctivitis or pink-
eye in cattle, Black leg, Cattle plague, etc. The stable fly,
which is the secretive, biting cousin of the house fly and of-
ten mistaken for it, is seldom far from livestock but only
goes to the host for a brief blood meal, staying perhaps 15-
30 minutes. Once this blood meal is taken, the fly rests in
some secluded spot to digest its meal. It may wait up to 12
hours before it takes another blood meal. 'Thus when one
observers a few on the lower abdomen and legs of the ani-
mal, for each of these flies observed there are 50 to 60
more flies feeding on your animals daily. Stable flies will
attack any warm blooded mammal although cattle
and horses are their preferred host. In Florida when stable
fly populations become too high in the agricultural areas,
they will migrate with the winds into the densely populated
beach resort areas. Since its preferred hosts are lacking,
they will attack the people on the beach. When these inva-
sions occur the Chamber of Commerce of one area claims
that the tourist industry loses an estimated million dollars
per day because people just leave the area. To date on St.
Croix and St. Thomas, the stable fly population has never
built up to such proportions.
The three species of flies associated with cattle are
found to rest and feed in very distinct locations on the
host. Each has a preferred area on the host if they are
present in light to moderate population levels. The horn
fly which is a small dark fly about 1/3 the size of the house
fly is found on the shoulders and along the back of the ani-

mal. On dairy animals they have a tendency to stay in the
dark areas of the coat and are thus hard to observe from a
distance. Actually the horn fly is usually more prevalent on
beef animals than dairy animals. The reason for this is that
the grain ration fed daily to dairy animals has an adverse
effect on the survival of the fly larvae in the manure.

S Houe Flies
B Stable Flies
o1- Flrn I.

Location of 3 Species of Flies on Cattle

Stable flies are normally found on the animal's legs
and belly. Like the horn flies, the stable flies prefer the
dark areas of the animal. Both flies cause the animals to
become irritable and nervous. Therefore there is continual
kicking and stomping of the feet, swinging of the tail and
head. This causes difficulty in handling the animals. The
animals frequently injure themselves, other animals or their
attendants because of their hyperactivity due to the
presence of these two types of flies. House flies do not take
a blood meal but feed on the dampness found around the
animal's muzzle and eyes, on its lower legs and anal area
where an accumulation of fresh damp manure is caked. Un-
less the house flies are very numerous, especially around the
eyes, they do not seem to bother the animal or interfere
with its normal processes or routine. House flies are often
found on the udder of the cow if there is any milk leakage
or if the udder is caked with fresh manure.
When populations of any of these flies are very
heavy, they can be found in other locations on the animal
rather than the preferred ones. Therefore, in heavy popula-
tions of horn flies, 1,000 to 10,000 per cow, it is not un-
common to find the flies on the sides, legs, belly and upper
face of the animal. Likewise, when stable flies are numer-
ous, they may be found anywhere on the animal but they
will be heaviest on the legs. House flies are found only on
or near damp or moist areas; however, if they are numer-
ous, they will crawl all over the animal especially when it
is laying down and quiet.


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With normal fly populations it is usually easy, by
examining an animal at a reasonable distance to determine
the species of fly that is troubling the animal or herd. Al-
though all three species of these flies have similar life his-
tories and ways of controlling them, each is sufficiently
different to warrant a brief but separate description.
Horn fly (Haematobia irratans L.)
This small fly never leaves its host unless disturbed
or to quickly oviposite its eggs in fresh cow manure. Under
normal conditions the manure becomes unsuitable for the
flies within 15 minutes after dropping. The period of time
may be slightly longer in conditions of high humidity. The
eggs hatch within 24 hours of oviposition and the larvae or
maggots feed on the cow pat. The larvae under normal St.
Croix conditions completes its development through 3 in-
stars or stages in 3 to 5 days. The larvae pupates usually
beneath the manure pat in the soil. The pupal stage lasts
for 3-5 days, then the insect emerges as an adult which
actively seeks a host. It normally takes the fly 3 days to
be sexually mature and able to oviposite its first batch
of eggs. Thus the life cycle of the horn fly in the Caribbean
area is completed in a week and a half to two weeks. The
females normally lay about 10 to 20 eggs per day: their
adult life span is about a week or two.
Each day the adult fly pierces the skin of its host up
to two dozen times, each time taking a fresh blood meal.
This constant feeding causes the animal pain and annoyance
thus interfering with the normal feeding and resting activi-
ties of the cattle. Horn fly populations of 50 or more flies
are considered to be of economic importance. This number
and more are commonly encountered on animals in Cruzan
herds. Extremely high numbers of flies up to several thou-
sand per animal have been seen on some range animals. This
many flies consume a great deal of blood thus predisposing
the animal to other infections such as diseases and para-
sites. Often animals with heavy horn fly infestations will
develop open sores on their backs.
Forced use dust bags give the best control although
sprays or dips are successful. On St. Croix the cattle are us-
ually sprayed or dipped for tick control. This is very effec-
tive for horn fly control for a week or more. Back rubbers
are useful but usually do not control fly populations. Feed
additives have been used which kill the larvae in the
manure. This method has been used successfully in certain
areas by incorporation in salt licks; however, on a small
island such as St. Croix, it probably would not work since
the animals require only small quantities of salt. Recently
an integrated sterile male release was carried out on one of
the small Hawaiian islands with good results. The use of
parasites and predators are also being investigated presently
by the USDA-ARS with very promising results. Many of the
parasites which have successfully been used against other
flies will attack horn flies.

Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.)
Next to horn flies, the stable fly is the big nuisance
insect to cattle. In last year's Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair brochure, the article "Facts about stable
flies on St. Croix" gives a detailed description of the life his-
tory of this insect. This fly prefers to lay its eggs in a silage
or mixture of silage and manure and urine. However, if
conditions are not favorable it will oviposite in areas of
manure and mud mixture. This is especially true during the
rainy season when many of the preferred oviposition sites
are too wet. The larvae will survive in individual cow pats
but this is not common. The fly completes its immature
development in about two weeks and it completes the cycle
in 3 weeks.
On St. Croix the spraying of the suitable larval breed-
ing media with 1% marlate. spray gives about 85% control.
The release of sterile males has reduced the number of flies
on the east end of the island so that there is a very small
wild population at a time of year when the wild fly popula-
tion should be very high. The wild fly population on the
west end of the island has been held in check but has not
been significantly reduced as of November 1976. The use of
spray and dips plus forced use dust bags and back rubbers
also will reduce the adult stable fly population.
House fly (Musca domestic L.)
The house fly will feed on anything that it can dis-
solve and take up in its sponge-like mouth parts. Thus it
may feed on feces, then move and feed on discharges from
the animal's eye and on to your breakfast table. Because of
this wide range of food preference this insect is the cause of
the spread of many bacteria, protozoa, virus and other in-
fectous diseases of man and animal. The house fly female
can lay up to 2,000 eggs or more but usually lays two or
three batches of 100 eggs each. She will oviposit these on
fresh manure, silage or any rotting organic matter that is
sufficiently moist. The fly eggs hatch within one day and
larvae actively feed on the media. It goes through 3 stages
within 3-5 days and then pupates for 3 days. Thus it goes
through its immature stages within a week and completes
its life cycle in about two weeks. The house fly population
on St. Croix is usually especially heavy during the rainy
season due to the dampness and excessive rotting organic
matter about.
Except for good sanitation there is very little that
can be done for house fly control. This insect is resistant
to most insecticides and the ones that the house flies
are not resistant to are usually either too toxic or too ex-
pensive for general use. The use of commercial fly baits is
useful to reduce adult population. Recent experiments
with the release of parasites have proven very effective.
On one farm on St. Croix where the house fly population
was very heavy, the continual release of parasites has
(Continued on Page 49)

Compliments of










Sunny Isle
Shopping Center

Salute the Virgin Islands Department of

Agriculture on the occasion of the



Unique Shop (Ladies)
Town & Country
Ideal Beauty Salon
Bethany Bookstore
Post Office Station
Sunny Isle Twin Theaters
Caravan Imports
Sunny Isle Interiors
First National City Bank
Ole's Snack Bar
Junior's Jewelry
American Red Cross
Lion's Den
The Unique Shop
"Colorama" (Home Improvement)
Sunny Isle Sewing Center
Caribbean Equipment and
Systems Corporation

Bata Shoe Store
Kinney's Shoe Store
V. I. Police Station
V. I. Lottery Sales
Logan's Pet Supply
Hughes' Photo Studio
Casa Marina
Terry's Children Wear
Seaman Electronics
People's Drug Store
Grand Union Super Market
Sylvia's Magazine Store
Kentucky Fried Chicken
Hometown Insurance
V.I. Logo "T" Shirts
Goderich-Guerra Shipping Agency
Speedy Secretarial Service
St. Croix Gas

SPesticide Control In The Virgin Islands

By David L. Farrar
Agricultural Agent, V.I. Extension Service
Leonard G. Reed, Jr.
Director, Pesticide Control Program
Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs

Pesticides which include insecticides, fungicides, ger-
micides, rodenticides, herbicides, and many many others
are all beneficial to man. Just in the area of agricultural
food production, millions of pounds of Pesticides are used
yearly to give us greater yields and higher quality of food.
Without these pesticides, the insects and other pests would
destroy crops thereby greatly reducing the harvest.
Just as pesticides are beneficial to man, they can be
equally or more detrimental to his being, resulting in death
and illness due to pesticide poisoning. Therefore, regula-
tions are necessary to protect man and the environment
from some pesticide uses and misuse of pesticides in
In response to the need for such control, various
states and the Federal Government have created effective
legislation. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and, Roden-
ticide Act (FIFRA) is the Federal legislation: Virgin Islands
Code Act 3750 is the Virgin Islands Pesticide Control Act.
This Act was approved on October 21, 1975, thereby
creating the Pesticide Control Program.
This Control Program, through a cooperative agree-
ment with the C.V.I. Extension Service, authorized the
Extension Service to develop training materials and courses.
William Fitzwater, a training officer for EPA, was assigned
to V.I. Extension Service for a six month period to develop
Pesticide Applicators materials and to conduct courses of
instruction. During his assignment, he conducted several
training courses on the islands of St. John, St. Croix, and
St. Thomas.
The participants trained by the EPA Training Officer
totaled 26 Private and 84 Commercial applicators. The
number of Commercial applicators trained was satisfactory,
but the number of Private applicators trained was less than
anticipated and projected.
The reason training materials and courses were de-
veloped is to meet some of the requirements of Act 3750
and FIFRA. They both require that users of some pesti-
cides be certified. In order that such persons may be certi-
fied, they have to first be trained to handle, apply, store,
mix and use pesticides safely and properly. Upon comple-
tion of training and testing by the Extension Service,
persons who successfully complete requirements are certi-
fied by the Department of Conservation & Cultural Affairs.

Applicators of Pesticides are classified as Private and
Commercial. The Commercial classification is divided into
seven categories. They are: Plant Pest Control; Animal
Pest Control; Ornamental and Turf Pest Control; Industrial,
Institutional, Structural and Health Services Pest Controls;
Public Health Pest Control; Regulatory Pest Control, and
Demonstration and Research Pest Control. What does this
mean to you? Pesticides are classified into two classes:
General Use and Restricted Use. Only those persons that
will be using the Restricted Use pesticides need to be certi-
fied. In other words, if you are using General Use classified
pesticides, you do not have to be certified.
Which pesticides are classified for Restricted Use? A ten-
tative list is now available which lists restricted pesticides.
However, EPA will issue a list of Restricted Use Pesticides
by or before October, 1977.
Since no one knows which pesticides will be re-
stricted, should you be trained, tested, and certified? If you
use or spray pesticides, you should be certified. This is
particularly true since you may not be able to buy Re-
stricted Use Pesticides without Certified Credentials.
How can you be certified? You can be certified by
calling the Extension Service at 778-0246 and make ar-
rangements for training and testing. Once you have success-
fully passed the required training and testing, you will be
certified and issued Certified Applicators Credentials by the
Department of Conservation & Cultural Affairs, Division
of Natural Resources Management, Pesticide Control
Program. I

Compliments of




P.O. BOX 5322

TELS. OFIC. 785-9751
RES. 724-4646





P. 0. BOX 836





TELEPHONE 766-9280 766-9281 766-9282 766-0166

/Financial Assistance Available From

Farmers Home Administration

By Max M. Lund
Acting County Supervisor -St. Croix

Historically, 1977 marks the 42nd year of service by
the Farmers Home Administration as a credit agency of the
United States Department of Agriculture. It has provided
supervised credit for the development of farming, business,
industry, housing, and community facilities to help build
rural areas.
The agency now bears the third name in its history.
Up to 1938, it was known as the Resettlement Administra-
tion. Then up to 1947, it was referred to as the Farm Se-
curity Administration. Its initials, FHA, were often con-
fused with other agencies so that in April, 1974, USDA
adopted the abbreviated designation, FmHA.
The agency was formed in the 1930's to make loans
to depression stricken farm families but now serves an
enormously broader purpose, Its programs are adminis-
tered through a nationwide system of about 1,750 county
offices for the convenient accessibility to the people.
In most programs, the agency makes loans to quali-
fied applicants who can find no other source of financing
available on terms or conditions they can meet. Although
FmHA continues to operate as a supplement to private
lenders and not in competition with. them, the loan losses
written off during the 40 years of the agency amount to
less than 2 percent of the principal advanced. About 5/2
billion dollars a year flows through FmHA channels into
rural lives.
Virgin Islanders participate in rural housing more
than any other program. Rural Housing loans outstanding
in the St. Croix office number over 700 cases and amount
to over 10 million dollars. Families with income up to
$15,600 after adjustment are now eligible. An applicant
must have a good credit record to be approved for a loan.
The loan can be used to buy, build, improve, or relocate
homes and to buy building sites. Where needed a loan may
be made up to 100 per cent of appraised value. Appraisals
are made by FmHA personnel without cost after applicant
has met eligibility requirements. Loans are made for 33
years but can be paid off in less years without penalty. The
current interest rate is 8 per cent but this interest rate can
be reduced for those borrowers with adjusted incomes of
$10,000 or less.
Other loan programs have found limited activity in
the Virgin Islands. Loans up to $5,000 for home repairs
can be made to very low income families for 20 years at 1
percent interest. Loans for rental housing are available
with repayment in 50 years for housing with Senior Citizen

occupants, 40 years for younger families of low to mod-
erate income, with reduced interest rate to public, non-
profit, and limited profit developers of modern units priced
within means of low income tenants. Also available are two
year loans to nonprofit developers of improved rural home-
site areas for sale to low and moderate income families.
Farmer programs include farm ownership loans to
enable family farmers lacking other sources of credit to
buy, improve, or enlarge farms they operate. This is a sig-
nificant source of credit by which young farmers become
established as owner-operators.
The FO applicant must have evidence that provides
reasonable assurance that he can successfully carry out the
farm operation he plans from experience and/or training.
Loans may be up to 100 per cent of appraised value of the
security for a term of 40 years at 5 per cent for FmHA
share of the loan. If available, participation in the loan of
50 per cent or more is required from another lender with
FmHA taking the junior lien.
Farm operating loans usually secured by chattel
mortgage are made for feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock, ma-
chinery and other production inputs. Only family farmers
lacking other sources of credit are eligible. Terms range I to
7 years and the current interest rate if 8%- per cent.
Loans are also available to individual farmers for re-
creational and other nonagricultural income producing
enterprises including camping, boating, and horse riding
facilities, and for improvement of soil and water resources.
Terms are 40 years at 5 per cent interest.
Youth loans are available to rural young people en-
rolled in an organized and supervised program such as 4-H,
FFA, and FHA. These loan funds can be used to establish
and operate income producing projects that provide practi-
cal business experience to students.
Loans for community facilities are available to a pub-
lic body or nonprofit organization. Water and waste dis-
posal systems, fire stations, community halls, hospital, nurs-
ing homes, medical clinics, libraries, schools, and recreation
centers are among the 30 types of facilities that have been
financed. Loans are for 40 years at 5 per cent interest.
New programs were added in 1974 to encourage busi-
ness and industrial development in rural areas. Those appli-
cants that create or preserve the most employment oppor-
tunities have the top priority.
Anyone desiring further information is welcome to
visit the St. Croix office in the Bolero Building in Christian-
sted. Office hours are 8:00 to 12:00 and 1:00 to 5:00 Mon-
day through Friday. Phone 773-4280. M


We are proud to be an active growing
citizen of the Community working
daily for Better living of the Virgin
Islanders through agriculture,
education and industry.

F Pueblo A

/Additional Benefits From The Insecticide Treatments

Of Cattle And Horses For Tick Control

By D. F. Williams, O. Skov, J. Gonzalez and
R. S. Patterson
USDA, ARS, Federal Experiment Station, St. Croix

For years the USDA and VI Department of Agricul-
ture have advocated dipping and/or spraying of all cattle
and horses with the insecticide suspensions of Co-Ral (cou-
maphos) to control the Tropical cattle fever tick, Boophi-
lus microplus and the Tropical horse fever tick,Anocentor
nitens. These ticks are the principal vectors of piroplasmosis
and anaplasmosis of cattle and horses on the Virgin Islands.
Unfortunately not all animals are treated on a regular basis,
some animals are never treated and the ticks remain abun-
dant. Moreover free roaming livestock and deer quickly
spread the ticks into areas which local farmers have worked
diligently over the years to be free of ticks.
The dipping or spraying operation, as carried out on
St. Croix is relatively simple. The animals are rounded up
and moved single file through either a dipping vat (Fig. 1)
or through a spray machine (Fig. 2). The chemical coumo-
phos is applied at the rate 0.125% suspension in water to
the animals (4 bl. of the insecticide which is 25% wettable
powder to 100 gallons of water.) When dipping, the animal
is completely saturated with the chemical. Spraying is us-
ually carried out using specialized equipment where the
spray nozzles apply the chemical over the entire body of
the animal using a high pressure spray system with multiple
T-jet nozzles. For good tick control the animals should be
treated at least monthly, however the timing can vary de-
pending on the degree of the tick infestations.

Fig. 1 Cattle being dipped for Tick Control.

Fig. 2 Spraying cattle.

Ticks are probably the most serious pest of Virgin Is-
land livestock but stable flies, horn flies, house flies, mos-
quitoes, sand flies, cattle lice, and mites are also present. All
of these parasites cause economic loss to the farmers be-
cause they weaken the animals health and predispose them
to other infections and diseases. Weight gain is reduced be-
cause of nervousness and irritability. Ironically there is also
an increase in feed consumption but no weight gain in
cattle which are being constantly troubled by ectoparasites.
This data has recently been documented by some Federal
and state researchers.
We at the USDA Federal Experiment Station have be-
come very interested in the tick program in relation to its
effects on other ectoparasites of cattle and horses. Most of
our research in this area has been done on the relationship
of the tick control program on the stable fly Stomoxys
calcitrans L. but observations have also been made on most
of the common ectoparasites of livestock present on St.
We conducted a study to determine the effect the
tick program had on other ectoparasites especially stable
flies of livestock. Holstein heifers were sprayed with a
0.125% Co-Ral (coumaphos) suspension and allowed to
dry. They were then placed in holding pens in a large cage.
Adult stable flies were released daily into the cages. Ani-
mals which were not sprayed were also caged. All animals
had natural infestations of horn flies, house flies, lice and
mites. As can be seen in the table the use of the insecticide
Co-Ral gave excellent stable fly control for 10 days.
During the dry spring and summer conditions the insecti-


ANCHOR INN 773-4377
We Try Hardert



cides would probably have given longer fly control. The
horn fly population was eliminated on the treated animals.
Lice and mites likewise would have been eliminated, how-
ever since these were not reintroduced we cannot say how
long the animals would have remained free of these pests.

Table 1. Effect on stable flies of a 0.125% Co-Ral@ spray
on holstein heifers on St. Croix.
(50 flies releases per animal per cage for 9 days).

Days Percent reduction of flies/animal
Treated Untreated
1 68 14
2 79 14
3 92 22
4 87 39
5 84 34
6 94 24
7 95 20
9 92 30
10 98 13

Based on our limited studies the use of Co-Ral for
the tick control program on St. Croix is giving the added
benefit of controlling other ectoparasites of cattle and
horses. If all the farmers and owners of livestock would
adopt this program on a regular basis they would not only
be helping themselves but helping the entire economy of
the island by increasing the efficiency of dairy and beef
farming. Many of these ectoparasites such as stable flies
and house flies could have a severe adverse effect on the
tourist industry on St. Croix. Stable flies in Florida cause
a loss in tourist revenue of over a million dollars a day
when they are present at the beach resorts in high num-
bers during the summer and fall. This could happen in St.
Croix. The tick control program is helping to avoid this.
This is a big important side bonus to the program that has
often been overlooked by the general public. M


Compliments of


The Home of
~~ L

Fresh Grade AA Eggs

Estate Solitude Star Route 00864

Christiansted, St. Croix

U. S. Virgin Islands 00820

(809) 773-4474 773-4192




P.O. BOX 5129, BARBEL PLAZA 774-0990
ST. THOMAS TOWN 774-6600
U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00801 ST. CROIX 773-4085


Civil Air Patrol-The Cadet Program A Way Of Life

For American Youth In The Aerospace Age

By Lieutenant Norine Dolloff
Administrative Officer, CAP

Opportunities unlimited await young men and wo-
men, ages 13 (or 7th grade students) through 17, who join
the Civil Air Patrol. They take a giant step through the
doorway that leads to the aerospace age of tommorow.
CAP develops youth interest in aerospace, and it
helps mold our aerospace leaders of the future. It provides
cadet members an opportunity to learn the basics of aero-
dynamics, navigation, aircraft and rocket propulsion sys-
tems, aerospace history, and the impact of aerospace his-
tory, and the impact of aerospace vehicles on society.
Equally important are the experiences cadets receive in
leadership training, moral leadership sessions, and physical
Activities, which range from the local to the interna-
tional level, are the heart of the program. These activities
include first aid and survival training, radio communication,
and actual flights in modern aircraft as well as community
responsibility and pride and unity.
Being a CAP CADET is truly exciting. Travel, adven-
ture, study . all are part of the life of a cadet.
In the United States each summer, CAP cadets may
spend a week at an Air Force base . live the life of a
regular airman . use the same quarters, food service and
recreational facilities as Air Force personnel . fly orien-
tation flights in Air Force aircraft, study maintenance of
engines, radar, radio and related areas.
CAP's International Air Cadet Exchange is one of the
most sought after of all the cadet special activities. The ex-
change involves a three-week trip to one of more than 20
foreign countries. The cadets visit in the homes of host
families and thrill to visits to historical shrines of the world.
Civil Air Patrol offers scholarships engineering,
languages, airport management, physics, aeronautics and
aerospace medicine. Outright educational grants are also
offered. Every cadet may compete for these scholarships.
Study grants are available for youth not planning to attend
a four-year college or university course.
The Civil Air Patrol cadet can win many decorations
.colorful ribbons named for outstanding civilian and
military aviation pioneers. The Spaatz Award, highest deco-
ration, is given to cadets' outstanding achievement in the
program and carries the rank of cadet colonel.

Cadets must attend an encampment before they can
qualify for the Billy Mitchell Award. This opens the doors
to many honor activities such as selection for the Cadet
Officers School, studying rocketry and missiles, or learning
aircraft traffic control at the Federal Aviation Agency
Academy. All these special courses are conducted during
the summer.
The CAP Cadet Program CAN BE YOUR KEY to a
satisfying and rewarding life of service to both yourself and
your country. CAP is FUN . it is also serious and in its
education and training of cadets, CAP molds the aerospace
leaders of tomorrow . It develops leadership, integrity.
maturity . .it provides the training needed to make each
cadet a good follower as well as a potential leader.
CAP cadets are placed in positions where they can
demonstrate these qualities.
The CAP cadet program will help you take that "big
step" from adolescence to maturity. CAP can make that
transition move smoothly, with interest, with fun, with
positive and lasting benefits which will enrich your entire
life. I

The Seventh Annual Agricultural and Food Fair, to be
held at the V. 1. Department of Agriculture Estate Lo\ier
Love. on February 19, 20, and 21. Rotary West Club
Sill participate with food exhibits conducted by members
of Rotary West. We asked the Public to come and meet
Rotary members...




*All airline tickets & reservations
*Complete travel arrangements
*Emergency check cashing
for American Express cardholders
*Night & Sunday message service
Dial 773-7777

Kings Alley 773-0340

vCilao th A private beachfront
villa on the Caribbean. With kitchen, living
room, maid service. Steps from a quiet
morning swim. Then breakfast on your
terrace. Do not disturb.
A fPlent r meet SL Cr4
warm friends. Play tennis day and night. Ci
Golf at nearby Fountain Valley (18 cham- Vi Sl rln fa1n
pionship holes.) Swim in the Caribbean
or our fresh water pool. Superb
shoreside dining.
AtaCP iie. From tust See your travel agent
$25 per person daily, double occupancy. or Robert F. Warner, Inc.
EP. Tennis, golf and family packages. New York, Boston,
Villas up to 3 bedrooms. Washington, D.C.





u 778-0160
I Room or Entire Household Appliances
Office Furniture Piano & Organ Moving
Complete Insurance Coverage

CSA A Step . continued from Page 16
in the food you eat today in contrast to the earlier prac-
tice of from farm to table. The staff of the Office of Edu-
cation and Information at CSA has been helping consumers
with budgeting, food management and nutrition informa-
tion. CSA is committed to having more alert and informed
consumers who know and demand their rights in the mar-
In conclusion, the creation of the V.I. Consumer Ser-
vices Administration was the first step toward truly effec-
tive consumer representation. However, without consumer
participation, the agency will be no more than another
government bureaucracy. Consumer involvement at all
levels is crucial to fulfilling our mandate. We've taken a
step in the right direction, we must continue to strive
toward our goal. U

Orientation of... continued from Page 24
C, B and calcium. Yellow passion fruit, papaya, and mango
are good sources of vitamins A and C. The guava and
acerola (cherry) are excellent sources of vitamin C. Fruits
ought to be in the diet daily for their vitamin content. Why
buy imported fruits that give you less?
For minerals, count on the legumes again, but also on
sunflower seeds. The horseradish tree leaves are an excellent
source of calcium. But use milk as your principal source of
calcium. It is necessary in everyone's diet. For iron use liver
when you can get it, or food yeast. Sunflower seeds are a
good source. You will get some from almost all vegetables.
and from meat.
The above information will be more fully expanded
in the forthcoming book, "Survival and Subsistence in the
Tropics". Meanwhile, obtain seed from your local Depart-
ment of Agriculture or Agricultural Experiment Station.
Our institute can supply small quantities of seed for making
a start. M

4-H Leads ... continued from Page 25
former members are former Vice President, Hubert
Humphrey, Speaker of the House, Carl Albert, Carolyn
Kennedy and many others too numerous to mention. 4-H1
is learning! 4-H is doing! 4-H is growing! 4-11 is fun! 4-H is
free! Yes, free. No dues to pay or uniforms to buy, just
an organization for everyone. 4-11 can show young people
how to be a leader and can provide leadership oppor-
If we are to remain a free people, we must make cer-
tain that our children have every opportunity to develop
into well adjusted, responsible, educated adults capable of
giving leadership wherever needed. If we fail to provide the
leadership for this nation, some other country will do it for
us. You owe it to yourself and to your children to invest in
America's youth. It is vital to our future and to the future
of our children. Maybe 4-H can help to lead the way. M

Lethal Yellowing... continued from Page 30

yellow types have an attractive golden cast to the foliage
and their bright green fronds and nuts making it an out-
standing ornamental tree. More recently a superior hybrid
resistant to lethal yellowing has been developed. This is
called the "Maypan" and is a cross between the "Malayan
Dwarf" and "Panama Tall" varieties.
Careful vigilance of coconut and ornamental palms
should be kept at all times. Any suspicious looking symp-
tomatic trees should be immediately removed and burned
to prevent spread to nearby healthy ones. Replacement
of any of these palms should be made with a resistant
variety. If anyone suspects they have a diseased tree, they
should call a plant pathologist or extension service spe-
cialist at the College of the Virgin Islands. M

The Common Flies ... continued from Page 39
greatly reduced the fly population. Moie research is being
directed on this aspect especially where the files are breed-
ing extensively in chicken manure. The parasites tested to
date have not been too effective against flies breeding in
silage or pure rotting organic matter such as garbage. The
parasites appear to be attracted to fly pupae found in a
manure, urine and organic matter mixture xl pe of habitat.



-Rebuilds Tropical Topsoils
Increases Moisture Retention
Increases Soil Aeiation
Enhances Root Penetiation
Improves Drainage
Assists in Erosion Control
Retards Nutrient Leaching
Encourages Microbiai Activity
Aids in Temperature Contiol
Buffer for pH Contiol
Improves Tilth and Gianulation

Green Source is a Product of Eco-Dyne,
A Virgin Islands Corporation.

On St. Croix, contact Wally Cluett
at 778-1179








LA GRANDE PRINCESSE A Division of Rob't. L. Merwin Co., Inc. 773-0787
Open Monday thru Saturday 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


True Temper e Chapin Sprayers Hoffman
Ortho Insecticides and Fertilizers
True Value Lawn Chief Mowers Wheelbarrows
Melnor Sprayers and Fittings
Lumber Plywood Steel Paints
Hardware Plumbing Supplies Hand and Power Tools


2. Marketing
3. Warehouse
4. Veterinarian
5. Garage and Shops
6. Farmers Market
7. Piggery
8. Fence Post Treatment

9. Silo
10. Nursery and Plant Sale Area
11. Forestry
12. Horse Show Ring
13. Mango Orchard
14. Goat Corral
15. Quarantine Pens


3 3138 00125 2112


The Most Modern Supermarkets
in the Virgin Islands!

The Quality
of ,l, .
Our Beef
Dairy Products

Reflects the clean shore breezes that freshen our
pastures and blue sea that frames them.
Our healthy flocks of cattle give St. Croix the taste
treat and eye appeal to please islander and tourist alike.



Home of the
Purebred Senepol
Registered Holsteins
and the big
--.a White Cows...

4< 2:-


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